Test Frame Simulates Zero Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chung, D.; Lindberg, D.
1984-01-01
Counterweighted frame simulates zero gravity in tests of solar-array wing. Net effect close simulation of zero-gravity environment in which wing must function. Frame also facilitates testing and replacement of solar-cell elements and panels.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Badler, N. I.; Fishwick, P.; Taft, N.; Agrawala, M.
1985-01-01
The use of computer graphics to simulate the movement of articulated animals and mechanisms has a number of uses ranging over many fields. Human motion simulation systems can be useful in education, medicine, anatomy, physiology, and dance. In biomechanics, computer displays help to understand and analyze performance. Simulations can be used to help understand the effect of external or internal forces. Similarly, zero-gravity simulation systems should provide a means of designing and exploring the capabilities of hypothetical zero-gravity situations before actually carrying out such actions. The advantage of using a simulation of the motion is that one can experiment with variations of a maneuver before attempting to teach it to an individual. The zero-gravity motion simulation problem can be divided into two broad areas: human movement and behavior in zero-gravity, and simulation of articulated mechanisms.
Space truss zero gravity dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, Andy
1989-01-01
The Structural Dynamics Branch of the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory in cooperation with the Reduced Gravity Office of the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) plans to perform zero-gravity dynamic tests of a 12-meter truss structure. This presentation describes the program and presents all results obtained to date.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hollinden, A. B.; Eaton, L. R.; Vaughan, W. W.
1972-01-01
The first results of an ongoing preliminary-concept and detailed-feasibility study of a zero-gravity earth-orbital cloud physics research facility are reviewed. Current planning and thinking are being shaped by two major conclusions of this study: (1) there is a strong requirement for and it is feasible to achieve important and significant research in a zero-gravity cloud physics facility; and (2) some very important experiments can be accomplished with 'off-the-shelf' type hardware by astronauts who have no cloud-physics background; the most complicated experiments may require sophisticated observation and motion subsystems and the astronaut may need graduate level cloud physics training; there is a large number of experiments whose complexity varies between these two extremes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, H. W.
1981-01-01
The feasibility and scientific benefits of a zero gravity aerosol study in an orbiting laboratory were examined. A macroscopic model was devised to deal with the simultaneous effects of diffusion and coagulation of particles in the confined aerosol. An analytical solution was found by treating the particle coagulation and diffusion constants as ensemble parameters and employing a transformation of variables. The solution was used to carry out simulated zero gravity aerosol decay experiments in a compact cylindrical chamber. The results demonstrate that the limitations of physical space and time imposed by the orbital situation are not prohibitive in terms of observing the history of an aerosol confined under zero gravity conditions. While the absence of convective effects would be a definite benefit for the experiment, the mathematical complexity of the problem is not greatly reduced when the gravitational term drops out of the equation. Since the model does not deal directly with the evolution of the particle size distribution, it may be desirable to develop more detailed models before undertaking an orbital experiment.
Modeling of zero gravity venting
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merte, H., Jr.
1984-01-01
The venting of cylindrical containers partially filled with initially saturated liquids was conducted under zero gravity conditions and compared with an analytical model which determined the effect of interfacial mass transfer on the ullage pressure response during venting. A model is proposed to improve the estimation of the interfacial mass transfer. Duhammel's superposition integral is incorporated in this analysis to approximate the transient temperature response of the interface, treating the liquid as a semiinfinite solid with conduction heat transfer. This approach to estimating interfacial mass transfer gives improved response when compared to previous models. The model still predicts a pressure decrease greater than those in the experiments reported.
Tribology experiment in zero gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pan, C. H. T.; Gause, R. L.; Whitaker, A. F.
1984-01-01
A tribology experiment in zero gravity was performed during the orbital flight of Spacelab 1 to study the motion of liquid lubricants over solid surfaces. The absence of a significant gravitational force facilitates studies of the motion of liquid lubricants over solid surfaces as controlled by interfacial and capillary forces. Observations were made of phenomena associated with the liquid on one solid surface and also with the liquid between a pair of closely spaced surfaces. Typical photographic records obtained on Spacelab 1 are described.
Tribology Experiment in Zero Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pan, C. H. T.; Gause, R. L.; Whitaker, A. F.; Finckenor, M. M.
2015-01-01
A tribology experiment in zero gravity was performed during the orbital flight of Spacelab 1 to study the motion of liquid lubricants over solid surfaces. The absence of a significant gravitational force facilitates observation of such motions as controlled by interfacial and capillary forces. Two experimental configurations were used. One deals with the liquid on one solid surface, and the other with the liquid between a pair of closed spaced surfaces. Time sequence photographs of fluid motion on a solid surface yielded spreading rate data of several fluid-surface combinations. In general, a slow spreading process as governed by the tertiary junction can be distinguished from a more rapid process which is driven by surface tension controlled internal fluid pressure. Photographs were also taken through the transparent bushings of several experimental journal bearings. Morphology of incomplete fluid films and its fluctuation with time suggest the presence or absence of unsteady phenomena of the bearing-rotor system in various arrangements.
Early cardiovascular adaptation to simulated zero gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nixon, J. V.; Murray, R. G.; Bryant, C.; Johnson, R. L., Jr.; Mitchell, J. H.; Holland, O. B.; Gomez-Sanchez, C.; Vergne-Marini, P.; Blomqvist, C. G.
1979-01-01
A study was conducted on five normal male volunteers (23-29 yr), under controlled conditions, to evaluate early adaptive responses to zero gravity. Specific objectives are (1) to characterize the hemodynamic, renal and hormonal responses to a central fluid shift, and (2) to compare data obtained during and after head-down tilt with corresponding data from actual space flight to validate tilt as a physiological model for simulation of zero gravity. Zero gravity is simulated by a 24-hr period of head-down tilt at 5 deg. The results suggest that hemodynamic adaptation occurs rapidly and is essentially accomplished by 6 hr, and that adaptation includes diuresis and reduction in blood volume. The validity of head-down tilt at 5 deg as an experimental model is established by comparing the results obtained with data from Apollo and Skylab astronauts on body fluid distributions and postflight responses to orthostatic and exercise stress.
Zero gravity testing of flexible solar arrays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chung, D. T.; Young, L. E.
1981-01-01
Zero gravity testing in the KC-135 aircraft of flat fold flexible solar array test specimens sufficiently demonstrated the adequacy of the panel design. The aircraft flight crew provided invaluable assistance and significantly contributed to the design and development of the flexible solar array, and ultimately to the potential success of the solar electric propulsion solar array shuttle flight experiment program.
Containing Hair During Cutting In Zero Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haines, Richard F.
1992-01-01
Proposed device collects loose hair during barbering and shaving in zero gravity to prevent hair clippings from contaminating cabin of spacecraft. Folds for storage, opens into clear, bubblelike plastic dome surrounding user's head, tray fits around user's throat, and fanlike ring surrounds back of neck. Device fits snugly but comfortably around neck, preventing hair from escaping to outside. Flow of air into hose connected to suction pump removes hair from bubble as cut. Filter at end of hose collects hair.
Zero Gravity Research Facility User's Guide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, Dennis M.
1999-01-01
The Zero Gravity Research Facility (ZGF) is operated by the Space Experiments Division of the NASA John H. Glenn Research Center (GRC) for investigators sponsored by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division of NASA Headquarters. This unique facility has been utilized by scientists and engineers for reduced gravity experimentation since 1966. The ZGF has provided fundamental scientific information, has been used as an important test facility in the space flight hardware design, development, and test process, and has also been a valuable source of data in the flight experiment definition process. The purpose of this document is to provide information and guidance to prospective researchers regarding the design, buildup, and testing of microgravity experiments.
Marangoni bubble motion in zero gravity. [Lewis zero gravity drop tower
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, R. L.; Dewitt, K. J.
1979-01-01
It was shown experimentally that the Marangoni phenomenon is a primary mechanism for the movement of a gas bubble in a nonisothermal liquid in a low gravity environment. A mathematical model consisting of the Navier-Stokes and thermal energy equations, together with the appropriate boundary conditions for both media, is presented. Parameter perturbation theory is used to solve this boundary value problem; the expansion parameter is the Marangoni number. The zeroth, first, and second order approximations for the velocity, temperature and pressure distributions in the liquid and in the bubble, and the deformation and terminal velocity of the bubble are determined. Experimental zero gravity data for a nitrogen bubble in ethylene glycol, ethanol, and silicone oil subjected to a linear temperature gradient were obtained using the NASA Lewis zero gravity drop tower. Comparison of the zeroth order analytical results for the bubble terminal velocity showed good agreement with the experimental measurements. The first and second order solutions for the bubble deformation and bubble terminal velocity are valid for liquids having Prandtl numbers on the order of one, but there is a lack of appropriate data to test the theory fully.
Glass fining experiments in zero gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, H. D.
1977-01-01
Ground based experiments were conducted to demonstrate that thermal migration actually operated in glass melts. Thermal migration consistent with the theory was found in one experiment on a borax melt, i.e., there was an approximately linear relation between the bubble diameter and bubble velocity for a given temperature and temperature gradient. It also appeared that nearby bubbles were attracted to one another, which could greatly aid fining. Interpretation of these results was not possible because of complications arising from gravity, i.e., floating of the bubbles, circulation currents due to buoyancy-driven natural connection, and flow of the melt out from the cell.
Magnetic fluid readily controlled in zero gravity environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Papell, S. S.
1965-01-01
Colloid composed of finely ground iron oxide in a fluid such as heptane, is controlled and directed magnetically in a zero gravity environment. It will not separate on standing for long periods or after exposure to magnetic or centrifugal forces. Because of its low density and low viscosity, it is easily pumped.
Measurement of Choroidal blood flow in zero gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ansari, Rafat R.; Suh, Kwang I.; Moret, Fabrice; Messer, Russell K.; Manuel, Francis K.
2003-07-01
In this paper we present preliminary measurements on the effects of zero gravity environment on the choroidal blood flow on human volunteer subjects. These experiments were conducted, for the first time, on-board a wide body aircraft (KC-135) during parabolic flight trajectories (0g to 2g environment) using a head-mounted miniature laser Doppler flowmeter.
Zero-Gravity Fuel-Cell Product-Water Accumulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barrera, Thomas P.
1989-01-01
Assortment of documents describes simple, passive system that removes water formed from reaction of hydrogen and oxygen in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell. Designed for use in zero gravity, system does not require any machinery or external source of power. Works by capillary action and differential pressure.
Zero gravity simulation technique of five freedom docking test bed
Zhang Chongjun; Lai Yinan; Zhang Guangyu
2004-01-01
The paper aimed to solve the weightless problem of the active docking ring (ADR) of a docking mechanism. The paper proposes a lift-on zero gravity simulation method with compact structure, which has an internal support rope for the active docking ring in the space docking process. The internal support structure ensures that the ADR rotates freely in three-axis direction. The
Astronaut Owen Garriott watches drink container spin in zero gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1973-01-01
Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, watches a drink container spinning and tumbling in zero gravity during a science demonstration television transmission from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Garriott is in the Orbital Workshop (OWS).
Acceleration display system for aircraft zero-gravity research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Millis, Marc G.
1987-01-01
The features, design, calibration, and testing of Lewis Research Center's acceleration display system for aircraft zero-gravity research are described. Specific circuit schematics and system specifications are included as well as representative data traces from flown trajectories. Other observations learned from developing and using this system are mentioned where appropriate. The system, now a permanent part of the Lewis Learjet zero-gravity program, provides legible, concise, and necessary guidance information enabling pilots to routinely fly accurate zero-gravity trajectories. Regular use of this system resulted in improvements of the Learjet zero-gravity flight techniques, including a technique to minimize later accelerations. Lewis Gates Learjet trajectory data show that accelerations can be reliably sustained within 0.01 g for 5 consecutive seconds, within 0.02 g for 7 consecutive seconds, and within 0.04 g for up to 20 second. Lewis followed the past practices of acceleration measurement, yet focussed on the acceleration displays. Refinements based on flight experience included evolving the ranges, resolutions, and frequency responses to fit the pilot and the Learjet responses.
Baroreceptor activity potentially facilitates cortical inhibition in zero gravity.
Lipnicki, Darren M
2009-05-15
Baroreceptor stimulation induces cortical inhibition. With blood not drawn by gravity from the upper to lower body, adopting a less upright posture leads to increases in thoracic blood volume and baroreceptor stimulation. Consistent with these effects are observations of cortical activity being inhibited when reclining or tilted head-down. As with less upright postures, in zero gravity there is a redistribution of blood towards the upper body that stimulates baroreceptors. Effects associated with this stimulation could be expected to facilitate an inhibition of cortical activity during zero gravity, as recently reported to occur during parabolic flight (Schneider et al., 2008. What happens to the brain in weightlessness? A first approach by EEG tomography. NeuroImage 42, 1316-1323). PMID:19457387
Liquid jet impingement normal to a disk in zero gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Labus, T. L.; Dewitt, K. J.
1978-01-01
An experimental and analytical investigation was conducted to determine the free surface shapes of circular jets impinging normal to sharp-edged disks in zero gravity. Experiments conducted in a zero gravity drop tower yielded three distinct flow patterns which were classified in terms of the relative effects of surface tension and inertial forces. An order of magnitude analysis was conducted indicating regions where viscous forces were not significant when computing free surface shapes. The free surface analysis was simplified by transforming the governing potential flow equations and boundary conditions into the inverse plane. The resulting nonlinear equations were solved numerically and comparisons were made with the experimental data for the inertia dominated regime.
Development of a compact dilution refrigerator for zero gravity operation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roach, Pat R.; Helvensteijn, Ben
1990-01-01
A compact dilution refrigerator design based on internal charcoal adsorption is being tested for operation in zero gravity. This refrigerator is self-contained with no external pumps or gas handling system and provides reliable operation since it has no moving parts. All operations are performed with heaters and are completely computer controlled. The refrigerator is capable of providing many hours of operation at very low temperature before the charcoal pumps must be recycled.
Crew efficiency on first exposure to zero-gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garriott, O. K.; Doerre, G. L.
1977-01-01
Activation task performance of Skylab crews showed improved efficiency as experience was gained in weightlessness living. During three activation intervals, less than 12 man-hours were lost due to reduced efficiency (including the effects of motion sensitivity) while almost 200 man-hours of productive work were delivered. Work rate improved for tasks in which simulation and training time were extensive and for tasks which allowed zero-gravity operations to be optimized.
Device for mass measurement under zero-gravity conditions.
Sarychev, V A; Sazonov, V V; Zlatorunsky, A S; Khlopina, S F; Egorov, A D; Somov, V I
1980-06-01
The problem considered in this paper is the investigation of the properties of a mass-meter, i.e. the device for determining the mass of cosmonaut's body under zero-gravity conditions. The estimates of accuracy of mass measurement by this device are given, and the results of measuring the masses of cosmonauts' bodies on the Salyut 5 and 6 orbital stations are presented. PMID:11542644
Development of coatings to control electroosmosis in zero gravity electrophoresis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krupnick, A. C.
1974-01-01
A major problem confronting the operation of free fluid electrophoresis in zero gravity is the control of electrokinetic phenomena and, in particular, electroosmosis. Due to the severity of counter flow as a result of electroosmosis, the electrical potential developed at the surface of shear must be maintained at near, or as close, to zero millivolts as possible. Based upon this investigation, it has been found that the amount of bound water or the degree of hydroxylation plays a major role in the control of this phenomenon. Based upon tests employing microcapillary electrophoresis, it has been found that gamma amino propyl trihydroxysilane produced a coating which provides the lowest potential (about 3.86 mV) at the surface of shear between the stationary and mobile layers.
Oscillations of drops in zero gravity with weak viscous effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lundgren, T. S.; Mansour, N. N.
1988-01-01
Nonlinear oscillations and other motions of large axially symmetric liquid drops in zero gravity are studied numerically by a boundary-integral method. The effect of small viscosity is included in the computations by retaining first-order viscous terms in the normal stress boundary condition. This is accomplished by making use of a partial solution of the boundary-layer equations which describe the weak vortical surface layer. Small viscosity is found to have a relatively large effect on resonant mode coupling phenomena.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.
1973-01-01
The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.
Ball Lightning in Zero Gravity in the Laboratory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexeff, Igor; Parameswaran, Sriram; Grace, Michael
2004-11-01
We have created balls of orange plasma in atmospheric - pressure air that survive for over 1/2 second without power input. The technique used was to create a pulsed horizontal electric arc in a zero - gravity environment using 6 neon - sign transformers in parallel, each producing 16,000 V at 60 mA. The zero - gravity environment reduces heat losses by reducing thermal convection, creating a larger ball. Previous work (1) suggests that the ball lifetime scales as the square of the ball radius. The balls were photographed after power turnoff with a high - speed 16 mm movie camera. Movies of the balls being formed and decaying will be shown. We suggest that there are several other forms of ball lightning (2). 1.Igor Alexeff et. al. International Conference On Plasma Science, Jeju, Korea, June 2-5, 2003, Conference Record, p 254. 2. Igor Alexeff and Mark Rader, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 20, No. 6, Dec. 1992, pp.669-671. Igor Alexeff and Mark Rader, Fusion Technology, Vol. 27, May 1995, p. 271.
Cool flames at terrestrial, partial, and near-zero gravity
Foster, Michael; Pearlman, Howard
2006-10-15
Natural convection plays an important role in all terrestrial, Lunar, and Martian-based, unstirred, static reactor cool flame and low-temperature autoignitions, since the Rayleigh number (Ra) associated with the self-heating of the reaction exceeds the critical Ra (approximately 600) for onset of convection. At near-zero gravity, Ra<600 can be achieved and the effects of convection suppressed. To systematically vary the Ra without varying the mixture stoichiometry, reactor pressure, or vessel size, cool flames are studied experimentally in a closed, unstirred, static reactor subject to different gravitational accelerations (terrestrial, 1g; Martian, 0.38g; Lunar, 0.16g; and reduced gravity, {approx}10{sup -2}g). Representative results show the evolution of the visible light emission using an equimolar n-butane:oxygen premixture at temperatures ranging from 320 to 350? deg C (593-623 K) at subatmospheric pressures. For representative reduced-gravity, spherically propagating cool flames, the flame radius based on the peak light intensity is plotted as a function of time and the flame radius (and speed) is calculated from a polynomial fit to data. A skeletal chemical kinetic Gray-Yang model developed previously for a one-dimensional, reactive-diffusive system by Fairlie and co-workers is extended to a two-dimensional axisymmetric, spherical geometry. The coupled species, energy, and momentum equations are solved numerically and the spatio-temporal variations in the temperature profiles are presented. A qualitative comparison is made with the experimental results. (author)
Ocular Blood Flow Measured Noninvasively in Zero Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ansari, Rafat R.; Manuel, Francis K.; Geiser, Martial; Moret, Fabrice; Messer, Russell K.; King, James F.; Suh, Kwang I.
2003-01-01
In spaceflight or a reduced-gravity environment, bodily fluids shift to the upper extremities of the body. The pressure inside the eye, or intraocular pressure, changes significantly. A significant number of astronauts report changes in visual acuity during orbital flight. To date this remains of unknown etiology. Could choroidal engorgement be the primary mechanism and a change in the curvature or shape of the cornea or lens be the secondary mechanism for this change in visual acuity? Perfused blood flow in the dense meshwork of capillaries of the choroidal tissue (see the preceding illustration) provides necessary nutrients to the outer layers of the retina (photoreceptors) to keep it healthy and maintain good vision. Unlike the vascular system, the choroid has no baroreceptors to autoregulate fluid shifts, so it can remain engorged, pushing the macula forward and causing a hyperopic (farsighted) shift of the eye. Experiments by researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center could help answer this question and facilitate planning for long-duration missions. We are investigating the effects of zero gravity on the choroidal blood flow of volunteer subjects. This pilot project plans to determine if choroidal blood flow is autoregulated in a reduced-gravity environment.
Mass estimation and discrimination during brief periods of zero gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ross, H. E.; Reschke, M. F.
1982-01-01
Under zero gravity, the gravitational cues to mass are removed, but the inertial cues remain. A sensation of heaviness is generated if objects are shaken, and hence given a changing acceleration. A magnitude estimation experiment was conducted during the 0-G phase of parabolic flight and on the ground, and the results suggested that objects felt lighter under 0 G than under 1 G. Mass discrimination was also measured in flight, and yielded Weber fractions of .18 under 0 G, .16 under 1.8 G, and .09 under 1 G. Poor performance under microgravity and macrogravity was probably due mainly to lack of time for adaptation to changed G levels. It is predicted that discrimination should improve during the course of prolonged spaceflight, and that there should be an aftereffect of poor discrimination on return to earth.
Development of coatings to control electroosmosis in zero gravity electrophoresis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krupnick, A. C.
1974-01-01
A major problem confronting the operation of free fluid electrophoresis in zero gravity is the control of electrokinetic phenomena and, in particular, electroosmosis. Due to the severity of counter flow, as a result of electroosmosis, the electrical potential developed at the surface of shear must be maintained at near, or as close to, zero millivolts as possible. Based upon this investigation, it has been found that the amount of bound water or the degree of hydroxylation plays a major role in the control of this phenomena. Of necessity, factors, such as adhesion, biocompatibility, protein adsorption, and insolubility were considered in this investigation because of the long buffer-coating exposure times required by present space operations. Based upon tests employing microcapillary electrophoresis, it has been found that gamma amino propyl trihydroxysilane produced a coating which provides the lowest potential (minus 3.86 mv) at the surface of shear between the stationary and mobile layers. This coating has been soaked in both borate and saline buffers, up to three months, in a pH range of 6.5 to 10 without deleterious effects or a change in its ability to control electrokinetic effects.
HEART RATE AND BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILITY UNDER MOON, MARS AND ZERO GRAVITY CONDITIONS DURING possible to analyse it at intermediate gravity conditions, those from Moon (0.16g) and Mars (0.38g). 2. METHODS During the Joint European Partial-G parabolic flight cam- paign, gravity conditions of Moon (0.16g
Zero gravity two-phase flow regime transition modeling compared with data and relap5-3d predictions
Ghrist, Melissa Renee
2009-05-15
This thesis compares air/water two-phase flow regime transition models in zero gravity with data and makes recommendations for zero gravity models to incorporate into the RELAP5-3D thermal hydraulic computer code. Data ...
Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for use in zero gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dingus, Michael L.
