Sample records for zebrafish xenograft model

  1. The Impact of Tumor Nitric Oxide Production on VEGFA Expression and Tumor Growth in a Zebrafish Rat Glioma Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Tatiana; Magadoux, Lea; Franche, Nathalie; Pichon, Laurent; Salvadori, Françoise; Solary, Eric; Garrido, Carmen; Laurens, Véronique; Chluba, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of nitric oxide on tumor development, we established a rat tumor xenograft model in zebrafish embryos. The injected tumor cells formed masses in which nitric oxide production could be detected by the use of the cell-permeant DAF-FM-DA (diaminofluorophore 4-amino-5-methylamino-2’-7’-difluorofluorescein diacetate) and DAR-4M-AM (diaminorhodamine-4M). This method revealed that nitric oxide production could be co-localized with the tumor xenograft in 46% of the embryos. In 85% of these embryos, tumors were vascularized and blood vessels were observed on day 4 post injection. Furthermore, we demonstrated by qRT-PCR that the transplanted glioma cells highly expressed Nos2, Vegfa and Cyclin D1 mRNA. In the xenografted embryos we also found increased zebrafish vegfa expression. Glioma and zebrafish derived Vegfa and tumor Cyclin D1 expression could be down regulated by the nitric oxide scavenger 2-(4-Carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide or CPTIO. We conclude that even if there is a heterogeneous nitric oxide production by the xenografted glioma cells that impacts Vegfa and Cyclin D1 expression levels, our results suggest that reduction of nitric oxide levels by nitric oxide scavenging could be an efficient approach to treat glioma. PMID:25768009

  2. TGF-?1 enhances tumor-induced angiogenesis via JNK pathway and macrophage infiltration in an improved zebrafish embryo/xenograft glioma model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-jun; Chen, Gui-lai; Yu, Shi-cang; Xu, Chuan; Xin, Yan-hong; Li, Ting-ting; Shi, Yu; Gu, Ai; Duan, Jiang-jie; Qian, Chen; Cui, You-hong; Zhang, Xia; Bian, Xiu-wu

    2013-02-01

    Angiogenesis plays a crucial role at the early stage of tumorigenesis and tumor progression. A suitable model will be useful not only for the clarification of the underlying molecular mechanisms, but also for high-throughput identification of novel anti-angiogenesis compounds. Here, we established a zebrafish model for the purpose to investigate angiogenesis and screen anti-angiogenic compounds. Glioma U87 cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) were transplanted in fli:GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos where significant angiogenesis was observed. TGF-?1 enhanced glioma-induced angiogenesis, which was inhibited by JNK inhibitor SP600125 but not p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190, ERK inhibitor PD98059, or PI3K inhibitor LY294002, indicating the important role of TGF-?1 and JNK pathways in this process. Moreover, the glioma-induced angiogenesis was associated with macrophage infiltration that was further enhanced by TGF-?1. Therefore, our zebrafish model provides a powerful in vivo tool for the investigation of tumor-induced angiogenesis, and a cost-effective system for high-throughput screening of anti-angiogenic compounds. PMID:23261760

  3. Enrichment of human prostate cancer cells with tumor initiating properties in mouse and zebrafish xenografts by differential adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Nitu; Davis, Stephani; Tereshchenko, Irina; Budak-Alpdogan, Tulin; Zhong, Hua; Stein, Mark N.; Kim, Isaac Yi; DiPaola, Robert S.; Bertino, Joseph R.; Sabaawy, Hatem E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prostate tumor-initiating cells (TICs) have intrinsic resistance to current therapies. TICs are commonly isolated by cell sorting or dye exclusion, however, isolating TICs from limited primary prostate cancer (PCa) tissues is inherently inefficient. We adapted the collagen adherence feature to develop a combined immunophenotypic and time-of-adherence assay to identify human prostate TICs. METHODS PCa cells from multiple cell lines and primary tissues were allowed to adhere to several matrix molecules, and fractions of adherent cells were examined for their TIC properties. RESULTS Collagen-I rapidly-adherent PCa cells have significantly higher clonogenic, migration, and invasion abilities, and initiated more tumor xenografts in mice when compared to slowly-adherent and no-adherent cells. To determine the relative frequency of TICs among PCa cell lines and primary PCa cells, we utilized zebrafish xenografts to define the tumor initiation potential of serial dilutions of rapidly-adherent ?2?1hi/CD44hi cells compared to non-adherent cells with ?2?1low/CD44low phenotype. Tumor initiation from rapidly-adherent ?2?1hi/CD44hi TICs harboring the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion generated xenografts comprising of PCa cells expressing Erg, AMACR, and PSA. Moreover, PCa-cell dissemination was consistently observed in the immune-permissive zebrafish microenvironment from as-few-as 3 rapidly-adherent ?2?1hi/CD44hi cells. In zebrafish xenografts, self-renewing prostate TICs comprise 0.02–0.9% of PC3 cells, 0.3–1.3% of DU145 cells, and 0.22–14.3% of primary prostate adenocarcinomas. CONCLUSION Zebrafish PCa xenografts were used to determine that the frequency of prostate TICs varies among PCa cell lines and primary PCa tissues. These data support a paradigm of utilizing zebrafish xenografts to evaluate novel therapies targeting tumor initiating cells in prostate cancer. PMID:24154958

  4. Zebrafish Genetic Models for Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Milan, David J.; MacRae, Calum A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade the zebrafish has emerged as a major genetic model organism. While stimulated originally by the utility of its transparent embryos for the study of vertebrate organogenesis, the success of the zebrafish was consolidated through multiple genetic screens, sequencing of the fish genome by the Sanger Centre, and the advent of extensive genomic resources. In the last few years the potential of the zebrafish for in vivo cell biology, physiology, disease modeling and drug discovery has begun to be realized. This review will highlight work on cardiac electrophysiology, emphasizing the arenas in which the zebrafish complements other in vivo and in vitro models; developmental physiology, large scale screens, high-throughput disease modeling and drug discovery. Much of this work is at an early stage, and so the focus will be on the general principles, the specific advantages of the zebrafish and on future potential. PMID:19351520

  5. Contributors Part I: Larval Zebrafish Models

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    Contents Preface Contributors Part I: Larval Zebrafish Models Chapter 1. Measuring Larval Zebrafish for Larval Zebrafish Peter J. Steenbergen, Michael K. Richardson, and Danielle L. Champagne Chapter 3. Assessment of Thigmotaxis in Larval Zebrafish Stephanie J. Schnörr, Peter J. Steenbergen, Michael K

  6. Orthotopic models of pediatric brain tumors in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Eden, C J; Ju, B; Murugesan, M; Phoenix, T N; Nimmervoll, B; Tong, Y; Ellison, D W; Finkelstein, D; Wright, K; Boulos, N; Dapper, J; Thiruvenkatam, R; Lessman, C A; Taylor, M R; Gilbertson, R J

    2015-03-26

    High-throughput screens (HTS) of compound toxicity against cancer cells can identify thousands of potential new drug-leads. But only limited numbers of these compounds can progress to expensive and labor-intensive efficacy studies in mice, creating a 'bottle neck' in the drug development pipeline. Approaches that triage drug-leads for further study are greatly needed. Here we provide an intermediary platform between HTS and mice by adapting mouse models of pediatric brain tumors to grow as orthotopic xenografts in the brains of zebrafish. Freshly isolated mouse ependymoma, glioma and choroid plexus carcinoma cells expressing red fluorescence protein were conditioned to grow at 34?°C. Conditioned tumor cells were then transplanted orthotopically into the brains of zebrafish acclimatized to ambient temperatures of 34?°C. Live in vivo fluorescence imaging identified robust, quantifiable and reproducible brain tumor growth as well as spinal metastasis in zebrafish. All tumor xenografts in zebrafish retained the histological characteristics of the corresponding parent mouse tumor and efficiently recruited fish endothelial cells to form a tumor vasculature. Finally, by treating zebrafish harboring ERBB2-driven gliomas with an appropriate cytotoxic chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil) or tyrosine kinase inhibitor (erlotinib), we show that these models can effectively assess drug efficacy. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that mouse brain tumors can grow orthotopically in fish and serve as a platform to study drug efficacy. As large cohorts of brain tumor-bearing zebrafish can be generated rapidly and inexpensively, these models may serve as a powerful tool to triage drug-leads from HTS for formal efficacy testing in mice. PMID:24747973

  7. New zebrafish models of neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Martín-Jiménez, Rebeca; Campanella, Michelangelo; Russell, Claire

    2015-06-01

    In modern biomedicine, the increasing need to develop experimental models to further our understanding of disease conditions and delineate innovative treatments has found in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) an experimental model, and indeed a valuable asset, to close the gap between in vitro and in vivo assays. Translation of ideas at a faster pace is vital in the field of neurodegeneration, with the attempt to slow or prevent the dramatic impact on the society's welfare being an essential priority. Our research group has pioneered the use of zebrafish to contribute to the quest for faster and improved understanding and treatment of neurodegeneration in concert with, and inspired by, many others who have primed the study of the zebrafish to understand and search for a cure for disorders of the nervous system. Aware of the many advantages this vertebrate model holds, here, we present an update on the recent zebrafish models available to study neurodegeneration with the goal of stimulating further interest and increasing the number of diseases and applications for which they can be exploited. We shall do so by citing and commenting on recent breakthroughs made possible via zebrafish, highlighting their benefits for the testing of therapeutics and dissecting of disease mechanisms. PMID:25903297

  8. Mouse Xenograft Model for Mesothelioma

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute is seeking parties interested in collaborative research to co-develop, evaluate, or commercialize a new mouse model for monoclonal antibodies and immunoconjugates that target malignant mesotheliomas.

  9. A novel zebrafish xenotransplantation model for study of glioma stem cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Jun; Cui, Wei; Gu, Ai; Xu, Chuan; Yu, Shi-Cang; Li, Ting-Ting; Cui, You-Hong; Zhang, Xia; Bian, Xiu-Wu

    2013-01-01

    Invasion and metastasis of solid tumors are the major causes of death in cancer patients. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) constitute a small fraction of tumor cell population, but play a critical role in tumor invasion and metastasis. The xenograft of tumor cells in immunodeficient mice is one of commonly used in vivo models to study the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. However, this model is time-consuming and labor intensive. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) and their transparent embryos are emerging as a promising xenograft tumor model system for studies of tumor invasion. In this study, we established a tumor invasion model by using zebrafish embryo xenografted with human glioblastoma cell line U87 and its derived cancer stem cells (CSCs). We found that CSCs-enriched from U87 cells spreaded via the vessels within zebrafish embryos and such cells displayed an extremely high level of invasiveness which was associated with the up-regulated MMP-9 by CSCs. The invasion of glioma CSCs (GSCs) in zebrafish embryos was markedly inhibited by an MMP-9 inhibitor. Thus, our zebrafish embryo model is considered a cost-effective approach tostudies of the mechanisms underlying the invasion of CSCs and suitable for high-throughput screening of novel anti-tumor invasion/metastasis agents. PMID:23613942

  10. Establishment and characterization of a primary human chordoma xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Siu, I-Mei; Salmasi, Vafi; Orr, Brent A.; Zhao, Qi; Binder, Zev A.; Tran, Christine; Ishii, Masaru; Riggins, Gregory J.; Hann, Christine L.; Gallia, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Object Chordomas are rare tumors arising from remnants of the notochord. Because of the challenges in achieving a complete resection, the radioresistant nature of these tumors, and the lack of effective chemotherapeutics, the median survival for patients with chordomas is approximately 6 years. Reproducible preclinical model systems that closely mimic the original patient’s tumor are essential for the development and evaluation of effective therapeutics. Currently, there are only a few established chordoma cell lines and no primary xenograft model. In this study, the authors aimed to develop a primary chordoma xenograft model. Methods The authors implanted independent tumor samples from 2 patients into athymic nude mice. The resulting xenograft line was characterized by histopathological analysis and immunohistochemical staining. The patient’s tumor and serial passages of the xenograft were genomically analyzed using a 660,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Results A serially transplantable xenograft was established from one of the 2 patient samples. Histopathological analysis and immunohistochemical staining for S100 protein, epithelial membrane antigen, and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 of the primary patient sample and the xenografts confirmed that the xenografts were identical to the original chordoma obtained from the patient. Immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis confirmed the presence of brachyury, a recently described marker of chordomas, in the tumor from the patient and each of the xenografts. Genome-wide variation was assessed between the patient’s tumor and the xenografts and was found to be more than 99.9% concordant. Conclusions To the best of their knowledge, the authors have established the first primary chordoma xenograft that will provide a useful preclinical model for this disease and a platform for therapeutic development. PMID:22283186

  11. Zebrafish as a neurotoxicological model.

    PubMed

    Linney, Elwood; Upchurch, Lucia; Donerly, Susan

    2004-01-01

    At a time when common regulatory pathways are being identified in several different species and genomics is beginning to allow comparisons of genes, how they are arranged on chromosomes and how they are regulated, zebrafish has emerged as a valuable and complementary vertebrate model. Some of the characteristics that prove of value are described and illustrated. Fluorescent transgenic lines of zebrafish embryos are presented for time-line studies with neurotoxicants. While genetic knockout technology has yet to be developed for the model, the anti-sense, morpholino approach allows for knockdown of expression of genes for the 3 day, embryonic period. This can provide for phenocopies of mutant genes for those genes essential to embryonic development or it can provide for a limited inhibition of gene expression that allows subsequent development of the fish. With the zebrafish genomic sequencing effort, microarray technology is now developing for the model system. These resources and technologies allow one to challenge the system with toxicants, and to view the immediate effects of the toxicants with transgenic embryos that fluoresce in part or all of the nervous system. Behavioral and learning protocols have been developed for the organism so that early exposures can be assayed for effects upon adult fish. Microarray technology should allow for one to identify specific genes and pathways affected by a neurotoxicant. In the future, these approaches should provide a working protocol for exploring molecular mechanisms of neurotoxicants. This type of complementary approach should then allow for more efficient examination and testing of mechanisms in mammalian models. PMID:15451034

  12. Zebrafish: Modeling for Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Antoine, Thessicar Evadney; Jones, Kevin S.; Dale, Rodney M.; Shukla, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Abstract For many years, zebrafish have been the prototypical model for studies in developmental biology. In recent years, zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model system to study infectious diseases, including viral infections. Experiments conducted with herpes simplex virus type-1 in adult zebrafish or in embryo models are encouraging as they establish proof of concept with viral-host tropism and possible screening of antiviral compounds. In addition, the presence of human homologs of viral entry receptors in zebrafish such as 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate, nectins, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 14-like receptor bring strong rationale for virologists to test their in vivo significance in viral entry in a zebrafish model and compare the structure–function basis of virus zebrafish receptor interaction for viral entry. On the other end, a zebrafish model is already being used for studying inflammation and angiogenesis, with or without genetic manipulations, and therefore can be exploited to study viral infection-associated pathologies. The major advantage with zebrafish is low cost, easy breeding and maintenance, rapid lifecycle, and a transparent nature, which allows visualizing dissemination of fluorescently labeled virus infection in real time either at a localized region or the whole body. Further, the availability of multiple transgenic lines that express fluorescently tagged immune cells for in vivo imaging of virus infected animals is extremely attractive. In addition, a fully developed immune system and potential for receptor-specific knockouts further advocate the use of zebrafish as a new tool to study viral infections. In this review, we focus on expanding the potential of zebrafish model system in understanding human infectious diseases and future benefits. PMID:24266790

  13. Zebrafish Model Systems for Developmental Neurobehavioral Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Jordan; Oliveri, Anthony; Levin, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish offer many advantages that complement classic mammalian models for the study of normal development as well as for the teratogenic effects of exposure to hazardous compounds. The clear chorion and embryo of the zebrafish allow for continuous visualization of the anatomical changes associated with development, which, along with short maturation times and the capability of complex behavior, makes this model particularly useful for measuring changes to the developing nervous system. Moreover, the rich array of developmental, behavioral, and molecular benefits offered by the zebrafish have contributed to an increasing demand for the use of zebrafish in behavioral teratology. Essential for this endeavor has been the development of a battery of tests to evaluate a spectrum of behavior in zebrafish. Measures of sensorimotor plasticity, emotional function, cognition and social interaction have been used to characterize the persisting adverse effects of developmental exposure to a variety of chemicals including therapeutic drugs, drugs of abuse and environmental toxicants. In this review, we present and discuss such tests and data from a range of developmental neurobehavioral toxicology studies using zebrafish as a model. Zebrafish provide a key intermediate model between high throughput in vitro screens and the classic mammalian models as they have the accessibility of in vitro models and the complex functional capabilities of mammalian models. PMID:23723169

  14. Streptococcus-Zebrafish Model of Bacterial Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Melody N.; Pfeifer, John D.; Caparon, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Due to its small size, rapid generation time, powerful genetic systems, and genomic resources, the zebrafish has emerged as an important model of vertebrate development and human disease. Its well-developed adaptive and innate cellular immune systems make the zebrafish an ideal model for the study of infectious diseases. With a natural and important pathogen of fish, Streptococcus iniae, we have established a streptococcus- zebrafish model of bacterial pathogenesis. Following injection into the dorsal muscle, zebrafish developed a lethal infection, with a 50% lethal dose of 103 CFU, and died within 2 to 3 days. The pathogenesis of infection resembled that of S. iniae in farmed fish populations and that of several important human streptococcal diseases and was characterized by an initial focal necrotic lesion that rapidly progressed to invasion of the pathogen into all major organ systems, including the brain. Zebrafish were also susceptible to infection by the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. However, disease was characterized by a marked absence of inflammation, large numbers of extracellular streptococci in the dorsal muscle, and extensive myonecrosis that occurred far in advance of any systemic invasion. The genetic systems available for streptococci, including a novel method of mutagenesis which targets genes whose products are exported, were used to identify several mutants attenuated for virulence in zebrafish. This combination of a genetically amenable pathogen with a well-defined vertebrate host makes the streptococcus-zebrafish model of bacterial pathogenesis a powerful model for analysis of infectious disease. PMID:12065534

  15. Zebrafish models of cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Brian P; Peterson, Randall T

    2014-04-01

    Perturbations in cerebral blood flow and abnormalities in blood vessel structure are the hallmarks of cerebrovascular disease. While there are many genetic and environmental factors that affect these entities through a heterogeneous group of disease processes, the ultimate final pathologic insult in humans is defined as a stroke, or damage to brain parenchyma. In the case of ischemic stroke, blood fails to reach its target destination whereas in hemorrhagic stroke, extravasation of blood occurs outside of the blood vessel lumen, resulting in direct damage to brain parenchyma. As these acute events can be neurologically devastating, if not fatal, development of novel therapeutics are urgently needed. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an attractive model for the study of cerebrovascular disease because of its morphological and physiological similarity to human cerebral vasculature, its ability to be genetically manipulated, and its fecundity allowing for large-scale, phenotype-based screens. PMID:24517974

  16. Zebrafish models of cerebrovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Walcott, Brian P; Peterson, Randall T

    2014-01-01

    Perturbations in cerebral blood flow and abnormalities in blood vessel structure are the hallmarks of cerebrovascular disease. While there are many genetic and environmental factors that affect these entities through a heterogeneous group of disease processes, the ultimate final pathologic insult in humans is defined as a stroke, or damage to brain parenchyma. In the case of ischemic stroke, blood fails to reach its target destination whereas in hemorrhagic stroke, extravasation of blood occurs outside of the blood vessel lumen, resulting in direct damage to brain parenchyma. As these acute events can be neurologically devastating, if not fatal, development of novel therapeutics are urgently needed. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an attractive model for the study of cerebrovascular disease because of its morphological and physiological similarity to human cerebral vasculature, its ability to be genetically manipulated, and its fecundity allowing for large-scale, phenotype-based screens. PMID:24517974

  17. Next generation patient-derived prostate cancer xenograft models

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Dong; Xue, Hui; Wang, Yuwei; Wu, Rebecca; Watahiki, Akira; Dong, Xin; Cheng, Hongwei; Wyatt, Alexander W; Collins, Colin C; Gout, Peter W; Wang, Yuzhuo

    2014-01-01

    There is a critical need for more effective therapeutic approaches for prostate cancer. Research in this area, however, has been seriously hampered by a lack of clinically relevant, experimental in vivo models of the disease. This review particularly focuses on the development of prostate cancer xenograft models based on subrenal capsule grafting of patients’ tumor tissue into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice. This technique allows successful development of transplantable, patient-derived cancer tissue xenograft lines not only from aggressive metastatic, but also from localized prostate cancer tissues. The xenografts have been found to retain key biological properties of the original malignancies, including histopathological and molecular characteristics, tumor heterogeneity, response to androgen ablation and metastatic ability. As such, they are highly clinically relevant and provide valuable tools for studies of prostate cancer progression at cellular and molecular levels, drug screening for personalized cancer therapy and preclinical drug efficacy testing; especially when a panel of models is used to cover a broader spectrum of the disease. These xenograft models could therefore be viewed as next-generation models of prostate cancer. PMID:24589467

  18. Adult zebrafish as a model organism for behavioural genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Norton; Laure Bally-Cuif

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated the suitability of adult zebrafish to model some aspects of complex behaviour. Studies of reward behaviour, learning and memory, aggression, anxiety and sleep strongly suggest that conserved regulatory processes underlie behaviour in zebrafish and mammals. The isolation and molecular analysis of zebrafish behavioural mutants is now starting, allowing the identification of novel behavioural control genes. As

  19. Zebrafish as an emerging model for studying complex brain disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kalueff, Allan V.; Stewart, Adam Michael; Gerlai, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is rapidly becoming a popular model organism in pharmacogenetics and neuropharmacology. Both larval and adult zebrafish are currently used to increase our understanding of brain function, dysfunction, and their genetic and pharmacological modulation. Here we review the developing utility of zebrafish in the analysis of complex brain disorders (including, for example, depression, autism, psychoses, drug abuse and cognitive disorders), also covering zebrafish applications towards the goal of modeling major human neuropsychiatric and drug-induced syndromes. We argue that zebrafish models of complex brain disorders and drug-induced conditions have become a rapidly emerging critical field in translational neuropharmacology research. PMID:24412421

  20. Zebrafish models of dyslipidemia: Relevance to atherosclerosis and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Longhou; Liu, Chao; Miller, Yury I.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in zebrafish and in humans are remarkably similar. Zebrafish express all major nuclear receptors, lipid transporters, apolipoproteins and enzymes involved in lipoprotein metabolism. Unlike mice, zebrafish express cetp and the Cetp activity is detected in zebrafish plasma. Feeding zebrafish a high cholesterol diet, without any genetic intervention, results in significant hypercholesterolemia and robust lipoprotein oxidation, making zebrafish an attractive animal model to study mechanisms relevant to early development of human atherosclerosis. These studies are facilitated by the optical transparency of zebrafish larvae and the availability of transgenic zebrafish expressing fluorescent proteins in endothelial cells and macrophages. Thus, vascular processes can be monitored in live animals. In this review article we discuss recent advances in using dyslipidemic zebrafish in atherosclerosis-related studies. We also summarize recent work connecting lipid metabolism with regulation of angiogenesis, the work that considerably benefited from using the zebrafish model. These studies uncovered the role of aibp, abca1, abcg1, mtp, apoB and apoC2 in regulation of angiogenesis in zebrafish and paved the way for future studies in mammals, which may suggest new therapeutic approaches to modulation of excessive or diminished angiogenesis contributing to the pathogenesis of human disease. PMID:24095954

  1. The Zebrafish Information Network: the zebrafish model organism database provides expanded support for genotypes and phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Judy; Bayraktaroglu, Leyla; Bradford, Yvonne; Conlin, Tom; Dunn, Nathan; Fashena, David; Frazer, Ken; Haendel, Melissa; Howe, Douglas G; Knight, Jonathan; Mani, Prita; Moxon, Sierra A T; Pich, Christian; Ramachandran, Sridhar; Schaper, Kevin; Segerdell, Erik; Shao, Xiang; Singer, Amy; Song, Peiran; Sprunger, Brock; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Westerfield, Monte

    2008-01-01

    The Zebrafish Information Network (ZFIN, http://zfin.org), the model organism database for zebrafish, provides the central location for curated zebrafish genetic, genomic and developmental data. Extensive data integration of mutant phenotypes, genes, expression patterns, sequences, genetic markers, morpholinos, map positions, publications and community resources facilitates the use of the zebrafish as a model for studying gene function, development, behavior and disease. Access to ZFIN data is provided via web-based query forms and through bulk data files. ZFIN is the definitive source for zebrafish gene and allele nomenclature, the zebrafish anatomical ontology (AO) and for zebrafish gene ontology (GO) annotations. ZFIN plays an active role in the development of cross-species ontologies such as the phenotypic quality ontology (PATO) and the gene ontology (GO). Recent enhancements to ZFIN include (i) a new home page and navigation bar, (ii) expanded support for genotypes and phenotypes, (iii) comprehensive phenotype annotations based on anatomical, phenotypic quality and gene ontologies, (iv) a BLAST server tightly integrated with the ZFIN database via ZFIN-specific datasets, (v) a global site search and (vi) help with hands-on resources. PMID:17991680

  2. Using the zebrafish model for Alzheimer’s disease research

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Morgan; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Lardelli, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rodent models have been extensively used to investigate the cause and mechanisms behind Alzheimer’s disease. Despite many years of intensive research using these models we still lack a detailed understanding of the molecular events that lead to neurodegeneration. Although zebrafish lack the complexity of advanced cognitive behaviors evident in rodent models they have proven to be a very informative model for the study of human diseases. In this review we give an overview of how the zebrafish has been used to study Alzheimer’s disease. Zebrafish possess genes orthologous to those mutated in familial Alzheimer’s disease and research using zebrafish has revealed unique characteristics of these genes that have been difficult to observe in rodent models. The zebrafish is becoming an increasingly popular model for the investigation of Alzheimer’s disease and will complement studies using other models to help complete our understanding of this disease. PMID:25071820

  3. Adult zebrafish as a model organism for behavioural genetics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated the suitability of adult zebrafish to model some aspects of complex behaviour. Studies of reward behaviour, learning and memory, aggression, anxiety and sleep strongly suggest that conserved regulatory processes underlie behaviour in zebrafish and mammals. The isolation and molecular analysis of zebrafish behavioural mutants is now starting, allowing the identification of novel behavioural control genes. As a result of this, studies of adult zebrafish are now helping to uncover the genetic pathways and neural circuits that control vertebrate behaviour. PMID:20678210

  4. Modeling anxiety using adult zebrafish: A conceptual review

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Adam; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Kyzar, Evan; Green, Jeremy; Roth, Andrew; Kalueff, Allan V.

    2011-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly emerging as a useful animal model in neurobehavioral research. Mounting evidence shows the suitability of zebrafish to model various aspects of anxiety-related states. Here, we evaluate established and novel approaches to uncover the molecular substrates, genetic pathways and neural circuits of anxiety using adult zebrafish. Experimental approaches to modeling anxiety in zebrafish include novelty-based paradigms, pharmacological and genetic manipulations, as well as innovative video-tracking, 3D-reconstructions and bioinformatics-based searchable databases and omics-based tools. Complementing traditional rodent models of anxiety, we provide a conceptual framework for the wider application of zebrafish and other aquatic models in anxiety research. PMID:21843537

  5. A bioenergetic model for zebrafish Danio rerio (Hamilton)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chizinski, C.J.; Sharma, Bibek; Pope, K.L.; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    A bioenergetics model was developed from observed consumption, respiration and growth rates for zebrafish Danio rerio across a range (18-32?? C) of water temperatures, and evaluated with a 50 day laboratory trial at 28?? C. No significant bias in variable estimates was found during the validation trial; namely, predicted zebrafish mass generally agreed with observed mass. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  6. Zebrafish: a model system for the study of human disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly Dooley; Leonard I Zon

    2000-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a powerful model organism for the study of vertebrate biology, being well suited to both developmental and genetic analysis. Large-scale genetic screens have identified hundreds of mutant phenotypes, many of which resemble human clinical disorders. The creation of critical genetic reagents, coupled with the rapid progress of the zebrafish genome initiative directed by the National

  7. montalcino, a Zebrafish Model for Variegate Porphyria

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, Kimberly A.; Fraenkel, Paula G.; Langer, Nathaniel B.; Schmid, Bettina; Davidson, Alan J.; Weber, Gerhard; Chiang, Ken; Foott, Helen; Dwyer, Caitlin; Wingert, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Yi; Paw, Barry H.; Zon, Leonard I.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Inherited or acquired mutations in the heme biosynthetic pathway lead to a debilitating class of diseases collectively known as porphyrias, with symptoms that can include anemia, cutaneous photosensitivity, and neurovisceral dysfunction. In a genetic screen for hematopoietic mutants, we isolated a zebrafish mutant, montalcino (mno), which displays hypochromic anemia and porphyria. The objective of this study was to identify the defective gene and characterize the phenotype of the zebrafish mutant. Methods Genetic linkage analysis was utilized to identify the region harboring the mno mutation. Candidate gene analysis together with RT-PCR was utilized to identify the genetic mutation, which was confirmed via allele specific oligo hybridizations. Whole mount in situ hybridizations and 0-dianisidine staining were used to characterize the phenotype of the mno mutant. mRNA and morpholino microinjections were performed to phenocopy and/or rescue the mutant phenotype. Results Homozygous mno mutant embryos have a defect in the protoporphyrinogen oxidase (ppox) gene, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of protoporphyrinogen. Homozygous mutant embryos are deficient in hemoglobin, and by 36 hpf are visibly anemic and porphyric. The hypochromic anemia of mno embryos was partially rescued by human ppox, providing evidence for the conservation of function between human and zebrafish ppox. Conclusion In humans, mutations in ppox result in variegate porphyria. At present, effective treatment for acute attacks requires the administration intravenous hemin and/or glucose. Thus, mno represents a powerful model for investigation, and a tool for future screens aimed at identifying chemical modifiers of variegate porphyria. PMID:18550261

  8. Zebrafish as a Model Host for Candida albicans Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chun-Cheih; Hsu, Po-Chen; Jen, Chung-Feng; Chen, I-Hui; Wang, Chieh-Huei; Chan, Hau-Chien; Tsai, Pei-Wen; Tung, Kai-Che; Wang, Chian-Huei; Lan, Chung-Yu; Chuang, Yung-Jen

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the zebrafish model organism was developed to obtain a minivertebrate host system for a Candida albicans infection study. We demonstrated that C. albicans can colonize and invade zebrafish at multiple anatomical sites and kill the fish in a dose-dependent manner. Inside zebrafish, we monitored the progression of the C. albicans yeast-to-hypha transition by tracking morphogenesis, and we monitored the corresponding gene expression of the pathogen and the early host immune response. We performed a zebrafish survival assay with different C. albicans strains (SC5314, ATCC 10231, an hgc1 mutant, and a cph1/efg1 double mutant) to determine each strain's virulence, and the results were similar to findings reported in previous mouse model studies. Finally, using zebrafish embryos, we monitored C. albicans infection and visualized the interaction between pathogen and host myelomonocytic cells in vivo. Taken together, the results of this work demonstrate that zebrafish can be a useful host model to study C. albicans pathogenesis, and they highlight the advantages of using the zebrafish model in future invasive fungal research. PMID:20308295

  9. Hierarchical models for tumor xenograft experiments in drug development.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hong-Bin; Tian, Guo-Liang; Tan, Ming

    2004-11-01

    In cancer drug development, demonstrated anticancer activity in animal models is an important step to bring a promising compound to clinic. Proper design and analysis of experiments using laboratory animals have received increasing attention recently. These experiments involve informatively censored longitudinal data with small samples. The problem is further complicated because of order constraints due to the intrinsic growth of control tumors without treatment. This article proposes a Bayesian hierarchical model to analyze informatively censored longitudinal data while accounting for the parameter constraints and providing valid small sample inference. We adopt a noniterative sampling approach, the inverse Bayes formulae (IBF) sampler, to generate independent posterior samples, which avoids convergence problems associated with Markov chain Monte-Carlo methods. To effectively deal with the restricted parameter problem, we use a linear transformation to simplify the constraints and exploit the IBF method to generate random samples from truncated multivariate normal distributions. Because diffuse priors are used, the posterior modes approximate the maximum likelihood estimates well, and the hierarchical model can be considered as an extended mixed-effects model. A real xenograft experiment on a new treatment is analyzed by using the proposed method. PMID:15587973

  10. Teratogenic potential of antiepileptic drugs in the zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Hak; Kang, Jung Won; Lin, Tao; Lee, Jae Eun; Jin, Dong Il

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish model is an attractive candidate for screening of developmental toxicity during early drug development. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) arouse concern for the risk of teratogenicity, but the data are limited. In this study, we evaluated the teratogenic potential of seven AEDs (carbamazepine (CBZ), ethosuximide (ETX), valproic acid (VPN), lamotrigine (LMT), lacosamide (LCM), levetiracetam (LVT), and topiramate (TPM)) in the zebrafish model. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to AEDs from initiation of gastrula (5.25 hours post-fertilization (hpf)) to termination of hatching (72?hpf) which mimic the mammalian teratogenic experimental design. The lethality and teratogenic index (TI) of AEDs were determined and the TI values of each drug were compared with the US FDA human pregnancy categories. Zebrafish model was useful screening model for teratogenic potential of antiepilepsy drugs and was in concordance with in vivo mammalian data and human clinical data. PMID:24324971

  11. Teratogenic Potential of Antiepileptic Drugs in the Zebrafish Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Hak; Kang, Jung Won; Lin, Tao; Lee, Jae Eun; Jin, Dong Il

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish model is an attractive candidate for screening of developmental toxicity during early drug development. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) arouse concern for the risk of teratogenicity, but the data are limited. In this study, we evaluated the teratogenic potential of seven AEDs (carbamazepine (CBZ), ethosuximide (ETX), valproic acid (VPN), lamotrigine (LMT), lacosamide (LCM), levetiracetam (LVT), and topiramate (TPM)) in the zebrafish model. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to AEDs from initiation of gastrula (5.25 hours post-fertilization (hpf)) to termination of hatching (72?hpf) which mimic the mammalian teratogenic experimental design. The lethality and teratogenic index (TI) of AEDs were determined and the TI values of each drug were compared with the US FDA human pregnancy categories. Zebrafish model was useful screening model for teratogenic potential of antiepilepsy drugs and was in concordance with in vivo mammalian data and human clinical data. PMID:24324971

  12. Think Small: Zebrafish as a Model System of Human Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, J. R.; Jobin, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Although human pathologies have mostly been modeled using higher mammal systems such as mice, the lower vertebrate zebrafish has gained tremendous attention as a model system. The advantages of zebrafish over classical vertebrate models are multifactorial and include high genetic and organ system homology to humans, high fecundity, external fertilization, ease of genetic manipulation, and transparency through early adulthood that enables powerful imaging modalities. This paper focuses on four areas of human pathology that were developed and/or advanced significantly in zebrafish in the last decade. These areas are (1) wound healing/restitution, (2) gastrointestinal diseases, (3) microbe-host interactions, and (4) genetic diseases and drug screens. Important biological processes and pathologies explored include wound-healing responses, pancreatic cancer, inflammatory bowel diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and mycobacterium infection. The utility of zebrafish in screening for novel genes important in various pathologies such as polycystic kidney disease is also discussed. PMID:22701308

  13. Fit for consumption: zebrafish as a model for tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Cronan, Mark R.; Tobin, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite efforts to generate new vaccines and antibiotics for tuberculosis, the disease remains a public health problem worldwide. The zebrafish Danio rerio has emerged as a useful model to investigate mycobacterial pathogenesis and treatment. Infection of zebrafish with Mycobacterium marinum, the closest relative of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, recapitulates many aspects of human tuberculosis. The zebrafish model affords optical transparency, abundant genetic tools and in vivo imaging of the progression of infection. Here, we review how the zebrafish–M. marinum system has been deployed to make novel observations about the role of innate immunity, the tuberculous granuloma, and crucial host and bacterial genes. Finally, we assess how these findings relate to human disease and provide a framework for novel strategies to treat tuberculosis. PMID:24973748

  14. The zebrafish as a model for complex tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gemberling, Matthew; Bailey, Travis J.; Hyde, David R.; Poss, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    For centuries, philosophers and scientists have been fascinated by the principles and implications of regeneration in lower vertebrate species. Two features have made zebrafish an informative model system for determining mechanisms of regenerative events. First, they are highly regenerative, able to regrow amputated fins, as well as a lesioned brain, retina, spinal cord, heart, and other tissues. Second, they are amenable to both forward and reverse genetic approaches, with a research toolset regularly updated by an expanding community of zebrafish researchers. Zebrafish studies have helped identify new mechanistic underpinnings of regeneration in multiple tissues, and in some cases have served as a guide for contemplating regenerative strategies in mammals. Here, we review the recent history of zebrafish as a genetic model system for understanding how and why tissue regeneration occurs. PMID:23927865

  15. Zebrafish as a model system to study toxicology.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yu-Jie; Jia, Yong-Fang; Chen, Na; Bian, Wan-Ping; Li, Qin-Kai; Ma, Yan-Bo; Chen, Yan-Ling; Pei, De-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring and assessing the effects of contaminants in the aquatic eco-environment is critical in protecting human health and the environment. The zebrafish has been widely used as a prominent model organism in different fields because of its small size, low cost, diverse adaptability, short breeding cycle, high fecundity, and transparent embryos. Recent studies have demonstrated that zebrafish sensitivity can aid in monitoring environmental contaminants, especially with the application of transgenic technology in this area. The present review provides a brief overview of recent studies on wild-type and transgenic zebrafish as a model system to monitor toxic heavy metals, endocrine disruptors, and organic pollutants for toxicology. The authors address the new direction of developing high-throughput detection of genetically modified transparent zebrafish to open a new window for monitoring environmental pollutants. PMID:24307630

  16. Cytoprotective activities of water-soluble fullerenes in zebrafish models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Beuerle; Patrick Witte; Uwe Hartnagel; Russell Lebovitz; Chuenlei Parng; Andreas Hirsch

    2007-01-01

    Using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos as a model system, we compared the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of a series of new water-soluble fullerenes 1–12. Since zebrafish embryos are transparent during the first week of life, the effects of fullerenes on multiple organ systems, including CNS, PNS, and heart, could be assessed in situ. Both positively charged and negatively charged water-soluble

  17. ZFIN: enhancements and updates to the zebrafish model organism database

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Yvonne; Conlin, Tom; Dunn, Nathan; Fashena, David; Frazer, Ken; Howe, Douglas G.; Knight, Jonathan; Mani, Prita; Martin, Ryan; Moxon, Sierra A. T.; Paddock, Holly; Pich, Christian; Ramachandran, Sridhar; Ruef, Barbara J.; Ruzicka, Leyla; Bauer Schaper, Holle; Schaper, Kevin; Shao, Xiang; Singer, Amy; Sprague, Judy; Sprunger, Brock; Van Slyke, Ceri; Westerfield, Monte

    2011-01-01

    ZFIN, the Zebrafish Model Organism Database, http://zfin.org, serves as the central repository and web-based resource for zebrafish genetic, genomic, phenotypic and developmental data. ZFIN manually curates comprehensive data for zebrafish genes, phenotypes, genotypes, gene expression, antibodies, anatomical structures and publications. A wide-ranging collection of web-based search forms and tools facilitates access to integrated views of these data promoting analysis and scientific discovery. Data represented in ZFIN are derived from three primary sources: curation of zebrafish publications, individual research laboratories and collaborations with bioinformatics organizations. Data formats include text, images and graphical representations. ZFIN is a dynamic resource with data added daily as part of our ongoing curation process. Software updates are frequent. Here, we describe recent additions to ZFIN including (i) enhanced access to images, (ii) genomic features, (iii) genome browser, (iv) transcripts, (v) antibodies and (vi) a community wiki for protocols and antibodies. PMID:21036866

  18. ZFIN: enhancements and updates to the Zebrafish Model Organism Database.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Yvonne; Conlin, Tom; Dunn, Nathan; Fashena, David; Frazer, Ken; Howe, Douglas G; Knight, Jonathan; Mani, Prita; Martin, Ryan; Moxon, Sierra A T; Paddock, Holly; Pich, Christian; Ramachandran, Sridhar; Ruef, Barbara J; Ruzicka, Leyla; Bauer Schaper, Holle; Schaper, Kevin; Shao, Xiang; Singer, Amy; Sprague, Judy; Sprunger, Brock; Van Slyke, Ceri; Westerfield, Monte

    2011-01-01

    ZFIN, the Zebrafish Model Organism Database, http://zfin.org, serves as the central repository and web-based resource for zebrafish genetic, genomic, phenotypic and developmental data. ZFIN manually curates comprehensive data for zebrafish genes, phenotypes, genotypes, gene expression, antibodies, anatomical structures and publications. A wide-ranging collection of web-based search forms and tools facilitates access to integrated views of these data promoting analysis and scientific discovery. Data represented in ZFIN are derived from three primary sources: curation of zebrafish publications, individual research laboratories and collaborations with bioinformatics organizations. Data formats include text, images and graphical representations. ZFIN is a dynamic resource with data added daily as part of our ongoing curation process. Software updates are frequent. Here, we describe recent additions to ZFIN including (i) enhanced access to images, (ii) genomic features, (iii) genome browser, (iv) transcripts, (v) antibodies and (vi) a community wiki for protocols and antibodies. PMID:21036866

  19. Conservation and Early Expression of Zebrafish Tyrosine Kinases Support the Utility of Zebrafish as a Model for Tyrosine Kinase Biology

    PubMed Central

    Challa, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Tyrosine kinases have significant roles in cell growth, apoptosis, development, and disease. To explore the use of zebrafish as a vertebrate model for tyrosine kinase signaling and to better understand their roles, we have identified all of the tyrosine kinases encoded in the zebrafish genome and quantified RNA expression of selected tyrosine kinases during early development. Using profile hidden Markov model analysis, we identified 122 zebrafish tyrosine kinase genes and proposed unambiguous gene names where needed. We found them to be organized into 39 nonreceptor and 83 receptor type, and 30 families consistent with human tyrosine kinase family assignments. We found five human tyrosine kinase genes (epha1, bmx, fgr, srm, and insrr) with no identifiable zebrafish ortholog, and one zebrafish gene (yrk) with no identifiable human ortholog. We also found that receptor tyrosine kinase genes were duplicated more often than nonreceptor tyrosine kinase genes in zebrafish. We profiled expression levels of 30 tyrosine kinases representing all families using direct digital detection at different stages during the first 24 hours of development. The profiling experiments clearly indicate regulated expression of tyrosine kinases in the zebrafish, suggesting their role during early embryonic development. In summary, our study has resulted in the first comprehensive description of the zebrafish tyrosine kinome. PMID:23234507

  20. Modeling tuberculous meningitis in zebrafish using Mycobacterium marinum

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Lisanne M.; van der Kuip, Martijn; Youssef, Sameh A.; de Bruin, Alain; Bitter, Wilbert; van Furth, A. Marceline; van der Sar, Astrid M.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is one of the most severe extrapulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis, with a high morbidity and mortality. Characteristic pathological features of TBM are Rich foci, i.e. brain- and spinal-cord-specific granulomas formed after hematogenous spread of pulmonary tuberculosis. Little is known about the early pathogenesis of TBM and the role of Rich foci. We have adapted the zebrafish model of Mycobacterium marinum infection (zebrafish–M. marinum model) to study TBM. First, we analyzed whether TBM occurs in adult zebrafish and showed that intraperitoneal infection resulted in granuloma formation in the meninges in 20% of the cases, with occasional brain parenchyma involvement. In zebrafish embryos, bacterial infiltration and clustering of infected phagocytes was observed after infection at three different inoculation sites: parenchyma, hindbrain ventricle and caudal vein. Infection via the bloodstream resulted in the formation of early granulomas in brain tissue in 70% of the cases. In these zebrafish embryos, infiltrates were located in the proximity of blood vessels. Interestingly, no differences were observed when embryos were infected before or after early formation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), indicating that bacteria are able to cross this barrier with relatively high efficiency. In agreement with this observation, infected zebrafish larvae also showed infiltration of the brain tissue. Upon infection of embryos with an M. marinum ESX-1 mutant, only small clusters and scattered isolated phagocytes with high bacterial loads were present in the brain tissue. In conclusion, our adapted zebrafish–M. marinum infection model for studying granuloma formation in the brain will allow for the detailed analysis of both bacterial and host factors involved in TBM. It will help solve longstanding questions on the role of Rich foci and potentially contribute to the development of better diagnostic tools and therapeutics. PMID:24997190

  1. A jump persistent turning walker to model zebrafish locomotion.

    PubMed

    Mwaffo, Violet; Anderson, Ross P; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish are gaining momentum as a laboratory animal species for the investigation of several functional and dysfunctional biological processes. Mathematical models of zebrafish behaviour are expected to considerably aid in the design of hypothesis-driven studies by enabling preliminary in silico tests that can be used to infer possible experimental outcomes without the use of zebrafish. This study is motivated by observations of sudden, drastic changes in zebrafish locomotion in the form of large deviations in turn rate. We demonstrate that such deviations can be captured through a stochastic mean reverting jump diffusion model, a process that is commonly used in financial engineering to describe large changes in the price of an asset. The jump process-based model is validated on trajectory data of adult subjects swimming in a shallow circular tank obtained from an overhead camera. Through statistical comparison of the empirical distribution of the turn rate against theoretical predictions, we demonstrate the feasibility of describing zebrafish as a jump persistent turning walker. The critical role of the jump term is assessed through comparison with a simplified mean reversion diffusion model, which does not allow for describing the heavy-tailed distributions observed in the fish turn rate. PMID:25392396

  2. Zebrafish as a model system for mitochondrial biology and diseases.

    PubMed

    Steele, Shelby L; Prykhozhij, Sergey V; Berman, Jason N

    2014-02-01

    Animal models for studying human disease are essential to the continuing evolution of medicine. Rodent models are attractive for the obvious similarities in development and genetic makeup compared with humans, but have cost and technical limitations. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) represents an ideal alternative vertebrate model of human disease because of its high conservation of genetic information and physiological processes, inexpensive maintenance, and optical clarity facilitating direct observation. This review highlights recent advances in understanding genetic disease states associated with the dynamic organelle, the mitochondrion, using the zebrafish. Mitochondrial diseases that have been replicated in the zebrafish include those affecting the nervous and cardiovascular systems, as well as red blood cell function. Gene silencing techniques, including morpholino knockdown and transcription activator-like (TAL)-effector endonucleases, have been exploited to demonstrate how loss of function can induce human disease-like states in zebrafish. Moreover, modeling mitochondrial diseases has been facilitated greatly by the creation of transgenic fish with fluorescently labeled mitochondria for in vivo visualization of these structures. In addition, behavioral assays have been developed to examine changes in motor activity and sensory responses, particularly in larval stages. Zebrafish are poised to advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of human mitochondrial diseases beyond the current state of knowledge and provide a key tool in the development of novel therapeutic approaches to treat these conditions. PMID:24055494

  3. Zebrafish in Context: Uses of a Laboratory Model in Comparative Studies

    E-print Network

    Metscher, Brian

    REVIEW Zebrafish in Context: Uses of a Laboratory Model in Comparative Studies Brian D. Metscher upon which we rely so heavily. In vertebrate biology the zebrafish Danio rerio has become models. We describe here the phylogenetic placement of zebrafish within the vertebrate world and discuss

  4. Graph Theoretical Model of a Sensorimotor Connectome in Zebrafish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Stobb; Joshua M. Peterson; Borbala Mazzag; Ethan Gahtan

    2012-01-01

    Mapping the detailed connectivity patterns (connectomes) of neural circuits is a central goal of neuroscience. The best quantitative approach to analyzing connectome data is still unclear but graph theory has been used with success. We present a graph theoretical model of the posterior lateral line sensorimotor pathway in zebrafish. The model includes 2,616 neurons and 167,114 synaptic connections. Model neurons

  5. Aquatic blues: modeling depression and antidepressant action in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Michael; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2014-12-01

    Depression is a serious psychiatric condition affecting millions of patients worldwide. Unipolar depression is characterized by low mood, anhedonia, social withdrawal and other severely debilitating psychiatric symptoms. Bipolar disorder manifests in alternating depressed mood and 'hyperactive' manic/hypomanic states. Animal experimental models are an invaluable tool for research into the pathogenesis of bipolar/unipolar depression, and for the development of potential treatments. Due to their high throughput value, genetic tractability, low cost and quick reproductive cycle, zebrafish (Danio rerio) have emerged as a promising new model species for studying brain disorders. Here, we discuss the developing utility of zebrafish for studying depression disorders, and outline future areas of research in this field. We argue that zebrafish represent a useful model organism for studying depression and its behavioral, genetic and physiological mechanisms, as well as for anti-depressant drug discovery. PMID:24657522

  6. Zebrafish: A Model for the Study of Addiction Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Klee, Eric W; Schneider, Henning; Clark, Karl; Cousin, Margot; Ebbert, Jon; Hooten, Michael; Karpyak, Victor; Warner, David; Ekker, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse and dependence are multifaceted disorders with complex genetic underpinnings. Identifying specific genetic correlates is challenging and may be more readily accomplished by defining endophenotypes specific for addictive disorders. Symptoms and syndromes, including acute drug response, consumption, preference, and withdrawal, are potential endophenotypes characterizing addiction that have been investigated using model organisms. We present a review of major genes involved in serotonergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic, and adrenoreceptor signaling that are considered to be directly involved in nicotine, opioid, cannabinoid, and ethanol use and dependence. The zebrafish genome encodes likely homologs of the vast majority of these loci. We also review the known expression patterns of these genes in zebrafish. The information presented in this review provides support for the use of zebrafish as a viable model for studying genetic factors related to drug addiction. Expansion of investigations into drug response using model organisms holds the potential to advance our understanding of drug response and addiction in humans. PMID:22207143

  7. Distinct phenotypes in zebrafish models of human startle disease.

    PubMed

    Ganser, Lisa R; Yan, Qing; James, Victoria M; Kozol, Robert; Topf, Maya; Harvey, Robert J; Dallman, Julia E

    2013-12-01

    Startle disease is an inherited neurological disorder that causes affected individuals to suffer noise- or touch-induced non-epileptic seizures, excessive muscle stiffness and neonatal apnea episodes. Mutations known to cause startle disease have been identified in glycine receptor subunit (GLRA1 and GLRB) and glycine transporter (SLC6A5) genes, which serve essential functions at glycinergic synapses. Despite the significant successes in identifying startle disease mutations, many idiopathic cases remain unresolved. Exome sequencing in these individuals will identify new candidate genes. To validate these candidate disease genes, zebrafish is an ideal choice due to rapid knockdown strategies, accessible embryonic stages, and stereotyped behaviors. The only existing zebrafish model of startle disease, bandoneon (beo), harbors point mutations in glrbb (one of two zebrafish orthologs of human GLRB) that cause compromised glycinergic transmission and touch-induced bilateral muscle contractions. In order to further develop zebrafish as a model for startle disease, we sought to identify common phenotypic outcomes of knocking down zebrafish orthologs of two known startle disease genes, GLRA1 and GLRB, using splice site-targeted morpholinos. Although both morphants were expected to result in phenotypes similar to the zebrafish beo mutant, our direct comparison demonstrated that while both glra1 and glrbb morphants exhibited embryonic spasticity, only glrbb morphants exhibited bilateral contractions characteristic of beo mutants. Likewise, zebrafish over-expressing a dominant startle disease mutation (GlyR ?1(R271Q)) exhibited spasticity but not bilateral contractions. Since GlyR ?b can interact with GlyR ? subunits 2-4 in addition to GlyR ?1, loss of the GlyR ?b subunit may produce more severe phenotypes by affecting multiple GlyR subtypes. Indeed, immunohistochemistry of glra1 morphants suggests that in zebrafish, alternate GlyR ? subunits can compensate for the loss of the GlyR ?1 subunit. To address the potential for interplay among GlyR subunits during development, we quantified the expression time-course for genes known to be critical to glycinergic synapse function. We found that GlyR ?2, ?3 and ?4a are expressed in the correct temporal pattern and could compensate for the loss of the GlyR ?1 subunit. Based on our findings, future studies that aim to model candidate startle disease genes in zebrafish should include measures of spasticity and synaptic development. PMID:24029548

  8. Using engineered endonucleases to create knockout and knockin zebrafish models.

    PubMed

    Bedell, Victoria M; Ekker, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, the technology to create targeted knockout and knockin zebrafish animals has exploded. We have gained the ability to create targeted knockouts through the use of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated system (CRISPR/Cas). Furthermore, using the high-efficiency TALEN system, we were able to create knockin zebrafish using a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) protocol described here. Through the use of these technologies, the zebrafish has become a valuable vertebrate model and an excellent bridge between the invertebrate and mammalian model systems for the study of human disease. PMID:25408414

  9. Systematic analysis of a xenograft mice model for KSHV+ primary effusion lymphoma (PEL).

    PubMed

    Dai, Lu; Trillo-Tinoco, Jimena; Bai, Lihua; Kang, Baoli; Xu, Zengguang; Wen, Xiaofei; Del Valle, Luis; Qin, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is the causative agent of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), which arises preferentially in the setting of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Even with standard cytotoxic chemotherapy, PEL continues to cause high mortality rates, requiring the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PEL xenograft models employing immunodeficient mice have been used to study the in vivo effects of a variety of therapeutic approaches. However, it remains unclear whether these xenograft models entirely reflect clinical presentations of KSHV(+) PEL, especially given the recent description of extracavitary solid tumor variants arising in patients. In addition, effusion and solid tumor cells propagated in vivo exhibit unique biology, differing from one another or from their parental cell lines propagated through in vitro culture. Therefore, we used a KSHV(+) PEL/BCBL-1 xenograft model involving non-obese diabetic/severe-combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice, and compared characteristics of effusion and solid tumors with their parent cell culture-derived counterparts. Our results indicate that although this xenograft model can be used for study of effusion and solid lymphoma observed in patients, tumor cells in vivo display unique features to those passed in vitro, including viral lytic gene expression profile, rate of solid tumor development, the host proteins and the complex of tumor microenvironment. These items should be carefully considered when the xenograft model is used for testing novel therapeutic strategies against KSHV-related lymphoma. PMID:24587336

  10. Headwaters of the zebrafish — emergence of a new model vertebrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith S. Eisen; David Jonah Grunwald

    2002-01-01

    The understanding of vertebrate development has advanced considerably in recent years, primarily due to the study of a few model organisms. The zebrafish, the newest of these models, has risen to prominence because both genetic and experimental embryological methods can be easily applied to this animal. The combination of approaches has proven powerful, yielding insights into the formation and function

  11. Learning from Small Fry: The Zebrafish as a Genetic Model Organism for Aquaculture Fish Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Dahm; Robert Geisler

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the zebrafish has become one of the most prominent vertebrate model organisms used to study the genetics\\u000a underlying development, normal body function, and disease. The growing interest in zebrafish research was paralleled by an\\u000a increase in tools and methods available to study zebrafish. While zebrafish research initially centered on mutagenesis screens\\u000a (forward genetics), recent years saw the

  12. Using zebrafish to model human disease Anila Iqbal and Christopher Wilkinson

    E-print Network

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    Using zebrafish to model human disease Anila Iqbal and Christopher Wilkinson School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway-University of London, Egham, TW20 0EX ABSTRACT Zebrafish (Danio rerio with humans so what we learn from zebrafish can be extrapolated to what is happening in humans. They also have

  13. Mutant and Transgenic Zebrafish in Modeling eurobehavioral Disorders Carisa L. Bergner1

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    Mutant and Transgenic Zebrafish in Modeling eurobehavioral Disorders Carisa L. Bergner1 , Rupert J, USA Tel: (240) 899-9571 Email: avkalueff@gmail.com #12;Abstract Zebrafish have traditionally been used of zebrafish in biomedical research has been further expanded with the implementation of new genetic techniques

  14. Zebrafish as a model system for study of fear Hitoshi Okamoto MD, PhD

    E-print Network

    Fukai, Tomoki

    Zebrafish as a model system for study of fear Hitoshi Okamoto MD, PhD RIKEN Brain Science Institute evolution of vertebrates. By taking advantage of this knowledge, we are using zebrafish to study the neural of the activities of these parts of the brain. Using the transgenic zebrafish expressing Inverse-Pericam in all

  15. Zebrafish as a model for myelopoiesis during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Berman, Jason N; Kanki, John P; Look, A Thomas

    2005-09-01

    Zebrafish produce nearly identical hematopoeitic cell lineages to those found in mammals and other higher vertebrates. As in mammals, blood cell development proceeds in distinct waves, constituting embryonic (primitive) and adult (definitive) hematopoiesis. The conservation of genes such as scl, pu.1, c/ebpalpha, mpo, l-plastin, and lysozyme C in myelopoiesis and the corresponding expression patterns in zebrafish suggests that shared genetic pathways regulate this complex developmental process. In the zebrafish model system, experimental approaches have been applied, including RNA in situ hybridization, morpholino injections, and the analysis of mutant and transgenic fish lines, leading to improved understanding of the regulation in vivo of key molecular pathways with conserved roles in vertebrate myelopoiesis. PMID:16140147

  16. Developing an Experimental Model of Vascular Toxicity in Embryonic Zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing an Experimental Model of Vascular Toxicity in Embryonic Zebrafish Tamara Tal, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, U.S. EPA Background: There are tens of thousands of chemicals that have yet to be fully evaluated for their toxicity by validated in vivo testing ...

  17. Modeling PTSD in the zebrafish: are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Caramillo, Erika M; Khan, Kanza M; Collier, Adam D; Echevarria, David J

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is an anxiety disorder that can develop following one or more traumatic events that threaten one's safety or make the victim feel helpless. Currently there are an increasing number of cases in the population in part due to the number of soldiers returning from combat. The disorder is characterized by symptoms that include hypervigilance, sleep disturbances, social and cognitive degradation, and memory flashbacks. Most of the research has been centered on the human and rodent as subjects but recently another viable contender has emerged - the zebrafish (Danio rerio). The zebrafish is a strong comparative model with the ability to exhibit a wide variety of behaviors, complex learning, and neurobiological changes that can be extrapolated to the human condition. The zebrafish is an ideal organism to study pharmacological treatments as well as the neurological underpinnings of the disorder. Here we review a sampling of the human and rodent model literature on post-traumatic stress disorder focusing on symptomology, current treatments, and stress paradigms. We also make the argument for the inclusion of the zebrafish model in future studies investigating the causes, symptoms, and treatments of post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:24821404

  18. A preclinical xenograft model of prostate cancer using human tumors.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Mitchell G; Taylor, Renea A; Toivanen, Roxanne; Pedersen, John; Norden, Sam; Pook, David W; Frydenberg, Mark; Papargiris, Melissa M; Niranjan, Birunthi; Richards, Michelle G; Wang, Hong; Collins, Anne T; Maitland, Norman J; Risbridger, Gail P

    2013-05-01

    Most cases of prostate cancer are now diagnosed as moderate-grade localized disease. These tumor specimens are important tools in the discovery and translation of prostate cancer research; however, unlike more advanced tumors, they are notoriously difficult to grow in the laboratory. We developed a system for efficiently xenografting localized human prostate cancer tissue, and we adapted this protocol to study the interactions between the specific subsets of epithelial and stromal cells. Fresh prostate tissues or isolated epithelial cells are recombined with mouse seminal vesicle mesenchyme (SVM) and grafted under the renal capsule of immunodeficient mice for optimum growth and survival. Alternatively, mouse mesenchyme can be replaced with human prostate fibroblasts in order to determine their contribution to tumor progression. Grafts can be grown for several months to determine the effectiveness of novel therapeutic compounds when administered to host mice, thereby paving the way for personalizing the treatment of individual prostate cancers. PMID:23558784

  19. A zebrafish model for subgenomic hepatitis C virus replication.

    PubMed

    Ding, Cun-Bao; Zhao, Ye; Zhang, Jing-Pu; Peng, Zong-Gen; Song, Dan-Qing; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2015-03-01

    Persistent infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major risk factor in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The elucidation of the pathogenesis of HCV-associated liver disease is hampered by the absence of an appropriate small animal model. Zebrafish exhibits high genetic homology to mammals, and is easily manipulated experimentally. In this study, we describe the use of a zebrafish model for the analysis of HCV replication mechanisms. As the 5' untranslated region (UTR), the core protein, the non-structural protein 5B (NS5B) and the 3'UTR are essential for HCV replication, we constructed a HCV sub-replicon gene construct including the 4 gene sequences and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene; these genes were transcribed through the mouse hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (mHNF4) promoter. By microinjection of the subgenomic replicon vector into zebrafish larvae, the virus was easily detected by observing EGFP fluorescence in the liver. The positive core and NS5B signals showed positive expression of the HCV gene construct in zebrafish by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. Importantly, the negative strand sequence of the HCV subgenomic RNA was detected by RT-PCR and hybridization in situ, demonstrating that the HCV sub-replicon has positive replication activity. Furthermore, the hybridization signal mainly appeared in the liver region of larvae, as detected by the sense probe of the core protein or NS5B, which confirmed that the sub-replicon amplification occurred in the zebrafish liver. The amplification of the sub-replicon caused alterations in the expression of certain genes, which is similar to HCV infection in human liver cells. To verify the use of this zebrafish model in drug evaluation, two drugs against HCV used in clinical practice, ribavirin and oxymatrine, were tested and these drugs showed significant inhibition of replication of the HCV sub-replicon in the larvae. In conclusion, this zebrafish model of HCV may prove to be a novel and simple in vivo model for the study of the mechanisms of HCV replication and may also prove useful in the disovery of new anti-HCV drugs. PMID:25572289

  20. A Synthetic dl-Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (Nordy), Inhibits Angiogenesis, Invasion and Proliferation of Glioma Stem Cells within a Zebrafish Xenotransplantation Model

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shicang; Xu, Chuan; Chen, Guilai; Gu, Ai; Li, Tingting; Cui, Youhong; Zhang, Xia; Bian, Xiuwu

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) and their transparent embryos represent a promising model system in cancer research. Compared with other vertebrate model systems, we had previously shown that the zebrafish model provides many advantages over mouse or chicken models to study tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and tumorigenesis. In this study, we systematically investigated the biological features of glioma stem cells (GSCs) in a zebrafish model, such as tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and proliferation. We demonstrated that several verified anti-angiogenic agents inhibited angiogenesis that was induced by xenografted-GSCs. We next evaluated the effects of a synthetic dl-nordihydroguaiaretic acid compound (dl-NDGA or “Nordy”), which revealed anti-tumor activity against human GSCs in vitro by establishing parameters through studying its ability to suppress angiogenesis, tumor invasion, and proliferation. Furthermore, our results indicated that Nordy might inhibit GSCs invasion and proliferation through regulation of the arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (Alox-5) pathway. Moreover, the combination of Nordy and a VEGF inhibitor exhibited an enhanced ability to suppress angiogenesis that was induced by GSCs. By contrast, even following treatment with 50 µM Nordy, there was no discernible effect on zebrafish embryonic development. Together, these results suggested efficacy and safety of using Nordy in vivo, and further demonstrated that this model should be suitable for studying GSCs and anti-GSC drug evaluation. PMID:24454929

  1. A zebrafish model of conditional targeted podocyte ablation and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianmin; McKee, Mary; Huang, Hong D; Xiang, Alice; Davidson, Alan J; Lu, Hua A J

    2013-06-01

    Podocytes are specialized cells that contribute critically to the normal structure and function of the glomerular filtration barrier. Their depletion plays an important role in the pathogenesis of glomerulosclerosis. Here, we report generation of a genetic model of conditional podocyte ablation and regeneration in zebrafish using a bacterial nitroreductase strategy to convert a prodrug, metronidazole, into a cytotoxic metabolite. A transgenic zebrafish line was generated that expresses green fluorescence protein (GFP) and the nitroreductase fusion protein under the control of the podocin promoter Tg(podocin:nitroreductase-GFP). Treatment of these transgenic zebrafish with metronidazole results in podocyte apoptosis, a loss of nephrin and podocin expression, foot process effacement, and a leaky glomerular filtration barrier. Following metronidazole washout, proliferating cells were detected in the glomeruli of recovering transgenic fish with a restoration of nitroreductase-GFP fluorescence, nephrin and podocin expression, a reestablishment of normal foot process architecture, and glomerular barrier function. Thus, our studies show that zebrafish podocytes are capable of regenerating following depletion, and establish the Tg(podocin:NTR-GFP) fish as a new model to study podocyte injury and repair. PMID:23466998

  2. A new model to study visual attention in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Braida, Daniela; Ponzoni, Luisa; Martucci, Roberta; Sala, Mariaelvina

    2014-12-01

    The major part of cognitive tasks applied to zebrafish has not fully assessed their attentional ability, a process by which the nervous system learns, organizes sensory input and generates coordinated behaviour. In an attempt to maximize the value of zebrafish as an animal model of cognition, we tested the possibility to apply a modified version of novel object recognition test named virtual object recognition test (VORT) using 2D geometrical shapes (square, triangle, circle, cross, etc.) on two iPod 3.5-inch widescreen displays, located on two opposite walls of the water tank. Each fish was subjected to a familiarization trial (T1), and after different time delays (from 5 min to 96 h) to a novel shape recognition trial (T2). A progressive decrease, across time, of memory performance, in terms of mean discrimination index and mean exploration time, was shown. The predictive validity was tested using cholinergic drugs. Nicotine (0.02 mg/kg intraperitoneally, IP) significantly increased, while scopolamine (0.025 mg/kg IP) and mecamylamine decreased, mean discrimination index. Zebrafish discriminated different movements (vertical, horizontal, oblique) and the discrimination index increased significantly when moving poorly discriminated shapes were presented, thus increasing visual attention. Taken together these findings demonstrate that VORT is a viable, fast and useful model to evaluate sustained attention in zebrafish and for predicting the efficacy of pharmacotherapies for cognitive disorders. PMID:24681194

  3. Zebrafish as animal model for aquaculture nutrition research

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, Pilar E.; Medrano, Juan F.; Feijoo, Carmen G.

    2014-01-01

    The aquaculture industry continues to promote the diversification of ingredients used in aquafeed in order to achieve a more sustainable aquaculture production system. The evaluation of large numbers of diets in aquaculture species is costly and requires time-consuming trials in some species. In contrast, zebrafish (Danio rerio) can solve these drawbacks as an experimental model, and represents an ideal organism to carry out preliminary evaluation of diets. In addition, zebrafish has a sequenced genome allowing the efficient utilization of new technologies, such as RNA-sequencing and genotyping platforms to study the molecular mechanisms that underlie the organism’s response to nutrients. Also, biotechnological tools like transgenic lines with fluorescently labeled neutrophils that allow the evaluation of the immune response in vivo, are readily available in this species. Thus, zebrafish provides an attractive platform for testing many ingredients to select those with the highest potential of success in aquaculture. In this perspective article aspects related to diet evaluation in which zebrafish can make important contributions to nutritional genomics and nutritional immunity are discussed. PMID:25309575

  4. Neuronal regeneration in a zebrafish model of adult brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Norihito; Shimizu, Kohei; Sawamoto, Kazunobu

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult mammalian forebrain are a potential source of neurons for neural tissue repair after brain insults such as ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent studies show that neurogenesis in the ventricular zone (VZ) of the adult zebrafish telencephalon has features in common with neurogenesis in the adult mammalian SVZ. Here, we established a zebrafish model to study injury-induced neurogenesis in the adult brain. We show that the adult zebrafish brain possesses a remarkable capacity for neuronal regeneration. Telencephalon injury prompted the proliferation of neuronal precursor cells (NPCs) in the VZ of the injured hemisphere, compared with in the contralateral hemisphere. The distribution of NPCs, viewed by BrdU labeling and ngn1-promoter-driven GFP, suggested that they migrated laterally and reached the injury site via the subpallium and pallium. The number of NPCs reaching the injury site significantly decreased when the fish were treated with an inhibitor of ?-secretase, a component of the Notch signaling pathway, suggesting that injury-induced neurogenesis mechanisms are at least partly conserved between fish and mammals. The injury-induced NPCs differentiated into mature neurons in the regions surrounding the injury site within a week after the injury. Most of these cells expressed T-box brain protein (Tbr1), suggesting they had adopted the normal neuronal fate in this region. These results suggest that the telencephalic VZ contributes to neural tissue recovery following telencephalic injury in the adult zebrafish, and that the adult zebrafish is a useful model for regenerative medicine. PMID:22028327

  5. The Developing Utility of Zebrafish Models for Cognitive Enhancers Research

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2012-01-01

    Whereas cognitive impairment is a common symptom in multiple brain disorders, predictive and high-throughput animal models of cognition and behavior are becoming increasingly important in the field of translational neuroscience research. In particular, reliable models of the cognitive deficits characteristic of numerous neurobehavioral disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia have become a significant focus of investigation. While rodents have traditionally been used to study cognitive phenotypes, zebrafish (Danio rerio) are gaining popularity as an excellent model to complement current translational neuroscience research. Here we discuss recent advances in pharmacological and genetic approaches using zebrafish models to study cognitive impairments and to discover novel cognitive enhancers and neuroprotective mechanisms. PMID:23449968

  6. Zebrafish as a novel experimental model for developmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Teraoka, Hiroki; Dong, Wu; Hiraga, Takeo

    2003-06-01

    It is widely believed that embryos and infants during development are highly sensitive to chemicals that cause serious damage to growth. However, knowledge on the mechanisms of developmental toxicity is scarce. One reason for this is limited convenient model system other than organ cultures using rodents to study the various aspects of developmental toxicology. Cultured cells are not always adequate for this purpose, since events in morphogenesis are processed through interactions with other tissues. We focused on zebrafish embryo (Danio rerio), one of the most important organisms in developmental biology. Saturation mutagenesis, applied to drosophila and nematode to define the functions of genes, has been carried out in zebrafish but almost no other vertebrate, and several thousand lines are available due to the rapid growth and transparent body of this embryo. Enhanced databases for the genome and ESTs are available at websites with abundant genetic and biological background. By targeted gene knock-down with morpholino-modified antisense oligonucleotieds (morpholinos), the translation of a specific protein can be transiently blocked for several days. Many reporter systems in vivo have been established mainly as GFP-transgenic fish for environmental chemicals. Although several excellent studies have been performed with zebrafish embryos on the effects of chemicals, the developmental toxicology of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been most extensively studied to date. We have found that TCDD induces apoptosis in dorsal midbrain with a concomitant decrease in local blood flow, using developing zebrafish. TCDD seems to produce oxidative stress through CYP1A induction in vascular endothelium, resulting in local circulation failure and apoptosis in the dorsal midbrain. In addition to applications in toxicology, an experimental system with zebrafish embryos could help to clarify the mechanism of congenital anomaly, which arises from genetic mutation. PMID:12893971

  7. Learning from small fry: the zebrafish as a genetic model organism for aquaculture fish species.

    PubMed

    Dahm, Ralf; Geisler, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the zebrafish has become one of the most prominent vertebrate model organisms used to study the genetics underlying development, normal body function, and disease. The growing interest in zebrafish research was paralleled by an increase in tools and methods available to study zebrafish. While zebrafish research initially centered on mutagenesis screens (forward genetics), recent years saw the establishment of reverse genetic methods (morpholino knock-down, TILLING). In addition, increasingly sophisticated protocols for generating transgenic zebrafish have been developed and microarrays are now available to characterize gene expression on a near genome-wide scale. The identification of loci underlying specific traits is aided by genetic, physical, and radiation hybrid maps of the zebrafish genome and the zebrafish genome project. As genomic resources for aquacultural species are increasingly being generated, a meaningful interaction between zebrafish and aquacultural research now appears to be possible and beneficial for both sides. In particular, research on nutrition and growth, stress, and disease resistance in the zebrafish can be expected to produce results applicable to aquacultural fish, for example, by improving husbandry and formulated feeds. Forward and reverse genetics approaches in the zebrafish, together with the known conservation of synteny between the species, offer the potential to identify and verify candidate genes for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) to be used in marker-assisted breeding. Moreover, some technologies from the zebrafish field such as TILLING may be directly transferable to aquacultural research and production. PMID:16670967

  8. Zebrafish: a new companion for translational research in oncology.

    PubMed

    Barriuso, Jorge; Nagaraju, Raghavendar; Hurlstone, Adam

    2015-03-01

    In an era of high-throughput "omic" technologies, the unprecedented amount of data that can be generated presents a significant opportunity but simultaneously an even greater challenge for oncologists trying to provide personalized treatment. Classically, preclinical testing of new targets and identification of active compounds against those targets have entailed the extensive use of established human cell lines, as well as genetically modified mouse tumor models. Patient-derived xenografts in zebrafish may in the near future provide a platform for selecting an appropriate personalized therapy and together with zebrafish transgenic tumor models represent an alternative vehicle for drug development. The zebrafish is readily genetically modified. The transparency of zebrafish embryos and the recent development of pigment-deficient zebrafish afford researchers the valuable capacity to observe directly cancer formation and progression in a live vertebrate host. The zebrafish is amenable to transplantation assays that test the serial passage of fluorescently labeled tumor cells as well as their capacity to disseminate and/or metastasize. Progress achieved to date in genetic engineering and xenotransplantation will establish the zebrafish as one of the most versatile animal models for cancer research. A model organism that can be used in transgenesis, transplantation assays, single-cell functional assays, and in vivo imaging studies make zebrafish a natural companion for mice in translational oncology research. PMID:25573382

  9. Zebrafish: an in vivo model for nano EHS studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan; Nel, André E.; Lin, Shuo

    2014-01-01

    To assure a responsible and sustainable growth of nanotechnology, the environmental health and safety (EHS) aspect of engineered nanomaterials and nano-related products needs to be addressed at a rate commensurate with the expansion of nanotechnology. Zebrafish has been demonstrated as a correlative in vivo vertebrate model for such task, and the current advances of using zebrafish for nano EHS studies are summarized here. In addition to morphological and histopathological observations, the accessibility of gene manipulation would greatly empower such a model for detailed mechanistic studies of any nanoparticles of interest. The potential for establishing high-throughput screening platforms to facilitate the nano EHS studies is highlighted, and a discussion is presented on how toxicogenomics approaches represent a future direction to guide the identification of toxicity pathways. PMID:23208995

  10. Zebrafish genome instability after exposure to model genotoxicants.

    PubMed

    Šrut, Maja; Štambuk, Anamaria; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Klobu?ar, Göran I V

    2015-05-01

    Sublethal exposure to environmental genotoxicants may impact genome integrity in affected organisms. It is therefore necessary to develop tools to measure the extent and longevity of genotoxicant-induced DNA damage, and choose appropriate model organisms for biomonitoring. To this end, markers of DNA damage were measured in zebrafish larvae and adults following exposure to model genotoxicants (benzo[a]pyrene and ethyl methanesulfonate). Specifically, we assessed primary DNA damage and the existence of potentially persistent genomic alterations through application of the comet assay, quantitative random amplified polymorphic DNA (qRAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) assays. Furthermore, expression of genes involved in DNA repair, oxidative stress response and xenobiotic metabolism was evaluated as well. Additionally, the AFLP method was applied to adult specimens 1 year after larval exposure to the genotoxicants to evaluate the longevity of the observed DNA alterations. Large numbers of DNA alterations were detected in larval DNA using the comet assay, qRAPD and AFLP, demonstrating that zebrafish larvae are a sensitive model for revealing genotoxic effects. Furthermore, some of these genomic alterations persisted into adulthood, indicating the formation of stable genomic modifications. qRAPD and AFLP methods proved to be highly sensitive to genotoxic effects, even in cases when the comet assay indicated a lack of significant damage. These results thus support the use of zebrafish larvae as a sensitive model for monitoring the impact of genotoxic insult and give evidence of the longevity of genomic modifications induced by genotoxic agents. PMID:25702168

  11. Zebrafish models of collagen VI-related myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Telfer, W.R.; Busta, A.S.; Bonnemann, C.G.; Feldman, E.L.; Dowling, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Collagen VI is an integral part of the skeletal muscle extracellular matrix, providing mechanical stability and facilitating matrix-dependent cell signaling. Mutations in collagen VI result in either Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) or Bethlem myopathy (BM), with UCMD being clinically more severe. Recent studies demonstrating increased apoptosis and abnormal mitochondrial function in Col6a1 knockout mice and in human myoblasts have provided the first mechanistic insights into the pathophysiology of these diseases. However, how loss of collagen VI causes mitochondrial dysfunction remains to be understood. Progress is hindered in part by the lack of an adequate animal model for UCMD, as knockout mice have a mild motor phenotype. To further the understanding of these disorders, we have generated zebrafish models of the collagen VI myopathies. Morpholinos designed to exon 9 of col6a1 produced a severe muscle disease reminiscent of UCMD, while ones to exon 13 produced a milder phenotype similar to BM. UCMD-like zebrafish have increased cell death and abnormal mitochondria, which can be attenuated by treatment with the proton pump modifier cyclosporin A (CsA). CsA improved the motor deficits in UCMD-like zebrafish, but failed to reverse the sarcolemmal membrane damage. In all, we have successfully generated the first vertebrate model matching the clinical severity of UCMD and demonstrated that CsA provides phenotypic improvement, thus corroborating data from knockout mice supporting the use of mitochondrial permeability transition pore modifiers as therapeutics in patients, and providing proof of principle for the utility of the zebrafish as a powerful preclinical model. PMID:20338942

  12. Zebrafish as a model to study live mucus physiology

    PubMed Central

    Jevtov, Irena; Samuelsson, Tore; Yao, Grace; Amsterdam, Adam; Ribbeck, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunctional mucus barriers can result in important pulmonary and gastrointestinal conditions, but model systems to study the underlying causes are largely missing. We identified and characterized five mucin homologues in zebrafish, and demonstrated a strategy for fluorescence labeling of one selected mucin. These tools can be used for in vivo experiments and in pharmacological and genetic screens to study the dynamics and mechanisms of mucosal physiology. PMID:25323747

  13. Zebrafish as a Novel Vertebrate Model To Dissect Enterococcal Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Renshaw, Stephen A.; Ogryzko, Nikolay V.; Foster, Simon J.; Serror, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for a wide range of life-threatening nosocomial infections, such as septicemia, peritonitis, and endocarditis. E. faecalis infections are associated with a high mortality and substantial health care costs and cause therapeutic problems due to the intrinsic resistance of this bacterium to antibiotics. Several factors contributing to E. faecalis virulence have been identified. Due to the variety of infections caused by this organism, numerous animal models have been used to mimic E. faecalis infections, but none of them is considered ideal for monitoring pathogenesis. Here, we studied for the first time E. faecalis pathogenesis in zebrafish larvae. Using model strains, chosen isogenic mutants, and fluorescent derivatives expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), we analyzed both lethality and bacterial dissemination in infected larvae. Genetically engineered immunocompromised zebrafish allowed the identification of two critical steps for successful establishment of disease: (i) host phagocytosis evasion mediated by the Epa rhamnopolysaccharide and (ii) tissue damage mediated by the quorum-sensing Fsr regulon. Our results reveal that the zebrafish is a novel, powerful model for studying E. faecalis pathogenesis, enabling us to dissect the mechanism of enterococcal virulence. PMID:24002065

  14. Computational Graph Theoretical Model of the Zebrafish Sensorimotor Pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Joshua M.; Stobb, Michael; Mazzag, Bori; Gahtan, Ethan

    2011-11-01

    Mapping the detailed connectivity patterns of neural circuits is a central goal of neuroscience and has been the focus of extensive current research [4, 3]. The best quantitative approach to analyze the acquired data is still unclear but graph theory has been used with success [3, 1]. We present a graph theoretical model with vertices and edges representing neurons and synaptic connections, respectively. Our system is the zebrafish posterior lateral line sensorimotor pathway. The goal of our analysis is to elucidate mechanisms of information processing in this neural pathway by comparing the mathematical properties of its graph to those of other, previously described graphs. We create a zebrafish model based on currently known anatomical data. The degree distributions and small-world measures of this model is compared to small-world, random and 3-compartment random graphs of the same size (with over 2500 nodes and 160,000 connections). We find that the zebrafish graph shows small-worldness similar to other neural networks and does not have a scale-free distribution of connections.

  15. Zebrafish models of human motor neuron diseases: advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Babin, Patrick J; Goizet, Cyril; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2014-07-01

    Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are an etiologically heterogeneous group of disorders of neurodegenerative origin, which result in degeneration of lower (LMNs) and/or upper motor neurons (UMNs). Neurodegenerative MNDs include pure hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), which involves specific degeneration of UMNs, leading to progressive spasticity of the lower limbs. In contrast, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) involves the specific degeneration of LMNs, with symmetrical muscle weakness and atrophy. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the most common adult-onset MND, is characterized by the degeneration of both UMNs and LMNs, leading to progressive muscle weakness, atrophy, and spasticity. A review of the comparative neuroanatomy of the human and zebrafish motor systems showed that, while the zebrafish was a homologous model for LMN disorders, such as SMA, it was only partially relevant in the case of UMN disorders, due to the absence of corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts in its central nervous system. Even considering the limitation of this model to fully reproduce the human UMN disorders, zebrafish offer an excellent alternative vertebrate model for the molecular and genetic dissection of MND mechanisms. Its advantages include the conservation of genome and physiological processes and applicable in vivo tools, including easy imaging, loss or gain of function methods, behavioral tests to examine changes in motor activity, and the ease of simultaneous chemical/drug testing on large numbers of animals. This facilitates the assessment of the environmental origin of MNDs, alone or in combination with genetic traits and putative modifier genes. Positive hits obtained by phenotype-based small-molecule screening using zebrafish may potentially be effective drugs for treatment of human MNDs. PMID:24705136

  16. Zebrafish as a systems toxicology model for developmental neurotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Yuhei; Murakami, Soichiro; Ashikawa, Yoshifumi; Sasagawa, Shota; Umemoto, Noriko; Shimada, Yasuhito; Tanaka, Toshio

    2015-02-01

    The developing brain is extremely sensitive to many chemicals. Exposure to neurotoxicants during development has been implicated in various neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Although rodents have been widely used for developmental neurotoxicity testing, experiments using large numbers of rodents are time-consuming, expensive, and raise ethical concerns. Using alternative non-mammalian animal models may relieve some of these pressures by allowing testing of large numbers of subjects while reducing expenses and minimizing the use of mammalian subjects. In this review, we discuss some of the advantages of using zebrafish in developmental neurotoxicity testing, focusing on central nervous system development, neurobehavior, toxicokinetics, and toxicodynamics in this species. We also describe some important examples of developmental neurotoxicity testing using zebrafish combined with gene expression profiling, neuroimaging, or neurobehavioral assessment. Zebrafish may be a systems toxicology model that has the potential to reveal the pathways of developmental neurotoxicity and to provide a sound basis for human risk assessments. PMID:25109898

  17. Using zebrafish as the model organism to understand organ regeneration.

    PubMed

    Shi, WenChao; Fang, ZhiBing; Li, Li; Luo, LingFei

    2015-04-01

    The limited regenerative capacity of several organs, such as central nervous system (CNS), heart and limb in mammals makes related major diseases quite difficult to recover. Therefore, dissection of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying organ regeneration is of great scientific and clinical interests. Tremendous progression has already been made after extensive investigations using several model organisms for decades. Unfortunately, distance to the final achievement of the goal still remains. Recently, zebrafish became a popular model organism for the deep understanding of regeneration based on its powerful regenerative capacity, in particular the organs that are limitedly regenerated in mammals. Additionally, zebrafish are endowed with other advantages good for the study of organ regeneration. This review summarizes the recent progress in the study of zebrafish organ regeneration, in particular regeneration of fin, heart, CNS, and liver as the representatives. We also discuss reasons of the reduced regenerative capacity in higher vertebrate, the roles of inflammation during regeneration, and the difference between organogenesis and regeneration. PMID:25862658

  18. Zebrafish as a Natural Host Model for Vibrio cholerae Colonization and Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Runft, Donna L.; Mitchell, Kristie C.; Abuaita, Basel H.; Allen, Jonathan P.; Bajer, Sarah; Ginsburg, Kevin; Neely, Melody N.

    2014-01-01

    The human diarrheal disease cholera is caused by the aquatic bacterium Vibrio cholerae. V. cholerae in the environment is associated with several varieties of aquatic life, including insect egg masses, shellfish, and vertebrate fish. Here we describe a novel animal model for V. cholerae, the zebrafish. Pandemic V. cholerae strains specifically colonize the zebrafish intestinal tract after exposure in water with no manipulation of the animal required. Colonization occurs in close contact with the intestinal epithelium and mimics colonization observed in mammals. Zebrafish that are colonized by V. cholerae transmit the bacteria to naive fish, which then become colonized. Striking differences in colonization between V. cholerae classical and El Tor biotypes were apparent. The zebrafish natural habitat in Asia heavily overlaps areas where cholera is endemic, suggesting that zebrafish and V. cholerae evolved in close contact with each other. Thus, the zebrafish provides a natural host model for the study of V. cholerae colonization, transmission, and environmental survival. PMID:24375135

  19. Modeling anxiety using adult zebrafish: A conceptual review Adam Stewart, Siddharth Gaikwad, Evan Kyzar, Jeremy Green, Andrew Roth, Allan V. Kalueff*

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    Review Modeling anxiety using adult zebrafish: A conceptual review Adam Stewart, Siddharth Gaikwad Program, Tulane Neurophenotyping Platform, Zebrafish Neuroscience Research Consortium, Tulane University: Received 23 May 2011 Received in revised form 22 July 2011 Accepted 23 July 2011 Keywords: Zebrafish

  20. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in zebrafish models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asharani, P. V.; Lian Wu, Yi; Gong, Zhiyuan; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2008-06-01

    This study was initiated to enhance our insight on the health and environmental impact of silver nanoparticles (Ag-np). Using starch and bovine serum albumin (BSA) as capping agents, silver nanoparticles were synthesized to study their deleterious effects and distribution pattern in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). Toxicological endpoints like mortality, hatching, pericardial edema and heart rate were recorded. A concentration-dependent increase in mortality and hatching delay was observed in Ag-np treated embryos. Additionally, nanoparticle treatments resulted in concentration-dependent toxicity, typified by phenotypes that had abnormal body axes, twisted notochord, slow blood flow, pericardial edema and cardiac arrhythmia. Ag+ ions and stabilizing agents showed no significant defects in developing embryos. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the embryos demonstrated that nanoparticles were distributed in the brain, heart, yolk and blood of embryos as evident from the electron-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDS). Furthermore, the acridine orange staining showed an increased apoptosis in Ag-np treated embryos. These results suggest that silver nanoparticles induce a dose-dependent toxicity in embryos, which hinders normal development.

  1. The interpretation of marker protein assays: a critical appraisal in clinical studies and a xenograft model.

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, D.; Gibbs, J.; Nogueira Costa, R.; Kohn, J.; Orr, A. H.; Barrett, A.; Peckham, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    Although useful in the management of malignant testicular tumours, alphafoetoprotein and human chromonic gonadotrophin are not perfect parameters of tumour bulk. In a series of 65 patients with marker-positive advanced disease, 23 showed the phenomenon of discordance of markers or dissociation from tumour response. Transplantable human malignant teratoma xenografts were established in immune-suppressed mice as models of the human disease. In the model system, it was demonstrated that tumour AFP concentration was reflected by AFP titres in the blood, but that tumour AFP (or blood AFP) did not correlate well with tumour size. One xenograft line illustrated the evolution of marker-negative tumour cells from a patient who was initially AFP-positive. PMID:6158975

  2. The interpretation of marker protein assays: a critical appraisal in clinical studies and a xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, D; Gibbs, J; Nogueira Costa, R; Kohn, J; Orr, A H; Barrett, A; Peckham, M J

    1980-04-01

    Although useful in the management of malignant testicular tumours, alphafoetoprotein and human chromonic gonadotrophin are not perfect parameters of tumour bulk. In a series of 65 patients with marker-positive advanced disease, 23 showed the phenomenon of discordance of markers or dissociation from tumour response. Transplantable human malignant teratoma xenografts were established in immune-suppressed mice as models of the human disease. In the model system, it was demonstrated that tumour AFP concentration was reflected by AFP titres in the blood, but that tumour AFP (or blood AFP) did not correlate well with tumour size. One xenograft line illustrated the evolution of marker-negative tumour cells from a patient who was initially AFP-positive. PMID:6158975

  3. Generation and characterisation of novel pancreatic adenocarcinoma xenograft models and corresponding primary cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wennerström, Anna B; Lothe, Inger Marie Bowitz; Sandhu, Vandana; Kure, Elin H; Myklebost, Ola; Munthe, Else

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the most lethal cancer types, currently lacking efficient treatment. The heterogeneous nature of these tumours are poorly represented by the classical pancreatic cell lines, which have been through strong clonal selection in vitro, and are often derived from metastases. Here, we describe the establishment of novel pancreatic adenocarcinoma models, xenografts and corresponding in vitro cell lines, from primary pancreatic tumours. The morphology, differentiation grade and gene expression pattern of the xenografts resemble the original tumours well. The cell lines were analysed for colony forming capacity, tumourigenicity and expression of known cancer cell surface markers and cancer stem-like characteristics. These primary cell models will be valuable tools for biological and preclinical studies for this devastating disease. PMID:25148029

  4. Generation and Characterisation of Novel Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Xenograft Models and Corresponding Primary Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wennerström, Anna B.; Lothe, Inger Marie Bowitz; Sandhu, Vandana; Kure, Elin H.; Myklebost, Ola; Munthe, Else

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the most lethal cancer types, currently lacking efficient treatment. The heterogeneous nature of these tumours are poorly represented by the classical pancreatic cell lines, which have been through strong clonal selection in vitro, and are often derived from metastases. Here, we describe the establishment of novel pancreatic adenocarcinoma models, xenografts and corresponding in vitro cell lines, from primary pancreatic tumours. The morphology, differentiation grade and gene expression pattern of the xenografts resemble the original tumours well. The cell lines were analysed for colony forming capacity, tumourigenicity and expression of known cancer cell surface markers and cancer stem-like characteristics. These primary cell models will be valuable tools for biological and preclinical studies for this devastating disease. PMID:25148029

  5. In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging of Murine Xenograft Cancer Models with a Red-shifted Thermostable Luciferase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Mezzanotte; Raffaella Fazzina; Elisa Michelini; Roberto Tonelli; Andrea Pession; Bruce Branchini; Aldo Roda

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  Conventional in vivo bioluminescence imaging using wild-type green-emitting luciferase is limited by absorption and scattering of the bioluminescent\\u000a signal through tissues. Imaging methods using a red-shifted thermostable luciferase from Photinus pyralis were optimized to improve the sensitivity and image resolution. In vivo bioluminescence imaging performance of red- and green-emitting luciferases were compared in two different xenograft mouse\\u000a models for cancer.

  6. Zebrafish as model organisms for studying drug-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Vliegenthart, A D Bastiaan; Tucker, Carl S; Del Pozo, Jorge; Dear, James W

    2014-12-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major challenge in clinical medicine and drug development. New models are needed for predicting which potential therapeutic compounds will cause DILI in humans, and new markers and mediators of DILI still need to be identified. This review highlights the strengths and weaknesses of using zebrafish as a high-throughput in vivo model for studying DILI. Although the zebrafish liver architecture is different from that of the mammalian liver, the main physiological processes remain similar. Zebrafish metabolize drugs using similar pathways to those in humans; they possess a wide range of cytochrome P450 enzymes that enable metabolic reactions including hydroxylation, conjugation, oxidation, demethylation and de-ethylation. Following exposure to a range of hepatotoxic drugs, the zebrafish liver develops histological patterns of injury comparable to those of mammalian liver, and biomarkers for liver injury can be quantified in the zebrafish circulation. The zebrafish immune system is similar to that of mammals, but the zebrafish inflammatory response to DILI is not yet defined. In order to quantify DILI in zebrafish, a wide variety of methods can be used, including visual assessment, quantification of serum enzymes and experimental serum biomarkers and scoring of histopathology. With further development, the zebrafish may be a model that complements rodents and may have value for the discovery of new disease pathways and translational biomarkers. PMID:24773296

  7. First In-Mouse Development and Application of a Surgically Relevant Xenograft Model of Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Helland, Øystein; Popa, Mihaela; Vintermyr, Olav K.; Molven, Anders; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore; Bjørge, Line; McCormack, Emmet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Preclinical models of epithelial ovarian cancer have not been exploited to evaluate the clinical standard combination therapy of surgical debulking with follow-up chemotherapy. As surgery is critical to patient survival, here we establish a combined surgical/chemotherapy xenograft model of epithelial ovarian cancer and demonstrate its translational relevance. Experimental Design SKOV-3luc+ ovary cancer cells were injected topically into the ovaries of immunodeficient mice. Disease development and effect of clinical standard treatment including hysterectomy, bilateral salpingoophorectomy and removal of metastasis with follow up chemotherapy (carboplatin 12 mg/kg + paclitaxel 15 mg/kg) was evaluated by clinical parameters. Tumor burden was quantified by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Results The xenograft ovarian tumors developed were poorly differentiated and multicystic and the disease disseminated into the peritoneal cavity. When compared to the controls with a mean survival time of 4.9 weeks, mice treated with surgery and chemotherapy, surgery or chemotherapy demonstrated significantly improved mean survival of 16.1 weeks (p?=?0.0008), 12.7 weeks (p?=?0.0008), or 10.4 weeks (p?=?0.008), respectively. Conclusion Combined surgical intervention and adjuvant chemotherapy was demonstrated for the first time in an orthotopic xenograft model of ovarian cancer. Similar to observation in human studies the combined approach resulted in the longest medial survival time, advocating application of this strategy in future preclinical therapeutic development for this disease. PMID:24594904

  8. A two-scale model for correlation between B cell VDJ usage in zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Keyao; Deem, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of the model animals for study of immunology. The dynamics of the adaptive immune system in zebrafish is similar to that in higher animals. In this work, we built a two-scale model to simulate the dynamics of B cells in primary and secondary immune reactions in zebrafish and to explain the reported correlation between VDJ usage of B cell repertoires in distinct zebrafish. The first scale of the model consists of a generalized NK model to simulate the B cell maturation process in the 10-day primary immune response. The second scale uses a delay ordinary differential equation system to model the immune responses in the 6-month lifespan of zebrafish. The generalized NK model shows that mature B cells specific to one antigen mostly possess a single VDJ recombination. The probability that mature B cells in two zebrafish have the same VDJ recombination increases with the B cell population size or the B cell selection intensity and decreases with the B cell hypermutation rate. The ODE model shows a distribution of correlation in the VDJ usage of the B cell repertoires in two six-month-old zebrafish that is highly similar to that from experiment. This work presents a simple theory to explain the experimentally observed correlation in VDJ usage of distinct zebrafish B cell repertoires after an immune response.

  9. Patient Derived Xenograft Models: An Emerging Platform for Translational Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Manuel; Amant, Frederic; Biankin, Andrew V.; Budinská, Eva; Byrne, Annette T.; Caldas, Carlos; Clarke, Robert B.; de Jong, Steven; Jonkers, Jos; Mælandsmo, Gunhild Mari; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Seoane, Joan; Trusolino, Livio; Villanueva, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in the development and characterization of patient derived tumor xenograft (PDX) models for cancer research. PDX models mostly retain the principal histological and genetic characteristics of their donor tumor and remain stable across passages. These models have been shown to be predictive of clinical outcomes and are being used for preclinical drug evaluation, biomarker identification, biological studies, and personalized medicine strategies. This paper summarizes the current state of the art in this field including methodological issues, available collections, practical applications, challenges and shortcoming, and future directions, and introduces a European consortium of PDX models. PMID:25185190

  10. Toward developmental models of psychiatric disorders in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Norton, William H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are a diverse set of diseases that affect all aspects of mental function including social interaction, thinking, feeling, and mood. Although psychiatric disorders place a large economic burden on society, the drugs available to treat them are often palliative with variable efficacy and intolerable side-effects. The development of novel drugs has been hindered by a lack of knowledge about the etiology of these diseases. It is thus necessary to further investigate psychiatric disorders using a combination of human molecular genetics, gene-by-environment studies, in vitro pharmacological and biochemistry experiments, animal models, and investigation of the non-biological basis of these diseases, such as environmental effects. Many psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, mental retardation, and schizophrenia can be triggered by alterations to neural development. The zebrafish is a popular model for developmental biology that is increasingly used to study human disease. Recent work has extended this approach to examine psychiatric disorders as well. However, since psychiatric disorders affect complex mental functions that might be human specific, it is not possible to fully model them in fish. In this review, I will propose that the suitability of zebrafish for developmental studies, and the genetic tools available to manipulate them, provide a powerful model to study the roles of genes that are linked to psychiatric disorders during neural development. The relative speed and ease of conducting experiments in zebrafish can be used to address two areas of future research: the contribution of environmental factors to disease onset, and screening for novel therapeutic compounds. PMID:23637652

  11. A New Xenograft Model of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Saini; Mattia Bellinzona; Wiebke Weichhold; Madjid Samii

    1999-01-01

    The management of primary lymphoma of the central nervous system (PCNSL) remains controversial and patients' outcome dismal. In order to investigate new selective therapeutic strategies in a controlled system, a reproducible model of PCNSL in nude rats was developed and characterized. Human B lymphoma cells (BL2) were implanted in the brain frontal area in New Zealand nude rats through a

  12. A new xenograft model of primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Saini, M; Bellinzona, M; Weichhold, W; Samii, M

    1999-06-01

    The management of primary lymphoma of the central nervous system (PCNSL) remains controversial and patients' outcome dismal. In order to investigate new selective therapeutic strategies in a controlled system, a reproducible model of PCNSL in nude rats was developed and characterized. Human B lymphoma cells (BL2) were implanted in the brain frontal area in New Zealand nude rats through a silastic device sealed to the skull. Fifteen and 30 days post-implantation, animals were sacrificed. An autopsy was performed. Representative brain sections were cut and examined for the presence of lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry was performed for proliferation (MIB1-Ki67), a B-cell marker (L26-CD20), a T-cell marker (UCHL1-CD45RO). The analysis of the brains showed tumor growth in 88% of the rats. No mortality was observed. At autopsy no extracerebral, spinal or cerebellar metastasis were found. Microscopically the brain tumors appeared non-encapsulated, highly vascularized, with a characteristic perivascular and diffuse lymphomatous spread in the parenchyma. Immunohistochemistry showed a marked positivity of the tumor cells for L26. Tumor cells were negative for UCHL1. Mean proliferation rate was 30%. The device was well tolerated and caused no local infection. Controlled studies on PCNSL in animal models are lacking. This PCNSL model in nude rats reproduces the histology and location of human CNS lymphoma. Tumor dimensions are within the resolution limits of CT and MRI and therefore suitable for stereotactic therapy. This model provides a tool to test new chemo and radiotherapeutical strategies in a controlled fashion. PMID:10533727

  13. Beyond the zebrafish: diverse fish species for modeling human disease

    PubMed Central

    Schartl, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In recent years, zebrafish, and to a lesser extent medaka, have become widely used small animal models for human diseases. These organisms have convincingly demonstrated the usefulness of fish for improving our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to pathological conditions, and for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Despite the usefulness of zebrafish and medaka in the investigation of a wide spectrum of traits, there is evidence to suggest that other fish species could be better suited for more targeted questions. With the emergence of new, improved sequencing technologies that enable genomic resources to be generated with increasing efficiency and speed, the potential of non-mainstream fish species as disease models can now be explored. A key feature of these fish species is that the pathological condition that they model is often related to specific evolutionary adaptations. By exploring these adaptations, new disease-causing and disease-modifier genes might be identified; thus, diverse fish species could be exploited to better understand the complexity of disease processes. In addition, non-mainstream fish models could allow us to study the impact of environmental factors, as well as genetic variation, on complex disease phenotypes. This Review will discuss the opportunities that such fish models offer for current and future biomedical research. PMID:24271780

  14. Presenilin mouse and zebrafish models for dementia: focus on neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    van Tijn, Paula; Kamphuis, Willem; Marlatt, Michael W; Hol, Elly M; Lucassen, Paul J

    2011-02-01

    Autosomal dominant mutations in the presenilin gene PSEN cause familial Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurological disorder pathologically characterized by intraneuronal accumulation and extracellular deposition of amyloid-? in plaques and intraneuronal, hyperphosphorylated tau aggregation in neurofibrillary tangles. Presenilins (PS/PSENs) are part of the proteolytic ?-secretase complex, which cleaves substrate proteins within the membrane. Cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by ?-secretase releases amyloid-? peptides. Besides its role in the processing of APP and other transmembrane proteins, presenilin plays an important role in neural progenitor cell maintenance and neurogenesis. In this review, we discuss the role of presenilin in relation to neurogenesis and neurodegeneration and review the currently available presenilin animal models. In addition to established mouse models, zebrafish are emerging as an attractive vertebrate model organism to study the role of presenilin during the development of the nervous system and in neurodegenerative disorders involving presenilin. Zebrafish is a suitable model organism for large-scale drug screening, making this a valuable model to identify novel therapeutic targets for AD. PMID:21056616

  15. A Renewable Tissue Resource of Phenotypically Stable, Biologically and Ethnically Diverse, Patient-derived Human Breast Cancer Xenograft (PDX) Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Claerhout, Sofie; Pratt, Aleix; Dobrolecki, Lacey E.; Petrovic, Ivana; Lai, Qing; Landis, Melissa D.; Wiechmann, Lisa; Schiff, Rachel; Giuliano, Mario; Wong, Helen; Fuqua, Suzanne W.; Contreras, Alejandro; Gutierrez, Carolina; Huang, Jian; Mao, Sufeng; Pavlick, Anne C.; Froehlich, Amber M.; Wu, Meng-Fen; Tsimelzon, Anna; Hilsenbeck, Susan G.; Chen, Edward S.; Zuloaga, Pavel; Shaw, Chad A.; Rimawi, Mothaffar F.; Perou, Charles M.; Mills, Gordon B.; Chang, Jenny C.; Lewis, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer research is hampered by difficulties in obtaining and studying primary human breast tissue, and by the lack of in vivo preclinical models that reflect patient tumor biology accurately. To overcome these limitations, we propagated a cohort of human breast tumors grown in the epithelium-free mammary fat pad of SCID/Beige and NOD/SCID/IL2?-receptor null (NSG) mice, under a series of transplant conditions. Both models yielded stably transplantable xenografts at comparably high rates (~21% and ~19%, respectively). Of the conditions tested, xenograft take rate was highest in the presence of a low-dose estradiol pellet. Overall, 32 stably transplantable xenograft lines were established, representing 25 unique patients. Most tumors yielding xenografts were “triple-negative” (ER-PR-HER2+) (n=19). However, we established lines from three ER-PR-HER2+ tumors, one ER+PR-HER2?, one ER+PR+HER2? and one “triple-positive” (ER+PR+HER2+) tumor. Serially passaged xenografts show biological consistency with the tumor of origin, are phenotypically stable across multiple transplant generations at the histologic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and genomic levels, and show comparable treatment responses as those observed clinically. Xenografts representing 12 patients, including two ER+ lines, showed metastasis to the mouse lung. These models thus serve as a renewable, quality-controlled tissue resource for preclinical studies investigating treatment response and metastasis. PMID:23737486

  16. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are becoming a popular model in behavioral neuroscience. Their behavior is robustly observed and easily quantified,

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are becoming a popular model in behavioral neuroscience. Their behavior and fluoxetine withdrawal in zebrafish. Novel Tank Exposure Test: Observers record endpoints and sessions prior to testing. Morphine withdrawal: Zebrafish were exposed to morphine (1.5 mg/L) chronically for 1

  17. A multi-scale model for correlation in B cell VDJ usage of zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Keyao; Deem, Michael W.

    2011-10-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of the model animals used for the study of immunology because the dynamics in the adaptive immune system of zebrafish are similar to that in higher animals. In this work, we built a multi-scale model to simulate the dynamics of B cells in the primary and secondary immune responses of zebrafish. We use this model to explain the reported correlation between VDJ usage of B cell repertoires in individual zebrafish. We use a delay ordinary differential equation (ODE) system to model the immune responses in the 6-month lifespan of a zebrafish. This mean field theory gives the number of high-affinity B cells as a function of time during an infection. The sequences of those B cells are then taken from a distribution calculated by a 'microscopic' random energy model. This generalized NK model shows that mature B cells specific to one antigen largely possess a single VDJ recombination. The model allows first-principle calculation of the probability, p, that two zebrafish responding to the same antigen will select the same VDJ recombination. This probability p increases with the B cell population size and the B cell selection intensity. The probability p decreases with the B cell hypermutation rate. The multi-scale model predicts correlations in the immune system of the zebrafish that are highly similar to that from experiment.

  18. The Visual System of Zebrafish and its Use to Model Human Ocular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gestri, Gaia; Link, Brian A; Neuhauss, Stephan CF

    2011-01-01

    Free swimming zebrafish larvae depend mainly on their sense of vision to evade predation and to catch prey. Hence there is strong selective pressure on the fast maturation of visual function and indeed the visual system already supports a number of visually-driven behaviors in the newly hatched larvae. The ability to exploit the genetic and embryonic accessibility of the zebrafish in combination with a behavioral assessment of visual system function has made the zebrafish a popular model to study vision and its diseases. Here, we review the anatomy, physiology and development of the zebrafish eye as the basis to relate the contributions of the zebrafish to our understanding of human ocular diseases. PMID:21595048

  19. Molecular characterization of patient-derived human pancreatic tumor xenograft models for preclinical and translational development of cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Mattie, Mike; Christensen, Ashley; Chang, Mi Sook; Yeh, William; Said, Suzanne; Shostak, Yuriy; Capo, Linnette; Verlinsky, Alla; An, Zili; Joseph, Ingrid; Zhang, Yi; Kumar-Ganesan, Sathish; Morrison, Karen; Stover, David; Challita-Eid, Pia

    2013-10-01

    Preclinical evaluation of novel cancer agents requires models that accurately reflect the biology and molecular characteristics of human tumors. Molecular profiles of eight pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patient tumors were compared to corresponding passages of xenografts obtained by grafting tumor fragments into immunocompromised mice. Molecular characterization was performed by copy number analysis, gene expression and microRNA microarrays, mutation analysis, short tandem repeat (STR) profiling, and immunohistochemistry. Xenografts were found to be highly representative of their respective tumors, with a high degree of genetic stability observed by STR profiling and mutation analysis. Copy number variation (CNV) profiles of early and late xenograft passages were similar, with recurrent losses on chromosomes 1p, 3p, 4q, 6, 8p, 9, 10, 11q, 12p, 15q, 17, 18, 20p, and 21 and gains on 1q, 5p, 8q, 11q, 12q, 13q, 19q, and 20q. Pearson correlations of gene expression profiles of tumors and xenograft passages were above 0.88 for all models. Gene expression patterns between early and late passage xenografts were highly stable for each individual model. Changes observed in xenograft passages largely corresponded to human stromal compartment genes and inflammatory processes. While some differences exist between the primary tumors and corresponding xenografts, the molecular profiles remain stable after extensive passaging. Evidence for stability in molecular characteristics after several rounds of passaging lends confidence to clinical relevance and allows for expansion of models to generate the requisite number of animals required for cohorts used in drug screening and development studies. PMID:24204193

  20. Can zebrafish be used as animal model to study Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Soraya; Rico, Eduardo P; Burgos, Javier S

    2012-01-01

    Zebrafish is rapidly emerging as a promising model organism to study various central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). AD is the main cause of dementia in the human population and there is an urgency to understand the causes of this neurodegenerative disease. In this respect, the development of new animal models to study the underlying neurodegenerative mechanisms of AD is an urgent need. In this review we analyze the current situation in the use of zebrafish as a model for AD, discussing the reasons to use this experimental paradigm in CNS investigation and analyzing the several strategies adopted to induce an AD-like pathology in zebrafish. We discuss the strategies of performing interventions to cause damage in the zebrafish brain by altering the major neurotransmitter systems (such as cholinergic, glutamatergic or GABAergic circuits). We also analyze the several transgenic zebrafish constructed for the AD study, discussing both the familial-AD models based on APP processing pathway (APP and presenilins) and in the TAU hyperphosphorylation, together with the genes involved in sporadic-AD, as apolipoprotein E. We conclude that zebrafish is in a preliminary stage of development in the AD field, and that the transgenic animals must be improved to use this fish as an optimal model for AD research. Furthermore, a deeper knowledge of the zebrafish brain and a better characterization of the injury caused by alterations in the major neurotransmitter systems are needed. PMID:23383380

  1. The chick chorioallantoic membrane as an in vivo xenograft model for Burkitt lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive malignancy that arises from B-cells and belongs to the group of Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Due to the lack of appropriate in vivo models NHL research is mainly performed in vitro. Here, we studied the use of the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) for the generation of human BL xenograft tumors, which we compared with known characteristics of the human disease. Methods In order to generate experimental BL tumors, we inoculated human BL2B95 and BL2-GFP cells on the CAM. BL2B95 xenograft-tumors were grown for seven days and subsequently analyzed with transmission electron and immunofluorescence microscopy, as well as histological staining approaches. BL2-GFP cells were studied at regular intervals up to seven days, and their metastatic behavior was visualized with intravital immunofluorescence techniques. Results Xenografted BL2B95 cells formed solid tumors in the CAM model with a Ki67-index greater than 90%, preservation of typical tumor markers (CD10, CD19, CD20), a ‘starry sky’ morphology, production of agyrophilic fibers in the stroma, formation of blood and lymphatic vessels and lymphogenic dissemination of BL2B95 to distant sites. We identified macrophages, lymphocytes and heterophilic granulocytes (chick homolog of neutrophils) as the most abundant immune cells in the experimental tumors. BL2-GFP cells could be traced in real-time during their distribution in the CAM, and the first signs for their dissemination were visible after 2-3 days. Conclusions We show that xenografted BL2B95 cells generate tumors in the CAM with a high degree of cellular, molecular and proliferative concord with the human disease, supporting the application of the CAM model for NHL research with a focus on tumor-stroma interactions. Additionally we report that BL2-GFP cells, grafted on the CAM of ex ovo cultured chick embryos, provide a powerful tool to study lymphogenic dissemination in real-time. PMID:24884418

  2. Pathologic Correlates of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Defined in an Orthotopic Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Kadoch, Cigall; Dinca, Eduard B.; Voicu, Ramona; Chen, Lingjing; Nguyen, Diana; Parikh, Seema; Karrim, Juliana; Shuman, Marc A.; Lowell, Clifford A.; Treseler, Patrick A.; James, C. David; Rubenstein, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The prospect for advances in the treatment of patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is likely dependent on the systematic evaluation of its pathobiology. Animal models of PCNSL are needed to facilitate the analysis of its molecular pathogenesis and for the efficient evaluation of novel therapeutics. Experimental Design We characterized the molecular pathology of CNS lymphoma tumors generated by the intracerebral implantation of Raji B lymphoma cells in athymic mice. Lymphoma cells were modified for bioluminescence imaging to facilitate monitoring of tumor growth and response to therapy. In parallel, we identified molecular features of lymphoma xenograft histopathology that are evident in human PCNSL specimens. Results Intracerebral Raji tumors were determined to faithfully reflect the molecular pathogenesis of PCNSL, including the predominant immunophenotypic state of differentiation of lymphoma cells and their reactive microenvironment. We show the expression of interleukin-4 by Raji and other B lymphoma cell lines in vitro and by Raji tumors in vivo and provide evidence for a role of this cytokine in the M2 polarization of lymphoma macrophages both in the murine model and in diagnostic specimens of human PCNSL. Conclusion Intracerebral implantation of Raji cells results in a reproducible and invasive xenograft model, which recapitulates the histopathology and molecular features of PCNSL, and is suitable for preclinical testing of novel agents. We also show for the first time the feasibility and accuracy of tumor bioluminescence in the monitoring of a highly infiltrative brain tumor. PMID:19276270

  3. Developmental Exposure to Estrogen Alters Differentiation and Epigenetic Programming in a Human Fetal Prostate Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Saffarini, Camelia M.; McDonnell-Clark, Elizabeth V.; Amin, Ali; Huse, Susan M.; Boekelheide, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequent non-cutaneous malignancy in men. There is strong evidence in rodents that neonatal estrogen exposure plays a role in the development of this disease. However, there is little information regarding the effects of estrogen in human fetal prostate tissue. This study explored early life estrogen exposure, with and without a secondary estrogen and testosterone treatment in a human fetal prostate xenograft model. Histopathological lesions, proliferation, and serum hormone levels were evaluated at 7, 30, 90, and 200-day time-points after xenografting. The expression of 40 key genes involved in prostatic glandular and stromal growth, cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, hormone receptors and tumor suppressors was evaluated using a custom PCR array. Epigenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation was performed on whole tissue, and laser capture-microdissection (LCM) isolated epithelial and stromal compartments of 200-day prostate xenografts. Combined initial plus secondary estrogenic exposures had the most severe tissue changes as revealed by the presence of hyperplastic glands at day 200. Gene expression changes corresponded with the cellular events in the KEGG prostate cancer pathway, indicating that initial plus secondary exposure to estrogen altered the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, ultimately resulting in apoptosis inhibition and an increase in cell cycle progression. DNA methylation revealed that differentially methylated CpG sites significantly predominate in the stromal compartment as a result of estrogen-treatment, thereby providing new targets for future investigation. By using human fetal prostate tissue and eliminating the need for species extrapolation, this study provides novel insights into the gene expression and epigenetic effects related to prostate carcinogenesis following early life estrogen exposure. PMID:25799167

  4. Generation of zebrafish models by CRISPR /Cas9 genome editing.

    PubMed

    Hruscha, Alexander; Schmid, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    The CRISPR /Cas system identified in archaea has been adopted and optimized for genome editing purposes in zebrafish. In vitro transcribed guide RNA and Cas9 mRNA are microinjected into fertilized zebrafish embryos to edit the zebrafish genome. Here, we describe how to design a gRNA, a fast method for in vitro transcription of gRNA from oligonucleotides , microinjection into fertilized zebrafish embryos, and a PCR -based restriction fragment length assay to identify mutations at the gRNA target site. PMID:25431076

  5. Global Metabolomics Reveals Urinary Biomarkers of Breast Cancer in a MCF-7 Xenograft Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Caroline H.; Manna, Soumen K.; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Bonzo, Jessica A.; Divelbiss, Raymond D.; Hollingshead, Melinda G.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Global metabolomics analysis has the potential to uncover novel metabolic pathways that are differentially regulated during carcinogenesis, aiding in biomarker discovery for early diagnosis and remission monitoring. Metabolomics studies with human samples can be problematic due to high inter-individual variation; however xenografts of human cancers in mice offer a well-controlled model system. Urine was collected from a xenograft mouse model of MCF-7 breast cancer and analyzed by mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to identify metabolites associated with cancer progression. Over 10 weeks, 24 h urine was collected weekly from control mice, mice dosed with estradiol cypionate (1 mg/mL), mice inoculated with MCF-7 cells (1 × 107) and estradiol cypionate (1 mg/mL), and mice dosed with MCF-7 cells (1 × 107) only (n = 10/group). Mice that received both estradiol cypionate and MCF-7 cells developed tumors from four weeks after inoculation. Five urinary metabolites were identified that were associated with breast cancer; enterolactone glucuronide, coumaric acid sulfate, capric acid glucuronide, an unknown metabolite, and a novel mammalian metabolite, “taurosebacic acid”. These metabolites revealed a correlation between tumor growth, fatty acid synthesis, and potential anti-proliferative effects of gut microbiota-metabolized food derivatives. These biomarkers may be of value for early diagnosis of cancer, monitoring of cancer therapeutics, and may also lead to future mechanistic studies. PMID:24958144

  6. A Possible Zebrafish Model of Polycystic Kidney Disease: Knockdown of wnt5a Causes Cysts in Zebrafish Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liwei; Xiao, An; Wecker, Andrea; McBride, Daniel A.; Choi, Soo Young; Zhou, Weibin; Lipschutz, Joshua H.

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common causes of end-stage kidney disease, a devastating disease for which there is no cure. The molecular mechanisms leading to cyst formation in PKD remain somewhat unclear, but many genes are thought to be involved. Wnt5a is a non-canonical glycoprotein that regulates a wide range of developmental processes. Wnt5a works through the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway that regulates oriented cell division during renal tubular cell elongation. Defects of the PCP pathway have been found to cause kidney cyst formation. Our paper describes a method for developing a zebrafish cystic kidney disease model by knockdown of the wnt5a gene with wnt5a antisense morpholino (MO) oligonucleotides. Tg(wt1b:GFP) transgenic zebrafish were used to visualize kidney structure and kidney cysts following wnt5a knockdown. Two distinct antisense MOs (AUG - and splice-site) were used and both resulted in curly tail down phenotype and cyst formation after wnt5a knockdown. Injection of mouse Wnt5a mRNA, resistant to the MOs due to a difference in primary base pair structure, rescued the abnormal phenotype, demonstrating that the phenotype was not due to “off-target” effects of the morpholino. This work supports the validity of using a zebrafish model to study wnt5a function in the kidney. PMID:25489842

  7. A possible zebrafish model of polycystic kidney disease: knockdown of wnt5a causes cysts in zebrafish kidneys.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liwei; Xiao, An; Wecker, Andrea; McBride, Daniel A; Choi, Soo Young; Zhou, Weibin; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common causes of end-stage kidney disease, a devastating disease for which there is no cure. The molecular mechanisms leading to cyst formation in PKD remain somewhat unclear, but many genes are thought to be involved. Wnt5a is a non-canonical glycoprotein that regulates a wide range of developmental processes. Wnt5a works through the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway that regulates oriented cell division during renal tubular cell elongation. Defects of the PCP pathway have been found to cause kidney cyst formation. Our paper describes a method for developing a zebrafish cystic kidney disease model by knockdown of the wnt5a gene with wnt5a antisense morpholino (MO) oligonucleotides. Tg(wt1b:GFP) transgenic zebrafish were used to visualize kidney structure and kidney cysts following wnt5a knockdown. Two distinct antisense MOs (AUG - and splice-site) were used and both resulted in curly tail down phenotype and cyst formation after wnt5a knockdown. Injection of mouse Wnt5a mRNA, resistant to the MOs due to a difference in primary base pair structure, rescued the abnormal phenotype, demonstrating that the phenotype was not due to "off-target" effects of the morpholino. This work supports the validity of using a zebrafish model to study wnt5a function in the kidney. PMID:25489842

  8. A zebrafish (Danio rerio) model of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) infection

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Xiaopeng; Zhang Lichun; Weng Shaoping; Huang Zhijian; Lu Jing; Lan Dongming [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou, 510275 (China); Zhong Xuejun [Guangzhou Kingmed Center for Clinical Laboratory, Guangzhou (China); Yu Xiaoqiang [Division of Cell Biology and Biophysics, School of Biological Science, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City (United States); Xu Anlong [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou, 510275 (China)], E-mail: lssxal@mail.sysu.edu.cn; He Jianguo [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou, 510275 (China)], E-mail: lsshjg@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2008-06-20

    Zebrafish is a model animal for studies of genetics, development, toxicology, oncology, and immunology. In this study, infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) was used to establish an infection in zebrafish, and the experimental conditions were established and characterized. Mortality of adult zebrafish infected with ISKNV by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection exceeded 60%. ISKNV can be passed stably in zebrafish for over ten passages. The ailing zebrafish displayed petechial hemorrhaging and scale protrusion. Histological analysis of moribund fish revealed necrosis of tissue and enlarged cells in kidney and spleen. The real-time RT-PCR analysis of mRNA level confirmed that ISKNV was replicated in zebrafish. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses further confirmed the presence of ISKNV-infected cells in almost all organs of the infected fish. Electron microscope analyses showed that the ISKNV particle was present in the infected tissues. The establishment of zebrafish infection model of ISKNV can offer a valuable tool for studying the interactions between ISKNV and its host.

  9. Zebrafish ? As an Integrative Model for Twenty-first Century Toxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The zebrafish embryo is a useful small model for investigating vertebrate development because of its transparency, low cost, transgenic and morpholino capabilities, conservation of cell signaling, and concordance with mammalian developmental phenotypes. From these advantages, the...

  10. Predictive Markers of Efficacy for an Angiopoietin-2 Targeting Therapeutic in Xenograft Models

    PubMed Central

    Triana-Baltzer, Gallen; Pavlicek, Adam; Goulart, Ariadne; Huang, Hanhua; Pirie-Shepherd, Steven; Levin, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapies has been difficult to predict, and biomarkers that can predict responsiveness are sorely needed in this era of personalized medicine. CVX-060 is an angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) targeting therapeutic, consisting of two peptides that bind Ang2 with high affinity and specificity, covalently fused to a scaffold antibody. In order to optimize the use of this compound in the clinic the construction of a predictive model is described, based on the efficacy of CVX-060 in 13 cell line and 2 patient-derived xenograft models. Pretreatment size tumors from each of the models were profiled for the levels of 27 protein markers of angiogenesis, SNP haplotype in 5 angiogenesis genes, and somatic mutation status for 11 genes implicated in tumor growth and/or vascularization. CVX-060 efficacy was determined as tumor growth inhibition (TGI%) at termination of each study. A predictive statistical model was constructed based on the correlation of these efficacy data with the marker profiles, and the model was subsequently tested by prospective analysis in 11 additional models. The results reveal a range of CVX-060 efficacy in xenograft models of diverse tissue types (0-64% TGI, median = 27%) and define a subset of 3 proteins (Ang1, EGF, Emmprin), the levels of which may be predictive of TGI by Ang2 blockade. The direction of the associations is such that better efficacy correlates with high levels of target and low levels of compensatory/antagonizing molecules. This effort has revealed a set of candidate predictive markers for CVX-060 efficacy that will be further evaluated in ongoing clinical trials. PMID:24244628

  11. Zebrafish as a model for monocarboxyl transporter 8-deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vatine, Gad David; Zada, David; Lerer-Goldshtein, Tali; Tovin, Adi; Malkinson, Guy; Yaniv, Karina; Appelbaum, Lior

    2013-01-01

    Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS) is a severe psychomotor retardation characterized by neurological impairment and abnormal thyroid hormone (TH) levels. Mutations in the TH transporter, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), are associated with AHDS. MCT8 knock-out mice exhibit impaired TH levels; however, they lack neurological defects. Here, the zebrafish mct8 gene and promoter were isolated, and mct8 promoter-driven transgenic lines were used to show that, similar to humans, mct8 is primarily expressed in the nervous and vascular systems. Morpholino-based knockdown and rescue experiments revealed that MCT8 is strictly required for neural development in the brain and spinal cord. This study shows that MCT8 is a crucial regulator during embryonic development and establishes the first vertebrate model for MCT8 deficiency that exhibits a neurological phenotype. PMID:23161551

  12. Zebrafish as a Model for Monocarboxyl Transporter 8-Deficiency*

    PubMed Central

    Vatine, Gad David; Zada, David; Lerer-Goldshtein, Tali; Tovin, Adi; Malkinson, Guy; Yaniv, Karina; Appelbaum, Lior

    2013-01-01

    Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS) is a severe psychomotor retardation characterized by neurological impairment and abnormal thyroid hormone (TH) levels. Mutations in the TH transporter, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), are associated with AHDS. MCT8 knock-out mice exhibit impaired TH levels; however, they lack neurological defects. Here, the zebrafish mct8 gene and promoter were isolated, and mct8 promoter-driven transgenic lines were used to show that, similar to humans, mct8 is primarily expressed in the nervous and vascular systems. Morpholino-based knockdown and rescue experiments revealed that MCT8 is strictly required for neural development in the brain and spinal cord. This study shows that MCT8 is a crucial regulator during embryonic development and establishes the first vertebrate model for MCT8 deficiency that exhibits a neurological phenotype. PMID:23161551

  13. Xenografting of sheep testis tissue and isolated cells as a model for preservation of genetic material from endangered ungulates.

    PubMed

    Arregui, Lucía; Rathi, Rahul; Megee, Susan O; Honaramooz, Ali; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S; Dobrinski, Ina

    2008-07-01

    Recovery of germ cells could be an option for preservation of the genetic pool of endangered animals. In immature males, xenografting of testis tissue provides the opportunity to recover sperm from these animals. In adult animals, xenografting has been less successful, but de novo morphogenesis of functional testis tissue from dissociated testis cells could be an alternative. To assess the potential use of these techniques in endangered bovid species, the domestic sheep was used as a model. Testes from 2-week-old lambs were grafted as tissue fragments or cell suspensions into nude mice. Grafts were recovered at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks post grafting. For isolated cells, two additional time points at 35 and 40 weeks after grafting were added. In addition, to analyse the possible effect of social stress among mice within a group on the development of the grafts, testis tissue grafts were recovered 13 weeks post grafting from mice housed individually and in groups. Complete spermatogenesis occurred in sheep testis xenografts at 12 weeks, similar to the situation in situ. Isolated sheep testis cells were able to reorganize and form functional testicular tissue de novo. Housing mice individually or in groups did not have any effect on the development of xenografts. Xenografting of testis tissue might be useful to obtain sperm from immature endangered ungulates that die prematurely. Testis tissue de novo morphogenesis from isolated cells could open interesting options to recover germ cells from mature males with impaired spermatogenesis. PMID:18390693

  14. Studies on sensitivity of zebrafish as a model organism for Parkinson's disease: Comparison with rat model

    PubMed Central

    Makhija, Dinesh T.; Jagtap, Aarti G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the utility of zebra fish as an animal model for Parkinson's disease (PD) in comparison with rat model. Materials and Methods: MTT assay was performed on rat and zebrafish brain synaptosomal fractions using rotenone as a neurotoxic agent. Quercetin and resveratrol were used as standards to compare anti-apoptotic activity in both organisms. Catalepsy was induced in zebrafish by exposing them to haloperidol (9 ?M) solution. Drug-treated groups were exposed to bromocriptine and pramipexole, 30 min prior to haloperidol exposure at the dose of 2, 5, and 10 ?g/mL. Swimming speed, time spent in the bottom of the tank, and complete cataleptic time were evaluated to assess behavioral changes. In rats, catalepsy was induced using haloperidol (1.25 mg/kg i.p.). Drug-treated groups received bromocriptine (2.5 mg/kg.) and pramipexole (1 mg/kg) orally. Bar test, block test, and locomotor activity were carried out to assess behavioral changes. Results: Resveratrol and quercetin showed comparable inhibition of apoptosis in rats and zebrafish. In anti-cataleptic study, bromocriptine and pramipexole-treated groups showed significant difference (P < 0.05) in behavioral parameters as compared to haloperidol control group in both the experimental organisms. Results obtained from fish model were in correlation with rat model. Conclusion: Findings of the present study revealed that zebrafish model is highly sensitive and can be used for basic screening of drugs against PD. PMID:24554909

  15. Efficacy of protracted temozolomide dosing is limited in MGMT unmethylated GBM xenograft models

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Ling; Carlson, Brett L.; Pokorny, Jenny L.; Mladek, Ann C.; Grogan, Patrick T.; Schroeder, Mark A.; Decker, Paul A.; Anderson, S. Keith; Giannini, Caterina; Wu, Wenting; Ballman, Karla V.; Kitange, Gaspar J.; Sarkaria, Jann N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Temozolomide (TMZ) is important chemotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), but the optimal dosing schedule is unclear. Methods The efficacies of different clinically relevant dosing regimens were compared in a panel of 7 primary GBM xenografts in an intracranial therapy evaluation model. Results Protracted TMZ therapy (TMZ daily M–F, 3 wk every 4) provided superior survival to a placebo-treated group in 1 of 4 O6-DNA methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter hypermethylated lines (GBM12) and none of the 3 MGMT unmethylated lines, while standard therapy (TMZ daily M–F, 1 wk every 4) provided superior survival to the placebo-treated group in 2 of 3 MGMT unmethylated lines (GBM14 and GBM43) and none of the methylated lines. In comparing GBM12, GBM14, and GBM43 intracranial specimens, both GBM14 and GBM43 mice treated with protracted TMZ had a significant elevation in MGMT levels compared with placebo. Similarly, high MGMT was found in a second model of acquired TMZ resistance in GBM14 flank xenografts, and resistance was reversed in vitro by treatment with the MGMT inhibitor O6-benzylguanine, demonstrating a mechanistic link between MGMT overexpression and TMZ resistance in this line. Additionally, in an analysis of gene expression data, comparison of parental and TMZ-resistant GBM14 demonstrated enrichment of functional ontologies for cell cycle control within the S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle and DNA damage checkpoints. Conclusions Across the 7 tumor models studied, there was no consistent difference between protracted and standard TMZ regimens. The efficacy of protracted TMZ regimens may be limited in a subset of MGMT unmethylated tumors by induction of MGMT expression. PMID:23479134

  16. Inflammation precedes the development of human malignant mesotheliomas in a SCID mouse xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Hillegass, Jedd M.; Shukla, Arti; Lathrop, Sherrill A.; MacPherson, Maximilian B.; Beuschel, Stacie L.; Butnor, Kelly J.; Testa, Joseph R.; Pass, Harvey I.; Carbone, Michele; Steele, Chad; Mossman, Brooke T.

    2010-01-01

    Asbestos fibers cause chronic inflammation that may be critical to the development of malignant mesothelioma (MM). Two human MM cell lines (Hmeso, PPM Mill) were used in a SCID mouse xenograft model to assess time-dependent patterns of inflammation and tumor formation. After intraperitoneal (IP) injection of MM cells, mice were euthanized at 7, 14, and 30 days, and peritoneal lavage fluid (PLF) was examined for immune cell profiles and human and mouse cytokines. Increases in human MM-derived IL-6, IL-8, bFGF, and VEGF were observed in mice at 7 days postinjection of either MM line, and a striking neutrophilia was observed at all time points. Free-floating tumor spheroids developed in mice at 14 days, and both spheroids and adherent MM tumor masses occurred in all mice at 30 days. Results suggest that inflammation and cytokine production precede and may be critical to the development of MMs. PMID:20716277

  17. Human polyethylene granuloma tissues inhibit bone healing in a novel xenograft animal model.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Christina I; Oliver, Rema A; Campbell, Patricia A; Yu, Yan; Walter, William L; Walter, William K; Walsh, William R

    2014-06-01

    During revision of a conventional polyethylene joint replacement, surgeons usually remove the source of osteolysis (polyethylene) but cannot always remove all of the polyethylene granuloma tissues. We developed a human/rat xenograft model to investigate the effects of polyethylene granuloma tissues on bone healing. Human osteoarthritic and periprosthetic tissues collected during primary and revision hip arthroplasty surgeries were transplanted into the distal femora of athymic nude rats. After 3 weeks in vivo, there was a significant difference in the bone volume fraction (Vf ) between empty, primary, and revision defects (p?=?0.02), with a lower Vf in defects with revision granuloma tissues compared to defects with primary osteoarthritic tissues. Polyethylene granuloma tissues in trabecular bone defects inhibited bone healing. Therefore, debridement around a metal-on-polyethylene hip replacement may shorten the time it takes to achieve secondary stability around a revision hip replacement. PMID:24619566

  18. Atrasentan (ABT-627) enhances perfusion and reduces hypoxia in a human tumor xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kwang Mo; Russell, James; Lupu, Mihaela E.; Cho, HyungJoon; Li, Xiao-Feng; Koutcher, Jason A.; Ling, C. Clifton

    2010-01-01

    The endothelin-1 antagonist, Atrasentan (ABT-627) was used to modify perfusion in the human tumor xenograft model, HT29, growing in nude mice. Atrasentan produced a significant increase in perfusion, as measured in vivo by Gd-DTPA DCE-MRI. Changes in tumor hypoxia were assessed by comparing the binding of two hypoxia tracers, pimonidazole and EF5 given before and after Atrasentan administration. In vehicle-treated controls, the distribution of EF5 and pimonidazole was very similar. However, Atrasentan treatment was associated with decreased uptake of the second hypoxia tracer (EF5), relative to the first (pimonidazole). Although Atrasentan had no independent effect on the growth of HT29 tumors, Atrasentan combined with 20 Gy radiation led to a modest but significant increase in tumor growth delay compared to radiation alone. PMID:19717985

  19. A model 450 million years in the making: zebrafish and vertebrate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Renshaw, Stephen A.; Trede, Nikolaus S.

    2012-01-01

    Since its first splash 30 years ago, the use of the zebrafish model has been extended from a tool for genetic dissection of early vertebrate development to the functional interrogation of organogenesis and disease processes such as infection and cancer. In particular, there is recent and growing attention in the scientific community directed at the immune systems of zebrafish. This development is based on the ability to image cell movements and organogenesis in an entire vertebrate organism, complemented by increasing recognition that zebrafish and vertebrate immunity have many aspects in common. Here, we review zebrafish immunity with a particular focus on recent studies that exploit the unique genetic and in vivo imaging advantages available for this organism. These unique advantages are driving forward our study of vertebrate immunity in general, with important consequences for the understanding of mammalian immune function and its role in disease pathogenesis. PMID:22228790

  20. Treatment of malignant effusion by oncolytic virotherapy in an experimental subcutaneous xenograft model of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is associated with advanced stages of lung cancer and is mainly dependent on invasion of the pleura and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by cancer cells. As MPE indicates an incurable disease with limited palliative treatment options and poor outcome, there is an urgent need for new and efficient treatment options. Methods In this study, we used subcutaneously generated PC14PE6 lung adenocarcinoma xenografts in athymic mice that developed subcutaneous malignant effusions (ME) which mimic pleural effusions of the orthotopic model. Using this approach monitoring of therapeutic intervention was facilitated by direct observation of subcutaneous ME formation without the need of sacrificing mice or special imaging equipment as in case of MPE. Further, we tested oncolytic virotherapy using Vaccinia virus as a novel treatment modality against ME in this subcutaneous PC14PE6 xenograft model of advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Results We demonstrated significant therapeutic efficacy of Vaccinia virus treatment of both advanced lung adenocarcinoma and tumor-associated ME. We attribute the efficacy to the virus-mediated reduction of tumor cell-derived VEGF levels in tumors, decreased invasion of tumor cells into the peritumoral tissue, and to viral infection of the blood vessel-invading tumor cells. Moreover, we showed that the use of oncolytic Vaccinia virus encoding for a single-chain antibody (scAb) against VEGF (GLAF-1) significantly enhanced mono-therapy of oncolytic treatment. Conclusions Here, we demonstrate for the first time that oncolytic virotherapy using tumor-specific Vaccinia virus represents a novel and promising treatment modality for therapy of ME associated with advanced lung cancer. PMID:23635329

  1. Antitumor activity of IHL-305, a novel pegylated liposome containing irinotecan, in human xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Takeshi; Takagi, Akimitsu; Furuta, Tomio; Ueno, Satoshi; Kurita, Akinobu; Nohara, Gou; Kodaira, Hiroshi; Sawada, Seigo; Hashimoto, Shusuke

    2012-01-01

    The antitumor effect of IHL-305, a novel pegylated liposome containing irinotecan, was investigated in human xenograft models. After subcutaneous transplantation of several human cancer cell lines (colorectal, non-small cell lung, small cell lung, prostate, ovarian and gastric cancer cells) to nude mice, IHL-305 or CPT-11 was administered intravenously 3 times at 4-day intervals. In all xenograft models tested, IHL-305 showed superior antitumor activity to that of CPT?11 and a comparable tumor-growth-inhibitory effect at one-eighth or less of the dose of CPT-11, even against HT-29 colorectal and NCI-H460 non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, which show intrinsic resistance to CPT-11. A single injection or 2 injections of IHL-305 on several dosing schedules also resulted in a significant antitumor effect compared to that of vehicle control in a dose-dependent manner and showed comparable antitumor activity at about one-fifth the dose of the maximum tolerated dose of CPT-11. The analysis of the concentrations of irinotecan and SN-38, an active metabolite of CPT-11, in plasma and tumors revealed that irinotecan was maintained at high concentrations, and the prolonged presence of SN-38 in plasma and tumors in IHL-305 treated mice compared with CPT-11-treated mice. Therefore, the stronger tumor inhibitory effect of IHL-305, as compared to CPT-11, was associated with the difference in the concentration of irinotecan in plasma or tumors after each agent was administered and with the maintainance of a higher concentration of SN-38. These results indicate that IHL-305 demonstrated superior antitumor activity against a wide range of tumors at lower doses than CPT-11. PMID:21935577

  2. An adult zebrafish model for Laribacter hongkongensis infection: Koch's postulates fulfilled

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jun; He, Jia-Bei; Shi, Jia-Wei; Xiao, Qiang; Li, Ling; Woo, Patrick CY

    2014-01-01

    Laribacter hongkongensis is a gram-negative emerging bacterium associated with invasive bacteremic infections in patients with liver disease and fish-borne community-acquired gastroenteritis and traveler's diarrhea. Although the complete genome of L. hongkongensis has been sequenced, no animal model is available for further study of its pathogenicity mechanisms. In this study, we showed that adult zebrafish infected with L. hongkongensis by immersion following dermal abrasion or intraperitoneal injection suffered mortality in a dose-dependent manner, with lethal dose 50 (LD50) of 2.1×104 and 1.9×104?colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, respectively. All mortalities occurred in the first four days post-infection. Zebrafish that died showed characteristic clinicopathological features: swimming near water surface, marked lethargy and sidestroke; abdominal hemorrhage, ulcers and marked swelling with ascites; and hydropic degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes around central vein and inflammatory cells infiltration. L. hongkongensis was recovered from the ascitic fluid and tissues of zebrafish that died. Of the 30 zebrafish infected with 2.1×104?CFU/mL (LD50) L. hongkongensis isolated from dead zebrafish using the immersion following dermal abrasion method, 18 (60%) died. All zebrafish that died also showed the characteristic clinical and pathological features. Histopathological studies also showed dilation of hepatic central vein and hydropic degeneration. L. hongkongensis was isolated from the zebrafish that died. The Koch's postulates for L. hongkongensis as an infectious agent have been fulfilled. This highly reproducible and effective zebrafish model is of crucial importance for future studies on virulence factors for L. hongkongensis infection.

  3. Shigella Infection in a SCID Mouse-Human Intestinal Xenograft Model: Role for Neutrophils in Containing Bacterial Dissemination in Human Intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ZHI ZHANG; LINGLING JIN; GRETCHEN CHAMPION; KARL B. SEYDEL; SAMUEL L. STANLEY

    2001-01-01

    Shigellae infect human intestine and cause intense inflammation and destruction of colonic and rectal mucosa. To model the interactions of shigella with human intestine in vivo, we have studied shigella infection in human intestinal xenografts in severe combined immunodeficient mice (SCID-HU-INT mice). Inoculation of shigella into human intestinal xenografts caused severe inflammation and mucosal damage, which was apparent as soon

  4. Survivin Antisense Oligonucleotides Effectively Radiosensitize Colorectal Cancer Cells in Both Tissue Culture and Murine Xenograft Models

    SciTech Connect

    Roedel, Franz [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, University of Frankfurt/Main, Frankfurt (Germany)], E-mail: franz.roedel@kgu.de; Frey, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Leitmann, Werner M.S. [Lilly Deutschland GmbH, Bad Homburg (Germany); Capalbo, Gianni; Weiss, Christian; Roedel, Claus [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, University of Frankfurt/Main, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: Survivin shows a radiation resistance factor in colorectal cancer. In the present study, we determined whether survivin messenger RNA levels in patients with rectal cancer predict tumor response after neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and whether inhibition of survivin by the use of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) enhances radiation responses. Methods and Materials: SW480 colorectal carcinoma cells were transfected with survivin ASO (LY2181308) and irradiated with doses ranging from 0-8 Gy. Survivin expression, cell-cycle distribution, {gamma}H2AX fluorescence, and induction of apoptosis were monitored by means of immunoblotting, flow cytometry, and caspase 3/7 activity. Clonogenic survival was determined by using a colony-forming assay. An SW480 xenograft model was used to investigate the effect of survivin attenuation and irradiation on tumor growth. Furthermore, survivin messenger RNA levels were studied in patient biopsy specimens by using Affymetrix microarray analysis. Results: In the translational study of 20 patients with rectal cancer, increased survivin levels were associated with significantly greater risk of local tumor recurrence (p = 0.009). Treatment of SW480 cells with survivin ASOs and irradiation resulted in an increased percentage of apoptotic cells, caspase 3/7 activity, fraction of cells in the G{sub 2}/M phase, and H2AX phosphorylation. Clonogenic survival decreased compared with control-treated cells. Furthermore, treatment of SW480 xenografts with survivin ASOs and irradiation resulted in a significant delay in tumor growth. Conclusion: Survivin appears to be a molecular biomarker in patients with rectal cancer. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo data suggest a potential role of survivin as a molecular target to improve treatment response to radiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer.

  5. Modeling mucosal candidiasis in larval zebrafish by swimbladder injection.

    PubMed

    Gratacap, Remi L; Bergeron, Audrey C; Wheeler, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Early defense against mucosal pathogens consists of both an epithelial barrier and innate immune cells. The immunocompetency of both, and their intercommunication, are paramount for the protection against infections. The interactions of epithelial and innate immune cells with a pathogen are best investigated in vivo, where complex behavior unfolds over time and space. However, existing models do not allow for easy spatio-temporal imaging of the battle with pathogens at the mucosal level. The model developed here creates a mucosal infection by direct injection of the fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, into the swimbladder of juvenile zebrafish. The resulting infection enables high-resolution imaging of epithelial and innate immune cell behavior throughout the development of mucosal disease. The versatility of this method allows for interrogation of the host to probe the detailed sequence of immune events leading to phagocyte recruitment and to examine the roles of particular cell types and molecular pathways in protection. In addition, the behavior of the pathogen as a function of immune attack can be imaged simultaneously by using fluorescent protein-expressing C. albicans. Increased spatial resolution of the host-pathogen interaction is also possible using the described rapid swimbladder dissection technique. The mucosal infection model described here is straightforward and highly reproducible, making it a valuable tool for the study of mucosal candidiasis. This system may also be broadly translatable to other mucosal pathogens such as mycobacterial, bacterial or viral microbes that normally infect through epithelial surfaces. PMID:25490695

  6. Establishment, Maintenance and in vitro and in vivo Applications of Primary Human Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) Xenograft Models for Translational Biology Studies and Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Brett L.; Pokorny, Jenny L.; Schroeder, Mark A.; Sarkaria, Jann N.

    2011-01-01

    Development of clinically relevant tumor model systems for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is important for advancement of basic and translational biology. One model that has gained wide acceptance in the neuro-oncology community is the primary xenograft model. This model entails the engraftment of patient tumor specimens into the flank of nude mice and subsequent serial passage of these tumors in the flank of mice. These tumors then can be used to establish short-term explant cultures or intracranial xenografts. The focus of this manuscript is to review the procedures associated with the establishment, maintenance and utilization of a primary GBM xenograft panel. PMID:21743824

  7. Xenografting as a Tool to Preserve Endangered Species: Outcomes and Challenges in Model Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Paula C.; Ramalho-Santos, João; Schlatt, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The use of testis tissue xenografting as a valuable tool to rescue endangered and genetically valuable individuals that die young or otherwise fail to produce sperm has been the subject of much interest. Although the technique has been successfully applied to a wide variety of species, little is known about what determines the outcome. Furthermore, to improve the applicability of xenografting, new methods to preserve and transport testis tissue from valuable animals are emerging. However, one major issue remains: the application of xenografting implies the development of subsequent ART techniques to produce offspring from the recovered material. This paper focuses on these three aspects of testis tissue xenografting as a tool for rescuing endangered and valuable genetic pools. PMID:20885939

  8. Synchronized oscillations in a mathematical model of segmentation in zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Kang-Ling; Shih, Chih-Wen; Tseng, Jui-Pin

    2012-04-01

    Somitogenesis is a process for the development of somites which are transient, segmental structures that lie along the anterior-posterior axis of vertebrate embryos. The pattern of somites is governed by the segmentation clock and its timing is controlled by the clock genes which undergo synchronous oscillation over adjacent cells in the posterior presomitic mesoderm (PSM). In this paper, we analyze a mathematical model which depicts the kinetics of the zebrafish segmentation clock genes subject to direct autorepression by their own products under time delay, and cell-to-cell interaction through Delta-Notch signalling. Our goal is to elucidate how synchronous oscillations are generated for the cells in the posterior PSM, and how oscillations are arrested for the cells in the anterior PSM. For this system of delayed equations, an iteration technique is employed to derive the global convergence to the synchronous equilibrium, which corresponds to the oscillation-arrested. By applying the delay Hopf bifurcation theory and the center manifold theorem, we derive the criteria for the existence of stable synchronous oscillations for the cells at the tail bud of the PSM. Our analysis provides the basic parameter ranges and delay magnitudes for stable synchronous, asynchronous oscillation and oscillation-arrested. We exhibit how synchronous oscillations are affected by the degradation rates and delays. Extended from the analytic theory, further numerical findings linked to the segmentation process are presented.