1988-01-01
In this effort, a new design concept for an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) that is capable of operation in zero gravity has been developed. The design uses a vortex precooler to lower the initial temperature of magnetic salt from the initial space superfluid helium dewar of 1.8 K to 1.1 K. This reduces the required maximum magnetic field from 4 Tesla to 2 Tesla. The laboratory prototype vortex precooler reached a minimum temperature of 0.78 K, and had a cooling power of 1 mW at 1.1 K. A study was conducted to determine the dependence of vortex cooler performance on system element configuration. A superfluid filled capillary heat switch was used in the design. The laboratory prototype ADR reached a minimum temperature of 0.107 K, and maintained temperatures below 0.125 K for 90 minutes. Demagnetization was carried out from a maximum field of 2 T. A soft iron shield was developed that reduced the radial central field to 1 gauss at 0.25 meters.
A helium-3/helium-4 dilution cryocooler for operation in zero gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hendricks, John B.
1988-01-01
This research effort covered the development of He-3/He-4 dilution cryocooler cycles for use in zero gravity. The dilution cryocooler is currently the method of choice for producing temperatures below 0.3 Kelvin in the laboratory. However, the current dilution cryocooler depends on gravity for their operation, so some modification is required for zero gravity operation. In this effort, we have demonstrated, by analysis, that the zero gravity dilution cryocooler is feasible. We have developed a cycle that uses He-3 circulation, and an alternate cycle that uses superfluid He-4 circulation. The key elements of both cycles were demonstrated experimentally. The development of a true 'zero-gravity' dilution cryocooler is now possible, and should be undertaken in a follow-on effort.
Precise Determination of the Zero-Gravity Surface Figure of a Mirror without Gravity-Sag Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bloemhof, Eric E.; Lam, Jonathan C.; Feria, V. Alfonso; Chang, Zensheu
2007-01-01
The zero-gravity surface figure of optics used in spaceborne astronomical instruments must be known to high accuracy, but earthbound metrology is typically corrupted by gravity sag. Generally, inference of the zero-gravity surface figure from a measurement made under normal gravity requires finite-element analysis (FEA), and for accurate results the mount forces must be well characterized. We describe how to infer the zero-gravity surface figure very precisely using the alternative classical technique of averaging pairs of measurements made with the direction of gravity reversed. We show that mount forces as well as gravity must be reversed between the two measurements and discuss how the St. Venant principle determines when a reversed mount force may be considered to be applied at the same place in the two orientations. Our approach requires no finite-element modeling and no detailed knowledge of mount forces other than the fact that they reverse and are applied at the same point in each orientation. If mount schemes are suitably chosen, zero-gravity optical surfaces may be inferred much more simply and more accurately than with FEA.
Modeling of zero gravity venting: Studies of two-phase heat transfer under reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merte, H., Jr.
1986-01-01
The objective is to predict the pressure response of a saturated liquid-vapor system when undergoing a venting or depressurization process in zero gravity at low vent rates. An experimental investigation of the venting of cylindrical containers partially filled with initially saturated liquids was previously conducted under zero-gravity conditions and compared with an analytical model which incorporated the effect of interfacial mass transfer on the ullage pressure response during venting. A new model is presented to improve the estimation of the interfacial mass transfer. Duhammel's superposition integral is incorporated to approximate the transient temperature response of the interface, treating the liquid as a semi-infinite solid with conduction heat transfer. Account is also taken of the condensation taking place within the bulk of a saturated vapor as isentropic expansion takes place. Computational results are presented for the venting of R-11 from a given vessel and initial state for five different venting rates over a period of three seconds, and compared to prior NASA experiments. An improvement in the prediction of the final pressure takes place, but is still considerably below the measurements.
Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ravex, Alain; Flachbart, Robin; Holt, Barney
The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses. TVS performance testing demonstrated that the spray bar was effective in providing tank pressure control within a 6.89 kPa (1psi) band for fill levels of 90%, 50%, and 25%. Complete destratification of the liquid and ullage was achieved at these fill levels. The axial jet was effective in providing tank pressure control within the same pressure control band at the 90% fill level. However, at the 50% level, the system reached a point at which it was unable to extract enough energy to keep up with the heat leak into the tank. Due to a hardware problem, the recirculation pump operated well below the axial jet design flow rate. Therefore, it is likely that the performance of the axial jet would have improved had the pump operated at the proper flow rate. A CFD model is being used to determine if the desired axial jet performance would be achieved if a higher pump flow rate were available. Testing conducted thus far has demonstrated that both TVS concepts can be effective in destratifying a propellant tank, rejecting stored heat energy, and thus, controlling tank pressure.
Vortex motion phase separator for zero gravity liquid transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, Frank S. (inventor); Fraser, Wilson M., Jr. (inventor)
1989-01-01
A vortex motion phase separator is disclosed for transferring a liquid in a zero gravity environment while at the same time separating the liquid from vapors found within either the sender or the receiving tanks. The separator comprises a rigid sender tank having a circular cross-section and rigid receiver tank having a circular cross-section. A plurality of ducts connects the sender tank and the receiver tank. Disposed within the ducts connecting the receiver tank and the sender tank is a pump and a plurality of valves. The pump is powered by an electric motor and is adapted to draw either the liquid or a mixture of the liquid and the vapor from the sender tank. Initially, the mixture drawn from the sender tank is directed through a portion of the ductwork and back into the sender tank at a tangent to the inside surface of the sender tank, thereby creating a swirling vortex of the mixture within the sender tank. As the pumping action increases, the speed of the swirling action within the sender tank increases creating an increase in the centrifugal force operating on the mixture. The effect of the centrifugal force is to cause the heavier liquid to migrate to the inside surface of the sender tank and to separate from the vapor. When this separation reaches a predetermined degree, control means is activated to direct the liquid conveyed by the pump directly into the receiver tank. At the same time, the vapor within the receiver tank is directed from the receiver tank back into the sender tank. This flow continues until substantially all of the liquid is transferred from the sender tank to the receiver tank.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parang, Masood
1986-01-01
An experimental and analytical study of Thermoacoustic Convection heat transfer in gravity and zero-gravity environments is presented. The experimental apparatus consisted of a cylinder containing air as a fluid. The side wall of the cylinder was insulated while the bottom wall was allowed to remain at the ambient temperature. The enclosed air was rapidly heated by the top surface which consisted of a thin stainless steel foil connected to a battery pack as the power source. Thermocouples were used to measure the transient temperature of the air on the axis of the cylinder. The ouput of the thermocouples was displayed on digital thermometers and the temperature displays were recorded on film using a high-speed movie camera. Temperature measurements were obtained in the zero-gravity environment by dropping the apparatus in the 2-Seconds Zero-Gravity Drop Tower Facilities of NASA Lewis Research Center. In addition, experiments were also performed in the gravity environment and the results are compared in detail with those obtained under zero-gravity conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haggard, J. B., Jr.
1981-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted on methane, laminar-jet, diffusion flames with coaxial, forced-air flow to examine flame shapes in zero-gravity and in situations where buoyancy aids (normal-gravity flames) or hinders (inverted-gravity flames) the flow velocities. Fuel nozzles ranged in size from 0.051 to 0.305 cm inside radius, while the coaxial, convergent, air nozzle had a 1.4 cm inside radius at the fuel exit plane. Fuel flows ranged from 1.55 to 10.3 cu cm/sec and air flows from 0 to 597 cu cm/sec. A computer program developed under a previous government contract was used to calculate the characteristic dimensions of normal and zero-gravity flames only. The results include a comparison between the experimental data and the computed axial flame lengths for normal gravity and zero gravity which showed good agreement. Inverted-gravity flame width was correlated with the ratio of fuel nozzle radius to average fuel velocity. Flame extinguishment upon entry into weightlessness was studied, and it was found that relatively low forced-air velocities (approximately 10 cm/sec) are sufficient to sustain methane flame combustion in zero gravity. Flame color is also discussed.
Assessment of geophysical flows for zero-gravity simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winn, C. B.; Cox, A.; Srivatsangam, R.
1976-01-01
The results of research relating to the feasibility of using a low gravity environment to model geophysical flows are presented. Atmospheric and solid earth flows are considered. Possible experiments and their required apparatus are suggested.
Two-phase computer codes for zero-gravity applications
Krotiuk, W.J.
1986-10-01
This paper discusses the problems existing in the development of computer codes which can analyze the thermal-hydraulic behavior of two-phase fluids especially in low gravity nuclear reactors. The important phenomenon affecting fluid flow and heat transfer in reduced gravity is discussed. The applicability of using existing computer codes for space applications is assessed. Recommendations regarding the use of existing earth based fluid flow and heat transfer correlations are made and deficiencies in these correlations are identified.
The Dirac point electron in zero-gravity Kerr--Newman spacetime
M. K. -H. Kiessling; A. S. Tahvildar-Zadeh
2015-05-20
Dirac's wave equation for a point electron in the topologically nontrivial maximal analytically extended electromagnetic Kerr--Newman spacetime is studied in a zero-gravity limit; here, "zero-gravity" means $G\\to 0$, where $G$ is Newton's constant of universal gravitation. The following results are obtained: the formal Dirac Hamiltonian on the static spacelike slices is essentially self-adjoint; the spectrum of the self-adjoint extension is symmetric about zero, featuring a continuum with a gap about zero that, under two smallness conditions, contains a point spectrum. Some of our results extend to a generalization of the zero-$G$ Kerr--Newman spacetime with different electric-monopole-to-magnetic-dipole-moment ratio.
Feasibility study of a zero-gravity (orbital) atmospheric cloud physics experiments laboratory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hollinden, A. B.; Eaton, L. R.
1972-01-01
A feasibility and concepts study for a zero-gravity (orbital) atmospheric cloud physics experiment laboratory is discussed. The primary objective was to define a set of cloud physics experiments which will benefit from the near zero-gravity environment of an orbiting spacecraft, identify merits of this environment relative to those of groundbased laboratory facilities, and identify conceptual approaches for the accomplishment of the experiments in an orbiting spacecraft. Solicitation, classification and review of cloud physics experiments for which the advantages of a near zero-gravity environment are evident are described. Identification of experiments for potential early flight opportunities is provided. Several significant accomplishments achieved during the course of this study are presented.
Thermo-hydro-dynamic characteristics of a zero-gravity, spherical model of the troposphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivatsangam, S.
1976-01-01
A model that exploits the radial inertia forces of a rotating fluid contained in a spherical annulus is described. The model would be flown in a satellite and experiments would be performed in very low or zero gravity. In such a model it would not be necessary to artificially simulate a radial gravity field. Thus small amounts of electrical energy would be sufficient to perform experiments. Since the only forces involved are thermo-hydro-dynamic ones, electromagnetic equations need not be considered.
Development of a large support surface for an air-bearing type zero-gravity simulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glover, K. E.
1976-01-01
The methods used in producing a large, flat surface to serve as the supporting surface for an air-bearing type zero-gravity simulator using low clearance, thrust-pad type air bearings are described. Major problems encountered in the use of self-leveled epoxy coatings in this surface are discussed and techniques are recommended which proved effective in overcoming these problems. Performance requirements of the zero-gravity simulator vehicle which were pertinent to the specification of the air-bearing support surface are also discussed.
On Calculating the Zero-Gravity Surface Figure of a Mirror
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bloemhof, Eric E.
2010-01-01
An analysis of the classical method of calculating the zero-gravity surface figure of a mirror from surface-figure measurements in the presence of gravity has led to improved understanding of conditions under which the calculations are valid. In this method, one measures the surface figure in two or more gravity- reversed configurations, then calculates the zero-gravity surface figure as the average of the surface figures determined from these measurements. It is now understood that gravity reversal is not, by itself, sufficient to ensure validity of the calculations: It is also necessary to reverse mounting forces, for which purpose one must ensure that mountingfixture/ mirror contacts are located either at the same places or else sufficiently close to the same places in both gravity-reversed configurations. It is usually not practical to locate the contacts at the same places, raising the question of how close is sufficiently close. The criterion for sufficient closeness is embodied in the St. Venant principle, which, in the present context, translates to a requirement that the distance between corresponding gravity-reversed mounting positions be small in comparison to their distances to the optical surface of the mirror. The necessity of reversing mount forces is apparent in the behavior of the equations familiar from finite element analysis (FEA) that govern deformation of the mirror.
Extracting Zero-Gravity Surface Figure of a Mirror
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bloemhof, Eric E.; Lam, Jonathan C.; Feria, Alfonso; Chang, Zensheu
2011-01-01
The technical innovation involves refinement of the classic optical technique of averaging surface measurements made in different orientations with respect to gravity, so the effects of gravity cancel in the averaged image. Particularly for large, thin mirrors subject to substantial deformation, the further requirement is that mount forces must also cancel when averaged over measurement orientations. The zerogravity surface figure of a mirror in a hexapod mount is obtained by analyzing the summation of mount forces in the frame of the optic as surface metrology is averaged over multiple clockings. This is illustrated with measurements taken from the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) PT-Ml mirror for both twofold and threefold clocking. The positive results of these measurements and analyses indicate that, from this perspective, a lighter mirror could be used; that is, one might place less reliance on the damping effects of the elliptic partial differential equations that describe the propagation of forces through glass. The advantage over prior art is relaxing the need for an otherwise substantial thickness of glass that might be needed to ensure accurate metrology in the absence of a detailed understanding and analysis of the mount forces. The general insights developed here are new, and provide the basic design principles on which mirror mount geometry may be chosen.
Investigation of crystal growth in zero gravity environment and investigation of metallic whiskers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, J. H.; Lal, R. B.; Walter, H. U.; Castle, J. G., Jr.
1972-01-01
Theoretical and experimental work reported relates to the effects of near-zero gravity on growths of crystals and metallic whiskers during Skylab and Apollo flight experiments. Studies on growth and characterization of candidate materials for flight experiments cover indium-bismuth compounds, bismuth single crystals, gallium arsenide films and single crystals, and cadmium whiskers.
HEART RATE AND BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILITY UNDER MOON, MARS AND ZERO GRAVITY CONDITIONS DURING system and in the lower body where negative pressure trousers are used to prevent a decrease of blood differences as to real microgravity, but many of the changes in human physiology induced by simulation
Pressure drop in fully developed, turbulent, liquid-vapor annular flows in zero gravity
K. R. Sridhar; B. T. Chao; S. L. Soo
1992-01-01
The prediction of frictional pressure drop in fully developed, turbulent, annular liquid-vapor flows in zero gravity using simulation experiments conducted on earth is described. The scheme extends the authors' earlier work on dispersed flows. The simulation experiments used two immiscible liquids of identical density, namely, water and n-butyl benzoate. Because of the lack of rigorous analytical models for turbulent, annular
Vacuum/Zero Net-Gravity Application for On-Orbit TPS Tile Repair
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harvey, Gale A.; Humes, Donald H.; Siochi, Emilie J.
2004-01-01
The Orbiter Columbia catastrophically failed during reentry February 1, 2003. All space Shuttle flights were suspended, including logistics support for the International Space Station. NASA LaRC s Structures and Materials Competency is performing characterizations of candidate materials for on-orbit repair of orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles to support Return-to-Flight activities led by JSC. At least ten materials properties or attributes (adhesion to damage site, thermal protection, char/ash strength, thermal expansion, blistering, flaming, mixing ease, application in vacuum and zero gravity, cure time, shelf or storage life, and short-term outgassing and foaming) of candidate materials are of interest for on-orbit repair. This paper reports application in vacuum and zero net-gravity (for viscous flow repair materials). A description of the test apparatus and preliminary results of several candidate materials are presented. The filling of damage cavities is different for some candidate repair materials in combined vacuum and zero net-gravity than in either vacuum or zero net- gravity alone.
Vacuum/Zero Net-Gravity Application for On-Orbit TPS Tile Repair
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harvey, Gale A.; Humes, Donald H.; Siochi, Emilie J.
2004-01-01
The Orbiter Columbia catastrophically failed during reentry February 1, 2003. All Space Shuttle flights were suspended, including logistics support for the International Space Station. NASA Langley Research Center s (LaRC) Structures and Materials Competency is performing characterizations of candidate materials for on-orbit repair of orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles to support Return-to-Flight activities led by Johnson Space Center (JSC). At least ten materials properties or attributes (adhesion to damage site, thermal protection, char/ash strength, thermal expansion, blistering, flaming, mixing ease, application in vacuum and zero gravity, cure time, shelf or storage life, and short-term outgassing and foaming) of candidate materials are of interest for on-orbit repair. This paper reports application in vacuum and zero net-gravity (for viscous flow repair materials). A description of the test apparatus and preliminary results of several candidate materials are presented. The filling of damage cavities is different for some candidate repair materials in combined vacuum and zero net-gravity than in either vacuum or zero net-gravity alone.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eisner, M. (editor)
1974-01-01
The possible utilization of the zero gravity resource for studies in a variety of fluid dynamics and fluid-dynamic related problems was investigated. A group of experiments are discussed and described in detail; these include experiments in the areas of geophysical fluid models, fluid dynamics, mass transfer processes, electrokinetic separation of large particles, and biophysical and physiological areas.
Criticality in the slowed-down boiling crisis at zero gravity.
Charignon, T; Lloveras, P; Chatain, D; Truskinovsky, L; Vives, E; Beysens, D; Nikolayev, V S
2015-05-01
Boiling crisis is a transition between nucleate and film boiling. It occurs at a threshold value of the heat flux from the heater called CHF (critical heat flux). Usually, boiling crisis studies are hindered by the high CHF and short transition duration (below 1 ms). Here we report on experiments in hydrogen near its liquid-vapor critical point, in which the CHF is low and the dynamics slow enough to be resolved. As under such conditions the surface tension is very small, the experiments are carried out in the reduced gravity to preserve the conventional bubble geometry. Weightlessness is created artificially in two-phase hydrogen by compensating gravity with magnetic forces. We were able to reveal the fractal structure of the contour of the percolating cluster of the dry areas at the heater that precedes the boiling crisis. We provide a direct statistical analysis of dry spot areas that confirms the boiling crisis at zero gravity as a scale-free phenomenon. It was observed that, in agreement with theoretical predictions, saturated boiling CHF tends to zero (within the precision of our thermal control system) in zero gravity, which suggests that the boiling crisis may be observed at any heat flux provided the experiment lasts long enough. PMID:26066249
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greco, R. V.; Eaton, L. R.; Wilkinson, H. C.
1974-01-01
The work is summarized which was accomplished from January 1974 to October 1974 for the Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory. The definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineation of candidate experiments that require the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity are reported. The experiment program and the laboratory concept for a Spacelab payload to perform cloud microphysics research are defined. This multimission laboratory is planned to be available to the entire scientific community to utilize in furthering the basic understanding of cloud microphysical processes and phenomenon, thereby contributing to improved weather prediction and ultimately to provide beneficial weather control and modification.
Liquid jet impingement normal to a disk in zero gravity. Ph.D. Thesis Toledo Univ.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Labus, T. L.
1977-01-01
The free surface shapes of circular liquid jets impinging normal to sharp-edged disks in zero gravity are determined. Zero gravity drop tower experiments yielded three distinct flow patterns that were classified in terms of the relative effects of surface tension and inertial forces. An order of magnitude analysis was conducted that indicated regions where viscous forces were not significant in the computation of free surface shapes. The free surface analysis was simplified by transforming the governing potential flow equations and boundary conditions into the inverse plane, where the stream function and velocity potential became the coordinates. The resulting nonlinear equations were solved by standard finite difference methods, and comparisons were made with the experimental data for the inertia dominated regime.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dewitt, R. L.
1978-01-01
The preliminary concept, specifications, and requirements of a reusable zero gravity combustion facility (0-GCF) for use by experimenters aboard the spacelab payload of the space transportation system (STS) orbiter are described. The facility will be amenable to any mission of the STS orbiter in which a spacelab habitable segment and pallet segment are integral and for which orbital mission plans specify induced accelerations of 0.0001 g or less for sufficiently long periods so as not to impact experiment performance.
The Marshall Space Flight Center KC-135 zero gravity test program for FY 1982
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shurney, R. E. (editor)
1983-01-01
During FY-82, researchers and experimenters from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducted 11 separate investigations during 26.3 hr of testing aboard the KC-135 zero-gravity aircraft, based at Ellington Air force Base, Texas. Although this represented fewer hours than initially projected, all experiment and test objectives were met or exceeded. This Technical Memorandum compiles all results achieved by MSFC users during FY-82, a year considered to be highly productive.
Liquid jet impingement normal to a disk in zero gravity. Ph.D. Thesis - Toledo Univ.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Labus, T. L.
1976-01-01
An experimental and analytical investigation was conducted to determine the free surface shapes of circular liquid jets impinging normal to sharp-edged disks under both normal and zero gravity conditions. An order of magnitude analysis was conducted indicating regions where viscous forces were not significant when computing free surface shapes. The demarcation between the viscous and inviscid region was found to depend upon the flow Reynolds number and the ratio between the jet and disk radius.
The study of single crystals for space processing and the effect of zero gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lal, R. B.
1975-01-01
A study was undertaken to analyze different growth techniques affected by a space environment. Literature on crystal growth from melt, vapor phase and float zone was reviewed and the physical phenomena important for crystal growth in zero-gravity environment was analyzed. Recommendations for potential areas of crystal growth feasible for space missions are presented and a bibliography of articles in the area of crystal growth in general is listed.
Some physiological effects of alternation between zero gravity and one gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Graybiel, A.
1977-01-01
The anatomy and physiology of the healthy vestibular system and the history of its study, maintenance of muskuloskeletal fitness under low-gravity conditions, tests of motion sickness, and data and techniques on testing subjects in a slow rotation room, are covered. Components of the inner ear labyrinth and their behavior in relation to equilibrium, gravity and inertial forces, motion sickness, and dizziness are discussed. Preventive medicine, the biologically effective force environment, weightlessness per se, activity in a weightless spacecraft, exercizing required to maintain musculoskeletal function, and ataxia problems are dealt with.