  9. Intratumoral Heterogeneity of Breast Cancer Xenograft Models: Texture Analysis of Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Bo La; Li, Mulan; Jang, Min Hye; Park, So Yeon; Kang, Ho Chul; Kim, Bohyoung; Song, In Chan; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether there is a relationship between texture analysis parameters of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps and histopathologic features of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 xenograft models. Materials and Methods MCF-7 estradiol (+), MCF-7 estradiol (-), and MDA-MB-231 xenograft models were made with approval of the animal care committee. Twelve tumors of MCF-7 estradiol (+), 9 tumors of MCF-7 estradiol (-), and 6 tumors in MDA-MB-231 were included. Diffusion-weighted MR images were obtained on a 9.4-T system. An analysis of the first and second order texture analysis of ADC maps was performed. The texture analysis parameters and histopathologic features were compared among these groups by the analysis of variance test. Correlations between texture parameters and histopathologic features were analyzed. We also evaluated the intraobserver agreement in assessing the texture parameters. Results MCF-7 estradiol (+) showed a higher standard deviation, maximum, skewness, and kurtosis of ADC values than MCF-7 estradiol (-) and MDA-MB-231 (p < 0.01 for all). The contrast of the MCF-7 groups was higher than that of the MDA-MB-231 (p = 0.004). The correlation (COR) of the texture analysis of MCF-7 groups was lower than that of MDA-MB-231 (p < 0.001). The histopathologic analysis showed that Ki-67mean and Ki-67diff of MCF-7 estradiol (+) were higher than that of MCF-7 estradiol (-) or MDA-MB-231 (p < 0.05). The microvessel density (MVD)mean and MVDdiff of MDA-MB-231 were higher than those of MCF-7 groups (p < 0.001). A diffuse-multifocal necrosis was more frequently found in MDA-MB-231 (p < 0.001). The proportion of necrosis moderately correlated with the contrast (r = -0.438, p = 0.022) and strongly with COR (r = 0.540, p = 0.004). Standard deviation (r = 0.622, r = 0.437), skewness (r = 0.404, r = 0.484), and kurtosis (r = 0.408, r = 0.452) correlated with Ki-67mean and Ki-67diff (p < 0.05 for all). COR moderately correlated with Ki-67diff (r = -0.388, p = 0.045). Skewness (r = -0.643, r = -0.464), kurtosis (r = -0.581, r = -0.389), contrast (r = -0.473, r = -0.549) and COR (r = 0.588, r = 0.580) correlated with MVDmean and MVDdiff (p < 0.05 for all). Conclusion The texture analysis of ADC maps may help to determine the intratumoral spatial heterogeneity of necrosis patterns, amount of cellular proliferation and the vascularity in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 xenograft breast cancer models. PMID:25246820

  10. Assessing the impact of thermal acclimation on physiological condition in the zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Vergauwen, Lucia; Knapen, Dries; Hagenaars, An; De Boeck, Gudrun; Blust, Ronny

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish has become a valuable vertebrate model organism in a wide range of scientific disciplines, but current information concerning the physiological temperature response of adult zebrafish is rather scarce. In this study, zebrafish were experimentally acclimated for 28 days to 18, 26 or 34 °C and a suite of non-invasive and invasive methods was applied to determine the thermal dependence of zebrafish physiological condition. With decreasing temperature, the metabolic rate of zebrafish decreased, as shown by the decreasing oxygen uptake and ammonia excretion rates, limiting the critical swimming speed, probably due to a decreased muscle fibre power output. In response to exercise, fuel stores were mobilized to the liver as shown by the increased hepatosomatic index, liver total absolute energetic value and liver carbohydrate concentration but due to the low metabolic rate they could not be adequately addressed to power swimming activity at 18 °C. Conversely, the increased metabolic performance at high temperature came with an increased metabolic cost resulting in decreased energy status reflected particularly well by the non-invasive condition factor and invasive measures of carcass protein concentration, carcass total absolute energetic value and liver carbohydrate concentration. We showed that the combined measurement of the relative condition factor and critical swimming speed is a powerful non-invasive tool for long-term follow-up studies. Invasive methods were redundant for measuring general energy status but they provided detailed information concerning metabolic reorganization. With this study we proved that the usefulness of the zebrafish as a model organism can easily be expanded to include physiological studies and we provided a reference dataset for the selection of measures of physiological responses for future studies using the zebrafish. PMID:22872185

  11. Generation of murine xenograft models of brain tumors from primary human tissue for in vivo analysis of the brain tumor-initiating cell.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Maleeha; Mann, Aneet; van Ommeren, Randy; Venugopal, Chitra; McFarlane, Nicole; Vora, Parvez; Singh, Sheila K

    2014-01-01

    The generation of xenograft models, which support the growth of human tissue in animals, forms an important part of a researcher's tool kit and enhances the ability to understand the initiation and development of cancer in vivo. Especially in the context of the brain tumor-initiating cell (BTIC), a xenograft model allows for careful characterization of BTIC roles in tumor initiation, growth, and relapse. Here, we detail a set of procedures which describe the isolation, enrichment, and intracranial injection of human BTICs from patient samples to generate xenograft models of a human brain tumor. PMID:25173159

  12. Modeling Stress and Anxiety in Zebrafish Jonathan M. Cachat, Peter R. Canavello, Marco F. Elegante, Brett K. Bartels, Salem I. Elkhayat,

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    1 Modeling Stress and Anxiety in Zebrafish Jonathan M. Cachat, Peter R. Canavello, Marco F). #12;2 Abstract While zebrafish (Danio rerio) are widely utilized as a model species for neuroscience and anxiety- related behaviors. Zebrafish neuroendocrine responses are robust, and correlate strongly

  13. Imaging Tumor Variation in Response to Photodynamic Therapy in Pancreatic Cancer Xenograft Models

    SciTech Connect

    Samkoe, Kimberley S., E-mail: samkoe@dartmouth.ed [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Chen, Alina [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Rizvi, Imran [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); O'Hara, Julia A. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Hoopes, P. Jack [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Department of Surgery, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States); Pereira, Stephen P. [Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School, London (United Kingdom); Hasan, Tayyaba [Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Pogue, Brian W. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Surgery, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: A treatment monitoring study investigated the differential effects of orthotopic pancreatic cancer models in response to interstitial photodynamic therapy (PDT), and the validity of using magnetic resonance imaging as a surrogate measure of response was assessed. Methods and Materials: Different orthotopic pancreatic cancer xenograft models (AsPC-1 and Panc-1) were used to represent the range of pathophysiology observed in human beings. Identical dose escalation studies (10, 20, and 40J/cm) using interstitial verteporfin PDT were performed, and magnetic resonance imaging with T2-weighted and T1-weighted contrast were used to monitor the total tumor volume and the vascular perfusion volume, respectively. Results: There was a significant amount of necrosis in the slower-growing Panc-1 tumor using high light dose, although complete necrosis was not observed. Lower doses were required for the same level of tumor kill in the faster-growing AsPC-1 cell line. Conclusions: The tumor growth rate and vascular pattern of the tumor affect the optimal PDT treatment regimen, with faster-growing tumors being relatively easier to treat. This highlights the fact that therapy in human beings shows a heterogeneous range of outcomes, and suggests a need for careful individualized treatment outcomes assessment in clinical work.

  14. Translating Discovery in Zebrafish Pancreatic Development to Human Pancreatic Cancer: Biomarkers, Targets, Pathogenesis, and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Kazi, Abid A.; Yee, Rosemary K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Experimental studies in the zebrafish have greatly facilitated understanding of genetic regulation of the early developmental events in the pancreas. Various approaches using forward and reverse genetics, chemical genetics, and transgenesis in zebrafish have demonstrated generally conserved regulatory roles of mammalian genes and discovered novel genetic pathways in exocrine pancreatic development. Accumulating evidence has supported the use of zebrafish as a model of human malignant diseases, including pancreatic cancer. Studies have shown that the genetic regulators of exocrine pancreatic development in zebrafish can be translated into potential clinical biomarkers and therapeutic targets in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Transgenic zebrafish expressing oncogenic K-ras and zebrafish tumor xenograft model have emerged as valuable tools for dissecting the pathogenetic mechanisms of pancreatic cancer and for drug discovery and toxicology. Future analysis of the pancreas in zebrafish will continue to advance understanding of the genetic regulation and biological mechanisms during organogenesis. Results of those studies are expected to provide new insights into how aberrant developmental pathways contribute to formation and growth of pancreatic neoplasia, and hopefully generate valid biomarkers and targets as well as effective and safe therapeutics in pancreatic cancer. PMID:23682805

  15. The role of the DNA damage response in zebrafish and cellular models of Diamond Blackfan anemia.

    PubMed

    Danilova, Nadia; Bibikova, Elena; Covey, Todd M; Nathanson, David; Dimitrova, Elizabeth; Konto, Yoan; Lindgren, Anne; Glader, Bertil; Radu, Caius G; Sakamoto, Kathleen M; Lin, Shuo

    2014-07-01

    Ribosomal biogenesis involves the processing of pre-ribosomal RNA. A deficiency of some ribosomal proteins (RPs) impairs processing and causes Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA), which is associated with anemia, congenital malformations and cancer. p53 mediates many features of DBA, but the mechanism of p53 activation remains unclear. Another hallmark of DBA is the upregulation of adenosine deaminase (ADA), indicating changes in nucleotide metabolism. In RP-deficient zebrafish, we found activation of both nucleotide catabolism and biosynthesis, which is consistent with the need to break and replace the faulty ribosomal RNA. We also found upregulation of deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) synthesis - a typical response to replication stress and DNA damage. Both RP-deficient zebrafish and human hematopoietic cells showed activation of the ATR/ATM-CHK1/CHK2/p53 pathway. Other features of RP deficiency included an imbalanced dNTP pool, ATP depletion and AMPK activation. Replication stress and DNA damage in cultured cells in non-DBA models can be decreased by exogenous nucleosides. Therefore, we treated RP-deficient zebrafish embryos with exogenous nucleosides and observed decreased activation of p53 and AMPK, reduced apoptosis, and rescue of hematopoiesis. Our data suggest that the DNA damage response contributes to p53 activation in cellular and zebrafish models of DBA. Furthermore, the rescue of RP-deficient zebrafish with exogenous nucleosides suggests that nucleoside supplements could be beneficial in the treatment of DBA. PMID:24812435

  16. Limb Regeneration is Impaired in an Adult Zebrafish Model of Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Ansgar S.; Sarras, Michael P.; Intine, Robert V.

    2010-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio Rerio) is an established model organism for the study of developmental processes, human disease and tissue regeneration. We report that limb regeneration is severely impaired in our newly developed adult zebrafish model of type I diabetes. Intraperitoneal streptozocin injection of adult, wild type zebrafish results in a sustained hyperglycemic state as determined by elevated fasting blood glucose values and increased glycation of serum protein. Serum insulin levels are also decreased and pancreas immunohistochemisty revealed a lesser amount of insulin signal in hyperglycemic fish. Additionally, the diabetic complications of retinal thinning and glomerular basement membrane thickening (early signs of retinopathy and nephropathy) resulting from the hyperglycemic state were evident in streptozocin injected fish at three weeks. Most significantly, limb regeneration, following caudal fin amputation, is severely impaired in diabetic zebrafish. Nonspecific toxic effects outside the pancreas were not found to contribute to impaired limb regeneration. This experimental system using adult zebrafish facilitates a broad spectrum of genetic and molecular approaches to study regeneration in the diabetic background. PMID:20840523

  17. Novel use of zebrafish as a vertebrate model to screen radiation protectors and sensitizers

    SciTech Connect

    McAleer, Mary Frances [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)]. E-mail: adam.dicker@mail.tju.edu; Davidson, Christian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Davidson, William Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Yentzer, Brad [Department of Dermatology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Farber, Steven A. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rodeck, Ulrich [Department of Dermatology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos provide a unique vertebrate model to screen therapeutic agents easily and rapidly because of their relatively close genetic relationship to humans, ready abundance and accessibility, short embryonal development, and optical clarity. To validate zebrafish embryos as a screen for radiation modifiers, we evaluated the effects of ionizing radiation in combination with a known radioprotector (free radical scavenger Amifostine) or radiosensitizing agent (tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478). Methods and materials: Viable zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0-10 Gy single-fraction 250 kVp X-rays with or without either Amifostine (0-4 mM) or AG1478 (0-10 {mu}M) at defined developmental stages from 1-24 h postfertilization (hpf). Embryos were examined for morphologic abnormalities and viability until 144 hpf. Results: Radiation alone produced a time- and dose-dependent perturbation of normal embryonic development and survival with maximal sensitivity at doses {>=}4 Gy delivered before 4 hpf. Amifostine markedly attenuated this effect, whereas AG1478 enhanced teratogenicity and lethality, particularly at therapeutically relevant (2-6 Gy) radiation doses. Conclusions: Collectively, these data validate the use of zebrafish as a vertebrate model to assess the effect of radiation alone or with radiation response modulators. Zebrafish embryos may thus provide a rapid, facile system to screen novel agents ultimately intended for human use in the context of therapeutic or accidental radiation exposure.

  18. TOPK inhibitor induces complete tumor regression in xenograft models of human cancer through inhibition of cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Yo; Park, Jae-Hyun; Miyamoto, Takashi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Hisada, Shoji; Alachkar, Houda; Nakamura, Yusuke

    2014-10-22

    TOPK (T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase) is highly and frequently transactivated in various cancer tissues, including lung and triple-negative breast cancers, and plays an indispensable role in the mitosis of cancer cells. We report the development of a potent TOPK inhibitor, OTS964 {(R)-9-(4-(1-(dimethylamino)propan-2-yl)phenyl)-8-hydroxy-6-methylthieno[2,3-c]quinolin-4(5H)-one}, which inhibits TOPK kinase activity with high affinity and selectivity. Similar to the knockdown effect of TOPK small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), this inhibitor causes a cytokinesis defect and the subsequent apoptosis of cancer cells in vitro as well as in xenograft models of human lung cancer. Although administration of the free compound induced hematopoietic adverse reactions (leukocytopenia associated with thrombocytosis), the drug delivered in a liposomal formulation effectively caused complete regression of transplanted tumors without showing any adverse reactions in mice. Our results suggest that the inhibition of TOPK activity may be a viable therapeutic option for the treatment of various human cancers. PMID:25338756

  19. Kit inhibitor APcK110 extends survival in an AML xenograft mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Liu, Zhiming; Pal, Ashutosh; Bornmann, William; Ciurea, Diana V.; Harris, David; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Estrov, Zeev

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Constitutive activation of kit contributes to pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and targeting Kit may be of therapeutic benefit. APcK110, a novel inhibitor of Kit, has potent proapoptotic and antiproliferative activity in AML cell lines and primary AML samples. Here we extend our studies to the activity of APcK110 in a xenograft mouse model. Methods After sub-lethal whole body radiation, OCI/AML3 cells were injected intravenously in NOD-SCID mice. Ten days later, either APcK110 or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was injected intraperitoneally every other day. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to calculate survival. Results We show that 1) all mice injected with OCI/AML3 cells developed a clinical and histological picture consistent with myelomonocytic AML; and 2) survival of APcK110-treated mice was significantly longer compared with mice injected with PBS (p=.02). Conclusions APcK110 is a novel kit kinase inhibitor with anti-AML activity in vitro and in vivo. Further evaluation in toxicology and clinical studies is warranted. PMID:20517635

  20. Systematic Repurposing Screening in Xenograft Models Identifies Approved Drugs with Novel Anti-Cancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Roix, Jeffrey J.; Harrison, S. D.; Rainbolt, Elizabeth A.; Meshaw, Kathryn R.; McMurry, Avery S.; Cheung, Peter; Saha, Saurabh

    2014-01-01

    Approved drugs target approximately 400 different mechanisms of action, of which as few as 60 are currently used as anti-cancer therapies. Given that on average it takes 10–15 years for a new cancer therapeutic to be approved, and the recent success of drug repurposing for agents such as thalidomide, we hypothesized that effective, safe cancer treatments may be found by testing approved drugs in new therapeutic settings. Here, we report in-vivo testing of a broad compound collection in cancer xenograft models. Using 182 compounds that target 125 unique target mechanisms, we identified 3 drugs that displayed reproducible activity in combination with the chemotherapeutic temozolomide. Candidate drugs appear effective at dose equivalents that exceed current prescription levels, suggesting that additional pre-clinical efforts will be needed before these drugs can be tested for efficacy in clinical trials. In total, we suggest drug repurposing is a relatively resource-intensive method that can identify approved medicines with a narrow margin of anti-cancer activity. PMID:25093583

  1. Inhibition of estrogen-dependent tumorigenesis by the thyroid hormone receptor ? in xenograft models

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Won; Zhao, Li; Cheng, Sheue-Yann

    2013-01-01

    Association studies suggest that thyroid hormone receptor ? (TR?) could function as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer development, but unequivocal evidence is still lacking. To understand the role of TR? in breast tumor development, we adopted the gain-of-function approach by stably expressing the THRB gene in a human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7 (MCF-7-TR?). Parental MCF-7 cells express the estrogen receptor, but not TRs. MCF-7 cells, stably expressing only the selectable marker, the Neo gene, were also generated as control for comparison (MCF-7-Neo cells). Cell-based studies indicate that the estrogen (E2)-dependent growth of MCF-7 cells was inhibited by the expression of TR? in the presence of the thyroid hormone (T3). In a xenograft mouse model, large tumors rapidly developed after inoculation of MCF-7-Neo cells in athymic mice. In contrast, markedly smaller tumors (98% smaller) were found when MCF-7-TR? cells were inoculated in athymic mice, indicating that TR? inhibited the E2-dependent tumor growth of MCF-7 cells. Further detailed molecular analysis showed that TR? acted to activate apoptosis and decrease proliferation of tumor cells, resulting in inhibition of tumor growth. The TR?-mediated inhibition of tumor growth was elucidated via down-regulation of the JAK-STAT-cyclin D pathways. This in vivo evidence shows that TR? could act as a tumor suppressor in breast tumorigenesis. The present study provides new insights into the role of TR in breast cancer. PMID:23841029

  2. Patient-derived xenograft models of breast cancer and their predictive power.

    PubMed

    Whittle, James R; Lewis, Michael T; Lindeman, Geoffrey J; Visvader, Jane E

    2015-12-01

    Despite advances in the treatment of patients with early and metastatic breast cancer, mortality remains high due to intrinsic or acquired resistance to therapy. Increased understanding of the genomic landscape through massively parallel sequencing has revealed somatic mutations common to specific subtypes of breast cancer, provided new prognostic and predictive markers, and highlighted potential therapeutic targets. Evaluating new targets using established cell lines is limited by the inexact correlation between responsiveness observed in cell lines versus that elicited in the patient. Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) generated from fresh tumor specimens recapitulate the diversity of breast cancer and reflect histopathology, tumor behavior, and the metastatic properties of the original tumor. The high degree of genomic preservation evident across primary tumors and their matching PDXs over serial passaging validate them as important preclinical tools. Indeed, there is accumulating evidence that PDXs can recapitulate treatment responses of the parental tumor. The finding that tumor engraftment is an independent and poor prognostic indicator of patient outcome represents the first step towards personalized medicine. Here we review the utility of breast cancer PDX models to study the clonal evolution of tumors and to evaluate novel therapies and drug resistance. PMID:25778360

  3. Novel LIMK2 Inhibitor Blocks Panc-1 Tumor Growth in a mouse xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Rak, Roni; Haklai, Roni; Elad-Tzfadia, Galit; Wolfson, Haim J.; Carmeli, Shmuel; Kloog, Yoel

    2014-01-01

    LIM kinases (LIMKs) are important cell cytoskeleton regulators that play a prominent role in cancer manifestation and neuronal diseases. The LIMK family consists of two homologues, LIMK1 and LIMK2, which differ from one another in expression profile, intercellular localization, and function. The main substrate of LIMK is cofilin, a member of the actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF) protein family. When phosphorylated by LIMK, cofilin is inactive. LIMKs play a contributory role in several neurodevelopmental disorders and in cancer growth and metastasis. We recently reported the development and validation of a novel LIMK inhibitor, referred to here as T56-LIMKi, using a combination of computational methods and classical biochemistry techniques. Here we report that T56-LIMKi inhibits LIMK2 with high specificity, and shows little or no cross-reactivity with LIMK1. We found that T56-LIMKi decreases phosphorylated cofilin (p-cofilin) levels and thus inhibits growth of several cancerous cell lines, including those of pancreatic cancer, glioma and schwannoma. Because the most promising in-vitro effect of T56-LIMKi was observed in the pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1, we tested the inhibitor on a nude mouse Panc-1 xenograft model. T56-LIMKi reduced tumor size and p-cofilin levels in the Panc-1 tumors, leading us to propose T56-LIMKi as a candidate drug for cancer therapy. PMID:25593987

  4. MyD88 Innate Immune Function in a Zebrafish Embryo Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    van der Sar, Astrid M.; Stockhammer, Oliver W.; van der Laan, Carina; Spaink, Herman P.; Bitter, Wilbert; Meijer, Annemarie H.

    2006-01-01

    Innate immunity signaling mechanisms during vertebrate embryogenesis are largely unknown. To study Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling function in the zebrafish embryo model, we designed an experimental setup for antisense morpholino knockdown under conditions of bacterial infection. Clearance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Ra bacteria was significantly impaired after knockdown of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), a common adaptor protein in TLR and interleukin-1 receptor signaling. Thereby, we demonstrate for the first time that the innate immune response of the developing embryo involves MyD88-dependent signaling, which further establishes the zebrafish embryo as a model for the study of vertebrate innate immunity. PMID:16552074

  5. Intravenous injection of hybrid liposomes suppresses the liver metastases in xenograft mouse models of colorectal cancer in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ichihara, Hideaki; Hino, Motoki; Umebayashi, Masayo; Matsumoto, Yoko; Ueoka, Ryuichi

    2012-11-01

    Therapeutic effects of hybrid liposomes (HL) composed of l-?-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and polyoxyethylene(25) dodecyl ether (C(12)(EO)(25)) on the metastasis of human colon carcinoma (HCT116) cells were examined in vivo. Remarkably high therapeutic effects were obtained in the xenograft mouse models of colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases after treatment with HL-25 on the basis of relative liver weight and histological analysis of the liver tissue sections of mouse models with HE staining, and TUNEL staining for detection of apoptotic cells. The survival effects of HL-25 were obtained using xenograft mouse models of CRC liver metastases. Furthermore, with regard to pharmacokinetics, the accumulation of fluorescent labeled HL-25 was observed in the liver tissue of xenograft mouse models of CRC liver metastases for 24 h after the intravenous injection of fluorescent labeled HL-25. Therapeutic effects of HL without any drugs on the liver metastasis of human CRC were revealed for the first time in vivo. PMID:23059544

  6. Zebrafish models in cardiac development and congenital heart birth defects

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Shu; Chi, Neil C.

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish has become an ideal vertebrate animal system for investigating cardiac development due to its genetic tractability, external fertilization, early optical clarity and ability to survive without a functional cardiovascular system during development. In particular, recent advances in imaging techniques and the creation of zebrafish transgenics now permit the in vivo analysis of the dynamic cellular events that transpire during cardiac morphogenesis. As a result, the combination of these salient features provides detailed insight as to how specific genes may influence cardiac development at the cellular level. In this review, we will highlight how the zebrafish has been utilized to elucidate not only the underlying mechanisms of cardiac development and human congenital heart diseases (CHDs), but also potential pathways that may modulate cardiac regeneration. Thus, we have organized this review based on the major categories of CHDs – structural heart, functional heart, and vascular/great vessel defects, and will conclude with how the zebrafish may be further used to contribute to our understanding of specific human CHDs in the future. PMID:22704690

  7. Ferumoxtran-10 enhancement in orthotopic xenograft models of human brain tumors: an indirect marker of tumor proliferation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphane Kremer; Sophie Pinel; Pierre-Olivier Védrine; Aude Bressenot; Philippe Robert; Serge Bracard; François Plénat

    2007-01-01

    Purpose  Ferumoxtran-10 belongs to the Ultra Small Particles of Iron Oxide (USPIO) class of contrast agents and induces delayed tumor\\u000a enhancement in brain tumors, reflecting the trapping of iron oxide particles by the macrophages and activated microglia. The\\u000a aim of the study was to compare Ferumoxtran-10 contrast enhancement in four human high-grade glioma xenograft models (TCG2,\\u000a TCG3, TCG4, and U87) with

  8. A human cancer xenograft model utilizing normal pancreatic duct epithelial cells conditionally transformed with defined oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Inagawa, Yuki; Yamada, Kenji; Yugawa, Takashi; Ohno, Shin-ichi; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Esaki, Minoru; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Aoki, Kazunori; Saya, Hideyuki; Kiyono, Tohru

    2014-08-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) are considered to arise through neoplastic transformation of human pancreatic duct epithelial cells (HPDECs). In order to evaluate the biological significance of genetic and epigenetic alterations in PDACs, we isolated primary HPDECs and established an in vitro carcinogenesis model. Firstly, lentivirus-mediated transduction of KRAS(G12V), MYC and human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6/E7 under the control of a tetracyclin-inducible promoter efficiently immortalized and transformed primary HPDECs, which gave rise to adenocarcinomas subcutaneously in an immune-deficient mouse xenograft model, depending on expression of the four genes. The tumors regressed promptly upon shutting-off the oncogenes, and the remaining tissues showed histological features corresponding to normal ductal structures with simple columnar epithelium. Reexpression of the oncogenes resulted in development of multiple PDACs through pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-like structures. We also succeeded in efficient immortalization of primary HPDECs with transduction of mutant CDK4, cyclin D1 and TERT. The cells maintained a normal diploid status and formed duct-like structures in a three-dimensional culture. In combination with p53 silencing, KRAS(G12V) alone was sufficient to fully transform the immortalized HPDECs, and MYC markedly accelerated the development of tumors. Our PDAC model supports critical roles of KRAS mutations, inactivation of the p53 and p16-pRB pathways, active telomerase and MYC expression in pancreatic carcinogenesis and thus recapitulates many features of human PDAC development. The present system with reversible control of oncogene expression enabled de novo development of PDAC from quasinormal human tissues preformed subcutaneously in mice and might be applicable to carcinogenesis models in many organ sites. PMID:24858378

  9. A genetic model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in zebrafish displays phenotypic hallmarks of motoneuron disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tennore M. Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that, for approximately 80% of patients, is fatal within five years of diagnosis. To better understand ALS, animal models have been essential; however, only rodent models of ALS exhibit the major hallmarks of the disease. Here, we report the generation of transgenic zebrafish overexpressing mutant Sod1. The construct used to generate

  10. Developmental nephrotoxicity of aristolochic acid in a zebrafish model

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Yu-Ju; Chen, Yau-Hung, E-mail: yauhung@mail.tku.edu.tw

    2012-05-15

    Aristolochic acid (AA) is a component of Aristolochia plant extracts which is used as a treatment for different pathologies and their toxicological effects have not been sufficiently studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate AA-induced nephrotoxicity in zebrafish embryos. After soaking zebrafish embryos in AA, the embryos displayed malformed kidney phenotypes, such as curved, cystic pronephric tubes, pronephric ducts, and cases of atrophic glomeruli. The percentages of embryos with malformed kidney phenotypes increased as the exposure dosages of AA increased. Furthermore, AA-treated embryos exhibited significantly reduced glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) in comparison with mock-control littermates (mock-control: 100 ± 2.24% vs. 10 ppm AA treatment for 3–5 h: 71.48 ± 18.84% ? 39.41 ± 15.88%), indicating that AA treatment not only caused morphological kidney changes but also induced renal failure. In addition to kidney malformations, AA-treated zebrafish embryos also exhibited deformed hearts, swollen pericardiums, impaired blood circulation and the accumulation(s) of red blood cells. Whole-mount in situ hybridization studies using cmlc2 and wt1b as riboprobes indicated that the kidney is more sensitive than the heart to AA damage. Real-time PCR showed that AA can up-regulate the expression of proinflammatory genes like TNF?, cox2 and mpo. These results support the following conclusions: (1) AA-induced renal failure is mediated by inflammation, which causes circulation dysfunction followed by serious heart malformation; and (2) the kidney is more sensitive than the heart to AA injury. -- Highlights: ? Zebrafish were used to evaluate aristolochic acid (AA)-induced nephrotoxicity. ? AA-treated zebrafish embryos exhibited deformed heart as well as malformed kidney. ? Kidney is more sensitive to AA injury than the heart.

  11. Aggressiveness of human melanoma xenograft models is promoted by aneuploidy-driven gene expression deregulation

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Wolfgang M.; Spiegl-Kreinecker, Sabine; Lötsch, Daniela; Heffeter, Petra; Hegedus, Balazs; Grusch, Michael; Kiss, Robert; Berger, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Melanoma is a devastating skin cancer characterized by distinct biological subtypes. Besides frequent mutations in growth- and survival-promoting genes like BRAF and NRAS, melanomas additionally harbor complex non-random genomic alterations. Using an integrative approach, we have analysed genomic and gene expression changes in human melanoma cell lines (N=32) derived from primary tumors and various metastatic sites and investigated the relation to local growth aggressiveness as xenografts in immuno-compromised mice (N=22). Although the vast majority (>90%) of melanoma models harbored mutations in either BRAF or NRAS, significant differences in subcutaneous growth aggressiveness became obvious. Unsupervised clustering revealed that genomic alterations rather than gene expression data reflected this aggressive phenotype, while no association with histology, stage or metastatic site of the original melanoma was found. Genomic clustering allowed separation of melanoma models into two subgroups with differing local growth aggressiveness in vivo. Regarding genes expressed at significantly altered levels between these subgroups, a surprising correlation with the respective gene doses (>85% accordance) was found. Genes deregulated at the DNA and mRNA level included well-known cancer genes partly already linked to melanoma (RAS genes, PTEN, AURKA, MAPK inhibitors Sprouty/Spred), but also novel candidates like SIPA1 (a Rap1GAP). Pathway mining further supported deregulation of Rap1 signaling in the aggressive subgroup e.g. by additional repression of two Rap1GEFs. Accordingly, siRNA-mediated down-regulation of SIPA1 exerted significant effects on clonogenicity, adherence and migration in aggressive melanoma models. Together our data suggest that an aneuploidy-driven gene expression deregulation drives local aggressiveness in human melanoma. PMID:22535842

  12. A tissue-engineered humanized xenograft model of human breast cancer metastasis to bone

    PubMed Central

    Thibaudeau, Laure; Taubenberger, Anna V.; Holzapfel, Boris M.; Quent, Verena M.; Fuehrmann, Tobias; Hesami, Parisa; Brown, Toby D.; Dalton, Paul D.; Power, Carl A.; Hollier, Brett G.; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The skeleton is a preferred homing site for breast cancer metastasis. To date, treatment options for patients with bone metastases are mostly palliative and the disease is still incurable. Indeed, key mechanisms involved in breast cancer osteotropism are still only partially understood due to the lack of suitable animal models to mimic metastasis of human tumor cells to a human bone microenvironment. In the presented study, we investigate the use of a human tissue-engineered bone construct to develop a humanized xenograft model of breast cancer-induced bone metastasis in a murine host. Primary human osteoblastic cell-seeded melt electrospun scaffolds in combination with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 7 were implanted subcutaneously in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice. The tissue-engineered constructs led to the formation of a morphologically intact ‘organ’ bone incorporating a high amount of mineralized tissue, live osteocytes and bone marrow spaces. The newly formed bone was largely humanized, as indicated by the incorporation of human bone cells and human-derived matrix proteins. After intracardiac injection, the dissemination of luciferase-expressing human breast cancer cell lines to the humanized bone ossicles was detected by bioluminescent imaging. Histological analysis revealed the presence of metastases with clear osteolysis in the newly formed bone. Thus, human tissue-engineered bone constructs can be applied efficiently as a target tissue for human breast cancer cells injected into the blood circulation and replicate the osteolytic phenotype associated with breast cancer-induced bone lesions. In conclusion, we have developed an appropriate model for investigation of species-specific mechanisms of human breast cancer-related bone metastasis in vivo. PMID:24713276

  13. Evaluating patient-derived colorectal cancer xenografts as preclinical models by comparison with patient clinical data.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Manoel; Vrignaud, Patricia; Vacher, Sophie; Richon, Sophie; Lièvre, Astrid; Cacheux, Wulfran; Weiswald, Louis-Bastien; Massonnet, Gerald; Chateau-Joubert, Sophie; Nicolas, André; Dib, Colette; Zhang, Weidong; Watters, James; Bergstrom, Donald; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Bièche, Ivan; Dangles-Marie, Virginie

    2015-04-15

    Development of targeted therapeutics required translationally relevant preclinical models with well-characterized cancer genome alterations. Here, by studying 52 colorectal patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDX), we examined key molecular alterations of the IGF2-PI3K and ERBB-RAS pathways and response to cetuximab. PDX molecular data were compared with that published for patient colorectal tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas. We demonstrated a significant pattern of mutual exclusivity of genomic abnormalities in the IGF2-PI3K and ERBB-RAS pathways. The genomic anomaly frequencies observed in microsatellite stable PDX reproduce those detected in nonhypermutated patient tumors. We found frequent IGF2 upregulation (16%), which was mutually exclusive with IRS2, PIK3CA, PTEN, and INPP4B alterations, supporting IGF2 as a potential drug target. In addition to maintaining the genomic and histologic diversity, correct preclinical models need to reproduce drug response observed in patients. Responses of PDXs to cetuximab recapitulate also clinical data in patients, with partial or complete response in 15% (8 of 52) of PDXs and response strictly restricted to KRAS wild-type models. The response rate reaches 53% (8 of 15) when KRAS, BRAF, and NRAS mutations are concomitantly excluded, proving a functional cross-validation of predictive biomarkers obtained retrospectively in patients. Collectively, these results show that, because of their clinical relevance, colorectal PDXs are appropriate tools to identify both new targets, like IGF2, and predictive biomarkers of response/resistance to targeted therapies. Cancer Res; 75(8); 1560-6. ©2015 AACR. PMID:25712343

  14. Using visual lateralization to model learning and memory in zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Madelene Åberg; Ek, Fredrik; Olsson, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Impaired learning and memory are common symptoms of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. Present, there are several behavioural test employed to assess cognitive functions in animal models, including the frequently used novel object recognition (NOR) test. However, although atypical functional brain lateralization has been associated with neuropsychiatric conditions, spanning from schizophrenia to autism, few animal models are available to study this phenomenon in learning and memory deficits. Here we present a visual lateralization NOR model (VLNOR) in zebrafish larvae as an assay that combines brain lateralization and NOR. In zebrafish larvae, learning and memory are generally assessed by habituation, sensitization, or conditioning paradigms, which are all representatives of nondeclarative memory. The VLNOR is the first model for zebrafish larvae that studies a memory similar to the declarative memory described for mammals. We demonstrate that VLNOR can be used to study memory formation, storage, and recall of novel objects, both short and long term, in 10-day-old zebrafish. Furthermore we show that the VLNOR model can be used to study chemical modulation of memory formation and maintenance using dizocilpine (MK-801), a frequently used non-competitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor, used to test putative antipsychotics in animal models. PMID:25727677

  15. Using visual lateralization to model learning and memory in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Madelene Åberg; Ek, Fredrik; Olsson, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Impaired learning and memory are common symptoms of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. Present, there are several behavioural test employed to assess cognitive functions in animal models, including the frequently used novel object recognition (NOR) test. However, although atypical functional brain lateralization has been associated with neuropsychiatric conditions, spanning from schizophrenia to autism, few animal models are available to study this phenomenon in learning and memory deficits. Here we present a visual lateralization NOR model (VLNOR) in zebrafish larvae as an assay that combines brain lateralization and NOR. In zebrafish larvae, learning and memory are generally assessed by habituation, sensitization, or conditioning paradigms, which are all representatives of nondeclarative memory. The VLNOR is the first model for zebrafish larvae that studies a memory similar to the declarative memory described for mammals. We demonstrate that VLNOR can be used to study memory formation, storage, and recall of novel objects, both short and long term, in 10-day-old zebrafish. Furthermore we show that the VLNOR model can be used to study chemical modulation of memory formation and maintenance using dizocilpine (MK-801), a frequently used non-competitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor, used to test putative antipsychotics in animal models. PMID:25727677

  16. Evaluation of the in vivo Safety Profiles of Rictor Inhibition Using a Zebrafish Model.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; Jiang, Lijun; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Xiaoxi; Wang, Na; Zhang, Peilin; Tang, Yuting; Zhou, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which assembles into two distinct multiprotein complexes, called mTORC1 and mTORC2, is known as a central regulator of cellular proliferation and maturation. Rictor is one of the key components of mTORC2 and acts as a scaffolding protein to maintain and stabilize mTORC2. Currently, mTORC2 and/or Rictor are increasingly being recognized as attractive targets for novel modalities of anti-cancer therapy. Unfortunately, the safety profile of Rictor- or mTORC2-targeting strategies has been poorly understood due to the lack of an ideal animal model. In the present study, we used zebrafish as an in vivo model system to evaluate the safety of Rictor inhibition. Our data showed that the Rictor of zebrafish was identified to have high sequence homology with mouse Rictor and human Rictor, which validates the rationale of using zebrafish as a research model. Rictor was dispensable in neonatal hematopoiesis and angiogenesis and was not required for vasculogenesis and other organs. These data are consistent with those of previous observations of using tissue-specific Rictor knockout mice model and have potentially important clinical implications. Our findings highlight a good in vivo safety profile for Rictor- or mTORC2-targeting therapy and point to the feasibility and advantages of using the zebrafish model to evaluate the safety of the therapeutic target. PMID:25557637

  17. Stromal cell–derived factor-1 and hematopoietic cell homing in an adult zebrafish model of hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Tiffany J.; Patrinostro, Xiaobai; Tolar, Jakub; Bowman, Teresa V.; Zon, Leonard I.; Blazar, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, stromal cell–derived factor-1 (SDF-1) promotes hematopoietic cell mobilization and migration. Although the zebrafish, Danio rerio, is an emerging model for studying hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), the role of SDF-1 in the adult zebrafish has yet to be determined. We sought to characterize sdf-1 expression and function in the adult zebrafish in the context of HCT. In situ hybridization of adult zebrafish organs shows sdf-1 expression in kidney tubules, gills, and skin. Radiation up-regulates sdf-1 expression in kidney to nearly 4-fold after 40 Gy. Assays indicate that zebrafish hematopoietic cells migrate toward sdf-1, with a migration ratio approaching 1.5 in vitro. A sdf-1a:DsRed2 transgenic zebrafish allows in vivo detection of sdf-1a expression in the adult zebrafish. Matings with transgenic reporters localized sdf-1a expression to the putative hematopoietic cell niche in proximal and distal renal tubules and collecting ducts. Importantly, transplant of hematopoietic cells into myelosuppressed recipients indicated migration of hematopoietic cells to sdf-1a–expressing sites in the kidney and skin. We conclude that sdf-1 expression and function in the adult zebrafish have important similarities to mammals, and this sdf-1 transgenic vertebrate will be useful in characterizing the hematopoietic cell niche and its interactions with hematopoietic cells. PMID:21622651

  18. A novel, diffusely infiltrative xenograft model of human anaplastic oligodendroglioma with mutations in FUBP1, CIC, and IDH1.

    PubMed

    Klink, Barbara; Miletic, Hrvoje; Stieber, Daniel; Huszthy, Peter C; Campos Valenzuela, Jaime Alberto; Valenzuela, Jaime Alberto Campos; Balss, Jörg; Wang, Jian; Schubert, Manja; Sakariassen, Per Øystein; Sundstrøm, Terje; Torsvik, Anja; Aarhus, Mads; Mahesparan, Rupavathana; von Deimling, Andreas; Kaderali, Lars; Niclou, Simone P; Schröck, Evelin; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Nigro, Janice M

    2013-01-01

    Oligodendroglioma poses a biological conundrum for malignant adult human gliomas: it is a tumor type that is universally incurable for patients, and yet, only a few of the human tumors have been established as cell populations in vitro or as intracranial xenografts in vivo. Their survival, thus, may emerge only within a specific environmental context. To determine the fate of human oligodendroglioma in an experimental model, we studied the development of an anaplastic tumor after intracranial implantation into enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) positive NOD/SCID mice. Remarkably after nearly nine months, the tumor not only engrafted, but it also retained classic histological and genetic features of human oligodendroglioma, in particular cells with a clear cytoplasm, showing an infiltrative growth pattern, and harboring mutations of IDH1 (R132H) and of the tumor suppressor genes, FUBP1 and CIC. The xenografts were highly invasive, exhibiting a distinct migration and growth pattern around neurons, especially in the hippocampus, and following white matter tracts of the corpus callosum with tumor cells accumulating around established vasculature. Although tumors exhibited a high growth fraction in vivo, neither cells from the original patient tumor nor the xenograft exhibited significant growth in vitro over a six-month period. This glioma xenograft is the first to display a pure oligodendroglioma histology and expression of R132H. The unexpected property, that the cells fail to grow in vitro even after passage through the mouse, allows us to uniquely investigate the relationship of this oligodendroglioma with the in vivo microenvironment. PMID:23527265

  19. Gamma Knife Surgery as Monotherapy with Clinically Relevant Doses Prolongs Survival in a Human GBM Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Sandvei Skeie, Bente; Wang, Jian; Heggdal, Jan Ingeman; Grønli, Janne; Sleire, Linda; Bragstad, Sidsel; Ganz, Jeremy C.; Chekenya, Martha; Mørk, Sverre; Pedersen, Paal-Henning; Enger, Per Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    Object. Gamma knife surgery (GKS) may be used for recurring glioblastomas (GBMs). However, patients have then usually undergone multimodal treatment, which makes it difficult to specifically validate GKS independent of established treatments. Thus, we developed an experimental brain tumor model to assess the efficacy and radiotoxicity associated with GKS. Methods. GBM xenografts were implanted intracerebrally in nude rats, and engraftment was confirmed with MRI. The rats were allocated to GKS, with margin doses of 12?Gy or 18?Gy, or to no treatment. Survival time was recorded, tumor sections were examined, and radiotoxicity was evaluated in a behavioral open field test. Results. In the first series, survival from the time of implantation was 96 days in treated rats and 72 days in controls (P < 0.001). In a second experiment, survival was 72 days in the treatment group versus 54 days in controls (P < 0.006). Polynuclear macrophages and fibrosis was seen in groups subjected to GKS. Untreated rats with GBM xenografts displayed less mobility than GKS-treated animals in the open field test 4 weeks after treatment (P = 0.04). Conclusion. GKS administered with clinically relevant doses prolongs survival in rats harboring GBM xenografts, and the associated toxicity is mild. PMID:24312904

  20. Differential contextual responses of normal human breast epithelium to ionizing radiation in a mouse xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Coates, Philip J; Appleyard, M Virginia C L; Murray, Karen; Ackland, Caroline; Gardner, June; Brown, Douglas C; Adamson, Dougal J A; Jordan, Lee B; Purdie, Colin A; Munro, Alastair J; Wright, Eric G; Dewar, John A; Thompson, Alastair M

    2010-12-01

    Radiotherapy is a key treatment option for breast cancer, yet the molecular responses of normal human breast epithelial cells to ionizing radiation are unclear. A murine subcutaneous xenograft model was developed in which nonneoplastic human breast tissue was maintained with the preservation of normal tissue architecture, allowing us to study for the first time the radiation response of normal human breast tissue in situ. Ionizing radiation induced dose-dependent p53 stabilization and p53 phosphorylation, together with the induction of p21(CDKN1A) and apoptosis of normal breast epithelium. Although p53 was stabilized in both luminal and basal cells, induction of Ser392-phosphorylated p53 and p21 was higher in basal cells and varied along the length of the ductal system. Basal breast epithelial cells expressed ?Np63, which was unchanged on irradiation. Although stromal responses themselves were minimal, the response of normal breast epithelium to ionizing radiation differed according to the stromal setting. We also demonstrated a dose-dependent induction of ?-H2AX foci in epithelial cells that was similarly dependent on the stromal environment and differed between basal and luminal epithelial cells. The intrinsic differences between human mammary cell types in response to in vivo irradiation are consistent with clinical observation that therapeutic ionizing radiation is associated with the development of basal-type breast carcinomas. Furthermore, there may be clinically important stromal-epithelial interactions that influence DNA damage responses in the normal breast. These findings demonstrate highly complex responses of normal human breast epithelium following ionizing radiation exposure and emphasize the importance of studying whole-tissue effects rather than single-cell systems. PMID:21084272

  1. siRNA targeting Livin decreases tumor in a xenograft model for colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Bo-Young; Lee, Ryung-Ah; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of silencing Livin gene expression with siRNA to apoptosis and proliferation in a colon cancer cell line. METHODS: To investigate the anticancer effect of silencing Livin gene expression, we established an siRNA transfected cell line using the HCT116 colon cancer cell line. After confirming the successful transfection, MTT assay, flow cytometry and annexin V staining were employed to evaluate the antiapoptotic effect. To confirm the in vivo effect of Livin-siRNA, different doses of Livin-siRNA were injected into xenografted tumors in BALB/c nude mice model. RESULTS: Livin expression was dramatically decreased after siRNA transfection, especially at 25 ?mol/L of siRNA, but this suppression was not dose-dependent. The cell count at 18 h after transfection was significantly reduced as compared with controls (P < 0.01), but tended not to decrease proportionally depending on transfected dose or time. MTT assay revealed that silencing the Livin gene suppressed cellular proliferation at 18 h after transfection (P = 0.04); however, the inhibitory effect disappeared thereafter. Also, there was no significant difference in cellular proliferation depending on siRNA dose. The rate of apoptosis also increased with silencing of the Livin gene. In vivo, the tumor size significantly decreased after Livin-siRNA injection at 20 ?mol/L concentration (P = 0.03). There were no significant body weight changes of mice after siRNA injection. Histologic examination revealed no significant toxic reaction in kidney, liver and brain of mice. CONCLUSION: siRNA-mediated downregulation of Livin expression can induce apoptosis in colon cancer in vitro and in vivo, which suggests the possibility of new cancer therapeutics using siRNA. PMID:21633662

  2. Zebrafish fetal alcohol syndrome model: effects of ethanol are rescued by retinoic acid supplement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Marrs; Sherry G. Clendenon; Don R. Ratcliffe; Stephen M. Fielding; Qin Liu; William F. Bosron

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a zebrafish experimental model to examine defects in retinoic acid (RA) signaling caused by embryonic ethanol exposure. RA deficiency may be a causative factor leading to a spectrum of birth defects classified as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Experimental support for this hypothesis using Xenopus showed that effects of treatment with ethanol could be

  3. Model of voluntary ethanol intake in zebrafish: Effect on behavior and hypothalamic orexigenic peptides.

    PubMed

    Sterling, M E; Karatayev, O; Chang, G-Q; Algava, D B; Leibowitz, S F

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies in zebrafish have shown that exposure to ethanol in tank water affects various behaviors, including locomotion, anxiety and aggression, and produces changes in brain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine. Building on these investigations, the present study had two goals: first, to develop a method for inducing voluntary ethanol intake in individual zebrafish, which can be used as a model in future studies to examine how this behavior is affected by various manipulations, and second, to characterize the effects of this ethanol intake on different behaviors and the expression of hypothalamic orexigenic peptides, galanin (GAL) and orexin (OX), which are known in rodents to stimulate consumption of ethanol and alter behaviors associated with alcohol abuse. Thus, we first developed a new model of voluntary intake of ethanol in fish by presenting this ethanol mixed with gelatin, which they readily consume. Using this model, we found that individual zebrafish can be trained in a short period to consume stable levels of 10% or 20% ethanol (v/v) mixed with gelatin and that their intake of this ethanol-gelatin mixture leads to pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations which are strongly, positively correlated with the amount ingested. Intake of this ethanol-gelatin mixture increased locomotion, reduced anxiety, and stimulated aggressive behavior, while increasing expression of GAL and OX in specific hypothalamic areas. These findings, confirming results in rats, provide a method in zebrafish for investigating with forward genetics and pharmacological techniques the role of different brain mechanisms in controlling ethanol intake. PMID:25257106

  4. Assessing teratogenic changes in a zebrafish model of fetal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Evyn; Ahlgren, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a severe manifestation of embryonic exposure to ethanol. It presents with characteristic defects to the face and organs, including mental retardation due to disordered and damaged brain development. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a term used to cover a continuum of birth defects that occur due to maternal alcohol consumption, and occurs in approximately 4% of children born in the United States. With 50% of child-bearing age women reporting consumption of alcohol, and half of all pregnancies being unplanned, unintentional exposure is a continuing issue. In order to best understand the damage produced by ethanol, plus produce a model with which to test potential interventions, we developed a model of developmental ethanol exposure using the zebrafish embryo. Zebrafish are ideal for this kind of teratogen study. Each pair lays hundreds of eggs, which can then be collected without harming the adult fish. The zebrafish embryo is transparent and can be readily imaged with any number of stains. Analysis of these embryos after exposure to ethanol at different doses and times of duration and application shows that the gross developmental defects produced by ethanol are consistent with the human birth defect. Described here are the basic techniques used to study and manipulate the zebrafish FAS model. PMID:22453686

  5. Zebrafish models flex their muscles to shed light on muscular dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joachim; Currie, Peter D

    2012-11-01

    Muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic disorders that specifically affect skeletal muscle and are characterized by progressive muscle degeneration and weakening. To develop therapies and treatments for these diseases, a better understanding of the molecular basis of muscular dystrophies is required. Thus, identification of causative genes mutated in specific disorders and the study of relevant animal models are imperative. Zebrafish genetic models of human muscle disorders often closely resemble disease pathogenesis, and the optical clarity of zebrafish embryos and larvae enables visualization of dynamic molecular processes in vivo. As an adjunct tool, morpholino studies provide insight into the molecular function of genes and allow rapid assessment of candidate genes for human muscular dystrophies. This unique set of attributes makes the zebrafish model system particularly valuable for the study of muscle diseases. This review discusses how recent research using zebrafish has shed light on the pathological basis of muscular dystrophies, with particular focus on the muscle cell membrane and the linkage between the myofibre cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix. PMID:23115202

  6. Zebrafish embryos as a model host for the real time analysis of Salmonella typhimurium infections.

    PubMed

    van der Sar, Astrid M; Musters, René J P; van Eeden, Fredericus J M; Appelmelk, Ben J; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; Bitter, Wilbert

    2003-09-01

    Bacterial virulence is best studied in animal models. However, the lack of possibilities for real time analysis and the need for laborious and invasive sample analysis limit the use of experimental animals. In the present study 28 h-old zebrafish embryos were infected with DsRed-labelled cells of Salmonella typhimurium. Using multidimensional digital imaging microscopy we were able to determine the exact location and fate of these bacterial pathogens in a living vertebrate host during three days. A low dose of wild-type S. typhimurium resulted in a lethal infection with bacteria residing and multiplying both in macrophage-like cells and at the epithelium of blood vessels. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutants of S. typhimurium, known to be attenuated in the murine model, proved to be non-pathogenic in the zebrafish embryos and were partially lysed in the bloodstream or degraded in macrophage-like cells. However, injection of LPS mutants in the yolk of the embryo resulted in uncontrolled bacterial proliferation. Heat-killed, wild-type bacteria were completely lysed extracellularly within minutes after injection, which shows that the blood of these zebrafish embryos does already contain lytic activity. In conclusion, the zebrafish embryo model allows for rapid, non-invasive and real time analysis of bacterial infections in a vertebrate host. PMID:12925130

  7. Novel dedifferentiated liposarcoma xenograft models reveal PTEN down-regulation as a malignant signature and response to PI3K pathway inhibition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kathleen B; Tran, Linh M; Tam, Brenna M; Shurell, Elizabeth M; Li, Yunfeng; Braas, Daniel; Tap, William D; Christofk, Heather R; Dry, Sarah M; Eilber, Fritz C; Wu, Hong

    2013-04-01

    Liposarcoma is a type of soft tissue sarcoma that exhibits poor survival and a high recurrence rate. Treatment is generally limited to surgery and radiation, which emphasizes the need for better understanding of this disease. Because very few in vivo and in vitro models can reproducibly recapitulate the human disease, we generated several xenograft models from surgically resected human dedifferentiated liposarcoma. All xenografts recapitulated morphological and gene expression characteristics of the patient tumors after continuous in vivo passages. Importantly, xenograftability was directly correlated with disease-specific survival of liposarcoma patients. Thus, the ability for the tumor of a patient to engraft may help identify those patients who will benefit from more aggressive treatment regimens. Gene expression analyses highlighted the association between xenograftability and a unique gene expression signature, including down-regulated PTEN tumor-suppressor gene expression and a progenitor-like phenotype. When treated with the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitor rapamycin alone or in combination with the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib, all xenografts responded with increased lipid content and a more differentiated gene expression profile. These human xenograft models may facilitate liposarcoma research and accelerate the generation of readily translatable preclinical data that could ultimately influence patient care. PMID:23416162

  8. Novel Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma Xenograft Models Reveal PTEN Down-Regulation as a Malignant Signature and Response to PI3K Pathway Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kathleen B.; Tran, Linh M.; Tam, Brenna M.; Shurell, Elizabeth M.; Li, Yunfeng; Braas, Daniel; Tap, William D.; Christofk, Heather R.; Dry, Sarah M.; Eilber, Fritz C.; Wu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Liposarcoma is a type of soft tissue sarcoma that exhibits poor survival and a high recurrence rate. Treatment is generally limited to surgery and radiation, which emphasizes the need for better understanding of this disease. Because very few in vivo and in vitro models can reproducibly recapitulate the human disease, we generated several xenograft models from surgically resected human dedifferentiated liposarcoma. All xenografts recapitulated morphological and gene expression characteristics of the patient tumors after continuous in vivo passages. Importantly, xenograftability was directly correlated with disease-specific survival of liposarcoma patients. Thus, the ability for the tumor of a patient to engraft may help identify those patients who will benefit from more aggressive treatment regimens. Gene expression analyses highlighted the association between xenograftability and a unique gene expression signature, including down-regulated PTEN tumor-suppressor gene expression and a progenitor-like phenotype. When treated with the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitor rapamycin alone or in combination with the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib, all xenografts responded with increased lipid content and a more differentiated gene expression profile. These human xenograft models may facilitate liposarcoma research and accelerate the generation of readily translatable preclinical data that could ultimately influence patient care. PMID:23416162

  9. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    SciTech Connect

    Thienpont, Benedicte; Barata, Carlos [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Raldúa, Demetrio, E-mail: drpqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Maladies Rares: Génétique et Métabolisme (MRGM), University of Bordeaux, EA 4576, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2013-06-01

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO{sub 4} (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC{sub 10} that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of mixtures of goitrogens.

  10. Zebrafish as a model to study peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism in vertebrate development.

    PubMed

    Heijlen, Marjolein; Houbrechts, Anne M; Darras, Veerle M

    2013-07-01

    To unravel the role of thyroid hormones (THs) in vertebrate development it is important to have suitable animal models to study the mechanisms regulating TH availability and activity. Zebrafish (Danio rerio), with its rapidly and externally developing transparent embryo has been a widely used model in developmental biology for some time. To date many of the components of the zebrafish thyroid axis have been identified, including the TH transporters MCT8, MCT10 and OATP1C1, the deiodinases D1, D2 and D3, and the receptors TR? and TR?. Their structure and function closely resemble those of higher vertebrates. Interestingly, due to a whole genome duplication in the early evolution of ray-finned fishes, zebrafish possess two genes for D3 (dio3 and dio3a) and for TR? (thraa and thrab). Transcripts of all identified genes are present during embryonic development and several of them show dynamic spatio-temporal distribution patterns. Transient morpholino-knockdown of D2, D3 or MCT8 expression clearly disturbs embryonic development, confirming the importance of each of these regulators during early life stages. The recently available tools for targeted stable gene knockout will further increase the value of zebrafish to study the role of peripheral TH metabolism in pre- and post-hatch/post-natal vertebrate development. PMID:23603432

  11. Power and challenges of using zebrafish as a model for skeletal tissue imaging.

    PubMed

    Bruneel, Bart; Witten, Paul Eckhard

    2015-04-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is now a widely used model organism in biomedical research. The species is also increasingly used for studying skeletal development and regeneration and for understanding human skeletal diseases. The small size of this model organism is an advantage and an extreme challenge for visualizing and diagnosing the animals' skeleton. This applies especially to early stages of skeletal development. Similar challenges arise for the analysis of the skeleton of other small fish species, such as medaka (Oryzias latipes). High quality histological preparations and knowledge about the special quality of the zebrafish skeleton remain prerequisites for a correct analysis. In addition, new methods for fast and high-resolution 2D and 3D skeletal tissue screening are required for a maximal understanding of skeletal development. We, in this study, review advantages and limitations of adapting current visualization techniques for zebrafish skeletal research. We discuss the methods for in toto visualization, such as X-raying, micro-CT, Alizarin red staining and optical projection tomography. Techniques for in vivo imaging, such as second harmonic generation microscopy and two-photon excitation fluorescence, are also discussed. Finally, we explore the possibilities of light-sheet microscopy for the analysis of the zebrafish skeleton. PMID:25689092

  12. New Model Systems to Illuminate Thyroid Organogenesis. Part I: An Update on the Zebrafish Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Opitz, Robert; Antonica, Francesco; Costagliola, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid dysgenesis (TD) resulting from defects during embryonic thyroid development represents a major cause of congenital hypothyroidism. The pathogenetic mechanisms of TD in human newborns, however, are still poorly understood and disease-causing genetic variants have been identified in only a small percentage of TD cases. This limited understanding of the pathogenesis of TD is partly due to a lack of knowledge on how intrinsic factors and extrinsic signalling cues orchestrate the differentiation of thyroid follicular cells and the morphogenesis of thyroid tissue. Recently, embryonic stem cells and zebrafish embryos emerged as novel model systems that allow for innovative experimental approaches in order to decipher cellular and molecular mechanisms of thyroid development and to unravel pathogenic mechanisms of TD. Zebrafish embryos offer several salient properties for studies on thyroid organogenesis including rapid and external development, optical transparency, ease of breeding, relative short generation time and amenability for genome editing. In this review, we will highlight recent advances in the zebrafish toolkit to visualize cellular dynamics of organ development and discuss specific prospects of the zebrafish model for studies on vertebrate thyroid development and human congenital thyroid diseases. PMID:24783054

  13. Comparative Efficacy of 177Lu and 90Y for Anti-CD20 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy in Murine Lymphoma Xenograft Models

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Sofia H. L.; Frayo, Shani L.; Miller, Brian W.; Orozco, Johnnie J.; Booth, Garrett C.; Hylarides, Mark D.; Lin, Yukang; Green, Damian J.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Pagel, John M.; Bäck, Tom A.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Press, Oliver W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) is a multi-step method of selectively delivering high doses of radiotherapy to tumor cells while minimizing exposure to surrounding tissues. Yttrium-90 (90Y) and lutetium-177 (177Lu) are two of the most promising beta-particle emitting radionuclides used for radioimmunotherapy, which despite having similar chemistries differ distinctly in terms of radiophysical features. These differences may have important consequences for the absorbed dose to tumors and normal organs. Whereas 90Y has been successfully applied in a number of preclinical and clinical radioimmunotherapy settings, there have been few published pretargeting studies with 177Lu. We therefore compared the therapeutic potential of targeting either 90Y or 177Lu to human B-cell lymphoma xenografts in mice. Methods Parallel experiments evaluating the biodistribution, imaging, dosimetry, therapeutic efficacy, and toxicity were performed in female athymic nude mice bearing either Ramos (Burkitt lymphoma) or Granta (mantle cell lymphoma) xenografts, utilizing an anti-CD20 antibody-streptavidin conjugate (1F5-SA) and an 90Y- or 177Lu-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-biotin second step reagent. Results The two radionuclides displayed comparable biodistributions in tumors and normal organs; however, the absorbed radiation dose delivered to tumor was more than twice as high for 90Y (1.3 Gy/MBq) as for 177Lu (0.6 Gy/MBq). More importantly, therapy with 90Y-DOTA-biotin was dramatically more effective than with 177Lu-DOTA-biotin, with 100% of Ramos xenograft-bearing mice cured with 37 MBq 90Y, whereas 0% were cured using identical amounts of 177Lu-DOTA-biotin. Similar results were observed in mice bearing Granta xenografts, with 80% of the mice cured with 90Y-PRIT and 0% cured with 177Lu-PRIT. Toxicities were comparable with both isotopes. Conclusion 90Y was therapeutically superior to 177Lu for streptavidin-biotin PRIT approaches in these human lymphoma xenograft models. PMID:25785845

  14. Appropriateness of Using Patient-Derived Xenograft Models for Pharmacologic Evaluation of Novel Therapies for Esophageal/Gastro-Esophageal Junction Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Dodbiba, Lorin; Teichman, Jennifer; Fleet, Andrew; Thai, Henry; Starmans, Maud H. W.; Navab, Roya; Chen, Zhuo; Girgis, Hala; Eng, Lawson; Espin-Garcia, Osvaldo; Shen, Xiaowei; Bandarchi, Bizhan; Schwock, Joerg; Tsao, Ming-Sound; El-Zimaity, Hala; Der, Sandy D.; Xu, Wei; Bristow, Robert G.; Darling, Gail E.; Boutros, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    The high morbidity and mortality of patients with esophageal (E) and gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) cancers, warrants new pre-clinical models for drug testing. The utility of primary tumor xenografts (PTXGs) as pre-clinical models was assessed. Clinicopathological, immunohistochemical markers (p53, p16, Ki-67, Her-2/neu and EGFR), and global mRNA abundance profiles were evaluated to determine selection biases of samples implanted or engrafted, compared with the underlying population. Nine primary E/GEJ adenocarcinoma xenograft lines were further characterized for the spectrum and stability of gene/protein expression over passages. Seven primary esophageal adenocarcinoma xenograft lines were treated with individual or combination chemotherapy. Tumors that were implanted (n=55) in NOD/SCID mice had features suggestive of more aggressive biology than tumors that were never implanted (n=32). Of those implanted, 21/55 engrafted; engraftment was associated with poorly differentiated tumors (p=0.04) and older patients (p=0.01). Expression of immunohistochemical markers were similar between patient sample and corresponding xenograft. mRNA differences observed between patient tumors and first passage xenografts were largely due to loss of human stroma in xenografts. mRNA patterns of early vs late passage xenografts and of small vs large tumors of the same passage were similar. Complete resistance was present in 2/7 xenografts while the remaining tumors showed varying degrees of sensitivity, that remained constant across passages. Because of their ability to recapitulate primary tumor characteristics during engraftment and across serial passaging, PTXGs can be useful clinical systems for assessment of drug sensitivity of human E/GEJ cancers. PMID:25826681

  15. NAD+ Biosynthesis Ameliorates a Zebrafish Model of Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Goody, Michelle F.; Kelly, Meghan W.; Reynolds, Christine J.; Khalil, Andre; Crawford, Bryan D.; Henry, Clarissa A.

    2012-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies are common, currently incurable diseases. A subset of dystrophies result from genetic disruptions in complexes that attach muscle fibers to their surrounding extracellular matrix microenvironment. Cell-matrix adhesions are exquisite sensors of physiological conditions and mediate responses that allow cells to adapt to changing conditions. Thus, one approach towards finding targets for future therapeutic applications is to identify cell adhesion pathways that mediate these dynamic, adaptive responses in vivo. We find that nicotinamide riboside kinase 2b-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis, which functions as a small molecule agonist of muscle fiber-extracellular matrix adhesion, corrects dystrophic phenotypes in zebrafish lacking either a primary component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex or integrin alpha7. Exogenous NAD+ or a vitamin precursor to NAD+ reduces muscle fiber degeneration and results in significantly faster escape responses in dystrophic embryos. Overexpression of paxillin, a cell adhesion protein downstream of NAD+ in this novel cell adhesion pathway, reduces muscle degeneration in zebrafish with intact integrin receptors but does not improve motility. Activation of this pathway significantly increases organization of laminin, a major component of the extracellular matrix basement membrane. Our results indicate that the primary protective effects of NAD+ result from changes to the basement membrane, as a wild-type basement membrane is sufficient to increase resilience of dystrophic muscle fibers to damage. The surprising result that NAD+ supplementation ameliorates dystrophy in dystrophin-glycoprotein complex– or integrin alpha7–deficient zebrafish suggests the existence of an additional laminin receptor complex that anchors muscle fibers to the basement membrane. We find that integrin alpha6 participates in this pathway, but either integrin alpha7 or the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex is required in conjunction with integrin alpha6 to reduce muscle degeneration. Taken together, these results define a novel cell adhesion pathway that may have future therapeutic relevance for a broad spectrum of muscular dystrophies. PMID:23109907

  16. Pazopanib, a Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, Suppresses Tumor Growth through Angiogenesis in Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma Xenograft Models123

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haifu; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Sciot, Raf; Cornillie, Jasmien; Wellens, Jasmien; Van Looy, Thomas; Vanleeuw, Ulla; Stas, Marguerite; Hompes, Daphne; Debiec-Rychter, Maria; Schöffski, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The rarity of dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) and the lack of experimental DDLPS models limit the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Pazopanib (PAZ) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of non-adipocytic advanced soft tissue sarcoma. The activity of this agent has not yet been properly explored in preclinical liposarcoma models nor in a randomized phase ? clinical trial in this entity. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PAZ had antitumor activity in DDLPS models in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We established two patient-derived DDLPS xenograft models (UZLX-STS3 and UZLX-STS5) through implantation of tumor material from sarcoma patients in athymic nude NMRI mice. An animal model of the SW872 liposarcoma cell line was also used. To investigate the efficacy of PAZ in vivo, mice bearing tumors were treated for 2 weeks with sterile water, doxorubicin (1.2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, twice per week), PAZ [40 mg/kg, orally (p.o.), twice per day], or PAZ plus doxorubicin (same schedules as for single treatments). RESULTS: Patient-derived xenografts retained the histologic and molecular features of DDLPS. PAZ significantly delayed tumor growth by decreasing proliferation and inhibited angiogenesis in all models tested. Combining the angiogenesis inhibitor with an anthracycline did not show superior efficacy. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PAZ has potential antitumor activity in DDLPS primarily through antiangiogenic effects and therefore should be explored in clinical trials. PMID:25500074

  17. A larval zebrafish model of bipolar disorder as a screening platform for neuro-therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Lee David; Soanes, Kelly Howard

    2012-08-01

    Modelling neurological diseases has proven extraordinarily difficult due to the phenotypic complexity of each disorder. The zebrafish has become a useful model system with which to study abnormal neurological and behavioural activity and holds promise as a model of human disease. While most of the disease modelling using zebrafish has made use of adults, larvae hold tremendous promise for the high-throughput screening of potential therapeutics. The further development of larval disease models will strengthen their ability to contribute to the drug screening process. Here we have used zebrafish larvae to model the symptoms of bipolar disorder by treating larvae with sub-convulsive concentrations of the GABA antagonist pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). A number of therapeutics that act on different targets, in addition to those that have been used to treat bipolar disorder, were tested against this model to assess its predictive value. Carbamazepine, valproic acid, baclofen and honokiol, were found to oppose various aspects of the PTZ-induced changes in activity. Lidocaine and haloperidol exacerbated the PTZ-induced activity changes and sulpiride had no effect. By comparing the degree of phenotypic rescue with the mechanism of action of each therapeutic we have shown that the low-concentration PTZ model can produce a number of intermediate phenotypes that model symptoms of bipolar disorder, may be useful in modelling other disease states, and will help predict the efficacy of novel therapeutics. PMID:22677277

  18. A zebrafish model of myelodysplastic syndrome produced through tet2 genomic editing.

    PubMed

    Gjini, Evisa; Mansour, Marc R; Sander, Jeffry D; Moritz, Nadine; Nguyen, Ashley T; Kesarsing, Michiel; Gans, Emma; He, Shuning; Chen, Si; Ko, Myunggon; Kuang, You-Yi; Yang, Song; Zhou, Yi; Rodig, Scott; Zon, Leonard I; Joung, J Keith; Rao, Anjana; Look, A Thomas

    2015-03-01

    The ten-eleven translocation 2 gene (TET2) encodes a member of the TET family of DNA methylcytosine oxidases that converts 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) to initiate the demethylation of DNA within genomic CpG islands. Somatic loss-of-function mutations of TET2 are frequently observed in human myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), which is a clonal malignancy characterized by dysplastic changes of developing blood cell progenitors, leading to ineffective hematopoiesis. We used genome-editing technology to disrupt the zebrafish Tet2 catalytic domain. tet2(m/m) (homozygous for the mutation) zebrafish exhibited normal embryonic and larval hematopoiesis but developed progressive clonal myelodysplasia as they aged, culminating in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) at 24 months of age, with dysplasia of myeloid progenitor cells and anemia with abnormal circulating erythrocytes. The resultant tet2(m/m) mutant zebrafish lines show decreased levels of 5hmC in hematopoietic cells of the kidney marrow but not in other cell types, most likely reflecting the ability of other Tet family members to provide this enzymatic activity in nonhematopoietic tissues but not in hematopoietic cells. tet2(m/m) zebrafish are viable and fertile, providing an ideal model to dissect altered pathways in hematopoietic cells and, for small-molecule screens in embryos, to identify compounds with specific activity against tet2 mutant cells. PMID:25512612

  19. A novel model of demyelination and remyelination in a GFP-transgenic zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yangwu; Lei, Xudan; Li, Xiang; Chen, Yanan; Xu, Fei; Feng, Xizeng; Wei, Shihui; Li, Yuhao

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Demyelinating diseases consist of a variety of autoimmune conditions in which the myelin sheath is damaged due to genetic and/or environmental factors. During clinical treatment, some patients undergo partial remyelination, especially during the early disease stages. However, the mechanisms that regulate demyelination remain unclear. The myelin structure, myelin formation and myelin-related gene expression are highly conserved between mammals and zebrafish. Therefore, the zebrafish is an ideal model organism to study myelination. In this study, we generated a transgenic zebrafish Tg(mbp:nfsB-egfp) expressing a fusion protein composed of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and NTR from the myelin basic protein (mbp) promoter. Tg(mbp:nfsB-egfp) expressed NTR-EGFP reproducibly and hereditarily in oligodendrocytes along the spinal cord. Treatment of zebrafish larvae Tg(mbp:nfsB-egfp) with metronidazole (Mtz) resulted in the selective ablation of oligodendrocytes and led to demyelination, accompanied by behavioral changes, including decreased total movement distance, velocity, total movement time and fast movement time. After withdrawal of Mtz for a seven day recovery period, the expression of EGFP and MBP protein was observed again which indicates remyelination. Additionally, locomotor capacity was restored. Collectively, Tg(mbp:nfsB-egfp), a heritable and stable transgenic line, provides a novel, powerful tool to study the mechanisms of demyelination and remyelination. PMID:25527642

  20. Effect of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum on human renal cell carcinoma proliferation and metastasis in an orthotropic xenograft nude mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan-Zhuo; Xu, Yun-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to explore the effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum on tumor proliferation and metastasis in an orthotropic xenograft nude mice model of human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and evaluate the safety of CO2 pneumoperitoneum laparoscopy for treating RCC. Material and methods RCC 786-0 cells were injected to establish an orthotropic xenograft model. Fifty nude mice were given orthotropic inoculations and randomized to five groups: group A (control); group B (CO2 pneumoperitoneum for 2 h); group C (CO2 pneumoperitoneum for 4 h); group D (CO2 pneumoperitoneum for 4 h and 24 h after waking); group E (CO2 pneumoperitoneum for 4 h and 48 h after waking). The proliferation status was observed in RCC specimens by immunohistochemical staining for Ki67. The protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were examined by western blotting. Results All groups showed similar Ki67-positive staining in RCC samples (p > 0.05). The relative expression of HIF-1? and VEGF gradually increased in both group B and group C, as compared with group A, but only the difference between group C and group A reached statistical significance (p < 0.05). The protein levels of HIF-1? and VEGF decreased in both group D and group E, as compared with group B and group C; however, the differences between group D, group E, and group A did not reach statistical significance (p > 0.05). Conclusions In an orthotropic xenograft nude mice model of RCC, CO2 pneumoperitoneum has no effect on expression of the cellular proliferation marker Ki67. However, CO2 pneumoperitoneum rapidly induces transient expression of HIF-1? and VEGF. Thus, CO2 pneumoperitoneum laparoscopy may be a safe method for treating RCC. PMID:25395958

  1. A robust and rapid xenograft model to assess efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents for human acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Saland, E; Boutzen, H; Castellano, R; Pouyet, L; Griessinger, E; Larrue, C; de Toni, F; Scotland, S; David, M; Danet-Desnoyers, G; Vergez, F; Barreira, Y; Collette, Y; Récher, C; Sarry, J-E

    2015-01-01

    Relevant preclinical mouse models are crucial to screen new therapeutic agents for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Current in vivo models based on the use of patient samples are not easy to establish and manipulate in the laboratory. Our objective was to develop robust xenograft models of human AML using well-characterized cell lines as a more accessible and faster alternative to those incorporating the use of patient-derived AML cells. Five widely used AML cell lines representing various AML subtypes were transplanted and expanded into highly immunodeficient non-obese diabetic/LtSz-severe combined immunodeficiency IL2R?cnull mice (for example, cell line-derived xenografts). We show here that bone marrow sublethal conditioning with busulfan or irradiation has equal efficiency for the xenotransplantation of AML cell lines. Although higher number of injected AML cells did not change tumor engraftment in bone marrow and spleen, it significantly reduced the overall survival in mice for all tested AML cell lines. On the basis of AML cell characteristics, these models also exhibited a broad range of overall mouse survival, engraftment, tissue infiltration and aggressiveness. Thus, we have established a robust, rapid and straightforward in vivo model based on engraftment behavior of AML cell lines, all vital prerequisites for testing new therapeutic agents in preclinical studies. PMID:25794133

  2. Zebrafish forebrain and temporal conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ruey-Kuang; Jesuthasan, Suresh J.; Penney, Trevor B.

    2014-01-01

    The rise of zebrafish as a neuroscience research model organism, in conjunction with recent progress in single-cell resolution whole-brain imaging of larval zebrafish, opens a new window of opportunity for research on interval timing. In this article, we review zebrafish neuroanatomy and neuromodulatory systems, with particular focus on identifying homologies between the zebrafish forebrain and the mammalian forebrain. The neuroanatomical and neurochemical basis of interval timing is summarized with emphasis on the potential of using zebrafish to reveal the neural circuits for interval timing. The behavioural repertoire of larval zebrafish is reviewed and we demonstrate that larval zebrafish are capable of expecting a stimulus at a precise time point with minimal training. In conclusion, we propose that interval timing research using zebrafish and whole-brain calcium imaging at single-cell resolution will contribute to our understanding of how timing and time perception originate in the vertebrate brain from the level of single cells to circuits. PMID:24446496

  3. Molecular psychiatry of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A M; Ullmann, J F P; Norton, W H J; Parker, M O; Brennan, C H; Gerlai, R; Kalueff, A V

    2015-02-01

    Due to their well-characterized neural development and high genetic homology to mammals, zebrafish (Danio rerio) have emerged as a powerful model organism in the field of biological psychiatry. Here, we discuss the molecular psychiatry of zebrafish, and its implications for translational neuroscience research and modeling central nervous system (CNS) disorders. In particular, we outline recent genetic and technological developments allowing for in vivo examinations, high-throughput screening and whole-brain analyses in larval and adult zebrafish. We also summarize the application of these molecular techniques to the understanding of neuropsychiatric disease, outlining the potential of zebrafish for modeling complex brain disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), aggression, post-traumatic stress and substance abuse. Critically evaluating the advantages and limitations of larval and adult fish tests, we suggest that zebrafish models become a rapidly emerging new field in modern molecular psychiatry research. PMID:25349164

  4. Generation and Characterization of a genetic zebrafish model of SMA carrying the human SMN2 gene

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Animal models of human diseases are essential as they allow analysis of the disease process at the cellular level and can advance therapeutics by serving as a tool for drug screening and target validation. Here we report the development of a complete genetic model of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) in the vertebrate zebrafish to complement existing zebrafish, mouse, and invertebrate models and show its utility for testing compounds that alter SMN2 splicing. Results The human motoneuron disease SMA is caused by low levels, as opposed to a complete absence, of the survival motor neuron protein (SMN). To generate a true model of SMA in zebrafish, we have generated a transgenic zebrafish expressing the human SMN2 gene (hSMN2), which produces only a low amount of full-length SMN, and crossed this onto the smn-/- background. We show that human SMN2 is spliced in zebrafish as it is in humans and makes low levels of SMN protein. Moreover, we show that an antisense oligonucleotide that enhances correct hSMN2 splicing increases full-length hSMN RNA in this model. When we placed this transgene on the smn mutant background it rescued the neuromuscular presynaptic SV2 defect that occurs in smn mutants and increased their survival. Conclusions We have generated a transgenic fish carrying the human hSMN2 gene. This gene is spliced in fish as it is in humans and mice suggesting a conserved splicing mechanism in these vertebrates. Moreover, antisense targeting of an intronic splicing silencer site increased the amount of full length SMN generated from this transgene. Having this transgene on the smn mutant fish rescued the presynaptic defect and increased survival. This model of zebrafish SMA has all of the components of human SMA and can thus be used to understand motoneuron dysfunction in SMA, can be used as an vivo test for drugs or antisense approaches that increase full-length SMN, and can be developed for drug screening. PMID:21443782

  5. A Tale of Two Models: Mouse and Zebrafish as Complementary Models for Lymphatic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun-Dae; Jin, Suk-Won

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels provide essential roles in maintaining fluid homeostasis and lipid absorption. Dysfunctions of the lymphatic vessels lead to debilitating pathological conditions, collectively known as lymphedema. In addition, lymphatic vessels are a critical moderator for the onset and progression of diverse human diseases including metastatic cancer and obesity. Despite their clinical importance, there is no currently effective pharmacological therapy to regulate functions of lymphatic vessels. Recent efforts to manipulate the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C (VEGFC) pathway, which is arguably the most important signaling pathway regulating lymphatic endothelial cells, to alleviate lymphedema yielded largely mixed results, necessitating identification of new targetable signaling pathways for therapeutic intervention for lymphedema. Zebrafish, a relatively new model system to investigate lymphatic biology, appears to be an ideal model to identify novel therapeutic targets for lymphatic biology. In this review, we will provide an overview of our current understanding of the lymphatic vessels in vertebrates, and discuss zebrafish as a promising in vivo model to study lymphatic vessels. PMID:24854860

  6. Xenograft and genetically engineered mouse model systems of osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma: tumor models for cancer drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Valerie B; Kamara, Davida F; Kolb, E Anders

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There are > 75 histological types of solid tumors that are classified into two major groups: bone and soft-tissue sarcomas. These diseases are more prevalent in children, and pediatric sarcomas tend to be highly aggressive and rapidly progressive. Sarcomas in adults may follow a more indolent course, but aggressive tumors are also common. Sarcomas that are metastatic at diagnosis, or recurrent following therapy, remain refractory to current treatment options with dismal overall survival rates. A major focus of clinical trials, for patients with sarcoma, is to identify novel and more effective therapeutic strategies targeted to genomic or proteomic aberrations specific to the malignant cells. Critical to the understanding of the potential for targeted therapies are models of disease that are representative of clinical disease and predictive of relevant clinical responses. Areas covered In this article, the authors discuss the use of mouse xenograft models and genetically engineered mice in cancer drug discovery. The authors provide a special focus on models for the two most common bone sarcomas: osteosarcoma (OS) and Ewing's sarcoma (ES). Expert opinion Predicting whether a new anticancer agent will have a positive therapeutic index in patients with OS and ES remains a challenge. The use of mouse sarcoma models for understanding the mechanisms involved in the response of tumors to new treatments is an important step in the process of drug discovery and the development of clinically relevant therapeutic strategies for these diseases. PMID:23844615

  7. Zebrafish models in translational research: tipping the scales toward advancements in human health

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Jennifer B.; Westerfield, Monte

    2014-01-01

    Advances in genomics and next-generation sequencing have provided clinical researchers with unprecedented opportunities to understand the molecular basis of human genetic disorders. This abundance of information places new requirements on traditional disease models, which have the potential to be used to confirm newly identified pathogenic mutations and test the efficacy of emerging therapies. The unique attributes of zebrafish are being increasingly leveraged to create functional disease models, facilitate drug discovery, and provide critical scientific bases for the development of new clinical tools for the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. In this short review and the accompanying poster, we highlight a few illustrative examples of the applications of the zebrafish model to the study of human health and disease. PMID:24973743

  8. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Dinaciclib (SCH727965) inhibits pancreatic cancer growth and progression in murine xenograft models

    PubMed Central

    Bisht, Savita; Karikari, Collins; Garrido-Laguna, Ignacio; Rasheed, Zeshaan; Ottenhof, Niki A; Dadon, Tikva; Alvarez, Hector; Fendrich, Volker; Rajeshkumar, NV; Matsui, William; Brossart, Peter; Hidalgo, Manuel; Bannerji, Rajat

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal of human malignancies, and potent therapeutic options are lacking. Inhibition of cell cycle progression through pharmacological blockade of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) has been suggested as a potential treatment option for human cancers with deregulated cell cycle control. Dinaciclib (SCH727965) is a novel small molecule multi-CDK inhibitor with low nanomolar potency against CDK1, CDK2, CDK5 and CDK9 that has shown favorable toxicity and efficacy in preliminary mouse experiments, and has been well tolerated in Phase I clinical trials. In the current study, the therapeutic efficacy of SCH727965 on human pancreatic cancer cells was tested using in vitro and in vivo model systems. Treatment with SCH727965 significantly reduced in vitro cell growth, motility and colony formation in soft agar of MIAPaCa-2 and Pa20C cells. These phenotypic changes were accompanied by marked reduction of phosphorylation of Retinoblastoma (Rb) and reduced activation of RalA. Single agent therapy with SCH727965 (40 mg/kg i.p. twice weekly) for 4 weeks significantly reduced subcutaneous tumor growth in 10/10 (100%) of tested low-passage human pancreatic cancer xenografts. Treatment of low passage pancreatic cancer xenografts with a combination of SCH727965 and gemcitabine was significantly more effective than either agent alone. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis identified overrepresentation of the Notch and Transforming Growth Factor-? (TGF?) signaling pathways in the xenografts least responsive to SCH727965 treatment. Treatment with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor SCH727965 alone or in combination is a highly promising novel experimental therapeutic strategy against pancreatic cancer. PMID:21768779

  9. Activin type IB receptor signaling in prostate cancer cells promotes lymph node metastasis in a xenograft model

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Masatoshi, E-mail: nomura@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Tanaka, Kimitaka; Wang, Lixiang; Goto, Yutaka; Mukasa, Chizu; Ashida, Kenji; Takayanagi, Ryoichi [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ActRIB signaling induces Snail and S100A4 expressions in prostate cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prostate cancer cell lines expressing an active form of ActRIB were established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ActRIB signaling promotes EMT and lymph node metastasis in xenograft model. -- Abstract: Activin, a member of the transforming growth factor-{beta} family, has been known to be a growth and differentiating factor. Despite its pluripotent effects, the roles of activin signaling in prostate cancer pathogenesis are still unclear. In this study, we established several cell lines that express a constitutive active form of activin type IB receptor (ActRIBCA) in human prostate cancer cells, ALVA41 (ALVA-ActRIBCA). There was no apparent change in the proliferation of ALVA-ActRIBCA cells in vitro; however, their migratory ability was significantly enhanced. In a xenograft model, histological analysis revealed that the expression of Snail, a cell-adhesion-suppressing transcription factor, was dramatically increased in ALVA-ActRIBCA tumors, indicating epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Finally, mice bearing ALVA-ActRIBCA cells developed multiple lymph node metastases. In this study, we demonstrated that ActRIBCA signaling can promote cell migration in prostate cancer cells via a network of signaling molecules that work together to trigger the process of EMT, and thereby aid in the aggressiveness and progression of prostate cancers.

  10. neb: a zebrafish model of nemaline myopathy due to nebulin mutation

    PubMed Central

    Telfer, William R.; Nelson, Darcee D.; Waugh, Trent; Brooks, Susan V.; Dowling, James J.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Nemaline myopathy is one of the most common and severe non-dystrophic muscle diseases of childhood. Patients typically present in infancy with hypotonia, weakness, delayed motor development, and bulbar and respiratory difficulties. Mutations in six different genes are associated with nemaline myopathy, with nebulin mutations being the most common. No treatments or disease-modifying therapies have been identified for this disease. One of the major barriers to treatment development is the lack of models amenable to rapid and coordinated testing of potential therapeutic strategies. To overcome this barrier, we have characterized the first zebrafish model of nemaline myopathy. This model, termed neb, harbors a recessive mutation in the nebulin gene that results in decreased Nebulin protein levels, a severe motor phenotype and premature lethality. In addition to impaired motor function, neb zebrafish exhibit many of the features associated with human nemaline myopathy. These include impaired force generation, altered thin filament length and the presence of specific histopathological changes, including the formation of nemaline bodies. In summary, neb zebrafish mirror the genetic, clinical and pathological aspects of nemaline myopathy due to NEB mutation, and thus are an excellent model for future therapy development for this devastating disorder. PMID:22159874

  11. How mitochondrial dysfunction affects zebrafish development and cardiovascular function: an in vivo model for testing mitochondria-targeted drugs

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, Brígida R; Santos, Miguel M; Fonseca-Silva, Anabela; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Oliveira, Jorge M A

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Mitochondria are a drug target in mitochondrial dysfunction diseases and in antiparasitic chemotherapy. While zebrafish is increasingly used as a biomedical model, its potential for mitochondrial research remains relatively unexplored. Here, we perform the first systematic analysis of how mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors affect zebrafish development and cardiovascular function, and assess multiple quinones, including ubiquinone mimetics idebenone and decylubiquinone, and the antimalarial atovaquone. Experimental Approach Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were chronically and acutely exposed to mitochondrial inhibitors and quinone analogues. Concentration-response curves, developmental and cardiovascular phenotyping were performed together with sequence analysis of inhibitor-binding mitochondrial subunits in zebrafish versus mouse, human and parasites. Phenotype rescuing was assessed in co-exposure assays. Key Results Complex I and II inhibitors induced developmental abnormalities, but their submaximal toxicity was not additive, suggesting active alternative pathways for complex III feeding. Complex III inhibitors evoked a direct normal-to-dead transition. ATP synthase inhibition arrested gastrulation. Menadione induced hypochromic anaemia when transiently present following primitive erythropoiesis. Atovaquone was over 1000-fold less lethal in zebrafish than reported for Plasmodium falciparum, and its toxicity partly rescued by the ubiquinone precursor 4-hydroxybenzoate. Idebenone and decylubiquinone delayed rotenone- but not myxothiazol- or antimycin-evoked cardiac dysfunction. Conclusion and Implications This study characterizes pharmacologically induced mitochondrial dysfunction phenotypes in zebrafish, laying the foundation for comparison with future studies addressing mitochondrial dysfunction in this model organism. It has relevant implications for interpreting zebrafish disease models linked to complex I/II inhibition. Further, it evidences zebrafish's potential for in vivo efficacy or toxicity screening of ubiquinone analogues or antiparasitic mitochondria-targeted drugs. PMID:23758163

  12. Xmrk, Kras and Myc Transgenic Zebrafish Liver Cancer Models Share Molecular Signatures with Subsets of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiling; Li, Zhen; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Li, Caixia; Emelyanov, Alexander; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Previously three oncogene transgenic zebrafish lines with inducible expression of xmrk, kras or Myc in the liver have been generated and these transgenic lines develop oncogene-addicted liver tumors upon chemical induction. In the current study, comparative transcriptomic approaches were used to examine the correlation of the three induced transgenic liver cancers with human liver cancers. RNA profiles from the three zebrafish tumors indicated relatively small overlaps of significantly deregulated genes and biological pathways. Nevertheless, the three transgenic tumor signatures all showed significant correlation with advanced or very advanced human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Interestingly, molecular signature from each oncogene-induced zebrafish liver tumor correlated with only a small subset of human HCC samples (24–29%) and there were conserved up-regulated pathways between the zebrafish and correlated human HCC subgroup. The three zebrafish liver cancer models together represented nearly half (47.2%) of human HCCs while some human HCCs showed significant correlation with more than one signature defined from the three oncogene-addicted zebrafish tumors. In contrast, commonly deregulated genes (21 up and 16 down) in the three zebrafish tumor models generally showed accordant deregulation in the majority of human HCCs, suggesting that these genes might be more consistently deregulated in a broad range of human HCCs with different molecular mechanisms and thus serve as common diagnosis markers and therapeutic targets. Thus, these transgenic zebrafish models with well-defined oncogene-induced tumors are valuable tools for molecular classification of human HCCs and for understanding of molecular drivers in hepatocarcinogenesis in each human HCC subgroup. PMID:24633177

  13. Establishing Zebrafish as a Novel Exercise Model: Swimming Economy, Swimming-Enhanced Growth and Muscle Growth Marker Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Rovira, Mireia; Brittijn, Sebastiaan A.; Burgerhout, Erik; van den Thillart, Guido E. E. J. M.; Spaink, Herman P.; Planas, Josep V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Zebrafish has been largely accepted as a vertebrate multidisciplinary model but its usefulness as a model for exercise physiology has been hampered by the scarce knowledge on its swimming economy, optimal swimming speeds and cost of transport. Therefore, we have performed individual and group-wise swimming experiments to quantify swimming economy and to demonstrate the exercise effects on growth in adult zebrafish. Methodology/Principal Findings Individual zebrafish (n?=?10) were able to swim at a critical swimming speed (Ucrit) of 0.548±0.007 m s?1 or 18.0 standard body lengths (BL) s?1. The optimal swimming speed (Uopt) at which energetic efficiency is highest was 0.396±0.019 m s?1 (13.0 BL s?1) corresponding to 72.26±0.29% of Ucrit. The cost of transport at optimal swimming speed (COTopt) was 25.23±4.03 µmol g?1 m?1. A group-wise experiment was conducted with zebrafish (n?=?83) swimming at Uopt for 6 h day?1 for 5 days week?1 for 4 weeks vs. zebrafish (n?=?84) that rested during this period. Swimming zebrafish increased their total body length by 5.6% and body weight by 41.1% as compared to resting fish. For the first time, a highly significant exercise-induced growth is demonstrated in adult zebrafish. Expression analysis of a set of muscle growth marker genes revealed clear regulatory roles in relation to swimming-enhanced growth for genes such as growth hormone receptor b (ghrb), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor a (igf1ra), troponin C (stnnc), slow myosin heavy chain 1 (smyhc1), troponin I2 (tnni2), myosin heavy polypeptide 2 (myhz2) and myostatin (mstnb). Conclusions/Significance From the results of our study we can conclude that zebrafish can be used as an exercise model for enhanced growth, with implications in basic, biomedical and applied sciences, such as aquaculture. PMID:21217817

  14. In Vivo Single-Molecule Microscopy Using the Zebrafish Model System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel J. M. Schaaf; Thomas S. Schmidt

    \\u000a In recent years, several groups have succeeded in extending single-molecule microscopy technology to the level of a living\\u000a vertebrate organism using the zebrafish embryo as a model system. In this chapter an overview will be presented of these studies\\u000a and three lines of research will be discussed. First, work will be presented in which fluorescent proteins have been imaged\\u000a at

  15. Zebrafish embryos as a model host for the real time analysis of Salmonella typhimurium infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Astrid M. van der Sar; René J. P. Musters; Fredericus J. M. van Eeden; Ben J. Appelmelk; Christina M. J. E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls; Wilbert Bitter

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial virulence is best studied in animal models. However, the lack of possibilities for real time analysis and the need for laborious and invasive sample analysis limit the use of experimental animals. In the present study 28 h-old zebrafish embryos were infected with DsRed-labelled cells of Salmonella typhimurium. Using multidimensional digital imaging microscopy we were able to determine the exact

  16. Zebrafish as a new model for phenotype-based screening of melanogenic regulatory compounds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tae-Young; Kim, Jin-Hwa; Ko, Dong Han; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Hwang, Jae-Sung; Ahn, Soomi; Kim, Sun Yeou; Kim, Chang-Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Yoon, Tae-Jin

    2007-04-01

    Although many hypo-pigmenting agents are currently available, the demand for novel whitening agents is increasing, in part due to the weak effectiveness and unwanted side effects of currently available compounds. To screen for novel hypo-pigmenting agents, many methodologies such as cell culture and enzymatic assays are routinely used. However, these models have disadvantages in terms of physiological and economic relevance. In this study, we validated zebrafish as a whole-animal model for phenotype-based screening of melanogenic inhibitors or stimulators. We used both the well-known melanogenic inhibitors (1-phenyl-2-thiourea, arbutin, kojic acid, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole) and newly developed small molecule compounds (haginin, YT16i). All the tested compounds produced inhibitory effects on the pigmentation of zebrafish, most likely due to their inhibitory potential on tyrosinase activity. In simultaneous in vivo toxicity tests, a newly developed melanogenic inhibitor YT16i showed massive abnormalities in terms of deformed morphologies and cardiac function. Together, these results provide a rationale in screening and evaluating the putative melanogenic regulatory compounds. We suggest that the zebrafish system is a novel alternative to mammalian models, with several advantages including the rapidity, cost-effectiveness, and physiological relevance. PMID:17371438

  17. Perspectives on Zebrafish Models of Hallucinogenic Drugs and Related Psychotropic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Among different classes of psychotropic drugs, hallucinogenic agents exert one of the most prominent effects on human and animal behaviors, markedly altering sensory, motor, affective, and cognitive responses. The growing clinical and preclinical interest in psychedelic, dissociative, and deliriant hallucinogens necessitates novel translational, sensitive, and high-throughput in vivo models and screens. Primate and rodent models have been traditionally used to study cellular mechanisms and neural circuits of hallucinogenic drugs’ action. The utility of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in neuroscience research is rapidly growing due to their high physiological and genetic homology to humans, ease of genetic manipulation, robust behaviors, and cost effectiveness. Possessing a fully characterized genome, both adult and larval zebrafish are currently widely used for in vivo screening of various psychotropic compounds, including hallucinogens and related drugs. Recognizing the growing importance of hallucinogens in biological psychiatry, here we discuss hallucinogenic-induced phenotypes in zebrafish and evaluate their potential as efficient preclinical models of drug-induced states in humans. PMID:23883191

  18. Upregulated stromal EGFR and vascular remodeling in mouse xenograft models of angiogenesis inhibitor–resistant human lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cascone, Tina; Herynk, Matthew H.; Xu, Li; Du, Zhiqiang; Kadara, Humam; Nilsson, Monique B.; Oborn, Carol J.; Park, Yun-Yong; Erez, Baruch; Jacoby, Jörg J.; Lee, Ju-Seog; Lin, Heather Y.; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Herbst, Roy S.; Langley, Robert R.; Heymach, John V.

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis is critical for tumor growth and metastasis, and several inhibitors of angiogenesis are currently in clinical use for the treatment of cancer. However, not all patients benefit from antiangiogenic therapy, and those tumors that initially respond to treatment ultimately become resistant. The mechanisms underlying this, and the relative contributions of tumor cells and stroma to resistance, are not completely understood. Here, using species-specific profiling of mouse xenograft models of human lung adenocarcinoma, we have shown that gene expression changes associated with acquired resistance to the VEGF inhibitor bevacizumab occurred predominantly in stromal and not tumor cells. In particular, components of the EGFR and FGFR pathways were upregulated in stroma, but not in tumor cells. Increased activated EGFR was detected on pericytes of xenografts that acquired resistance and on endothelium of tumors with relative primary resistance. Acquired resistance was associated with a pattern of pericyte-covered, normalized revascularization, whereas tortuous, uncovered vessels were observed in relative primary resistance. Importantly, dual targeting of the VEGF and EGFR pathways reduced pericyte coverage and increased progression-free survival. These findings demonstrated that alterations in tumor stromal pathways, including the EGFR and FGFR pathways, are associated with, and may contribute to, resistance to VEGF inhibitors and that targeting these pathways may improve therapeutic efficacy. Understanding stromal signaling may be critical for developing biomarkers for angiogenesis inhibitors and improving combination regimens. PMID:21436589

  19. Peritoneal mesothelium promotes the progression of ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in a mice xenograft model in vivo.

    PubMed

    Miku?a-Pietrasik, Justyna; Sosi?ska, Patrycja; Kuci?ska, Ma?gorzata; Murias, Marek; Maksin, Konstantin; Mali?ska, Agnieszka; Zió?kowska, Agnieszka; Piotrowska, Hanna; Wo?niak, Aldona; Ksi??ek, Krzysztof

    2014-12-28

    The role of mesothelial cells in the intraperitoneal spread of ovarian cancer is still elusive. In particular, it is unclear whether these cells constitute a passive barrier preventing cancer cell progression or perhaps act as an active promoter of this process. In this report we show that omental human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) stimulate adhesion and proliferation of ovarian cancer cells (A2780, OVCAR-3, SKOV-3). The latter was associated with the paracrine activity of GRO-1, IL-6, and IL-8 released to the environment by HPMCs. Furthermore, the growth dynamics of ovarian cancer xenografts produced in response to i.p. injection of ovarian cancer cells together with HPMCs was remarkably greater than for implantation of cancer cells alone. A layer of peritoneal mesothelium was consistently present in close proximity to the tumor mass in every xenograft model. In conclusion, our results indicate that HPMCs play a supporting role in the intraperitoneal invasiveness of ovarian malignancy, whose effect may be attributed to their ability to stimulate adhesion and proliferation of cancer cells. PMID:25301450

  20. Use of TSH?:EGFP transgenic zebrafish as a rapid in vivo model for assessing thyroid-disrupting chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Cheng [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China) [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Jin, Xia; He, Jiangyan [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China)] [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Yin, Zhan, E-mail: zyin@ihb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China)] [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2012-07-15

    Accumulating evidence indicates that a wide range of chemicals have the ability to interfere with the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis. Novel endpoints should be evaluated in addition to existing methods in order to effectively assess the effects of these chemicals on the HPT axis. Thyroid-stimulating hormone subunit ? (TSH?) plays central regulatory roles in the HPT system. We identified the regulatory region that determines the expression level of zebrafish TSH? in the anterior pituitary. In the transgenic zebrafish with EGFP driven by the TSH? promoter, the similar responsive patterns between the expression levels of TSH?:EGFP and endogenous TSH? mRNA in the pituitary are observed following treatments with goitrogen chemicals and exogenous thyroid hormones (THs). These results suggest that the TSH?:EGFP transgenic reporter zebrafish may be a useful alternative in vivo model for the assessment of chemicals interfering with the HPT system. Highlights: ? The promoter of zebrafish TSH? gene has been identified. ? The stable TSH?:EGFP transgenic zebrafish reporter germline has been generated. ? The EGFP in the transgenic fish recapitulated the pattern of pituitary TSH? mRNA. ? The transgenic zebrafish may be an in vivo model for EDC assessment.

  1. Embryonic fate map of first pharyngeal arch structures in the sox10: kaede zebrafish transgenic model.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Max; Kamel, George; Shubinets, Valeriy; Hickey, Graham; Grimaldi, Michael; Liao, Eric C

    2012-09-01

    Cranial neural crest cells follow stereotypic patterns of migration to form craniofacial structures. The zebrafish is a powerful vertebrate genetic model where transgenics with reporter proteins under the transcriptional regulation of lineage-specific promoters can be generated. Numerous studies demonstrate that the zebrafish ethmoid plate is embryologically analogous to the mammalian palate. A fate map correlating embryonic cranial neural crest to defined jaw structures would provide a useful context for the morphogenetic analysis of craniofacial development. To that end, the sox10:kaede transgenic was generated, where sox10 provides lineage restriction to the neural crest. Specific regions of neural crest were labeled at the 10-somite stage by photoconversion of the kaede reporter protein. Lineage analysis was carried out during pharyngeal development in wild-type animals, after miR140 injection, and after estradiol treatment. At the 10-somite stage, cranial neural crest cells anterior of the eye contributed to the median ethmoid plate, whereas cells medial to the eye formed the lateral ethmoid plate and trabeculae and a posterior population formed the mandible. miR-140 overexpression and estradiol inhibition of Hedgehog signaling resulted in cleft development, with failed migration of the anterior cell population to form the median ethmoid plate. The sox10:kaede transgenic line provides a useful tool for neural crest lineage analysis. These studies illustrate the advantages of the zebrafish model for application in morphogenetic studies of vertebrate craniofacial development. PMID:22948622

  2. Macrophage-pathogen interactions in infectious diseases: new therapeutic insights from the zebrafish host model

    PubMed Central

    Torraca, Vincenzo; Masud, Samrah; Spaink, Herman P.; Meijer, Annemarie H.

    2014-01-01

    Studying macrophage biology in the context of a whole living organism provides unique possibilities to understand the contribution of this extremely dynamic cell subset in the reaction to infections, and has revealed the relevance of cellular and molecular processes that are fundamental to the cell-mediated innate immune response. In particular, various recently established zebrafish infectious disease models are contributing substantially to our understanding of the mechanisms by which different pathogens interact with macrophages and evade host innate immunity. Transgenic zebrafish lines with fluorescently labeled macrophages and other leukocyte populations enable non-invasive imaging at the optically transparent early life stages. Furthermore, there is a continuously expanding availability of vital reporters for subcellular compartments and for probing activation of immune defense mechanisms. These are powerful tools to visualize the activity of phagocytic cells in real time and shed light on the intriguing paradoxical roles of these cells in both limiting infection and supporting the dissemination of intracellular pathogens. This Review will discuss how several bacterial and fungal infection models in zebrafish embryos have led to new insights into the dynamic molecular and cellular mechanisms at play when pathogens encounter host macrophages. We also describe how these insights are inspiring novel therapeutic strategies for infectious disease treatment. PMID:24973749

  3. Macrophage-pathogen interactions in infectious diseases: new therapeutic insights from the zebrafish host model.

    PubMed

    Torraca, Vincenzo; Masud, Samrah; Spaink, Herman P; Meijer, Annemarie H

    2014-07-01

    Studying macrophage biology in the context of a whole living organism provides unique possibilities to understand the contribution of this extremely dynamic cell subset in the reaction to infections, and has revealed the relevance of cellular and molecular processes that are fundamental to the cell-mediated innate immune response. In particular, various recently established zebrafish infectious disease models are contributing substantially to our understanding of the mechanisms by which different pathogens interact with macrophages and evade host innate immunity. Transgenic zebrafish lines with fluorescently labeled macrophages and other leukocyte populations enable non-invasive imaging at the optically transparent early life stages. Furthermore, there is a continuously expanding availability of vital reporters for subcellular compartments and for probing activation of immune defense mechanisms. These are powerful tools to visualize the activity of phagocytic cells in real time and shed light on the intriguing paradoxical roles of these cells in both limiting infection and supporting the dissemination of intracellular pathogens. This Review will discuss how several bacterial and fungal infection models in zebrafish embryos have led to new insights into the dynamic molecular and cellular mechanisms at play when pathogens encounter host macrophages. We also describe how these insights are inspiring novel therapeutic strategies for infectious disease treatment. PMID:24973749

  4. Anxiety, hyperactivity and stereotypy in a zebrafish model of fragile X syndrome and autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Lily; He, Lucy; Maaswinkel, Hans; Zhu, Liqun; Sirotkin, Howard; Weng, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability and is caused by a loss of function of the fragile X mental retardation (fmr1) gene. Animal fmr1-knockout (KO) models are not only of interest for the study of FXS, but have also important implications for our understanding of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here we report the behavioral changes in fmr1-knockout zebrafish in an open field with two white and two transparent walls. The neophobic responses that in wild-type (WT) zebrafish normally occur during the first 5-10 min in an unfamiliar environment (such as freezing, hypo-activity and preferences for the bottom and opaque walls of the tank), were weakened in fmr1 mutants, suggesting a reduction of novelty-induced anxiety. The fmr1-KO zebrafish showed somewhat increased vertical activity beyond the 'neophobic phase', but no overall hyperactivity. The mutants demonstrated a clear habituation-independent preference for the transparent walls. Whether this was attributable to altered spatial information processing or to reduced avoidance of open spaces is discussed. Finally, since restrictive repetitive (or stereotypical) behaviors are frequently present in FXS and ASD patients, we analyzed relative turning angles, directional and preferential turning ratios and performed frequency-domain analysis. However, no indications of abnormal movement patterning were detected. The possible reasons for the absence of stereotypical behaviors are discussed in terms of behavioral endpoint selection and of eliciting conditions. Overall, our findings are consistent with those reported in fmr1-KO mice and suggest that further analysis of the fmr1-KO zebrafish model has potential to deepen our understanding of FXS and ASD. PMID:24681195

  5. Natural killer cell lines preferentially kill clonogenic multiple myeloma cells and decrease myeloma engraftment in a bioluminescent xenograft mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Brenna E.; Williams, Brent A.; Kosaka, Yoko; Wang, Xing-Hua; Medin, Jeffrey A.; Viswanathan, Sowmya; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Keating, Armand

    2012-01-01

    Background Novel therapies capable of targeting drug resistant clonogenic MM cells are required for more effective treatment of multiple myeloma. This study investigates the cytotoxicity of natural killer cell lines against bulk and clonogenic multiple myeloma and evaluates the tumor burden after NK cell therapy in a bioluminescent xenograft mouse model. Design and Methods The cytotoxicity of natural killer cell lines was evaluated against bulk multiple myeloma cell lines using chromium release and flow cytometry cytotoxicity assays. Selected activating receptors on natural killer cells were blocked to determine their role in multiple myeloma recognition. Growth inhibition of clonogenic multiple myeloma cells was assessed in a methylcellulose clonogenic assay in combination with secondary replating to evaluate the self-renewal of residual progenitors after natural killer cell treatment. A bioluminescent mouse model was developed using the human U266 cell line transduced to express green fluorescent protein and luciferase (U266eGFPluc) to monitor disease progression in vivo and assess bone marrow engraftment after intravenous NK-92 cell therapy. Results Three multiple myeloma cell lines were sensitive to NK-92 and KHYG-1 cytotoxicity mediated by NKp30, NKp46, NKG2D and DNAM-1 activating receptors. NK-92 and KHYG-1 demonstrated 2- to 3-fold greater inhibition of clonogenic multiple myeloma growth, compared with killing of the bulk tumor population. In addition, the residual colonies after treatment formed significantly fewer colonies compared to the control in a secondary replating for a cumulative clonogenic inhibition of 89–99% at the 20:1 effector to target ratio. Multiple myeloma tumor burden was reduced by NK-92 in a xenograft mouse model as measured by bioluminescence imaging and reduction in bone marrow engraftment of U266eGFPluc cells by flow cytometry. Conclusions This study demonstrates that NK-92 and KHYG-1 are capable of killing clonogenic and bulk multiple myeloma cells. In addition, multiple myeloma tumor burden in a xenograft mouse model was reduced by intravenous NK-92 cell therapy. Since multiple myeloma colony frequency correlates with survival, our observations have important clinical implications and suggest that clinical studies of NK cell lines to treat MM are warranted. PMID:22271890

  6. Antitumor activity of motesanib alone and in combination with cisplatin or docetaxel in multiple human non–small-cell lung cancer xenograft models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is categorized into various histologic subtypes that play an important role in prognosis and treatment outcome. We investigated the antitumor activity of motesanib, a selective antagonist of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) 1, 2, and 3, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and Kit, alone and combined with chemotherapy in five human NSCLC xenograft models (A549, Calu-6, NCI-H358, NCI-H1299, and NCI-H1650) containing diverse genetic mutations. Results Motesanib as a single agent dose-dependently inhibited tumor xenograft growth compared with vehicle in all five of the models (P?xenografts compared with either single agent alone (P?xenografts compared with either single agent alone (P?xenografts, motesanib with and without cisplatin significantly decreased tumor blood vessel area (P?xenograft models containing diverse genetic mutations, and that it had enhanced activity when combined with cisplatin or docetaxel. These effects appeared to be mediated primarily by antiangiogenic mechanisms. PMID:22992329

  7. Spotlight on Zebrafish: Translational Impact

    PubMed Central

    Patton, E. Elizabeth; Dhillon, Paraminder; Amatruda, James F.; Ramakrishnan, Lalita

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the zebrafish has emerged as an increasingly prominent model in biomedical research. To showcase the translational impact of the model across multiple disease areas, Disease Models & Mechanisms has compiled a Special Issue that includes thought-provoking reviews, original research reporting new and important insights into disease mechanisms, and novel resources that expand the zebrafish toolkit. This Editorial provides a summary of the issue’s contents, highlighting the diversity of zebrafish disease models and their clinical applications. PMID:24973741

  8. Gene Expression Analysis Reveals Distinct Pathways of Resistance to Bevacizumab in Xenograft Models of Human ER-Positive Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gökmen-Polar, Yesim; Goswami, Chirayu P; Toroni, Rachel A; Sanders, Kerry L; Mehta, Rutika; Sirimalle, Usha; Tanasa, Bogdan; Shen, Changyu; Li, Lang; Ivan, Mircea; Badve, Sunil; Sledge, George W

    2014-01-01

    Bevacizumab, the recombinant antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), improves progression-free but not overall survival in metastatic breast cancer. To seek further insights in resistance mechanisms to bevacizumab at the molecular level, we developed VEGF and non-VEGF-driven ER-positive MCF7-derived xenograft models allowing comparison of tumor response at different timepoints. VEGF gene (MV165) overexpressing xenografts were initially sensitive to bevacizumab, but eventually acquired resistance. In contrast, parental MCF7 cells derived tumors were de novo insensitive to bevacizumab. Microarray analysis with qRT-PCR validation revealed that Follistatin (FST) and NOTCH were the top signaling pathways associated with resistance in VEGF-driven tumors (P<0.05). Based on the presence of VEGF, treatment with bevacizumab resulted in altered patterns of metagenes and PAM50 gene expression. In VEGF-driven model after short and long-term bevacizumab treatments, a change in the intrinsic subtype (luminal to myoepithelial/basal-like) was observed in association with increased expression of genes implicated with cancer stem cell phenotype (P<0.05). Our results show that the presence or absence of VEGF expression affects the response to bevacizumab therapy and gene pathways. In particular, long-term bevacizumab treatment shifts the cancer cells to a more aggressive myoepithelial/basal subtype in VEGF-expressing model, but not in non-VEGF model. These findings could shed light on variable results to anti-VEGF therapy in patients and emphasize the importance of patient stratification based on the VEGF expression. Our data strongly suggest consideration of patient subgroups for treatment and designing novel combinatory therapies in the clinical setting. PMID:25157274

  9. Gene Expression Analysis Reveals Distinct Pathways of Resistance to Bevacizumab in Xenograft Models of Human ER-Positive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gökmen-Polar, Yesim; Goswami, Chirayu P.; Toroni, Rachel A.; Sanders, Kerry L.; Mehta, Rutika; Sirimalle, Usha; Tanasa, Bogdan; Shen, Changyu; Li, Lang; Ivan, Mircea; Badve, Sunil; Sledge Jr, George W.

    2014-01-01

    Bevacizumab, the recombinant antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), improves progression-free but not overall survival in metastatic breast cancer. To seek further insights in resistance mechanisms to bevacizumab at the molecular level, we developed VEGF and non-VEGF-driven ER-positive MCF7-derived xenograft models allowing comparison of tumor response at different timepoints. VEGF gene (MV165) overexpressing xenografts were initially sensitive to bevacizumab, but eventually acquired resistance. In contrast, parental MCF7 cells derived tumors were de novo insensitive to bevacizumab. Microarray analysis with qRT-PCR validation revealed that Follistatin (FST) and NOTCH were the top signaling pathways associated with resistance in VEGF-driven tumors (P<0.05). Based on the presence of VEGF, treatment with bevacizumab resulted in altered patterns of metagenes and PAM50 gene expression. In VEGF-driven model after short and long-term bevacizumab treatments, a change in the intrinsic subtype (luminal to myoepithelial/basal-like) was observed in association with increased expression of genes implicated with cancer stem cell phenotype (P<0.05). Our results show that the presence or absence of VEGF expression affects the response to bevacizumab therapy and gene pathways. In particular, long-term bevacizumab treatment shifts the cancer cells to a more aggressive myoepithelial/basal subtype in VEGF-expressing model, but not in non-VEGF model. These findings could shed light on variable results to anti-VEGF therapy in patients and emphasize the importance of patient stratification based on the VEGF expression. Our data strongly suggest consideration of patient subgroups for treatment and designing novel combinatory therapies in the clinical setting. PMID:25157274

  10. Mind the fish: zebrafish as a model in cognitive social neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Rui F.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how the brain implements social behavior on one hand, and how social processes feedback on the brain to promote fine-tuning of behavioral output according to changes in the social environment is a major challenge in contemporary neuroscience. A critical step to take this challenge successfully is finding the appropriate level of analysis when relating social to biological phenomena. Given the enormous complexity of both the neural networks of the brain and social systems, the use of a cognitive level of analysis (in an information processing perspective) is proposed here as an explanatory interface between brain and behavior. A conceptual framework for a cognitive approach to comparative social neuroscience is proposed, consisting of the following steps to be taken across different species with varying social systems: (1) identification of the functional building blocks of social skills; (2) identification of the cognitive mechanisms underlying the previously identified social skills; and (3) mapping these information processing mechanisms onto the brain. Teleost fish are presented here as a group of choice to develop this approach, given the diversity of social systems present in closely related species that allows for planned phylogenetic comparisons, and the availability of neurogenetic tools that allows the visualization and manipulation of selected neural circuits in model species such as the zebrafish. Finally, the state-of-the art of zebrafish social cognition and of the tools available to map social cognitive abilities to neural circuits in zebrafish are reviewed. PMID:23964204

  11. Vaccination with outer membrane vesicles from Francisella noatunensis reduces development of francisellosis in a zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Brudal, Espen; Lampe, Elisabeth O; Reubsaet, Léon; Roos, Norbert; Hegna, Ida K; Thrane, Ida Marie; Koppang, Erling O; Winther-Larsen, Hanne C

    2015-01-01

    Infection of fish with the facultative intracellular bacterium Francisella noatunensis remains an unresolved problem for aquaculture industry worldwide as it is difficult to vaccinate against without using live attenuated vaccines. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are biological structures shed by Gram-negative bacteria in response to various environmental stimuli. OMVs have successfully been used to vaccinate against both intracellular and extracellular pathogens, due to an ability to stimulate innate, cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. We show by using atomic force and electron microscopy that the fish pathogenic bacterium F. noatunensis subspecies noatunensis (F.n.n.) shed OMVs both in vitro into culture medium and in vivo in a zebrafish infection model. The main protein constituents of the OMV are IglC, PdpD and PdpA, all known Francisella virulence factors, in addition to the outer membrane protein FopA and the chaperonin GroEL, as analyzed by mass spectrometry. The vesicles, when used as a vaccine, reduced proliferation of the bacterium and protected zebrafish when subsequently challenged with a high dose of F.n.n. without causing adverse effects for the host. Also granulomatous responses were reduced in F.n.n.-challenged zebrafish after OMV vaccination. Taken together, the data support the possible use of OMVs as vaccines against francisellosis in fish. PMID:25449706

  12. Zebrafish as a model organism to study host-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Medina, Carlos; Royo, Jose Luis

    2013-08-15

    Zebrafish have been extensively used in biomedical research as a model to study vertebrate development but it is only recently that it has also been adopted into varied fields such as immunology and host-pathogen interactions. Zebrafish have a rapid life cycle, small size and the adults exhibit no territorial behavior in relatively dense cages. Under standard conditions each female lays an average of a hundred eggs per clutch, providing a large number of larvae per week. Their transparency during early life stages allows real time visualization of the different organs, which makes them especially suitable for the study of bacterial host-pathogen interactions. Traditionally, these studies have been technically challenging in higher organisms, given the loss of control over the bacteria once the pathogen infects its host. Here we describe an emerging approach to monitor Salmonella typhimurium infection progression using in vivo fluorescence upon parenteral infection. We have engineered Salmonella with the Cascade expression system; an efficient method to voluntarily activate bacterial heterologous gene expression at any point during infection once inside the Zebrafish macrophages, using a non-toxic inducer. PMID:23619567

  13. Recent advances with a novel model organism: alcohol tolerance and sensitization in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Tran, Steven; Gerlai, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence are a rapidly growing problem with few treatment options available. The zebrafish has become a popular animal model for behavioral neuroscience. This species may be appropriate for investigating the effects of alcohol on the vertebrate brain. In the current review, we examine the literature by discussing how alcohol alters behavior in zebrafish and how it may affect biological correlates. We focus on two phenomena that are often examined in the context of alcohol-induced neuroplasticity. Alcohol tolerance (a progressive decrease in the effect of alcohol over time) is often observed following continuous (chronic) exposure to low concentrations of alcohol. Alcohol sensitization also called reverse tolerance (a progressive increase in the effect of alcohol over time) is often observed following repeated discrete exposures to higher concentrations of alcohol. These two phenomena may underlie the development and maintenance of alcohol addiction. The phenotypical characterization of these responses in zebrafish may be the first important steps in establishing this species as a tool for the analysis of the molecular and neurobiological mechanisms underlying human alcohol addiction. PMID:24593943

  14. A novel patient-derived intra-femoral xenograft model of bone metastatic prostate cancer that recapitulates mixed osteolytic and osteoblastic lesions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer metastasizes to bone in the majority of patients with advanced disease leading to painfully debilitating fractures, spinal compression and rapid decline. In addition, prostate cancer bone metastases often become resistant to standard therapies including androgen deprivation, radiation and chemotherapy. There are currently few models to elucidate mechanisms of interaction between the bone microenvironment and prostate cancer. It is, thus, essential to develop new patient-derived, orthotopic models. Here we report the development and characterization of PCSD1 (Prostate Cancer San Diego 1), a novel patient-derived intra-femoral xenograft model of prostate bone metastatic cancer that recapitulates mixed osteolytic and osteoblastic lesions. Methods A femoral bone metastasis of prostate cancer was removed during hemiarthroplasty and transplanted into Rag2-/-;?c-/- mice either intra-femorally or sub-cutaneously. Xenograft tumors that developed were analyzed for prostate cancer biomarker expression using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Osteoblastic, osteolytic and mixed lesion formation was measured using micro-computed tomography (microCT). Results PCSD1 cells isolated directly from the patient formed tumors in all mice that were transplanted intra-femorally or sub-cutaneously into Rag2-/-;?c-/- mice. Xenograft tumors expressed human prostate specific antigen (PSA) in RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analyses. PCSD1 tumors also expressed AR, NKX3.1, Keratins 8 and 18, and AMACR. Histologic and microCT analyses revealed that intra-femoral PCSD1 xenograft tumors formed mixed osteolytic and osteoblastic lesions. PCSD1 tumors have been serially passaged in mice as xenografts intra-femorally or sub-cutaneously as well as grown in culture. Conclusions PCSD1 xenografts tumors were characterized as advanced, luminal epithelial prostate cancer from a bone metastasis using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical biomarker analyses. PCSD1 intra-femoral xenografts formed mixed osteoblastic/osteolytic lesions that closely resembled the bone lesions in the patient. PCSD1 is a new primary prostate cancer bone metastasis-derived xenograft model to study metastatic disease in the bone and to develop novel therapies for inhibiting prostate cancer growth in the bone-niche. PMID:22035283

  15. Zebrafish hatching

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mildred Hoover (Salem State College; Biology Department)

    2008-07-19

    Zebrafish larvae from eggs cleaned of microorganisms sometimes need help hatching out of their chorionic sac. Here one can see that the microorganisms might soon rupture the sac so the zebrafish can swim free.

  16. In vivo antimetastatic effects of uPAR retargeted measles virus in syngeneic and xenograft models of mammary cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Yuqi; Bejarano, Marcela Toro; Zaias, Julia; Merchan, Jaime R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The urokinase receptor (uPAR) plays a critical role in breast cancer (BC) progression and metastases, and is a validated target for novel therapies. The current study investigates the effects of MV-uPA, an oncolytic measles virus fully retargeted against uPAR in syngeneic and xenograft BC metastases models. Methods In vitro replication and cytotoxicity of MVs retargeted against human (MV-h-uPA) or mouse (MV-m-uPA) uPAR were assessed in human and murine cancer and non-cancer mammary epithelial cells. The in vivo effects of species-specific uPAR retargeted MVs were assessed in syngeneic and xenograft models of experimental metastases, established by intravenous administration of luciferase expressing 4T1 or MDA-MD-231 cells. Metastases progression was assessed by in vivo bioluminescence imaging. Tumor targeting was evaluated by qRT-PCR of MV-N, rescue of viable viral particles and immunostaining of MV particles in lungs from tumor bearing mice. Results In vitro, MV-h-uPA and MV-m-uPA selectively infected, replicated and induced cytotoxicity in cancer compared to non-cancer cells in a species-specific manner. In vivo, MV-m-uPA delayed 4T1 lung metastases progression and prolonged survival. These effects were associated with identification of viable viral particles, viral RNA and detection of MV-N by immunostaining from lung tissues in treated mice. In the human MDA-MB-231 metastases model, intravenous administration of MV-h-uPA markedly inhibited metastases progression and significantly improved survival, compared to controls. No significant treatment related toxicity was observed in treated mice. Conclusions The above preclinical findings strongly suggest that uPAR retargeted measles virotherapy is a novel and feasible systemic therapy strategy against metastatic breast cancer. PMID:25519042

  17. Xenografting of sheep testis tissue and isolated cells as a model for preservation of genetic material from endangered ungulates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucia Arregui; Rahul Rathi; Susan O Megee; Ali Honaramooz; Montserrat Gomendio; Eduardo R S Roldan; Ina Dobrinski

    2008-01-01

    Recoveryof germ cells could be an option for preservation of the genetic pool of endangered animals. In immature males, xenografting of testis tissue provides the opportunity to recover sperm from these animals. In adult animals, xenografting has been less successful, but de novo morphogenesis offunctional testis tissue from dissociated testis cells could be an alternative. To assess the potential use

  18. Co-treatment with arsenic trioxide and ganciclovir reduces tumor volume in a murine xenograft model of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sides, Mark D; Sosulski, Meredith L; Luo, Fayong; Lin, Zhen; Flemington, Erik K; Lasky, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that disruption of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs) is sufficient to activate the EBV lytic cycle thus making infected cells susceptible to ganciclovir (GCV) mediated killing in vitro. Here we show that co-administration of GCV and arsenic trioxide (ATO), a PML NB disruptor, reduces tumor volume in a xenograft model of nasopharyngeal carcinoma utilizing CNE1 cells. When administered at pharmacologic levels, both GCV and ATO reduced tumor growth while co-treatment with GCV?+?ATO resulted in a diminution of tumor volume. Treatment with GCV or ATO individually resulted in an increased number of apoptotic cells while co-treatment with GCV?+?ATO synergistically induced apoptosis. Treatment with ATO or co-treatment with GCV?+?ATO resulted in expression of EBV lytic proteins. These data suggest that co-treatment with GCV?+?ATO may provide an effective treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. PMID:23680002

  19. Local delivery of cannabinoid-loaded microparticles inhibits tumor growth in a murine xenograft model of glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Hernán Pérez de la Ossa, Dolores; Lorente, Mar; Gil-Alegre, Maria Esther; Torres, Sofía; García-Taboada, Elena; Aberturas, María Del Rosario; Molpeceres, Jesús; Velasco, Guillermo; Torres-Suárez, Ana Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoids, the active components of marijuana and their derivatives, are currently investigated due to their potential therapeutic application for the management of many different diseases, including cancer. Specifically, ?(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) - the two major ingredients of marijuana - have been shown to inhibit tumor growth in a number of animal models of cancer, including glioma. Although there are several pharmaceutical preparations that permit the oral administration of THC or its analogue nabilone or the oromucosal delivery of a THC- and CBD-enriched cannabis extract, the systemic administration of cannabinoids has several limitations in part derived from the high lipophilicity exhibited by these compounds. In this work we analyzed CBD- and THC-loaded poly-?-caprolactone microparticles as an alternative delivery system for long-term cannabinoid administration in a murine xenograft model of glioma. In vitro characterization of THC- and CBD-loaded microparticles showed that this method of microencapsulation facilitates a sustained release of the two cannabinoids for several days. Local administration of THC-, CBD- or a mixture (1:1 w:w) of THC- and CBD-loaded microparticles every 5 days to mice bearing glioma xenografts reduced tumour growth with the same efficacy than a daily local administration of the equivalent amount of those cannabinoids in solution. Moreover, treatment with cannabinoid-loaded microparticles enhanced apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation and angiogenesis in these tumours. Our findings support that THC- and CBD-loaded microparticles could be used as an alternative method of cannabinoid delivery in anticancer therapies. PMID:23349970

  20. Modulation of eicosanoid metabolism in endothelial cells in a xenograft model. Role of cyclooxygenase-2.

    PubMed Central

    Bustos, M; Coffman, T M; Saadi, S; Platt, J L

    1997-01-01

    Lipid inflammatory mediators are thought to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of vascular injury. Among the events which might cause the synthesis of eicosanoids in blood vessels is activation of the complement. To evaluate how complement might influence eicosanoid metabolism, we investigated endothelial cells exposed to xenoreactive antibodies and complement, as might occur in rejecting xenografts where severe vascular injury is a typical feature. While resting porcine aortic endothelial cells released only prostaglandin (PG) I2, endothelial cells stimulated with xenoreactive antibodies and complement released PGE2 and thromboxane A2 (TXA2), in addition to increased amounts of PGI2. This alteration in eicosanoid metabolism was associated with induction of cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2 and thromboxane synthase, but not Cox-1. Unlike results seen in other systems, the upregulation of Cox-2 and the subsequent release of eicosanoids by endothelial cells was not directly induced by complement but rather required production of IL-1alpha, which acted on endothelial cells as an autocrine factor. Since eicosanoids have a potent effect on inflammation, vascular tone and platelet aggregation, we postulated that the abnormalities in eicosanoid release induced by xenoreactive antibodies and complement might provide one explanation for the vascular injury, focal ischemia, and thrombosis observed in acute vascular rejection and other vasculitides mediated by complement. PMID:9276732

  1. Antitumor effects of flavopiridol on human uterine leiomyoma in vitro and in a xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Gyo; Baek, Jong-Woo; Shin, So-Jin; Kwon, Sang-Hoon; Cha, Soon-Do; Park, Won-Jin; Chung, Rosa; Choi, Eun-Som; Lee, Gun-Ho; Cho, Chi-Heum

    2014-09-01

    Dysregulated cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are considered a potential target for cancer therapy. Flavopiridol is a potent CDK inhibitor. In this study, the antiproliferative effect of the flavonoid compound flavopiridol and its mechanism in human uterine leiomyoma cells were investigated. The present study focused on the effect of flavopiridol in cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in primary cultured human uterine leiomyoma cells. Cell viability and cell proliferation assays were conducted. Flow cytometry was performed to determine the effect of flavopiridol on cell cycle. The expression of cell cycle regulatory-related proteins was evaluated by Western blotting. Cell viability and proliferation of uterine leiomyoma cells were significantly reduced by flavopiridol treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry results showed that flavopiridol induced G1 phase arrest. Flavopiridol-induced growth inhibition in uterine leiomyoma cells was associated with increased expression of p21(cip/wafl) and p27(kip1) in a dose-dependent manner. Downregulation of CDK2/4 and Cyclin A with a concomitant increase in dephosphorylation of retinoblastoma was observed. This study demonstrates that flavopiridol inhibits cell proliferation by initiating G1 cell cycle arrest in human uterine leiomyoma. We also found that flavopiridol is effective in inhibiting xenografted human uterine leiomyoma growth. These results indicate that flavopiridol could prove to be a promising chemopreventive and therapeutic agent for human uterine leiomyoma. PMID:24572052

  2. Anticancer activity using positron emission tomography-computed tomography and pharmacokinetics of ?-eudesmol in human cholangiocarcinoma xenografted nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Plengsuriyakarn, Tullayakorn; Karbwang, Juntra; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2015-03-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an important public health problem in several parts of South East Asia, particularly in Thailand. The limited availability of effective diagnostic tools for early stage CCA, including chemotherapeutic options, constitutes a major problem for treatment and control of CCA. The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-CCA activity and pharmacokinetics of ?-eudesmol in CCA-xenografted nude mouse model and healthy mice. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) with (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose was used for detecting and monitoring tumour development, and PET-CT with technetium-99m was used to investigate its pharmacokinetics property. Results support the role of PET-CT as a potential tool for detecting and monitoring the progress of lung metastasis. Tumour size and lung metastasis were significantly inhibited by 91.6% (of baseline) and 95% (of total lung mass), respectively, following treatment with high-dose ?-eudesmol (100 mg/kg body weight for 30 days). Survival time was prolonged by 64.4% compared with untreated controls. Systemic clearance of the compound was rapid, particularly during the first 60 min. The compound was distributed to the vital organs at maximum levels 2 h after oral administration and 15 min after intravenous injection. Results from the present study suggest the potential of ?-eudesmol as a promising candidate for further development as an anti-CCA drug with respect to its pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic properties. PET-CT, with radiotracers (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose and technetium-99m, was shown to be a reliable tool in the investigation of anti-CCA and pharmacokinetic properties of ?-eudesmol in CCA-xenografted and healthy mice. PMID:25545782

  3. Effect of Melatonin on Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis in Xenograft Model of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jardim-Perassi, Bruna Victorasso; Arbab, Ali S.; Ferreira, Lívia Carvalho; Borin, Thaiz Ferraz; Varma, Nadimpalli R. S.; Iskander, A. S. M.; Shankar, Adarsh; Ali, Meser M.; de Campos Zuccari, Debora Aparecida Pires

    2014-01-01

    As neovascularization is essential for tumor growth and metastasis, controlling angiogenesis is a promising tactic in limiting cancer progression. Melatonin has been studied for their inhibitory properties on angiogenesis in cancer. We performed an in vivo study to evaluate the effects of melatonin treatment on angiogenesis in breast cancer. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay after melatonin treatment in triple-negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). After, cells were implanted in athymic nude mice and treated with melatonin or vehicle daily, administered intraperitoneally 1 hour before turning the room light off. Volume of the tumors was measured weekly with a digital caliper and at the end of treatments animals underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Technetium-99m tagged vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) C to detect in vivo angiogenesis. In addition, expression of pro-angiogenic/growth factors in the tumor extracts was evaluated by membrane antibody array and collected tumor tissues were analyzed with histochemical staining. Melatonin in vitro treatment (1 mM) decreased cell viability (p<0.05). The breast cancer xenografts nude mice treated with melatonin showed reduced tumor size and cell proliferation (Ki-67) compared to control animals after 21 days of treatment (p<0.05). Expression of VEGF receptor 2 decreased significantly in the treated animals compared to that of control when determined by immunohistochemistry (p<0.05) but the changes were not significant on SPECT (p>0.05) images. In addition, there was a decrease of micro-vessel density (Von Willebrand Factor) in melatonin treated mice (p<0.05). However, semiquantitative densitometry analysis of membrane array indicated increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin-like growth factor 1 in treated tumors compared to vehicle treated tumors (p<0.05). In conclusion, melatonin treatment showed effectiveness in reducing tumor growth and cell proliferation, as well as in the inhibition of angiogenesis. PMID:24416386

  4. Effect of melatonin on tumor growth and angiogenesis in xenograft model of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jardim-Perassi, Bruna Victorasso; Arbab, Ali S; Ferreira, Lívia Carvalho; Borin, Thaiz Ferraz; Varma, Nadimpalli R S; Iskander, A S M; Shankar, Adarsh; Ali, Meser M; de Campos Zuccari, Debora Aparecida Pires

    2014-01-01

    As neovascularization is essential for tumor growth and metastasis, controlling angiogenesis is a promising tactic in limiting cancer progression. Melatonin has been studied for their inhibitory properties on angiogenesis in cancer. We performed an in vivo study to evaluate the effects of melatonin treatment on angiogenesis in breast cancer. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay after melatonin treatment in triple-negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). After, cells were implanted in athymic nude mice and treated with melatonin or vehicle daily, administered intraperitoneally 1 hour before turning the room light off. Volume of the tumors was measured weekly with a digital caliper and at the end of treatments animals underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Technetium-99m tagged vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) C to detect in vivo angiogenesis. In addition, expression of pro-angiogenic/growth factors in the tumor extracts was evaluated by membrane antibody array and collected tumor tissues were analyzed with histochemical staining. Melatonin in vitro treatment (1 mM) decreased cell viability (p<0.05). The breast cancer xenografts nude mice treated with melatonin showed reduced tumor size and cell proliferation (Ki-67) compared to control animals after 21 days of treatment (p<0.05). Expression of VEGF receptor 2 decreased significantly in the treated animals compared to that of control when determined by immunohistochemistry (p<0.05) but the changes were not significant on SPECT (p>0.05) images. In addition, there was a decrease of micro-vessel density (Von Willebrand Factor) in melatonin treated mice (p<0.05). However, semiquantitative densitometry analysis of membrane array indicated increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin-like growth factor 1 in treated tumors compared to vehicle treated tumors (p<0.05). In conclusion, melatonin treatment showed effectiveness in reducing tumor growth and cell proliferation, as well as in the inhibition of angiogenesis. PMID:24416386

  5. Effects of vascular bundle implantation on autograft, fresh-frozen allograft, and xenograft incorporation in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Ozyurek, Ayhan; Leblebicioglu, Gursel; Bilgili, Hasan; Kurum, Baris; Gedikoglu, Gokhan; Atasever, Tamer; Tacal, Tugra; Doral, Mahmut Nedim

    2008-02-01

    This study examined the effects of vascular bundle implantation into a bone graft. Vascularized and nonvascularized autografts, allografts, and xenografts were placed inside defects in the proximal tibia in rabbits. Evaluation using radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, bone scintigraphy, and microscopy showed autografts fused more rapidly than allografts and xenografts, and the majority of the vascularized grafts were incorporated completely. Autografts emerged as the gold standard. These findings indicate vessel implantation enhances and accelerates vascularization, new bone formation, and incorporation in autografts, allografts, and xenografts. PMID:19292207

  6. The Zebrafish Brain in Research and Teaching: A Simple in Vivo and in Vitro Model for the Study of Spontaneous Neural Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, R.; Johannesdottir, I. P.; Sigurgeirsson, B.; Porsteinsson, H.; Karlsson, K. AE.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the zebrafish ("Danio rerio") has been established as a key animal model in neuroscience. Behavioral, genetic, and immunohistochemical techniques have been used to describe the connectivity of diverse neural circuits. However, few studies have used zebrafish to understand the function of cerebral structures or to study neural circuits.…

  7. Microfluidic tools for developmental studies of small model organisms — nematodes, fruit flies, and zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyundoo

    2013-01-01

    Studying genetics of development with small model organisms such as zebrafish Danio Rerio, the fruit fly Drosophila Melanogaster, and the soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, provide unique opportunities for understanding related processes and diseases in human as well as potential drug screens. There have been sweeping developments of microfabrication and microfluidic technologies for manipulating and imaging small objects, which allow high-throughput quantitative biological studies. Here, we review recent progress on these microfluidic tools and project future directions in these fields. PMID:23161817

  8. Axonal regeneration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Becker, Thomas; Becker, Catherina G

    2014-08-01

    In contrast to mammals, fish and amphibia functionally regenerate axons in the central nervous system (CNS). The strengths of the zebrafish model, that is, transgenics and mutant availability, ease of gene expression analysis and manipulation and optical transparency of larvae lend themselves to the analysis of successful axonal regeneration. Analyses in larval and adult zebrafish suggest a high intrinsic capacity for axon regrowth, yet signaling pathways employed in axonal growth and pathfinding are similar to those in mammals. However, the lesioned CNS environment in zebrafish shows remarkably little scarring or expression of inhibitory molecules and regenerating axons use molecular cues in the environment to successfully navigate to their targets. Future zebrafish research, including screening techniques, will complete our picture of the mechanisms behind successful CNS axon regeneration in this vertebrate model organism. PMID:24769541

  9. A zebrafish model of manganism reveals reversible and treatable symptoms that are independent of neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bakthavatsalam, Subha; Das Sharma, Shreya; Sonawane, Mahendra; Thirumalai, Vatsala; Datta, Ankona

    2014-11-01

    Manganese (manganese ion; referred to as Mn) is essential for neuronal function, yet it is toxic at high concentrations. Environmental and occupational exposure to high concentrations of Mn causes manganism, a well-defined movement disorder in humans, with symptoms resembling Parkinson's disease (PD). However, manganism is distinct from PD and the neural basis of its pathology is poorly understood. To address this issue, we generated a zebrafish model of manganism by incubating larvae in rearing medium containing Mn. We find that Mn-treated zebrafish larvae exhibit specific postural and locomotor defects. Larvae begin to float on their sides, show a curved spine and swim in circles. We discovered that treatment with Mn causes postural defects by interfering with mechanotransduction at the neuromasts. Furthermore, we find that the circling locomotion could be caused by long-duration bursting in the motor neurons, which can lead to long-duration tail bends in the Mn-treated larvae. Mn-treated larvae also exhibited fewer startle movements. Additionally, we show that the intensity of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity is reversibly reduced after Mn-treatment. This led us to propose that reduced dopamine neuromodulation drives the changes in startle movements. To test this, when we supplied an external source of dopamine to Mn-treated larvae, the larvae exhibited a normal number of startle swims. Taken together, these results indicate that Mn interferes with neuronal function at the sensory, motor and modulatory levels, and open avenues for therapeutically targeted studies on the zebrafish model of manganism. PMID:25261567

  10. An inducible kras(V12) transgenic zebrafish model for liver tumorigenesis and chemical drug screening.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Emelyanov, Alexander; Koh, Chor Hui Vivien; Spitsbergen, Jan M; Parinov, Serguei; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2012-01-01

    Because Ras signaling is frequently activated by major hepatocellular carcinoma etiological factors, a transgenic zebrafish constitutively expressing the kras(V12) oncogene in the liver was previously generated by our laboratory. Although this model depicted and uncovered the conservation between zebrafish and human liver tumorigenesis, the low tumor incidence and early mortality limit its use for further studies of tumor progression and inhibition. Here, we employed a mifepristone-inducible transgenic system to achieve inducible kras(V12) expression in the liver. The system consisted of two transgenic lines: the liver-driver line had a liver-specific fabp10 promoter to produce the LexPR chimeric transactivator, and the Ras-effector line contained a LexA-binding site to control EGFP-kras(V12) expression. In double-transgenic zebrafish (driver-effector) embryos and adults, we demonstrated mifepristone-inducible EGFP-kras(V12) expression in the liver. Robust and homogeneous liver tumors developed in 100% of double-transgenic fish after 1 month of induction and the tumors progressed from hyperplasia by 1 week post-treatment (wpt) to carcinoma by 4 wpt. Strikingly, liver tumorigenesis was found to be 'addicted' to Ras signaling for tumor maintenance, because mifepristone withdrawal led to tumor regression via cell death in transgenic fish. We further demonstrated the potential use of the transparent EGFP-kras(V12) larvae in inhibitor treatments to suppress Ras-driven liver tumorigenesis by targeting its downstream effectors, including the Raf-MEK-ERK and PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathways. Collectively, this mifepristone-inducible and reversible kras(V12) transgenic system offers a novel model for understanding hepatocarcinogenesis and a high-throughput screening platform for anti-cancer drugs. PMID:21903676

  11. Early Interneuron Dysfunction in ALS: Insights from a Mutant sod1 Zebrafish Model

    PubMed Central

    McGown, Alexander; McDearmid, Jonathan R; Panagiotaki, Niki; Tong, Huaxia; Al Mashhadi, Sufana; Redhead, Natasha; Lyon, Alison N; Beattie, Christine E; Shaw, Pamela J; Ramesh, Tennore M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine, when, how, and which neurons initiate the onset of pathophysiology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using a transgenic mutant sod1 zebrafish model and identify neuroprotective drugs. Methods Proteinopathies such as ALS involve mutant proteins that misfold and activate the heat shock stress response (HSR). The HSR is indicative of neuronal stress, and we used a fluorescent hsp70-DsRed reporter in our transgenic zebrafish to track neuronal stress and to measure functional changes in neurons and muscle over the course of the disease. Results We show that mutant sod1 fish first exhibited the HSR in glycinergic interneurons at 24 hours postfertilization (hpf). By 96 hpf, we observed a significant reduction in spontaneous glycinergic currents induced in spinal motor neurons. The loss of inhibition was followed by increased stress in the motor neurons of symptomatic adults and concurrent morphological changes at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) indicative of denervation. Riluzole, the only approved ALS drug and apomorphine, an NRF2 activator, reduced the observed early neuronal stress response. Interpretation The earliest event in the pathophysiology of ALS in the mutant sod1 zebrafish model involves neuronal stress in inhibitory interneurons, resulting from mutant Sod1 expression. This is followed by a reduction in inhibitory input to motor neurons. The loss of inhibitory input may contribute to the later development of neuronal stress in motor neurons and concurrent inability to maintain the NMJ. Riluzole, the approved drug for use in ALS, modulates neuronal stress in interneurons, indicating a novel mechanism of riluzole action. ANN NEUROL 2013;73:246–258 PMID:23281025

  12. A zebrafish model of manganism reveals reversible and treatable symptoms that are independent of neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Bakthavatsalam, Subha; Das Sharma, Shreya; Sonawane, Mahendra; Thirumalai, Vatsala; Datta, Ankona

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (manganese ion; referred to as Mn) is essential for neuronal function, yet it is toxic at high concentrations. Environmental and occupational exposure to high concentrations of Mn causes manganism, a well-defined movement disorder in humans, with symptoms resembling Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, manganism is distinct from PD and the neural basis of its pathology is poorly understood. To address this issue, we generated a zebrafish model of manganism by incubating larvae in rearing medium containing Mn. We find that Mn-treated zebrafish larvae exhibit specific postural and locomotor defects. Larvae begin to float on their sides, show a curved spine and swim in circles. We discovered that treatment with Mn causes postural defects by interfering with mechanotransduction at the neuromasts. Furthermore, we find that the circling locomotion could be caused by long-duration bursting in the motor neurons, which can lead to long-duration tail bends in the Mn-treated larvae. Mn-treated larvae also exhibited fewer startle movements. Additionally, we show that the intensity of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity is reversibly reduced after Mn-treatment. This led us to propose that reduced dopamine neuromodulation drives the changes in startle movements. To test this, when we supplied an external source of dopamine to Mn-treated larvae, the larvae exhibited a normal number of startle swims. Taken together, these results indicate that Mn interferes with neuronal function at the sensory, motor and modulatory levels, and open avenues for therapeutically targeted studies on the zebrafish model of manganism. PMID:25261567

  13. Models of maximum stress and strain of zebrafish embryos under indentation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhe; Chen, Peter C Y; Luo, Hong; Nam, Joohoo; Ge, Ruowen; Lin, Wei

    2009-03-26

    Micro-injection of zebrafish embryo is widely applied in biology for the analysis of early developmental processes. The success of a micro-injection to a large extent depends on the mechanical interaction between the micro-pipette and the membrane of the zebrafish embryo. In this paper, we present the development of (i) a maximum stress model of the deformed membrane with respect to the depth of indentation, (ii) a family-of-conics elongation model to determine the length of the deformed membrane for the estimation of the maximum strain at a given indentation depth, and (iii) an experimental system to generate the required data for these two models. The significance of these results is that the estimated maximum stress provides a performance target for the penetration process, while the estimated corresponding maximum strain serves as an indicator of the extent of deformation sustained by the embryo prior to penetration. Implications of these modeling and experimental results are discussed in the context of optimizing the process of micro-injection. PMID:19237158

  14. Drift-Diffusion Analysis of Neutrophil Migration during Inflammation Resolution in a Zebrafish Model.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Geoffrey R; Dixon, Giles; Anderson, Sean R; Reyes-Aldasoro, Constantino Carlos; Elks, Philip M; Billings, Stephen A; Whyte, Moira K B; Kadirkamanathan, Visakan; Renshaw, Stephen A

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophils must be removed from inflammatory sites for inflammation to resolve. Recent work in zebrafish has shown neutrophils can migrate away from inflammatory sites, as well as die in situ. The signals regulating the process of reverse migration are of considerable interest, but remain unknown. We wished to study the behaviour of neutrophils during reverse migration, to see whether they moved away from inflamed sites in a directed fashion in the same way as they are recruited or whether the inherent random component of their migration was enough to account for this behaviour. Using neutrophil-driven photoconvertible Kaede protein in transgenic zebrafish larvae, we were able to specifically label neutrophils at an inflammatory site generated by tailfin transection. The locations of these neutrophils over time were observed and fitted using regression methods with two separate models: pure-diffusion and drift-diffusion equations. While a model hypothesis test (the F-test) suggested that the datapoints could be fitted by the drift-diffusion model, implying a fugetaxis process, dynamic simulation of the models suggested that migration of neutrophils away from a wound is better described by a zero-drift, "diffusion" process. This has implications for understanding the mechanisms of reverse migration and, by extension, neutrophil retention at inflammatory sites. PMID:22899935

  15. Unique and potent effects of acute ibogaine on zebrafish: the developing utility of novel aquatic models for hallucinogenic drug research.