EVA Assembly of Large Space Structure Neutral Buoyancy, Zero-Gravity Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
EVA Assembly of Large Space Structure Neutral Buoyancy, Zero-Gravity Simulation: NASA-LaRC Nestable Columns and Joints. The film depicts an extravehicular activity (EVA) that involved the assembly of six 'space-weight' columns into a regular tetrahedral cell by a team of two 'space'-suited test subjects. This cell represents the fundamental 'element' of a tetrahedral truss structure. The tests were conducted under simulated zero-gravity conditions, achieved by neutral buoyancy in water. The cell was assembled on an 'outrigger' assembly aid off the side of a mockup of the Shuttle Orbiter cargo bay. Both manual and simulated remote manipulator system (RMS) modes were evaluated. The simulated RMS was used only to transfer stowed hardware from the cargo bay to the work sites. Articulation limits of the pressure suit and zero gravity could be accommodated by work stations with foot restraints. The results of this study have confirmed that astronaut EVA assembly of large, erectable space structur is well within man's capabilities. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070031008. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov
Zero Gravity Aircraft Testing of a Prototype Portable Fire Extinguisher for Use in Spacecraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butz, J.; Carriere, T.; Abbud-Madrid, A.; Easton, J.
2012-01-01
For the past five years ADA Technologies has been developing a portable fire extinguisher (PFE) for use in microgravity environments. This technology uses fine water mist (FWM) to effectively and efficiently extinguish fires representative of spacecraft hazards. Recently the FWM PFE was flown on a Zero-G (reduced gravity) aircraft to validate the performance of the technology in a microgravity environment. Test results demonstrated that droplet size distributions generated in the reduced gravity environment were in the same size range as data collected during normal gravity (1-g) discharges from the prototype PFE. Data taken in an obscured test configuration showed that the mist behind the obstacle was more dense in the low-g environment when compared to 1-g discharges. The mist behind the obstacle tended to smaller droplet sizes in both the low-g and 1-g test conditions.
Keyhole and weld shapes for plasma arc welding under normal and zero gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keanini, R. G.; Rubinsky, B.
1990-01-01
A first order study of the interfacial (keyhole) shape between a penetrating argon plasma arc jet and a stationary liquid metal weld pool is presented. The interface is determined using the Young-Laplace equation by assuming that the plasma jet behaves as a one-dimensional ideal gas flow and by neglecting flow within the weld pool. The solution for the keyhole shape allows an approximate determination of the liquid-solid metal phase boundary location based on the assumption that the liquid melt is a stagnant thermal boundary layer. Parametric studies examine the effect of plasma mass flow rate, initial plasma enthalpy, liquid metal surface tension, and jet shear on weldment shape under both normal and zero gravity. Among the more important findings of this study is that keyhole and weld geometries are minimally affected by gravity, suggesting that data gathered under gravity can be used in planning in-space welding.
Digital holographic microscopy for the cytomorphological imaging of cells under zero gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toy, M. Fatih; Richard, Stephane; Kühn, Jonas; Franco-Obregón, Alfredo; Egli, Marcel; Depeursinge, Christian
2012-03-01
Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) has been gaining interest from cell biology community because of its label free nature and quantitative phase signal output. Besides, fast shutter time, image reconstruction by numerical propagation of the wave fields, and numerical compensation of the aberrations are other intrinsic advantages of this technique that can be explored for harsh imaging conditions. In the frame of this work, a transmission type DHM is developed with a decoupled epifluorescence microscopy mode for cytomorphological monitoring under zero gravity and hyper gravity. With the implemented automatic post processing routines, real time observation of the cell morphology is proven to be feasible under the influence of mechanical disturbances of zero gravity platforms. Post processing of holograms is composed from dynamic numerical compensation of holograms, robust autofocusing and phase image registration. Experiments on live myoblast cells are carried out on two different platforms; random positioning machine (RPM), a ground base microgravity simulation platform, and parabolic flight campaign (PFC), a fixed wing plane flight providing short durations of alternating gravity conditions. Results show clear perinuclear phase increase. During seconds scale microgravity exposure, measurable scale morphological modifications are observed with the accumulated effect of repetitive exposures and short breaks.
Aerosol deposition along the respiratory tract at zero gravity: a theoretical study
Lehnert, B.E.; Smith, D.M.; Holland, L.M.; Tillery, M.I.; Thomas, R.G.
1984-01-01
Significant fractions of airborne particles composing inhaled aerosols can deposit along the respiratory tract during breathing. Depending on the environmental condition, some particles that enter the body via the respiratory route can pose health hazards. On earth, three general rate mechanisms are active in this deposition process: (1) inertial impaction; (2) diffusion; and (3) gravity-dependent sedimentation. Space craft, stations, and bases represent unique settings where potentially pathogenic aerosols may be encountered under the unique condition of zero or reduced gravity. The present study was undertaken in order to predict how particle deposition in the human respiratory tract at zero gravity may differ from that on earth. We employed the aerosol deposition model of the Task Group on Lung Dynamics to assess the regional deposition of particles ranging from 0.01 to 10 ..mu..m diameter at two particulate densities, 1 and 4, during simulated tidal breathing and breathing during moderate - heavy exercise. Our results suggest the gas exchange regions of the lungs of space travelers and residents are afforded some protection, relative to their earth-bound counterparts, against the deposition of particles due to the absence of gravity; and approximately 2 to 10 fold reduction in the efficiency of collection of particles > 0.5 ..mu..m in diameter occurred in the pulmonary region during resting conditions and exercise. Deposition along the tracheobronchial tree, however, is not markedly altered in the absence of gravity, indicating airway sites contributing to this structure remain susceptible to insults by inhaled aerosols. 18 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.
Behavior of the lean methane-air flame at zero-gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noe, K. A.; Strehlow, R. A.
1985-01-01
A special rig was designed and constructed to be compatible with the NASA Lewis Research Center Airborne Research Laboratory to allow the study of the effect of gravity on the behavior of lean limit in a standard 50.4 mm (2 in.) internal diameter tube when the mixtures are ignited at the open end and propagate towards the closed end of the tube. The lean limit at zero gravity was found to be 5.10% methane and the flame was found to extenguish in a manner previously observed for downward propagating flames at one g. It was observed that g-jitter could be maintained at less than + or 0.04 g on most zero g trajectories. All of propagating lean limit flames were found to be sporadically cellularly unstable at zero g. There was no observable correlation between the occurrence of g-jitter and the lean limit, average propagation speed of the flame through the tube or the occurrence of cellular instability.
G. Quznetsov
2011-06-12
You shall not find any new physics, because all physical events are interpreted well-known particles (leptons, quarks, photons, gluons, W-bosons, Z-boson) and forces which have long known (electroweak, gravity, strong interactions). Contents: 1. Pointlike events and probability. 2. Leptons' moving equations and masses. 3. Fermion-antifermion asommetry. 4. Electroweak equations. 5. Chromatic states and gluons. 6. Asimptotic freedom, confinement, Newton's gravity. 7. Dark energy and dark matter. 8. Events and particles. 9. Conclusion.
Subject Load-Harness Interaction During Zero-Gravity Treadmill Exercise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McCrory, Jean L.; Baron, Heidi A.; Derr, Janice A.; Davis, Brian L.; Cavanagh, Peter R.
1996-01-01
When astronauts exercise on orbit, a subject load device (SLD) must be used to return the subject back to the supporting surface. The load in the SLD needs to be transferred the body by a harness which typically distributes this load between the pelvis and We shoulders. Through the use of a zero-gravity simulator, this research compared subject comfort and ground reaction forces during treadmill running at three levels of subject load (60%,80%, and 100% of body weight) in two harness designs ("shoulder only" and "waist "and shoulder ").
Zero-Gravity Locomotion Simulators: New Ground-Based Analogs for Microgravity Exercise Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perusek, Gail P.; DeWitt, John K.; Cavanagh, Peter R.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Gilkey, Kelly M.
2007-01-01
Maintaining health and fitness in crewmembers during space missions is essential for preserving performance for mission-critical tasks. NASA's Exercise Countermeasures Project (ECP) provides space exploration exercise hardware and monitoring requirements that lead to devices that are reliable, meet medical, vehicle, and habitat constraints, and use minimal vehicle and crew resources. ECP will also develop and validate efficient exercise prescriptions that minimize daily time needed for completion of exercise yet maximize performance for mission activities. In meeting these mission goals, NASA Glenn Research Center (Cleveland, OH, USA), in collaboration with the Cleveland Clinic (Cleveland, Ohio, USA), has developed a suite of zero-gravity locomotion simulators and associated technologies to address the need for ground-based test analog capability for simulating in-flight (microgravity) and surface (partial-gravity) exercise to advance the health and safety of astronaut crews and the next generation of space explorers. Various research areas can be explored. These include improving crew comfort during exercise, and understanding joint kinematics and muscle activation pattern differences relative to external loading mechanisms. In addition, exercise protocol and hardware optimization can be investigated, along with characterizing system dynamic response and the physiological demand associated with advanced exercise device concepts and performance of critical mission tasks for Exploration class missions. Three zero-gravity locomotion simulators are currently in use and the research focus for each will be presented. All of the devices are based on a supine subject suspension system, which simulates a reduced gravity environment by completely or partially offloading the weight of the exercising test subject s body. A platform for mounting treadmill is positioned perpendicularly to the test subject. The Cleveland Clinic Zero-g Locomotion Simulator (ZLS) utilizes a pneumatic subject load device to apply a near constant gravity-replacement load to the test subject during exercise, and is currently used in conjunction with the General Clinical Research Center for evaluating exercise protocols using a bedrest analog. The enhanced ZLS (eZLS) at NASA Glenn Research Center features an offloaded treadmill that floats on a thin film of air and interfaces to a force reaction frame via variably-compliant isolators, or vibration isolation system. The isolators can be configured to simulate compliant interfaces to the vehicle, which affects mechanical loading to crewmembers during exercise, and has been used to validate system dynamic models for new countermeasures equipment designs, such as the second International Space Station treadmill slated for use in 2010. In the eZLS, the test subject and exercise device can be pitched at the appropriate angle for partial gravity simulations, such as lunar gravity (1/6th earth gravity). On both the eZLS and the NASA-Johnson Space Center standalone ZLS installed at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston, Texas, USA, the subject's body weight relative to the treadmill is controlled via a linear motor subject load device (LM-SLD). The LM-SLD employs a force-feedback closed-loop control system to provide a relatively constant force to the test subject during locomotion, and is set and verified for subject safety prior to each session. Locomotion data were collected during parabolic flight and on the eZLS. The purpose was to determine the similarities and differences between locomotion in actual and simulated microgravity. Subjects attained greater amounts of hip flexion during walking and running during parabolic flight. During running, subjects had greater hip range of motion. Trunk motion was significantly less on the eZLS than during parabolic flight. Peak impact forces, loading rate, and impulse were greater on the eZLS than during parabolic while walking with a low external load (EL) and rning with a high EL. Activation timing differences existed between locations in all muscles excep
Assessment of zero gravity effects on space worker health and safety
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1980-01-01
One objective of the study is to assess the effects of all currently known deviations from normal of medical, physiological, and biochemical parameters which appear to be due to zero gravity (zero-g) environment and to acceleration and deceleration to be experienced, as outlined in the references Solar Power Satellites (SPS) design, by space worker. Study results include identification of possible health or safety effects on space workers either immediate or delayed due to the zero gravity environment and acceleration and deceleration; estimation of the probability that an individual will be adversely affected; description of the possible consequence to work efficiency in persons adversely affected; and description of the possible/probable consequences to immediate and future health of individuals exposed to this environment. A research plan, which addresses the uncertainties in current knowledge regarding the health and safety hazards to exposed SPS space workers, is presented. Although most adverse affects experienced during space flight soon disappeared upon return to the Earth's environment, there remains a definite concern for the long-term effects to SPS space workers who might spend as much as half their time in space during a possible five year career period. The proposed 90 day up/90 day down cycle, coupled with the fact that most of the effects of weightlessness may persist throughout the flight along with the realization that recovery may occupy much of the terrestrial stay, may keep the SPS workers in a deviant physical condition or state of flux for 60 to 100% of their five year career.
Assessment of zero gravity effects on space worker health and safety
Not Available
1980-11-01
One objective of the study is to assess the effects of all currently known deviations from normal of medical, physiological, and biochemical parameters which appear to be due to zero gravity (zero-g) environment and to acceleration and deceleration to be experienced, as outlined in the reference Solar Power Satellite (SPS) design, by space worker. Study results include identification of possible health or safety effects on space workers - either immediate or delayed - due to the zero gravity environment and acceleration and deceleration; estimation of the probability that an individual will be adversely affected; description of the possible consequence to work efficiently in persons adversely affected; and description of the possible/probable consequences to immediate and future health of individuals exposed to this environment. A research plan, which addresses the uncertainties in current knowledge regarding the health and safety hazards to exposed SPS space workers, is presented. Although most adverse affects experienced during space flight soon disappeared upon return to the Earth's environment, there remains a definite concern for the long-term effects to SPS space workers who might spend as much as half their time in space during a possible five-year career period. The proposed 90-day up/90 day down cycle, coupled with the fact that most of the effects of weightlessness may persist throughout the flight along with the realization that recovery may occupy much of the terrestrial stay, may keep the SPS workers in a deviant physical condition or state of flux for 60 to 100% of their five-year career. (JGB)
STS-42 closeup view shows SE 81-09 Convection in Zero Gravity experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1992-01-01
STS-42 closeup view shows Student Experiment 81-09 (SE 81-09), Convection in Zero Gravity experiment, with radial pattern caused by convection induced by heating an oil and aluminum powder mixture in the weightlessness of space. While the STS-42 crewmembers activated the Shuttle Student Involvement Program (SSIP) experiment on Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, middeck, Scott Thomas, the student who designed the experiment, was able to observe the procedures via downlinked television (TV) in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC). Thomas, now a physics doctoral student at the University of Texas, came up with the experiment while he participated in the SSIP as a student at Richland High School in Johnstown, Pennsylvia.
Early cardiovascular adaptation to zero gravity simulated by head-down tilt.
Blomqvist, C G; Nixon, J V; Johnson, R L; Mitchell, J H
1980-01-01
The early cardiovascular adaptation to zero gravity, simulated by head-down tilt at 5 degrees, was studied in a series of 10 normal young men. The validity of the model was confirmed by comparing the results with data from Apollo and Skylab flights. Tilt produced a significant central fluid shift with a transient increase in central venous pressure, later followed by an increase in left ventricular size without changes in cardiac output, arterial pressure, or contractile state. The hemodynamic changes were transient with a nearly complete return to the control state within 6 hr. The adaptation included a diuresis and a decrease in blood volume, associated with ADH, renin and aldosterone inhibition. PMID:11541656
Pressure drop in fully developed, turbulent, liquid-vapor annular flows in zero gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sridhar, K. R.; Chao, B. T.; Soo, S. L.
1992-01-01
The prediction of frictional pressure drop in fully developed, turbulent, annular liquid-vapor flows in zero gravity using simulation experiments conducted on earth is described. The scheme extends the authors' earlier work on dispersed flows. The simulation experiments used two immiscible liquids of identical density, namely, water and n-butyl benzoate. Because of the lack of rigorous analytical models for turbulent, annular flows, the proposed scheme resorts to existing semiempirical correlations. Results based on two different correlations are presented and compared. Others may be used. It was shown that, for both dispersed and annular flow regimes, the predicted frictional pressure gradients in 0-g are lower than those in 1-g under otherwise identical conditions. The physical basis for this finding is given.
Pressure drop in fully developed, turbulent, liquid-vapor annular flows in zero gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sridhar, K. R.; Chao, B. T.; Soo, S. L.
1992-04-01
The prediction of frictional pressure drop in fully developed, turbulent, annular liquid-vapor flows in zero gravity using simulation experiments conducted on earth is described. The scheme extends the authors' earlier work on dispersed flows. The simulation experiments used two immiscible liquids of identical density, namely, water and n-butyl benzoate. Because of the lack of rigorous analytical models for turbulent, annular flows, the proposed scheme resorts to existing semiempirical correlations. Results based on two different correlations are presented and compared. Others may be used. It was shown that, for both dispersed and annular flow regimes, the predicted frictional pressure gradients in 0-g are lower than those in 1-g under otherwise identical conditions. The physical basis for this finding is given.
Human physiological problems in zero gravity - An attempt at understanding through systems analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, R. J.; Croston, R. C.
1974-01-01
When the experimental situation is that of man exposed to a gravitationless environment for varying periods of time, the possible importance and value of a related modeling effort is readily apparent. One of the main objectives of the Skylab Program, with its missions of 28, 59, and 85 day duration concerned biomedical investigations of various types, and large amounts of relevant experimental data have been gathered and are in the process of being sorted and interpreted. In order to be of eventual usefulness in forming and testing consistent physiological hypotheses concerning the effect of zero gravity on man, a modeling effort was established in 1972 through the General Electric Company, Space Division, Houston, Texas. An account is given of some of the developments completed or in progress as part of this modeling effort. A long-term cardiovascular model and a large model of the systemic circulation are discussed.
Myosin heavy chain expression in rodent skeletal muscle: effects of exposure to zero gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haddad, F.; Herrick, R. E.; Adams, G. R.; Baldwin, K. M.
1993-01-01
This study ascertained the effects of 9 days of zero gravity on the relative (percentage of total) and calculated absolute (mg/muscle) content of isomyosin expressed in both antigravity and locomotor skeletal muscle of ground control (CON) and flight-exposed (FL) rats. Results showed that although there were no differences in body weight between FL and CON animals, a significant reduction in muscle mass occurred in the vastus intermedius (VI) (P < 0.05) but not in the vastus lateralis (VL) or the tibialis anterior. Both total muscle protein and myofibril protein content were not different between the muscle regions examined in the FL and CON groups. In the VI, there were trends for reductions in the relative content of type I and IIa myosin heavy chains (MHCs) that were offset by increases in the relative content of both type IIb and possibly type IIx MHC protein (P > 0.05). mRNA levels were consistent with this pattern (P < 0.05). The same pattern held true for the red region of the VL as examined at both the protein and mRNA level (P < 0.05). When the atrophy process was examined, there were net reductions in the absolute content of both type I and IIa MHCs that were offset by calculated increases in type IIb MHC in both VI and red VL. Collectively, these findings suggest that there are both absolute and relative changes occurring in MHC expression in the "red" regions of antigravity skeletal muscle during exposure to zero gravity that could affect muscle function.
Transient boiling heat transfer in saturated liquid nitrogen and F113 at standard and zero gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oker, E.; Merte, H., Jr.
1973-01-01
Transient and steady state nucleate boiling in saturated LN2 and F113 at standard and near zero gravity conditions were investigated for the horizontal up, vertical and horizontal down orientations of the heating surface. Two distinct regimes of heat transfer mechanisms were observed during the interval from the step increase of power input to the onset of nucleate boiling: the conduction and convection dominated regimes. The time duration in each regime was considerably shorter with LN2 than with F113, and decreased as heat flux increased, as gravity was reduced, and as the orientation was changed from horizontal up to horizontal down. In transient boiling, boiling initiates at a single point following the step increase in power, and then spreads over the surface. The delay time for the inception of boiling at the first site, and the velocity of spread of boiling varies depending upon the heat flux, orientation, body force, surface roughness and liquid properties, and are a consequence of changes in boundary layer temperature levels associated with changes in natural convection. Following the step increase in power input, surface temperature overshoot and undershoot occur before the steady state boiling temperature level is established.
A zero-gravity instrument to study low velocity collisions of fragile particles at low temperatures.
Salter, D M; Heisselmann, D; Chaparro, G; van der Wolk, G; Reissaus, P; Borst, A G; Dawson, R W; de Kuyper, E; Drinkwater, G; Gebauer, K; Hutcheon, M; Linnartz, H; Molster, F J; Stoll, B; van der Tuijn, P C; Fraser, H J; Blum, J
2009-07-01
We discuss the design, operation, and performance of a vacuum setup constructed for use in zero (or reduced) gravity conditions to initiate collisions of fragile millimeter-sized particles at low velocity and temperature. Such particles are typically found in many astronomical settings and in regions of planet formation. The instrument has participated in four parabolic flight campaigns to date, operating for a total of 2.4 h in reduced-gravity conditions and successfully recording over 300 separate collisions of loosely packed dust aggregates and ice samples. The imparted particle velocities achieved range from 0.03 to 0.28 m s(-1) and a high-speed, high-resolution camera captures the events at 107 frames/s from two viewing angles separated by either 48.8 degrees or 60.0 degrees. The particles can be stored inside the experiment vacuum chamber at temperatures of 80-300 K for several uninterrupted hours using a built-in thermal accumulation system. The copper structure allows cooling down to cryogenic temperatures before commencement of the experiments. Throughout the parabolic flight campaigns, add-ons and modifications have been made, illustrating the instrument flexibility in the study of small particle collisions. PMID:19655969
Spray Bar Zero-Gravity Vent System for On-Orbit Liquid Hydrogen Storage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Martin, J. J.; Hedayat, A.; Fazah, M.; Lak, T.; Nguyen, H.; Bailey, J. W.
2003-01-01
During zero-gravity orbital cryogenic propulsion operations, a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) concept is expected to maintain tank pressure control without propellant resettling. In this case, a longitudinal spray bar mixer system, coupled with a Joule-Thompson (J-T) valve and heat exchanger, was evaluated in a series of TVS tests using the 18 cu m multipurpose hydrogen test bed. Tests performed at fill levels of 90, 50, and 25 percent, coupled with heat tank leaks of about 20 and 50 W, successfully demonstrated tank pressure control within a 7-kPa band. Based on limited testing, the presence of helium constrained the energy exchange between the gaseous and liquid hydrogen (LH2) during the mixing cycles. A transient analytical model, formulated to characterize TVS performance, was used to correlate the test data. During self-pressurization cycles following tank lockup, the model predicted faster pressure rise rates than were measured; however, once the system entered the cyclic self-pressurization/mixing/venting operational mode, the modeled and measured data were quite similar. During a special test at the 25-percent fill level, the J-T valve was allowed to remain open and successfully reduced the bulk LH2 saturation pressure from 133 to 70 kPa in 188 min.
One Possible Mechanism to Sustain Combustion inside a Closed Region under Zero Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glushko, G. S.; Kryukov, I. A.