    PubMed

    Cachat, Jonathan; Kyzar, Evan J; Collins, Christopher; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Green, Jeremy; Roth, Andrew; El-Ounsi, Mohamed; Davis, Ari; Pham, Mimi; Landsman, Samuel; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2013-01-01

    An indole alkaloid, ibogaine is the principal psychoactive component of the iboga plant, used by indigenous peoples in West Africa for centuries. Modulating multiple neurotransmitter systems, the drug is a potent hallucinogen in humans, although its psychotropic effects remain poorly understood. Expanding the range of model species is an important strategy for translational neuroscience research. Here we exposed adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 10 and 20mg/L of ibogaine, testing them in the novel tank, light-dark box, open field, mirror stimulation, social preference and shoaling tests. In the novel tank test, the zebrafish natural diving response (geotaxis) was reversed by ibogaine, inducing initial top swimming followed by bottom dwelling. Ibogaine also attenuated the innate preference for dark environments (scototaxis) in the light-dark box test. While it did not exert overt locomotor or thigmotaxic responses in the open field test, the drug altered spatiotemporal exploration of novel environment, inducing clear preference of some areas over others. Ibogaine also promoted 'mirror' exploration in the mirror stimulation test, disrupted group cohesion in the shoaling test, and evoked strong coloration responses due to melanophore aggregation, but did not alter brain c-fos expression or whole-body cortisol levels. Overall, our results support the complex pharmacological profile of ibogaine and its high sensitivity in zebrafish models, dose-dependently affecting multiple behavioral domains. While future investigations in zebrafish may help elucidate the mechanisms underlying these unique behavioral effects, our study strongly supports the developing utility of aquatic models in hallucinogenic drug research. High sensitivity of three-dimensional phenotyping approaches applied here to behavioral effects of ibogaine in zebrafish provides further evidence of how 3D reconstructions of zebrafish swimming paths may be useful for high-throughput pharmacological screening. PMID:22974549

  16. Development of an ErbB-overexpressing A-431 Optical Reporting Tumor Xenograft Model to Assess Targeted Photodynamic Therapy Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Savellano, Mark D.; Owusu-Brackett, Nicci; Son, Ji; Callier, Thierri; Savellano, Dagmar Högemann

    2010-01-01

    To better assess the efficacy of erbB-targeted therapies, it would help to have optical reporting human tumor xenograft models that abundantly express erbB receptors. A-431 cells have frequently been used in erbB1-targeting studies, but a well-characterized optical reporting version of the cell line has not been readily available. In this study, optical reporting A-431 clones were developed that express both a fluorescent protein reporter (green, GFP; or red, RFP) and a bioluminescent reporter, firefly luciferase. Reporter genes were transduced into cells using commercial lentiviral vectors, and clonal selection was carried out using a series of procedures. A number of clones were isolated for further characterization. A GFP/luciferase clone, A-431/D4, and an RFP/luciferase clone, A-431/G4, were obtained that exhibit erbB1 expression levels and tumor growth kinetics similar to the parental cells. To demonstrate the utility of the optical reporting clones, A-431/G4 tumors were grown subcutaneously in nude mice and treated with vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT), which targets the angiogenic consequences of erbB signaling. The A-431/G4 tumor model permitted highly sensitive longitudinal monitoring of PDT treatment response using optical imaging. A-431/D4 and A-431/G4 optical reporting tumor models should also prove useful for assessing therapies that directly target the erbB1 receptor. PMID:20880229

  17. Binding difference of fipronil with GABAARs in fruitfly and zebrafish: insights from homology modeling, docking, and molecular dynamics simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Nan; Cheng, Jiagao; Zhang, Wei; Li, Weihua; Shao, Xusheng; Xu, Zhiping; Xu, Xiaoyong; Li, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Fipronil, which targets GABAA receptors (GABAARs), is the first phenylpyrazole insecticide widely used in crop protection and public hygiene. However, its high toxicity on fishes greatly limited its applications. In the present study, a series of computational methods including homology modeling, docking, and molecular dynamics simulation studies were integrated to explore the binding difference of fipronil with GABAARs from fruitfly and zebrafish systems. It was found that, in the zebrafish system, the H-bond between 6'Thr and fipronil exerted key effects on the recognition of fipronil, which was absent in the fruitfly system. On the other hand, in the fruitfly system, strong electrostatic interaction between 2'Ala and fipronil was favorable to the binding of fipronil but detrimental to the binding in the zebrafish system. These findings marked the binding difference of fipronil with different GABAARs, which might be helpful in designing selective insecticides against pests instead of fishes. PMID:25302733

  18. Use of the Zebrafish Larvae as a Model to Study Cigarette Smoke Condensate Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Lee D.; Soo, Evelyn C.; Achenbach, John C.; Morash, Michael G.; Soanes, Kelly H.

    2014-01-01

    The smoking of tobacco continues to be the leading cause of premature death worldwide and is linked to the development of a number of serious illnesses including heart disease, respiratory diseases, stroke and cancer. Currently, cell line based toxicity assays are typically used to gain information on the general toxicity of cigarettes and other tobacco products. However, they provide little information regarding the complex disease-related changes that have been linked to smoking. The ethical concerns and high cost associated with mammalian studies have limited their widespread use for in vivo toxicological studies of tobacco. The zebrafish has emerged as a low-cost, high-throughput, in vivo model in the study of toxicology. In this study, smoke condensates from 2 reference cigarettes and 6 Canadian brands of cigarettes with different design features were assessed for acute, developmental, cardiac, and behavioural toxicity (neurotoxicity) in zebrafish larvae. By making use of this multifaceted approach we have developed an in vivo model with which to compare the toxicity profiles of smoke condensates from cigarettes with different design features. This model system may provide insights into the development of smoking related disease and could provide a cost-effective, high-throughput platform for the future evaluation of tobacco products. PMID:25526262

  19. A transgenic zebrafish model expressing KIT-D816V recapitulates features of aggressive systemic mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Balci, Tugce B; Prykhozhij, Sergey V; Teh, Evelyn M; Da'as, Sahar I; McBride, Eileen; Liwski, Robert; Chute, Ian C; Leger, Daniel; Lewis, Stephen M; Berman, Jason N

    2014-10-01

    Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a rare myeloproliferative disease without curative therapy. Despite clinical variability, the majority of patients harbour a KIT-D816V mutation, but efforts to inhibit mutant KIT with tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been unsatisfactory, indicating a need for new preclinical approaches to identify alternative targets and novel therapies in this disease. Murine models to date have been limited and do not fully recapitulate the most aggressive forms of SM. We describe the generation of a transgenic zebrafish model expressing the human KIT-D816V mutation. Adult fish demonstrate a myeloproliferative disease phenotype, including features of aggressive SM in haematopoeitic tissues and high expression levels of endopeptidases, consistent with SM patients. Transgenic embryos demonstrate a cell-cycle phenotype with corresponding expression changes in genes associated with DNA maintenance and repair, such as reduced dnmt1. In addition, epcam was consistently downregulated in both transgenic adults and embryos. Decreased embryonic epcam expression was associated with reduced neuromast numbers, providing a robust in vivo phenotypic readout for chemical screening in KIT-D816V-induced disease. This study represents the first zebrafish model of a mast cell disease with an aggressive adult phenotype and embryonic markers that could be exploited to screen for novel agents in SM. PMID:24989799

  20. Defining Hepatic Dysfunction Parameters in Two Models of Fatty Liver Disease in Zebrafish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Howarth, Deanna L.; Yin, Chunyue; Yeh, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Fatty liver disease in humans can progress from steatosis to hepatocellular injury, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver failure. We developed a series of straightforward assays to determine whether zebrafish larvae with either tunicamycin- or ethanol-induced steatosis develop hepatic dysfunction. We found altered expression of genes involved in acute phase response and hepatic function, and impaired hepatocyte secretion and disruption of canaliculi in both models, but glycogen deficiency in hepatocytes and dilation of hepatic vasculature occurred only in ethanol-treated larvae. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) become activated during liver injury and HSC numbers increased in both models. Whether the excess lipids in hepatocytes are a direct cause of hepatocyte dysfunction in fatty liver disease has not been defined. We prevented ethanol-induced steatosis by blocking activation of the sterol response element binding proteins (Srebps) using gonzombtps1 mutants and scap morphants and found that hepatocyte dysfunction persisted even in the absence of lipid accumulation. This suggests that lipotoxicity is not the primary cause of hepatic injury in these models of fatty liver disease. This study provides a panel of parameters to assess liver disease that can be easily applied to zebrafish mutants, transgenics, and for drug screening in which liver function is an important consideration. PMID:23697887

  1. Transcriptional changes and developmental abnormalities in a zebrafish model of myotonic dystrophy type 1

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Peter K.; Ackall, Feras Y.; Hur, Junguk; Sharma, Kush; Paulson, Henry L.; Dowling, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) is a multi-system, autosomal dominant disorder caused by expansion of a CTG repeat sequence in the 3?UTR of the DMPK gene. The size of the repeat sequence correlates with age at onset and disease severity, with large repeats leading to congenital forms of DM1 associated with hypotonia and intellectual disability. In models of adult DM1, expanded CUG repeats lead to an RNA toxic gain of function, mediated at least in part by sequestering specific RNA splicing proteins, most notably muscleblind-related (MBNL) proteins. However, the impact of CUG RNA repeat expression on early developmental processes is not well understood. To better understand early developmental processes in DM1, we utilized the zebrafish, Danio rerio, as a model system. Direct injection of (CUG)91 repeat-containing mRNA into single-cell embryos induces toxicity in the nervous system and muscle during early development. These effects manifest as abnormal morphology, behavioral abnormalities and broad transcriptional changes, as shown by cDNA microarray analysis. Co-injection of zebrafish mbnl2 RNA suppresses (CUG)91 RNA toxicity and reverses the associated behavioral and transcriptional abnormalities. Taken together, these findings suggest that early expression of exogenously transcribed CUG repeat RNA can disrupt normal muscle and nervous system development and provides a new model for DM1 research that is amenable to small-molecule therapeutic development. PMID:24092878

  2. Zebrafish and conditioned place preference: a translational model of drug reward.

    PubMed

    Collier, Adam D; Khan, Kanza M; Caramillo, Erika M; Mohn, Richard S; Echevarria, David J

    2014-12-01

    Addiction and substance abuse are found ubiquitously throughout human society. In the United States, these disorders are responsible for amassing hundreds of billions of dollars in annual costs associated with healthcare, crime and lost productivity. Efficacious treatments remain few in number, the development of which will be facilitated by comprehension of environmental, genetic, pharmacological and neurobiological mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of addiction. Animal models such as the zebrafish (Danio rerio) have gained momentum within various domains of translational research, and as a model of complex brain disorders (e.g., drug abuse). Behavioral quantification within the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm serves as a measure of the rewarding qualities of a given substance. If the animal develops an increase in preference for the drug paired environment, it is inferred that the drug has positive-reinforcing properties. This paper discusses the utility of the zebrafish model in conjunction with the CPP paradigm and reports CPP behavior following acute exposure to 0.0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, and 1.00% alcohol, and 0 mg/L, 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L and 150 mg/L caffeine. PMID:24887295

  3. The genetic heterogeneity and mutational burden of engineered melanomas in zebrafish models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer. Expression of oncogenic BRAF or NRAS, which are frequently mutated in human melanomas, promote the formation of nevi but are not sufficient for tumorigenesis. Even with germline mutated p53, these engineered melanomas present with variable onset and pathology, implicating additional somatic mutations in a multi-hit tumorigenic process. Results To decipher the genetics of these melanomas, we sequence the protein coding exons of 53 primary melanomas generated from several BRAFV600E or NRASQ61K driven transgenic zebrafish lines. We find that engineered zebrafish melanomas show an overall low mutation burden, which has a strong, inverse association with the number of initiating germline drivers. Although tumors reveal distinct mutation spectrums, they show mostly C?>?T transitions without UV light exposure, and enrichment of mutations in melanogenesis, p53 and MAPK signaling. Importantly, a recurrent amplification occurring with pre-configured drivers BRAFV600E and p53-/- suggests a novel path of BRAF cooperativity through the protein kinase A pathway. Conclusion This is the first analysis of a melanoma mutational landscape in the absence of UV light, where tumors manifest with remarkably low mutation burden and high heterogeneity. Genotype specific amplification of protein kinase A in cooperation with BRAF and p53 mutation suggests the involvement of melanogenesis in these tumors. This work is important for defining the spectrum of events in BRAF or NRAS driven melanoma in the absence of UV light, and for informed exploitation of models such as transgenic zebrafish to better understand mechanisms leading to human melanoma formation. PMID:24148783

  4. Graphene-based anticancer nanosystem and its biosafety evaluation using a zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-Wei; Xiong, Feng; Jia, Hui-Zhen; Wang, Xu-Li; Cheng, Han; Sun, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Xian-Zheng; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Feng, Jun

    2013-02-11

    In this paper, a facile strategy to develop graphene-based delivery nanosystems for effective drug loading and sustained drug release was proposed and validated. Specifically, biocompatible naphthalene-terminated PEG (NP) and anticancer drugs (curcumin or doxorubicin (DOX)) were simultaneously integrated onto oxidized graphene (GO), leading to self-assembled, nanosized complexes. It was found that the oxidation degree of GO had a significant impact on the drug-loading efficiency and the structural stability of nanosystems. Interestingly, the nanoassemblies resulted in more effective cellular entry of DOX in comparison with free DOX or DOX-loaded PEG-polyester micelles at equivalent DOX dose, as demonstrated by confocal microscopy studies. Moreover, the nanoassemblies not only exhibited a sustained drug release pattern without an initial burst release, but also significantly improved the stability of formulations which were resistant to drug leaking even in the presence of strong surfactants such as aromatic sodium benzenesulfonate (SBen) and aliphatic sodium dodecylsulfonate (SDS). In addition, the nanoassemblies without DOX loading showed negligible in vitro cytotoxicity, whereas DOX-loaded counterparts led to considerable toxicity against HeLa cells. The DOX-mediated cytotoxicity of the graphene-based formulation was around 20 folds lower than that of free DOX, most likely due to the slow DOX release from complexes. A zebrafish model was established to assess the in vivo safety profile of curcumin-loaded nanosystems. The results showed they were able to excrete from the zebrafish body rapidly and had nearly no influence on the zebrafish upgrowth. Those encouraging results may prompt the advance of graphene-based nanotherapeutics for biomedical applications. PMID:23286342

  5. Assaying hematopoiesis using zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Boatman, Sonja; Barrett, Francesca; Satishchandran, Sruthi; Jing, Lili; Shestopalov, Ilya; Zon, Leonard I

    2013-12-01

    The zebrafish has become a commonly used model for studying hematopoiesis as a result of its unique attributes. Zebrafish are highly suitable for large-scale genetic and chemical screens compared to other vertebrate systems. It is now possible to analyze hematopoietic lineages in zebrafish and validate cell function via transplantation assays. Here, we review advancements over the past decade in forward genetic screens, chemical screens, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, and transplantation assays. Integrating these approaches enables new chemical and genetic screens that assay cell function within the hematopoietic system. Studies in zebrafish will continue to contribute and expand our knowledge about hematopoiesis, and develop novel treatments for clinical applications. PMID:23916372

  6. A zebrafish transgenic model of Ewing’s sarcoma reveals conserved mediators of EWS-FLI1 tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Leacock, Stefanie W.; Basse, Audrey N.; Chandler, Garvin L.; Kirk, Anne M.; Rakheja, Dinesh; Amatruda, James F.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Ewing’s sarcoma, a malignant bone tumor of children and young adults, is a member of the small-round-blue-cell tumor family. Ewing’s sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs), which include peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), are characterized by chromosomal translocations that generate fusions between the EWS gene and ETS-family transcription factors, most commonly FLI1. The EWS-FLI1 fusion oncoprotein represents an attractive therapeutic target for treatment of Ewing’s sarcoma. The cell of origin of ESFT and the molecular mechanisms by which EWS-FLI1 mediates tumorigenesis remain unknown, and few animal models of Ewing’s sarcoma exist. Here, we report the use of zebrafish as a vertebrate model of EWS-FLI1 function and tumorigenesis. Mosaic expression of the human EWS-FLI1 fusion protein in zebrafish caused the development of tumors with histology strongly resembling that of human Ewing’s sarcoma. The incidence of tumors increased in a p53 mutant background, suggesting that the p53 pathway suppresses EWS-FLI1-driven tumorigenesis. Gene expression profiling of the zebrafish tumors defined a set of genes that might be regulated by EWS-FLI1, including the zebrafish ortholog of a crucial EWS-FLI1 target gene in humans. Stable zebrafish transgenic lines expressing EWS-FLI1 under the control of the heat-shock promoter exhibit altered embryonic development and defective convergence and extension, suggesting that EWS-FLI1 interacts with conserved developmental pathways. These results indicate that functional targets of EWS-FLI1 that mediate tumorigenesis are conserved from zebrafish to human and provide a novel context in which to study the function of this fusion oncogene. PMID:21979944

  7. Using heterogeneity of the patient-derived xenograft model to identify the chemoresistant population in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dobbin, Zachary C.; Katre, Ashwini A.; Steg, Adam D.; Erickson, Britt K.; Shah, Monjri M.; Alvarez, Ronald D.; Conner, Michael G.; Schneider, David; Chen, Dongquan; Landen, Charles N.

    2014-01-01

    A cornerstone of preclinical cancer research has been the use of clonal cell lines. However, this resource has underperformed in its ability to effectively identify novel therapeutics and evaluate the heterogeneity in a patient's tumor. The patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model retains the heterogeneity of patient tumors, allowing a means to not only examine efficacy of a therapy, but also basic tenets of cancer biology in response to treatment. Herein we describe the development and characterization of an ovarian-PDX model in order to study the development of chemoresistance. We demonstrate that PDX tumors are not simply composed of tumor-initiating cells, but recapitulate the original tumor's heterogeneity, oncogene expression profiles, and clinical response to chemotherapy. Combined carboplatin/paclitaxel treatment of PDX tumors enriches the cancer stem cell populations, but persistent tumors are not entirely composed of these populations. RNA-Seq analysis of six pair of treated PDX tumors compared to untreated tumors demonstrates a consistently contrasting genetic profile after therapy, suggesting similar, but few, pathways are mediating chemoresistance. Pathways and genes identified by this methodology represent novel approaches to targeting the chemoresistant population in ovarian cancer PMID:25209969

  8. A novel cytidine analog, RX-3117, shows potent efficacy in xenograft models, even in tumors that are resistant to gemcitabine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mi Young; Lee, Young Bok; Ahn, Chang-Ho; Kaye, Joel; Fine, Tania; Kashi, Rina; Ohne, Osnat; Smid, Kees; Peters, Godefridus J; Kim, Deog Joong

    2014-12-01

    RX-3117 (fluorocyclopentenylcytosine) is a cytidine analog and this class of drugs, including gemcitabine, has been widely used for the treatment of various types of cancers. However, there is no oral formulation of gemcitabine and drug resistance to gemcitabine is common. In this study, the efficacy of orally-administered RX-3117 was examined in 9 different human tumor xenograft models (colon, non-small cell lung, small cell lung, pancreatic, renal and cervical), grown subcutaneously in athymic nude mice. In the Colo 205, H460, H69 and CaSki models, gemcitabine treatment resulted in 28%, 30%, 25% and 0% tumor growth inhibition (TGI), respectively, whereas oral treatment with RX-3117 induced 100%, 78%, 62% and 66% TGI, respectively. This indicates that RX-3117 may have the potential to be used for the treatment of tumors that do not respond to gemcitabine. RX-3117 was also evaluated in a single primary low-passage human pancreatic Tumorgraft™CTG-0298 (TGI 76%), which is relatively resistant to gemcitabine (TGI 38%) and has a favorable RX-3117-activating enzyme profile. These studies demonstrated the therapeutic potential and anticancer efficacy of RX-3117. PMID:25503121

  9. The isothiocyanate erucin abrogates telomerase in hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in an orthotopic xenograft tumour model of HCC

    PubMed Central

    Herz, Corinna; Hertrampf, Anke; Zimmermann, Stefan; Stetter, Nadine; Wagner, Meike; Kleinhans, Claudia; Erlacher, Miriam; Schüler, Julia; Platz, Stefanie; Rohn, Sascha; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker; Lamy, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to cancer cells, most normal human cells have no or low telomerase levels which makes it an attractive target for anti-cancer drugs. The small molecule sulforaphane from broccoli is known for its cancer therapeutic potential in vitro and in vivo. In animals and humans it was found to be quickly metabolized into 4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC, erucin) which we recently identified as strong selective apoptosis inducer in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Here, we investigated the relevance of telomerase abrogation for cytotoxic efficacy of MTBITC against HCC. The drug was effective against telomerase, independent from TP53 and MTBITC also blocked telomerase in chemoresistant subpopulations. By using an orthotopic human liver cancer xenograft model, we give first evidence that MTBITC at 50 mg/KG b.w./d significantly decreased telomerase activity in vivo without affecting enzyme activity of adjacent normal tissue. Upon drug exposure, telomerase decrease was consistent with a dose-dependent switch to anti-survival, cell arrest and apoptosis in our in vitro HCC models. Blocking telomerase by the specific inhibitor TMPyP4 further sensitized cancer cells to MTBITC-mediated cytotoxicity. Overexpression of hTERT, but not enzyme activity deficient DNhTERT, protected against apoptosis; neither DNA damage nor cytostasis induction by MTBITC was prevented by hTERT overexpression. These findings imply that telomerase enzyme activity does not protect against MTBITC-induced DNA damage but impacts signalling processes upstream of apoptosis execution level. PMID:25256442

  10. Modeling Nociception in Zebrafish: A Way Forward for Unbiased Analgesic Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Curtright, Andrew; Rosser, Micaela; Goh, Shamii; Keown, Bailey; Wagner, Erinn; Sharifi, Jasmine; Raible, David W.; Dhaka, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Acute and chronic pain conditions are often debilitating, inflicting severe physiological, emotional and economic costs and affect a large percentage of the global population. However, the development of therapeutic analgesic agents based primarily on targeted drug development has been largely ineffective. An alternative approach to analgesic development would be to develop low cost, high throughput, untargeted animal based behavioral screens that model complex nociceptive behaviors in which to screen for analgesic compounds. Here we describe the development of a behavioral based assay in zebrafish larvae that is effective in identifying small molecule compounds with analgesic properties. In a place aversion assay, which likely utilizes supraspinal neuronal circuitry, individually arrayed zebrafish larvae show temperature-dependent aversion to increasing and decreasing temperatures deviating from rearing temperature. Modeling thermal hyperalgesia, the addition of the noxious inflammatory compound and TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate sensitized heat aversion and reversed cool aversion leading larvae to avoid rearing temperature in favor of otherwise acutely aversive cooler temperatures. We show that small molecules with known analgesic properties are able to inhibit acute and/or sensitized temperature aversion. PMID:25587718

  11. MYBPC1 mutations impair skeletal muscle function in zebrafish models of arthrogryposis

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kyungsoo; Buchan, Jillian G.; Alvarado, David M.; Mccall, Kevin; Vydyanath, Anupama; Luther, Pradeep K.; Goldsmith, Matthew I.; Dobbs, Matthew B.; Gurnett, Christina A.

    2013-01-01

    Myosin-binding protein C1 (MYBPC1) is an abundant skeletal muscle protein that is expressed predominantly in slow-twitch muscle fibers. Human MYBPC1 mutations are associated with distal arthrogryposis type 1 and lethal congenital contracture syndrome type 4. As MYBPC1 function is incompletely understood, the mechanism by which human mutations result in contractures is unknown. Here, we demonstrate using antisense morpholino knockdown, that mybpc1 is required for embryonic motor activity and survival in a zebrafish model of arthrogryposis. Mybpc1 morphant embryos have severe body curvature, cardiac edema, impaired motor excitation and are delayed in hatching. Myofibril organization is selectively impaired in slow skeletal muscle and sarcomere numbers are greatly reduced in mybpc1 knockdown embryos, although electron microscopy reveals normal sarcomere structure. To evaluate the effects of human distal arthrogryposis mutations, mybpc1 mRNAs containing the corresponding human W236R and Y856H MYBPC1 mutations were injected into embryos. Dominant-negative effects of these mutations were suggested by the resultant mild bent body curvature, decreased motor activity, as well as impaired overall survival compared with overexpression of wild-type RNA. These results demonstrate a critical role for mybpc1 in slow skeletal muscle development and establish zebrafish as a tractable model of human distal arthrogryposis. PMID:23873045

  12. Modeling nociception in zebrafish: a way forward for unbiased analgesic discovery.

    PubMed

    Curtright, Andrew; Rosser, Micaela; Goh, Shamii; Keown, Bailey; Wagner, Erinn; Sharifi, Jasmine; Raible, David W; Dhaka, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Acute and chronic pain conditions are often debilitating, inflicting severe physiological, emotional and economic costs and affect a large percentage of the global population. However, the development of therapeutic analgesic agents based primarily on targeted drug development has been largely ineffective. An alternative approach to analgesic development would be to develop low cost, high throughput, untargeted animal based behavioral screens that model complex nociceptive behaviors in which to screen for analgesic compounds. Here we describe the development of a behavioral based assay in zebrafish larvae that is effective in identifying small molecule compounds with analgesic properties. In a place aversion assay, which likely utilizes supraspinal neuronal circuitry, individually arrayed zebrafish larvae show temperature-dependent aversion to increasing and decreasing temperatures deviating from rearing temperature. Modeling thermal hyperalgesia, the addition of the noxious inflammatory compound and TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate sensitized heat aversion and reversed cool aversion leading larvae to avoid rearing temperature in favor of otherwise acutely aversive cooler temperatures. We show that small molecules with known analgesic properties are able to inhibit acute and/or sensitized temperature aversion. PMID:25587718

  13. Pten mediates Myc oncogene dependence in a conditional zebrafish model of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Grebliunaite, Ruta; Feng, Hui; Kozakewich, Elena; Zhu, Shizhen; Guo, Feng; Payne, Elspeth; Mansour, Marc; Dahlberg, Suzanne E.; Neuberg, Donna S.; den Hertog, Jeroen; Prochownik, Edward V.; Testa, Joseph R.; Harris, Marian; Kanki, John P.

    2011-01-01

    The MYC oncogenic transcription factor is overexpressed in most human cases of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), often downstream of mutational NOTCH1 activation. Genetic alterations in the PTEN–PI3K–AKT pathway are also common in T-ALL. We generated a conditional zebrafish model of T-ALL in which 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4HT) treatment induces MYC activation and disease, and withdrawal of 4HT results in T-ALL apoptosis and tumor regression. However, we found that loss-of-function mutations in zebrafish pten genes, or expression of a constitutively active Akt2 transgene, rendered tumors independent of the MYC oncogene and promoted disease progression after 4HT withdrawal. Moreover, MYC suppresses pten mRNA levels, suggesting that Akt pathway activation downstream of MYC promotes tumor progression. Our findings indicate that Akt pathway activation is sufficient for tumor maintenance in this model, even after loss of survival signals driven by the MYC oncogene. PMID:21727187

  14. A model of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Patrinostro, Xiaobai; Carter, Michelle L.; Kramer, Ashley C.; Lund, Troy C.

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common genetic defect and enzymopathy worldwide, affecting approximately 400 million people and causing acute hemolysis in persons exposed to prooxidant compounds such as menthol, naphthalene, anti-malarial drugs, and fava beans. Mouse models have not been useful because of a lack of significant response to oxidative challenge. We turned to zebrafish (Danrio rerio) embryos, which develop ex utero and are transparent, allowing visualization of hemolysis. We designed morpholinos to zebrafish g6pd that were effective in reducing gene expression as shown by Western blot and G6PD enzyme activity, resulting in a brisk hemolysis and pericardial edema secondary to anemia. Titration of the g6pd knockdown allowed us to generate embryos that displayed no overt phenotype until exposed to the prooxidant compounds 1-naphthol, menthol, or primaquine, after which they developed hemolysis and pericardial edema within 48–72 hours. We were also able to show that g6pd morphants displayed significant levels of increased oxidative stress compared with controls. We anticipate that this will be a useful model of G6PD deficiency to study hemolysis as well as oxidative stress that occurs after exposure to prooxidants, similar to what occurs in G6PD-deficient persons. PMID:23603363

  15. Prediction of drug distribution in subcutaneous xenografts of human tumor cell lines and healthy tissues in mouse: application of the tissue composition-based model to antineoplastic drugs.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Patrick; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Ding, Xiao; Gould, Stephen E; Hop, Cornelis Eca; Messick, Kirsten; Oeh, Jason; Liederer, Bianca M

    2015-04-01

    Advanced tissue composition-based models can predict the tissue-plasma partition coefficient (Kp ) values of drugs under in vivo conditions on the basis of in vitro and physiological input data. These models, however, focus on healthy tissues and do not incorporate data from tumors. The objective of this study was to apply a tissue composition-based model to six marketed antineoplastic drugs (docetaxel, DOC; doxorubicin, DOX; gemcitabine, GEM; methotrexate, MTX; topotecan, TOP; and fluorouracil, 5-FU) to predict their Kp values in three human tumor xenografts (HCT-116, H2122, and PC3) as well as in healthy tissues (brain, muscle, lung, and liver) under steady-state in vivo conditions in female NCR nude mice. The mechanisms considered in the tissue/tumor composition-based model are the binding to lipids and to plasma proteins, but the transporter effect was also investigated. The method consisted of analyzing tissue composition, performing the pharmacokinetics studies in mice, and calculating the corresponding in vivo Kp values. Analyses of tumor composition indicated that the tumor xenografts contained no or low amounts of common transporters by contrast to lipids. The predicted Kp values were within twofold and threefold of the measured values in 77% and 93% of cases, respectively. However, predictions for brain for each drug, for liver for MTX, and for each tumor xenograft for GEM were disparate from the observed values, and, therefore, not well served by the model. Overall, this study is the first step toward the mechanism-based prediction of Kp values of small molecules in healthy and tumor tissues in mouse when no transporter and permeation limitation effect is evident. This approach will be useful in selecting compounds based on their abilities to penetrate human cancer xenografts with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, thereby increasing therapeutic index for chemotherapy in oncology study. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:1508-1521, 2015. PMID:25615572

  16. Total synthesis of Herbarin A and B, determination of their antioxidant properties and toxicity in zebrafish embryo model.

    PubMed

    Heimberger, Julia; Cade, Hannah C; Padgett, Jihan; Sittaramane, Vinoth; Shaikh, Abid

    2015-03-15

    Herbarin A and B were isolated from the fungal strains of Cladosporium herbarum found in marine sponges Aplysina aerophoba and Callyspongia aerizusa. Total synthesis of Herbarin A and B was achieved by carrying out a multi-step synthesis approach, and the antioxidant properties were evaluated using FRAP assay. Toxicity of these compounds was determined using a zebrafish embryo model. PMID:25690788

  17. The interferon response is involved in nervous necrosis virus acute and persistent infection in zebrafish infection model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Wei Lu; Yung-Mei Chao; Tz-Chun Guo; Nina Santi; Øystein Evensen; Siti Khadijah Kasani; Jiann-Ruey Hong; Jen-Leih Wu

    2008-01-01

    Betanodavirus, a small positive-sense bipartite RNA virus notoriously affecting marine aquaculture worldwide has been extensively studied in vitro. However, impending studies in elucidating virus–host interactions have been limiting due to the lack of appropriate animal disease models. Therefore, in this study, we have attempted to successfully establish NNV infection in zebrafish (Danio rerio) showing typical NNV symptoms and which could

  18. INDUCED AND SPONTANEOUS NEOPLASIA IN ZEBRAFISH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To address the potential of zebrafish as a cancer model, it is important to determine the susceptibility of zebrafish to tumors, and to compare zebrafish tumors with human tumors. To determine whether the commonly-used germ line mutagen, ethylnitrosourea (ENU) induces tumors, we ...

  19. [Anna Tien] Zebrafish Stress Responses to

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    2009 [Anna Tien] [5/8/2009] Zebrafish Stress Responses to Alarm Pheromone #12;2 Introduction Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have served as animal models in behavioral neuroscience and behavior genetics for the past three decades. The zebrafish has all the neurotransmitters that humans possess (Shin and Fishman

  20. Vascular Development in the Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Aniket V.; Monzo, Kathryn; Cha, Young R.; Pan, Weijun; Weinstein, Brant M.

    2012-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as an excellent vertebrate model system for studying blood and lymphatic vascular development. The small size, external and rapid development, and optical transparency of zebrafish embryos are some of the advantages the zebrafish model system offers. Multiple well-established techniques have been developed for imaging and functionally manipulating vascular tissues in zebrafish embryos, expanding on and amplifying these basic advantages and accelerating use of this model system for studying vascular development. In the past decade, studies performed using zebrafish as a model system have provided many novel insights into vascular development. In this article we discuss the amenability of this model system for studying blood vessel development and review contributions made by this system to our understanding of vascular development. PMID:22553495

  1. Antitumor activity of [Pt(O,O'-acac)(?-acac)(DMS)] in mouse xenograft model of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Muscella, A; Vetrugno, C; Migoni, D; Biagioni, F; Fanizzi, F P; Fornai, F; De Pascali, S A; Marsigliante, S

    2014-01-01

    The higher and selective cytotoxicity of [Pt(O,O?-acac)(?-acac)(DMS)] toward cancer cell in both immortalized cell lines and in breast cancer cells in primary cultures, stimulated a pre-clinical study so as to evaluate its therapeutic potential in vivo. The efficacy of [Pt(O,O?-acac)(?-acac)(DMS)] was assessed using a xenograft model of breast cancer developed by injection of MCF-7 cells in the flank of BALB/c nude mice. Treatment of solid tumor-bearing mice with [Pt(O,O?-acac)(?-acac)(DMS)] induced up to 50% reduction of tumor mass compared with an average 10% inhibition recorded in cisplatin-treated animals. Thus, chemotherapy with [Pt(O,O?-acac)(?-acac)(DMS)] was much more effective than cisplatin. We also demonstrated enhanced in vivo pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and tolerability of [Pt(O,O?-acac)(?-acac)(DMS)] when compared with cisplatin administered in Wistar rats. Pharmacokinetics studies with [Pt(O,O?-acac)(?-acac)(DMS)] revealed prolonged Pt persistence in systemic blood circulation and decreased nefrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity, major target sites of cisplatin toxicity. Overall, [Pt(O,O?-acac)(?-acac)(DMS)] turned out to be extremely promising in terms of greater in vivo anticancer activity, reduced nephrotoxicity and acute toxicity compared with cisplatin. PMID:24457958

  2. Antitumor effects of TRAIL-expressing mesenchymal stromal cells in a mouse xenograft model of human mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Lathrop, M J; Sage, E K; Macura, S L; Brooks, E M; Cruz, F; Bonenfant, N R; Sokocevic, D; MacPherson, M B; Beuschel, S L; Dunaway, C W; Shukla, A; Janes, S M; Steele, C; Mossman, B T; Weiss, D J

    2015-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) remains a highly deadly malignancy with poor treatment option. The MM cells further promote a highly inflammatory microenvironment, which contributes to tumor initiation, development, severity and propagation. We reasoned that the anti-inflammatory actions of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and further antitumor effects of MSCs engineered to overexpress tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) protein (MSC-TRAIL) would effectively inhibit mesothelioma growth. Using a mouse xenograft model of intraperitoneal human mesothelioma, native mouse (mMSCs) or human (hMSC) MSCs were administered either systemically (intravenously or intraperitoneally) at various times following tumor inoculation. Both mMSCs and hMSCs localized at the sites of MM tumor growth in vivo and decreased local inflammation. Further, a trend towards decrease in tumor burden was observed. Parallel studies of in vitro exposure of nine primary human mesothelioma cell lines to mMSCs or hMSCs demonstrated reduced tumor cell migration. MSC-TRAIL exposure induced apoptosis of TRAIL-sensitive MM cells in vitro, and both mouse and human MSC-TRAIL significantly reduced the inflammatory tumor environment in vivo. Moreover, human MSC-TRAIL administration significantly reduced peritoneal tumor burden in vivo and increased tumor cell apoptosis. These proof-of-concept studies suggest that TRAIL-expressing MSCs may be useful against malignant mesothelioma. PMID:25525034

  3. Dual antitumor mechanisms of Notch signaling inhibitor in a T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Shigeo; Kumano, Keiki; Suzuki, Takahiro; Tomita, Taisuke; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Natsugari, Hideaki; Tojo, Arinobu; Shibutani, Makoto; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Hanazono, Yutaka; Ogawa, Seishi; Kurokawa, Mineo; Chiba, Shigeru

    2009-12-01

    Constitutive activation of Notch signaling is required for the proliferation of a subgroup of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALL). Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of Notch signaling inhibitors for treating T-ALL. To further examine this possibility, we applied a gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI) to T-ALL xenograft models. Treatment of established subcutaneous tumors with GSI resulted in partial or complete regression of tumors arising from four T-ALL cell lines that were also sensitive to GSI in vitro. To elucidate the mechanism of action, we transduced DND-41 cells with the active form of Notch1 (aN1), which conferred resistance to in vitro GSI treatment. Nevertheless, in vivo treatment with GSI induced a partial but significant regression of subcutaneous tumors that developed from aN1-transduced DND-41 cells, whereas it induced complete regression of tumors that developed from mock-transduced DND-41 cells. These findings indicate that the remarkable efficacy of GSI might be attributable to dual mechanisms, directly via apoptosis of DND-41 cells through the inhibition of cell-autonomous Notch signaling, and indirectly via disturbance of tumor angiogenesis through the inhibition of non-cell-autonomous Notch signaling. PMID:19775286

  4. Prey capture in zebrafish larvae serves as a model to study cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Akira; Kawakami, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Prey capture in zebrafish larvae is an innate behavior which can be observed as early as 4~days postfertilization, the day when they start to swim. This simple behavior apparently involves several neural processes including visual perception, recognition, decision-making, and motor control, and, therefore, serves as a good model system to study cognitive functions underlying natural behaviors in vertebrates. Recent progresses in imaging techniques provided us with a unique opportunity to image neuronal activity in the brain of an intact fish in real-time while the fish perceives a natural prey, paramecium. By expanding this approach, it would be possible to image entire brain areas at a single-cell resolution in real-time during prey capture, and identify neuronal circuits important for cognitive functions. Further, activation or inhibition of those neuronal circuits with recently developed optogenetic tools or neurotoxins should shed light on their roles. Thus, we will be able to explore the prey capture in zebrafish larvae more thoroughly at cellular levels, which should establish a basis of understanding of the cognitive function in vertebrates. PMID:23781176

  5. Vitamin K reduces hypermineralisation in zebrafish models of PXE and GACI.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Eirinn W; Apschner, Alexander; Schulte-Merker, Stefan

    2015-03-15

    The mineralisation disorder pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is associated with mutations in the transporter protein ABCC6. Patients with PXE suffer from calcified lesions in the skin, eyes and vasculature, and PXE is related to a more severe vascular calcification syndrome called generalised arterial calcification of infancy (GACI). Mutations in ABCC6 are linked to reduced levels of circulating vitamin K. Here, we describe a mutation in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) orthologue abcc6a, which results in extensive hypermineralisation of the axial skeleton. Administration of vitamin K to embryos was sufficient to restore normal levels of mineralisation. Vitamin K also reduced ectopic mineralisation in a zebrafish model of GACI, and warfarin exacerbated the mineralisation phenotype in both mutant lines. These data suggest that vitamin K could be a beneficial treatment for human patients with PXE or GACI. Additionally, we found that abcc6a is strongly expressed at the site of mineralisation rather than the liver, as it is in mammals, which has significant implications for our understanding of the function of ABCC6. PMID:25758222

  6. p53-dependent neuronal cell death in a DJ-1-deficient zebrafish model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bretaud, Sandrine; Allen, Claire; Ingham, Phillip W; Bandmann, Oliver

    2007-03-01

    Mutations in DJ-1 lead to early onset Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to elucidate further the underlying mechanisms leading to neuronal cell death in DJ-1 deficiency in vivo and determine whether the observed cell loss could be prevented pharmacologically. Inactivation of DJ-1 in zebrafish, Danio rerio, resulted in loss of dopaminergic neurons after exposure to hydrogen peroxide and the proteasome inhibitor MG132. DJ-1 knockdown by itself already resulted in increased p53 and Bax expression levels prior to toxin exposure without marked neuronal cell death, suggesting subthreshold activation of cell death pathways in DJ-1 deficiency. Proteasome inhibition led to a further increase of p53 and Bax expression with widespread neuronal cell death. Pharmacological p53 inhibition either before or during MG132 exposure in vivo prevented dopaminergic neuronal cell death in both cases. Simultaneous knockdown of DJ-1 and the negative p53 regulator mdm2 led to dopaminergic neuronal cell death even without toxin exposure, further implicating involvement of p53 in DJ-1 deficiency-mediated neuronal cell loss. Our study demonstrates the utility of zebrafish as a new animal model to study PD gene defects and suggests that modulation of downstream mechanisms, such as p53 inhibition, may be of therapeutic benefit. PMID:17166173

  7. Zebrafish as a model to study live mucus physiology

    E-print Network

    Jevtov, Irena

    Dysfunctional mucus barriers can result in important pulmonary and gastrointestinal conditions, but model systems to study the underlying causes are largely missing. We identified and characterized five mucin homologues ...

  8. Complement system in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shicui; Cui, Pengfei

    2014-09-01

    Zebrafish is recently emerging as a model species for the study of immunology and human diseases. Complement system is the humoral backbone of the innate immune defense, and our knowledge as such in zebrafish has dramatically increased in the recent years. This review summarizes the current research progress of zebrafish complement system. The global searching for complement components in genome database, together with published data, has unveiled the existence of all the orthologues of mammalian complement components identified thus far, including the complement regulatory proteins and complement receptors, in zebrafish. Interestingly, zebrafish complement components also display some distinctive features, such as prominent levels of extrahepatic expression and isotypic diversity of the complement components. Future studies should focus on the following issues that would be of special importance for understanding the physiological role of complement components in zebrafish: conclusive identification of complement genes, especially those with isotypic diversity; analysis and elucidation of function and mechanism of complement components; modulation of innate and adaptive immune response by complement system; and unconventional roles of complement-triggered pathways. PMID:24462834

  9. Identification of anti-prion compounds as efficient inhibitors of polyglutamine protein aggregation in a zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Niclas W; Broadley, Sarah A; Hirschberger, Thomas; Tavan, Paul; Kretzschmar, Hans A; Giese, Armin; Haass, Christian; Hartl, F Ulrich; Schmid, Bettina

    2007-03-23

    Several neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington disease (HD), are associated with aberrant folding and aggregation of polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion proteins. Here we established the zebrafish, Danio rerio, as a vertebrate HD model permitting the screening for chemical suppressors of polyQ aggregation and toxicity. Upon expression in zebrafish embryos, polyQ-expanded fragments of huntingtin (htt) accumulated in large SDS-insoluble inclusions, reproducing a key feature of HD pathology. Real time monitoring of inclusion formation in the living zebrafish indicated that inclusions grow by rapid incorporation of soluble htt species. Expression of mutant htt increased the frequency of embryos with abnormal morphology and the occurrence of apoptosis. Strikingly, apoptotic cells were largely devoid of visible aggregates, suggesting that soluble oligomeric precursors may instead be responsible for toxicity. As in nonvertebrate polyQ disease models, the molecular chaperones, Hsp40 and Hsp70, suppressed both polyQ aggregation and toxicity. Using the newly established zebrafish model, two compounds of the N'-benzylidene-benzohydrazide class directed against mammalian prion proved to be potent inhibitors of polyQ aggregation, consistent with a common structural mechanism of aggregation for prion and polyQ disease proteins. PMID:17170113

  10. The Zebrafish as a New Model for the In Vivo Study of Shigella flexneri Interaction with Phagocytes and Bacterial Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Mostowy, Serge; Boucontet, Laurent; Mazon Moya, Maria J.; Sirianni, Andrea; Boudinot, Pierre; Hollinshead, Michael; Cossart, Pascale; Herbomel, Philippe; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Colucci-Guyon, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy, an ancient and highly conserved intracellular degradation process, is viewed as a critical component of innate immunity because of its ability to deliver cytosolic bacteria to the lysosome. However, the role of bacterial autophagy in vivo remains poorly understood. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a vertebrate model for the study of infections because it is optically accessible at the larval stages when the innate immune system is already functional. Here, we have characterized the susceptibility of zebrafish larvae to Shigella flexneri, a paradigm for bacterial autophagy, and have used this model to study Shigella-phagocyte interactions in vivo. Depending on the dose, S. flexneri injected in zebrafish larvae were either cleared in a few days or resulted in a progressive and ultimately fatal infection. Using high resolution live imaging, we found that S. flexneri were rapidly engulfed by macrophages and neutrophils; moreover we discovered a scavenger role for neutrophils in eliminating infected dead macrophages and non-immune cell types that failed to control Shigella infection. We observed that intracellular S. flexneri could escape to the cytosol, induce septin caging and be targeted to autophagy in vivo. Depletion of p62 (sequestosome 1 or SQSTM1), an adaptor protein critical for bacterial autophagy in vitro, significantly increased bacterial burden and host susceptibility to infection. These results show the zebrafish larva as a new model for the study of S. flexneri interaction with phagocytes, and the manipulation of autophagy for anti-bacterial therapy in vivo. PMID:24039575

  11. Three-dimensional MR mapping of angiogenesis with  5 1(   3)-targeted theranostic nanoparticles in the MDA-MB-435 xenograft mouse model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne H. Schmieder; Shelton D. Caruthers; Huiying Zhang; Todd A. Williams; J. David Robertson; Samuel A. Wickline; Gregory M. Lanza

    2008-01-01

    Our objectives were 1) to characterize angiogenesis in the MDA-MB-435 xenograft mouse model with three-dimensional (3D) MR molecular im- aging using 51(RGD)- or irrelevant RGS-targeted paramagnetic nanoparticles and 2) to use MR molecu- lar imaging to assess the antiangiogenic effectiveness of 51(3)- vs. 3-targeted fumagillin (50 g\\/kg) nanoparticles. Tumor-bearing mice were imaged with MR before and after administration of either

  12. Increased mitochondrial activity in a novel IDH1-R132H mutant human oligodendroglioma xenograft model: in situ detection of 2-HG and ?-KG

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Point mutations in genes encoding NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases (especially IDH1) are common in lower grade diffuse gliomas and secondary glioblastomas and occur early during tumor development. The contribution of these mutations to gliomagenesis is not completely understood and research is hampered by the lack of relevant tumor models. We previously described the development of the patient-derived high-grade oligodendroglioma xenograft model E478 that carries the commonly occurring IDH1-R132H mutation. We here report on the analyses of E478 xenografts at the genetic, histologic and metabolic level. Results LC-MS and in situ mass spectrometric imaging by LESA-nano ESI-FTICR revealed high levels of the proposed oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG), the product of enzymatic conversion of ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG) by IDH1-R132H, in the tumor but not in surrounding brain parenchyma. ?-KG levels and total NADP+-dependent IDH activity were similar in IDH1-mutant and -wildtype xenografts, demonstrating that IDH1-mutated cancer cells maintain ?-KG levels. Interestingly, IDH1-mutant tumor cells in vivo present with high densities of mitochondria and increased levels of mitochondrial activity as compared to IDH1-wildtype xenografts. It is not yet clear whether this altered mitochondrial activity is a driver or a consequence of tumorigenesis. Conclusions The oligodendroglioma model presented here is a valuable model for further functional elucidation of the effects of IDH1 mutations on tumor metabolism and may aid in the rational development of novel therapeutic strategies for the large subgroup of gliomas carrying IDH1 mutations. PMID:24252742

  13. Therapeutic potential of chimeric anti-(ganglioside GD3) antibody KM871: antitumor activity in xenograft model of melanoma and effector function analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junji Kanazawa; So Ohta; Fumiko Fujita; Masahide Fujita; Nobuo Hanai; Shiro Akinaga; Masami Okabe

    2000-01-01

    KM871 is a chimeric antibody recognizing ganglioside GD3, which is one of the major gangliosides expressed on the cell surface\\u000a of human tumors of neuroectodermal origin. This study demonstrates the antitumor activity of KM871 against human melanoma\\u000a xenografts in nude mice, and analyzes the effector function operating in mice. In a well-established tumor model, KM871 showed\\u000a antitumor activity against H-15

  14. From Omics to Drug Metabolism and High Content Screen of Natural Product in Zebrafish: A New Model for Discovery of Neuroactive Compound

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ming Wai; Zhang, Zai Jun; Li, Shang; Lei, Benson; Yuan, Shuai; Cui, Guo Zhen; Man Hoi, Pui; Chan, Kelvin; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen

    2012-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently become a common model in the fields of genetics, environmental science, toxicology, and especially drug screening. Zebrafish has emerged as a biomedically relevant model for in vivo high content drug screening and the simultaneous determination of multiple efficacy parameters, including behaviour, selectivity, and toxicity in the content of the whole organism. A zebrafish behavioural assay has been demonstrated as a novel, rapid, and high-throughput approach to the discovery of neuroactive, psychoactive, and memory-modulating compounds. Recent studies found a functional similarity of drug metabolism systems in zebrafish and mammals, providing a clue with why some compounds are active in zebrafish in vivo but not in vitro, as well as providing grounds for the rationales supporting the use of a zebrafish screen to identify prodrugs. Here, we discuss the advantages of the zebrafish model for evaluating drug metabolism and the mode of pharmacological action with the emerging omics approaches. Why this model is suitable for identifying lead compounds from natural products for therapy of disorders with multifactorial etiopathogenesis and imbalance of angiogenesis, such as Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, cardiotoxicity, cerebral hemorrhage, dyslipidemia, and hyperlipidemia, is addressed. PMID:22919414

  15. Ovarian Tumor Attachment, Invasion, and Vascularization Reflect Unique Microenvironments in the Peritoneum: Insights from Xenograft and Mathematical Models

    PubMed Central

    Steinkamp, Mara P.; Winner, Kimberly Kanigel; Davies, Suzy; Muller, Carolyn; Zhang, Yong; Hoffman, Robert M.; Shirinifard, Abbas; Moses, Melanie; Jiang, Yi; Wilson, Bridget S.

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer relapse is often characterized by metastatic spread throughout the peritoneal cavity with tumors attached to multiple organs. In this study, interaction of ovarian cancer cells with the peritoneal tumor microenvironment was evaluated in a xenograft model based on intraperitoneal injection of fluorescent SKOV3.ip1 ovarian cancer cells. Intra-vital microscopy of mixed GFP-red fluorescent protein (RFP) cell populations injected into the peritoneum demonstrated that cancer cells aggregate and attach as mixed spheroids, emphasizing the importance of homotypic adhesion in tumor formation. Electron microscopy provided high resolution structural information about local attachment sites. Experimental measurements from the mouse model were used to build a three-dimensional cellular Potts ovarian tumor model (OvTM) that examines ovarian cancer cell attachment, chemotaxis, growth, and vascularization. OvTM simulations provide insight into the relative influence of cancer cell–cell adhesion, oxygen availability, and local architecture on tumor growth and morphology. Notably, tumors on the mesentery, omentum, or spleen readily invade the “open” architecture, while tumors attached to the gut encounter barriers that restrict invasion and instead rapidly expand into the peritoneal space. Simulations suggest that rapid neovascularization of SKOV3.ip1 tumors is triggered by constitutive release of angiogenic factors in the absence of hypoxia. This research highlights the importance of cellular adhesion and tumor microenvironment in the seeding of secondary ovarian tumors on diverse organs within the peritoneal cavity. Results of the OvTM simulations indicate that invasion is strongly influenced by features underlying the mesothelial lining at different sites, but is also affected by local production of chemotactic factors. The integrated in vivo mouse model and computer simulations provide a unique platform for evaluating targeted therapies for ovarian cancer relapse. PMID:23730620

  16. Towards a comprehensive eye model for zebrafish retinal imaging using full range spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, Maria; Weber, Anke; Cimalla, Peter; Köttig, Felix; Brand, Michael; Koch, Edmund

    2014-03-01

    In regenerative medicine, the zebrafish is a prominent animal model for studying degeneration and regeneration processes, e.g. of photoreceptor cells in the retina. By means of optical coherence tomography (OCT), these studies can be conducted over weeks using the same individual and hence reducing the variability of the results. To allow an improvement of zebrafish retinal OCT imaging by suitable optics, we developed a zebrafish eye model using geometrical data obtained by in vivo dispersion encoded full range OCT as well as a dispersion comprising gradient index (GRIN) lens model based on refractive index data found in the literature. Using non-sequential ray tracing, the focal length of the spherical GRIN lens (diameter of 0.96 mm) was determined to be 1.22 mm at 800 nm wavelength giving a Matheissen's ratio (ratio of focal length to radius of the lens) of 2.54, which fits well into the range between 2.19 and 2.82, found for various fish lenses. Additionally, a mean refractive index of 1.64 at 800 nm could be retrieved for the lens to yield the same focal position as found for the GRIN condition. With the aid of the zebrafish eye model, the optics of the OCT scanner head were adjusted to provide high-resolution retinal images with a field of view of 30° x 30°. The introduced model therefore provides the basis for improved retinal imaging with OCT and can be further used to study the image formation within the zebrafish eye.

  17. ptk7 mutant zebrafish models of congenital and idiopathic scoliosis implicate dysregulated Wnt signalling in disease

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Madeline; Gao, Xiaochong; Yu, Lisa X; Paria, Nandina; Henkelman, R. Mark; Wise, Carol A.; Ciruna, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Scoliosis is a complex genetic disorder of the musculoskeletal system, characterized by three-dimensional rotation of the spine. Curvatures caused by malformed vertebrae (congenital scoliosis (CS)) are apparent at birth. Spinal curvatures with no underlying vertebral abnormality (idiopathic scoliosis (IS)) most commonly manifest during adolescence. The genetic and biological mechanisms responsible for IS remain poorly understood due largely to limited experimental models. Here we describe zygotic ptk7 (Zptk7) mutant zebrafish, deficient in a critical regulator of Wnt signalling, as the first genetically defined developmental model of IS. We identify a novel sequence variant within a single IS patient that disrupts PTK7 function, consistent with a role for dysregulated Wnt activity in disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that embryonic loss-of-gene function in maternal-zygotic ptk7 mutants (MZptk7) leads to vertebral anomalies associated with CS. Our data suggest novel molecular origins of, and genetic links between, congenital and idiopathic forms of disease. PMID:25182715

  18. Targeted Hsp70 expression combined with CIK-activated immune reconstruction synergistically exerts antitumor efficacy in patient-derived hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yao; Fang, Lin; Peng, Zhangxiao; Ji, Weidan; Xu, Yang; Shen, Shuwen; Yan, Yan; Huang, Xuandong; Zheng, Junnian; Su, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    The patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) models can reproduce a similar natural genetic background and similar biological behaviors to tumor cells in patients, which is conducive to the assessment of personalized cancer treatment. In this study, to verify the targeting and effectiveness of the therapeutic strategy using a Survivin promoter-regulated oncolytic adenovirus expressing Hsp70, the PDTX models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were established in nude mice and the cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells were intravenously infused into mice to partially reconstruct the mouse immune function. The results demonstrated that, either the immune anti-tumor effect caused by CIK cell infusion or the oncolytic effect generated by oncolytic adenovirus replication was very limited. However, the synergistic tumor inhibitory effect was significantly enhanced after treatments with oncolytic adenovirus expressing Hsp70 combined with CIK cells. Oncolytic adenovirus mediated the specific expression of Hsp70 in cancer tissues allowed the CIK chemotaxis, and induce the infiltration of CD3+ T cells in tumor stroma, thereby exhibiting anti-tumor activity. The anti-tumor effect was more effective for the highly malignant tumor xenografts with highly Survivin expression. This strategy can synergistically activate multiple anti-tumor mechanisms and exert effective anti-tumor activities that have a significant inhibitory effect against the growth of HCC xenografts. PMID:25473902

  19. Targeted Hsp70 expression combined with CIK-activated immune reconstruction synergistically exerts antitumor efficacy in patient-derived hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft mouse models.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huanzhang; Qiu, Yinghe; Guo, Minggao; Huang, Yao; Fang, Lin; Peng, Zhangxiao; Ji, Weidan; Xu, Yang; Shen, Shuwen; Yan, Yan; Huang, Xuandong; Zheng, Junnian; Su, Changqing

    2015-01-20

    The patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) models can reproduce a similar natural genetic background and similar biological behaviors to tumor cells in patients, which is conducive to the assessment of personalized cancer treatment. In this study, to verify the targeting and effectiveness of the therapeutic strategy using a Survivin promoter-regulated oncolytic adenovirus expressing Hsp70, the PDTX models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were established in nude mice and the cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells were intravenously infused into mice to partially reconstruct the mouse immune function. The results demonstrated that, either the immune anti-tumor effect caused by CIK cell infusion or the oncolytic effect generated by oncolytic adenovirus replication was very limited. However, the synergistic tumor inhibitory effect was significantly enhanced after treatments with oncolytic adenovirus expressing Hsp70 combined with CIK cells. Oncolytic adenovirus mediated the specific expression of Hsp70 in cancer tissues allowed the CIK chemotaxis, and induce the infiltration of CD3+ T cells in tumor stroma, thereby exhibiting anti-tumor activity. The anti-tumor effect was more effective for the highly malignant tumor xenografts with highly Survivin expression. This strategy can synergistically activate multiple anti-tumor mechanisms and exert effective anti-tumor activities that have a significant inhibitory effect against the growth of HCC xenografts. PMID:25473902

  20. Effects of chitosan on xenograft models of melanoma in C57BL/6 mice and hepatoma formation in SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ming-Yang; Wu, Ming-Fang; Shang, Hung-Sheng; Chang, Jin-Biou; Shih, Yung-Luen; Chen, Yung-Liang; Hung, Hsiao-Fang; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Yeh, Chun; Wood, W Gibson; Hung, Fang-Ming; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2013-11-01

    According to the World Health Organization, Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a comprehensive term referring to traditional medical treatments and various forms of indigenous medicines, also known as indigenous or folk medicine. Cancer patients often use CAM in the form of nutritional supplements, psychological techniques and natural medical approaches in the place of or in parallel to conventional medicine. The present study aimed to determine if Chitosan can inhibit lung metastasis and hepatoma formation, by studying xenograft of B16F10 melanoma cells in C57BL/6 mice and of Smmu 7721 cells in SCID mice, respectively. For the lung metastasis model, after a five-week treatment, the survival rates of B6 mice were 15% for the control group and 35%, 20%, 45% and 40% for the 320,000 kDa, 173,000 kDa, 86,000 kDa and 8,000 kDa molecular-weight treatment groups, respectively. Chitosan treatment dramatically increased lifespan and inhibited tumor metastasis especially in treatment groups of the low-molecular weight compound. For the hepatoma growth model, the size of the liver tumor mass was approximately >14 mm in the control group. In comparison to the control group, the tumor mass grew slowly with Chitosan treatment, especially at the low-molecular weight treatment group. Chitosan slowed-down the rate of tumor growth but did not inhibit tumor formation. Data presented herein demonstrate that Chitosan has anticancer effects and thus further study of the substance is warranted to examine for mechanisms of action and optimal dosage. PMID:24222124

  1. Quantitative Phenotyping-Based In Vivo Chemical Screening in a Zebrafish Model of Leukemia Stem Cell Xenotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Beibei; Shimada, Yasuhito; Kuroyanagi, Junya; Umemoto, Noriko; Nishimura, Yuhei; Tanaka, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish-based chemical screening has recently emerged as a rapid and efficient method to identify important compounds that modulate specific biological processes and to test the therapeutic efficacy in disease models, including cancer. In leukemia, the ablation of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) is necessary to permanently eradicate the leukemia cell population. However, because of the very small number of LSCs in leukemia cell populations, their use in xenotransplantation studies (in vivo) and the difficulties in functionally and pathophysiologically replicating clinical conditions in cell culture experiments (in vitro), the progress of drug discovery for LSC inhibitors has been painfully slow. In this study, we developed a novel phenotype-based in vivo screening method using LSCs xenotransplanted into zebrafish. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive (ALDH+) cells were purified from chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells tagged with a fluorescent protein (Kusabira-orange) and then implanted in young zebrafish at 48 hours post-fertilization. Twenty-four hours after transplantation, the animals were treated with one of eight different therapeutic agents (imatinib, dasatinib, parthenolide, TDZD-8, arsenic trioxide, niclosamide, salinomycin, and thioridazine). Cancer cell proliferation, and cell migration were determined by high-content imaging. Of the eight compounds that were tested, all except imatinib and dasatinib selectively inhibited ALDH+ cell proliferation in zebrafish. In addition, these anti-LSC agents suppressed tumor cell migration in LSC-xenotransplants. Our approach offers a simple, rapid, and reliable in vivo screening system that facilitates the phenotype-driven discovery of drugs effective in suppressing LSCs. PMID:24454867

  2. Quantitative phenotyping-based in vivo chemical screening in a zebrafish model of leukemia stem cell xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Beibei; Shimada, Yasuhito; Kuroyanagi, Junya; Umemoto, Noriko; Nishimura, Yuhei; Tanaka, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish-based chemical screening has recently emerged as a rapid and efficient method to identify important compounds that modulate specific biological processes and to test the therapeutic efficacy in disease models, including cancer. In leukemia, the ablation of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) is necessary to permanently eradicate the leukemia cell population. However, because of the very small number of LSCs in leukemia cell populations, their use in xenotransplantation studies (in vivo) and the difficulties in functionally and pathophysiologically replicating clinical conditions in cell culture experiments (in vitro), the progress of drug discovery for LSC inhibitors has been painfully slow. In this study, we developed a novel phenotype-based in vivo screening method using LSCs xenotransplanted into zebrafish. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive (ALDH+) cells were purified from chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells tagged with a fluorescent protein (Kusabira-orange) and then implanted in young zebrafish at 48 hours post-fertilization. Twenty-four hours after transplantation, the animals were treated with one of eight different therapeutic agents (imatinib, dasatinib, parthenolide, TDZD-8, arsenic trioxide, niclosamide, salinomycin, and thioridazine). Cancer cell proliferation, and cell migration were determined by high-content imaging. Of the eight compounds that were tested, all except imatinib and dasatinib selectively inhibited ALDH+ cell proliferation in zebrafish. In addition, these anti-LSC agents suppressed tumor cell migration in LSC-xenotransplants. Our approach offers a simple, rapid, and reliable in vivo screening system that facilitates the phenotype-driven discovery of drugs effective in suppressing LSCs. PMID:24454867

  3. Kindlin-1 mutant zebrafish as an in vivo model system to study adhesion mechanisms in the epidermis.

    PubMed

    Postel, Ruben; Margadant, Coert; Fischer, Boris; Kreft, Maaike; Janssen, Hans; Secades, Pablo; Zambruno, Giovanna; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2013-09-01

    From a forward genetic screen for epidermal defects in zebrafish, we identified a loss-of-function mutation in Kindlin-1, an essential regulator of integrin function. The mutation generates a premature stop codon, deleting the integrin-binding site. The mutant zebrafish develops cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion defects in the basal epidermis leading to progressive fin rupturing, and was therefore designated rupturing-of-fins (rof). Similar defects were observed in the epidermis of Kindler syndrome patients, carrying a loss-of-function mutation in kindlin-1. Mutational analysis and rescue experiments in zebrafish revealed that residues K610, W612, and I647 in the F3 domain are essential for Kindlin-1 function in vivo, and that Kindlin-2 can functionally compensate for the loss of Kindlin-1. The fin phenotype of rof/kindlin-1 mutants resembles that of badfin mutants, carrying a mutation in integrin ?3. We show here that this mutation impairs the biosynthesis of integrin ?3?1 and causes cell-matrix and cell-cell defects in vivo. Whereas both Integrin-linked kinase (Ilk) and Kindlin-1 cooperate with Integrin ?3?1 to resist trauma-induced epidermal defects, Kindlin-1 and Ilk, surprisingly, do not act synergistically but in parallel. Thus, the rof/kindlin-1 mutant zebrafish provides a unique model system to study epidermal adhesion mechanisms in vivo. PMID:23549420

  4. Transient Exposure to Ethanol during Zebrafish Embryogenesis Results in Defects in Neuronal Differentiation: An Alternative Model System to Study FASD

    PubMed Central

    Joya, Xavier; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Pujades, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Background The exposure of the human embryo to ethanol results in a spectrum of disorders involving multiple organ systems, including the impairment of the development of the central nervous system (CNS). In spite of the importance for human health, the molecular basis of prenatal ethanol exposure remains poorly understood, mainly to the difficulty of sample collection. Zebrafish is now emerging as a powerful organism for the modeling and the study of human diseases. In this work, we have assessed the sensitivity of specific subsets of neurons to ethanol exposure during embryogenesis and we have visualized the sensitive embryonic developmental periods for specific neuronal groups by the use of different transgenic zebrafish lines. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to evaluate the teratogenic effects of acute ethanol exposure, we exposed zebrafish embryos to ethanol in a given time window and analyzed the effects in neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation and brain patterning. Zebrafish larvae exposed to ethanol displayed small eyes and/or a reduction of the body length, phenotypical features similar to the observed in children with prenatal exposure to ethanol. When neuronal populations were analyzed, we observed a clear reduction in the number of differentiated neurons in the spinal cord upon ethanol exposure. There was a decrease in the population of sensory neurons mainly due to a decrease in cell proliferation and subsequent apoptosis during neuronal differentiation, with no effect in motoneuron specification. Conclusion Our investigation highlights that transient exposure to ethanol during early embryonic development affects neuronal differentiation although does not result in defects in early neurogenesis. These results establish the use of zebrafish embryos as an alternative research model to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) of ethanol-induced developmental toxicity at very early stages of embryonic development. PMID:25383948

  5. Evaluation of the NOD/SCID xenograft model for glucocorticoid-regulated gene expression in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoids such as prednisolone and dexamethasone are critical drugs used in multi-agent chemotherapy protocols used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and response to glucocorticoids is highly predictive of outcome. The NOD/SCID xenograft mouse model of ALL is a clinically relevant model in which the mice develop a systemic leukemia which retains the fundamental biological characteristics of the original disease. Here we report a study evaluating the NOD/SCID xenograft mouse model to investigate glucocorticoid-induced gene expression. Cells from a glucocorticoid-sensitive xenograft derived from a child with B-cell precursor ALL were inoculated into NOD/SCID mice. When highly engrafted the mice were randomized into groups of 4 to receive dexamethasone 15 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection or vehicle control. Leukemia cells were harvested from mice spleens at 0, 8, 24 or 48 hours thereafter, and gene expression analyzed on Illumina WG-6_V3 chips, comparing all groups to time 0 hours. Results The 8 hour dexamethasone-treated timepoint had the highest number of significantly differentially expressed genes, with fewer observed at the 24 and 48 hour timepoints, and with minimal changes seen across the time-matched controls. When compared to publicly available datasets of glucocorticoid-induced gene expression from an in vitro cell line study and from an in vivo study of patients with ALL, at the level of pathways, expression changes in the 8 hour xenograft samples showed a similar response to patients treated with glucocorticoids. Replicate analysis revealed that at the 8 hour timepoint, a dataset with high signal and differential expression, using data from 3 replicates instead of 4 resulted in excellent recovery scores of > 0.9. However at other timepoints with less signal very poor recovery scores were obtained with 3 replicates. Conclusions The NOD/SCID xenograft mouse model provides a reproducible experimental system in which to investigate clinically-relevant mechanisms of drug-induced gene regulation in ALL; the 8 hour timepoint provides the highest number of significantly differentially expressed genes; time-matched controls are redundant and excellent recovery scores can be obtained with 3 replicates. PMID:22093874

  6. Zebrafish as a model to assess cancer heterogeneity, progression and relapse

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Jessica S.; Langenau, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Clonal evolution is the process by which genetic and epigenetic diversity is created within malignant tumor cells. This process culminates in a heterogeneous tumor, consisting of multiple subpopulations of cancer cells that often do not contain the same underlying mutations. Continuous selective pressure permits outgrowth of clones that harbor lesions that are capable of enhancing disease progression, including those that contribute to therapy resistance, metastasis and relapse. Clonal evolution and the resulting intratumoral heterogeneity pose a substantial challenge to biomarker identification, personalized cancer therapies and the discovery of underlying driver mutations in cancer. The purpose of this Review is to highlight the unique strengths of zebrafish cancer models in assessing the roles that intratumoral heterogeneity and clonal evolution play in cancer, including transgenesis, imaging technologies, high-throughput cell transplantation approaches and in vivo single-cell functional assays. PMID:24973745

  7. pH-Responsive Artemisinin Dimer in Lipid Nanoparticles Are Effective Against Human Breast Cancer in a Xenograft Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yitong J; Zhan, Xi; Wang, Liguo; Ho, Rodney J Y; Sasaki, Tomikazu

    2015-05-01

    Artemisinin (ART), a well-known antimalaria drug, also exhibits anticancer activities. We previously reported a group of novel dimeric artemisinin piperazine conjugates (ADPs) possessing pH-dependent aqueous solubility and a proof-of-concept lipid nanoparticle formulation based on natural egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC). EPC may induce allergic reactions in individuals sensitive to egg products. Therefore, the goal of this report is to develop ADP-synthetic lipid particles suitable for in vivo evaluation. We found that ADP binds to 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) with greater than 90% efficiency and forms drug-lipid particles (d ? 80 nm). Cryo-electron microscopy of the ADP drug-lipid particles revealed unilamellar vesicle-like structures. Detailed characterization studies show insertion of the ADP lead compound, ADP109, into the DPPC membrane and the presence of an aqueous core. Over 50% of the ADP109 was released in 48 hours at pH4 compared with less than 20% at neutral. ADP109-lipid particles exhibited high potency against human breast cancer, but was tolerated well by nontumorigenic cells. In MDA-MB-231 mouse xenograft model, lipid-bound ADP109 particles were more effective than paclitaxel in controlling tumor growth. Cellular uptake studies showed endocytosis of the nanoparticles and release of core-trapped marker throughout the cytosol at 37°C. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the in vivo feasibility of lipid-bound ART dimer for cancer chemotherapy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:1815-1824, 2015. PMID:25753991

  8. Naltrindole Inhibits Human Multiple Myeloma Cell Proliferation In Vitro and in a Murine Xenograft Model In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mundra, Jyoti Joshi; Terskiy, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    It has been demonstrated previously that immune cell activation and proliferation were sensitive to the effects of naltrindole, a nonpeptidic ?-opioid receptor-selective antagonist; therefore, we hypothesized that human multiple myeloma (MM) would be a valuable model for studying potential antineoplastic properties of naltrindole. [3H]naltrindole exhibited saturable, low-affinity binding to intact human MM cells; however, the pharmacological profile of the binding site differed considerably from the properties of ?-, ?-, and ?-opioid receptors, and opioid receptor mRNA was not detected in MM cells by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Naltrindole inhibited the proliferation of cultured human U266 MM cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner with an EC50 of 16 ?M. The naltrindole-induced inhibition of U266 cell proliferation was not blocked by a 10-fold molar excess of naltrexone, a nonselective opioid antagonist. Additive inhibition of MM cell proliferation was observed when using a combination of naltrindole with the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium valproate, the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, the glucocorticoid receptor agonist dexamethasone, and the HMG CoA reductase inhibitor simvastatin. Treatment of U266 cells with naltrindole significantly decreased the level of the active, phosphorylated form of the kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Akt, which may be related to its antiproliferative activity. The antiproliferative activity of naltrindole toward MM cells was maintained in cocultures of MM and bone marrow-derived stromal cells, mimicking the bone marrow microenvironment. In vivo, naltrindole significantly decreased tumor cell volumes in human MM cell xenografts in severe combined immunodeficient mice. We hypothesize that naltrindole inhibits the proliferation of MM cells through a nonopioid receptor-dependent mechanism. PMID:22537770

  9. Naltrindole inhibits human multiple myeloma cell proliferation in vitro and in a murine xenograft model in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mundra, Jyoti Joshi; Terskiy, Alexandra; Howells, Richard D

    2012-08-01

    It has been demonstrated previously that immune cell activation and proliferation were sensitive to the effects of naltrindole, a nonpeptidic ?-opioid receptor-selective antagonist; therefore, we hypothesized that human multiple myeloma (MM) would be a valuable model for studying potential antineoplastic properties of naltrindole. [(3)H]naltrindole exhibited saturable, low-affinity binding to intact human MM cells; however, the pharmacological profile of the binding site differed considerably from the properties of ?-, ?-, and ?-opioid receptors, and opioid receptor mRNA was not detected in MM cells by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Naltrindole inhibited the proliferation of cultured human U266 MM cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner with an EC(50) of 16 ?M. The naltrindole-induced inhibition of U266 cell proliferation was not blocked by a 10-fold molar excess of naltrexone, a nonselective opioid antagonist. Additive inhibition of MM cell proliferation was observed when using a combination of naltrindole with the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium valproate, the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, the glucocorticoid receptor agonist dexamethasone, and the HMG CoA reductase inhibitor simvastatin. Treatment of U266 cells with naltrindole significantly decreased the level of the active, phosphorylated form of the kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Akt, which may be related to its antiproliferative activity. The antiproliferative activity of naltrindole toward MM cells was maintained in cocultures of MM and bone marrow-derived stromal cells, mimicking the bone marrow microenvironment. In vivo, naltrindole significantly decreased tumor cell volumes in human MM cell xenografts in severe combined immunodeficient mice. We hypothesize that naltrindole inhibits the proliferation of MM cells through a nonopioid receptor-dependent mechanism. PMID:22537770

  10. Metformin displays anti-myeloma activity and synergistic effect with dexamethasone in in vitro and in vivo xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Zi, Fu-Ming; He, Jing-Song; Li, Yi; Wu, Cai; Yang, Li; Yang, Yang; Wang, Li-Juan; He, Dong-Hua; Zhao, Yi; Wu, Wen-Jun; Zheng, Gao-Feng; Han, Xiao-Yan; Huang, He; Yi, Qing; Cai, Zhen

    2015-01-28

    Epidemiologic studies and meta-analyses have suggested that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have a higher incidence of malignancies, including myeloma. Metformin is a widely prescribed antidiabetic drug. Recently, researchers have shown that metformin has direct anticancer activity against many tumor cell lines, mainly through activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) or reducing the blood insulin level. In the present study, we investigated whether metformin exerts an anti-myeloma effect in in vitro and in vivo xenograft models and explored the underlying mechanism. We found that metformin can inhibit proliferation of MM cells by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. Western blot showed that metformin activated caspase 3, caspase 9, PARP-1, Bak, and p21 and inactivated Mcl-1, HIAP-1, cyclin D1, CDK4, and CDK6. Metformin inhibited the expression of insulin growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR), and phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) and the downstream mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). IGF-I blocked metformin-induced MM cell apoptosis and reactivation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Metformin also demonstrated synergistic activity with dexamethasone but not bortezomib to eradicate MM cells in vitro and in vivo, especially in MM.1S cells. We conclude that metformin inhibits MM cell proliferation through the IGF-1R/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Metformin and dexamethasone combination therapy may be an option for MM treatment. PMID:25305450

  11. Antibody-directed neutralization of annexin II (ANX II) inhibits neoangiogenesis and human breast tumor growth in a xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Meena; Blackman, Marc R; Sharma, Mahesh C

    2012-02-01

    Activation of the fibrinolytic pathway has long been associated with human breast cancer. Plasmin is the major end product of the fibrinolytic pathway and is critical for normal physiological functions. The mechanism by which plasmin is generated in breast cancer is not yet fully described. We previously identified annexin II (ANX II), a fibrinolytic receptor, in human breast tumor tissue samples and observed a strong positive correlation with advanced stage cancer (Sharma et al., 2006a). We further demonstrated that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) binds to ANX II in invasive breast cancer MDA-MB231cells, which leads to plasmin generation (Sharma et al., 2010). We hypothesize that ANX II-dependent plasmin generation in breast tumor is necessary to trigger the switch to neoangiogenesis, thereby stimulating a more aggressive cancer phenotype. Our immunohistochemical studies of human breast tumor tissues provide compelling evidence of a strong positive correlation between ANX II expression and neoangiogenesis, and suggest that ANX II is a potential target to slow or inhibit breast tumor growth by inhibiting neoangiogenesis. We now report that administration of anti-ANX II antibody potently inhibits the growth of human breast tumor in a xenograft model. Inhibition of tumor growth is at least partly due to attenuation of neoangiogenic activity within the tumor. In vitro studies demonstrate that anti-ANX II antibody inhibits angiogenesis on three dimensional matrigel cultures by eliciting endothelial cell (EC) death likely due to apoptosis. Taken together, these data suggest that selective disruption of the fibrinolytic activity of ANX II may provide a novel strategy for specific inhibition of neoangiogenesis in human breast cancer. PMID:22044461

  12. FDG small animal PET permits early detection of malignant cells in a xenograft murine model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina Nanni; Korinne Di Leo; Roberto Tonelli; Cinzia Pettinato; Domenico Rubello; Antonello Spinelli; Silvia Trespidi; Valentina Ambrosini; Paolo Castellucci; Mohsen Farsad; Roberto Franchi; Andrea Pession; Stefano Fanti

    2007-01-01

    Purpose  The administration of new anticancer drugs in animal models is the first step from in vitro to in vivo pre-clinical protocols.\\u000a At this stage it is crucial to ensure that cells are in the logarithmic phase of growth and to avoid vascular impairment,\\u000a which can cause inhomogeneous distribution of the drug within the tumour and thus lead to bias in

  13. Focused chemical genomics using zebrafish xenotransplantation as a pre-clinical therapeutic platform for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Victoria L.; Veinotte, Chansey J.; Corkery, Dale P.; Pinder, Jordan B.; LeBlanc, Marissa A.; Bedard, Karen; Weng, Andrew P.; Berman, Jason N.; Dellaire, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Cancer therapeutics is evolving to precision medicine, with the goal of matching targeted compounds with molecular aberrations underlying a patient’s cancer. While murine models offer a pre-clinical tool, associated costs and time are not compatible with actionable patient-directed interventions. Using the paradigm of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, a high-risk disease with defined molecular underpinnings, we developed a zebrafish human cancer xenotransplantation model to inform therapeutic decisions. Using a focused chemical genomic approach, we demonstrate that xenografted cell lines harboring mutations in the NOTCH1 and PI3K/AKT pathways respond concordantly to their targeted therapies, patient-derived T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia can be successfully engrafted in zebrafish and specific drug responses can be quantitatively determined. Using this approach, we identified a mutation sensitive to ?-secretase inhibition in a xenograft from a child with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, confirmed by Sanger sequencing and validated as a gain-of-function NOTCH1 mutation. The zebrafish xenotransplantation platform provides a novel cost-effective means of tailoring leukemia therapy in real time. PMID:25281505

  14. Development of a large-animal human brain tumor xenograft model in immunosuppressed cats.

    PubMed

    Krushelnycky, B W; Farr-Jones, M A; Mielke, B; McKean, J D; Weir, B K; Petruk, K C

    1991-05-01

    A large-animal model was developed to facilitate the noninvasive investigation of the effect on the human glioma-derived D-54 MG (glioblastoma multiforme) continuous cell line of a variety of therapeutic regimens. Twenty random-bred male cats were inoculated intracerebrally with 1 x 10(7) D-54 MG tumor cells after being initiated on one of three preparatory regimens of cyclosporin A p.o. Reproducible success of D-54 MG xenotransplantation (100%, 6 of 6 cats) was achieved only after pretreatment with 120 mg cyclosporin A p.o. (24-30 mg/kg) daily for greater than or equal to 10 days prior to tumor implantation. High-performance liquid chromatography-derived whole blood cyclosporin A 12-h trough levels of greater than or equal to 640 ng/ml were seen in successful implants. Lesions ranging from 2 to 20 mm in diameter were seen in cats sacrificed 27-44 days after implantation with no growth seen in control animals. Histopathological examination revealed the tumors to be well-circumscribed anaplastic intracerebral tumors with some invasion into surrounding host parenchyma. Perivascular lymphocytic cuffing was observed, but intratumoral lymphocytic infiltration was minimal. Gadolinium-EDTA-enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance imaging provided accurate tumor localization in T1-weighted images (TE 26 ms; TR 600 ms). Biochemical tests of kidney, liver, and hematological function were within normal limits, although 10% (2 of 20) of the animals developed gingival hyperplasia, and 5% (1 of 20) developed intussusception. The reproducible growth of the D-54 MG human glioblastoma cell line in a large-animal model eliminates many of the limitations associated with the standard nude mouse/rat model, thereby providing a novel test bed for a variety of imaging modalities as well as for drug immunoconjugate localization and toxicity studies. PMID:2015604

  15. Multicolor Fluorescent Intravital Live Microscopy (FILM) for Surgical Tumor Resection in a Mouse Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Greg M.; Figueiredo, Jose L.; Weissleder, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Background Complete surgical resection of neoplasia remains one of the most efficient tumor therapies. However, malignant cell clusters are often left behind during surgery due to the inability to visualize and differentiate them against host tissue. Here we establish the feasibility of multicolor fluorescent intravital live microscopy (FILM) where multiple cellular and/or unique tissue compartments are stained simultaneously and imaged in real time. Methodology/Principal Findings Theoretical simulations of imaging probe localization were carried out for three agents with specificity for cancer cells, stromal host response, or vascular perfusion. This transport analysis gave insight into the probe pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution, facilitating the experimental design and allowing predictions to be made about the localization of the probes in other animal models and in the clinic. The imaging probes were administered systemically at optimal time points based on the simulations, and the multicolor FILM images obtained in vivo were then compared to conventional pathological sections. Our data show the feasibility of real time in vivo pathology at cellular resolution and molecular specificity with excellent agreement between intravital and traditional in vitro immunohistochemistry. Conclusions/Significance Multicolor FILM is an accurate method for identifying malignant tissue and cells in vivo. The imaging probes distributed in a manner similar to predictions based on transport principles, and these models can be used to design future probes and experiments. FILM can provide critical real time feedback and should be a useful tool for more effective and complete cancer resection. PMID:19956597

  16. Mapping of Zebrafish Research: A Global Outlook

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, Gopalakrishnan; Panwar, Yatish

    2013-01-01

    Abstract On the basis of analysis of 17,151 records on zebrafish identified from Zebrafish Information Network: the zebrafish model organism database and Web of Science, the research performance on this model organism has been evaluated. The earliest research work on zebrafish as reflected in the databases goes back to 1951. After a rather slow growth till the 1980s, research on zebrafish gained momentum in the 1990s. Analysis shows a rapid and consistent increase in the publication output with 226 publications in the year 1996, to 1929 publications in the year 2012. The prominent areas of zebrafish research, journals, and leading authors as reflected from the research output have been identified. USA is the most productive country with 8196 articles. The most frequently used keywords were also determined to gain insights about the research trends and some of the commonly used keywords other than zebrafish and Danio rerio are development, retina, and gene expression. PMID:24131434

  17. Using Zebrafish to Study Renal Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    McCampbell, Kristen K.; Wingert, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the zebrafish has become one of the major vertebrate model organisms used in biomedical research. In this arena, the zebrafish has emerged as an applicable system for the study of kidney diseases and renal regeneration. The relevance of the zebrafish model for nephrology research has been increasingly appreciated as the understanding of zebrafish kidney structure, ontogeny, and the response to damage has steadily expanded. Recent studies have documented the amazing regenerative characteristics of the zebrafish kidney, which include the ability to replace epithelial populations after acute injury and to grow new renal functional units, termed nephrons. Here we discuss how nephron composition is conserved between zebrafish and mammals, and highlight how recent findings from zebrafish studies utilizing transgenic technologies and chemical genetics can complement traditional murine approaches in the effort to dissect how the kidney responds to acute damage and identify therapeutics that enhance human renal regeneration. PMID:24183931

  18. Uptake of verteporfin by orthotopic xenograft pancreas models with different levels of aggression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, Julia; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Chen, Alina; Hoopes, P. Jack; Rizvi, Imran; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2009-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive disease with a poor prognosis, usually treated with chemoradiation therapy. Interstitial photodynamic therapy is a potentially effective adjuvant treatment that is under development. In the current study, two orthotopic pancreatic cancer models (AsPC-1 and Panc-1), have been characterized with respect to growth rates, morphology and liposomal drug (Verteporfin) uptake and distribution in SCID mice. Fluorescence of Verteporfin was measured in liver and tumor in vivo using a PDT fluorescence dosimeter with measurements taken before and up to one hour after tail vein injection. Fluorescence reached a plateau by about 15 minutes and did not decrease over the first hour. At time points from 15 minutes to 24 hrs, the internal organs (kidney, spleen, pancreas, tumor, muscle, lung, liver, and skin were excised and scanned on a Typhoon imager. The ratio of fluorescence in tumor versus normal tissues was analyzed with image processing, calculated at each time point and compared to in vivo results. Tissue distribution of Verteporfin in relation to functional vasculature marked by DiOc7 was carried out on frozen sections. Final analysis will result in determination of the ideal time point to administer light to achieve maximum tumor destruction while preserving normal tissue.