2001-03-01
An experimental study carried out aboard the Mirstation showed that a stearin candle can burn for a long time even inside a closed volume without a forced circulation. Such experiments imply that there is some mechanism for a permanent transport of the oxidizer to the flame zone. It can be assumed that a jet of combustion products outflowing along a normal direction with respect to the flame surface produces a vortex motion in the environmental space, which delivers oxygen to the flame zone. To verify the feasibility of combustion to be sustained by such a mechanism, a mathematical statement of the problem of combustion inside a closed region under zero gravity without a forced circulation was formulated. A simplified model was put forward to simulate the combustion of solid and liquid substances, which allowed the effects of chemical reactions to be reduced to boundary conditions. The computations showed that the proposed mechanism of oxygen transport to the flame zone really can sustain an almost stationary regime of combustion.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Musacchia, X. J.
1974-01-01
Pathophysiological conditions resulting from prolonged exposure to zero gravity, cabin constraint, altered ambient environment, whether it be noise, vibrations, high temperatures, or combinations of such factors, are studied in laboratory animals and applied to manned space flight. Results and plans for further study are presented. Specific topics covered include: thermoregulation and its role in reflecting stress and adaptation to the gravity free environment and cabin confinement with its altered circadian forcings; renal function and its measurement in electrolyte distribution and blood flow dynamics; gastronintestinal function and an assessment of altered absorptive capacity in the intestinal mucosa; and catecholamine metabolism in terms of distribution and turnover rates in specific tissues.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dintenfass, L.
1985-01-01
The objectives of this program are: (1) to determine whether the size of red cell aggregates, kinetics and morphology of these aggregates are influenced by near-zero gravity; (2) whether viscosity, especially at low shear rate, is afflicted by near-zero gravity (the latter preventing sedimentation of red cells); (3) whether the actual shape of red cells changes; and (4) whether blood samples obtained from different donors (normal and patients suffering from different disorders) react in the same manner to near-zero gravity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
The film depicts an extravehicular activity (EVA) that involved the assembly of six "space-weight" columns into a regular tetrahedral cell by a team of two "space"-suited test subjects. This cell represents the fundamental "element" of a tetrahedral truss structure. The tests were conducted under simulated zero-gravity conditions, achieved by neutral buoyancy in water. The cell was assembled on an "outrigger" assembly aid off the side of a mockup of the Shuttle Orbiter cargo bay. Both manual and simulated remote manipulator system (RMS) modes were evaluated. The simulated RMS was used only to transfer stowed hardware from the cargo bay to the work sites. Articulation limits of the pressure suit and zero gravity could be accommodated by work stations with foot restraints. The results of this study have confirmed that astronaut EVA assembly of large, erectable space structur is well within man's capabilities.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spooner, Brian S.; Guikema, James A.; Barnes, Grady
1990-01-01
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a single-chain polypeptide which is synthesized by the liver and yolk sac of the human fetus, provided a model ligand for assessing the effects of microgravity on ligand binding to surface-immobilized model receptor molecules. Monoclonal antibodies, used as receptors for AFP, were immobilized by covalent attachment to latex microparticles. Zero gravity environment was obtained by parabolic flight aboard NASA 930, a modified KC-135 aircraft. Buring the onset of an episode of zero gravity, ligand and receptor were mixed. Timed incubation (20 s) was terminated by centrifugation, the supernatant removed, and microparticies were assessed for bound AFP by immunochemical methods. The extent of binding was not influenced by microgravity, when compared with 1-G controls, which suggests that aberrant cellular activities observed in microgravity are not the simple expression of altered macromolecular interactions.
Substrate oxidation capacity in rodent skeletal muscle: effects of exposure to zero gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baldwin, K. M.; Herrick, R. E.; McCue, S. A.
1993-01-01
A study was conducted, as part of the integrated National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Life Sciences 1 mission flown in June of 1991, to ascertain the effects of 9 days of exposure to zero gravity on the capacity of rodent skeletal muscle fiber types to oxidize either [14C]pyruvate or [14C]palmitate under state 3 metabolic conditions, i.e., nonlimiting amounts of substrate and cofactors. In addition, activity levels of marker enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, malate shuttle, and beta-oxidation were measured. Results showed that significant differences in muscle weight occurred in both the predominantly slow vastus intermedius and predominantly fast vastus lateralis of flight vs. control groups (P < 0.05). Total protein content of the muscle samples was similar between groups. Both pyruvate oxidation capacity and the marker oxidative enzymes were not altered in the flight relative to control animals. However, the capacity to oxidize long-chain fatty acids was significantly reduced by 37% in both the high- and low-oxidative regions of the vastus muscle (P < 0.05). Although these findings of a selective reduction in fatty acid oxidation capacity in response to spaceflight are surprising, they are consistent with previous findings showing 1) an increased capacity to take up glucose and upregulate glucose transporter proteins and 2) a marked accumulation of triglycerides in the skeletal muscles of rats subjected to states of unloading. Thus, skeletal muscle of animals exposed to non-weight-bearing environments undergo subcellular transformations that may preferentially bias energy utilization to carbohydrates.
Effects of zero gravity on myofibril content and isomyosin distribution in rodent skeletal muscle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baldwin, K. M.; Herrick, R. E.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E.; Oganov, V. S.
1990-01-01
The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effects of 12.5 days of zero gravity (0 g) exposure (Cosmos 1887 Biosputnik) on the enzymatic properties, protein content, and isomyosin distribution of the myofibril fraction of the slow-twitch vastus intermedius (VI) and the fast-twitch vastus lateralis (VL) muscles of adult male rats. Measurements were obtained on three experimental groups (n = 5 each group) designated as flight group (FG), vivarium control (VC), and synchronous control (SC). Body weight of the FG was significantly lower than that of the two control groups (P less than 0.05). Compared with the two control groups, VI weight was lower by 23% (P less than 0.10), whereas no such pattern was apparent for the VL muscle. Myofibril yields (mg protein/g muscle) in the VI were 35% lower in the FG than in controls (P less than 0.05), whereas no such pattern was apparent for the VL muscle. When myofibril yields were expressed on a muscle basis (mg/g x muscle weight), the loss of myofibril protein was more exaggerated and suggests that myofibril protein degradation is an early event in the muscle atrophy response to 0 g. Analysis of myosin isoforms indicated that slow myosin (Sm) was the primary isoform lost in the calculated degradation of total myosin. No evidence of loss of the fast isomyosins was apparent for either muscle following spaceflight. Myofibril ATPase activity of the VI was increased in the FG compared with controls, which is consistent with the observation of preferential Sm degradation. These data suggest that muscles containing a high percentage of slow-twitch fibers undergo greater degrees of myofibril protein degradation than muscles containing predominantly fast-twitch fibers in response to a relatively short period of 0 g exposure, and the primary target appears to be the Sm molecule.
Equilibrium fluid interface behavior under low- and zero-gravity conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert
1994-01-01
We describe here some of our recent mathematical work, which forms a basis for the Interface Configuration Experiment scheduled for USML-2. The work relates to the design of apparatus that exploits microgravity conditions for accurate determination of contact angle. The underlying motivation for the procedures rests on a discontinuous dependence of the capillary free surface interface S on the contact angle gamma, in a cylindrical capillary tube whose section (base) omega contains a protruding corner with opening angle 2 alpha. Specifically, in a gravity-free environment, omega can be chosen so that, for all sufficiently large fluid volume, the height of S is uniquely determined as a (single-valued) function mu(x,y) entirely covering the base; the height mu is bounded over omega uniformly in gamma throughout the range absolute value of (gamma -(pion/2)) less than or equal to alpha, while for absolute value of (gamma - (pion/2)) greater than alpha fluid will necessarily move to the corner and uncover the base, rising to infinity (or falling to negative infinity) at the vertex, regardless of volume. We mention here only that procedures based on the phenomenon promise excellent accuracy when gamma is close pion/2 but may be subject to experimental error when gamma is close to zero (orpion), as the 'singular' part of the domain over which the fluid accumulates (or disappears) when a critical angle gamma theta is crossed then becomes very small and may be difficult to observe. We ignore the trivial case gamma is equal to pion/2 (planar free surface), to simplify the discussion.
Processing yttrium-barium-copper oxide superconductor zero gravity using a double float zone surface
Pettit, D.R.; Peterson, D.E.; Kubat-Martin, K.A.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.; Coulter, Y.; Day, D.E.
1997-04-01
The effects of processing YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (Y123) superconductor in the near-zero gravity (0g) environment provided by the NASA KC-135 airplane flying on parabolic trajectories were studied. A new sheet float zone furnace, designed for this study, enabled fast temperature ramps. Up to an 18-gram sample was processed with each parabola. Samples of Y123 were processed as bulk sheets, composites containing Ag and Pd, and films deposited on single crystal Si and MgO substrates. The 0g-processed samples were multi-phase yet retained a localized Y123 stoichiometry where a single ground-based (1g) oxygen anneal at temperatures of 800 C recovered nearly 100-volume percent superconducting Y123. The 1g processed control samples remained multi-phase after the same ground-based anneal with less than 45 volume percent as superconducting Y123. The superconducting transition temperature was 91 K for both 0g and 1g processed samples. A 29 wt.% Ag/Y123 composite had a transition temperature of 93 K. Melt texturing of bulk Y123 in 0g produced aligned grains about a factor of three larger than in analogous 1g samples. Transport critical current densities were at or below 18 A/cm{sup 2}, due to the formation of cracks caused by the rapid heating rates required by the short time at 0g. Y123 deposited on single crystal Si and MgO in 0g was 30 vol.% y123 without an anneal. A weak superconducting transition at 80 K on MgO showed that substrate interactions occurred.
Hill, Richard J. A.; Larkin, Oliver J.; Dijkstra, Camelia E.; Manzano, Ana I.; de Juan, Emilio; Davey, Michael R.; Anthony, Paul; Eaves, Laurence; Medina, F. Javier; Marco, Roberto; Herranz, Raul
2012-01-01
Understanding the effects of gravity on biological organisms is vital to the success of future space missions. Previous studies in Earth orbit have shown that the common fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster) walks more quickly and more frequently in microgravity, compared with its motion on Earth. However, flight preparation procedures and forces endured on launch made it difficult to implement on the Earth's surface a control that exposed flies to the same sequence of major physical and environmental changes. To address the uncertainties concerning these behavioural anomalies, we have studied the walking paths of D. melanogaster in a pseudo-weightless environment (0g*) in our Earth-based laboratory. We used a strong magnetic field, produced by a superconducting solenoid, to induce a diamagnetic force on the flies that balanced the force of gravity. Simultaneously, two other groups of flies were exposed to a pseudo-hypergravity environment (2g*) and a normal gravity environment (1g*) within the spatially varying field. The flies had a larger mean speed in 0g* than in 1g*, and smaller in 2g*. The mean square distance travelled by the flies grew more rapidly with time in 0g* than in 1g*, and slower in 2g*. We observed no other clear effects of the magnetic field, up to 16.5 T, on the walks of the flies. We compare the effect of diamagnetically simulated weightlessness with that of weightlessness in an orbiting spacecraft, and identify the cause of the anomalous behaviour as the altered effective gravity. PMID:22219396
Hill, Richard J A; Larkin, Oliver J; Dijkstra, Camelia E; Manzano, Ana I; de Juan, Emilio; Davey, Michael R; Anthony, Paul; Eaves, Laurence; Medina, F Javier; Marco, Roberto; Herranz, Raul
2012-07-01
Understanding the effects of gravity on biological organisms is vital to the success of future space missions. Previous studies in Earth orbit have shown that the common fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster) walks more quickly and more frequently in microgravity, compared with its motion on Earth. However, flight preparation procedures and forces endured on launch made it difficult to implement on the Earth's surface a control that exposed flies to the same sequence of major physical and environmental changes. To address the uncertainties concerning these behavioural anomalies, we have studied the walking paths of D. melanogaster in a pseudo-weightless environment (0g*) in our Earth-based laboratory. We used a strong magnetic field, produced by a superconducting solenoid, to induce a diamagnetic force on the flies that balanced the force of gravity. Simultaneously, two other groups of flies were exposed to a pseudo-hypergravity environment (2g*) and a normal gravity environment (1g*) within the spatially varying field. The flies had a larger mean speed in 0g* than in 1g*, and smaller in 2g*. The mean square distance travelled by the flies grew more rapidly with time in 0g* than in 1g*, and slower in 2g*. We observed no other clear effects of the magnetic field, up to 16.5 T, on the walks of the flies. We compare the effect of diamagnetically simulated weightlessness with that of weightlessness in an orbiting spacecraft, and identify the cause of the anomalous behaviour as the altered effective gravity. PMID:22219396
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
Earth's gravity holds the Shuttle in orbit, as it does satellites and the Moon. The apparent weightlessness experienced by astronauts and experiments on the Shuttle is a balancing act, the result of free-fall, or continuously falling around Earth. An easy way to visualize what is happening is with a thought experiment that Sir Isaac Newton did in 1686. Newton envisioned a mountain extending above Earth's atmosphere so that friction with the air would be eliminated. He imagined a cannon atop the mountain and aimed parallel to the ground. Firing the cannon propels the cannonball forward. At the same time, Earth's gravity pulls the cannonball down to the surface and eventual impact. Newton visualized using enough powder to just balance gravity so the cannonball would circle the Earth. Like the cannonball, objects orbiting Earth are in continuous free-fall, and it appears that gravity has been eliminated. Yet, that appearance is deceiving. Activities aboard the Shuttle generate a range of accelerations that have effects similar to those of gravity. The crew works and exercises. The main data relay antenna quivers 17 times per second to prevent 'stiction,' where parts stick then release with a jerk. Cooling pumps, air fans, and other systems add vibration. And traces of Earth's atmosphere, even 200 miles up, drag on the Shuttle. While imperceptible to us, these vibrations can have a profound impact on the commercial research and scientific experiments aboard the Shuttle. Measuring these forces is necessary so that researchers and scientists can see what may have affected their experiments when analyzing data. On STS-107 this service is provided by the Space Acceleration Measurement System for Free Flyers (SAMS-FF) and the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE). Precision data from these two instruments will help scientists analyze data from their experiments and eliminate outside influences from the phenomena they are studying during the mission.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilcox, W. R.; Subramanian, R. S.; Meyyappan, M.; Smith, H. D.; Mattox, D. M.; Partlow, D. P.
1981-01-01
Thermal fining, thermal migration of bubbles under reduced gravity conditions, and data to verify current theoretical models of bubble location and temperatures as a function of time are discussed. A sample, sodium borate glass, was tested during 5 to 6 minutes of zero gravity during rocket flight. The test cell contained a heater strip; thermocouples were in the sample. At present quantitative data are insufficient to confirm results of theoretical calculations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nelson, T. E.; Peterson, J. R.
1982-01-01
The flight responses of common houseflies, velvetbean caterpillar moths, and worker honeybees were observed and filmed for a period of about 25 minutes in a zero-g environment during the third flight of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (flight number STS-3; March 22-30, 1982). Twelve fly puparia, 24 adult moths, 24 moth pupae, and 14 adult bees were loaded into an insect flight box, which was then stowed aboard the Shuttle Orbiter, the night before the STS-3 launch at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The main purpose of the experiment was to observe and compare the flight responses of the three species of insects, which have somewhat different flight control mechanisms, under zero-g conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bailey, J. A.
1976-01-01
Project planning for two series of simple experiments on the effect of zero gravity on the melting and freezing of metals and nonmetals is described. The experiments will be performed in the Long Duration Exposure Facility, and their purpose will be to study: (1) the general morphology of metals and nonmetals during solidification, (2) the location of ullage space (liquid-vapor interfaces), and (3) the magnitude of surface tension driven convection during solidification of metals and nonmetals. The preliminary design of the experiments is presented. Details of the investigative approach, experimental procedure, experimental hardware, data reduction and analysis, and anticipated results are given. In addition a work plan and cost analysis are provided.
KC-135 zero-gravity two-phase flow pressure drop experiments and modelling
Lambert, Anne
1990-01-01
in magnitude between the 0-g and 1-g conditions. A quantitative study of the pressure drop data was not included, but authors concluded that gravity influences pressure drop because it influences flow regime. In 1987, Sundstrand Energy Systems [7] [8] built... by an average factor of 20 %. In January 1989, Chen and Downing [8] used the experimental data from the Sundstrand project to study pressure drop modeling under microgravity conditions in more detail. They confirmed that pressure drops in two-phase flow...
Manual control in space research on perceptual-motor functions under zero gravity conditions (L-10)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tada, Akira
1993-01-01
Are human abilities to control vehicles and other machines the same in space as those on Earth? The L-10 Manual Control Experiment of the First Materials Processing Tests (FMPT) started from this question. Suppose a pilot has the task to align the head of a space vehicle toward a target. His actions are to look at the target, to determine the vehicle movement, and to operate the manipulator. If the activity of the nervous system were the same as on Earth, the movements, of the eye and hand would become excessive because the muscles do not have to oppose gravity. The timing and amount of movement must be arranged for appropriate actions. The sensation of motion would also be affected by the loss of gravity because the mechanism of the otolith, the major acceleration sensor, depends on gravity. The possible instability of the sensation of direction may cause mistakes in the direction of control of manipulator movement. Thus, the experimental data can be used for designing man-machine systems in space, as well as for investigation of physiological mechanisms. In this experiment, the direction of vehicle heading is expressed by a light spot on an array of light emitting diodes and the manipulator is of a finger stick type. As the light spot moves up and down, the Japanese Payload Specialist, and the subject, must move the manipulator forward and backward to keep the movement of the light spot within the neighborhood of the central point of the display. The position of the light spot is computed in such a manner that when the stick is kept at the neutral position, a motion whose acceleration is proportional to the angle of deflection is added to the movement of the light spot. The Operator Describing Function, which is an expression of human control characteristics, can be calculated from 2 minutes of raw data of the light spot position and stick deflection. The 2 minutes of operation is called a run, and 8 runs with resting periods composes a session. The on-orbit experiment will be conducted on the second, fourth, and seventh days. One session of experiment of each of these days is conducted following the L-4 experiment, which uses the same apparatus. The Payload Specialist, aided by a Mission Specialist, will take our apparatus from a rack container, set up the apparatus, attach electrodes for measurements of eye movement and muscle activity, conduct the L-4 Visual Stability Experiment, conduct one session of the manual control experiment, and then dissemble and stow the apparatus. In addition to the flight experiment, pre-flight and post-flight experiments will be conducted. The data of three sessions on orbit will reflect adaption of physiological systems to microgravity. The data of post-flight experiments, on the other hand, will reflect re-adaptation of physiological systems to the gravity condition on the ground. Control data collected with and without psychological tension will be scheduled just prior to and long before launch.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eaton, L. R.; Greco, R. V.; Hollinden, A. B.
1973-01-01
The candidate definition studies on the zero-g cloud physics laboratory are covered. This laboratory will be an independent self-contained shuttle sortie payload. Several critical technology areas have been identified and studied to assure proper consideration in terms of engineering requirements for the final design. Areas include chambers, gas and particle generators, environmental controls, motion controls, change controls, observational techniques, and composition controls. This unique laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamics, electrical, or other type techniques to support the object under study. This report also covers the candidate experiment definitions, chambers and experiment classes, laboratory concepts and plans, special supporting studies, early flight opportunities and payload planning data for overall shuttle payload requirements assessments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tipton, Charles M.
1991-01-01
The primary purpose of this research is to study the physiological mechanisms associated with the exercise performance of rats subjected to conditions of simulated weightlessness. A secondary purpose is to study related physiological changes associated with other systems. To facilitate these goals, a rodent suspension model was developed (Overton-Tipton) and a VO2 max testing procedure was perfected. Three methodological developments occurred during this past year deserving of mention. The first was the refinement of the tail suspension model so that (1) the heat dissipation functions of the caudal artery can be better utilized, and (2) the blood flow distribution to the tail would have less external constriction. The second was the development on a one-leg weight bearing model for use in simulated weightlessness studies concerned with change in muscle mass, muscle enzyme activity, and hind limb blood flow. The chemical body composition of 30 rats was determined and used to develop a prediction equation for percent fat using underwater weighing procedures to measure carcass specific gravity and to calculate body density, body fat, and fat free mass.
A zero-gravity demonstration of the collision and coalescence of water droplets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, R. J.; Vaughan, O. H.; Smith, R. E.
1974-01-01
The mechanics of the collision and coalescence of liquid droplets is one of the main research areas in the fields of nuclear physics, astrophysics, meteorology and fluid mechanics. The crew members on the Skylab 3 and 4 missions were requested to perform demonstrations of the collision and coalescence of water droplets under the low gravity environment at orbital altitude. In Skylab 4 two water droplets with equal volumes, 30 cu cm each, were used. A dark colored droplet (contaminated with grape drink) moving with a velocity of 3.14 cm/sec collided with a stationary pink colored droplet (contaminated with strawberry drink) and coalescence occurred. Theoretical models are proposed to study the various stages of the collision-coalescence processes. Special considerations are concentrated in the investigation of the bounce-coalescence and coalescence-instability processes. The surface tension of the coalesced droplets was calculated to be 52 dynes/cm in perfect agreement with laboratory measurements made after the flight using a reproduction of the liquids.
Test Data Analysis of a Spray Bar Zero-Gravity Liquid Hydrogen Vent System for Upper Stages
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hedayat, A.; Bailey, J. W.; Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.
2003-01-01
To support development of a zero-gravity pressure control capability for liquid hydrogen (LH2), a series of thermodynamic venting system (TVS) tests was conducted in 1996 and 1998 using the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) multipurpose hydrogen test bed (MHTB). These tests were performed with ambient heat leaks =20 and 50 W for tank fill levels of 90%, 50%, and 25%. TVS performance testing revealed that the spray bar was highly effective in providing tank pressure control within a 7-kPa band (131-138 Wa), and complete destratification of the liquid and the ullage was achieved with all test conditions. Seven of the MHTB tests were correlated with the TVS performance analytical model. The tests were selected to encompass the range of tank fill levels, ambient heat leaks, operational modes, and ullage pressurants. The TVS model predicted ullage pressure and temperature and bulk liquid saturation pressure and temperature obtained from the TVS model were compared with the test data. During extended self-pressurization periods, following tank lockup, the model predicted faster pressure rise rates than were measured. However, once the system entered the cyclic mixing/venting operational mode, the modeled and measured data were quite similar.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Struckmeier, Jens; Tenbosch, Jochen; Klopp, Erk; Born, Matthias; Hofmann, Martin R.; Jones, David B.