  19. In vivo evaluation of curcumin-loaded nanoparticles in a A549 xenograft mice model.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hai-Tao; Zhang, De-Geng; Wu, Xiao-Li; Huang, Xin-En; Chen, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin (Cum) has been reported to have potential chemo-preventive and chemotherapeutic activity through influencing various processes, inducing cell cycle arrest, differentiation and apoptosis in a series of cancers. However, the poor solubility of Cum limits its further applications in the treatment of cancer. We have previously reported Cum-loaded nanoparticles (Cum-NPs) prepared with amphilic methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-polycaprolactone (mPEG-PCL) block copolymers. The current study demonstrated superior antitumor efficacy of Cum-NPs over free Cum in the treatment of lung cancer. In vivo evaluation further demonstrated superior anticancer effects of Cum-NPs by delaying tumor growth compared to free Cum in an established A549 transplanted mice model. Moreover, Cum-NPs showed little toxicity to normal tissues including bone marrow, liver and kidney at a therapeutic dose. These results suggest that Cum-NPs are effective to inhibit the growth of human lung cancer with little toxicity to normal tissues, and could provide a clinically useful therapeutic regimen. They thus merit more research to evaluate the feasibility of clinical application. PMID:23534763

  20. Combined magnetic resonance, fluorescence, and histology imaging strategy in a human breast tumor xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lu; Greenwood, Tiffany R.; Amstalden van Hove, Erika R.; Chughtai, Kamila; Raman, Venu; Winnard, Paul T.; Heeren, Ron; Artemov, Dmitri; Glunde, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Applications of molecular imaging in cancer and other diseases frequently require combining in vivo imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance and optical imaging, with ex vivo optical, fluorescence, histology, and immunohistochemical (IHC) imaging, to investigate and relate molecular and biological processes to imaging parameters within the same region of interest. We have developed a multimodal image reconstruction and fusion framework that accurately combines in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), ex vivo brightfield and fluorescence microscopic imaging, and ex vivo histology imaging. Ex vivo brightfield microscopic imaging was used as an intermediate modality to facilitate the ultimate link between ex vivo histology and in vivo MRI/MRSI. Tissue sectioning necessary for optical and histology imaging required generation of a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction module for 2D ex vivo optical and histology imaging data. We developed an external fiducial marker based 3D reconstruction method, which was able to fuse optical brightfield and fluorescence with histology imaging data. Registration of 3D tumor shape was pursued to combine in vivo MRI/MRSI and ex vivo optical brightfield and fluorescence imaging data. This registration strategy was applied to in vivo MRI/MRSI, ex vivo optical brightfield/fluorescence, as well as histology imaging data sets obtained from human breast tumor models. 3D human breast tumor data sets were successfully reconstructed and fused with this platform. PMID:22945331

  1. The Zebrafish- Danio rerio – Is a Useful Model for Measuring the Effects of Small-molecule Mitigators of Late Effects of Ionizing Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    EPPERLY, MICHAEL W.; BAHARY, NATHAN; QUADER, MUBINA; DEWALD, VALERIE; GREENBERGER, JOEL S.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim Use of zebrafish models may decrease the cost of screening new irradiation protectors and mitigators. Materials and Methods Zebrafish (Danio rerio) models were tested for screening water-soluble radiation protectors and mitigators. Irradiation of embryos and monitoring survival, and measuring fibrosis of the caudal musculature of adults allowed for testing of acute and late effects, respectively. Results Incubation of zebrafish embryos either before or after irradiation in ethyl pyruvate (1 mM) increased survival. Irradiation of adults to 15 to 75 Gy, delivered in single-fraction at 13 Gy/min, showed dose-dependent fibrosis at 30 days, quantitated as physiological decrease in swimming tail movement, and histopathological detection of collagen deposition in the dorsal musculature. Continuous administration of small-molecule radioprotector drugs in the water after irradiation reduced both acute and chronic injuries. Conclusion The zebrafish is cost-effective for screening new radiation countermeasures. PMID:23160669

  2. O11.2AG-221 offers a survival advantage in a primary human IDH2 mutant AML xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Yen, K; Wang, F; Travins, J; Chen, Y; Yang, H; Straley, K; Choe, S; Dorsch, M; Agresta, S; Schenkein, D; Biller, S; Su, M

    2015-03-01

    Somatic point mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH1/2) confer a gain-of-function in cancer cells resulting in the accumulation and secretion of an onco-metabolite, R (-)-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). High levels of 2HG have been shown to inhibit ?KG dependent dioxygenases including histone and DNA demethylases, which play a key role in regulating the epigenetic state of cells. Recently, ex vivo treatment with AGI-6780, a potent IDH2 R140Q inhibitor induced cellular differentiation of leukemic blast cells isolated from primary human AML patient samples harboring an IDH2 R140Q mutation. These data provided the first evidence that inhibition of mutant IDH2 can reverse the block in cellular differentiation conferred by high levels of 2HG and could provide a therapeutic benefit to patients. AG-221 is a potent and selective inhibitor of the IDH2 mutant enzyme and is currently being evaluated in a first-in-human study entitled: A Phase 1, Multicenter, Open-Label, Dose-Escalation, Safety, Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacodynamic, and Clinical Activity Study of Orally Administered AG-221 in Subjects with Advanced Hematologic Malignancies with an IDH2 Mutation. The compound has been demonstrated to reduce 2-HG levels by >90% and reverse histone and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hypermethylation in vitro, and to induce differentiation in leukemia cell models. We evaluated the efficacy of AG-221 in a primary human AML xenograft model carrying the IDH2 R140Q mutation. This is an aggressive model with mortality from AML consistently occurring by day 80, following tail vein engraftment. Results show that AG-221 is able to potently reduce 2HG found in the bone marrow, plasma and urine of engrafted mice. Treatment also induced a dose dependent, statistically significant, survival benefit where all mice in the high dose treatment group survived to the end of study. We also saw a dose dependent proliferative burst of the human specific CD45+ blast cells followed by cellular differentiation as measured by the expression of CD11b, CD14 and CD15 and cell morphology. Furthermore, the onset of differentiation correlated with survival, whereas mice that died in the low dose groups failed to show signs of cellular differentiation. These data provide strong preclinical in vivo evidence that AG-221 may have clinical benefit for IDH2 mutant patients through the reduction of 2HG and the induction of blast differentiation. PMID:25795817

  3. The zebrafish as a novel animal model to study the molecular mechanisms of mechano-electrical feedback in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Werdich, Andreas A; Brzezinski, Anna; Jeyaraj, Darwin; Ficker, Eckhard; Wan, Xiaoping; McDermott, Brian M; Sabeh, M Khaled; MacRae, Calum A; Rosenbaum, David S

    2013-01-01

    Altered mechanical loading of the heart leads to hypertrophy, decompensated heart failure and fatal arrhythmias. However, the molecular mechanisms that link mechanical and electrical dysfunction remain poorly understood. Growing evidence suggest that ventricular electrical remodeling (VER) is a process that can be induced by altered mechanical stress, creating persistent electrophysiological changes that predispose the heart to life-threatening arrhythmias. While VER is clearly a physiological property of the human heart, as evidenced by “T wave memory”, it is also thought to occur in a variety of pathological states associated with altered ventricular activation such as bundle branch block, myocardial infarction, and cardiac pacing. Animal models that are currently being used for investigating stretch-induced VER have significant limitations. The zebrafish has recently emerged as an attractive animal model for studying cardiovascular disease and could overcome some of these limitations. Owing to its extensively sequenced genome, high conservation of gene function, and the comprehensive genetic resources that are available in this model, the zebrafish may provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms that drive detrimental electrical remodeling in response to stretch. Here, we have established a zebrafish model to study mechano-electrical feedback in the heart, which combines efficient genetic manipulation with high-precision stretch and high-resolution electrophysiology. In this model, only ninety minutes of ventricular stretch caused VER and recapitulated key features of VER found previously in the mammalian heart. Our data suggest that the zebrafish model is a powerful platform for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying mechano-electrical feedback and VER in the heart. PMID:22835662

  4. Rapamycin targeting mTOR and hedgehog signaling pathways blocks human rhabdomyosarcoma growth in xenograft murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Kaylani, Samer Z. [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1600 7th Avenue South, ACC 414, Birmingham, AL 35233 (United States)] [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1600 7th Avenue South, ACC 414, Birmingham, AL 35233 (United States); Xu, Jianmin; Srivastava, Ritesh K. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)] [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Kopelovich, Levy [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda (United States)] [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda (United States); Pressey, Joseph G. [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1600 7th Avenue South, ACC 414, Birmingham, AL 35233 (United States)] [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1600 7th Avenue South, ACC 414, Birmingham, AL 35233 (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)] [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)

    2013-06-14

    Graphical abstract: Intervention of poorly differentiated RMS by rapamycin: In poorly differentiated RMS, rapamycin blocks mTOR and Hh signaling pathways concomitantly. This leads to dampening in cell cycle regulation and induction of apoptosis. This study provides a rationale for the therapeutic intervention of poorly differentiated RMS by treating patients with rapamycin alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. -- Highlights: •Rapamycin abrogates RMS tumor growth by modulating proliferation and apoptosis. •Co-targeting mTOR/Hh pathways underlie the molecular basis of effectiveness. •Reduction in mTOR/Hh pathways diminish EMT leading to reduced invasiveness. -- Abstract: Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) represent the most common childhood soft-tissue sarcoma. Over the past few decades outcomes for low and intermediate risk RMS patients have slowly improved while patients with metastatic or relapsed RMS still face a grim prognosis. New chemotherapeutic agents or combinations of chemotherapies have largely failed to improve the outcome. Based on the identification of novel molecular targets, potential therapeutic approaches in RMS may offer a decreased reliance on conventional chemotherapy. Thus, identification of effective therapeutic agents that specifically target relevant pathways may be particularly beneficial for patients with metastatic and refractory RMS. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway has been found to be a potentially attractive target in RMS therapy. In this study, we provide evidence that rapamycin (sirolimus) abrogates growth of RMS development in a RMS xenograft mouse model. As compared to a vehicle-treated control group, more than 95% inhibition in tumor growth was observed in mice receiving parenteral administration of rapamycin. The residual tumors in rapamycin-treated group showed significant reduction in the expression of biomarkers indicative of proliferation and tumor invasiveness. These tumors also showed enhanced apoptosis. Interestingly, the mechanism by which rapamycin diminished RMS tumor growth involved simultaneous inhibition of mTOR and hedgehog (Hh) pathways. Diminution in these pathways in this model of RMS also inhibited epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) which then dampened the invasiveness of these tumors. Our data provide bases for using rapamycin either alone or in combination with traditional chemotherapeutic drugs to block the pathogenesis of high risk RMS.

  5. The interferon response is involved in nervous necrosis virus acute and persistent infection in zebrafish infection model.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Wei; Chao, Yung-Mei; Guo, Tz-Chun; Santi, Nina; Evensen, Oystein; Kasani, Siti Khadijah; Hong, Jiann-Ruey; Wu, Jen-Leih

    2008-02-01

    Betanodavirus, a small positive-sense bipartite RNA virus notoriously affecting marine aquaculture worldwide has been extensively studied in vitro. However, impending studies in elucidating virus-host interactions have been limiting due to the lack of appropriate animal disease models. Therefore, in this study, we have attempted to successfully establish NNV infection in zebrafish (Danio rerio) showing typical NNV symptoms and which could potentially serve as an in vivo model for studying virus pathogenesis. Zebrafish being already a powerful research tool in developmental biology and having its genome completely sequenced by the end of 2007 would expedite NNV research. We have observed viral titers peaked at 3 days post-infection and histological study showing lesions in brain tissues similar to natural host infection. Further, we used this infection model to study the acute and persistence infection during NNV infection. Interestingly, RT-PCR and immunoblotting assays revealed that the acute infection in larvae and juveniles is largely due to inactive interferon response as opposed to activated innate immune response during persistent infection in adult stage. This study is the first to demonstrate NNV infection of zebrafish, which could serve as a potential animal model to study virus pathogenesis and neuron degeneration research. PMID:17727953

  6. Comparison of effects of anti-angiogenic agents in the zebrafish efficacy–toxicity model for translational anti-angiogenic drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Chimote, Geetanjali; Sreenivasan, Jayasree; Pawar, Nilambari; Subramanian, Jyothi; Sivaramakrishnan, Hariharan; Sharma, Somesh

    2014-01-01

    Background Anti-angiogenic therapy in certain cancers has been associated with improved control of tumor growth and metastasis. Development of anti-angiogenic agents has, however, been saddled with higher attrition rate due to suboptimal efficacy, narrow therapeutic windows, or development of organ-specific toxicities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the translational ability of the zebrafish efficacy–toxicity model to stratify anti-angiogenic agents based on efficacy, therapeutic windows, and off-target effects to streamline the compound selection process in anti-angiogenic discovery. Methods The embryonic model of zebrafish was employed for studying angiogenesis and toxicity. The zebrafish were treated with anti-angiogenic compounds to evaluate their effects on angiogenesis and zebrafish-toxicity parameters. Angiogenesis was measured by scoring the development of subintestinal vessels. Toxicity was evaluated by calculating the median lethal concentration, the lowest observed effect concentration, and gross morphological changes. Results of efficacy and toxicity were used to predict the therapeutic window. Results In alignment with the clinical outcomes, the zebrafish assays demonstrated that vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors are the most potent anti-angiogenic agents, followed by multikinase inhibitors and inhibitors of endothelial cell proliferation. The toxicity assays reported cardiac phenotype in zebrafish treated with VEGFR inhibitors and multikinase inhibitors with VEGFR activity suggestive of cardiotoxic potential of these compounds. Several other pathological features were reported for multikinase inhibitors suggestive of off-target effects. The predicted therapeutic window was translational with the clinical trial outcomes of the anti-angiogenic agents. The zebrafish efficacy–toxicity approach could stratify anti-angiogenic agents based on the mechanism of action and delineate chemical structure-driven biological activity of anti-angiogenic compounds. Conclusion The zebrafish efficacy–toxicity approach can be used as a predictive model for translational anti-angiogenic drug discovery to streamline compound selection, resulting in safer and efficacious anti-angiogenic agents entering the clinics. PMID:25170251

  7. Inhalation Delivery and Anti-tumor Activity of Celecoxib in Human Orthotopic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Fulzele, Suniket V.; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Shaik, Madhu Sudhan; Jackson, Tanise; Singh, Mandip

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the in vivo anti-tumor effect of aerosolized Celecoxib (Cxb) in combination with i.v Docetaxel (Doc) and compare the anti-tumor effect with oral Cxb combined with i.v Doc in human orthotopic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) xenograft model. Materials and Methods Female Nu/Nu mice were implanted with orthotopic tumors by injecting A549 cells into the lung parenchyma. Seven day after tumor implantation the mice were treated with aerosolized Cxb (30 min exposure/day, 5 mg/ml solution) + i.v Doc (10 mg/kg) and the effect was compared with oral Cxb (150 mg/kg/day) + i.v Doc (10 mg/kg), for 28 days. Small-animal nose only inhalation chamber (CH Technologies, Westwood, NJ) was utilized for aerosol exposure. Therapeutic activity of Cxb (aerosol/oral) + Doc was estimated by differences in lung weight, tumor area and animal body weight. Lung tumor samples isolated from mice were analyzed for (a) PGE2 levels by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (b) expression of Fas and Factor VIII by immunohistochemistry (c) IL-8 expression using EIA kits and (d) mRNA expression for caspase-3 by Real-Time PCR. Results Mice treated with Cxb (aerosol/oral) + Doc showed significant reduction (P < 0.001) in lung weight and tumor area as compared to Cxb or Doc treatments. Cxb (aerosol/oral) + Doc showed increased apoptosis mediated via increased Fas and caspase-3 (P < 0.001) expression as compared to untreated control. Further, the combination treatment showed antiangiogenic effect as demonstrated by reduced expression of Factor VIII, IL-8 (P < 0.001) and PGE2 (P < 0.001) in lung tumors as compared to untreated control. Aerosolized Cxb at a significantly lower therapeutic dose (4.56 mg/kg/day) demonstrated comparable anti-tumor efficacy to orally administered Cxb (150 mg/kg/day). Conclusion Cxb was formulated and effectively delivered via aerosolization to treat orthotopic lung tumors in combination with i.v Doc. Cxb when administered by aerosol produced same therapeutic effect as oral Cxb, but at lower therapeutic dose and thus shows promise for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:16902813

  8. Establishment of a Patient-Derived Orthotopic Xenograft (PDOX) Model of HER-2-Positive Cervical Cancer Expressing the Clinical Metastatic Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Nan; Maawy, Ali; Mii, Sumiyuki; Yamamoto, Mako; Uehara, Fuminari; Miwa, Shinji; Yano, Shuya; Murakami, Takashi; Momiyama, Masashi; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Bouvet, Michael; Murata, Takuya; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, highly prevalent in the developing world, is often metastatic and treatment resistant with no standard treatment protocol. Our laboratory pioneered the patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude mouse model with the technique of surgical orthotopic implantation (SOI). Unlike subcutaneous transplant patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models, PDOX models metastasize. Most importantly, the metastasis pattern correlates to the patient. In the present report, we describe the development of a PDOX model of HER-2-positive cervical cancer. Metastasis after SOI in nude mice included peritoneal dissemination, liver metastasis, lung metastasis as well as lymph node metastasis reflecting the metastatic pattern in the donor patient. Metastasis was detected in 4 of 6 nude mice with primary tumors. Primary tumors and metastases in the nude mice had histological structures similar to the original tumor and were stained by an anti-HER-2 antibody in the same pattern as the patient’s cancer. The metastatic pattern, histology and HER-2 tumor expression of the patient were thus preserved in the PDOX model. In contrast, subcutaneous transplantation of the patient’s cervical tumors resulted in primary growth but not metastasis. PMID:25689852

  9. Microgavage of Zebrafish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Cocchiaro, Jordan L.; Rawls, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model organism for studying intestinal development1-5, physiology6-11, disease12-16, and host-microbe interactions17-25. Experimental approaches for studying intestinal biology often require the in vivo introduction of selected materials into the lumen of the intestine. In the larval zebrafish model, this is typically accomplished by immersing fish in a solution of the selected material, or by injection through the abdominal wall. Using the immersion method, it is difficult to accurately monitor or control the route or timing of material delivery to the intestine. For this reason, immersion exposure can cause unintended toxicity and other effects on extraintestinal tissues, limiting the potential range of material amounts that can be delivered into the intestine. Also, the amount of material ingested during immersion exposure can vary significantly between individual larvae26. Although these problems are not encountered during direct injection through the abdominal wall, proper injection is difficult and causes tissue damage which could influence experimental results.We introduce a method for microgavage of zebrafish larvae. The goal of this method is to provide a safe, effective, and consistent way to deliver material directly to the lumen of the anterior intestine in larval zebrafish with controlled timing. Microgavage utilizes standard embryo microinjection and stereomicroscopy equipment common to most laboratories that perform zebrafish research. Once fish are properly positioned in methylcellulose, gavage can be performed quickly at a rate of approximately 7-10 fish/ min, and post-gavage survival approaches 100% depending on the gavaged material. We also show that microgavage can permit loading of the intestinal lumen with high concentrations of materials that are lethal to fish when exposed by immersion. To demonstrate the utility of this method, we present a fluorescent dextran microgavage assay that can be used to quantify transit from the intestinal lumen to extraintestinal spaces. This test can be used to verify proper execution of the microgavage procedure, and also provides a novel zebrafish assay to examine intestinal epithelial barrier integrity under different experimental conditions (e.g. genetic manipulation, drug treatment, or exposure to environmental factors). Furthermore, we show how gavage can be used to evaluate intestinal motility by gavaging fluorescent microspheres and monitoring their subsequent transit. Microgavage can be applied to deliver diverse materials such as live microorganisms, secreted microbial factors/toxins, pharmacological agents, and physiological probes. With these capabilities, the larval zebrafish microgavage method has the potential to enhance a broad range of research fields using the zebrafish model system. PMID:23463135

  10. Castration induces up-regulation of intratumoral androgen biosynthesis and androgen receptor expression in an orthotopic VCaP human prostate cancer xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Knuuttila, Matias; Yatkin, Emrah; Kallio, Jenny; Savolainen, Saija; Laajala, Teemu D; Aittokallio, Tero; Oksala, Riikka; Häkkinen, Merja; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Auriola, Seppo; Poutanen, Matti; Mäkelä, Sari

    2014-08-01

    Androgens are key factors involved in the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa), and PCa growth can be suppressed by androgen deprivation therapy. In a considerable proportion of men receiving androgen deprivation therapy, however, PCa progresses to castration-resistant PCa (CRPC), making the development of efficient therapies challenging. We used an orthotopic VCaP human PCa xenograft model to study cellular and molecular changes in tumors after androgen deprivation therapy (castration). Tumor growth was monitored through weekly serum prostate-specific antigen measurements, and mice with recurrent tumors after castration were randomized to treatment groups. Serum prostate-specific antigen concentrations showed significant correlation with tumor volume. Castration-resistant tumors retained concentrations of intratumoral androgen (androstenedione, testosterone, and 5?-dihydrotestosterone) at levels similar to tumors growing in intact hosts. Accordingly, castration induced up-regulation of enzymes involved in androgen synthesis (CYP17A1, AKR1C3, and HSD17B6), as well as expression of full-length androgen receptor (AR) and AR splice variants (AR-V1 and AR-V7). Furthermore, AR target gene expression was maintained in castration-resistant xenografts. The AR antagonists enzalutamide (MDV3100) and ARN-509 suppressed PSA production of castration-resistant tumors, confirming the androgen dependency of these tumors. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that our VCaP xenograft model exhibits the key characteristics of clinical CRPC and thus provides a valuable tool for identifying druggable targets and for testing therapeutic strategies targeting AR signaling in CRPC. PMID:24949550

  11. Sqstm1 knock-down causes a locomotor phenotype ameliorated by rapamycin in a zebrafish model of ALS/FTLD.

    PubMed

    Lattante, Serena; de Calbiac, Hortense; Le Ber, Isabelle; Brice, Alexis; Ciura, Sorana; Kabashi, Edor

    2015-03-15

    Mutations in SQSTM1, encoding for the protein SQSTM1/p62, have been recently reported in 1-3.5% of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (ALS/FTLD). Inclusions positive for SQSTM1/p62 have been detected in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, including ALS/FTLD. In order to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms induced by SQSTM1 mutations in ALS/FTLD, we developed a zebrafish model. Knock-down of the sqstm1 zebrafish ortholog, as well as impairment of its splicing, led to a specific phenotype, consisting of behavioral and axonal anomalies. Here, we report swimming deficits associated with shorter motor neuronal axons that could be rescued by the overexpression of wild-type human SQSTM1. Interestingly, no rescue of the loss-of-function phenotype was observed when overexpressing human SQSTM1 constructs carrying ALS/FTLD-related mutations. Consistent with its role in autophagy regulation, we found increased mTOR levels upon knock-down of sqstm1. Furthermore, treatment of zebrafish embryos with rapamycin, a known inhibitor of the mTOR pathway, yielded an amelioration of the locomotor phenotype in the sqstm1 knock-down model. Our results suggest that loss-of-function of SQSTM1 causes phenotypic features characterized by locomotor deficits and motor neuron axonal defects that are associated with a misregulation of autophagic processes. PMID:25410659

  12. Zebrafish Models for Ectopic Mineralization Disorders: Practical Issues from Morpholino Design to Post-Injection Observations

    PubMed Central

    Hosen, Mohammad Jakir; Vanakker, Olivier M.; Willaert, Andy; Huysseune, Ann; Coucke, Paul; De Paepe, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish (ZF, Danio rerio) has emerged as an important and popular model species to study different human diseases. Key regulators of skeletal development and calcium metabolism are highly conserved between mammals and ZF. The corresponding orthologs share significant sequence similarities and an overlap in expression patterns when compared to mammals, making ZF a potential model for the study of mineralization-related disorders and soft tissue mineralization. To characterize the function of early mineralization-related genes in ZF, these genes can be knocked down by injecting morpholinos into early stage embryos. Validation of the morpholino needs to be performed and the concern of aspecific effects can be addressed by applying one or more independent techniques to knock down the gene of interest. Post-injection assessment of early mineralization defects can be done using general light microscopy, calcein staining, Alizarin red staining, Alizarin red-Alcian blue double staining, and by the use of transgenic lines. Examination of general molecular defects can be done by performing protein and gene expression analysis, and more specific processes can be explored by investigating ectopic mineralization-related mechanisms such as apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. In this paper, we will discuss all details about the aforementioned techniques; shared knowledge will be very useful for the future investigation of ZF models for ectopic mineralization disorders and to understand the underlying pathways involved in soft tissue calcification. PMID:23760765

  13. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Chaudhary, Sandeep C. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)] [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Ballestas, Mary E. [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children's of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children's of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States); Kopelovich, Levy [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Blvd., Suite 2114, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Blvd., Suite 2114, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)] [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)] [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 ?M) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100 mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation with large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. -- Highlights: ? Vorinostat reduces SCC growth in a xenograft murine model. ? Vorinostat dampens proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. ? Diminution in mTOR, Akt and ERK signaling underlies inhibition in proliferation. ? Vorinostat by inhibiting HDACs inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  14. Xenotransplantation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yawei; Tang, Xudong; Zhang, Jingjing; Wu, Zeyong; Liang, Jie; Shi, Lei; Liu, Hongwei; Zhang, Peihua

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish is a widely used animal model with well-characterized background in developmental biology. The fate of human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) after their xenotransplantation into the developing embryos of zebrafish is unknown. Therefore, human ADSCs were firstly isolated, and then transduced with lentiviral vector system carrying a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene, and followed by detection of their cell viability and the expression of cell surface antigens. These GFP-expressing human ADSCs were transplanted into the zebrafish embryos at 3.3–4.3 hour post-fertilization (hpf). Green fluorescent signal, the proliferation and differentiation of human ADSCs in recipient embryos were respectively examined using fluorescent microscopy and immunohistochemical staining. The results indicated that human ADSCs did not change their cell viability and the expression levels of cell surface antigens after GFP transduction. Microscopic examination demonstrated that green fluorescent signals of GFP expressed in the transplanted cells were observed in the embryos and larva fish at post-transplantation. The positive staining of Ki-67 revealed the survival and proliferation of human ADSCs in fish larvae after transplantation. The expression of CD105 was observable in the xenotransplanted ADSCs, but CD31 expression was undetectable. Therefore, our results indicate that human ADSCs xenotransplanted in the zebrafish embryos not only can survive and proliferate at across-species circumstance, but also seem to maintain their undifferentiation status in a short term. This xenograft model of zebrafish embryos may provide a promising and useful technical platform for the investigation of biology and physiology of stem cells in vivo. PMID:25849455

  15. Gene expression markers in the zebrafish embryo reflect a hepatotoxic response in animal models and humans.

    PubMed

    Driessen, Marja; Kienhuis, Anne S; Vitins, Alexa P; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Pronk, Tessa E; van den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; Roodbergen, Marianne; van de Water, Bob; van der Ven, Leo T M

    2014-10-01

    The zebrafish embryo (ZFE) is a promising non-rodent model in toxicology, and initial studies suggested its applicability in detecting hepatotoxic responses. Here, we hypothesize that the detailed analysis of underlying mechanisms of hepatotoxicity in ZFE contributes to the improved identification of hepatotoxic properties of new compounds and to the reduction of rodents used for screening. ZFEs were exposed to nine reference hepatotoxicants, targeted at induction of cholestasis, steatosis and necrosis, and two non-hepatotoxic controls. Histopathology revealed various specific morphological changes in the ZFE hepatocytes indicative of cell injury. Gene expression profiles of the individual compounds were generated using microarrays. Regulation of single genes and of pathways could be linked to hepatotoxic responses in general, but phenotype-specific responses could not be distinguished. Hepatotoxicity-associated pathways included xenobiotic metabolism and oxidoreduction related pathways. Overall analysis of gene expression identified a limited set of potential biomarkers specific for a common hepatotoxicity response. This set included several cytochrome P450 genes (cyp2k19, cyp4v7, cyp2aa3), genes related to liver development (pklr) and genes important in oxidoreduction processes (zgc:163022, zgc:158614, zgc:101858 and sqrdl). In conclusion, the ZFE model allows for identification of hepatotoxicants, without discrimination into specific phenotypes. PMID:25064622

  16. Gene expression profiling upon 212Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab treatment in the LS-174T i.p. xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Kwon J; Milenic, Diane E; Baidoo, Kwamena E; Kim, Young-Seung; Brechbiel, Martin W

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that therapy with 212Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab resulted in (1) induction of apoptosis, (2) G2/M arrest, and (3) blockage of double-strand DNA damage repair in LS-174T i.p. (intraperitoneal) xenografts. To further understand the molecular basis of the cell killing efficacy of 212Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab, gene expression profiling was performed with LS-174T xenografts 24 h after exposure to 212Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab. DNA damage response genes (84) were screened using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction array (qRT-PCR array). Differentially regulated genes were identified following exposure to 212Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab. These included genes involved in apoptosis (ABL, GADD45?, GADD45?, PCBP4, and p73), cell cycle (ATM, DDIT3, GADD45?, GTSE1, MKK6, PCBP4, and SESN1), and damaged DNA binding (DDB) and repair (ATM and BTG2). The stressful growth arrest conditions provoked by 212Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab were found to induce genes involved in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. The expression of genes involved in DDB and single-strand DNA breaks was also enhanced by 212Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab while no modulation of genes involved in double-strand break repair was apparent. Furthermore, the p73/GADD45 signaling pathway mediated by p38 kinase signaling may be involved in the cellular response, as evidenced by the enhanced expression of genes and proteins of this pathway. These results further support the previously described cell killing mechanism by 212Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab in the same LS-174T i.p. xenograft. Insight into these mechanisms could lead to improved strategies for rational application of radioimmunotherapy using ?-particle emitters. The apoptotic response and associated gene modulations have not been clearly defined following exposure of cells to ?-particle radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Gene expression profiling was performed with LS-174T i.p. (intraperitoneal) xenografts after exposure to 212Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab. Differentially regulated 22 genes were identified following the stressful growth arrest conditions provoked by 212Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab, providing an informative approach toward understanding the molecular basis of tumor biology in response to ?-particle radiation and leading to improved strategies for RIT using ?-particle emitters. This study provides data which is among the first to describe in detail, the cellular response to ?-particle irradiation in vivo. PMID:24403230

  17. CD19 target-engineered T-cells accumulate at tumor lesions in human B-cell lymphoma xenograft mouse models.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Tomonori; Ohmine, Ken; Yamamoto, Chihiro; Uchibori, Ryosuke; Ido, Hiroyuki; Teruya, Takeshi; Urabe, Masashi; Mizukami, Hiroaki; Kume, Akihiro; Nakamura, Masataka; Mineno, Junichi; Takesako, Kazutoh; Riviere, Isabelle; Sadelain, Michel; Brentjens, Renier; Ozawa, Keiya

    2013-08-16

    Adoptive T-cell therapy with CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) is promising for treatment of advanced B-cell malignancies. Tumor targeting of CAR-modified T-cells is likely to contribute therapeutic potency; therefore we examined the relationship between the ability of CD19-specific CAR (CD19-CAR)-transduced T-cells to accumulate at CD19(+) tumor lesions, and their ability to provide anti-tumor effects in xenograft mouse models. Normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes, activated with immobilized RetroNectin and anti-CD3 antibodies, were transduced with retroviral vectors that encode CD19-CAR. Expanded CD19-CAR T-cells with a high transgene expression level of about 75% produced IL-2 and IFN-? in response to CD19, and lysed both Raji and Daudi CD19(+) human B-cell lymphoma cell lines. Furthermore, these cells efficiently accumulated at Raji tumor lesions where they suppressed tumor progression and prolonged survival in tumor-bearing Rag2(-/-)?c(-/-) immunodeficient mice compared to control cohorts. These results show that the ability of CD19-CAR T-cells to home in on tumor lesions is pivotal for their anti-tumor effects in our xenograft models, and therefore may enhance the efficacy of adoptive T-cell therapy for refractory B-cell lymphoma. PMID:23872144

  18. Efficacy of JAK/STAT pathway inhibition in murine xenograft models of early T-cell precursor (ETP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Maude, Shannon L; Dolai, Sibasish; Delgado-Martin, Cristina; Vincent, Tiffaney; Robbins, Alissa; Selvanathan, Arthavan; Ryan, Theresa; Hall, Junior; Wood, Andrew C; Tasian, Sarah K; Hunger, Stephen P; Loh, Mignon L; Mullighan, Charles G; Wood, Brent L; Hermiston, Michelle L; Grupp, Stephan A; Lock, Richard B; Teachey, David T

    2015-03-12

    Early T-cell precursor (ETP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a recently described subtype of T-ALL characterized by a unique immunophenotype and genomic profile, as well as a high rate of induction failure. Frequent mutations in cytokine receptor and Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathways led us to hypothesize that ETP-ALL is dependent on JAK/STAT signaling. Here we demonstrate aberrant activation of the JAK/STAT pathway in ETP-ALL blasts relative to non-ETP T-ALL. Moreover, ETP-ALL showed hyperactivation of STAT5 in response to interleukin-7, an effect that was abrogated by the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib. In vivo, ruxolitinib displayed activity in 6 of 6 patient-derived murine xenograft models of ETP-ALL, with profound single-agent efficacy in 5 models. Ruxolitinib treatment decreased peripheral blast counts relative to pretreatment levels and compared with control (P < .01) in 5 of 6 ETP-ALL xenografts, with marked reduction in mean splenic blast counts (P < .01) in 6 of 6 samples. Surprisingly, both JAK/STAT pathway activation and ruxolitinib efficacy were independent of the presence of JAK/STAT pathway mutations, raising the possibility that the therapeutic potential of ruxolitinib in ETP-ALL extends beyond those cases with JAK mutations. These findings establish the preclinical in vivo efficacy of ruxolitinib in ETP-ALL, a biologically distinct subtype for which novel therapies are needed. PMID:25645356

  19. Antiproliferative efficacies but minor drug transporter inducing effects of paclitaxel, cisplatin, or 5-fluorouracil in a murine xenograft model for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Theile, Dirk; Gal, Zoltan; Warta, Rolf; Rigalli, Juan Pablo; Lahrmann, Bernd; Grabe, Niels; Herold-Mende, Christel; Dyckhoff, Gerhard; Weiss, Johanna

    2014-04-01

    Drug-induced multidrug resistance (MDR) has been linked to overexpression of drug transporting proteins in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in vitro. The aim of this work was to reassess these findings in a murine xenograft model. NOD-SCID mice xenotransplanted with 10 (6) HNO97 cells were treated for four consecutive weeks with weekly paclitaxel, biweekly cisplatin (both intraperitoneal), or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, administered by osmotic pump). Tumor volume and body weight were weekly documented. Expression of drug transporters and Ki-67 marker were examined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and/or immunohistochemistry. Both paclitaxel and cisplatin significantly reduced tumor volumes after 2-3 weeks. 5-FU-treated animals had significantly lower body weights after 2 or 4 weeks of chemotherapy. None of the drugs affected expression of drug transporters at the mRNA level. However, P-glycoprotein (Pgp) protein expression was increased by paclitaxel (P<0.01). Ki-67 expression did not change during treatment irrespective of the drug applied. Paclitaxel and cisplatin are effectively tumor volume reducing drugs in a murine xenograft model of HNSCC. Paclitaxel enhanced Pgp expression at the protein level, but not at the mRNA level suggesting transcriptional induction to be of minor relevance. In contrast, posttranscriptional mechanisms or Darwinian selection of intrinsically drug transporter overexpressing MDR cells might lead to iatrogenic chemotherapy resistance in HNSCC. PMID:24448417

  20. 5?-reductase Inhibition Coupled with Short Off Cycles Increases Survival in the LNCaP Xenograft Prostate Tumor Model on Intermittent Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pascal, Laura E.; Masoodi, Khalid Z.; O’Malley, Katherine J.; Shevrin, Daniel; Gingrich, Jeffrey R.; Parikh, Rahul A.; Wang, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Intermittent androgen deprivation therapy (IADT) for patients with PSA progression after treatment for localized prostate cancer is an alternative to the standard continuous ADT. IADT allows for the recovery of testosterone during off-cycles to stimulate regrowth and differentiation of the regressed prostate tumor in order to lessen the side effects of continuous ADT and potentially prolong survival. Previously, IADT coupled with finasteride was shown to prolong survival of animals bearing androgen-sensitive prostate tumors when off-cycle duration was not prolonged and fixed at 10–14 days. Regressed prostate tumor xenografts with testosterone replacement were initially responsive to 5?-reductase inhibition, but resumed growth after several days in the animal models. 5?-reductase inhibition in shorter off-cycles of testosterone recovery could maximize tumor growth inhibition during IADT and perhaps increase survival. Materials and Methods The LNCaP xenograft tumor model was utilized to evaluate the effectiveness of short off-cycles of 4 days coupled with 5?-reductase inhibition on IADT on survival and tumor regrowth. Results Dutasteride inhibited initial testosterone-induced tumor regrowth during both the first and second off-cycle and significantly increased survival. Conclusions These results further support the potential for IADT combined with 5?-reductase inhibition to improve survival in prostate cancer patients when off cycle durations are short or very short. PMID:25444984

  1. Neural and Synaptic Defects in slytherin a Zebrafish Model for Human Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation

    SciTech Connect

    Y Song; J Willer; P Scherer; J Panzer; A Kugath; E Skordalakes; R Gregg; G Willer; R Balice-Gordon

    2011-12-31

    Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIc (CDG IIc) is characterized by mental retardation, slowed growth and severe immunodeficiency, attributed to the lack of fucosylated glycoproteins. While impaired Notch signaling has been implicated in some aspects of CDG IIc pathogenesis, the molecular and cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have identified a zebrafish mutant slytherin (srn), which harbors a missense point mutation in GDP-mannose 4,6 dehydratase (GMDS), the rate-limiting enzyme in protein fucosylation, including that of Notch. Here we report that some of the mechanisms underlying the neural phenotypes in srn and in CGD IIc are Notch-dependent, while others are Notch-independent. We show, for the first time in a vertebrate in vivo, that defects in protein fucosylation leads to defects in neuronal differentiation, maintenance, axon branching, and synapse formation. Srn is thus a useful and important vertebrate model for human CDG IIc that has provided new insights into the neural phenotypes that are hallmarks of the human disorder and has also highlighted the role of protein fucosylation in neural development.

  2. Indole Alkaloids from Fischerella Inhibit Vertebrate Development in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo Model

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Katherine; Gantar, Miroslav; Gibbs, Patrick D. L.; Schmale, Michael C.; Berry, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are recognized producers of toxic or otherwise bioactive metabolite associated, in particular, with so-called “harmful algal blooms” (HABs) and eutrophication of freshwater systems. In the present study, two apparently teratogenic indole alkaloids from a freshwater strain of the widespread cyanobacterial genus, Fischerella (Stigonemataceae), were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation, specifically using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo, as a model of vertebrate development. The two alkaloids include the previously known 12-epi-hapalindole H isonitrile (1), and a new nitrile-containing variant, 12-epi-ambiguine B nitrile (2). Although both compounds were toxic to developing embryos, the former compound was shown to be relatively more potent, and to correlate best with the observed embryo toxicity. Related indole alkaloids from Fischerella, and other genera in the Stigonemataceae, have been widely reported as antimicrobial compounds, specifically in association with apparent allelopathy. However, this is the first report of their vertebrate toxicity, and the observed teratogenicity of these alkaloids supports a possible contribution to the toxicity of this widespread cyanobacterial family, particularly in relation to freshwater HABs and eutrophication. PMID:25533520

  3. Microcephaly models in the developing zebrafish retinal neuroepithelium point to an underlying defect in metaphase progression

    PubMed Central

    Novorol, Claire; Burkhardt, Janina; Wood, Kirstin J.; Iqbal, Anila; Roque, Claudio; Coutts, Nicola; Almeida, Alexandra D.; He, Jie; Wilkinson, Christopher J.; Harris, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a congenital disorder characterized by significantly reduced brain size and mental retardation. Nine genes are currently known to be associated with the condition, all of which encode centrosomal or spindle pole proteins. MCPH is associated with a reduction in proliferation of neural progenitors during fetal development. The cellular mechanisms underlying the proliferation defect, however, are not fully understood. The zebrafish retinal neuroepithelium provides an ideal system to investigate this question. Mutant or morpholino-mediated knockdown of three known MCPH genes (stil, aspm and wdr62) and a fourth centrosomal gene, odf2, which is linked to several MCPH proteins, results in a marked reduction in head and eye size. Imaging studies reveal a dramatic rise in the fraction of proliferating cells in mitosis in all cases, and time-lapse microscopy points to a failure of progression through prometaphase. There was also increased apoptosis in all the MCPH models but this appears to be secondary to the mitotic defect as we frequently saw mitotically arrested cells disappear, and knocking down p53 apoptosis did not rescue the mitotic phenotype, either in whole retinas or clones. PMID:24153002

  4. Rev. NeuroSci., Vol. xx, pp. xxxxxx, xxxx 2011 Copyright by Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York. DOI 10.1515/REVNS.2011.0xx Zebrafish models to study drug abuse-related phenotypes

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    York. DOI 10.1515/REVNS.2011.0xx Review Zebrafish models to study drug abuse-related phenotypes Adam and addiction research. Modeling drug abuse-related behavior in both adult and lar- val zebrafish produced a wealth of clinically translatable data, also demonstrating their sensitivity to various drugs of abuse

  5. Rev. Neurosci., Vol. 22(1): 95105, 2011 Copyright by Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York. DOI 10.1515/RNS.2011.011 Zebrafish models to study drug abuse-related phenotypes

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    . DOI 10.1515/RNS.2011.011 Zebrafish models to study drug abuse-related phenotypes Adam Stewarta , Keith and addiction research. Modeling drug abuse-related behavior in both adult and lar- val zebrafish produced a wealth of clinically translatable data, also demonstrating their sensitivity to various drugs of abuse

  6. Effects of Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors in Combination with Taxol on Expression of Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 in a Xenograft Model of Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Cai, Jia-Hui; Zhang, Jun; Tang, Yun-Xian; Wan, Liang

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors in combination with taxol on the expression of cyclin D1 and Ki-67 in human ovarian SKOV-3 carcinoma cells xenograft-bearing mice. The animals were treated with 100 mg/kg celecoxib (a COX-2 selective inhibitor) alone, 3 mg/kg SC-560 (a COX-1 selective inhibitor) alone by gavage twice a day, 20 mg/kg taxol alone by intraperitoneally (i.p.) once a week, or celecoxib/taxol, SC-560/celecoxib, SC-560/taxol or SC-560/celecoxib/taxol, for three weeks. To test the mechanism of the combination treatment, the index of cell proliferation and expression of cyclin D1 in tumor tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry. The mean tumor volume in the treated groups was significantly lower than control (p < 0.05), and in the three-drug combination group, tumor volume was reduced by 58.27% (p < 0.01); downregulated cell proliferation and cyclin D1 expression were statistically significant compared with those of the control group (both p < 0.01). This study suggests that the effects of COX selective inhibitors on the growth of tumors and decreased cell proliferation in a SKOV-3 cells mouse xenograft model were similar to taxol. The three-drug combination showing a better decreasing tendency in growth-inhibitory effect during the experiment may have been caused by suppressing cyclin D1 expression. PMID:22949827

  7. Metformin impairs Rho GTPase signaling to induce apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells and inhibits growth of tumors in the xenograft mouse model of neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ambrish; Al-Sammarraie, Nadia; DiPette, Donald J.; Singh, Ugra S.

    2014-01-01

    Metformin has been shown to inhibit tumor growth in xenograft rodent models of adult cancers, and various human clinical trials are in progress. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of metformin action are largely unknown. In the present study we examined the anti-tumor activity of metformin against neuroblastoma, and determined the underlying signaling mechanisms. Using human neuroblastoma xenograft mice, we demonstrated that oral administration of metformin (100 and 250 mg/kg body weight) significantly inhibited the growth of tumors. The interference of metformin in spheroid formation further confirmed the anti-tumor activity of metformin. In tumors, the activation of Rac1 (GTP-Rac1) and Cdc42 (GTP-Cdc42) was increased while RhoA activation (GTP-RhoA) was decreased by metformin. It also induced phosphorylation of JNK and inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 without affecting p38 MAP Kinase. Infection of cells by adenoviruses expressing dominant negative Rac1 (Rac1-N17), Cdc42 (Cdc42-N17) or constitutively active RhoA (RhoA-V14), or incubation of cells with pharmacological inhibitors of Rac1 (NSC23766) or Cdc42 (ML141) significantly protected neuroblastoma cells from metformin-induced apoptosis. Additionally, inhibition of JNK activity along with Rac1 or Cdc42 attenuated cytotoxic effects of metformin. These studies demonstrated that metformin impairs Rho GTPases signaling to induce apoptosis via JNK pathway. PMID:25365944

  8. Novel Vitamin K analogues suppress seizures in zebrafish and mouse models of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Rahn, Jennifer J.; Bestman, Jennifer E.; Josey, Benjamin J.; Inks, Elizabeth S.; Stackley, Krista D.; Rogers, Carolyn E.; Chou, C. James; Chan, Sherine S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a debilitating disease affecting 1-2% of the world’s population. Despite this high prevalence, 30% of patients suffering from epilepsy are not successfully managed by current medication suggesting a critical need for new anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). In an effort to discover new therapeutics for the management of epilepsy, we began our study by screening drugs that, like some currently used AEDs, inhibit HDACs using a well-established larval zebrafish model. In this model, 7-day post fertilization (dpf) larvae are treated with the widely used seizure-inducing compound pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) which stimulates a rapid increase in swimming behavior previously determined to be a measurable manifestation of seizures. In our first screen, we tested a number of different HDAC inhibitors and found that one, NQN1, significantly decreased swim activity to levels equal to that of VPA. We continued to screen structurally related compounds including Vitamin K3 (VK3) and a number of novel Vitamin K (VK) analogues. We found that VK3 was a robust inhibitor of the PTZ-induced swim activity, as were several of our novel compounds. Three of these compounds were subsequently tested on mouse seizure models at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Anticonvulsant Screening Program. Compound 2h reduced seizures particularly well in the minimal clonic seizure (6 Hz) and corneal kindled mouse models of epilepsy, with no observable toxicity. As VK3 affects mitochondrial function, we tested the effects of our compounds on mitochondrial respiration and ATP production in a mouse hippocampal cell line. We demonstrate that these compounds affect ATP metabolism and increase total cellular ATP. Our data indicate the potential utility of these and other VK analogues for prevention of seizures and suggest the potential mechanism for this protection may lie in the ability of these compounds to affect energy production. PMID:24291671

  9. 1. Introduction There are many factors that make the zebrafish an

    E-print Network

    Betz, William J.

    1. Introduction There are many factors that make the zebrafish an ideal developmental model expressed in the vertebrate zebrafish nervous system during development. The technique of immunocytochemistry (ICC) is not new to the zebrafish model. ICC protocols for zebrafish whole mounts have been

  10. Host immune response and acute disease in a zebrafish model of francisella pathogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vojtech, L.N.; Sanders, G.E.; Conway, C.; Ostland, V.; Hansen, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Members of the bacterial genus Francisella are highly virulent and infectious pathogens. New models to study Francisella pathogenesis in evolutionarily distinct species are needed to provide comparative insight, as the mechanisms of host resistance and pathogen virulence are not well understood. We took advantage of the recent discovery of a novel species of Francisella to establish a zebrafish/Francisella comparative model of pathogenesis and host immune response. Adult zebraflsh were susceptible to acute Francisella-induced disease and suffered mortality in a dose-dependent manner. Using immunohistochemical analysis, we localized bacterial antigens primarily to lymphoid tissues and livers of zebraflsh following infection by intraperitoneal injection, which corresponded to regions of local cellular necrosis. Francisella sp. bacteria replicated rapidly in these tissues beginning 12 h postinfection, and bacterial titers rose steadily, leveled off, and then decreased by 7 days postinfection. Zebraflsh mounted a significant tissue-specific proinflammatory response to infection as measured by the upregulation of interleukin-l?? (IL-1??), gamma interferon, and tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA beginning by 6 h postinfection and persisting for up to 7 days postinfection. In addition, exposure of zebraflsh to heat-killed bacteria demonstrated that the significant induction of IL-?? was highly specific to live bacteria. Taken together, the pathology and immune response to acute Francisella infection in zebraflsh share many features with those in mammals, highlighting the usefulness of this new model system for addressing both general and specific questions about Francisella host-pathogen interactions via an evolutionary approach. Copyright ?? 2009, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Functional characterization of OPN in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and its xenograft model in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianqiu; Zhou, Qi; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhu, Minhui; Tian, Yongsheng; Li, Guojun; Tao, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Hongliang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Osteopontin (OPN) is involved in promotion of cancer cells by regulating various facets of tumor progression such as cell proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis. To understand the role of OPN in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), we thus explored the biological function of OPN in LSCC after silencing OPN expression by RNA interference (RNAi). Method: The OPN expression in tumor tissues of LSCC was determined immunohistochemically in both LSCC and adjacent normal tissues. Lentivirus vector with RNAi small hairpin gene sequence of OPN (named LV-shOPN) was transfected into Hep-2 cells and transplanted into BALB/c-nu mice. After siRNA transfection, the viability of Hep-2 cells was examined by MTS, OPN expression was detected by Western blotting, and tumor angiogenesis was assessed by microvessel densities (MVD). Results: The difference of positive rate of OPN in 72 cases LSCC (54 cases, 75.0%) and adjacent normal tissues (15 cases, 20.8%) was statistically significant (P<0.001) and the OPN expression was also significantly correlated with tumor stage, grade and the presence of lymph node. Hep-2 cells infected with LV-shOPN significantly decreased OPN expression, in comparison to cells with LV-shNon transfection (as the control) (P<0.05). The constructed LV-shOPN effectively inhibited the viability of Hep-2 cell and growth of xenograft tumors in nude mice (all P<0.050). The expression of OPN and MVD was significantly decreased in xenograft tumors (all P<0.05). Conclusion: RNAi silencing of OPN expression can significantly inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis of Hep-2 cells, and OPN may be considered as one of gene targeting therapy for LSCC.

  12. Enhanced anti-tumor activity of the glycoengineered type II CD20 antibody obinutuzumab (GA101) in combination with chemotherapy in xenograft models of human lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Herting, Frank; Friess, Thomas; Bader, Sabine; Muth, Gunter; Hölzlwimmer, Gabriele; Rieder, Natascha; Umana, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Obinutuzumab (GA101) is a novel glycoengineered type II CD20 antibody in development for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We compared the anti-tumor activity of obinutuzumab and rituximab in preclinical studies using subcutaneous Z138 and WSU-DLCL2 xenograft mouse models. Obinutuzumab and rituximab were assessed alone and in combination with bendamustine, fludarabine, chlorambucil, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide/vincristine. Owing to strong single-agent efficacy in these models, suboptimal doses of obinutuzumab were applied to demonstrate a combination effect. Obinutuzumab plus bendamustine achieved superior tumor growth inhibition versus rituximab plus bendamustine and showed a statistically significant effect versus the respective single treatments. Combinations of obinutuzumab with fludarabine, chlorambucil or cyclophosphamide/vincristine demonstrated significantly superior activity to rituximab-based treatment. Obinutuzumab monotherapy was at least as effective as rituximab plus chemotherapy in vivo, and obinutuzumab plus chemotherapy was superior to the respective monotherapies. These data support further clinical investigation of obinutuzumab plus chemotherapy. PMID:24304419

  13. Enhanced anti-tumor activity of the glycoengineered type II CD20 antibody obinutuzumab (GA101) in combination with chemotherapy in xenograft models of human lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Herting, Frank; Friess, Thomas; Bader, Sabine; Muth, Gunter; Hölzlwimmer, Gabriele; Rieder, Natascha; Umana, Pablo; Klein, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Obinutuzumab (GA101) is a novel glycoengineered type II CD20 antibody in development for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We compared the anti-tumor activity of obinutuzumab and rituximab in preclinical studies using subcutaneous Z138 and WSU-DLCL2 xenograft mouse models. Obinutuzumab and rituximab were assessed alone and in combination with bendamustine, fludarabine, chlorambucil, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide/vincristine. Owing to strong single-agent efficacy in these models, suboptimal doses of obinutuzumab were applied to demonstrate a combination effect. Obinutuzumab plus bendamustine achieved superior tumor growth inhibition versus rituximab plus bendamustine and showed a statistically significant effect versus the respective single treatments. Combinations of obinutuzumab with fludarabine, chlorambucil or cyclophosphamide/vincristine demonstrated significantly superior activity to rituximab-based treatment. Obinutuzumab monotherapy was at least as effective as rituximab plus chemotherapy in vivo, and obinutuzumab plus chemotherapy was superior to the respective monotherapies. These data support further clinical investigation of obinutuzumab plus chemotherapy. PMID:24304419

  14. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Patient-derived xenografts of triple-negative breast

    E-print Network

    Matin, A.C.

    of patient-derived xenograft models covering a spectrum of TNBC subtypes was generated that histologically-derived xenografts representing multiple TNBC subtypes and use them to test preclinical drug efficacy of two m xenografts were compared by histology, immunohistochemistry, array comparative genomic hybridization (a

  15. l-leucine partially rescues translational and developmental defects associated with zebrafish models of Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baoshan; Sowa, Nenja; Cardenas, Maria E; Gerton, Jennifer L

    2015-03-15

    Cohesinopathies are human genetic disorders that include Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) and Roberts syndrome (RBS) and are characterized by defects in limb and craniofacial development as well as mental retardation. The developmental phenotypes of CdLS and other cohesinopathies suggest that mutations in the structure and regulation of the cohesin complex during embryogenesis interfere with gene regulation. In a previous project, we showed that RBS was associated with highly fragmented nucleoli and defects in both ribosome biogenesis and protein translation. l-leucine stimulation of the mTOR pathway partially rescued translation in human RBS cells and development in zebrafish models of RBS. In this study, we investigate protein translation in zebrafish models of CdLS. Our results show that phosphorylation of RPS6 as well as 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) was reduced in nipbla/b, rad21 and smc3-morphant embryos, a pattern indicating reduced translation. Moreover, protein biosynthesis and rRNA production were decreased in the cohesin morphant embryo cells. l-leucine partly rescued protein synthesis and rRNA production in the cohesin morphants and partially restored phosphorylation of RPS6 and 4EBP1. Concomitantly, l-leucine treatment partially improved cohesinopathy embryo development including the formation of craniofacial cartilage. Interestingly, we observed that alpha-ketoisocaproate (?-KIC), which is a keto derivative of leucine, also partially rescued the development of rad21 and nipbla/b morphants by boosting mTOR-dependent translation. In summary, our results suggest that cohesinopathies are caused in part by defective protein synthesis, and stimulation of the mTOR pathway through l-leucine or its metabolite ?-KIC can partially rescue development in zebrafish models for CdLS. PMID:25378554

  16. l-leucine partially rescues translational and developmental defects associated with zebrafish models of Cornelia de Lange syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Baoshan; Sowa, Nenja; Cardenas, Maria E.; Gerton, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Cohesinopathies are human genetic disorders that include Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) and Roberts syndrome (RBS) and are characterized by defects in limb and craniofacial development as well as mental retardation. The developmental phenotypes of CdLS and other cohesinopathies suggest that mutations in the structure and regulation of the cohesin complex during embryogenesis interfere with gene regulation. In a previous project, we showed that RBS was associated with highly fragmented nucleoli and defects in both ribosome biogenesis and protein translation. l-leucine stimulation of the mTOR pathway partially rescued translation in human RBS cells and development in zebrafish models of RBS. In this study, we investigate protein translation in zebrafish models of CdLS. Our results show that phosphorylation of RPS6 as well as 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) was reduced in nipbla/b, rad21 and smc3-morphant embryos, a pattern indicating reduced translation. Moreover, protein biosynthesis and rRNA production were decreased in the cohesin morphant embryo cells. l-leucine partly rescued protein synthesis and rRNA production in the cohesin morphants and partially restored phosphorylation of RPS6 and 4EBP1. Concomitantly, l-leucine treatment partially improved cohesinopathy embryo development including the formation of craniofacial cartilage. Interestingly, we observed that alpha-ketoisocaproate (?-KIC), which is a keto derivative of leucine, also partially rescued the development of rad21 and nipbla/b morphants by boosting mTOR-dependent translation. In summary, our results suggest that cohesinopathies are caused in part by defective protein synthesis, and stimulation of the mTOR pathway through l-leucine or its metabolite ?-KIC can partially rescue development in zebrafish models for CdLS. PMID:25378554

  17. The zebrafish brain: a neuroanatomical comparison with the goldfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Rupp; Heinrich Reichert; Mario F. Wullimann

    1996-01-01

    The zebrafish Danio rerio is an important model system for genetic and developmental studies of the vertebrate central nervous system. Considerable knowledge concerning the embryonic development of the central nervous system of the zebrafish has accumulated in recent years. However, there is an apparent lack of information on the organization of the adult zebrafish brain. We have therefore recently studied

  18. Unique and conserved aspects of gut development in zebrafish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth N Wallace; Michael Pack

    2003-01-01

    Although the development of the digestive system of humans and vertebrate model organisms has been well characterized, relatively little is known about how the zebrafish digestive system forms. We define developmental milestones during organogenesis of the zebrafish digestive tract, liver, and pancreas and identify important differences in the way the digestive endoderm of zebrafish and amniotes is organized. Such differences

  19. INTRODUCTION Zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton 1822), have become a valuable

    E-print Network

    Sisneros, Joseph A.

    3504 INTRODUCTION Zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton 1822), have become a valuable model, 2005). The early development of the zebrafish inner ear is similar to that of other vertebrates (Bang are homologous to those found in mammals (Coffin et al., 2004). Over 50 genes are known to impact the zebrafish

  20. Characterization of zebrafish larval inflammatory macrophages Jonathan R. Mathias a

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Characterization of zebrafish larval inflammatory macrophages Jonathan R. Mathias a , M. Ernest, Madison, WI 53792, USA 1. Introduction Zebrafish have become a powerful model organism to study the innate,4]. Zebrafish larvae develop an innate immune system comprised primarily of neutrophils and macrophages. Recent

  1. INVESTIGATION An SNP-Based Linkage Map for Zebrafish Reveals

    E-print Network

    Broman, Karl W.

    INVESTIGATION An SNP-Based Linkage Map for Zebrafish Reveals Sex Determination Loci Kevin M in teleost fish. In the common zebrafish model organism, heteromorphic sex chromosomes are not observed-wide linkage study of sex determination in zebrafish using a novel SNP genetic map. We identified loci

  2. Predator-Induced Stress and Anxiety in Zebrafish

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    Page | 1 4/30/2009 1 2009 Predator-Induced Stress and Anxiety in Zebrafish [ S O P A N M O H N O T ] #12;Page | 2 I. Introduction Zebrafish have been widely used as a model for genetic, behavioral, and physiological research. Zebrafish mutant phenotypes in genetic screens correlate to pathophysiology

  3. Review Article Automated Processing of Zebrafish Imaging Data

    E-print Network

    Hamprecht, Fred A.

    Review Article Automated Processing of Zebrafish Imaging Data: A Survey Ralf Mikut,1 Thomas and larvae, the zebrafish is an ideal model organism for bioimaging approaches in vertebrates. Novel in computational image analysis in the zebrafish system. We discuss the challenges encountered when handling high

  4. Neural and Synaptic Defects in slytherin a Zebrafish Model for Human Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Song; J Willer; P Scherer; J Panzer; A Kugath; E Skordalakes; R Gregg; G Willer; R Balice-Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIc (CDG IIc) is characterized by mental retardation, slowed growth and severe immunodeficiency, attributed to the lack of fucosylated glycoproteins. While impaired Notch signaling has been implicated in some aspects of CDG IIc pathogenesis, the molecular and cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have identified a zebrafish mutant slytherin (srn), which harbors a missense point

  5. Neural and Synaptic Defects in slytherin, a Zebrafish Model for Human Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuanquan Song; Jason R. Willer; Paul C. Scherer; Jessica A. Panzer; Amy Kugath; Emmanuel Skordalakes; Ronald G. Gregg; Gregory B. Willer; Rita J. Balice-Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIc (CDG IIc) is characterized by mental retardation, slowed growth and severe immunodeficiency, attributed to the lack of fucosylated glycoproteins. While impaired Notch signaling has been implicated in some aspects of CDG IIc pathogenesis, the molecular and cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have identified a zebrafish mutant slytherin (srn), which harbors a missense point

  6. Current status of sperm cryopreservation in biomedical research fish models: Zebrafish, medaka, and Xiphophorus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiping Yang; Terrence R. Tiersch

    2009-01-01

    Aquarium fishes are becoming increasingly important because of their value in biomedical research and the ornamental fish trade, and because many have become threatened or endangered in the wild. This review summarizes the current status of sperm cryopreservation in three fishes widely used in biomedical research: zebrafish, medaka, and live-bearing fishes of the genus Xiphophorus, and will focus on the

  7. Mechano-sensory organ regeneration in adults: The zebrafish lateral line as a model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascale Dufourcq; Myriam Roussigné; Patrick Blader; Frédéric Rosa; Nadine Peyrieras; Sophie Vriz

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we present a study of regeneration of the lateral line, a collection of mechano-sensory organ, in the adult zebrafish caudal fin. As all neuromasts are innervated by axon fibers, neuronal regeneration is a key issue in the regenerating process. We first show that support cells from the last neuromast adjacent to the amputation plane divide and migrate

  8. Ethanol exposure alters zebrafish development: A novel model of fetal alcohol syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Bilotta; Jalynn A. Barnett; Laura Hancock; Shannon Saszik

    2004-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol has been shown to produce the overt physical and behavioral symptoms known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in humans. Also, it is believed that low concentrations and\\/or short durations of alcohol exposure can produce more subtle effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of embryonic ethanol exposure on the zebrafish (Danio rerio)

  9. A novel orally available inhibitor of focal adhesion signaling increases survival in a xenograft model of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with central nervous system involvement

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Rosa; Moreno, María José; Dieguez-Gonzalez, Rebeca; Céspedes, María Virtudes; Gallardo, Alberto; Trias, Manuel; Grañena, Albert; Sierra, Jorge; Casanova, Isolda; Mangues, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system dissemination is a relatively uncommon but almost always fatal complication in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients. Optimal therapy for central nervous involvement in this malignancy has not been established. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of E7123, a celecoxib derivative that inhibits focal adhesion signaling, in a novel xenograft model of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with central nervous system involvement. Cells obtained after disaggregation of HT subcutaneous tumors (HT-SC cells) were intravenously injected in NOD/SCID mice. These mice received oral vehicle or 75 mg/kg of E7123 daily until they were euthanized for weight loss or signs of sickness. The antitumor effect of E7123 was validated in an independent experiment using a bioluminescent mouse model. Intravenously injected HT-SC cells showed higher take rate and higher central nervous system tropism (associated with increased expression of ?1-integrin and p130Cas proteins) than HT cells. The oral administration of E7123 significantly increased survival time in 2 independent experiments using mice injected with unmodified or bioluminescent HT-SC cells. We have developed a new xenograft model of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with central nervous system involvement that can be used in the pre-clinical evaluation of new drugs for this malignancy. E7123 is a new, well-tolerated and orally available therapeutic agent that merits further investigation since it may improve current management of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients with central nervous system involvement. PMID:23716554

  10. In vivo anti-metastatic effects of uPAR retargeted measles virus in syngeneic and xenograft models of mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yuqi; Bejarano, Marcela Toro; Zaias, Julia; Merchan, Jaime R

    2015-01-01

    The urokinase receptor (uPAR) plays a critical role in breast cancer (BC) progression and metastases and is a validated target for novel therapies. The current study investigates the effects of MV-uPA, an oncolytic measles virus fully retargeted against uPAR in syngeneic and xenograft BC metastases models. In vitro replication and cytotoxicity of MVs retargeted against human (MV-h-uPA) or mouse (MV-m-uPA) uPAR were assessed in human and murine cancer and non-cancer mammary epithelial cells. The in vivo effects of species-specific uPAR retargeted MVs were assessed in syngeneic and xenograft models of experimental metastases, established by intravenous administration of luciferase expressing 4T1 or MDA-MD-231 cells. Metastases progression was assessed by in vivo bioluminescence imaging. Tumor targeting was evaluated by qRT-PCR of MV-N, rescue of viable viral particles, and immunostaining of MV particles in lungs from tumor bearing mice. In vitro, MV-h-uPA and MV-m-uPA selectively infected, replicated, and induced cytotoxicity in cancer compared to non-cancer cells in a species-specific manner. In vivo, MV-m-uPA delayed 4T1 lung metastases progression and prolonged survival. These effects were associated with identification of viable viral particles, viral RNA, and detection of MV-N by immunostaining from lung tissues in treated mice. In the human MDA-MB-231 metastases model, intravenous administration of MV-h-uPA markedly inhibited metastases progression and significantly improved survival, compared to controls. No significant treatment-related toxicity was observed in treated mice. The above preclinical findings strongly suggest that uPAR retargeted measles virotherapy is a novel and feasible systemic therapy strategy against metastatic breast cancer. PMID:25519042

  11. In vivo molecular imaging of gastric cancer in human-murine xenograft models with confocal laser endomicroscopy using a tumor vascular homing peptide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijuan; Yin, Jipeng; Liu, Changhao; Guan, Guofeng; Shi, Doufei; Wang, Xiaojuan; Xu, Bing; Tian, Zuhong; Zhao, Jing; Nie, Yongzhan; Wang, Biaoluo; Liang, Shuhui; Wu, Kaichun; Ding, Jie

    2015-01-28

    The early detection of premalignant lesions and cancers are very important for improving the survival of patients with gastric malignancies. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is a novel imaging tool for achieving real-time microscopy during the ongoing endoscopy at subcellular resolution. In the present study, to evaluate the feasibility of real-time molecular imaging of GEBP11 by CLE in gastric cancer, CLE was performed on two types of tumor-bearing mice models, as well as surgical specimens of patients with gastric cancer, after the application of GEBP11. A whole-body fluorescent imaging device was first used to screen for the strongest specific fluorescent signal in xenograft models. Next, the tumor sites, as well as human tissues, were scanned with CLE. After this, targeted specimens were obtained for fluorescence microscopy and histology. We confirmed that GEBP11 could specifically bind to co-HUVECs by means of CLE in cell experiments. Thereafter, a specific signal was observed in both subcutaneous and orthotopic xenograft models in vivo after the injection of FITC-GEBP11 via tail vein, whereas the group injected with FITC-URP showed no fluorescent signals. In human tissues, a specific signal of GEBP11 was observed in 26/28 neoplastic specimens and in 8/28 samples of non-neoplastic specimens from the patients (p?

  12. Long-Term Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Gene Expression in a Zebrafish Model

    PubMed Central

    Jaafar, Lahcen; Podolsky, Robert H.; Dynan, William S.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how initial radiation injury translates into long-term effects is an important problem in radiation biology. Here, we define a set of changes in the transcription profile that are associated with the long-term response to radiation exposure. The study was performed in vivo using zebrafish, an established radiobiological model organism. To study the long-term response, 24 hour post-fertilization embryos were exposed to 0.1 Gy (low dose) or 1.0 Gy (moderate dose) of whole-body gamma radiation and allowed to develop for 16 weeks. Liver mRNA profiles were then analyzed using the Affymetrix microarray platform, with validation by quantitative PCR. As a basis for comparison, 16-week old adults were exposed at the same doses and analyzed after 4 hours. Statistical analysis was performed in a way to minimize the effects of multiple comparisons. The responses to these two treatment regimes differed greatly: 360 probe sets were associated primarily with the long-term response, whereas a different 2062 probe sets were associated primarily with the response when adults of the same age were irradiated 4 hours before exposure. Surprisingly, a ten-fold difference in radiation dose (0.1 versus 1.0 Gy) had little effect. Analysis at the gene and pathway level indicated that the long-term response includes the induction of cytokine and inflammatory regulators and transcription and growth factors. The acute response includes the induction of p53 target genes and modulation of the hypoxia-induced transcription factor-C/EBP axis. Results help define genes and pathways affected in the long-term, low and moderate dose radiation response and differentiate them from those affected in an acute response in the same tissue. PMID:23936019

  13. Alendronate rescued osteoporotic phenotype in a model of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in adult zebrafish scale.

    PubMed

    Pasqualetti, Sara; Congiu, Terenzio; Banfi, Giuseppe; Mariotti, Massimo

    2015-02-01

    Long-term effects of glucocorticoid treatment in humans induce bone loss and increase the risk of fracture in the skeleton. The pathogenic mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) are still unclear. The GIOP and its effects have been reproduced in several animal models including Danio rerio (zebrafish) embryo. The treatment of adult fish with prednisolone (PN) has shown a dose-dependent decrease of mineralized matrix in the scales. Large resorption lacunae are characterized by single TRAP-positive cells which migrate to the margin of the scale merging into a multinucleated structures. The treatment with PN of cultured scales did not increase TRAP activity suggesting that the massive presence of osteoclasts in the resorption sites could be likely the result of a systemic recruitment of monocyte-macrophage precursors. We observed that treatment with PN induced a significant decrease of the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in scale scleroblasts if compared with untreated controls. Then, we investigated the total mineral balance under prednisolone treatment using a time-dependent double live staining. The untreated fish fully repaired the resorption lacuna induced by prednisolone, whereas treated fish failed. The presence of osteoclast resorption fingerprints on new matrix suggested that the osteoclast activity counterbalances the osteodepositive activity exerted by scleroblasts. The treatment with PN in association with alendronate (AL) has surprisingly resulted in a significant decrease of TRAP activity and increase of ALP compared to PN-treated fish in biochemical and histological assays confirming the action of alendronate against GIOP in fish as well in humans. PMID:25603732

  14. Relative developmental toxicities of pentachloroanisole and pentachlorophenol in a zebrafish model (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yan; Ekker, Marc; Chan, Hing Man

    2015-02-01

    Pentachloroanisole (PCA) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) are chlorinated aromatic compounds that have been found in the environment and in human populations. The objective of this study is to characterize the effects of PCA in comparison to those of PCP on development at environmental relevant levels using a fish model. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0.1, 1, 10, 100, 500, 1000 ?g/L PCA and PCP respectively for 96 h. Malformation observation, LC50 testing for survival rate at 96 hours post fertilization (hpf) and EC50 testing for hatching rate at 72 hpf indicated that the developmental toxicity of PCP was about 15 times higher than that of PCA. PCP exposure at 10 ?g/L resulted in elevated 3, 3', 5-triiodothyronine (T3) levels and decreased thyroxine (T4) levels, whereas PCA had no effects on T3 or T4 levels. PCP and PCA exposure at 1 and 10 ?g/L showed possible hyperthyroid effects similar to that of T3, due to increased relative mRNA expression of synapsin I (SYN), iodothyronine deiodinase type III (Dio3), thyroid hormone receptor alpha a (THR?a) and thyroid hormone receptor beta (THR?), and decreased expression of iodothyronine deiodinase type II (Dio2). The results indicate that both PCA and PCP exposure can cause morphological deformities, possibly affect the timing and coordination of development in the central nervous system, and alter thyroid hormone levels by disrupting thyroid hormone regulating pathways. However, the developmental toxicity of PCA is at least ten times lower than that of PCP. Our results on the relative developmental toxicities of PCA and PCP and the possible underlying mechanisms will be useful to support interpretation of envrionmental concentrations and body burden levels observed in human populations. PMID:25463847

  15. Correlative light and electron microscopy imaging of autophagy in a zebrafish infection model.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Rohola; Lamers, Gerda Em; Hodzic, Zlatan; Meijer, Annemarie H; Schaaf, Marcel Jm; Spaink, Herman P

    2014-10-01

    High-resolution imaging of autophagy has been used intensively in cell culture studies, but so far it has been difficult to visualize this process in detail in whole animal models. In this study we present a versatile method for high-resolution imaging of microbial infection in zebrafish larvae by injecting pathogens into the tail fin. This allows visualization of autophagic compartments by light and electron microscopy, which makes it possible to correlate images acquired by the 2 techniques. Using this method we have studied the autophagy response against Mycobacterium marinum infection. We show that mycobacteria during the progress of infection are frequently associated with GFP-Lc3-positive vesicles, and that 2 types of GFP-Lc3-positive vesicles were observed. The majority of these vesicles were approximately 1 ?m in size and in close vicinity of bacteria, and a smaller number of GFP-Lc3-positive vesicles was larger in size and were observed to contain bacteria. Quantitative data showed that these larger vesicles occurred significantly more in leukocytes than in other cell types, and that approximately 70% of these vesicles were positive for a lysosomal marker. Using electron microscopy, it was found that approximately 5% of intracellular bacteria were present in autophagic vacuoles and that the remaining intracellular bacteria were present in phagosomes, lysosomes, free inside the cytoplasm or occurred as large aggregates. Based on correlation of light and electron microscopy images, it was shown that GFP-Lc3-positive vesicles displayed autophagic morphology. This study provides a new approach for injection of pathogens into the tail fin, which allows combined light and electron microscopy imaging in vivo and opens new research directions for studying autophagy process related to infectious diseases. PMID:25126731

  16. Podocyte Developmental Defects Caused by Adriamycin in Zebrafish Embryos and Larvae: A Novel Model of Glomerular Damage

    PubMed Central

    Zennaro, Cristina; Mariotti, Massimo; Carraro, Michele; Pasqualetti, Sara; Corbelli, Alessandro; Armelloni, Silvia; Li, Min; Ikehata, Masami; Clai, Milan; Artero, Mary; Messa, Piergiorgio; Boscutti, Giuliano; Rastaldi, Maria Pia

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish pronephros is gaining popularity in the nephrology community, because embryos are easy to cultivate in multiwell plates, allowing large number of experiments to be conducted in an in vivo model. In a few days, glomeruli reach complete development, with a structure that is similar to that of the mammalian counterpart, showing a fenestrated endothelium and a basement membrane covered by the multiple ramifications of mature podocytes. As a further advantage, zebrafish embryos are permeable to low molecular compounds, and this explains their extensive use in drug efficacy and toxicity experiments. Here we show that low concentrations of adriamycin (i.e. 10 and 20 µM), when dissolved in the medium of zebrafish embryos at 9 hours post-fertilization and removed after 48 hours (57 hpf), alter the development of podocytes with subsequent functional impairment, demonstrated by onset of pericardial edema and reduction of expression of the podocyte proteins nephrin and wt1. Podocyte damage is morphologically confirmed by electron microscopy and functionally supported by increased clearance of microinjected 70 kDa fluorescent dextran. Importantly, besides pericardial edema and glomerular damage, which persist and worsen after adriamycin removal from the medium, larvae exposed to adriamycin 10 and 20 µM do not show any myocardiocyte alterations nor vascular changes. The only extra-renal effect is a transient delay of cartilage formation that rapidly recovers once adriamycin is removed. In summary, this low dose adriamycin model can be applied to analyze podocyte developmental defects, such as those observed in congenital nephrotic syndrome, and can be taken in consideration for pharmacological studies of severe early podocyte injury. PMID:24845233

  17. The Zebrafish Neurophenome Database (ZND): A Dynamic Open-Access Resource

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    The Zebrafish Neurophenome Database (ZND): A Dynamic Open-Access Resource for Zebrafish Abstract Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are widely used in neuroscience research, where their utility as a model complexity make zebrafish a valuable tool for high-throughput studies in biomedicine. To complement

  18. The Zebrafish Neurophenome Database (ZND): A Dynamic Open-Access Resource

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    The Zebrafish Neurophenome Database (ZND): A Dynamic Open-Access Resource for Zebrafish Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are widely used in neuroscience research, where their utility as a model organism zebrafish a valuable tool for high-throughput studies in biomedicine. To complement the available

  19. Functional Ginger Extracts from Supercritical Fluid Carbon Dioxide Extraction via In Vitro and In Vivo Assays: Antioxidation, Antimicroorganism, and Mice Xenografts Models

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chih-Chen; Chiou, Li-Yu; Wang, Jheng-Yang; Chou, Sin-You; Lan, John Chi-Wei; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Huang, Kuo-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction technology was developed to gain the active components from a Taiwan native plant, Zingiber officinale (ginger). We studied the biological effects of ginger extracts via multiple assays and demonstrated the biofunctions in each platform. Investigations of ginger extracts indicated antioxidative properties in dose-dependant manners on radical scavenging activities, reducing powers and metal chelating powers. We found that ginger extracts processed moderate scavenging values, middle metal chelating levels, and slight ferric reducing powers. The antibacterial susceptibility of ginger extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sobrinus, S. mutans, and Escherichia coli was determined with the broth microdilution method technique. The ginger extracts had operative antimicroorganism potentials against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We further discovered the strong inhibitions of ginger extracts on lethal carcinogenic melanoma through in vivo xenograft model. To sum up, the data confirmed the possible applications as medical cosmetology agents, pharmaceutical antibiotics, and food supplements. PMID:23983624

  20. Early development of hearing in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhongmin; DeSmidt, Alexandra A

    2013-08-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become a valuable vertebrate model for human hearing and balance disorders because it combines powerful genetics, excellent embryology, and exceptional in vivo visualization in one organism. In this study, we investigated auditory function of zebrafish at early developmental stages using the microphonic potential method. This is the first study to report ontogeny of response of hair cells in any fish during the first week post fertilization. The right ear of each zebrafish embedded in agarose was linearly stimulated with a glass probe that was driven by a calibrated piezoelectric actuator. Using beveled micropipettes filled with standard fish saline, extracellular microphonic potentials were recorded from hair cells in the inner ear of zebrafish embryos or larvae in response to 20, 50, 100, and 200-Hz stimulation. Saccular hair cells expressing green fluorescent protein of the transgenic zebrafish from 2 to 7 days post fertilization (dpf) were visualized and quantified using confocal microscopy. The otic vesicles' areas, otoliths' areas, and saccular hair cell count and density increased linearly with age and standard body length. Microphonic responses increased monotonically with stimulus intensity, stimulus frequency, and age of zebrafish. Microphonic threshold at 200 Hz gradually decreased with zebrafish age. The increases in microphonic response and sensitivity correlate with the increases in number and density of hair cells in the saccule. These results enhance our knowledge of early development of auditory function in zebrafish and provide the control data that can be used to evaluate hearing of young zebrafish morphants or mutants. PMID:23575600

  1. A Proteoliposome Containing Apolipoprotein A-I Mutant (V156K) Enhances Rapid Tumor Regression Activity of Human Origin Oncolytic Adenovirus in Tumor-Bearing Zebrafish and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Juyi; Yun, Chae-Ok; Kwon, Oh-Joon; Choi, Eun-Jin; Song, Jae-Young; Choi, Inho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    We recently reported that the efficiency of adenoviral gene delivery and virus stability are significantly enhanced when a proteoliposome (PL) containing apolipoprotein (apo) A-I is used in an animal model. In the current study, we tested tumor removal activity of oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) using PL-containing wildtype (WT) or V156K. Oncolytic Ad with or without PL was injected into tumors of zebrafish and nude mice as a Hep3B tumor xenograft model. The V156K-PL-Ad-injected zebrafish, group showed the lowest tumor tissue volume and nucleic acids in the tumor area, whereas injection of Ad alone did not result in adequate removal of tumor activity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents increased two-fold in tumor-bearing zebrafish; however, the V156K-PL-Ad injected group showed a 40% decrease in ROS levels compared to that in normal zebrafish. After reducing the tumor volume with the V156K-PL-Ad injection, the swimming pattern of the zebrafish changed to be more active and energetic. The oncolytic effect of PL-Ad containing either V156K or WT was about two-fold more enhanced in mice than that of Ad alone 34 days after the injection. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the PL-Ad-injected groups showed enhanced efficiency of viral delivery with elevated Ad-E1A staining and a diminished number of proliferating tumor cells. Thus, the anti-tumor effect of oncolytic Ad was strongly enhanced by a PL-containing apoA-I and its mutant (V156K) without causing side effects in mice and zebrafish models. PMID:22851220

  2. Efficacy and safety of the hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 in combination with gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel in human tumor xenograft models of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jessica D; Liu, Qian; Ahluwalia, Dharmendra; Li, Wenwu; Meng, Fanying; Wang, Yan; Bhupathi, Deepthi; Ruprell, Ayesha S; Hart, Charles P

    2015-03-01

    Tumors often contain hypoxic regions resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy. TH-302 (T) is an investigational hypoxia-activated prodrug that selectively releases the DNA cross-linker bromo-isophosphoramide mustard under hypoxic conditions. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety profile of combining T with gemcitabine (G) and nab-paclitaxel (nP) in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) xenograft models in mice. Antitumor activity of the G + nP + T triplet was assessed and compared with T-alone or the G + nP doublet in the Hs766t, MIA PaCa-2, PANC-1, and BxPC-3 PDAC xenograft models. Efficacy was assessed by tumor growth kinetic analysis. Body weight, blood cell counts, blood chemistry, and the von Frey neuropathy assay were analyzed to evaluate safety profiles. Pharmacodynamic changes after the treatment were determined by immunohistochemistry of cell proliferation, DNA damage, apoptosis, hypoxia, and tumor stroma density. The G + nP + T triplet exhibited enhanced efficacy compared with T-alone or the G + nP doublet. Compared with vehicle (V), G + nP induced body weight loss, reduced neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, increased the levels of liver function parameters, and induced neurotoxicity. However, when T was added to G + nP, there was no statistically increased impairment compared to G + nP. The triplet significantly increased DNA damage, apoptosis, and tumor necrosis. Furthermore, the triplet further inhibited cell proliferation and reduced stroma density and intratumoral hypoxia. The triplet combination of G + nP + T exhibited superior efficacy but additive toxicity was not evident compared to the G + nP doublet in this study. This study provides a translational rationale for combining G, nP, and T in the clinical setting to assess efficacy and safety. A Phase I clinical trial of the triplet combination is currently underway (NCT02047500). PMID:25679067

  3. Anti-CD45 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy using Bismuth-213: High Rates of Complete Remission and Long-Term Survival in a Mouse Myeloid Leukemia Xenograft Model

    SciTech Connect

    Pagel, John M.; Kenoyer, Aimee L.; Back, Tom; Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Fisher, Darrell R.; Park, Steven I.; Frayo, Shani; Axtman, Amanda; Orgun, Nural; Orozoco, Johnnie; Shenoi, Jaideep; Lin, Yukang; Gopal, Ajay K.; Green, Damian J.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Press, Oliver W.

    2011-07-21

    Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) using an anti-CD45 antibody (Ab)-streptavidin (SA) conjugate and DOTA-biotin labeled with beta-emitting radionuclides has been explored as a strategy to decrease relapse and toxicity. Alpha-emitting radionuclides exhibit high cytotoxicity coupled with a short path-length, potentially increasing the therapeutic index and making them an attractive alternative to beta-emitting radionuclides for patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Accordingly, we have used 213Bi in mice with human leukemia xenografts. Results demonstrated excellent localization of 213Bi-DOTA-biotin to tumors with minimal uptake into normal organs. After 10 minutes, 4.5 ± 1.1% of the injected dose of 213Bi was delivered per gram of tumor. Alpha imaging demonstrated uniform radionuclide distribution within tumor tissue 45 minutes after 213Bi-DOTA-biotin injection. Radiation absorbed doses were similar to those observed using a beta-emitting radionuclide (90Y) in the same model. We conducted therapy experiments in a xenograft model using a single-dose of 213Bi-DOTA-biotin given 24 hours after anti-CD45 Ab-SA conjugate. Among mice treated with anti-CD45 Ab-SA conjugate followed by 800 ?Ci of 213Bi- or 90Y-DOTA-biotin, 80% and 20%, respectively, survived leukemia-free for >100 days with minimal toxicity. These data suggest that anti-CD45 PRIT using an alpha-emitting radionuclide may be highly effective and minimally toxic for treatment of AML.

  4. A Small Molecule Inhibitor of ETV1, YK-4-279, Prevents Prostate Cancer Growth and Metastasis in a Mouse Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Said; Minas, Tsion; Hong, Sung-Hyeok; Justvig, Sarah; Çelik, Haydar; Kont, Yasemin Saygideger; Han, Jenny; Kallarakal, Abraham T.; Kong, Yali; Rudek, Michelle A.; Brown, Milton L.; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.; Üren, Aykut

    2014-01-01

    Background The erythroblastosis virus E26 transforming sequences (ETS) family of transcription factors consists of a highly conserved group of genes that play important roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration and invasion. Chromosomal translocations fusing ETS factors to promoters of androgen responsive genes have been found in prostate cancers, including the most clinically aggressive forms. ERG and ETV1 are the most commonly translocated ETS proteins. Over-expression of these proteins in prostate cancer cells results in a more invasive phenotype. Inhibition of ETS activity by small molecule inhibitors may provide a novel method for the treatment of prostate cancer. Methods and Findings We recently demonstrated that the small molecule YK-4-279 inhibits biological activity of ETV1 in fusion-positive prostate cancer cells leading to decreased motility and invasion in-vitro. Here, we present data from an in-vivo mouse xenograft model. SCID-beige mice were subcutaneously implanted with fusion-positive LNCaP-luc-M6 and fusion-negative PC-3M-luc-C6 tumors. Animals were treated with YK-4-279, and its effects on primary tumor growth and lung metastasis were evaluated. YK-4-279 treatment resulted in decreased growth of the primary tumor only in LNCaP-luc-M6 cohort. When primary tumors were grown to comparable sizes, YK-4-279 inhibited tumor metastasis to the lungs. Expression of ETV1 target genes MMP7, FKBP10 and GLYATL2 were reduced in YK-4-279 treated animals. ETS fusion-negative PC-3M-luc-C6 xenografts were unresponsive to the compound. Furthermore, YK-4-279 is a chiral molecule that exists as a racemic mixture of R and S enantiomers. We established that (S)-YK-4-279 is the active enantiomer in prostate cancer cells. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that YK-4-279 is a potent inhibitor of ETV1 and inhibits both the primary tumor growth and metastasis of fusion positive prostate cancer xenografts. Therefore, YK-4-279 or similar compounds may be evaluated as a potential therapeutic tool for treatment of human prostate cancer at different stages. PMID:25479232

  5. Autophagy in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Varga, Máté; Fodor, Erika; Vellai, Tibor

    2015-03-01

    From a hitherto underappreciated phenomenon, autophagy has become one of the most intensively studied cellular processes in recent years. Its role in cellular homeostasis, development and disease is supported by a fast growing body of evidence. Surprisingly, only a small fraction of new observations regarding the physiological functions of cellular "self-digestion" comes from zebrafish, one of the most popular vertebrate model organisms. Here we review the existing information about autophagy reporter lines, genetic knock-down assays and small molecular reagents that have been tested in this system. As we argue, some of these tools have to be used carefully due to possible pleiotropic effects. However, when applied rigorously, in combination with novel mutant strains and genome editing techniques, they could also transform zebrafish into an important animal model of autophagy research. PMID:25498006

  6. Knockdown of fbxl10/kdm2bb rescues chd7 morphant phenotype in a zebrafish model of CHARGE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Balow, Stephanie A; Pierce, Lain X; Zentner, Gabriel E; Conrad, Patricia A; Davis, Stephani; Sabaawy, Hatem E; McDermott, Brian M; Scacheri, Peter C

    2013-10-01

    CHARGE syndrome is a sporadic autosomal-dominant genetic disorder characterized by a complex array of birth defects so named for its cardinal features of ocular coloboma, heart defects, choanal atresia, growth retardation, genital abnormalities, and ear abnormalities. Approximately two-thirds of individuals clinically diagnosed with CHARGE syndrome have heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 7 (CHD7), an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler. To examine the role of Chd7 in development, a zebrafish model was generated through morpholino (MO)-mediated targeting of the zebrafish chd7 transcript. High doses of chd7 MO induce lethality early in embryonic development. However, low dose-injected embryos are viable, and by 4 days post-fertilization, morphant fish display multiple defects in organ systems analogous to those affected in humans with CHARGE syndrome. The chd7 morphants show elevated expression of several potent cell-cycle inhibitors including ink4ab (p16/p15), p21 and p27, accompanied by reduced cell proliferation. We also show that Chd7 is required for proper organization of neural crest-derived craniofacial cartilage structures. Strikingly, MO-mediated knockdown of the jumonji domain-containing histone demethylase fbxl10/kdm2bb, a repressor of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, rescues cell proliferation and cartilage defects in chd7 morphant embryos and can lead to complete rescue of the CHARGE syndrome phenotype. These results indicate that CHARGE-like phenotypes in zebrafish can be mitigated through modulation of fbxl10 levels and implicate FBXL10 as a possible therapeutic target in CHARGE syndrome. PMID:23920116

  7. Knockdown of fbxl10/kdm2bb rescues chd7 morphant phenotype in a zebrafish model of CHARGE syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Balow, Stephanie A.; Pierce, Lain X.; Zentner, Gabriel E.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Davis, Stephani; Sabaawy, Hatem E.; McDermott, Brian M.; Scacheri, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    CHARGE syndrome is a sporadic autosomal-dominant genetic disorder characterized by a complex array of birth defects so named for its cardinal features of ocular coloboma, heart defects, choanal atresia, growth retardation, genital abnormalities, and ear abnormalities. Approximately two-thirds of individuals clinically diagnosed with CHARGE syndrome have heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 7 (CHD7), an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler. To examine the role of Chd7 in development, a zebrafish model was generated through morpholino (MO)-mediated targeting of the zebrafish chd7 transcript. High doses of chd7 MO induce lethality early in embryonic development. However, low dose-injected embryos are viable, and by 4 days post-fertilization, morphant fish display multiple defects in organ systems analogous to those affected in humans with CHARGE syndrome. The chd7 morphants show elevated expression of several potent cell-cycle inhibitors including ink4ab (p16/p15), p21 and p27, accompanied by reduced cell proliferation. We also show that Chd7 is required for proper organization of neural crest-derived craniofacial cartilage structures. Strikingly, MO-mediated knockdown of the jumonji domain-containing histone demethylase fbxl10/kdm2bb, a repressor of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, rescues cell proliferation and cartilage defects in chd7 morphant embryos and can lead to complete rescue of the CHARGE syndrome phenotype. These results indicate that CHARGE-like phenotypes in zebrafish can be mitigated through modulation of fbxl10 levels and implicate FBXL10 as a possible therapeutic target in CHARGE syndrome. PMID:23920116

  8. Filamentous, mixed micelles of triblock copolymers enhance tumor localization of indocyanine green in a murine xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hee; Mount, Christopher W; Dulken, Benjamin W; Ramos, Jenelyn; Fu, Caroline J; Khant, Htet A; Chiu, Wah; Gombotz, Wayne R; Pun, Suzie H

    2012-01-01

    Polymeric micelles formed by the self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers can be used to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs for tumor-delivery applications. Filamentous carriers with high aspect ratios offer potential advantages over spherical carriers, including prolonged circulation times. In this work, mixed micelles composed of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate]-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PHB-PEO) and Pluronic F-127 (PF-127) were used to encapsulate a near-infrared fluorophore. The micelle formulations were assessed for tumor accumulation after tail vein injection to xenograft tumor-bearing mice by noninvasive optical imaging. The mixed micelle formulation that facilitated the highest tumor accumulation was shown by cryo-electron microscopy to be filamentous in structure compared to spherical structures of pure PF-127 micelles. In addition, increased dye loading efficiency and dye stability were attained in this mixed micelle formulation compared to pure PEO-PHB-PEO micelles. Therefore, the optimized PEO-PHB-PEO/PF-127 mixed micelle formulation offers advantages for cancer delivery over micelles formed from the individual copolymer components. PMID:22118658

  9. Filamentous, mixed micelles of triblock copolymers enhance tumor localization of indocyanine green in a murine xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hee; Mount, Christopher W; Dulken, Benjamin W; Ramos, Jenelyn; Fu, Caroline J; Khant, Htet A; Chiu, Wah; Gombotz, Wayne R; Pun, Suzie H

    2012-01-01

    Polymeric micelles formed by the self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers can be used to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs for tumor-delivery applications. Filamentous carriers with high aspect ratios offer potential advantages over spherical carriers, including prolonged circulation times. In this work, mixed micelles comprised of poly (ethylene oxide)-poly-[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate]-poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO-PHB-PEO) and Pluronic F-127 (PF-127) were used to encapsulate a near-infrared fluorophore. The micelle formulations were assessed for tumor accumulation after tail vein injection to xenograft tumor-bearing mice by non-invasive optical imaging. The mixed micelle formulation that facilitated the highest tumor accumulation was shown by cryo-electron microscopy to be filamentous in structure compared to spherical structures of pure PF-127 micelles. In addition, increased dye loading efficiency and dye stability was attained in this mixed micelle formulation compared to pure PEO-PHB-PEO micelles. Therefore, the optimized PEO-PHB-PEO/PF-127 mixed micelle formulation offers advantages for cancer delivery over micelles formed from the individual copolymer components. PMID:22118658

  10. Antibody Directed against Human YKL-40 Increases Tumor Volume in a Human Melanoma Xenograft Model in Scid Mice

    PubMed Central

    Salamon, Johannes; Hoffmann, Tatjana; Elies, Eva; Peldschus, Kersten; Johansen, Julia S.; Lüers, Georg; Schumacher, Udo; Wicklein, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Induced overexpression of the secretory protein YKL-40 promotes tumor growth in xenograft experiments. We investigated if targeting YKL-40 with a monoclonal antibody could inhibit tumor growth. YKL-40 expressing human melanoma cells (LOX) were injected subcutenously in Balb/c scid mice. Animals were treated with intraperitoneal injections of anti-YKL-40, isoptype control or PBS. Non-YKL-40 expressing human pancreatic carcinoma cell line PaCa 5061 served as additional control. MR imaging was used for evaluation of tumor growth. Two days after the first injections of anti-YKL-40, tumor volume had increased significantly compared with controls, whereas no effects were observed for control tumors from PaCa 5061 cells lacking YKL-40 expression. After 18 days, mean tumor size of the mice receiving repeated anti-YKL-40 injections was 1.82 g, >4 times higher than mean tumor size of the controls (0.42 g). The effect of anti-YKL-40 on the increase of tumor volume started within hours after injection and was dose dependent. Intratumoral hemorrhage was observed in the treated animals. The strong effect on tumor size indicates important roles for YKL-40 in melanoma growth and argues for a careful evaluation of antibody therapy directed against YKL-40. PMID:24752554

  11. In vivo drug discovery in the zebrafish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard I. Zon; Randall T. Peterson

    2005-01-01

    The zebrafish has become a widely used model organism because of its fecundity, its morphological and physiological similarity to mammals, the existence of many genomic tools and the ease with which large, phenotype-based screens can be performed. Because of these attributes, the zebrafish might also provide opportunities to accelerate the process of drug discovery. By combining the scale and throughput

  12. An automated predator avoidance task in zebrafish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omar Ahmed; Diane Seguin; Robert Gerlai

    2011-01-01

    Zebrafish are becoming increasingly popular in behavioral neuroscience as investigators have started to realize the benefits of sophisticated genetic tools specifically developed for this species along with the pharmacological tools already available for other laboratory model organisms. The zebrafish has been proposed as an in vivo tool for the analysis of vertebrate fear responses as well as human psychopathological conditions

  13. Thymoquinone Inhibits Tumor Growth and Induces Apoptosis in a Breast Cancer Xenograft Mouse Model: The Role of p38 MAPK and ROS

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Chern Chiuh; Hsu, Annie; Kumar, Alan Prem; Sethi, Gautam; Tan, Kwong Huat Benny

    2013-01-01

    Due to narrow therapeutic window of cancer therapeutic agents and the development of resistance against these agents, there is a need to discover novel agents to treat breast cancer. The antitumor activities of thymoquinone (TQ), a compound isolated from Nigella sativa oil, were investigated in breast carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Cell responses after TQ treatment were assessed by using different assays including MTT assay, annexin V-propidium iodide staining, Mitosox staining and Western blot. The antitumor effect was studied by breast tumor xenograft mouse model, and the tumor tissues were examined by histology and immunohistochemistry. The level of anti-oxidant enzymes/molecules in mouse liver tissues was measured by commercial kits. Here, we show that TQ induced p38 phosphorylation and ROS production in breast cancer cells. These inductions were found to be responsible for TQ’s anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects. Moreover, TQ-induced ROS production regulated p38 phosphorylation but not vice versa. TQ treatment was found to suppress the tumor growth and this effect was further enhanced by combination with doxorubicin. TQ also inhibited the protein expression of anti-apoptotic genes, such as XIAP, survivin, Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, in breast cancer cells and breast tumor xenograft. Reduced Ki67 and increased TUNEL staining were observed in TQ-treated tumors. TQ was also found to increase the level of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione in mouse liver tissues. Overall, our results demonstrated that the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of TQ in breast cancer are mediated through p38 phosphorylation via ROS generation. PMID:24098377

  14. Nature of tumor control by permanently and transiently modified GD2 chimeric antigen receptor T cells in xenograft models of neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nathan; Liu, Xiaojun; Hulitt, Jessica; Jiang, Shuguang; June, Carl H; Grupp, Stephan A; Barrett, David M; Zhao, Yangbing

    2014-11-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy has begun to demonstrate success as a novel treatment modality for hematologic malignancies. The success observed thus far has been with T cells permanently engineered to express chimeric receptors. T cells engineered using RNA electroporation represent an alternative with the potential for similar efficacy and greater safety when initially targeting novel antigens. Neuroblastoma is a common pediatric solid tumor with the potential to be targeted using immunotherapy. We performed xenograft studies in NSG mice in which we assessed the efficacy of both permanently modified and transiently modified CAR T cells directed against the neuroblastoma antigen GD2 in both local and disseminated disease models. Disease response was monitored by tumor volume measurement and histologic examination, as well as in vivo bioluminescence. RNA-modified GD2 CAR T cells mediated rapid tumor destruction when delivered locally. A single infusion of lentivirally modified GD2 CAR T cells resulted in long-term control of disseminated disease. Multiple infusions of RNA GD2 CAR T cells slowed the progression of disseminated disease and improved survival, but did not result in long-term disease control. Histologic examination revealed that the transiently modified cells were unable to significantly penetrate the tumor environment when delivered systemically, despite multiple infusions of CAR T cells. Thus, we demonstrate that RNA-modified GD2 CAR T cells can mediate effective antitumor responses in vivo, and permanently modified cells are able to control disseminated neuroblastoma in xenograft mice. Lack of long-term disease control by RNA-engineered cells resulted from an inability to penetrate the tumor microenvironment. PMID:25104548

  15. Metabonomic studies of pancreatic cancer response to radiotherapy in a mouse xenograft model using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and principal components analysis

    PubMed Central

    He, Xin-Hong; Li, Wen-Tao; Gu, Ya-Jia; Yang, Bao-Feng; Deng, Hui-Wen; Yu, Yi-Hua; Peng, Wei-Jun

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the metabolic profiles of xenograft pancreatic cancer before and after radiotherapy by high-resolution magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HRMAS 1H NMR) combined with principal components analysis (PCA) and evaluate the radiotherapeutic effect. METHODS: The nude mouse xenograft model of human pancreatic cancer was established by injecting human pancreatic cancer cell SW1990 subcutaneously into the nude mice. When the tumors volume reached 800 mm3, the mice received various radiation doses. Two weeks later, tumor tissue sections were prepared for running the NMR measurements. 1H NMR and PCA were used to determine the changes in the metabolic profiles of tumor tissues after radiotherapy. Metabolic profiles of normal pancreas, pancreatic tumor tissues, and radiation- treated pancreatic tumor tissues were compared. RESULTS: Compared with 1H NMR spectra of the normal nude mouse pancreas, the levels of choline, taurine, alanine, isoleucine, leucine, valine, lactate, and glutamic acid of the pancreatic cancer group were increased, whereas an opposite trend for phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, and betaine was observed. The ratio of phosphocholine to creatine, and glycerophosphocholine to creatine showed noticeable decrease in the pancreatic cancer group. After further evaluation of the tissue metabolic profile after treatment with three different radiation doses, no significant change in metabolites was observed in the 1H NMR spectra, while the inhibition of tumor growth was in proportion to the radiation doses. However, PCA results showed that the levels of choline and betaine were decreased with the increased radiation dose, and conversely, the level of acetic acid was dramatically increased. CONCLUSION: The combined methods were demonstrated to have the potential for allowing early diagnosis and assessment of pancreatic cancer response to radiotherapy. PMID:23864784

  16. GH overexpression causes muscle hypertrophy independent from local IGF-I in a zebrafish transgenic model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Y. Kuradomi; Márcio A. Figueiredo; Carlos F. C. Lanes; Carlos E. da Rosa; Daniela V. Almeida; Rodrigo Maggioni; Maeli D. P. Silva; Luis F. Marins

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the morphology of white skeletal muscle in males and females from the GH-transgenic\\u000a zebrafish (Danio rerio) lineage F0104, comparing the expression of genes related to the somatotrophic axis and myogenesis. Histological analysis\\u000a demonstrated that transgenic fish presented enhanced muscle hypertrophy when compared to non-transgenic fish, with transgenic\\u000a females being more hypertrophic

  17. GH overexpression causes muscle hypertrophy independent from local IGF-I in a zebrafish transgenic model.

    PubMed

    Kuradomi, Rafael Y; Figueiredo, Márcio A; Lanes, Carlos F C; da Rosa, Carlos E; Almeida, Daniela V; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Silva, Maeli D P; Marins, Luis F

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the morphology of white skeletal muscle in males and females from the GH-transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) lineage F0104, comparing the expression of genes related to the somatotrophic axis and myogenesis. Histological analysis demonstrated that transgenic fish presented enhanced muscle hypertrophy when compared to non-transgenic fish, with transgenic females being more hypertrophic than transgenic males. The expression of genes related to muscle growth revealed that transgenic hypertrophy is independent from local induction of insulin-like growth factor 1 gene (igf1). In addition, transgenic males exhibited significant induction of myogenin gene (myog) expression, indicating that myog may mediate hypertrophic growth in zebrafish males overexpressing GH. Induction of the ?-actin gene (acta1) in males, independently from transgenesis, also was observed. There were no significant differences in total protein content from the muscle. Our results show that muscle hypertrophy is independent from muscle igf1, and is likely to be a direct effect of excess circulating GH and/or IGF1 in this transgenic zebrafish lineage. PMID:20640508

  18. Irradiation-Dependent Effects on Tumor Perfusion and Endogenous and Exogenous Hypoxia Markers in an A549 Xenograft Model

    SciTech Connect

    Fokas, Emmanouil, E-mail: emmanouil.fokas@yahoo.d [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Medical Faculty of Philipps University, Marburg (Germany); Haenze, Joerg [Department of Internal Medicine, Justus Liebig University, Giessen (Germany); Kamlah, Florentine [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Medical Faculty of Philipps University, Marburg (Germany); Eul, Bastian G.; Lang, Nico [Department of Internal Medicine, Justus Liebig University, Giessen (Germany); Keil, Boris; Heverhagen, Johannes T. [Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty of Philipps University, Marburg (Germany); Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; An Hanxiang [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Medical Faculty of Philipps University, Marburg (Germany); Rose, Frank, E-mail: rosef@med.uni-marburg.d [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Medical Faculty of Philipps University, Marburg (Germany)

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: Hypoxia is a major determinant of tumor radiosensitivity, and microenvironmental changes in response to ionizing radiation (IR) are often heterogenous. We analyzed IR-dependent changes in hypoxia and perfusion in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma xenografts. Materials and Methods: Immunohistological analysis of two exogenously added chemical hypoxic markers, pimonidazole and CCI-103F, and of the endogenous marker Glut-1 was performed time dependently after IR. Tumor vessels and apoptosis were analyzed using CD31 and caspase-3 antibodies. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and fluorescent beads (Hoechst 33342) were used to monitor vascular perfusion. Results: CCI-103F signals measuring the fraction of hypoxic areas after IR were significantly decreased by approximately 50% when compared with pimonidazole signals, representing the fraction of hypoxic areas from the same tumors before IR. Interestingly, Glut-1 signals were significantly decreased at early time point (6.5 h) after IR returning to the initial levels at 30.5 h. Vascular density showed no difference between irradiated and control groups, whereas apoptosis was significantly induced at 10.5 h post-IR. DCE-MRI indicated increased perfusion 1 h post-IR. Conclusions: The discrepancy between the hypoxic fractions of CCI-103F and Glut-1 forces us to consider the possibility that both markers reflect different metabolic alterations of tumor microenvironment. The reliability of endogenous markers such as Glut-1 to measure reoxygenation in irradiated tumors needs further consideration. Monitoring tumor microvascular response to IR by DCE-MRI and measuring tumor volume alterations should be encouraged.

  19. Prevalence of Endogenous CD34+ Adipose Stem Cells Predicts Human Fat Graft Retention in a Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Philips, Brian J.; Grahovac, Tara L.; Valentin, Jolene E.; Chung, Christopher W.; Bliley, Jacqueline M.; Pfeifer, Melanie E.; Roy, Sohini B.; Dreifuss, Stephanie; Kelmendi-Doko, Arta; Kling, Russell E.; Ravuri, Sudheer K.; Marra, Kacey G.; Donnenberg, Vera S.; Donnenberg, Albert D.; Rubin, J. Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Fat grafting is a promising technique for soft-tissue augmentation, although graft retention is highly unpredictable and factors that affect graft survival have not been well defined. Because of their capacity for differentiation and growth factor release, adipose-derived stem cells may have a key role in graft healing. The authors’ objective was to determine whether biological properties of adipose-derived stem cells present within human fat would correlate with in vivo outcomes of graft volume retention. Methods Lipoaspirate from eight human subjects was processed using a standardized centrifugation technique and then injected subcutaneously into the flanks of 6-week-old athymic nude mice. Graft masses and volumes were measured, and histologic evaluation, including CD31+ staining for vessels, was performed 8 weeks after transplantation. Stromal vascular fraction isolated at the time of harvest from each subject was analyzed for surface markers by multi-parameter flow cytometry, and also assessed for proliferation, differentiation capacity, and normoxic/hypoxic vascular endothelial growth factor secretion. Results Wide variation in percentage of CD34+ progenitors within the stromal vascular fraction was noted among subjects and averaged 21.3 ± 15 percent (mean ± SD). Proliferation rates and adipogenic potential among stromal vascular fraction cells demonstrated moderate interpatient variability. In mouse xenograft studies, retention volumes ranged from approximately 36 to 68 percent after 8 weeks, with an overall average of 52 ± 11 percent. A strong correlation (r = 0.78, slope = 0.76, p < 0.05) existed between stromal vascular fraction percentage of CD34+ progenitors and high graft retention. Conclusion Inherent biological differences in adipose tissue exist between patients. In particular, concentration of CD34+ progenitor cells within the stromal vascular fraction may be one of the factors used to predict human fat graft retention. (Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 132: 845, 2013.) PMID:23783061

  20. 5?-Reductase Inhibition Suppresses Testosterone-Induced Initial Regrowth of Regressed Xenograft Prostate Tumors in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Masoodi, Khalid Z.; Ramos Garcia, Raquel; Pascal, Laura E.; Wang, Yujuan; Ma, Hei M.; O'Malley, Katherine; Eisermann, Kurtis; Shevrin, Daniel H.; Nguyen, Holly M.; Vessella, Robert L.; Nelson, Joel B.; Parikh, Rahul A.

    2013-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the standard treatment for patients with prostate-specific antigen progression after treatment for localized prostate cancer. An alternative to continuous ADT is intermittent ADT (IADT), which allows recovery of testosterone during off-cycles to stimulate regrowth and differentiation of the regressed prostate tumor. IADT offers patients a reduction in side effects associated with ADT, improved quality of life, and reduced cost with no difference in overall survival. Our previous studies showed that IADT coupled with 5?-reductase inhibitor (5ARI), which blocks testosterone conversion to DHT could prolong survival of animals bearing androgen-sensitive prostate tumors when off-cycle duration was fixed. To further investigate this clinically relevant observation, we measured the time course of testosterone-induced regrowth of regressed LuCaP35 and LNCaP xenograft tumors in the presence or absence of a 5ARI. 5?-Reductase inhibitors suppressed the initial regrowth of regressed prostate tumors. However, tumors resumed growth and were no longer responsive to 5?-reductase inhibition several days after testosterone replacement. This finding was substantiated by bromodeoxyuridine and Ki67 staining of LuCaP35 tumors, which showed inhibition of prostate tumor cell proliferation by 5ARI on day 2, but not day 14, after testosterone replacement. 5?-Reductase inhibitors also suppressed testosterone-stimulated proliferation of LNCaP cells precultured in androgen-free media, suggesting that blocking testosterone conversion to DHT can inhibit prostate tumor cell proliferation via an intracrine mechanism. These results suggest that short off-cycle coupled with 5?-reductase inhibition could maximize suppression of prostate tumor growth and, thus, improve potential survival benefit achieved in combination with IADT. PMID:23671262

  1. Increased intratumoral fluorothymidine uptake levels following multikinase inhibitor sorafenib treatment in a human renal cell carcinoma xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masahiro; Zhao, Songji; Zhao, Yan; Yu, Wenwen; Fatema, Chowdhury Nusrat; Nishijima, Ken-Ichi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi; Tamaki, Nagara; Kuge, Yuji

    2013-09-01

    An early identification of the tumor response to sorafenib treatment is indispensable for selecting optimal personalized treatment strategies. However, at present, no reliable predictors are clinically available. (18)F-fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT) positron emission tomography (PET) is used to assess tumor proliferation, since the FLT uptake level reflects thymidine kinase-1 (TK-1) activity. Thus, the present study determined whether FLT was able to evaluate the early tumor response to sorafenib treatment in a human renal cell carcinoma (RCC; A498) xenograft in comparison with the tumor proliferation marker, Ki-67. Mice bearing A498 tumors were assigned to the control and sorafenib-treated groups and the tumor volume was measured every day. [Methyl-3H(N)]-3'-fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine ((3)H-FLT) was injected 2 h prior to the sacrifice of the mice on days three and seven following the treatment. (3)H-FLT autoradiography (ARG) and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed using adjacent tumor sections. In the visual assessment, the intratumoral (3)H-FLT uptake level diffusely increased following the treatment, while no significant changes were observed in Ki-67 IHC. The intratumoral (3)H-FLT uptake levels significantly increased by 2.7- and 2.6-fold on days three and seven following the treatment, while the tumor volume and Ki-67 index did not significantly change. Thus, an increased FLT uptake level was demonstrated following the treatment, which may indicate the suppression of thymidylate synthase (TS) and the compensatory upregulation of TK-1 activity by sorafenib. PMID:24137387

  2. A spectral model for signal elements isolated from zebrafish photopic electroretinogram

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Ralph; Singla, Nirmish

    2009-01-01

    The zebrafish photopic ERG sums isolatable elements. In each element red, blue, green and UV (r, g, b, u) cone signals combine in a way that reflects retinal organization. ERG responses to monochromatic stimuli of different wavelengths and irradiances were recorded on a white, rod suppressing background using superfused eyecups. Onset elements were isolated with glutamatergic blockers and response subtractions. CNQX blocked ionotropic (AMPA/kainate) glutamate receptors; L-AP4 or CPPG blocked metabotropic (mGluR6) glutamate receptors; TBOA blocked glutamate transporters; and L-Aspartate inactivated all glutamatergic mechanisms. Seven elements emerged: photopic PIII, the L-Aspartate-isolated cone response; b1, a CNQX-sensitive early b-wave element of inner retinal origin; PII, a photopic, CNQX-insensitive, composite b-wave element from ON bipolar cells; PIIm, an L-AP4/CPPG-sensitive, CNQX-insensitive metabotropic sub-element of PII; PIInm, an L-AP4/CPPG/CNQX-insensitive, non-metabotropic sub-element of PII; a1nm, a TBOA-sensitive, CNQX/L-AP4/CPPG-insensitive, non-metabotropic, post-photoreceptor a-wave element; and a2, a CNQX-sensitive a-wave element linked to OFF bipolar cells. The first five elements were fit with a spectral model that demonstrates independence of cone color pathways. From this Vmax and half-saturation values (k) for the contributing r- g- b- and u-cone signals were calculated. Two signal patterns emerged. For PIII or PIInm the Vmax order was Vr > Vg ? Vb ? Vu. For b1, PII, and PIIm the Vmax order was Vr ? Vb > Vg > Vu. In either pattern u-cone amplitude (Vu) was smallest, but u-cone sensitivity (ku362) was greatest, some 10-30 times greater than r-cone (kr570). The spectra of b1/PII/PIIm elements peaked near b-cone and u-cone absorbance maxima regardless of criteria, but the spectra of PIII/PIInm elements shifted from b- towards r-cone absorbance maxima as criterion levels increased. The greatest gains in Vmax relative to PIII occurred for the b- and u-cone signals in the b1/PII/PIIm b-wave elements. This suggests a high-gain, prolific metabotropic circuitry for b- and u-cone bipolar cells. PMID:19723365

  3. Longitudinal evaluation of the metabolic response of a tumor xenograft model to single fraction radiation therapy using magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessier, A. G.; Yahya, A.; Larocque, M. P.; Fallone, B. G.; Syme, A.

    2014-09-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to evaluate the metabolic profile of human glioblastoma multiform brain tumors grown as xenografts in nude mice before, and at multiple time points after single fraction radiation therapy. Tumors were grown over the thigh in 16 mice in this study, of which 5 served as untreated controls and 11 had their tumors treated to 800?cGy with 200?kVp x-rays. Spectra were acquired within 24?h pre-treatment, and then at 3, 7 and 14?d post-treatment using a 9.4?T animal magnetic resonance (MR) system. For the untreated control tumors, spectra (1-2 per mouse) were acquired at different stages of tumor growth. Spectra were obtained with the PRESS pulse sequence using a 3? × ?3 × 3?mm3 voxel. Analysis was performed with the LCModel software platform. Six metabolites were profiled for this analysis: alanine (Ala), myo-inositol (Ins), taurine (Tau), creatine and phosphocreatine (Cr + PCr), glutamine and glutamate (Glu + Gln), and total choline (glycerophosphocholine + phosphocholine) (GPC + PCh). For the treated cohort, most metabolite/water concentration ratios were found to decrease in the short term at 3 and 7?d post-treatment, followed by an increase at 14?d post-treatment toward pre-treatment values. The lowest concentrations were observed at 7?d post-treatment, with magnitudes (relative to pre-treatment concentration ratios) of: 0.42? ± ?24.6% (Ala), 0.43? ± ?15.3% (Ins), 0.68? ± ?27.9% (Tau), 0.52? ± ?14.6% (GPC+PCh), 0.49? ± ?21.0% (Cr + PCr) and 0.78? ± ?24.5% (Glu + Gln). Control animals did not demonstrate any significant correlation between tumor volume and metabolite concentration, indicating that the observed kinetics were the result of the therapeutic intervention. We have demonstrated the feasibility of using MRS to follow multiple metabolic markers over time for the purpose of evaluating therapeutic response of tumors to radiation therapy. This study provides supporting evidence that metabolite/water concentration ratios have the potential to be used as biomarkers for the assessment of the response to therapy.

  4. A Novel 99mTc-Labeled Molecular Probe for Tumor Angiogenesis Imaging in Hepatoma Xenografts Model: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qian; Yan, Ping; Wang, Rong Fu; Zhang, Chun Li; Li, Ling; Yin, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Visualization of tumor angiogenesis using radionuclide targeting provides important diagnostic information. In previous study, we proved that an arginine-arginine-leucine (RRL) peptide should be a tumor endothelial cell specific binding sequence. The overall aim of this study was to evaluate whether 99mTc-radiolabeled RRL could be noninvasively used for imaging of malignant tumors in vivo, and act as a new molecular probe targeting tumor angiogenesis. Methods The RRL peptide was designed and radiosynthesized with 99mTc by a one-step method. The radiolabeling efficiency and radiochemical purity were then characterized in vitro. 99mTc-RRL was injected intravenously in HepG2 xenograft-bearing BALB/c nude mice. Biodistribution and in vivo imaging were performed periodically. The relationship between tumor size and %ID uptake of 99mTc-RRL was also explored. Results The labeling efficiencies of 99mTc-RRL reached 76.9%±4.5% (n?=?6) within 30–60 min at room temperature, and the radiochemical purity exceeded 96% after purification. In vitro stability experiment revealed the radiolabeled peptide was stable. Biodistribution data showed that 99mTc-RRL rapidly cleared from the blood and predominantly accumulated in the kidneys and tumor. The specific uptake of 99mTc-RRL in tumor was significantly higher than that of unlabeled RRL blocking and free pertechnetate control test after injection (p<0.05). The ratio of the tumor-to-muscle exceeded 6.5, tumor-to-liver reached 1.98 and tumor-to-blood reached 1.95. In planar gamma imaging study, the tumors were imaged clearly at 2–6 h after injection of 99mTc-RRL, whereas the tumor was not imaged clearly in blocking group. The tumor-to-muscle ratio of images with 99mTc-RRL was comparable with that of 18F-FDG PET images. Immunohistochemical analysis verified the excessive vasculature of tumor. There was a linear relationship between the tumor size and uptake of 99mTc-RRL with R2?=?0.821. Conclusion 99mTc-RRL can be used as a potential candidate for visualization of tumor angiogenesis in malignant carcinomas. PMID:23573294

  5. Rapamycin enhances docetaxel-induced cytotoxicity in a androgen-independent prostate cancer xenograft model by survivin downregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Morikawa, Yasuyuki, E-mail: yasu-m@med.gunma-u.ac.jp [Department of Urology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maeabshi, Gunma 3718511 (Japan)] [Department of Urology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maeabshi, Gunma 3718511 (Japan); Koike, Hidekazu; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Matsui, Hiroshi; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Ito, Kazuto; Suzuki, Kazuhiro [Department of Urology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maeabshi, Gunma 3718511 (Japan)] [Department of Urology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maeabshi, Gunma 3718511 (Japan)

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapamycin (RPM) enhances the susceptibility of PC3 cells to docetaxel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low-dosage of docetaxel (DTX) did not reduce survivin expression levels in PC3 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination treatment of RPM with DTX suppressed the expression of surviving. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiRNA against survivin enhanced the susceptibility of PC3 cells to DTX. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RPM and DTX cotreatment inhibited PC3 cell growth and decreased surviving in vivo. -- Abstract: Background: Docetaxel is a first-line treatment choice in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, the management of CRPC remains an important challenge in oncology. There have been many reports on the effects of rapamycin, which is an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), in the treatment of carcinogenesis. We assessed the cytotoxic effects of the combination treatment of docetaxel and rapamycin in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between these treatments and survivin, which is a member of the inhibitory apoptosis family. Methods: Prostate cancer cells were cultured and treated with docetaxel and rapamycin. The effects on proliferation were evaluated with the MTS assay. In addition, we evaluated the effect on proliferation of the combination treatment induced knockdown of survivin expression by small interfering RNA transfection and docetaxel. Protein expression levels were assayed using western blotting. PC3 cells and xenograft growth in nude mice were used to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of docetaxel and its combination with rapamycin. Results: In vitro and in vivo, the combination of rapamycin with docetaxel resulted in a greater inhibition of proliferation than treatment with rapamycin or docetaxel alone. In addition, in vitro and in vivo, rapamycin decreased basal surviving levels, and cotreatment with docetaxel further decreased these levels. Transfection siRNA against survivin enhanced the cytotoxicity of docetaxel in PC3 cells. Conclusion: The rapamycin-dependent enhancement of the cytotoxic effects of docetaxel was associated with the downregulation of survivin expression. Our results suggest that the combination of docetaxel and rapamycin is a candidate for the improved treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

  6. Intracerebral infusion of the bispecific targeted toxin DTATEGF in a mouse xenograft model of a human metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Li, Yan Michael; Massague, Joan; Sicheneder, Andy; Vallera, Daniel A; Hall, Walter A

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-cancer effect of the bispecific diphtheria toxin (DT) based immunotoxin DTATEGF, which targets both the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) and the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) receptor (uPAR) in vitro and in vivo when delivered by convection-enhanced delivery (CED) via an osmotic minipump in a human metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) brain tumor mouse xenograft model. The effects of the bispecific immunotoxin DTATEGF, and monospecific DTAT, DTEGF and control DT at various concentrations were tested for their ability to inhibit the proliferation of human metastatic NSCLC PC9-BrM3 cells in vitro by MTT assay. A xenograft model of human metastatic NSCLC intracranial model was established in nude mice using the human NSCLC PC9-BrM3 cell line genetically marked with a firefly luciferase reporter gene. One microgram of DTATEGF in the treatment group or control DT in the control group was delivered intracranially by CED via an osmotic minipump. The bioluminescent imaging (BLI) was performed at day 7, 14, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months. Kaplan-Meier survival curves for the two groups were generated. The brain tissue samples were stained by hematoxylin and eosin for histopathological assessment. In vitro, DTATEGF could selectively kill PC9-BrM3 cells and showed an IC(50) less than 0.001 nM, representing a more than 100- to 1000-fold increase in activity as compared to monospecific DTAT and DTEGF. In vivo, mice with tumors were treated intracranially with drug via CED where the results showed the treatment was successful in providing a survival benefit with the median survival of mice treated with DTATEGF being significantly prolonged relative to controls (87 vs. 63 days, P = 0.006). The results of these experiments indicate that DTATEGF kills the NSCLC PC9-BrM3 cell line in vitro, and when it is delivered via CED intracranially, it is highly efficacious against metastatic NSCLC brain tumors. DTATEGF is a safe and effective drug where further preclinical and clinical development is warranted for the management of metastatic brain tumors. PMID:22696210

  7. Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulations: Structural Basis for the V567D Mutation-Induced Instability of Zebrafish Alpha-Dystroglycan and Comparison with the Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Pirolli, Davide; Sciandra, Francesca; Bozzi, Manuela; Giardina, Bruno; Brancaccio, Andrea; De Rosa, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    A missense amino acid mutation of valine to aspartic acid in 567 position of alpha-dystroglycan (DG), identified in dag1-mutated zebrafish, results in a reduced transcription and a complete absence of the protein. Lacking experimental structural data for zebrafish DG domains, the detailed mechanism for the observed mutation-induced destabilization of the DG complex and membrane damage, remained unclear. With the aim to contribute to a better clarification of the structure-function relationships featuring the DG complex, three-dimensional structural models of wild-type and mutant (V567D) C-terminal domain of alpha-DG from zebrafish were constructed by a template-based modelling approach. We then ran extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to reveal the structural and dynamic properties of the C-terminal domain and to evaluate the effect of the single mutation on alpha-DG stability. A comparative study has been also carried out on our previously generated model of murine alpha-DG C-terminal domain including the I591D mutation, which is topologically equivalent to the V567D mutation found in zebrafish. Trajectories from MD simulations were analyzed in detail, revealing extensive structural disorder involving multiple beta-strands in the mutated variant of the zebrafish protein whereas local effects have been detected in the murine protein. A biochemical analysis of the murine alpha-DG mutant I591D confirmed a pronounced instability of the protein. Taken together, the computational and biochemical analysis suggest that the V567D/I591D mutation, belonging to the G beta-strand, plays a key role in inducing a destabilization of the alpha-DG C-terminal Ig-like domain that could possibly affect and propagate to the entire DG complex. The structural features herein identified may be of crucial help to understand the molecular basis of primary dystroglycanopathies. PMID:25078606

  8. The utility of the zebrafish model in conditioned place preference to assess the rewarding effects of drugs.

    PubMed

    Collier, Adam D; Echevarria, David J

    2013-09-01

    Substance abuse is a significant public health concern both domestically and worldwide. The persistent use of substances regardless of aversive consequences forces the user to give higher priority to the drug than to normal activities and obligations. The harmful and hazardous use of psychoactive substances can lead to a dependence syndrome. In this regard, the genetic and neurobiological underpinnings of reward-seeking behavior need to be fully understood in order to develop effective pharmacotherapies and other methods of treatment. Animal models are often implemented in preclinical screening for testing the efficacy of novel treatments. Several paradigms exist that model various facets of addiction including sensitization, tolerance, withdrawal, drug seeking, extinction, and relapse. Self-administration and, most notably, conditioned place preference (CPP) are relatively simple tests that serve as indicators of the aforementioned aspects of addiction by means of behavioral quantification. CPP is a commonly used technique to evaluate the motivational effects of compounds and experiences that have been associated with a positive or negative reward, which capitalizes on the basic principles of Pavlovian conditioning. During training, the unconditioned stimulus is consistently paired with a neutral set of environmental stimuli, which obtain, during conditioning, secondary motivational properties that elicit approach behavior in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus. For over 50 years, rodents have been the primary test subjects. However, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) is gaining favor as a valuable model organism in the fields of biology, genetics, and behavioral neuroscience. This paper presents a discussion on the merits, advantages, and limitations of the zebrafish model and its utility in relation to CPP. PMID:23811781

  9. Multi-organ Abnormalities and mTORC1 Activation in Zebrafish Model of Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok-Hyung; Scott, Sarah A.; Bennett, Michael J.; Carson, Robert P.; Fessel, Joshua; Brown, H. Alex; Ess, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MADD) is a severe mitochondrial disorder featuring multi-organ dysfunction. Mutations in either the ETFA, ETFB, and ETFDH genes can cause MADD but very little is known about disease specific mechanisms due to a paucity of animal models. We report a novel zebrafish mutant dark xavier (dxavu463) that has an inactivating mutation in the etfa gene. dxavu463 recapitulates numerous pathological and biochemical features seen in patients with MADD including brain, liver, and kidney disease. Similar to children with MADD, homozygote mutant dxavu463 zebrafish have a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from moderate to severe. Interestingly, excessive maternal feeding significantly exacerbated the phenotype. Homozygous mutant dxavu463 zebrafish have swollen and hyperplastic neural progenitor cells, hepatocytes and kidney tubule cells as well as elevations in triacylglycerol, cerebroside sulfate and cholesterol levels. Their mitochondria were also greatly enlarged, lacked normal cristae, and were dysfunctional. We also found increased signaling of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) with enlarged cell size and proliferation. Treatment with rapamycin partially reversed these abnormalities. Our results indicate that etfa gene function is remarkably conserved in zebrafish as compared to humans with highly similar pathological, biochemical abnormalities to those reported in children with MADD. Altered mTORC1 signaling and maternal nutritional status may play critical roles in MADD disease progression and suggest novel treatment approaches that may ameliorate disease severity. PMID:23785301

  10. Molecular detection of circulating tyrosinase mRNA: optimization in a preclinical xenograft mouse melanoma model and further evaluation in samples from advanced melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Gabri, Mariano R; Vazquez, Valeria; Girón, Santiago; Castro, Mónica A; Cinat, Gabriela; Gomez, Roberto E; Santoro, Federico M; Gomez, Daniel E; Alonso, Daniel F

    2008-05-01

    We designed high-affinity primers for the mRNA sequence of human tyrosinase to test the value of molecular detection of circulating melanoma cells by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The optimization process included in vitro settings and in vivo studies in a xenograft mouse model. We detected tyrosinase expression with at least 40 pg and 1.5 pg of total RNA extracted from cultured SKmel human melanoma cells, using a first round of PCR amplification and nested PCR, respectively. Human tyrosinase expression was found in the blood of nude mice bearing subcutaneous SKmel tumors, and the expression bands were stronger after manipulation of the tumor mass. We also examined the fate of circulating melanoma cells in the present melanoma model. Tyrosinase expression declined in blood 6 h after a direct intravenous injection of SKmel cells. A preliminary study in human blood samples demonstrated a baseline positive tyrosinase determination in 64% (16/25) of advanced melanoma patients using the RT-PCR nested assay. Baseline tyrosinase expression was significantly associated with disease progression after 12 months, and sequential determination during follow-up of the remaining disease-free patients showed a progressive increase of negative results. PMID:18425346

  11. Zebrafish in hematology: sushi or science?

    PubMed

    Carradice, Duncan; Lieschke, Graham J

    2008-04-01

    After a decade of the "modern era" of zebrafish hematology research, what have been their major contributions to hematology and what challenges does the model face? This review argues that, in hematology, zebrafish have demonstrated their suitability, are proving their utility, have supplied timely and novel discoveries, and are poised for further significant contributions. It presents an overview of the anatomy, physiology, and genetics of zebrafish hematopoiesis underpinning their use in hematology research. Whereas reverse genetic techniques enable functional studies of particular genes of interest, forward genetics remains zebrafish's particular strength. Mutants with diverse and interesting hematopoietic defects are emerging from multiple genetic screens. Some mutants model hereditary blood diseases, occasionally leading to disease genes first; others provide insights into developmental hematology. Models of malignant hematologic disorders provide tools for drug-target and pharmaceutics discovery. Numerous transgenic zebrafish with fluorescently marked blood cells enable live-cell imaging of inflammatory responses and host-pathogen interactions previously inaccessible to direct observation in vivo, revealing unexpected aspects of leukocyte behavior. Zebrafish disease models almost uniquely provide a basis for efficient whole animal chemical library screens for new therapeutics. Despite some limitations and challenges, their successes and discovery potential mean that zebrafish are here to stay in hematology research. PMID:18182572

  12. Zebrafish in hematology: sushi or science?

    PubMed Central

    Carradice, Duncan

    2008-01-01

    After a decade of the “modern era” of zebrafish hematology research, what have been their major contributions to hematology and what challenges does the model face? This review argues that, in hematology, zebrafish have demonstrated their suitability, are proving their utility, have supplied timely and novel discoveries, and are poised for further significant contributions. It presents an overview of the anatomy, physiology, and genetics of zebrafish hematopoiesis underpinning their use in hematology research. Whereas reverse genetic techniques enable functional studies of particular genes of interest, forward genetics remains zebrafish's particular strength. Mutants with diverse and interesting hematopoietic defects are emerging from multiple genetic screens. Some mutants model hereditary blood diseases, occasionally leading to disease genes first; others provide insights into developmental hematology. Models of malignant hematologic disorders provide tools for drug-target and pharmaceutics discovery. Numerous transgenic zebrafish with fluorescently marked blood cells enable live-cell imaging of inflammatory responses and host-pathogen interactions previously inaccessible to direct observation in vivo, revealing unexpected aspects of leukocyte behavior. Zebrafish disease models almost uniquely provide a basis for efficient whole animal chemical library screens for new therapeutics. Despite some limitations and challenges, their successes and discovery potential mean that zebrafish are here to stay in hematology research. PMID:18182572

  13. Protective effect of rutin on impairment of cognitive functions of due to antiepileptic drugs on zebrafish model

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Shagun; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bansal, Divya; Dubey, Nazneen

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The severity of adverse reactions due to antiepileptics is observed during initiation and early treatment in which impairment of cognitive effects are common. Since long time, herbal medicine is a natural remedy to treat neural symptoms. Phytochemicals have been proven to be potent neuro-protective agents. Rutin, a bioflavonoid is established to be nootropic in many studies. In this study, we aimed to determine the protective effect of rutin in zebrafish against the side effects produced by AEDs. Materials and Methods: Seizures were induced in zebrafish by phenylenetetrazole. Rutin pretreatment (50 mg/kg, single injection, i.p.) was done before commencement of the study. Behavioral studies were performed as: latency to move high in the tank, locomotion effects, color effect, shoal cohesion, light/dark test on Zebrafish. Results: Treatment with rutin reverted the locomotor behavior to normal. Treatment with AEDs caused fishes to move in all regions while, in case of treatment with rutin, the response reverted to normal. Treatment with AEDs altered swimming behavior of zebrafish, however, rutin showed a positive effect over this behavior. Treatment with AEDs resulted in restricted movement of zebrafish to the dark zone. Treatment with rutin caused increased latency of zebrafish to move in the light compartment. Similarly, time spent in the light compartment by zebrafish treated with rutin was significantly (P < 0.01) higher as compared to zebrafish treated with AEDs. Conclusion: The results suggest a protective role of rutin on cognition impaired by AEDs.

  14. Skeletal myogenesis in the zebrafish and its implications for muscle disease modelling.

    PubMed

    Gurevich, David; Siegel, Ashley; Currie, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Current evidence indicates that post-embryonic muscle growth and regeneration in amniotes is mediated almost entirely by stem cells derived from muscle progenitor cells (MPCs), known as satellite cells. Exhaustion and impairment of satellite cell activity is involved in the severe muscle loss associated with degenerative muscle diseases such as Muscular Dystrophies and is the main cause of age-associated muscle wasting. Understanding the molecular and cellular basis of satellite cell function in muscle generation and regeneration (myogenesis) is critical to the broader goal of developing treatments that may ameliorate such conditions. Considerable knowledge exists regarding the embryonic stages of amniote myogenesis. Much less is known about how post-embryonic amniote myogenesis proceeds, how adult myogenesis relates to embryonic myogenesis on a cellular or genetic level. Of the studies focusing on post-embryonic amniote myogenesis, most are post-mortem and in vitro analyses, precluding the understanding of cellular behaviours and genetic mechanisms in an undisturbed in vivo setting. Zebrafish are optically clear throughout much of their post-embryonic development, facilitating their use in live imaging of cellular processes. Zebrafish also possess a compartment of MPCs, which appear similar to satellite cells and persist throughout the post-embryonic development of the fish, permitting their use in examining the contribution of these cells to muscle tissue growth and regeneration. PMID:25344666

  15. Efficacy and toxicity of a CD22-targeted antibody-saporin conjugate in a xenograft model of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Jason; O’Donnell, Robert T.; Abuhay, Mastewal; Tuscano, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) can deliver potent drugs to cancer cells by employing the specificity of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). ADCs have demonstrated significant anticancer activity and, in 2011, brentuximab vedotin has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of Hodgkin's and anaplastic large cell lymphomas. CD22 is an ideal target for ADC against B-cell malignancies because of its lineage-specific expression and rapid internalization upon antibody binding. In this study, we evaluated the anti-CD22 mAb HB22.7 as a vehicle for the targeted delivery of the potent toxin saporin (SAP). In vitro, HB22.7-SAP was cytotoxic against a panel of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) cell lines representing the most common types of the disease. Moreover, in a xenograft model of NHL, HB22.7-SAP significantly inhibited the growth of established lesions and completely prevented tumor development when treatment was initiated within 24 h from tumor-cell inoculation. HB22.7-SAP had no significant in vivo toxicity. In conclusion, HB22.7 constitutes a potential platform for CD22-targeted ADCs. PMID:23264893

  16. Alkylpurine–DNA–N-glycosylase confers resistance to temozolomide in xenograft models of glioblastoma multiforme and is associated with poor survival in patients

    PubMed Central

    Agnihotri, Sameer; Gajadhar, Aaron S.; Ternamian, Christian; Gorlia, Thierry; Diefes, Kristin L.; Mischel, Paul S.; Kelly, Joanna; McGown, Gail; Thorncroft, Mary; Carlson, Brett L.; Sarkaria, Jann N.; Margison, Geoffrey P.; Aldape, Kenneth; Hawkins, Cynthia; Hegi, Monika; Guha, Abhijit

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal of all gliomas. The current standard of care includes surgery followed by concomitant radiation and chemotherapy with the DNA alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ). O6-methylguanine–DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) repairs the most cytotoxic of lesions generated by TMZ, O6-methylguanine. Methylation of the MGMT promoter in GBM correlates with increased therapeutic sensitivity to alkylating agent therapy. However, several aspects of TMZ sensitivity are not explained by MGMT promoter methylation. Here, we investigated our hypothesis that the base excision repair enzyme alkylpurine–DNA–N-glycosylase (APNG), which repairs the cytotoxic lesions N3-methyladenine and N7-methylguanine, may contribute to TMZ resistance. Silencing of APNG in established and primary TMZ-resistant GBM cell lines endogenously expressing MGMT and APNG attenuated repair of TMZ-induced DNA damage and enhanced apoptosis. Reintroducing expression of APNG in TMZ-sensitive GBM lines conferred resistance to TMZ in vitro and in orthotopic xenograft mouse models. In addition, resistance was enhanced with coexpression of MGMT. Evaluation of APNG protein levels in several clinical datasets demonstrated that in patients, high nuclear APNG expression correlated with poorer overall survival compared with patients lacking APNG expression. Loss of APNG expression in a subset of patients was also associated with increased APNG promoter methylation. Collectively, our data demonstrate that APNG contributes to TMZ resistance in GBM and may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. PMID:22156195

  17. Combination of the c-Met Inhibitor Tivantinib and Zoledronic Acid Prevents Tumor Bone Engraftment and Inhibits Progression of Established Bone Metastases in a Breast Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Previdi, Sara; Scolari, Federica; Chilà, Rosaria; Ricci, Francesca; Abbadessa, Giovanni; Broggini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Bone is the most common metastatic site for breast cancer. There is a significant need to understand the molecular mechanisms controlling the engraftment and growth of tumor cells in bone and to discover novel effective therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of tivantinib and Zoledronic Acid (ZA) in combination in a breast xenograft model of bone metastases. Cancer cells were intracardially implanted into immunodeficient mice and the effects of drugs alone or in combination on bone metastasis were evaluated by in vivo non-invasive optical and micro-CT imaging technologies. Drugs were administered either before (preventive regimen) or after (therapeutic regimen) bone metastases were detectable. In the preventive regimen, the combination of tivantinib plus ZA was much more effective than single agents in delaying bone metastatic tumor growth. When administered in the therapeutic schedule, the combination delayed metastatic progression and was effective in improving survival. These effects were not ascribed to a direct cytotoxic effect of the combined therapy on breast cancer cells in vitro. The results of this study provide the rationale for the design of new combinatorial strategies with tivantinib and ZA for the treatment of breast cancer bone metastases. PMID:24260160

  18. Systemic siRNA Delivery via Peptide-Tagged Polymeric Nanoparticles, Targeting PLK1 Gene in a Mouse Xenograft Model of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Meenakshi; Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Saha, Shyamali; Prakash, Satya

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles were developed from a series of chemical reactions using chitosan, polyethylene glycol, and a cell-targeting peptide (CP15). The nanoparticles were complexed with PLK1-siRNA. The optimal siRNA loading was achieved at an N?:?P ratio of 129.2 yielding a nanoparticle size of >200?nm. These nanoparticles were delivered intraperitoneally and tested for efficient delivery, cytotoxicity, and biodistribution in a mouse xenograft model of colorectal cancer. Both unmodified and modified chitosan nanoparticles showed enhanced accumulation at the tumor site. However, the modified chitosan nanoparticles showed considerably, less distribution in other organs. The relative gene expression as evaluated showed efficient delivery of PLK1-siRNA (0.5?mg/kg) with 50.7 ± 19.5% knockdown (P = 0.031) of PLK1 gene. The in vivo data reveals no systemic toxicity in the animals, when tested for systemic inflammation and liver toxicity. These results indicate a potential of using peptide-tagged nanoparticles for systemic delivery of siRNA at the targeted tumor site. PMID:24159333

  19. Development of a Preclinical Orthotopic Xenograft Model of Ewing Sarcoma and Other Human Malignant Bone Disease Using Advanced In Vivo Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Batey, Michael A.; Almeida, Gilberto S.; Wilson, Ian; Dildey, Petra; Sharma, Abhishek; Blair, Helen; Hide, I. Geoff; Heidenreich, Olaf; Vormoor, Josef; Maxwell, Ross J.; Bacon, Chris M.