2000-04-01
We introduce a compact and portable photometric system for measurements of the calcium dynamics in cells. The photometer is designed for applications in centrifuges or in zero-gravity environment and thus extremely compact and reliable. It operates with the calcium-sensitive dye Indo-1. The excitation wavelength of 345nm is generated by frequency doubling of a laser diode. Two compact photomultiplier tubes detect the fluorescent emission. The electronics provides the sensitivity of photon counting combined with simultaneous measurement of the temperature, of air pressure, and of gravitational force. Internal data storage during the experiment is possible. A newly developed cell chamber stabilizes the cell temperature to 37.0 percent C +/- 0.1 degree C and includes a perfusion system to supply the cells with medium. The system has a modular set-up providing the possibility to change light source and detectors for investigation of other ions than calcium. Quantitative measurements of the intracellular calcium concentration are based on a comprehensive calibration of our system. First experiments show that the calcium dynamics of osteosarcoma cells stimulated by parathyroid hormone is observable.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gatos, H. C.; Witt, A. F.; Lichtensteiger, M.; Herman, C. J.
1982-01-01
The crystal growth and segregation characteristics of a melt in a directional solidification configuration under near zero g conditions were investigated. The germanium (doped with gallium) system was selected because it was extensively studied on Earth and because it lends itself to a very detailed macroscopic and microscopic characterization. An extensive study was performed of the germanium crystals grown during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. It was found that single crystal growth was achieved and that the interface demarcation functioned successfully. On the basis of the results obtained to date, there is no indication that convection driven by thermal or surface tension gradients was present in the melt. The gallium segregation, in the absence of gravity, was found to be fundamentally different in its initial and its subsequent stages from that of the ground based tests. None of the existing theoretical models for growth and segregation can account for the observed segregation behavior in the absence of gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poisson, Eric; Will, Clifford M.
2014-05-01
Preface; 1. Foundations of Newtonian gravity; 2. Structure of self-gravitating bodies; 3. Newtonian orbital dynamics; 4. Minkowski spacetime; 5. Curved spacetime; 6. Post-Minkowskian theory: formulation; 7. Post-Minkowskian theory: implementation; 8. Post-Newtonian theory: fundamentals; 9. Post-Newtonian theory: system of isolated bodies; 10. Post-Newtonian celestial mechanics, astrometry and navigation; 11. Gravitational waves; 12. Radiative losses and radiation reaction; 13. Alternative theories of gravity; References; Index.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolf, David A.; Schwarz, Ray P.
1991-01-01
The gravity induced motions, through the culture media, is calculated of living tissue segments cultured in the NASA rotating zero head space culture vessels. This is then compared with the media perfusion speed which is independent of gravity. The results may be interpreted as a change in the physical environment which will occur by operating the NASA tissue culture systems in actual microgravity (versus unit gravity). The equations governing particle motions which induce flows at the surface of tissues contain g terms. This allows calculation of the fluid flow speed, with respect to a cultured particle, as a function of the external gravitational field strength. The analysis is approached from a flow field perspective. Flow is proportional to the shear exerted on a structure which maintains position within the field. The equations are solved for the deviation of a particle from its original position in a circular streamline as a function of time. The radial deviation is important for defining the operating limits and dimensions of the vessel because of the finite radius at which particles necessarily intercept the wall. This analysis uses a rotating reference frame concept.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, Warren F.
1989-01-01
The results obtained show that it is possible to control light-weight robots with flexible links in a manner that produces good response time and does not induce unacceptable link vibrations. However, deflections induced by gravity cause large static position errors with such a control system. For this reason, it is not possible to use this control system for controlling motion in the direction of gravity. The control system does, on the other hand, have potential for use in space. However, in-space experiments will be needed to verify its applicability to robots moving in three dimensions.
Liouville gravity from Einstein gravity
D. Grumiller; R. Jackiw
2007-12-28
We show that Liouville gravity arises as the limit of pure Einstein gravity in 2+epsilon dimensions as epsilon goes to zero, provided Newton's constant scales with epsilon. Our procedure - spherical reduction, dualization, limit, dualizing back - passes several consistency tests: geometric properties, interactions with matter and the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy are as expected from Einstein gravity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Darbro, W.
1978-01-01
In an experiment in space it was found that when a cubical frame was slowly withdrawn from a soap solution, the wire frame retained practically a full cube of liquid. Removed from the frame (by shaking), the faces of the cube became progressively more concave, until adjacent faces became tangential. In the present paper a mathematical model describing the shape a liquid takes due to its surface tension while suspended on a wire frame in zero-g is solved by use of Lagrange multipliers. It is shown how the configuration of soap films so bounded is dependent upon the volume of liquid trapped in the films. A special case of the solution is a soap film naturally formed on a cubical wire frame.
Zero-gravity Mean Free Surface Curvature of a Confined Liquid in a Radially-Vaned Container
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Yongkang; Callahan, Michael; Weislogel, Mark
2013-01-01
A variety of increasingly intricate container geometries are under consideration for the passive manipulation of liquids aboard spacecraft where the impact of gravity may be neglected. In this study we examine the mean curvature of a liquid volume confined within a radial array of disconnected vanes of infinite extent. This particular geometry possesses a number of desirable characteristics relevant to waste water treatment aboard spacecraft for life support. It is observed that under certain conditions the slender shape of the free surface approaches an asymptote, which can be predicted analytically using new hybrid boundary conditions proposed herein. This contribution represents possibly the final extension of what has been referred to as the method of de Lazzer et al. (1996). The method enables the integration of the Young-Laplace equation over a domain with its boundaries, including the wetted portion of the solid boundaries, symmetry planes, and circular arcs representing free surfaces at the center plane of the liquid body. Asymptotic solutions at several limits are obtained and the analysis is confirmed with numerical computations.
Rong-Jia Yang
2014-09-11
If we assume that the source of thermodynamic system, $\\rho$ and $p$, are also the source of gravity, thermal quantities, such as entropy, temperature, and chemical potential, can induce effects of gravity, or gravity can induce thermal effects. We find only for systems with constant temperature and zero chemical potential, gravity can be seen as an entropic force. The case for Newtonian approximation is discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnett, R. D.; Gowen, R. J.; Carroll, D. R.
1975-01-01
The cardiovascular responses of the Apollo crewmen associated with postflight evaluations indicate varying decrements of orthostatic tolerance. The postflight changes indicate a slightly diminished ability to the cardiovascular system to function effectively against gravity following exposure to weightlessness. The objective of the Skylab LBNP experiments (M092) was to provide information about the magnitude and time course of the cardiovascular changes associated with prolonged periods of exposure to weightlessness. This report details the equipment, signal processing and analysis of the leg volume data obtained from the M092 experiment of the Skylab 3 Mission.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnett, R. D.; Gowen, R. J.; Carroll, D. R.
1975-01-01
The design of the leg volume measuring system employed for the M092 portion of the Skylab missions required the development of a system sensitive to large and small volume changes at the calf of the leg. These changes in volume were produced in response to the orthostatic stress of a Lower Body Negative Pressure Device (LBNPD) or by venous occlusion. The cardiovascular responses of the Apollo crewman associated with the postflight evaluations indicate varying decrements of orthostatic tolerance. The postflight changes indicate a slightly diminished ability of the cardiovascular system to function effectively against gravity following exposure to weightlessness. The objective of the Skylab LBNP experiments (M092) was to provide information about the magnitude and time course of the cardiovascular changes associated with prolonged periods of exposure to weightlessness. The equipment, signal processing, and analysis of the leg volume data obtained from the M092 experiment of the Skylab 2 Mission are described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.
2006-12-01
Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.
Othman Ahmad; Aroland Kiring; Ali Chekima
2012-10-17
It is fundamentally possible to travel with zero energy based on Newton Laws of Motion. According to the first law of motion, a body will continue to travel for infinite distance unless it is acted upon by another force. For a body in motion, the force which stops perpetual motion is friction. However, there are many circumstances that friction is zero, for example in space, where there is vacuum. On earth, gravity makes objects to be in constant contact with each other generating friction but technology exists to separate them in the air using powerful magnetic forces. At low speeds, the friction caused by air is minimal but we can create vacuum even on land for high speed travel. Another condition for travelling is for it to stop at its destination. On land, we can recover the kinetic energy back into electrical energy using brushless permanent magnet generators. These generators can also convert electric energy into kinetic energy in order to provide motion. This article reviews technologies that will allow us to travel with zero energy. It is easier to do it on land but in the air, it is not obvious.
McKay, Richard A.
2014-01-01
Summary This article contextualizes the production and reception of And the Band Played On, Randy Shilts’s popular history of the initial recognition of the American AIDS epidemic. Published over twenty-five years ago, the book and its most notorious character, “Patient Zero,” are in particular need of a critical historical treatment. The article presents a more balanced consideration—a “patient’s view”—of Gaétan Dugas’s experience of the early years of AIDS. I oppose the assertion that Dugas, the so-called Patient Zero, ignored incontrovertible information about the condition and was intent on spreading his infection. Instead I argue that scientific ideas in 1982 and 1983 about AIDS and the transmissibility of a causative agent were later portrayed to be more self-evident than they were at the time. The article also traces how Shilts’s highly selective—and highly readable—characterization of Dugas rapidly became embedded in discussions about the need to criminalize the reckless transmission of HIV. PMID:24769806
Nutrition and responses to zero gravity.
Rambaut, P C; Smith, M C; Leach, C S; Whedon, G D; Reid, J
1977-04-01
Prior to the Mercury program, extensive efforts were undertaken to find ways of minimizing the mass of in-flight food systems. Such efforts were directed to the use of dehydrated, energy-dense foodstuffs and to the possibilities of nutrient recyclization. As the space program became a reality, nutritional scientists were more concerned with the mechanics of food consumption in weightless flight and with the problems of structuring convention foods in a way that would facilitate their use in weightlessness. It soon became clear that there was no substantial impediment to normal gastrointestinal function in flight, and attention was shifted to more subtle metabolic phenomenons. It became apparent that slight changes occurred in skeletal density, muscle mass, and overall body composition. Recognition of these changes led to extensive ground-based simulation studies and carefully designed in-flight experiments. Data are presented on the requirements for metabolic energy in flight and on the losses that have been observed in the major elemental constituents of the body. It is concluded that convincing evidence is not yet avialable on the ability of man to adapt to long-term weightless flight. Although his nutritional requirements are qualitatively similar during flight, the sophisticated manipulation of nutrient profiles shows promise of counteracting some of the deteriorative processes that are known to occur. PMID:844612
GAS-611 firefly in zero gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Tony
1988-01-01
The Get Away Special 611 (GAS-611) project will carry a small, self-contained biological experiment into a microgravity environment for a period of 120 hours. The payload will be a colony of Lampyridae (fireflies). The ability of this beetle to produce light with an efficiency of 98 pct will be evaluated in the micro-G environment. The chemical process that occurs could be assisted by the earth's gravitational pull and the very complex tracheae system found within this species of beetle. The effects of microgravity on mating and beetle larvae will also be studied.
Ahmad, Othman; Chekima, Ali
2011-01-01
It is fundamentally possible to travel with zero energy based on Newton Laws of Motion. According to the first law of motion, a body will continue to travel for infinite distance unless it is acted upon by another force. For a body in motion, the force which stops perpetual motion is friction. However, there are many circumstances that friction is zero, for example in space, where there is vacuum. On earth, gravity makes objects to be in constant contact with each other generating friction but technology exists to separate them in the air using powerful magnetic forces. At low speeds, the friction caused by air is minimal but we can create vacuum even on land for high speed travel. Another condition for travelling is for it to stop at its destination. On land, we can recover the kinetic energy back into electrical energy using brushless permanent magnet generators. These generators can also convert electric energy into kinetic energy in order to provide motion. This article reviews technologies that will allo...
Claudia de Rham
2014-03-14
We review recent progress in massive gravity. We start by showing how different theories of massive gravity emerge from a higher-dimensional theory of general relativity, leading to the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model, cascading gravity and ghost-free massive gravity. We then explore their theoretical and phenomenological consistency, proving the absence of Boulware-Deser ghosts and reviewing the Vainshtein mechanism and the cosmological solutions in these models. Finally we present alternative and related models of massive gravity such as new massive gravity, Lorentz-violating massive gravity and non-local massive gravity.
Keeping the Zero in Zero Discharge.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Muldoon, Paul; Jackson, John
1994-01-01
This article focuses on Great Lakes pollution as it describes the evolution of the zero discharge concept, outlines the major areas of debate, and explores facets of a developing strategy to ensure the ultimate success of the zero discharge approach. (46 references) (LZ)
Brane worlds in critical gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Feng-Wei; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Zhong, Yuan; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Wu, Shao-Feng
2013-11-01
Recently, Lü and Pope proposed critical gravities in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 181302 (2011)]. In this paper we construct analytic brane solutions in critical gravity with matter. The Gibbons-Hawking surface term and junction condition are investigated, and the thin and thick brane solutions are obtained. All these branes are embedded in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetimes. Our solutions are stable against scalar perturbations, and the zero modes of scalar perturbations cannot be localized on the branes.
Weijgaert, Rien van de
;14/03/2014 3 Kayak Surfing on ocean gravity waves Oregon Coast Waves: sea & ocean waves #12;14/03/2014 4 Sound Waves Sound Waves: #12;14/03/2014 5 Sound Waves Linear Waves Sound Waves compression rarefaction #12 are inevitable if sound waves propagate over long distances; 4. Shocks always occur when a flow hits an obstacle
Vacuum energy: Quantum hydrodynamics vs. quantum gravity
G. E. Volovik
2005-01-01
We compare quantum hydrodynamics and quantum gravity. They share many common features. In particular, both have quadratic divergences, and both lead to the problem of the vacuum energy, which in the quantum gravity transforms to the cosmological constant problem. We show that in quantum liquids the vacuum energy density is not determined by the quantum zero-point energy of the phonon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, F. A.
1978-01-01
Questions of the importance and feasibility of performing experiments on droplet burning at zero gravity in Spacelab were studied. Information on the physics and chemistry of droplet combustion, with attention directed specifically to the chemical kinetics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid mechanics of the phenomena involved, are presented. The work was divided into three phases, the justification, the feasibility, and the conceptual development of a preliminary design. Results from the experiments performed revealed a few new facts concerning droplet burning, notably burning rates in excess of theoretical prediction and a phenomenon of flash extinction, both likely traceable to accumulation of carbon produced by gas-phase pyrolysis in the fuel-rich zone enclosed by the reaction surface. These experiments also showed that they were primarily due to timing difficulties.
Atmospheric Science Data Center
2013-04-19
article title: Gravity Waves Ripple over Marine Stratocumulus Clouds ... when a pebble is thrown into a still pond, such "gravity waves" sometimes appear when the relatively stable and stratified air masses ... Oct 29, 2003 Images: Gravity Waves location: Indian Ocean thumbnail: ...
Gravity inversion using a binary formulation Richard A. Krahenbuhl* and Yaoguo Li
Gravity inversion using a binary formulation Richard A. Krahenbuhl* and Yaoguo Li Gravity contrast that gives rise to zero gravity response on the surface. As a result, part of the salt structure structure using gravity data can be divided into two general categories. The first are interface inversions
Weijgaert, Rien van de
;07/04/2015 3 Kayak Surfing on ocean gravity waves Oregon Coast Waves: sea & ocean waves #12;07/04/2015 4 Sound the shock is at rest, the following Rankine-Hugoniot Jump conditions: Mass-flux conservation Momentum-flux conservation Energy-flux conservation 1 1 2 2n nV V 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2n nV P V P 1 2t tV V 2 21 21 1 1
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moore, Brian N.
2010-01-01
The concept of zero tolerance dates back to the mid-1990s when New Jersey was creating laws to address nuisance crimes in communities. The main goal of these neighborhood crime policies was to have zero tolerance for petty crime such as graffiti or littering so as to keep more serious crimes from occurring. Next came the war on drugs. In federal…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nelson, Brian, Ed.; And Others
The economic and physical realities of an energy shortage have caused many educators to consider alternative sources of energy when constructing their schools. This book contains studies and designs by fifth-year architecture students concerning the proposed construction of a zero energy-use elementary school in Albany, Oregon. "Zero energy use"…
Cosmological perturbations in unimodular gravity
Gao, Caixia; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Cai, Yifu; Chen, Pisin E-mail: rhb@hep.physics.mcgill.ca E-mail: chen@slac.stanford.edu
2014-09-01
We study cosmological perturbation theory within the framework of unimodular gravity. We show that the Lagrangian constraint on the determinant of the metric required by unimodular gravity leads to an extra constraint on the gauge freedom of the metric perturbations. Although the main equation of motion for the gravitational potential remains the same, the shift variable, which is gauge artifact in General Relativity, cannot be set to zero in unimodular gravity. This non-vanishing shift variable affects the propagation of photons throughout the cosmological evolution and therefore modifies the Sachs-Wolfe relation between the relativistic gravitational potential and the microwave temperature anisotropies. However, for adiabatic fluctuations the difference between the result in General Relativity and unimodular gravity is suppressed on large angular scales. Thus, no strong constraints on the theory can be derived.
Zeroing in on Supersymmetric Radiation Amplitude Zeros
Hewett, JoAnne L.; Ismail, Ahmed; Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC
2012-02-15
Radiation amplitude zeros have long been used to test the Standard Model. Here, we consider the supersymmetric radiation amplitude zero in chargino-neutralino associated production, which can be observed at the luminosity upgraded LHC. Such an amplitude zero only occurs if the neutralino has a large wino fraction and hence this observable can be used to determine the neutralino eigenstate content. We find that this observable can be measured by comparing the p{sub T} spectrum of the softest lepton in the trilepton {tilde {chi}}{sub 1}{sup {+-}} {tilde {chi}}{sub 2}{sup 0} decay channel to that of a control process such as {tilde {chi}}{sub 1}{sup +} {tilde {chi}}{sub 1}{sup -} or {tilde {chi}}{sub 2}{sup 0} {tilde {chi}}{sub 2}{sup 0}. We test this technique on a previously generated model sample of the 19 dimensional parameter space of the phenomenological MSSM, and find that it is effective in determining the wino content of the neutralino.
Christian Wiesendanger
2009-07-25
Isometrodynamics (ID), the gauge theory of the group of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms of an "inner" D-dimensional flat space, is tentatively interpreted as a fundamental theory of gravity. Dimensional analysis shows that the Planck length l_P - and through it \\hbar and \\Gamma - enters the gauge field action linking ID and gravity in a natural way. Noting that the ID gauge field couples solely through derivatives acting on "inner" space variables all ID fields are Taylor-expanded in "inner" space. Integrating out the "inner" space variables yields an effective field theory for the coefficient fields with l_P^2 emerging as the expansion parameter. For \\hbar goint to zero only the leading order field does not vanish. This classical field couples to the matter Noether currents and charges related to the translation invariance in "inner" space. A model coupling this leading order field to a matter point source is established and solved. Interpreting the matter Noether charge in terms of gravitational mass Newton's inverse square law is finally derived for a static gauge field source and a slowly moving test particle. Gravity emerges as potentially related to field variations over "inner" space and might microscopically be described by the ID gauge field or equivalently by an infinite string of coefficient fields only the leading term of which is related to the macroscopical effects of gravity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reasenberg, Robert D.
1993-01-01
The anomalous gravity field of Venus shows high correlation with surface features revealed by radar. We extract gravity models from the Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) by means of a two-step process. In the first step, we solve the nonlinear spacecraft state estimation problem using a Kalman filter-smoother. The Kalman filter was evaluated through simulations. This evaluation and some unusual features of the filter are discussed. In the second step, we perform a geophysical inversion using a linear Bayesian estimator. To allow an unbiased comparison between gravity and topography, we use a simulation technique to smooth and distort the radar topographic data so as to yield maps having the same characteristics as our gravity maps. The maps presented cover 2/3 of the surface of Venus and display the strong topography-gravity correlation previously reported. The topography-gravity scatter plots show two distinct trends.
Small Amplitude Forced Fluid Dynamics from Gravity at T = 0
Oh, Jae-Hyuk
2010-01-01
The usual derivative expansion of gravity duals of charged fluid dynamics is known to break down in the zero temperature limit. In this case, the fluid-gravity duality is not understood precisely. We explore this problem for a zero temperature charged fluid driven by a low frequency, small amplitude and spatially homogeneous external force. In the gravity dual, this corresponds to time dependent boundary value of the dilaton. We calculate the bulk solution for the dilaton and the leading backreaction to the metric and the gauge fields using the modified low frequency expansion of [6]. The resulting solutions are regular everywhere, establishing fluid-gravity duality to this order.
Small Amplitude Forced Fluid Dynamics from Gravity at T = 0
Jae-Hyuk Oh
2011-02-04
The usual derivative expansion of gravity duals of charged fluid dynamics is known to break down in the zero temperature limit. In this case, the fluid-gravity duality is not understood precisely. We explore this problem for a zero temperature charged fluid driven by a low frequency, small amplitude and spatially homogeneous external force. In the gravity dual, this corresponds to time dependent boundary value of the dilaton. We calculate the bulk solution for the dilaton and the leading backreaction to the metric and the gauge fields using the modified low frequency expansion of [11]. The resulting solutions are regular everywhere, establishing fluid-gravity duality to this order.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma?lanka, K.
A model of reality based on quantum fields, but with a classical treatment of gravity, is inconsistent. Finding a solution has proved extremely difficult, possibly due to the beauty and conceptual simplicity of general relativity. There is a variety of approaches to a consistent theory of quntum gravity. At present, it seems that superstring theory is the most promising candidate.
K. Maslanka
1991-01-01
A model of reality based on quantum fields, but with a classical treatment of gravity, is inconsistent. Finding a solution has proved extremely difficult, possibly due to the beauty and conceptual simplicity of general relativity. There is a variety of approaches to a consistent theory of quntum gravity. At present, it seems that superstring theory is the most promising candidate.
Healey, D.L. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA)
1983-12-31
A large density contrast exists between the Paleozoic rocks (including the rocks of Climax stock) and less dense, Tertiary volcanic rocks and alluvium. This density contrast ranges widely, and herein for interpretive purposes, is assumed to average 0.85 Mg/m{sup 3} (megagrams per cubic meter). The large density contrast makes the gravity method a useful tool with which to study the interface between these rock types. However, little or no density contrast is discernible between the sedimentary Paleozoic rocks that surround the Climax stock and the intrusive rocks of the stock itself. Therefore the gravity method can not be used to define the configuration of the stock. Gravity highs coincide with outcrops of the dense Paleozoic rocks, and gravity lows overlie less-dense Tertiary volcanic rocks and Quaternary alluvium. The positions of three major faults (Boundary, Yucca, and Butte faults) are defined by steep gravity gradients. West of the Climax stock, the Tippinip fault has juxtaposed Paleozoic rocks of similar density, and consequently, has no expression in the gravity data in that area. The gravity station spacing, across Oak Spring Butte, is not sufficient to adequately define any gravity expression of the Tippinip fault. 18 refs., 5 figs.