    2014-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma represent the two most common primary bone tumours in childhood and adolescence, with bone metastases being the most adverse prognostic factor. In prostate cancer, osseous metastasis poses a major clinical challenge. We developed a preclinical orthotopic model of Ewing sarcoma, reflecting the biology of the tumour-bone interactions in human disease and allowing in vivo monitoring of disease progression, and compared this with models of osteosarcoma and prostate carcinoma. Human tumour cell lines were transplanted into non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NSG) and Rag2?/?/?c?/? mice by intrafemoral injection. For Ewing sarcoma, minimal cell numbers (1000–5000) injected in small volumes were able to induce orthotopic tumour growth. Tumour progression was studied using positron emission tomography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and bioluminescent imaging. Tumours and their interactions with bones were examined by histology. Each tumour induced bone destruction and outgrowth of extramedullary tumour masses, together with characteristic changes in bone that were well visualised by computed tomography, which correlated with post-mortem histology. Ewing sarcoma and, to a lesser extent, osteosarcoma cells induced prominent reactive new bone formation. Osteosarcoma cells produced osteoid and mineralised “malignant” bone within the tumour mass itself. Injection of prostate carcinoma cells led to osteoclast-driven osteolytic lesions. Bioluminescent imaging of Ewing sarcoma xenografts allowed easy and rapid monitoring of tumour growth and detection of tumour dissemination to lungs, liver and bone. Magnetic resonance imaging proved useful for monitoring soft tissue tumour growth and volume. Positron emission tomography proved to be of limited use in this model. Overall, we have developed an orthotopic in vivo model for Ewing sarcoma and other primary and secondary human bone malignancies, which resemble the human disease. We have shown the utility of small animal bioimaging for tracking disease progression, making this model a useful assay for preclinical drug testing. PMID:24409320

  20. Development of a preclinical orthotopic xenograft model of ewing sarcoma and other human malignant bone disease using advanced in vivo imaging.

    PubMed

    Vormoor, Britta; Knizia, Henrike K; Batey, Michael A; Almeida, Gilberto S; Wilson, Ian; Dildey, Petra; Sharma, Abhishek; Blair, Helen; Hide, I Geoff; Heidenreich, Olaf; Vormoor, Josef; Maxwell, Ross J; Bacon, Chris M

    2014-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma represent the two most common primary bone tumours in childhood and adolescence, with bone metastases being the most adverse prognostic factor. In prostate cancer, osseous metastasis poses a major clinical challenge. We developed a preclinical orthotopic model of Ewing sarcoma, reflecting the biology of the tumour-bone interactions in human disease and allowing in vivo monitoring of disease progression, and compared this with models of osteosarcoma and prostate carcinoma. Human tumour cell lines were transplanted into non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NSG) and Rag2(-/-/)?c(-/-) mice by intrafemoral injection. For Ewing sarcoma, minimal cell numbers (1000-5000) injected in small volumes were able to induce orthotopic tumour growth. Tumour progression was studied using positron emission tomography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and bioluminescent imaging. Tumours and their interactions with bones were examined by histology. Each tumour induced bone destruction and outgrowth of extramedullary tumour masses, together with characteristic changes in bone that were well visualised by computed tomography, which correlated with post-mortem histology. Ewing sarcoma and, to a lesser extent, osteosarcoma cells induced prominent reactive new bone formation. Osteosarcoma cells produced osteoid and mineralised "malignant" bone within the tumour mass itself. Injection of prostate carcinoma cells led to osteoclast-driven osteolytic lesions. Bioluminescent imaging of Ewing sarcoma xenografts allowed easy and rapid monitoring of tumour growth and detection of tumour dissemination to lungs, liver and bone. Magnetic resonance imaging proved useful for monitoring soft tissue tumour growth and volume. Positron emission tomography proved to be of limited use in this model. Overall, we have developed an orthotopic in vivo model for Ewing sarcoma and other primary and secondary human bone malignancies, which resemble the human disease. We have shown the utility of small animal bioimaging for tracking disease progression, making this model a useful assay for preclinical drug testing. PMID:24409320

  1. A Zebrafish Model of Roberts Syndrome Reveals That Esco2 Depletion Interferes with Development by Disrupting the Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Mönnich, Maren; Kuriger, Zoë; Print, Cristin G.; Horsfield, Julia A.

    2011-01-01

    The human developmental diseases Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) and Roberts Syndrome (RBS) are both caused by mutations in proteins responsible for sister chromatid cohesion. Cohesion is mediated by a multi-subunit complex called cohesin, which is loaded onto chromosomes by NIPBL. Once on chromosomes, cohesin binding is stabilized in S phase upon acetylation by ESCO2. CdLS is caused by heterozygous mutations in NIPBL or cohesin subunits SMC1A and SMC3, and RBS is caused by homozygous mutations in ESCO2. The genetic cause of both CdLS and RBS reside within the chromosome cohesion apparatus, and therefore they are collectively known as “cohesinopathies”. However, the two syndromes have distinct phenotypes, with differences not explained by their shared ontology. In this study, we have used the zebrafish model to distinguish between developmental pathways downstream of cohesin itself, or its acetylase ESCO2. Esco2 depleted zebrafish embryos exhibit features that resemble RBS, including mitotic defects, craniofacial abnormalities and limb truncations. A microarray analysis of Esco2-depleted embryos revealed that different subsets of genes are regulated downstream of Esco2 when compared with cohesin subunit Rad21. Genes downstream of Rad21 showed significant enrichment for transcriptional regulators, while Esco2-regulated genes were more likely to be involved the cell cycle or apoptosis. RNA in situ hybridization showed that runx1, which is spatiotemporally regulated by cohesin, is expressed normally in Esco2-depleted embryos. Furthermore, myca, which is downregulated in rad21 mutants, is upregulated in Esco2-depleted embryos. High levels of cell death contributed to the morphology of Esco2-depleted embryos without affecting specific developmental pathways. We propose that cell proliferation defects and apoptosis could be the primary cause of the features of RBS. Our results show that mutations in different elements of the cohesion apparatus have distinct developmental outcomes, and provide insight into why CdLS and RBS are distinct diseases. PMID:21637801

  2. Modeling the zebrafish segmentation clock's gene regulatory network constrained by expression data suggests evolutionary transitions between oscillating and nonoscillating transcription.

    PubMed

    Schwendinger-Schreck, Jamie; Kang, Yuan; Holley, Scott A

    2014-06-01

    During segmentation of vertebrate embryos, somites form in accordance with a periodic pattern established by the segmentation clock. In the zebrafish (Danio rerio), the segmentation clock includes six hairy/enhancer of split-related (her/hes) genes, five of which oscillate due to negative autofeedback. The nonoscillating gene hes6 forms the hub of a network of 10 Her/Hes protein dimers, which includes 7 DNA-binding dimers and 4 weak or non-DNA-binding dimers. The balance of dimer species is critical for segmentation clock function, and loss-of-function studies suggest that the her genes have both unique and redundant functions within the clock. However, the precise regulatory interactions underlying the negative feedback loop are unknown. Here, we combine quantitative experimental data, in silico modeling, and a global optimization algorithm to identify a gene regulatory network (GRN) designed to fit measured transcriptional responses to gene knockdown. Surprisingly, we find that hes6, the clock gene that does not oscillate, responds to negative feedback. Consistent with prior in silico analyses, we find that variation in transcription, translation, and degradation rates can mediate the gain and loss of oscillatory behavior for genes regulated by negative feedback. Extending our study, we found that transcription of the nonoscillating Fgf pathway gene sef responds to her/hes perturbation similarly to oscillating her genes. These observations suggest a more extensive underlying regulatory similarity between the zebrafish segmentation clock and the mouse and chick segmentation clocks, which exhibit oscillations of her/hes genes as well as numerous other Notch, Fgf, and Wnt pathway genes. PMID:24663100

  3. Toxicity to embryo and adult zebrafish of copper complexes with two malonic acids as models for dissolved organic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, F.B.; Evans, C.W. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand); Butler, C.A. [Woodward Clyde NZ Ltd., Auckland (New Zealand); Timperley, M.H. [National Inst. of Water and Atmospheric Research, Auckland (New Zealand)

    1998-08-01

    The toxicity to embryo and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) of Cu complexes with two substituted malonic acids, benzyl- and n-hexadecyl-, chosen as models for low-molecular-weight natural dissolved organic matter, were investigated. Toxicity test solutions at pH 6.5 {+-} 0.1 with the required Cu ion-specific electrode. In the absence of malonic acids, concentrations of Cu{sup 2+} up to 1.13 {mu}mol/L increased the embryo hatching time from approx. 2 d in control solutions (no Cu or malonic acid) and solutions containing malonic acids without Cu to approx. 8 d. The Cu-benzylmalonic acid complex in the presence of inorganic Cu species did not delay hatching beyond that attributable to Cu{sup 2+}. In contrast, 0.60 {mu}mol/L Cu-n-hexadecylmalonic complexes delayed hatching by 5.5 d in excess of that attributable to 1.13 {mu}mol/L Cu{sup 2+}, assuming that the hatching delays caused by the different Cu species were additive, possibly because of Cu entry into the embryo as the lipophilic Cu-n-hexadecylmalonic complex. None of the Cu-malonic acid complexes was acutely toxic to adult zebrafish at concentrations up to 1.4 {mu}mol/L, possibly because Cu was removed from the Cu-malonic acid complexes by stronger chelating groups at the gill surface. Substituted malonic acids with similar proton and Cu association constants can be readily prepared with a variety of simple substituents, radiolabeled if required. Their results show that these acids could be useful ligands for investigating intracellular transport and metabolism of metal-organic complexes.

  4. Zebrafish as a model for apolipoprotein biology: comprehensive expression analysis and a role for ApoA-IV in regulating food intake.

    PubMed

    Otis, Jessica P; Zeituni, Erin M; Thierer, James H; Anderson, Jennifer L; Brown, Alexandria C; Boehm, Erica D; Cerchione, Derek M; Ceasrine, Alexis M; Avraham-Davidi, Inbal; Tempelhof, Hanoch; Yaniv, Karina; Farber, Steven A

    2015-03-01

    Improved understanding of lipoproteins, particles that transport lipids throughout the circulation, is vital to developing new treatments for the dyslipidemias associated with metabolic syndrome. Apolipoproteins are a key component of lipoproteins. Apolipoproteins are proteins that structure lipoproteins and regulate lipid metabolism through control of cellular lipid exchange. Constraints of cell culture and mouse models mean that there is a need for a complementary model that can replicate the complex in vivo milieu that regulates apolipoprotein and lipoprotein biology. Here, we further establish the utility of the genetically tractable and optically clear larval zebrafish as a model of apolipoprotein biology. Gene ancestry analyses were implemented to determine the closest human orthologs of the zebrafish apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apoB, apoE and apoA-IV genes and therefore ensure that they have been correctly named. Their expression patterns throughout development were also analyzed, by whole-mount mRNA in situ hybridization (ISH). The ISH results emphasized the importance of apolipoproteins in transporting yolk and dietary lipids: mRNA expression of all apolipoproteins was observed in the yolk syncytial layer, and intestinal and liver expression was observed from 4-6 days post-fertilization (dpf). Furthermore, real-time PCR confirmed that transcription of three of the four zebrafish apoA-IV genes was increased 4 hours after the onset of a 1-hour high-fat feed. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that zebrafish ApoA-IV performs a conserved role to that in rat in the regulation of food intake by transiently overexpressing ApoA-IVb.1 in transgenic larvae and quantifying ingestion of co-fed fluorescently labeled fatty acid during a high-fat meal as an indicator of food intake. Indeed, ApoA-IVb.1 overexpression decreased food intake by approximately one-third. This study comprehensively describes the expression and function of eleven zebrafish apolipoproteins and serves as a springboard for future investigations to elucidate their roles in development and disease in the larval zebrafish model. PMID:25633982

  5. Zebrafish as a model for apolipoprotein biology: comprehensive expression analysis and a role for ApoA-IV in regulating food intake

    PubMed Central

    Otis, Jessica P.; Zeituni, Erin M.; Thierer, James H.; Anderson, Jennifer L.; Brown, Alexandria C.; Boehm, Erica D.; Cerchione, Derek M.; Ceasrine, Alexis M.; Avraham-Davidi, Inbal; Tempelhof, Hanoch; Yaniv, Karina; Farber, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Improved understanding of lipoproteins, particles that transport lipids throughout the circulation, is vital to developing new treatments for the dyslipidemias associated with metabolic syndrome. Apolipoproteins are a key component of lipoproteins. Apolipoproteins are proteins that structure lipoproteins and regulate lipid metabolism through control of cellular lipid exchange. Constraints of cell culture and mouse models mean that there is a need for a complementary model that can replicate the complex in vivo milieu that regulates apolipoprotein and lipoprotein biology. Here, we further establish the utility of the genetically tractable and optically clear larval zebrafish as a model of apolipoprotein biology. Gene ancestry analyses were implemented to determine the closest human orthologs of the zebrafish apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apoB, apoE and apoA-IV genes and therefore ensure that they have been correctly named. Their expression patterns throughout development were also analyzed, by whole-mount mRNA in situ hybridization (ISH). The ISH results emphasized the importance of apolipoproteins in transporting yolk and dietary lipids: mRNA expression of all apolipoproteins was observed in the yolk syncytial layer, and intestinal and liver expression was observed from 4–6 days post-fertilization (dpf). Furthermore, real-time PCR confirmed that transcription of three of the four zebrafish apoA-IV genes was increased 4 hours after the onset of a 1-hour high-fat feed. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that zebrafish ApoA-IV performs a conserved role to that in rat in the regulation of food intake by transiently overexpressing ApoA-IVb.1 in transgenic larvae and quantifying ingestion of co-fed fluorescently labeled fatty acid during a high-fat meal as an indicator of food intake. Indeed, ApoA-IVb.1 overexpression decreased food intake by approximately one-third. This study comprehensively describes the expression and function of eleven zebrafish apolipoproteins and serves as a springboard for future investigations to elucidate their roles in development and disease in the larval zebrafish model. PMID:25633982

  6. Anti-CCR7 therapy exerts a potent anti-tumor activity in a xenograft model of human mantle cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The chemokine receptor CCR7 mediates lymphoid dissemination of many cancers, including lymphomas and epithelial carcinomas, thus representing an attractive therapeutic target. Previous results have highlighted the potential of the anti-CCR7 monoclonal antibodies to inhibit migration in transwell assays. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of an anti-CCR7 antibody in a xenografted human mantle cell lymphoma model. Methods NOD/SCID mice were either subcutaneously or intravenously inoculated with Granta-519 cells, a human cell line derived from a leukemic mantle cell lymphoma. The anti-CCR7 mAb treatment (3 × 200 ?g) was started on day 2 or 7 to target lymphoma cells in either a peri-implantation or a post-implantation stage, respectively. Results The anti-CCR7 therapy significantly delayed the tumor appearance and also reduced the volumes of tumors in the subcutaneous model. Moreover, an increased number of apoptotic tumor cells was detected in mice treated with the anti-CCR7 mAb compared to the untreated animals. In addition, significantly reduced number of Granta-519 cells migrated from subcutaneous tumors to distant lymphoid organs, such as bone marrow and spleen in the anti-CCR7 treated mice. In the intravenous models, the anti-CCR7 mAb drastically increased survival of the mice. Accordingly, dissemination and infiltration of tumor cells in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, including lungs and central nervous system, was almost abrogated. Conclusions The anti-CCR7 mAb exerts a potent anti-tumor activity and might represent an interesting therapeutic alternative to conventional therapies. PMID:24305507

  7. Severe combined immunodeficiency mouse-psoriatic human skin xenograft model: a modern tool connecting bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Kundu-Raychaudhuri, Smriti; Datta-Mitra, Ananya; Abria, Christine J; Peters, John; Raychaudhuri, Siba P

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory disease. Research into the pathogenesis of this disease is hindered by the lack of a proper animal model. Over the past two decades, many scientists were involved in the development of animal models that nearly mirror the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis. One such model, which has opened doors to the study of molecular complexities of psoriasis as well as its treatment, is the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse-human skin chimera model. This model not only mirrors the clinical and histopathological features of psoriasis but also help in the study of cell proliferation, angiogenesis, function of T cells, neurogenic inflammation and cytokines involved in inflammatory reactions. In this article, we have reviewed the prospects and the limitations of the SCID mouse model of psoriasis. PMID:24823397

  8. Navigation by environmental geometry: the use of zebrafish as a model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Ah; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Flore, Michele; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Sovrano, Valeria A

    2013-10-01

    Sensitivity to environmental shape in spatial navigation has been found, at both behavioural and neural levels, in virtually every species tested, starting early in development. Moreover, evidence that genetic deletions can cause selective deficits in such navigation behaviours suggests a genetic basis to navigation by environmental geometry. Nevertheless, the geometric computations underlying navigation have not been specified in any species. The present study teases apart the geometric components within the traditionally used rectangular enclosure and finds that zebrafish selectively represent distance and directional relationships between extended boundary surfaces. Similar behavioural results in geometric navigation tasks with human children provide prima facie evidence for similar underlying cognitive computations and open new doors for probing the genetic foundations that give rise to these computations. PMID:23788708

  9. EGFRvIII-specific chimeric antigen receptor T cells migrate to and kill tumor deposits infiltrating the brain parenchyma in an invasive xenograft model of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Miao, Hongsheng; Choi, Bryan D; Suryadevara, Carter M; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Yang, Shicheng; De Leon, Gabriel; Sayour, Elias J; McLendon, Roger; Herndon, James E; Healy, Patrick; Archer, Gary E; Bigner, Darell D; Johnson, Laura A; Sampson, John H

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults and is uniformly lethal. T-cell-based immunotherapy offers a promising platform for treatment given its potential to specifically target tumor tissue while sparing the normal brain. However, the diffuse and infiltrative nature of these tumors in the brain parenchyma may pose an exceptional hurdle to successful immunotherapy in patients. Areas of invasive tumor are thought to reside behind an intact blood brain barrier, isolating them from effective immunosurveillance and thereby predisposing the development of "immunologically silent" tumor peninsulas. Therefore, it remains unclear if adoptively transferred T cells can migrate to and mediate regression in areas of invasive GBM. One barrier has been the lack of a preclinical mouse model that accurately recapitulates the growth patterns of human GBM in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that D-270 MG xenografts exhibit the classical features of GBM and produce the diffuse and invasive tumors seen in patients. Using this model, we designed experiments to assess whether T cells expressing third-generation chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting the tumor-specific mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFRvIII, would localize to and treat invasive intracerebral GBM. EGFRvIII-targeted CAR (EGFRvIII+ CAR) T cells demonstrated in vitro EGFRvIII antigen-specific recognition and reactivity to the D-270 MG cell line, which naturally expresses EGFRvIII. Moreover, when administered systemically, EGFRvIII+ CAR T cells localized to areas of invasive tumor, suppressed tumor growth, and enhanced survival of mice with established intracranial D-270 MG tumors. Together, these data demonstrate that systemically administered T cells are capable of migrating to the invasive edges of GBM to mediate antitumor efficacy and tumor regression. PMID:24722266

  10. Development of a Novel Preclinical Pancreatic Cancer Research Model: Bioluminescence Image-Guided Focal Irradiation and Tumor Monitoring of Orthotopic Xenografts1

    PubMed Central

    Tuli, Richard; Surmak, Andrew; Reyes, Juvenal; Hacker-Prietz, Amy; Armour, Michael; Leubner, Ashley; Blackford, Amanda; Tryggestad, Erik; Jaffee, Elizabeth M; Wong, John; DeWeese, Theodore L; Herman, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: We report on a novel preclinical pancreatic cancer research model that uses bioluminescence imaging (BLI)-guided irradiation of orthotopic xenograft tumors, sparing of surrounding normal tissues, and quantitative, noninvasive longitudinal assessment of treatment response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Luciferase-expressing MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic carcinoma cells were orthotopically injected in nude mice. BLI was compared to pathologic tumor volume, and photon emission was assessed over time. BLI was correlated to positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) to estimate tumor dimensions. BLI and cone-beam CT (CBCT) were used to compare tumor centroid location and estimate setup error. BLI and CBCT fusion was performed to guide irradiation of tumors using the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP). DNA damage was assessed by ?-H2Ax staining. BLI was used to longitudinally monitor treatment response. RESULTS: Bioluminescence predicted tumor volume (R = 0.8984) and increased linearly as a function of time up to a 10-fold increase in tumor burden. BLI correlated with PET/CT and necropsy specimen in size (P < .05). Two-dimensional BLI centroid accuracy was 3.5 mm relative to CBCT. BLI-guided irradiated pancreatic tumors stained positively for ?-H2Ax, whereas surrounding normal tissues were spared. Longitudinal assessment of irradiated tumors with BLI revealed significant tumor growth delay of 20 days relative to controls. CONCLUSIONS: We have successfully applied the SARRP to a bioluminescent, orthotopic preclinical pancreas cancer model to noninvasively: 1) allow the identification of tumor burden before therapy, 2) facilitate image-guided focal radiation therapy, and 3) allow normalization of tumor burden and longitudinal assessment of treatment response. PMID:22496923

  11. EGFRvIII-Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Migrate to and Kill Tumor Deposits Infiltrating the Brain Parenchyma in an Invasive Xenograft Model of Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Hongsheng; Choi, Bryan D.; Suryadevara, Carter M.; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Yang, Shicheng; De Leon, Gabriel; Sayour, Elias J.; McLendon, Roger; Herndon, James E.; Healy, Patrick; Archer, Gary E.; Bigner, Darell D.; Johnson, Laura A.; Sampson, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults and is uniformly lethal. T-cell-based immunotherapy offers a promising platform for treatment given its potential to specifically target tumor tissue while sparing the normal brain. However, the diffuse and infiltrative nature of these tumors in the brain parenchyma may pose an exceptional hurdle to successful immunotherapy in patients. Areas of invasive tumor are thought to reside behind an intact blood brain barrier, isolating them from effective immunosurveillance and thereby predisposing the development of "immunologically silent" tumor peninsulas. Therefore, it remains unclear if adoptively transferred T cells can migrate to and mediate regression in areas of invasive GBM. One barrier has been the lack of a preclinical mouse model that accurately recapitulates the growth patterns of human GBM in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that D-270 MG xenografts exhibit the classical features of GBM and produce the diffuse and invasive tumors seen in patients. Using this model, we designed experiments to assess whether T cells expressing third-generation chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting the tumor-specific mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFRvIII, would localize to and treat invasive intracerebral GBM. EGFRvIII-targeted CAR (EGFRvIII+ CAR) T cells demonstrated in vitro EGFRvIII antigen-specific recognition and reactivity to the D-270 MG cell line, which naturally expresses EGFRvIII. Moreover, when administered systemically, EGFRvIII+ CAR T cells localized to areas of invasive tumor, suppressed tumor growth, and enhanced survival of mice with established intracranial D-270 MG tumors. Together, these data demonstrate that systemically administered T cells are capable of migrating to the invasive edges of GBM to mediate antitumor efficacy and tumor regression. PMID:24722266

  12. Preclinical Modeling of a Phase 0 Clinical Trial: Qualification of a Pharmacodynamic Assay of Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase in Tumor Biopsies of Mouse Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Kinders, Robert J.; Hollingshead, Melinda; Khin, Sonny; Rubinstein, Larry; Tomaszewski, Joseph E.; Doroshow, James H.; Parchment, Ralph E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The National Cancer Institute has completed a first-in-human clinical pharmacodynamic (PD) trial of the targeted agent ABT-888, a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, under the auspices of the US Food and Drug Administration's Exploratory Investigational New Drug Application. Performance of the study design, needle biopsy procedure, and validated PD assay were evaluated in human tumor xenograft models. Experimental Design A validated, enzyme-linked immunoassay was used to quantify PAR, a product of the PARP 1/2 enzyme activity. Sampling variability from tumor heterogeneity was determined by comparing PAR content in multiple tumors, and in different areas of the same tumor in a particular animal, collected under anesthesia by needle biopsy or resection before and after administration of non-toxic doses of ABT-888. The degree of PARP inhibition following single-dose treatment was evaluated in the time frame anticipated for biopsy in humans. Results Sampling variability around the mean (?50%) for untreated and vehicle-treated animals was random and due to specimen heterogeneity. PAR levels in initial and repeat tumor biopsies, separated by 1 week, were not altered by the stress induced by daily handling of the animals. A single ABT-888 dose (3 mg/kg or 12.5 mg/kg) reduced intra-tumor PAR levels by >95%. ABT-888 (1.56 mg/kg to 25 mg/kg) significantly decreased PAR levels at 2 hours post dosing. Conclusion The detailed methodologies developed for this study facilitated the design of a Phase 0, first-in-human clinical trial of ABT-888 and could serve as a model for developing proof-of-principle clinical trials of molecularly targeted anticancer agents. PMID:18980982

  13. Molecular control of neurogenesis in the regenerating central nervous system of the adult zebrafish 

    E-print Network

    Dias, Tatyana Beverly

    2012-11-30

    In contrast to mammals, adult zebrafish display cellular regeneration of lost motor neurons and achieve functional recovery following a complete spinal cord transection. Using adult zebrafish as a model to study how key ...

  14. Pten function in zebrafish: Anything but a fish story.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, Miriam; Choorapoikayil, Suma; den Hertog, Jeroen

    2015-05-01

    Zebrafish is an excellent model system for the analysis of gene function. We and others use zebrafish to investigate the function of the tumor suppressor, Pten, in tumorigenesis and embryonic development. Zebrafish have two pten genes, ptena and ptenb. The recently identified N-terminal extension of human PTEN that may facilitate cell membrane transfer, appears not to be conserved in zebrafish Ptena or Ptenb. Mutants that retain a single wild type pten allele develop tumors, predominantly hemangiosarcomas. Homozygous double mutants are embryonic lethal. Zebrafish embryos lacking functional Pten display enhanced proliferation of endothelial cells, resulting in hyperbranching of blood vessels. In addition, ptena-/-ptenb-/- mutant embryos display enhanced proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and concomitant arrest of differentiation, although Pten-deficient cells commit to all blood cell lineages. Zebrafish is an ideal model for intravital imaging and future work using ptena-/-ptenb-/- mutants will enhance our understanding of the function of Pten in vivo. PMID:25461815

  15. Disparate in vivo efficacy of FTY720 in xenograft models of Philadelphia positive and negative B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wallington-Beddoe, Craig T; Don, Anthony S; Hewson, John; Qiao, Qiao; Papa, Rachael A; Lock, Richard B; Bradstock, Kenneth F; Bendall, Linda J

    2012-01-01

    Most patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) respond well to standard chemotherapy-based treatments. However a significant proportion of patients, particularly adult patients, relapse with the majority dying of leukemia. FTY720 is an immunosuppressive drug that was recently approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and is currently under pre-clinical investigation as a therapy for a number of hematological malignancies. Using human ALL xenografts in NOD/SCID?c(-/-) mice, we show for the first time that three Ph(+) human ALL xenografts responded to FTY720 with an 80 ± 12% (p = 0.048) reduction in overall disease when treatment was commenced early. In contrast, treatment of mice with FTY720 did not result in reduced leukemia compared to controls using four separate human Ph(-) ALL xenografts. Although FTY720 reactivated PP2A in vitro, this reactivation was not required for death of Ph(-) ALL cells. The plasma levels of FTY720 achieved in the mice were in the high nanomolar range. However, the response seen in the Ph(+) ALL xenografts when treatment was initiated early implies that in vivo efficacy may be obtained with substantially lower drug concentrations than those required in vitro. Our data suggest that while FTY720 may have potential as a treatment for Ph(+) ALL it will not be a useful agent for the treatment of Ph(-) B-ALL. PMID:22570713

  16. Disparate In Vivo Efficacy of FTY720 in Xenograft Models of Philadelphia Positive and Negative B-lineage Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Wallington-Beddoe, Craig T.; Don, Anthony S.; Hewson, John; Qiao, Qiao; Papa, Rachael A.; Lock, Richard B.; Bradstock, Kenneth F.; Bendall, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Most patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) respond well to standard chemotherapy-based treatments. However a significant proportion of patients, particularly adult patients, relapse with the majority dying of leukemia. FTY720 is an immunosuppressive drug that was recently approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and is currently under pre-clinical investigation as a therapy for a number of hematological malignancies. Using human ALL xenografts in NOD/SCID?c?/? mice, we show for the first time that three Ph+ human ALL xenografts responded to FTY720 with an 80±12% (p?=?0.048) reduction in overall disease when treatment was commenced early. In contrast, treatment of mice with FTY720 did not result in reduced leukemia compared to controls using four separate human Ph? ALL xenografts. Although FTY720 reactivated PP2A in vitro, this reactivation was not required for death of Ph? ALL cells. The plasma levels of FTY720 achieved in the mice were in the high nanomolar range. However, the response seen in the Ph+ ALL xenografts when treatment was initiated early implies that in vivo efficacy may be obtained with substantially lower drug concentrations than those required in vitro. Our data suggest that while FTY720 may have potential as a treatment for Ph+ ALL it will not be a useful agent for the treatment of Ph? B-ALL. PMID:22570713

  17. Histocompatibility and Hematopoietic Transplantation in the Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Jill L. O.; Zon, Leonard I.

    2012-01-01

    The zebrafish has proven to be an excellent model for human disease, particularly hematopoietic diseases, since these fish make similar types of blood cells as humans and other mammals. The genetic program that regulates the development and differentiation of hematopoietic cells is highly conserved. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the source of all the blood cells needed by an organism during its lifetime. Identifying an HSC requires a functional assay, namely, a transplantation assay consisting of multilineage engraftment of a recipient and subsequent serial transplant recipients. In the past decade, several types of hematopoietic transplant assays have been developed in the zebrafish. An understanding of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes in the zebrafish has lagged behind transplantation experiments, limiting the ability to perform unbiased competitive transplantation assays. This paper summarizes the different hematopoietic transplantation experiments performed in the zebrafish, both with and without immunologic matching, and discusses future directions for this powerful experimental model of human blood diseases. PMID:22778744

  18. Enhanced antitumor activity and mechanism of biodegradable polymeric micelles-encapsulated chetomin in both transgenic zebrafish and mouse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qinjie; Li, Guoyou; Deng, Senyi; Ouyang, Liang; Li, Ling; Liu, Lei; Luo, Na; Song, Xiangrong; He, Gu; Gong, Changyang; Wei, Yuquan

    2014-09-01

    Chetomin is a promising molecule with anti-tumor activities in the epipolythiodioxopiperazine family of fungal secondary metabolites; however, strong hydrophobicity has limited its further applications. In this work, chetomin was encapsulated into polymeric micelles to obtain an aqueous formulation, and the chetomin loaded micelles (Che-M) exhibited small particle size and high encapsulation efficiency. When the concentration of copolymer was higher than the critical gelation concentration, the Che-M could form a thermosensitive hydrogel (Che-H), which was free-flowing sol at ambient temperature and converted into a non-flowing gel at body temperature. The molecular modeling study has indicated that chetomin interacted with PCL as a core, which was embraced by PEG as a shell. Che-M showed equal cytotoxicity with free chetomin, but the apoptosis inducing effects of Che-M were more significant. Besides, Che-M could increase the GSSG level, decrease the GSH level, and increase the ROS in CT26 cells. Furthermore, stronger inhibitory effects of Che-M were observed on embryonic angiogenesis, tumor-induced angiogenesis and tumor growth in transgenic zebrafish models. In addition, Che-M was effective in inhibiting tumor growth and prolonging survival in a subcutaneous CT26 tumor model. In a colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis model, both Che-M and Che-H showed excellent therapeutic effects, but Che-H was more effective. In conclusion, Che-M and Che-H may serve as candidates for cancer therapy.

  19. Function of the blood-brain barrier and restriction of drug delivery to invasive glioma cells: findings in an orthotopic rat xenograft model of glioma.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sagar; Manchanda, Pooja; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Ohlfest, John R; Elmquist, William F

    2013-01-01

    Despite aggressive treatment with radiation and chemotherapy, recurrence of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is inevitable. The objective of this study was to show that the blood-brain barrier (BBB), through a combination of tight junctions and active efflux transporters in the brain microvasculature, can significantly restrict delivery of molecularly targeted agents to invasive glioma cells. Transgenic mice lacking P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) were used to study efflux of erlotinib at the BBB. A U87 rat xenograft model of GBM was used to investigate the regional distribution of erlotinib to the tumor, and brain regions surrounding the tumor. The effect of concurrent administration of elacridar on regional tumor distribution of erlotinib was evaluated. We show that erlotinib transport across an intact BBB is significantly restricted due to P-gp- and Bcrp-mediated efflux transport. We then show that the BBB is sufficiently intact in areas of brain adjacent to the tumor core to significantly restrict erlotinib delivery. Inhibition of P-gp and Bcrp by the dual inhibitor elacridar dramatically increased erlotinib delivery to the tumor core, rim, and normal brain. These results provide conclusive evidence of the impact that active efflux at the BBB has on the delivery of molecularly targeted therapy to different tumor regions in glioma. These data also support the possibility that the repeated failure of clinical trials of new drugs for gliomas may be in part due to a failure to achieve effective concentrations in invasive tumor cells that reside behind an intact BBB. PMID:23014761

  20. Kv1.3 in psoriatic disease: PAP-1, a small molecule inhibitor of Kv1.3 is effective in the SCID mouse psoriasis--xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Kundu-Raychaudhuri, Smriti; Chen, Yi-Je; Wulff, Heike; Raychaudhuri, Siba P

    2014-12-01

    Kv1.3 channels regulate the activation/proliferation of effector memory T cells and thus play a critical role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Using a combination of immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and electrophysiology methods we observed a significant enrichment of activated Kv1.3(+) memory T cells in psoriasis plaques and synovial fluid from patients with psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis (PsA) compared to non-lesional psoriatic skin, normal skin or peripheral blood lympho-mononuclear cells. In in vitro studies performed with lesional mononuclear cells or T cells derived from skin and joints of psoriatic disease, the small molecule Kv1.3 blocker PAP-1 dose-dependently inhibited proliferation and suppressed IL-2 and IFN-? production. To further substantiate the pathologic role of Kv1.3 high TEM cells in psoriatic disease we tested whether PAP-1 is able to improve psoriatic disease pathology in the SCID mouse-psoriasis skin xenograft model. Following four weeks of daily treatment with 2% PAP-1 ointment we noticed about 50% reduction in the epidermal thickness (rete peg length) and the number of CD3(+) lymphocytes/mm(2) of dermis decreased by 85%. Vehicle treated and untreated plaques in contrast remained unchanged and showed no reduction in epidermis thickness and infiltrating CD3(+) T cells and HLA-DR(+) T cells. Based on these results we propose the development of Kv1.3 targeted topical immunotherapy for psoriasis and possibly for other inflammatory skin conditions, where effector memory T cells are involved in the pathogenesis. PMID:25175978

  1. Timing and plasticity of shoaling behaviour in the zebrafish, Danio rerio

    E-print Network

    Ryan, Michael J.

    Timing and plasticity of shoaling behaviour in the zebrafish, Danio rerio RAYMOND E. ENGESZER; MS. number: A10613R) The zebrafish has become a major model system for biomedical research and is an emerging model for the study of behaviour. Although adult zebrafish express a visually mediated shoaling

  2. Wnt Signaling in Zebrafish Fin Regeneration: Chemical Biology Using GSK3b Inhibitors Courtney Curtis1

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Wnt Signaling in Zebrafish Fin Regeneration: Chemical Biology Using GSK3b Inhibitors Courtney) protein inhibitors activate Wnt signaling, including in bone growth models. Our study utilized a zebrafish. Thus, zebrafish fin regeneration may be a useful model to study Wnt signaling mediated bone growth. Fin

  3. Pharmacokinetics of oncolytic measles virotherapy: eventual equilibrium between virus and tumor in an ovarian cancer xenograft model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K-W Peng; E M Hadac; B D Anderson; R Myers; M Harvey; S M Greiner; D Soeffker; M J Federspiel; S J Russell

    2006-01-01

    Because of their ability to replicate, the dose–response relationships of oncolytic viruses cannot easily be predicted. To better understand the pharmacokinetics of virotherapy in relation to viral dose and schedule, we administered MV-CEA intraperitoneally in an orthotopic mouse model of ovarian cancer. MV-CEA is an attenuated oncolytic measles virus engineered to express soluble human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and the virus

  4. Blockade of the ERK pathway enhances the therapeutic efficacy of the histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 in human tumor xenograft models

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Toshiaki; Ozaki, Kei-ichi; Fujio, Kohsuke; Kajikawa, Shu-hei [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Uesato, Shin-ichi [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Engineering, Kansai University, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan)] [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Engineering, Kansai University, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Watanabe, Kazushi [Proubase Technology Inc., Kanagawa 211-0063 (Japan)] [Proubase Technology Inc., Kanagawa 211-0063 (Japan); Tanimura, Susumu [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Koji, Takehiko [Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)] [Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Kohno, Michiaki, E-mail: kohnom@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan) [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Proubase Technology Inc., Kanagawa 211-0063 (Japan); Kyoto University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Blockade of the ERK pathway enhances the anticancer efficacy of HDAC inhibitors. •MEK inhibitors sensitize human tumor xenografts to HDAC inhibitor cytotoxicity. •Such the enhanced efficacy is achieved by a transient blockade of the ERK pathway. •This drug combination provides a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer patients. -- Abstract: The ERK pathway is up-regulated in various human cancers and represents a prime target for mechanism-based approaches to cancer treatment. Specific blockade of the ERK pathway alone induces mostly cytostatic rather than pro-apoptotic effects, however, resulting in a limited therapeutic efficacy of the ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitors. We previously showed that MEK inhibitors markedly enhance the ability of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors to induce apoptosis in tumor cells with constitutive ERK pathway activation in vitro. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of such drug combinations, we administered the MEK inhibitor PD184352 or AZD6244 together with the HDAC inhibitor MS-275 in nude mice harboring HT-29 or H1650 xenografts. Co-administration of the MEK inhibitor markedly sensitized the human xenografts to MS-275 cytotoxicity. A dose of MS-275 that alone showed only moderate cytotoxicity thus suppressed the growth of tumor xenografts almost completely as well as induced a marked reduction in tumor cellularity when administered with PD184352 or AZD6244. The combination of the two types of inhibitor also induced marked oxidative stress, which appeared to result in DNA damage and massive cell death, specifically in the tumor xenografts. The enhanced therapeutic efficacy of the drug combination was achieved by a relatively transient blockade of the ERK pathway. Administration of both MEK and HDAC inhibitors represents a promising chemotherapeutic strategy with improved safety for cancer patients.

  5. Inducible Male Infertility by Targeted Cell Ablation in Zebrafish Testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-Chun Hsu; Min-Fon Hou; Jiann-Ruey Hong; Jen-Leih Wu; Guor Mour Her

    2010-01-01

    To generate a zebrafish model of inducible male sterility, we expressed an Escherichia coli nitroreductase (Ntr) gene in the male germ line of zebrafish. The Ntr gene encodes an enzyme that can convert prodrugs such\\u000a as metronidazole (Met) to cytotoxins. A fusion protein eGFP:Ntr (fusing Ntr to eGFP) under control of???2 kb putative promoters\\u000a of the zebrafish testis-specific genes, A-kinase anchoring

  6. RNA sequencing of FACS-sorted immune cell populations from zebrafish infection models to identify cell specific responses to intracellular pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rougeot, Julien; Zakrzewska, Ania; Kanwal, Zakia; Jansen, Hans J; Spaink, Herman P; Meijer, Annemarie H

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasingly used as a model for studying infectious diseases. This nonmammalian vertebrate host, which is transparent at the early life stages, is especially attractive for live imaging of interactions between pathogens and host cells. A number of useful fluorescent reporter lines have recently been developed and significant advances in RNA sequencing technology have been made, which now make it possible to apply the zebrafish model for investigating changes in transcriptional activity of specific immune cell types during the course of an infection process.Here we describe how to sequence RNA extracted from fluorescently labeled macrophages obtained by cell-sorting of 5-day-old zebrafish larvae of the transgenic Tg(mpeg1:Gal4-VP16);Tg(UAS-E1b:Kaede) line. This technique showed reproducible results and allowed to detect specific expression of macrophage markers in the mpeg1 positive cell population, whereas no markers specific for neutrophils or lymphoid cells were detected. This protocol has been also successfully extended to other immune cell types as well as cells infected by Mycobacterium marinum. PMID:25172286

  7. Analysis of the Lipidome of Xenografts Using MALDI-IMS and UHPLC-ESI-QTOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Roberto; Lage, Sergio; Abad-García, Beatriz; Barceló-Coblijn, Gwendolyn; Terés, Silvia; López, Daniel H.; Guardiola-Serrano, Francisca; Martín, M. Laura; Escribá, Pablo V.; Fernández, José A.

    2014-07-01

    Human tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice are a very popular model to study the development of cancer and to test new drug candidates. Among the parameters analyzed are the variations in the lipid composition, as they are good indicators of changes in the cellular metabolism. Here, we present a study on the distribution of lipids in xenografts of NCI-H1975 human lung cancer cells, using MALDI imaging mass spectrometry and UHPLC-ESI-QTOF. The identification of lipids directly from the tissue by MALDI was aided by the comparison with identification using ESI ionization in lipid extracts from the same xenografts. Lipids belonging to PCs, PIs, SMs, DAG, TAG, PS, PA, and PG classes were identified and their distribution over the xenograft was determined. Three areas were identified in the xenograft, corresponding to cells in different metabolic stages and to a layer of adipose tissue that covers the xenograft.

  8. The Zebrafish Models to Explore Genetic and Epigenetic Impacts on Evolutionary Developmental Origins of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    Can we reset, reprogram, rejuvenate or reverse the organismal aging process? Certain genetic manipulations could at least reset and reprogram epigenetic dynamics beyond phenotypic plasticity and elasticity in cells, which can be further manipulated into organisms. However, in a whole complex aging organism, how can we rejuvenate intrinsic resources and infrastructures in an intact/noninvasive manner? The incidence of diseases increases exponentially with age, accompanied by progressive deteriorations of physiological functions in organisms. Aging-associated diseases are sporadic but essentially inevitable complications arising from senescence. Senescence is often considered the antithesis of early development, but yet there may be factors and mechanisms in common between these two phenomena to rejuvenate over the dynamic process of aging. The association between early development and late-onset disease with advancing age is thought to come from a consequence of developmental plasticity, the phenomenon by which one genotype can give rise to a range of physiologically and/or morphologically adaptive states based on diverse epigenotypes, in response to intrinsic or extrinsic environmental cues and genetic perturbations. We hypothesized that the future aging process can be predictive based on adaptivity during the early developmental period. Modulating the thresholds and windows of plasticity and its robustness by molecular genetic and chemical epigenetic approaches, we have successfully conducted experiments to isolate zebrafish mutants expressing apparently altered senescence phenotypes during their embryonic and/or larval stages (“embryonic/larval senescence”). Subsequently, at least some of these mutant animals were found to show shortened lifespan, while some others would be expected to live longer in adulthoods. We anticipate that previously uncharacterized developmental genes may mediate the aging process and play a pivotal role in senescence. On the other hand, unexpected senescence-related genes might also be involved in the early developmental process and its regulation. The ease of manipulation using the zebrafish system allows us to conduct an exhaustive exploration of novel genes/genotypes and epigenotype that can be linked to the senescence phenotype, and thereby facilitates searching for the evolutionary and developmental origins of aging in vertebrates. PMID:24239812

  9. Understanding the transformation, speciation, and hazard potential of copper particles in a model septic tank system using zebrafish to monitor the effluent.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sijie; Taylor, Alicia A; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Kinsinger, Nichola M; Ueng, William; Walker, Sharon L; Nel, André E

    2015-02-24

    Although copper-containing nanoparticles are used in commercial products such as fungicides and bactericides, we presently do not understand the environmental impact on other organisms that may be inadvertently exposed. In this study, we used the zebrafish embryo as a screening tool to study the potential impact of two nano Cu-based materials, CuPRO and Kocide, in comparison to nanosized and micron-sized Cu and CuO particles in their pristine form (0-10 ppm) as well as following their transformation in an experimental wastewater treatment system. This was accomplished by construction of a modeled domestic septic tank system from which effluents could be retrieved at different stages following particle introduction (10 ppm). The Cu speciation in the effluent was identified as nondissolvable inorganic Cu(H2PO2)2 and nondiffusible organic Cu by X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT), and Visual MINTEQ software. While the nanoscale materials, including the commercial particles, were clearly more potent (showing 50% hatching interference above 0.5 ppm) than the micron-scale particulates with no effect on hatching up to 10 ppm, the Cu released from the particles in the septic tank underwent transformation into nonbioavailable species that failed to interfere with the function of the zebrafish embryo hatching enzyme. Moreover, we demonstrate that the addition of humic acid, as an organic carbon component, could lead to a dose-dependent decrease in Cu toxicity in our high content zebrafish embryo screening assay. Thus, the use of zebrafish embryo screening, in combination with the effluents obtained from a modeled exposure environment, enables a bioassay approach to follow the change in the speciation and hazard potential of Cu particles instead of difficult-to-perform direct particle tracking. PMID:25625504

  10. Deriving Cell Lines from Zebrafish Embryos and Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Choorapoikayil, Suma; Overvoorde, John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Over the last two decades the zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model organism in science. The experimental accessibility, the broad range of zebrafish mutants, and the highly conserved genetic and biochemical pathways between zebrafish and mammals lifted zebrafish to become one of the most attractive vertebrate models to study gene function and to model human diseases. Zebrafish cell lines are highly attractive to investigate cell biology and zebrafish cell lines complement the experimental tools that are available already. We established a straightforward method to culture cells from a single zebrafish embryo or a single tumor. Here we describe the generation of fibroblast-like cell lines from wild-type and ptenb?/? embryos and an endothelial-like cell line from a tumor of an adult ptena+/?ptenb?/? zebrafish. This protocol can easily be adapted to establish stable cell lines from any mutant or transgenic zebrafish line and the average time to obtain a pro-stable cell line is 3–5 months. PMID:23672287

  11. Mycobacteria Counteract a TLR-Mediated Nitrosative Defense Mechanism in a Zebrafish Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    van Hensbergen, Vincent; Schutz, Esther; Redd, Michael J.; Murayama, Emi; Spaink, Herman P.; Meijer, Annemarie H.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), caused by the intracellular bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is a major world health problem. The production of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is a potent cytostatic and cytotoxic defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens. Nevertheless, the protective role of RNS during Mtb infection remains controversial. Here we use an anti-nitrotyrosine antibody as a readout to study nitration output by the zebrafish host during early mycobacterial pathogenesis. We found that recognition of Mycobacterium marinum, a close relative of Mtb, was sufficient to induce a nitrosative defense mechanism in a manner dependent on MyD88, the central adaptor protein in Toll like receptor (TLR) mediated pathogen recognition. However, this host response was attenuated by mycobacteria via a virulence mechanism independent of the well-characterized RD1 virulence locus. Our results indicate a mechanism of pathogenic mycobacteria to circumvent host defense in vivo. Shifting the balance of host-pathogen interactions in favor of the host by targeting this virulence mechanism may help to alleviate the problem of infection with Mtb strains that are resistant to multiple drug treatments. PMID:24967596

  12. Purpurin inhibits adipocyte-derived leucine aminopeptidase and angiogenesis in a zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyomi; Shim, Joong Sup; Kim, Beom Seok; Jung, Hye Jin; Huh, Tae-Lin; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2014-07-18

    Adipocyte-derived leucine aminopeptidase (A-LAP) is a novel member of the M1 family of zinc metallopeptidases, which has been reported to play a crucial role in angiogenesis. In the present study, we conducted a target-based screening of natural products and synthetic chemical libraries using the purified enzyme to search novel inhibitors of A-LAP. Amongst several hits isolated, a natural product purpurin was identified as one of the most potent inhibitors of A-LAP from the screening. In vitro enzymatic analyses demonstrated that purpurin inhibited A-LAP activity in a non-competitive manner with a Ki value of 20 M. In addition, purpurin showed a strong selectivity toward A-LAP versus another member of M1 family of zinc metallopeptidase, aminopeptidase N (APN). In angiogenesis assays, purpurin inhibited the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced invasion and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Moreover, purpurin inhibited in vivo angiogenesis in zebrafish embryo without toxicity. These data demonstrate that purpurin is a novel specific inhibitor of A-LAP and could be developed as a new anti-angiogenic agent. PMID:24928393

  13. Larval Zebrafish Model for FDA-Approved Drug Repositioning for Tobacco Dependence Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cousin, Margot A.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Wiinamaki, Amanda R.; Urban, Mark D.; Argue, David P.; Ekker, Stephen C.; Klee, Eric W.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking remains the most preventable cause of death and excess health care costs in the United States, and is a leading cause of death among alcoholics. Long-term tobacco abstinence rates are low, and pharmacotherapeutic options are limited. Repositioning medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may efficiently provide clinicians with new treatment options. We developed a drug-repositioning paradigm using larval zebrafish locomotion and established predictive clinical validity using FDA-approved smoking cessation therapeutics. We evaluated 39 physician-vetted medications for nicotine-induced locomotor activation blockade. We further evaluated candidate medications for altered ethanol response, as well as in combination with varenicline for nicotine-response attenuation. Six medications specifically inhibited the nicotine response. Among this set, apomorphine and topiramate blocked both nicotine and ethanol responses. Both positively interact with varenicline in the Bliss Independence test, indicating potential synergistic interactions suggesting these are candidates for translation into Phase II clinical trials for smoking cessation. PMID:24658307

  14. In vivo sampling of Verteporfin uptake in pancreas cancer xenograft models: comparison of surface, oral, and interstitial measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isabelle, Martin; O'Hara, Julia A.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Mosse, Sandy; Pereira, Stephen; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2010-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with Verteporfin is being investigated as a pancreatic cancer treatment in the cases for non-surgical candidates. Tissue response to PDT is based on a number of parameters including photosensitizer (PS) dose, light dose and time interval between light application and PS injection. In this study, PS uptake and distribution in animal leg muscle, oral cavity tissues, pancreas and tumor was measured in vivo using light-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) via an Aurora Optics Inc. PDT fluorescence dosimeter. An orthotopic pancreatic cancer model (AsPC-1) was implanted in SCID mice and treated with the PS. Probe measurements were made using a surface probe and an interstitial needle probe before and up to one hour after intravenous tail vein injection of the PS. The study demonstrated that it is possible to correlate in-vivo LIFS measurements of the PS uptake in the pancreas with measurements taken from the oral cavity indicating that light dosimetry of PDT of the pancreas can be ascertained from the LIFS measurements in the oral cavity. These results emphasize the importance of light dosimetry in improving the therapeutic outcome of PDT through light dose adaptation to the relative in situ tissue PS concentration.

  15. Sunitinib Combined with Angiotensin-2 Type-1 Receptor Antagonists Induces More Necrosis: A Murine Xenograft Model of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Verhoest, Grégory; Dolley-Hitze, Thibault; Jouan, Florence; Belaud-Rotureau, Marc-Antoine; Oger, Emmanuel; Bensalah, Karim; Arlot-Bonnemains, Yannick; Collet, Nicolas; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Vigneau, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Background. Angiotensin-2 type-1 receptor antagonists not are only antihypertensive drugs but also can inhibit VEGF production. We hypothesised that adding telmisartan to sunitinib could potentiate the antiangiogenic effects. Material and Methods. 786-O cell lines were injected in nude mice. After tumor development, mice were divided into 4 groups: the first was the control group (DMSO), the second group was treated with sunitinib alone, the third group was treated with telmisartan alone, and the fourth group was treated with the combination. Drugs were orally administered every day for four weeks. Animals were sacrificed after treatment. Blood and tumor tissues were collected for analysis by immunohistochemistry, Western Blot, and ELISA methods. Results. All animals developed a ccRCC and ten in each group were treated. Using a kinetic model, tumors tended to grow slower in the combination group compared to others (P = 0.06). Compared to sunitinib alone, the addition of telmisartan significantly increased tissue necrosis (P = 0.038). Central microvascular density decreased (P = 0.0038) as well as circulating VEGF (P = 0.003). There was no significant variation in proliferation or apoptosis markers. Conclusion. The combination of sunitinib and telmisartan revealed an enhancement of the blockage of the VEGF pathway on renal tumor resulting in a decrease in neoangiogenesis and an increase in necrosis. PMID:24967411

  16. Anti-tumor activity of fenretinide complexed with human serum albumin in lung cancer xenograft mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Teti, Gabriella; Salvatore, Viviana; Focaroli, Stefano; Tesei, Anna; Pignatta, Sara; Falconi, Mirella

    2014-01-01

    Sufficient knowledge regarding cellular and molecular basis of lung cancer progression and metastasis would help in the development of novel and effective strategies for the treatment of lung cancer. 4HPR is a synthetic retinoid with potential anti-tumor activity but is still limited because of its poor bioavailability. The use of albumin as a complexing agent for a hydrophobic drug is expected to improve the water solubility and consequently their bioavailability.This study investigated the antitumor activity of a novel complex between albumin and 4-HPR in a mouse model of human lung cancer and focuses on role and mechanism of Cav-1 mainly involved in regulating cancer and Acsvl3 mainly connected with tumor growth. Their expressions were assayed by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR, to demonstrate the reduction of the tumor growth following the drug treatment. Our results showed a high antitumor activity of 4HPR-HSA by reduction of the volume of tumor mass and the presence of a high level of apoptotic cell by TUNEL assay. The downregulation of Cav-1 and Acsvl3 suggested a reduction of tumor growth. In conclusion, we demonstrated the great potential of 4HPR-HSA in the treatment of lung cancer. More data about the mechanism of drug delivery the 4HPR-HSA are necessary. PMID:25015569

  17. Characterization of the Tumor-Microenvironment in Patient-Derived Cervix Xenografts (OCICx)

    PubMed Central

    Chaudary, Naz; Pintilie, Melania; Schwock, Joerg; Dhani, Neesha; Clarke, Blaise; Milosevic, Michael; Fyles, Anthony; Hill, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: The tumor microenvironment (TME) is heterogeneous including both malignant and host cell components as well as regions of hypoxia, elevated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and poor nutrient supply. The quantitative extent to which the microenvironmental properties of primary tumors are recapitulated in xenograft models is not well characterized. Methods: Xenografts were generated by implanting tumor biopsies directly into the cervix of mice to create a panel of orthotopically-passaged xenografts (OCICx). Tumors were grown to ~1 cm (diameter) and IFP measurements recorded prior to sacrifice. Enlarged para-aortic lymph nodes (>1–2 mm) were excised for histologic confirmation of metastatic disease. Quantitative histological analysis was used to evaluate hypoxia, proliferation, lymphatic and blood vessels in the epithelial and stromal regions of the xenografts and original patient tumour. Results: IFP and nodal disease were not correlated with tumor engraftment. IFP measurements in the xenografts were generally lower than those in the patient’s tumor. Lymphatic metastasis increased with passage number as did levels of hypoxia in the epithelial component of the xenografts. The blood vessel density in the stromal component of the xenografts increased in parallel. When all the markers were compared between the biopsy and the respective 3rd generation xenograft 10 of 11 tumors showed a good correlation. Conclusions: This ongoing study provides characterization about tumoral and stromal heterogeneity in a unique orthotopic xenograft model. PMID:24213469

  18. Biodegradable polymeric micelle-encapsulated quercetin suppresses tumor growth and metastasis in both transgenic zebrafish and mouse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qinjie; Deng, Senyi; Li, Ling; Sun, Lu; Yang, Xi; Liu, Xinyu; Liu, Lei; Qian, Zhiyong; Wei, Yuquan; Gong, Changyang

    2013-11-01

    Quercetin (Que) loaded polymeric micelles were prepared to obtain an aqueous formulation of Que with enhanced anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activities. A simple solid dispersion method was used, and the obtained Que micelles had a small particle size (about 31 nm), high drug loading, and high encapsulation efficiency. Que micelles showed improved cellular uptake, an enhanced apoptosis induction effect, and stronger inhibitory effects on proliferation, migration, and invasion of 4T1 cells than free Que. The enhanced in vitro antiangiogenesis effects of Que micelles were proved by the results that Que micelles significantly suppressed proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Subsequently, transgenic zebrafish models were employed to investigate anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effects of Que micelles, in which stronger inhibitory effects of Que micelles were observed on embryonic angiogenesis, tumor-induced angiogenesis, tumor growth, and tumor metastasis. Furthermore, in a subcutaneous 4T1 tumor model, Que micelles were more effective in suppressing tumor growth and spontaneous pulmonary metastasis, and prolonging the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Besides, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent assays suggested that tumors in the Que micelle-treated group showed more apoptosis, fewer microvessels, and fewer proliferation-positive cells. In conclusion, Que micelles, which are synthesized as an aqueous formulation of Que, possess enhanced anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activity, which can serve as potential candidates for cancer therapy.

  19. Long-Term Cytokine Production from Engineered Primary Human Stromal Cells Influences Human Hematopoiesis in an In Vivo Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Mo A.; Pepper, Karen A.; Nolta, Jan A.

    2011-01-01

    Human hematopoiesis can be supported in beige/nude/XID (bnx) mice by coinjection of human bone marrow stromal cells engineered to secrete human interleukin 3 (HuIL-3). The major limitation is a total absence of human B cell development in the mice, which could be due to supraphysiological levels of HuIL-3 in the circulation. In an effort to obtain human B lymphoid, as well as T lymphoid and myeloid cell development in the mice, CD34+ cells were coinjected with human marrow stromal cells engineered to secrete human IL-2, IL-7, stem cell factor or FLT3 ligand, ± IL-3. No single factor other than IL-3 supported sustained human hematopoiesis in the mice, although cytokines were expressed for four to six months post-transplantation. Production of both HuIL-3 and IL-7 in the mice supported extrathymic development of human T lymphocytes, but no B cells, myeloid cells, or clonogenic progenitors were detected. Human B cells were not produced from CD34+ cells in the bnx mice under any condition tested. Another limitation to the bnx/Hu system is a lack of maturation of human red blood cells, although BFU-E are maintained. Stromal cells secreting human erythropoietin and IL-3 were cotransplanted into mice with HuCD34+ cells and an increase in hematocrit from 40%–45% to 80%–85% resulted, with production of human and murine red blood cells. Unfortunately, all mice (n = 9) suffered strokes, displayed paralysis and died within three weeks. The bnx/Hu cotransplantation model provides an interesting system in which to study human hematopoietic cell differentiation under the influence of various cytokines. PMID:9402657

  20. TET2 Plays an Essential Role in Erythropoiesis by Regulating Lineage-Specific Genes via DNA Oxidative Demethylation in a Zebrafish Model

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Liang; Zhang, Rui-peng; Wan, Feng; Guo, Dong-yang; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Although epigenetic modulation is critical for a variety of cellular activities, its role in erythropoiesis remains poorly understood. Ten-eleven translocation (TET) molecules participate in methylcytosine (5mC) hydroxylation, which results in DNA demethylation in several biological processes. In this research, the role of TETs in erythropoiesis was investigated by using the zebrafish model, where three TET homologs were identified. These homologs share conserved structural domains with their mammalian counterparts. Zebrafish TETs mediate the conversion of 5mC to hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in zebrafish embryos, and the deletion of TET2 inhibits erythropoiesis by suppressing the expression of the scl, gata-1, and cmyb genes. TET2-upregulated lineage-specific genes and erythropoiesis are closely associated with the occurrence of 5hmC and demethylation in the intermediate CpG promoters (ICPs) of scl, gata-1, cmyb, which frequently occur at specific regions or CpG sites of these ICPs. Moreover, TET2 regulates the formation and differentiation of erythroid progenitors, and deletion of TET2 leads to erythrocyte dysplasia and anemia. Here, we preliminarily proved that TET2 plays an essential role in erythrocyte development by regulating lineage-specific genes via DNA oxidative demethylation. This report is anticipated to broaden current information on hematopoiesis and pathogenesis of hematopoiesis-related diseases. PMID:24396069

  1. Building an asymmetric brain: development of the zebrafish epithalamus

    PubMed Central

    Snelson, Corey D.; Gamse, Joshua T.

    2009-01-01

    The human brain exhibits notable asymmetries. Little is known about these symmetry deviations, however scientists are beginning to understand them by employing the lateralized zebrafish epithalamus as a model. The zebrafish epithalamus consists of the pineal and parapineal organs and paired habenular nuclei located bilaterally to the pineal complex. While zebrafish pineal and parapineal organs arise from a common population of cells, parapineal cells undergo a separate program that allows them to migrate left of the pineal anlage. Studying the processes that lead to brain laterality in zebrafish will allow a better understanding of how human brain laterality is established. PMID:19084075

  2. Alarm substance induced behavioral responses in zebrafish ( Danio rerio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natasha Speedie; Robert Gerlai

    2008-01-01

    Zebrafish (zebra danio) are becoming increasingly popular in behavioral neuroscience and behavior genetics. This small vertebrate may be utilized in modeling human brain disorders. One of the major neuropsychiatric conditions still not well understood is abnormally increased fear and anxiety. Zebrafish may be an appropriate organism with which these human diseases can be modeled and their biological mechanisms investigated. Predator

  3. Establishment of primary human meningiomas as subcutaneous xenografts in mice.

    PubMed

    Malham, G M; Thomsen, R J; Synek, B J; Baguley, B C

    2001-08-01

    Meningiomas are the most frequently occurring benign central nervous system tumours. We determined whether a subcutaneous animal model of meningioma was feasible by implanting fresh meningioma tissue from six patients into 60 athymic (nude) mice, either as tissue blocks (38 mice) or as cell suspensions (22 mice). The tumour take-rates were 74% (block) and 50% (suspension), and the xenografts retained the original tumour grade and subtype morphology by light microscopy. Comparison of cell proliferation markers in xenografts and original tumours gave similar immunohistochemical score rates for Ki-67, but not for PCNA. With the exception of one atypical tumour surgical specimen, all tumours lacked p53 immunopositivity. Transmission electron microscopy of sections of tumour xenografts revealed ultrastructural features, including desmosomes and desmosome-like structures, characteristic of well-differentiated meningiomas. The xenografts grew progressively with a volume increase of more than 10-fold over 6-11 months and an apparent doubling time of 16 weeks. This study demonstrates the utility of the subcutaneous meningioma xenograft as a model for further biological and therapeutic studies. PMID:11599449

  4. Nicotinic Receptors Mediate Changes in Spinal Motoneuron Development and Axonal Pathfinding in Embryonic Zebrafish

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    in Embryonic Zebrafish Exposed to Nicotine Kurt R. Svoboda,1,2 Sukumar Vijayaraghavan,2 and Robert L. Tanguay3 that transient exposure of embryonic zebrafish to nicotine delays the development of secondary spinal motoneu. These results also demonstrate that the zebrafish is a useful model to examine the effects of nicotine

  5. Zebrafish embryos for studying radiation response in vivo Emily H.W. YUM1

    E-print Network

    Yu, K.N.

    Zebrafish embryos for studying radiation response in vivo Emily H.W. YUM1 , Shuk Han CHENG2 , Peter K.N.YU1 * INTRODUCTION Embryos of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, are explored as a feasible model human disease, including carcinogenesis. The great- est advantage is that the human and zebrafish

  6. Zebrafish Facility Assistant Manager The Duke University School of Medicine has an immediate opening for a

    E-print Network

    Mazzotti, Frank

    Zebrafish Facility Assistant Manager The Duke University School of Medicine has an immediate opening for a Zebrafish Facility Assistant Manager. This large facility provides support for 50+ researchers from six different biomedical research labs that use zebrafish as a model organism. Candidates

  7. Transplantation and in vivo imaging of multilineage engraftment in zebrafish bloodless mutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Traver; Barry H Paw; Kenneth D Poss; W Todd Penberthy; Shuo Lin; Leonard I Zon

    2003-01-01

    The zebrafish is firmly established as a genetic model for the study of vertebrate blood development. Here we have characterized the blood-forming system of adult zebrafish. Each major blood lineage can be isolated by flow cytometry, and with these lineal profiles, defects in zebrafish blood mutants can be quantified. We developed hematopoietic cell transplantation to study cell autonomy of mutant

  8. Fighting Zebrafish: Characterization of Aggressive Behavior and WinnerLoser Effects

    E-print Network

    Fighting Zebrafish: Characterization of Aggressive Behavior and Winner­Loser Effects Rui F in zebrafish make this species a promising vertebrate neurogenetic model for the study of neural circuits that reliably elicits the expression of fighting behavior in zebrafish dyads and characterized it. The agonistic

  9. Abstract--Biological inferences about the toxicity of chemicals reached during experiments on the zebrafish

    E-print Network

    Kakadiaris, Ioannis

    on the zebrafish Dharma embryo can be greatly affected by the analysis of the time-lapse microscopy images conditions, the use of zebrafish embryos as a model system can serve as an excellent way forward that additionally make it cost-effective [5]: Zebrafish are small in size and can produce hundreds of embryos per

  10. In vivo imaging of zebrafish retinal cells using fluorescent coumarin derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kohei Watanabe; Yuhei Nishimura; Takehiko Oka; Tsuyoshi Nomoto; Tetsuo Kon; Taichi Shintou; Minoru Hirano; Yasuhito Shimada; Noriko Umemoto; Junya Kuroyanagi; Zhipeng Wang; Zi Zhang; Norihiro Nishimura; Takeshi Miyazaki; Takeshi Imamura; Toshio Tanaka

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The zebrafish visual system is a good research model because the zebrafish retina is very similar to that of humans in terms of the morphologies and functions. Studies of the retina have been facilitated by improvements in imaging techniques. In vitro techniques such as immunohistochemistry and in vivo imaging using transgenic zebrafish have been proven useful for visualizing specific

  11. Autoimmune diabetes and resistance to xenograft transplantation tolerance in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Ethel J; Wicker, Linda S; Peterson, Laurence B; Serreze, David V; Markees, Thomas G; Shultz, Leonard D; Rossini, Aldo A; Greiner, Dale L; Mordes, John P

    2005-01-01

    Costimulation blockade induces prolonged rat islet and skin xenograft survival in C57BL/6 mice. Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, which are used to model human autoimmune diabetes, are resistant to costimulation blockade-induced allograft tolerance. We tested the hypothesis that NOD mice would also be resistant to costimulation blockade-induced rat xenograft tolerance. We report that rat islet xenograft survival is short in spontaneously diabetic NOD mice treated with a tolerizing regimen of donor-specific transfusion and anti-CD154 antibody. Rat islet xenograft survival is only marginally longer in chemically diabetic NOD mice treated with costimulation blockade but is prolonged further in NOD Idd congenic mice bearing C57-derived chromosome 3 loci. Reciprocally, the presence of NOD-derived chromosome 3 loci shortens islet xenograft survival in tolerized C57BL/6 mice. Islet xenograft survival is longer in tolerized NOD.CD4a(-/-) and (NOD x C57BL/6)F1 mice than in NOD mice but still much shorter than in C57BL/6 mice. Skin xenograft survival in (NOD x C57BL/6)F1 mice treated with costimulation blockade is short, suggesting a strong genetic resistance to skin xenograft tolerance induction. We conclude that the resistance of NOD mice to xenograft tolerance induction involves some mechanisms that also participate in the expression of autoimmunity and other mechanisms that are distinct. PMID:15616017

  12. Modelling of human Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein mutants in zebrafish larvae using in vivo live imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rebecca A.; Feng, Yi; Worth, Austen J.; Thrasher, Adrian J.; Burns, Siobhan O.; Martin, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Summary Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome (WAS) and X-linked neutropenia (XLN) are immunodeficiencies in which the function of several haematopoietic cell lineages is perturbed as a result of mutations in the actin regulator WASp. From in vitro cell biology experiments, and biochemical and structural approaches, we know much about the functional domains of WASp and how WASp might regulate the dynamic actin cytoskeleton downstream of activators such as Cdc42, but in vivo experiments are much more challenging. In patients, there is a correlation between clinical disease and genotype, with severe reductions in WASp expression or function associating with complex multilineage immunodeficiency, whereas specific mutations that cause constitutive activation of WASp result in congenital neutropenia. Here, we take advantage of the genetic tractability and translucency of zebrafish larvae to first characterise how a null mutant in zfWASp influences the behaviour of neutrophils and macrophages in response to tissue damage and to clearance of infections. We then use this mutant background to study how leukocyte lineage-specific transgenic replacement with human WASp variants (including normal wild type and point mutations that either fail to bind Cdc42 or cannot be phosphorylated, and a constitutively active mutant equivalent to that seen in XLN patients) alter the capacity for generation of neutrophils, their chemotactic response to wounds and the phagocytic clearance capacity of macrophages. This model provides a unique insight into WASp-related immunodeficiency at both a cellular and whole organism level. PMID:23868979

  13. A Spatio-Temporal Model of Notch Signalling in the Zebrafish Segmentation Clock: Conditions for Synchronised Oscillatory Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Alan J.; Sturrock, Marc; Dale, J. Kim; Maroto, Miguel; Chaplain, Mark A. J.

    2011-01-01

    In the vertebrate embryo, tissue blocks called somites are laid down in head-to-tail succession, a process known as somitogenesis. Research into somitogenesis has been both experimental and mathematical. For zebrafish, there is experimental evidence for oscillatory gene expression in cells in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) as well as evidence that Notch signalling synchronises the oscillations in neighbouring PSM cells. A biological mechanism has previously been proposed to explain these phenomena. Here we have converted this mechanism into a mathematical model of partial differential equations in which the nuclear and cytoplasmic diffusion of protein and mRNA molecules is explictly considered. By performing simulations, we have found ranges of values for the model parameters (such as diffusion and degradation rates) that yield oscillatory dynamics within PSM cells and that enab