The Dark Gravity model predictions for Gravity Probe B
Frederic Henry-Couannier
2007-10-23
The previous version of this article gave erroneous predictions. The correct uptodate predictions can be found in the section devoted to gravitomagnetism in the living review of the Dark Gravity theory: gr-qc/0610079 The most natural prediction is zero frame dragging and the same geodetic effect as predicted by GR. However, a straightforward extension of the theory could lead to the same frame-dragging as in GR.
Einstein Gravity from Conformal Gravity
Juan Maldacena
2011-06-09
We show that that four dimensional conformal gravity plus a simple Neumann boundary condition can be used to get the semiclassical (or tree level) wavefunction of the universe of four dimensional asymptotically de-Sitter or Euclidean anti-de Sitter spacetimes. This simple Neumann boundary condition selects the Einstein solution out of the more numerous solutions of conformal gravity. It thus removes the ghosts of conformal gravity from this computation. In the case of a five dimensional pure gravity theory with a positive cosmological constant we show that the late time superhorizon tree level probability measure, $|\\Psi [ g ]|^2$, for its four dimensional spatial slices is given by the action of Euclidean four dimensional conformal gravity.
Vacuum energy: Quantum hydrodynamics vs. quantum gravity
G. E. Volovik; L. D. Landau
2005-01-01
We compare quantum hydrodynamics and quantum gravity. They share many common features. In particular, both have quadratic\\u000a divergences, and both lead to the problem of the vacuum energy, which, in quantum gravity, transforms to the cosmological\\u000a constant problem. We show that, in quantum liquids, the vacuum energy density is not determined by the quantum zero-point\\u000a energy of the phonon modes.
Roland, Erling; Midthassel, Unni Vere
2012-01-01
Zero is a schoolwide antibullying program developed by the Centre for Behavioural Research at the University of Stavanger, Norway. It is based on three main principles: a zero vision of bullying, collective commitment among all employees at the school using the program, and continuing work. Based on these principles, the program aims to reduce student bullying by increasing the school's ability to uncover and stop bullying, and eventually to prevent it. The Zero program was launched in 2003, but the work that led to it goes back to the first national steps against bullying in 1983. The program extends over sixteen months as teachers develop their awareness of bullying and their competence in addressing it. Students and parents are involved in the program as well. The role of the school leadership is very important. More than 360 Norwegian schools have carried out the program. PMID:22504789
Teacher in Space Christa McAuliffe on the KC-135 for zero-G training
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1986-01-01
Teacher in Space Christa McAuliffe on the KC-135 for zero-G training. McAuliffe, 51-L citizen observer/payload specialist, gets a preview of microgravity during a special flight aboard NASA's KC-135 'zero gravity' aircraft.
Marcin Domagala; Kristina Giesel; Wojciech Kaminski; Jerzy Lewandowski
2010-10-10
..."but we do not have quantum gravity." This phrase is often used when analysis of a physical problem enters the regime in which quantum gravity effects should be taken into account. In fact, there are several models of the gravitational field coupled to (scalar) fields for which the quantization procedure can be completed using loop quantum gravity techniques. The model we present in this paper consist of the gravitational field coupled to a scalar field. The result has similar structure to the loop quantum cosmology models, except for that it involves all the local degrees of freedom because no symmetry reduction has been performed at the classical level.
Gravity-Referenced Elevation Encoder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goddard, Ralph E.
1995-01-01
Tilt-measuring apparatus gives precise indication of elevation angle of scientific instrument or other object that must be aimed precisely. In original intended application, apparatus mounted directly on primary reflector of large radio antenna. Sensors and actuator in elevation-angle encoder include motor, shaft-angle encoder, and pendulous accelerometer mounted on shaft. Designed to give zero output when designated reference axis perpendicular to gravity.
Improved Airborne Gravity Results Using New Relative Gravity Sensor Technology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brady, N.
2013-12-01
Airborne gravity data has contributed greatly to our knowledge of subsurface geophysics particularly in rugged and otherwise inaccessible areas such as Antarctica. Reliable high quality GPS data has renewed interest in improving the accuracy of airborne gravity systems and recent improvements in the electronic control of the sensor have increased the accuracy and ability of the classic Lacoste and Romberg zero length spring gravity meters to operate in turbulent air conditions. Lacoste and Romberg type gravity meters provide increased sensitivity over other relative gravity meters by utilizing a mass attached to a horizontal beam which is balanced by a ';zero length spring'. This type of dynamic gravity sensor is capable of measuring gravity changes on the order of 0.05 milliGals in laboratory conditions but more commonly 0.7 to 1 milliGal in survey use. The sensor may have errors induced by the electronics used to read the beam position as well as noise induced by unwanted accelerations, commonly turbulence, which moves the beam away from its ideal balance position otherwise known as the reading line. The sensor relies on a measuring screw controlled by a computer which attempts to bring the beam back to the reading line position. The beam is also heavily damped so that it does not react to most unwanted high frequency accelerations. However this heavily damped system is slow to react, particularly in turns where there are very high Eotvos effects. New sensor technology utilizes magnetic damping of the beam coupled with an active feedback system which acts to effectively keep the beam locked at the reading line position. The feedback system operates over the entire range of the system so there is now no requirement for a measuring screw. The feedback system operates at very high speed so that even large turbulent events have minimal impact on data quality and very little, if any, survey line data is lost because of large beam displacement errors. Airborne testing along with results from ground based van testing and laboratory results have shown that the new sensor provides more consistent gravity data, as measured by repeated line surveys, as well as preserving the inherent sensitivity of the Lacoste and Romberg zero length spring design. The sensor also provides reliability during survey operation as there is no mechanical counter screw. Results will be presented which show the advantages of the new sensor system over the current technology in both data quality and survey productivity. Applications include high resolution geoid mapping, crustal structure investigations and resource mapping of minerals, oil and gas.
Lujan, Richard E. (Santa Fe, NM)
2001-01-01
A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.
Circular orbits in modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alhamzawi, Ahmed; Alhamzawi, Rahim
2015-08-01
A slight modification of the general relativistic metric under modified gravity is presented. The circular motion of massive particles is discussed in the new metric. It is shown that there are two roots at which circular motion can happen. However, while one root results in a stable circular orbit, the second represents a maxima which is very unstable because the attractive forces dominate as radius gets small and draw towards zero. Furthermore, we derive an equation for the orbital angular speed for the stable root in modified gravity and show that for large values of , the modified orbital angular speed approaches the well known orbital angular speed. Finally, a description of photon orbits in the new metric is given and a derivation of the deflection angle is presented. Its shown that modified gravity can give a considerable contribution to the deflection angles of light rays.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zirkel, Perry A.
1999-01-01
Most courts have flexibly interpreted the constitutional requirement of procedural and substantive due process in favor of zero-tolerance expulsion decisions. While being sensitive to community intolerance for threats to school safety (student possession of guns or drugs), school leaders should modulate development and enforcement of expulsion…
Zero Tolerance versus Privacy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin
2000-01-01
In a case involving questionable canine search-and-seizure practices, a circuit court upheld a school board's decision to terminate a teacher's contract. While touting zero tolerance, the board fired an honored teacher 3 years from retirement who may not have known about the marijuana cigarette in her car. (MLH)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005
2005-01-01
The walnut sized brain of the African grey parrot may actually be capable of comprehending abstract mathematical concepts. The bird seems to understand a numerical concept akin to zero--an abstract notion that humans don't typically understand until they are three or four years old. Alex, the 28-year-old parrot who lives in a Brandeis University…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harvey, L. James
The concept of Zero-Base Budgeting (ZBB) is discussed in terms of its application, advantages, disadvantages, and implementation in an effective planning, management, and evaluation (PME) system. A ZBB system requires administrators to: review all programs and expenditures annually, set clear cut goals, and analyze all possible alternatives for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sarndal, Anne G.
1979-01-01
Traditional budgeting starts with the previous year's budget, but zero base budgeting demands that each activity be justified from "scratch," and establishes a number of increments for each unit, in order of priority. Given the set of increments and the money available, management can determine what activities to finance. (Author)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yagielski, John
In outline form, this document presents basic information on the school district, the reasons the district considered zero-base budgeting (ZBB), the formation and membership of the advisory School Cost Analysis Team, the district's investigation of the ZBB concept, an overview of the ways the district used the ZBB process, the identification of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gialamas, Stephanos; McCann, Miriam K.
1991-01-01
This article traces the history of zero and its dual role as a placeholder, albeit of empty space, and as a number for computational purposes. The use of one symbol for both situations is shown to be tied to the adoption, and subsequent promulgation, of our modern numbering system. (JJK)
Zero knowledge with efficient provers
Minh-huyen Nguyen; Salil P. Vadhan
2006-01-01
We prove that every problem in NP that has a zero-knowledge proof also has a zero-knowledge proof where the prover can be implemented in probabilistic polynomial time given an NP witness. Moreover, if the original proof system is statis- tical zero knowledge, so is the resulting efficient-prover proof system. An equivalence of zero knowledge and efficient- prover zero knowledge was
Ground-Based Reduced-Gravity Facilities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lekan, Jack F.; Neumann, Eric S.; Thompson, Dennis M.
1998-01-01
For the past 30 years, NASA Lewis Research Center's ground-based reduced-gravity facilities have supported numerous investigations for several research disciplines. Lewis' two drop towers and its DC-9 aircraft have provided a low-gravity environment (gravitational levels that range from 1 percent of Earth's gravitational acceleration to onemillionth of that measured at the Earth's surface) for brief periods of time. "Zero gravity," the weightless condition also known as microgravity, can be produced in these facilities by creating a free-fall or semi-free-fall condition where the force of gravity on an experiment is offset by its linear acceleration during a "fall" (a drop in a tower or a parabolic maneuver by an aircraft). The low-gravity environment obtained "on the ground" in NASA facilities is the same as that of a spacecraft in orbit around the Earth.
The effect of gravity on the stability of an evaporating dichloromethane liquid film
Narendranath, Aneet; Kolkka, Robert W; Struthers, Allan A; Allen, Jeffrey S
2013-01-01
Zero gravity evaporation of a Dicholoromethane (DCM) liquid film is explored. The resulting film dynamics are presented and a criterion for stable films is described based on the long wave theory. It is concluded that films subject to long wave instabilities shows the appearance of the mode of maximum growth rate at rupture, irrespective of the initial condition or domain size conditions. Films stable in Earth's gravity are destabilized in zero gravity.
Measurement of the biological center of gravity using an X-ray
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawasaki, Tomomi; Hasegawa, Katsuya
It is very important knowledge the center of gravity when observing the behavior of the animals in the low-gravity space. The center of gravity can be measured by using the center of gravity meter. However, the center of gravity meter that measures the use in zero-gravity space. Therefore, we have developed a method for determination of the center of gravity using an X-ray. Absorption of X-rays is related to the mass of the transmission path, so we determined the mass distribution by the X-ray image. It was possible to calculate the center of gravity by analyzing the image. It is not only static data but also to get the dynamic data using the movie. We can analyze the center of gravity changes in the animals in the low-gravity. It may be useful for the analysis of animal behavior to gravity changes.
Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc
2006-05-17
Windows in the U.S. consume 30 percent of building heating and cooling energy, representing an annual impact of 4.1 quadrillion BTU (quads) of primary energy. Windows have an even larger impact on peak energy demand and on occupant comfort. An additional 1 quad of lighting energy could be saved if buildings employed effective daylighting strategies. The ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program has made standard windows significantly more efficient. However, even if all windows in the stock were replaced with today's efficient products, window energy consumption would still be approximately 2 quads. However, windows can be ''net energy gainers'' or ''zero-energy'' products. Highly insulating products in heating applications can admit more useful solar gain than the conductive energy lost through them. Dynamic glazings can modulate solar gains to minimize cooling energy needs and, in commercial buildings, allow daylighting to offset lighting requirements. The needed solutions vary with building type and climate. Developing this next generation of zero-energy windows will provide products for both existing buildings undergoing window replacements and products which are expected to be contributors to zero-energy buildings. This paper defines the requirements for zero-energy windows. The technical potentials in terms of national energy savings and the research and development (R&D) status of the following technologies are presented: (1) Highly insulating systems with U-factors of 0.1 Btu/hr-ft{sup 2}-F; (2) Dynamic windows: glazings that modulate transmittance (i.e., change from clear to tinted and/or reflective) in response to climate conditions; and (3) Integrated facades for commercial buildings to control/ redirect daylight. Market transformation policies to promote these technologies as they emerge into the marketplace are then described.
Zero-gravity atmospheric Cloud Physics Experiment Laboratory; Programmatics report
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1974-01-01
The programmatics effort included comprehensive analyses in four major areas: (1) work breakdown structure, (2) schedules, (3) costs, and (4) supporting research and technology. These analyses are discussed in detail in the following sections which identify and define the laboratory project development schedule, cost estimates, funding distributions and supporting research and technology requirements. All programmatics analyses are correlated among themselves and with the technical analyses by means of the work breakdown structure which serves as a common framework for program definition. In addition, the programmatic analyses reflect the results of analyses and plans for reliability, safety, test, and maintenance and refurbishment.
Venipuncture and intravenous infusion access during zero-gravity flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krupa, Debra T.; Gosbee, John; Billica, Roger; Bechtle, Perry; Creager, Gerald J.; Boyce, Joey B.
1991-01-01
The purpose of this experiment is to establish the difficulty associated with securing an intravenous (IV) catheter in place in microgravity flight and the techniques applicable in training the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) for Space Station Freedom, as well as aiding in the selection of appropriate hardware and supplies for the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF). The objectives are the following: (1) to determine the difficulties associated with venipuncture in a microgravity environment; (2) to evaluate the various methods of securing an IV catheter and attached tubing for infusion with regard to the unique environment; (3) to evaluate the various materials available for securing an intravenous catheter in place; and (4) to evaluate the fluid therapy administration system when functioning in a complete system. The inflight test procedures and other aspects of the KC-135 parabolic flight test to simulate microgravity are presented.
Neural-Thyroid Interaction on Skeletal Isomyosin in Zero Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baldwin, Kenneth M.
2000-01-01
The primary goal of the project was to develop a ground based model to first study the role of the nerve and of thyroid hormone (T3) in the regulation of body growth and skeletal muscle growth and differentiation in rodents. A primary objective was to test the hypothesis that normal weight bearing activity is essential for the development of antigravity, slow twitch skeletal muscle and the corresponding slow myosin heavy chain (MHC) gene; whereas, T3 was obligatory for general body and muscle growth and the establishment of fast MHC phenotype in typically fast locomoter muscles. These ground based experiments would provide both the efficacy and background for a spaceflight experiment (referred to as the Neurolab Mission) jointly sponsored by the NIH and NASA.
A Zero-Gravity Cup for Drinking Beverages in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pettit, Donald R.; Weislogel, Mark; Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert
2011-01-01
To date, the method for astronauts to drink liquids in microgravity or weightless environments is to suck the liquid from a bag or pouch through a straw. A new beverage cup works in microgravity and allows astronauts to drink liquids from a cup in a manner consistent with that on Earth. The cup is capable of holding beverages with an angled channel running along the wall from the bottom to the lip. In microgravity, a beverage is placed into the cup using the galley dispenser. The angled channel acts as an open passage that contains only two sides where capillary forces move the liquid along the channel until it reaches the top lip where the forces reach an equilibrium and the flow stops. When one sips the liquid at the lip of the channel, the capillary force equilibrium is upset and more liquid flows to the lip from the reservoir at the bottom to re-establish the equilibrium. This sipping process can continue until the total liquid contents of the cup is consumed, leaving only a few residual drops about the same quantity as in a ceramic cup when it is drunk dry on Earth.
Design, development, and operation of a zero gravity shower
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Middleton, R. L.; Krupnick, A. C.; Reily, J. C.; Schrick, B. J.
1974-01-01
The high mission penalty associated with water and electrical power usage constrained the shower configuration concept for the Skylab project to a procedure in which water is sprayed on the body to wet down and soaping is accomplished without water flow. The soap is then finally rinsed off. Initial concept confirmation tests are discussed along with details of the flight shower configuration, the shower water bottle, the shower stall assembly, the liquid-gas separator, the collection box and bag assembly, the hydrophobic filter assembly, and the soap dispenser. Aspects of microbial evaluation of flight qualification hardware are also considered.
Dental equipment test during zero-gravity flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, John; Gosbee, John; Billica, Roger
1991-01-01
The overall objectives of this program were to establish performance criteria and develop prototype equipment for use in the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) in meeting the needs of dental emergencies during space missions. The primary efforts during this flight test were to test patient-operator relationships, patent (manikin) restraint and positioning, task lighting systems, use and operation of dental rotary instruments, suction and particle containment system, dental hand instrument delivery and control procedures, and the use of dental treatment materials. The initial efforts during the flight focused on verification of the efficiency of the particle containment system. An absorptive barrier was also tested in lieu of the suction collector. To test the instrument delivery system, teeth in the manikin were prepared with the dental drill to receive restorations, some with temporary filling materials and another with definitive filling material (composite resin). The best particle containment came from the combination use of the laminar-air/suction collector in concert with immediate area suction from a surgical high-volume suction tip. Lighting in the treatment area was provided by a flexible fiberoptic probe. This system is quite effective for small areas, but for general tasks ambient illumination is required. The instrument containment system (elastic cord network) was extremely effective and easy to use. The most serious problem with instrument delivey and actual treatment was lack of time during the microgravity sequences. The restorative materials handled and finished well.
Suspended Students, Professor: Measurements Made in Zero Gravity
Haile, Sossina M.
a Time, artists and scientists were one and the same. Then, maybe a couple hundred years ago, artists different questions and seeking answers in differ- ent places. Call it the age of specialization? A joint and science force shifts of perception we might otherwise never imagine," writes Nowlin in his essay
Zero Cosmological Constant and Nonzero Dark Energy from Holographic Principle
Jae-Weon Lee
2013-04-13
It is shown that the first law of thermodynamics and the holographic principle applied to an arbitrary large cosmic causal horizon naturally demand the zero cosmological constant and non-zero dynamical dark energy in the form of the holographic dark energy. Semiclassical analysis shows that the holographic dark energy has a parameter $d=1$ and an equation of state comparable to current observational data, if the entropy of the horizon saturates the Bekenstein-Hawking bound. This result indicates that quantum field theory should be modified at large scale to explain dark energy. The relations among dark energy, quantum vacuum energy and entropic gravity are also discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strehlow, R. A.; Reuss, D. L.
1980-01-01
Flammability limits in a zero gravity environment were defined. Key aspects of a possible spacelab experiment were investigated analytically, experimentally on the bench, and in drop tower facilities. A conceptual design for a spacelab experiment was developed.
Domain wall brane in squared curvature gravity
Liu, Yu-Xiao; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Li, Hai-Tao
2011-01-01
We suggest a thick braneworld model in the squared curvature gravity theory. Despite the appearance of higher order derivatives, the localization of gravity and various bulk matter fields is shown to be possible. The existence of the normalizable gravitational zero mode indicates that our four-dimensional gravity is reproduced. In order to localize the chiral fermions on the brane, two types of coupling between the fermions and the brane forming scalar is introduced. The first coupling leads us to a Schr\\"odinger equation with a volcano potential, and the other a P\\"oschl-Teller potential. In both cases, the zero mode exists only for the left-hand fermions. Several massive KK states of the fermions can be trapped on the brane, either as resonant states or as bound states.
On exponential modified gravity
S. I. Kruglov
2013-08-16
A modified theory of gravity with the function $F(R) = R\\exp(\\alpha R)$ instead of Ricci scalar $R$ in the Einstein$-$Hilbert action is considered and analyzed. The action of the model is converted into Einstein$-$Hilbert action at small value of the parameter $\\alpha$. From local tests we obtain a bound on the parameter $\\alpha\\leq 10^{-6}$ cm$^2$. The Jordan and Einstein frames are investigated and the potential of the scalar field in Einstein's frame is found. The mass of a scalar degree of freedom as a function of curvature is obtained. The static solutions of the model are found corresponding to the Schwarzschild$-$de Sitter space. We show that the de Sitter space is unstable but a solution with zero curvature is stable. The cosmological parameters of the model are calculated. It was demonstrated that the model passes the matter stability test.
Zero Tolerance Policies. Research Brief
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Muir, Mike
2004-01-01
Much of this brief comes from the ERIC Digest on Zero Tolerance Policies (ERIC #: ED451579). State legislatures and school boards are adopting a growing number of zero-tolerance polices toward weapons, guns, and violence. Zero-tolerance polices are rules intended to address specific school-safety issues. Despite the controversies that it has…
Carlos Barceló; Stefano Liberati; Matt Visser
2005-01-01
Analogue models of (and for) gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukohyama, Shinji
2013-09-01
The concept of mass has been central in many areas of physics. Gravitation is not an exception, and it has been one of the long-standing questions whether the graviton, a spin-2 particle that mediates gravity, can have a non-vanishing mass or not. This question is relevant from not only theoretical but also phenomenological viewpoints, since a nonzero graviton mass may lead to late-time acceleration of the universe and thus may be considered as an alternative to dark energy. In 2010, de Rham, Gabadadze and Tolley proposed the first example of a fully nonlinear massive gravity theory and showed that the so called Boulware-Deser ghost, which had been one of the major obstacles against a stable nonlinear theory of massive gravity since 1972, can be removed by construction. Since then, nonlinear massive gravity has been attracting significant interest among physicists and cosmologists. The nonlinear theory of massive gravity provides a theoretical framework in which properties of the remaining five physical degrees of freedom of massive gravity can be studied. As always with any low-energy effective theories, one of the first tasks would be to identify good and bad backgrounds. Depending on the choice of backgrounds, some of the five degrees of freedom may become strongly coupled, may exhibit instantaneous propagation, or may lead to ghost/gradient instabilities. A related subject is to seek interesting solutions such as those relevant for astrophysical objects and those describing self-accelerating cosmology. Those solutions will allow us to study phenomenological and cosmological implications of the theory. Yet another important task would be to seek a possible (partial) UV completion that can be applied beyond the regime of validity of the low-energy effective theory that we currently know of. We invited articles to cover those important subjects in massive gravity. Given the recent rapid developments in the field, however, it must be noted that this focus issue should be best considered as a snapshot. We still hope that the collection of articles provides readers with guidance to the research at the frontier and ideally expedites further progress in the field. Shinji MukohyamaGuest Editor
The equilibrium of dense plasma in a gravity field
B. V. Vasiliev
2000-10-31
The equilibrium of dense plasma in a gravity field and problem of a gravity-induced electric polarization in this matter are discussed. The calculation for metals performed before shows that both - the gravity-induced compressive strain and the gravity-induced electric field - are inversely proportional to their Young moduli. The calculation for high dense plasma, where Young modulus is equal to zero, shows that there is another effect: each cell of this plasma inside a celestial body in own gravity field obtains the small positive electric charge. It happens as heavy ions sag on to light electron clouds. A celestial body stays electrically neutral as a whole, because the negative electric charge concentrates on its surface. The gravity-induced positive volume charge is very small, its order of magnitude equals to $10^{-18}e$ per atom only. But it is sufficient for the complete conterbalancing of the gravity force.
Stochastic Gravity: Beyond Semiclassical Gravity
E. Verdaguer
2006-11-08
The back-reaction of a classical gravitational field interacting with quantum matter fields is described by the semiclassical Einstein equation, which has the expectation value of the quantum matter fields stress tensor as a source. The semiclassical theory may be obtained from the quantum field theory of gravity interacting with N matter fields in the large N limit. This theory breaks down when the fields quantum fluctuations are important. Stochastic gravity goes beyond the semiclassical limit and allows for a systematic and self-consistent description of the metric fluctuations induced by these quantum fluctuations. The correlation functions of the metric fluctuations obtained in stochastic gravity reproduce the correlation functions in the quantum theory to leading order in an 1/N expansion. Two main applications of stochastic gravity are discussed. The first, in cosmology, to obtain the spectrum of primordial metric perturbations induced by the inflaton fluctuations, even beyond the linear approximation. The second, in black hole physics, to study the fluctuations of the horizon of an evaporating black hole.
Is nonrelativistic gravity possible?
Kocharyan, A. A.
2009-07-15
We study nonrelativistic gravity using the Hamiltonian formalism. For the dynamics of general relativity (relativistic gravity) the formalism is well known and called the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism. We show that if the lapse function is constrained correctly, then nonrelativistic gravity is described by a consistent Hamiltonian system. Surprisingly, nonrelativistic gravity can have solutions identical to relativistic gravity ones. In particular, (anti-)de Sitter black holes of Einstein gravity and IR limit of Horava gravity are locally identical.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ziock, H.; Guthrie, G. D.; Lackner, K. S.; Harrison, D. P.; Johnson, A. A.
2002-05-01
Unless the economic development of the majority of the world's population is prohibited, thereby forcing thereby forcing them to remain in poverty, world energy consumption and therefore carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emission rates could easily increase by an order of magnitude during this century. Given that we have already increased global atmospheric concentrations by 30% compared to their pre-industrial age level, without massive intervention, we will completely overwhelm Nature's ability to cope. In order to stabilize atmospheric CO2 levels, while allowing desired world economic development, the future allowable US per capita CO2 emissions are only 3 % of today's value. This is effectively zero, and thus what is required is the development of technologies that aim for emission of zero CO2 as well as other pollutants. If we continue to rely on our lowest cost, readily available, and dominant energy source, this will involve both a separation of the energy from the fossil fuel carbon followed by a permanent disposal of the CO2. To set the scale, today's yearly global emissions are approaching 25 cubic kilometers of CO2 at liquid densities, and these could grow by an order of magnitude by the end of the century. We describe a zero emission coal technology that would be able to deal with both the scope of the problem and the emission goal. The energy production process is a chemical conversion of coal to electricity or hydrogen, which involves no combustion and thus no smoke stack. The process provides a pure stream of CO2 for disposal while simultaneously achieving fuel to electricity conversion efficiencies that are two times better than today's value. This high efficiency by itself extends cuts pollutant production by a factor of two while also extending the lifetime of our fossil fuel reserves by a factor of two to many hundreds of years. By concentrating on coal, we also lay the groundwork for energy security and complete independence for the US, given the huge coal reserves of the US, and the ability to create liquid and gaseous fuels from coal through the production of hydrogen. To dispose of the carbon dioxide permanently, we are investigating its permanent disposal in the form of solid, thermodynamically stable, mineral carbonates. This is the form in which Nature has chosen to store the vast quantities of CO2 that once dominated the world's atmosphere in its early history. The total amount of carbonates formed is many orders of magnitude greater than all the carbon found in the world's fossil fuels.
B. L. Hu
1999-02-22
We give a summary of the status of current research in stochastic semiclassical gravity and suggest directions for further investigations. This theory generalizes the semiclassical Einstein equation to an Einstein-Langevin equation with a stochastic source term arising from the fluctuations of the energy-momentum tensor of quantum fields. We mention recent efforts in applying this theory to the study of black hole fluctuations and backreaction problems, linear response of hot flat space, and structure formation in inflationary cosmology. To explore the physical meaning and implications of this stochastic regime in relation to both classical and quantum gravity, we find it useful to take the view that semiclassical gravity is mesoscopic physics and that general relativity is the hydrodynamic limit of certain spacetime quantum substructures. Three basic issues - stochasticity, collectivity, correlations- and three processes - dissipation, fluctuations, decoherence- underscore the transformation from quantum micro structure and interaction to the emergence of classical macro structure and dynamics. We discuss ways to probe into the high energy activity from below and make two suggestions: via effective field theory and the correlation hierarchy. We discuss how stochastic behavior at low energy in an effective theory and how correlation noise associated with coarse-grained higher correlation functions in an interacting quantum field could carry nontrivial information about the high energy sector. Finally we describe processes deemed important at the Planck scale, including tunneling and pair creation, wave scattering in random geometry, growth of fluctuations and forms, Planck scale resonance states, and spacetime foams.
Survival of scalar zero modes in warped extra dimensions
George, Damien P. [Nikhef Theory Group, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2011-05-15
Models with an extra dimension generally contain background scalar fields in a nontrivial configuration, whose stability must be ensured. With gravity present, the extra dimension is warped by the scalars, and the spin-0 degrees of freedom in the metric mix with the scalar perturbations. Where possible, we formally solve the coupled Schroedinger equations for the zero modes of these spin-0 perturbations. When specializing to the case of two scalars with a potential generated by a superpotential, we are able to fully solve the system. We show how these zero modes can be used to construct a solution matrix, whose eigenvalues tell whether a normalizable zero mode exists, and how many negative mass modes exist. These facts are crucial in determining stability of the corresponding background configuration. We provide examples of the general analysis for domain-wall models of an infinite extra dimension and domain-wall soft-wall models. For five-dimensional models with two scalars constructed using a superpotential, we show that a normalizable zero mode survives, even in the presence of warped gravity. Such models, which are widely used in the literature, are therefore phenomenologically unacceptable.
Graviresponses of osteocytes under altered gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di, S. M.; Qian, A. R.; Qu, L. N.; Zhang, W.; Wang, Z.; Ding, C.; Li, Y. H.; Ren, H. G.; Shang, P.
2011-09-01
Single cell was capable of sensing and responding to alterations of gravity. Osteocytes, as the most abundant cells of the bone tissue playing an important role in the bone mechanotransduction, are very sensitive to mechanical stimuli. However, the effect of altered gravity on osteocytes so far is less known according to the public papers. Further study on this issue will help to verify and develop the theory of how cells perceive and respond to gravity. It also brings new ideas to the study of space bone loss. In our study, Osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells were exposed to 30 parabolic flights three times on ZERO-G airbus A300 to investigate the comprehensive effect on osteocytes stimulated by hyper- and hypo-gravity forces. It showed that the cell morphology, as well as cell area and height, was not changed significantly by hyper-gravity and hypo-gravity. However, the cytoskeleton was reorganized. In flight cells, F-actin polymerization was enhanced at the cell periphery and microtubule organizing center disappeared, but no apoptotic feathers were detected. The results of western blot showed that connexin 43 (Cx43) expression was down-regulated, indicating an decrease of gap-junction. In conclusion, hyper- and hypo-gravity stimulation altered the cytoskeleton architecture and suppressed gap-junction of osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells.
Hang, Alice Thanh
2009-01-01
Huppert. Energy balances for propagating gravity currents:perturbation on the gravity term. The balance of the meanbalance between inertial and buoyancy forces can be applied, as well as shallow water theory Gravity
How much gravity is needed to establish the perceptual upright?
Harris, Laurence R; Herpers, Rainer; Hofhammer, Thomas; Jenkin, Michael
2014-01-01
Might the gravity levels found on other planets and on the moon be sufficient to provide an adequate perception of upright for astronauts? Can the amount of gravity required be predicted from the physiological threshold for linear acceleration? The perception of upright is determined not only by gravity but also visual information when available and assumptions about the orientation of the body. Here, we used a human centrifuge to simulate gravity levels from zero to earth gravity along the long-axis of the body and measured observers' perception of upright using the Oriented Character Recognition Test (OCHART) with and without visual cues arranged to indicate a direction of gravity that differed from the body's long axis. This procedure allowed us to assess the relative contribution of the added gravity in determining the perceptual upright. Control experiments off the centrifuge allowed us to measure the relative contributions of normal gravity, vision, and body orientation for each participant. We found that the influence of 1 g in determining the perceptual upright did not depend on whether the acceleration was created by lying on the centrifuge or by normal gravity. The 50% threshold for centrifuge-simulated gravity's ability to influence the perceptual upright was at around 0.15 g, close to the level of moon gravity but much higher than the threshold for detecting linear acceleration along the long axis of the body. This observation may partially explain the instability of moonwalkers but is good news for future missions to Mars. PMID:25184481
How Much Gravity Is Needed to Establish the Perceptual Upright?
Harris, Laurence R.; Herpers, Rainer; Hofhammer, Thomas; Jenkin, Michael
2014-01-01
Might the gravity levels found on other planets and on the moon be sufficient to provide an adequate perception of upright for astronauts? Can the amount of gravity required be predicted from the physiological threshold for linear acceleration? The perception of upright is determined not only by gravity but also visual information when available and assumptions about the orientation of the body. Here, we used a human centrifuge to simulate gravity levels from zero to earth gravity along the long-axis of the body and measured observers' perception of upright using the Oriented Character Recognition Test (OCHART) with and without visual cues arranged to indicate a direction of gravity that differed from the body's long axis. This procedure allowed us to assess the relative contribution of the added gravity in determining the perceptual upright. Control experiments off the centrifuge allowed us to measure the relative contributions of normal gravity, vision, and body orientation for each participant. We found that the influence of 1 g in determining the perceptual upright did not depend on whether the acceleration was created by lying on the centrifuge or by normal gravity. The 50% threshold for centrifuge-simulated gravity's ability to influence the perceptual upright was at around 0.15 g, close to the level of moon gravity but much higher than the threshold for detecting linear acceleration along the long axis of the body. This observation may partially explain the instability of moonwalkers but is good news for future missions to Mars. PMID:25184481
Simpson, Fergus; Peacock, John A
2011-01-01
By relaxing the conventional assumption of a purely gravitational interaction between dark energy and dark matter, substantial alterations to the growth of cosmological structure can occur. In this work we focus on the homogeneous transfer of energy from a decaying form of dark energy. We present simple analytic solutions to the modified growth rates of matter fluctuations in these models, and demonstrate that neglecting physics within the dark sector may induce a significant bias in the inferred growth rate, potentially offering a false signature of modified gravity.
Pentahedral volume, chaos, and quantum gravity
Hal M. Haggard
2013-01-17
We show that chaotic classical dynamics associated to the volume of discrete grains of space leads to quantal spectra that are gapped between zero and nonzero volume. This strengthens the connection between spectral discreteness in the quantum geometry of gravity and tame ultraviolet behavior. We complete a detailed analysis of the geometry of a pentahedron, providing new insights into the volume operator and evidence of classical chaos in the dynamics it generates. These results reveal an unexplored realm of application for chaos in quantum gravity.
Stone, William J. (Kansas City, MO)
1986-01-01
A zero-home locator includes a fixed phototransistor switch and a moveable actuator including two symmetrical, opposed wedges, each wedge defining a point at which switching occurs. The zero-home location is the average of the positions of the points defined by the wedges.
Scaling Theorems for Zero Crossings
Alan L. Yuille; Tomaso A. Poggio
1986-01-01
We characterize some properties of the zero crossings of the Laplacian of signals¿in particular images¿filtered with linear filters, as a function of the scale of the filter (extending recent work by Witkin [16]). We prove that in any dimension the only filter that does not create generic zero crossings as the scale increases is the Gaussian. This result can be
Stability Issues in Euclidean Quantum Gravity
G. Modanese
1998-08-13
It is known that the action of Euclidean Einstein gravity is not bounded from below and that the metric of flat space does not correspond to a minimum of the action. Nevertheless, perturbation theory about flat space works well. The deep dynamical reasons for this reside in the non perturbative behaviour of the system and have been clarified in part by numerical simulations. Several open issues remain. We treat in particular those zero modes of the action for which R(x) is not identically zero, but the integral of sqrt{g(x)} R(x) vanishes.
Eliminating clutter by coordinate zeroing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deferrari, Harry; Rodgers, Andrew
2005-04-01
Shallow water doppler sonar is limited by clutter that masks the presence of slow targets. Clutter arises from scattering from irregularities in the bottom or from fish schools. If the source and receiver are fixed in a bi-static sonar configuration, then the bottom scatterers (and sometimes the fish) have only a zero doppler component. Clutter arises from the doppler leakage resulting from sonar signals that are inherently short in time and therefore cannot resolve bottom reverberation in frequency. Here long continuous pulse compressions signals are considered (m-sequences). Ambiguity diagrams are compared with simple CW pulse and PCM pulses. The unique correlation properties of M-sequences lead to a signal sampling method that resolves sonar returns in complete ortho-normal (CON) data sets. Zero doppler returns are identified as either direct arrivals or reverberation returns and then their particular coordinate can be set zero (coordinate zeroing) without affecting other data points. In this way, the zero-doppler bottom reverberation and all doppler leakage is eliminated. As an example, the return from a slow doppler target is imbedded in a very large number of reverberation returns that have higher signal level. As the zero doppler contributions are removed by coordinate zeroing the target becomes detectable.
Energy-ratio function for center-of-gravity feedback.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fang, T.-T.
1972-01-01
An energy-ratio function is introduced which greatly facilitates analysis and signal design for center-of-gravity feedback communication schemes. Using this function, we show that center-of-gravity feedback using regular-simplex signals achieves Shannon's lower bound on average energy per transmission for zero error probability if M, the number of messages, is 3, 4, or 5 and there is no constraint on system bandwidth.
Scott, William B
2005-04-25
NASA's Artificial Gravity program consists of a team of researchers from Wyle Laboratories, NASA Johnson Space Center, and the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB). The short-radius centrifuge (SRC), built by Wyle Laboratories, will be integrated with UTMB's conducted bedrest studies, which mimic the detrimental effects of weightlessness (or microgravity). Bedrest subjects will be spun on the SRC at various accelerations and for various time periods, while being monitored medically. Parameters such as bone loss, muscle atrophy, balance control, and oxygen consumption will then be compared in order to research ways of mitigating the impact on astronauts' physiology. Other potential benefits from these studies extend to population groups on Earth, such as bedridden patients. PMID:15852559
Joao Magueijo; Lee Smolin
2004-02-03
Non-linear special relativity (or doubly special relativity) is a simple framework for encoding properties of flat quantum space-time. In this paper we show how this formalism may be generalized to incorporate curvature (leading to what might be called ``doubly general relativity''). We first propose a dual to non-linear realizations of relativity in momentum space, and show that for such a dual the space-time invariant is an energy-dependent metric. This leads to an energy-dependent connection and curvature, and a simple modification to Einstein's equations. We then examine solutions to these equations. We find the counterpart to the cosmological metric, and show how cosmologies based upon our theory of gravity may solve the ``horizon problem''. We discuss the Schwarzchild solution, examining the conditions for which the horizon is energy dependent. We finally find the weak field limit.
Minimum length, extra dimensions, modified gravity and black hole remnants
Maziashvili, Michael
2013-03-01
We construct a Hilbert space representation of minimum-length deformed uncertainty relation in presence of extra dimensions. Following this construction, we study corrections to the gravitational potential (back reaction on gravity) with the use of correspondingly modified propagator in presence of two (spatial) extra dimensions. Interestingly enough, for r?0 the gravitational force approaches zero and the horizon for modified Schwarzschild-Tangherlini space-time disappears when the mass approaches quantum-gravity energy scale. This result points out to the existence of zero-temperature black hole remnants in ADD brane-world model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oriti, Daniele
2009-03-01
Preface; Part I. Fundamental Ideas and General Formalisms: 1. Unfinished revolution C. Rovelli; 2. The fundamental nature of space and time G. 't Hooft; 3. Does locality fail at intermediate length scales R. Sorkin; 4. Prolegomena to any future quantum gravity J. Stachel; 5. Spacetime symmetries in histories canonical gravity N. Savvidou; 6. Categorical geometry and the mathematical foundations of quantum gravity L. Crane; 7. Emergent relativity O. Dreyer; 8. Asymptotic safety R. Percacci; 9. New directions in background independent quantum gravity F. Markopoulou; Questions and answers; Part II: 10. Gauge/gravity duality G. Horowitz and J. Polchinski; 11. String theory, holography and quantum gravity T. Banks; 12. String field theory W. Taylor; Questions and answers; Part III: 13. Loop Quantum Gravity T. Thiemann; 14. Covariant loop quantum gravity? E. LIvine; 15. The spin foam representation of loop quantum gravity A. Perez; 16. 3-dimensional spin foam quantum gravity L. Freidel; 17. The group field theory approach to quantum gravity D. Oriti; Questions and answers; Part IV. Discrete Quantum Gravity: 18. Quantum gravity: the art of building spacetime J. Ambjørn, J. Jurkiewicz and R. Loll; 19. Quantum Regge calculations R. Williams; 20. Consistent discretizations as a road to quantum gravity R. Gambini and J. Pullin; 21. The causal set approach to quantum gravity J. Henson; Questions and answers; Part V. Effective Models and Quantum Gravity Phenomenology: 22. Quantum gravity phenomenology G. Amelino-Camelia; 23. Quantum gravity and precision tests C. Burgess; 24. Algebraic approach to quantum gravity II: non-commutative spacetime F. Girelli; 25. Doubly special relativity J. Kowalski-Glikman; 26. From quantum reference frames to deformed special relativity F. Girelli; 27. Lorentz invariance violation and its role in quantum gravity phenomenology J. Collins, A. Perez and D. Sudarsky; 28. Generic predictions of quantum theories of gravity L. Smolin; Questions and answers; Index.
Tarun Kanti Ghosh
2001-01-01
We study the collective excitations of a neutral atomic Bose-Einstein condensate with gravity-like $1\\/r $ interatomic attraction induced by electromagnetic wave. Using the time-dependent variational approach, we derive an analytical spectrum for monopole and quadrupole mode frequencies of a gravity-like self-bound Bose condensed state at zero temperature. We also analyze the excitation frequencies of the Thomas-Fermi-gravity (TF-G) and gravity (G)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Page, L. W.; From, T. P.
1977-01-01
The behavior of liquids in zero gravity environments is discussed with emphasis on foams, wetting, and wicks. A multipurpose electric furnace (MA-010) for the high temperature processing of metals and salts in zero-g is described. Experiments discussed include: monolectic and synthetic alloys (MA-041); multiple material melting point (MA-150); zero-g processing of metals (MA-070); surface tension induced convection (MA-041); halide eutectic growth; interface markings in crystals (MA-060); crystal growth from the vapor phase (MA-085); and photography of crystal growth (MA-028).
Gravity-induced stresses in finite slopes
Savage, W.Z.
1994-01-01
An exact solution for gravity-induced stresses in finite elastic slopes is presented. This solution, which is applied for gravity-induced stresses in 15, 30, 45 and 90?? finite slopes, has application in pit-slope design, compares favorably with published finite element results for this problem and satisfies the conditions that shear and normal stresses vanish on the ground surface. The solution predicts that horizontal stresses are compressive along the top of the slopes (zero in the case of the 90?? slope) and tensile away from the bottom of the slopes, effects which are caused by downward movement and near-surface horizontal extension in front of the slope in response to gravity loading caused by the additional material associated with the finite slope. ?? 1994.
Entropic force, noncommutative gravity, and ungravity
Nicolini, Piero
2010-08-15
After recalling the basic concepts of gravity as an emergent phenomenon, we analyze the recent derivation of Newton's law in terms of entropic force proposed by Verlinde. By reviewing some points of the procedure, we extend it to the case of a generic quantum gravity entropic correction to get compelling deviations to the Newton's law. More specifically, we study: (1) noncommutative geometry deviations and (2) ungraviton corrections. As a special result in the noncommutative case, we find that the noncommutative character of the manifold would be equivalent to the temperature of a thermodynamic system. Therefore, in analogy to the zero temperature configuration, the description of spacetime in terms of a differential manifold could be obtained only asymptotically. Finally, we extend the Verlinde's derivation to a general case, which includes all possible effects, noncommutativity, ungravity, asymptotically safe gravity, electrostatic energy, and extra dimensions, showing that the procedure is solid versus such modifications.
A Simple Volcano Potential with an Analytic, Zero-Energy, Ground State
Michael Martin Nieto
2000-05-30
We describe a simple volcano potential, which is supersymmetric and has an analytic, zero-energy, ground state. (The KK modes are also analytic.) It is an interior harmonic oscillator potential properly matched to an exterior angular momentum-like tail. Special cases are given to elucidate the physics, which may be intuitively useful in studies of higher-dimensional gravity.
Compound pendant drop tensiometry for surface tension measurement at zero Bond number
Chan, Derek Y C
Compound pendant drop tensiometry for surface tension measurement at zero Bond number Michael J, surface tension dominates and the drop does not deform. To address this problem, a complex experimental the interfacial tension between fluids is to quantify the pendant drop shape that is determined by gravity
Does Yang-Mills theory describe quantum gravity?
Masanori Hanada
2014-07-20
The strongest version of the gauge/gravity duality conjecture relates the 1/N correction in super Yang-Mills theory and the quantum correction in superstring theory. We perform a quantitative test of this conjecture at finite temperature, by studying the D0-brane matrix quantum mechanics and the black zero-brane in type IIA superstring theory. We find good agreement, which strongly suggests that the super Yang-Mills theory does provide us with a nonperturbative formulation of quantum gravity through the gauge/gravity duality.
Analytical Study of Gravity Effects on Laminar Diffusion Flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edelman, R. B.; Fortune, O.; Weilerstein, G.
1972-01-01
A mathematical model is presented for the description of axisymmetric laminar-jet diffusion flames. The analysis includes the effects of inertia, viscosity, diffusion, gravity and combustion. These mechanisms are coupled in a boundary layer type formulation and solutions are obtained by an explicit finite difference technique. A dimensional analysis shows that the maximum flame width radius, velocity and thermodynamic state characterize the flame structure. Comparisons with experimental data showed excellent agreement for normal gravity flames and fair agreement for steady state low Reynolds number zero gravity flames. Kinetics effects and radiation are shown to be the primary mechanisms responsible for this discrepancy. Additional factors are discussed including elipticity and transient effects.
Gravity survey of Hualapai Flat and the southern part of Black Rock Desert, Nevada
Crewdson
1978-01-01
During May and June 1975, a gravity survey was carried out along a series of traverses crossing the southern part of the Black Rock Desert and Hualapai Flat. Values for the free-air gravity anomaly were computed, with the effect of low-density alluvium being removed. The free-air gravity is close to zero over most of the survey area, indicating that the
Momentum space topology of fermion zero modes on brane
G. E. Volovik
2002-01-09
We discuss fermion zero modes within the 3+1 brain -- the domain wall between the two vacua in 4+1 spacetime. We do not assume relativistic invariance in 4+1 spacetime, or any special form of the 4+1 action. The only input is that the fermions in bulk are fully gapped and are described by nontrivial momentum-space topology. Then the 3+1 wall between such vacua contains chiral 3+1 fermions. The bosonic collective modes in the wall form the gauge and gravitational fields. In principle, this universality class of fermionic vacua can contain all the ingredients of the Standard Model and gravity.
Zero modes on zero-angle grain boundaries in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillips, Madeleine; Mele, E. J.
2015-03-01
Electronic states confined to zero-angle grain boundaries in single-layer graphene are analyzed using topological band theoretic arguments. We identify a hidden chiral symmetry which supports symmetry-protected zero modes in projected bulk gaps. These branches occupy a finite fraction of the interface-projected Brillouin zone and terminate at bulk gap closures, manifesting topological transitions in the occupied manifolds of the bulk systems that are joined at an interface. These features are studied by numerical calculations on a tight-binding lattice and by analysis of the geometric phases of the bulk ground states.
Chiral Gravity, Log Gravity and Extremal CFT
Alexander Maloney; Wei Song; Andrew Strominger
2009-03-26
We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS3 vacuum have positive energy. Non-chiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity-- the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions --has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic CFT. Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We normally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.
The behavior of surface tension on steady-state rotating fluids in the low gravity environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, R. J.; Leslie, Fred W.
1987-01-01
The effect of surface tension on steady-state rotating fluids in a low gravity environment is studied. All the values of the physical parameters used in these calculations, except in the low gravity environments, are based on the measurements carried out by Leslie (1985) in the low gravity environment of a free-falling aircraft. The profile of the interface of two fluids is derived from Laplace's equation relating the pressure drop across an interface to the radii of curvature which has been applied to a low gravity rotating bubble that contacts the container boundary. The interface shape depends on the ratio of gravity to surface tension forces, the ratio of centrifugal to surface tension forces, the contact radius of the interface to the boundary, and the contact angle. The shape of the bubble is symmetric about its equator in a zero-gravity environment. This symmetry disappears and gradually shifts to parabolic profiles as the gravity environment becomes non-zero. The location of the maximum radius of the bubble moves upward from the center of the depth toward the top boundary of the cylinder as gravity increases. The contact radius of interface to the boundary r0 at the top side of cylinder increases and r0 at the bottom side of the cylinder decreases as the gravity environment increases from zero to 1 g.
Feeling Gravity's Pull: Gravity Modeling. The Gravity Field of Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, Frank; Smith, David; Rowlands, David; Zuber, Maria; Neumann, G.; Chinn, Douglas; Pavlis, D.
2000-01-01
Most people take the constant presence of gravitys pull for granted. However, the Earth's gravitational strength actually varies from location to location. This variation occurs because mass, which influences an object's gravitational pull, is not evenly distributed within the planet. Changes in topography, such as glacial movement, an earthquake, or a rise in the ocean level, can subtly affect the gravity field. An accurate measurement of the Earth's gravity field helps us understand the distribution of mass beneath the surface. This insight can assist us in locating petroleum, mineral deposits, ground water, and other valuable substances. Gravity mapping can also help notice or verify changes in sea surface height and other ocean characteristics. Such changes may indicate climate change from polar ice melting and other phenomena. In addition, gravity mapping can indicate how land moves under the surface after earthquakes and other plate tectonic processes. Finally, changes in the Earth's gravity field might indicate a shift in water distribution that could affect agriculture, water supplies for population centers, and long-term weather prediction. Scientists can map out the Earth's gravity field by watching satellite orbits. When a satellite shifts in vertical position, it might be passing over an area where gravity changes in strength. Gravity is only one factor that may shape a satellite's orbital path. To derive a gravity measurement from satellite movement, scientists must remove other factors that might affect a satellite's position: 1. Drag from atmospheric friction. 2. Pressure from solar radiation as it heads toward Earth and. as it is reflected off the surface of the Earth 3. Gravitational pull from the Sun, the Moon, and other planets in the Solar System. 4. The effect of tides. 5. Relativistic effects. Scientists must also correct for the satellite tracking process. For example, the tracking signal must be corrected for refraction through the atmosphere of the Earth. Supercomputers can calculate the effect of gravity for specific locations in space following a mathematical process known as spherical harmonics, which quantifies the gravity field of a planetary body. The process is based on Laplace's fundamental differential equation of gravity. The accuracy of a spherical harmonic solution is rated by its degree and order. Minute variations in gravity are measured against the geoid, a surface of constant gravity acceleration at mean sea level. The geoid reference gravity model strength includes the central body gravitational attraction (9.8 m/sq s) and a geopotential variation in latitude partially caused by the rotation of the Earth. The rotational effect modifies the shape of the geoid to be more like an ellipsoid, rather than a perfect, circle. Variations of gravity strength from the ellipsoidal reference model are measured in units called milli-Galileos (mGals). One mGal equals 10(exp -5) m/sq s. Research projects have also measured the gravity fields of other planetary bodies, as noted in the user profile that follows. From this information, we may make inferences about our own planet's internal structure and evolution. Moreover, mapping the gravity fields of other planets can help scientists plot the most fuel-efficient course for spacecraft expeditions to those planets.
Feeling Gravity's Pull: Gravity Modeling. The Gravity Field of Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemoine, Frank; Smith, David; Rowlands, David; Zuber, Maria; Neumann, G.; Chinn, Douglas; Pavlis, D.
2000-01-01
Most people take the constant presence of gravitys pull for granted. However, the Earth's gravitational strength actually varies from location to location. This variation occurs because mass, which influences an object's gravitational pull, is not evenly distributed within the planet. Changes in topography, such as glacial movement, an earthquake, or a rise in the ocean level, can subtly affect the gravity field. An accurate measurement of the Earth's gravity field helps us understand the distribution of mass beneath the surface. This insight can assist us in locating petroleum, mineral deposits, ground water, and other valuable substances. Gravity mapping can also help notice or verify changes in sea surface height and other ocean characteristics. Such changes may indicate climate change from polar ice melting and other phenomena. In addition, gravity mapping can indicate how land moves under the surface after earthquakes and other plate tectonic processes. Finally, changes in the Earth's gravity field might indicate a shift in water distribution that could affect agriculture, water supplies for population centers, and long-term weather prediction. Scientists can map out the Earth's gravity field by watching satellite orbits. When a satellite shifts in vertical position, it might be passing over an area where gravity changes in strength. Gravity is only one factor that may shape a satellite's orbital path. To derive a gravity measurement from satellite movement, scientists must remove other factors that might affect a satellite's position: 1. Drag from atmospheric friction. 2. Pressure from solar radiation as it heads toward Earth and. as it is reflected off the surface of the Earth 3. Gravitational pull from the Sun, the Moon, and other planets in the Solar System. 4. The effect of tides. 5. Relativistic effects. Scientists must also correct for the satellite tracking process. For example, the tracking signal must be corrected for refraction through the atmosphere of the Earth. Supercomputers can calculate the effect of gravity for specific locations in space following a mathematical process known as spherical harmonics, which quantifies the gravity field of a planetary body. The process is based on Laplace's fundamental differential equation of gravity. The accuracy of a spherical harmonic solution is rated by its degree and order. Minute variations in gravity are measured against the geoid, a surface of constant gravity acceleration at mean sea level. The geoid reference gravity model strength includes the central body gravitational attraction (9.8 m/sq s) and a geopotential variation in latitude partially caused by the rotation of the Earth. The rotational effect modifies the shape of the geoid to be more like an ellipsoid, rather than a perfect, circle. Variations of gravity strength from the ellipsoidal reference model are measured in units called milli-Galileos (mGals). One mGal equals 10-5 m/sq s. Research projects have also measured the gravity fields of other planetary bodies, as noted in the user profile that follows. From this information, we may make inferences about our own planet's internal structure and evolution. Moreover, mapping the gravity fields of other planets can help scientists plot the most fuel-efficient course for spacecraft expeditions to those planets.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gundersen, R. T.; Bond, R. L.
1976-01-01
Zero-g workstations were designed throughout manned spaceflight, based on different criteria and requirements for different programs. The history of design of these workstations is presented along with a thorough evaluation of selected Skylab workstations (the best zero-g experience available on the subject). The results were applied to on-going and future programs, with special emphasis on the correlation of neutral body posture in zero-g to workstation design. Where selected samples of shuttle orbiter workstations are shown as currently designed and compared to experience gained during prior programs in terms of man machine interface design, the evaluations were done in a generic sense to show the methods of applying evaluative techniques.
Consequences of theories of gravity on gravitational leptogenesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lambiase, G.; Mohanty, S.; Pizza, L.
2013-09-01
-theories of gravity are reviewed in the framework of the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe. The asymmetry is generated by the gravitational coupling of heavy (Majorana) neutrinos with the Ricci scalar curvature. In order that the mechanism works, a time varying non-zero Ricci curvature is necessary. The latter is provided by cosmology, whose Lagrangian density is of the form , with.
A Demonstration of Einstein's Equivalence of Gravity and Acceleration
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Newburgh, Ronald
2008-01-01
In 1907, Einstein described a "Gedankenexperiment" in which he showed that free fall in a gravitational field is indistinguishable from a body at rest in an elevator accelerated upwards in zero gravity. This paper describes an apparatus, which is simple to make and simple to operate, that acts as an observable footnote to Einstein's example. It…
Spherically symmetric static vacuum solutions in Mimetic gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Sebastiani, Lorenzo
2015-08-01
In this paper we analyze spherically symmetric static vacuum solutions with various topologies in mimetic gravity. When the Einstein's tensor is different from zero, a new class of solutions different from the Schwarzschild one emerges from the theory. We analyze the feature of the new solutions and we study the planar motion for the spherical case.
Density-metric unimodular gravity: Vacuum maximal symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbassi, A. H.; Abbassi, A. M.
2011-05-01
We have investigated the vacuum maximally symmetric solutions of recently proposed density-metric unimodular gravity theory. The results are widely different from inflationary scenario. The exponential dependence on time in deSitter space is substituted by a power law. Open space-times with non-zero cosmological constant are excluded.
Density-metric unimodular gravity: Vacuum maximal symmetry
Abbassi, A.H., E-mail: ahabbasi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14155-4838, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abbassi, A.M., E-mail: amabasi@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14155-6455, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-05-15
We have investigated the vacuum maximally symmetric solutions of recently proposed density-metric unimodular gravity theory. The results are widely different from inflationary scenario. The exponential dependence on time in deSitter space is substituted by a power law. Open space-times with non-zero cosmological constant are excluded.
Towards noncommutative gravity
D. V. Vassilevich
2009-02-17
In this short article accessible for non-experts I discuss possible ways of constructing a non-commutative gravity paying special attention to possibilities of realizing the full diffeomorphism symmetry and to relations with 2D gravities.
Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine. ... changes to will tell the provider the specific gravity of your urine. The dipstick test gives only ...
Quantum Physics Einstein's Gravity
Visser, Matt
Quantum Physics confronts Einstein's Gravity Matt Visser Physics Department Washington University Saint Louis USA Science Saturdays 13 October 2001 #12; Quantum Physics confronts Einstein's Gravity Abstract: The search for an overall master theory that is compatible both with quantum physics
Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations
Jan Harms
2015-07-21
The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our understanding of terrestrial gravity fluctuations will have great impact on the future development of GW detectors and high-precision gravimetry in general, and many open questions need to be answered still as emphasized in this article.
Karim Noui
2010-03-31
We tackle the question of motion in Quantum Gravity: what does motion mean at the Planck scale? Although we are still far from a complete answer we consider here a toy model in which the problem can be formulated and resolved precisely. The setting of the toy model is three dimensional Euclidean gravity. Before studying the model in detail, we argue that Loop Quantum Gravity may provide a very useful approach when discussing the question of motion in Quantum Gravity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bukley, Angie; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles
2006-01-01
This chapter discusses potential technologies for achieving artificial gravity in a space vehicle. We begin with a series of definitions and a general description of the rotational dynamics behind the forces ultimately exerted on the human body during centrifugation, such as gravity level, gravity gradient, and Coriolis force. Human factors considerations and comfort limits associated with a rotating environment are then discussed. Finally, engineering options for designing space vehicles with artificial gravity are presented.
Stephen Hawking Quantum Gravity
Visser, Matt
Stephen Hawking and Quantum Gravity Matt Visser Physics Department Washington University Saint Louis USA Science Saturdays 4 Nov 2000 #12; Stephen Hawking and Quantum Gravity Abstract: Through research, Stephen Hawking has captured a place in the popular imagina- tion. Quantum gravity in its various
Intrinsic spin requires gravity with torsion and curvature
Nikodem Poplawski
2013-03-29
We show that the intrinsic angular momentum of matter in curved spacetime requires the metric-affine formulation of gravity, in which the antisymmetric part of the affine connection (the torsion tensor) is not constrained to be zero but is a variable in the principle of stationary action. Regarding the tetrad and spin connection (or the metric and torsion tensors) as independent variables gives the correct generalization of the conservation law for the total (orbital plus intrinsic) angular momentum to the presence of the gravitational field. The metric-affine formulation extends general relativity to the simplest theory of gravity with intrinsic spin: the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory. We also show that teleparallel gravity, which constrains the connection by setting the curvature tensor to zero, is inconsistent with the conservation of the total angular momentum.
The ATLAS zero degree calorimeter
White, S.
2009-10-17
In May of 2009 the ATLAS zero degree calorimeter was installed in its initial configuration and integrated into the ATLAS trigger/daq. The detector was designed to measure Global characteristics of events - particularly in PbPb collisions - through the measurement of energy and position of very forward neutral particles. Here we discuss the design and tests - particularly of radiation hardness.
Moving Toward Zero Energy Buildings
Ginsberg, M.
2008-01-01
enough of their own power that, over the course of a year, they produce as much as they need to operate.? Some may call them zero emissions, eco-buildings, green buildings, solar buildings. I don?t quibble with a definition. The important thing...
Local stretch zeroing NMO correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazemi, N.; Siahkoohi, H. R.
2012-01-01
In this paper we present a new method of normal move-out (NMO) correction called local stretch zeroing (LSZ) method that avoids NMO stretch. The method eliminates the theoretical curves that generate interpolated data samples responsible for NMO stretch. Pre-correction time sampling interval is preserved by reassigning and zero padding of true data samples. The optimum mute zone selection feature of the LSZ method eliminates all interfering reflection events at far offsets. The resulted stacked section from the LSZ method contains generally higher frequency components than a normal stack, and preserves most of the shallow reflectors. The LSZ method requires that zero-offset width of the time gate, i.e. zero-offset time difference between two adjacent reflections, be larger than the dominant period. The major shortcoming of the method occurs when CMP data are over- or under-NMO corrected. Both synthetic and real world examples show the efficiency of the LSZ method over the conventional NMO (CNMO) correction. The method loses its superiority when CMP data are over- or under-NMO corrected.
"Zero Tolerance" for Free Speech.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hils, Lynda
2001-01-01
Argues that school policies of "zero tolerance" of threatening speech may violate a student's First Amendment right to freedom of expression if speech is less than a "true threat." Suggests a two-step analysis to determine if student speech is a "true threat." (PKP)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Axtell, M.; Stickles, J.
2010-01-01
The last ten years have seen an explosion of research in the zero-divisor graphs of commutative rings--by professional mathematicians "and" undergraduates. The objective is to find algebraic information within the geometry of these graphs. This topic is approachable by anyone with one or two semesters of abstract algebra. This article gives the…
Stepping Back from Zero Tolerance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Browne-Dianis, Judith
2011-01-01
Schools' use of zero tolerance policies has been increasing since the 1980s as part of a societal movement to crack down on drug abuse and violence among youth. But far from making schools safer, this harsh, inflexible approach to discipline has been eroding the culture of schools and creating devastating consequences for children, writes…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rowley, Jo Anne
The handbook describes the Project FIND Zero-Reject Model for identifying and serving handicapped children in Texas's Gregory-Portland Independent School District. A Flow Chart of the system is provided, and the following components are discussed (sample subtopics in parentheses): needs assessment, staffing patterns (responsibilities of directors,…
Conformal gravity and "gravitational bubbles"
Berezin, V A; Eroshenko, Yu N
2015-01-01
We describe the general structure of the spherically symmetric solutions in the Weyl conformal gravity. The corresponding Bach equations are derived for the special type of metrics, which can be considered as the representative of the general class. The complete set of the pure vacuum solutions, consisting of two classes, is found. The first one contains the solutions with constant two-dimensional curvature scalar, and the representatives are the famous Robertson--Walker metrics. We called one of them the "gravitational bubbles", which is compact and with zero Weyl tensor. These "gravitational bubbles" are the pure vacuum curved space-times (without any material sources, including the cosmological constant), which are absolutely impossible in General Relativity. This phenomenon makes it easier to create the universe from "nothing". The second class consists of the solutions with varying curvature scalar. We found its representative as the one-parameter family, which can be conformally covered by the thee-para...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eichhorn, Astrid
2013-04-01
Unimodular gravity is classically equivalent to standard Einstein gravity, but differs when it comes to the quantum theory: The conformal factor is non-dynamical, and the gauge symmetry consists of transverse diffeomorphisms only. Furthermore, the cosmological constant is not renormalized. Thus the quantum theory is distinct from a quantization of standard Einstein gravity. Here I show that within a truncation of the full Renormalization Group flow of unimodular quantum gravity, there is a non-trivial ultraviolet-attractive fixed point, yielding a UV completion for unimodular gravity.
A research of 3D gravity inversion based on the recovery of sparse underdetermined linear equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhaohai, M.
2014-12-01
Because of the properties of gravity data, it is made difficult to solve the problem of multiple solutions. There are two main types of 3D gravity inversion methods?One of two methods is based on the improvement of the instability of the sensitive matrix, solving the problem of multiple solutions and instability in 3D gravity inversion. Another is to join weight function into the 3D gravity inversion iteration. Through constant iteration, it can renewal density values and weight function to achieve the purpose to solve the multiple solutions and instability of the 3D gravity data inversion. Thanks to the sparse nature of the solutions of 3D gravity data inversions, we can transform it into a sparse equation. Then, through solving the sparse equations, we can get perfect 3D gravity inversion results. The main principle is based on zero norm of sparse matrix solution of the equation. Zero norm is mainly to solve the nonzero solution of the sparse matrix. However, the method of this article adopted is same as the principle of zero norm. But the method is the opposite of zero norm to obtain zero value solution. Through the form of a Gaussian fitting solution of the zero norm, we can find the solution by using regularization principle. Moreover, this method has been proved that it had a certain resistance to random noise in the mathematics, and it was more suitable than zero norm for the solution of the geophysical data. 3D gravity which is adopted in this article can well identify abnormal body density distribution characteristics, and it can also recognize the space position of abnormal distribution very well. We can take advantage of the density of the upper and lower limit penalty function to make each rectangular residual density within a reasonable range. Finally, this 3D gravity inversion is applied to a variety of combination model test, such as a single straight three-dimensional model, the adjacent straight three-dimensional model and Y three-dimensional model. They are classical model. We find that the inversion results are basically consistent with the results of forward models. Finally we apply the 3D gravity inversion method to the actual gravity data in Texas of the USA state. And we get the 3D gravity inversion which is almost the same with previous results.
Conformal gravity and "gravitational bubbles"
V. A. Berezin; V. I. Dokuchaev; Yu. N. Eroshenko
2015-09-01
We describe the general structure of the spherically symmetric solutions in the Weyl conformal gravity. The corresponding Bach equations are derived for the special type of metrics, which can be considered as the representative of the general class. The complete set of the pure vacuum solutions, consisting of two classes, is found. The first one contains the solutions with constant two-dimensional curvature scalar, and the representatives are the famous Robertson--Walker metrics. We called one of them the "gravitational bubbles", which is compact and with zero Weyl tensor. These "gravitational bubbles" are the pure vacuum curved space-times (without any material sources, including the cosmological constant), which are absolutely impossible in General Relativity. This phenomenon makes it easier to create the universe from "nothing". The second class consists of the solutions with varying curvature scalar. We found its representative as the one-parameter family, which can be conformally covered by the thee-parameter Mannheim--Kazanas solution. We describe the general structure of the energy-momentum tensor in the spherical conformal gravity and construct the vectorial equation that reveals clearly some features of non-vacuum solutions.
Quantization of Emergent Gravity
Hyun Seok Yang
2014-12-24
Emergent gravity is based on a novel form of the equivalence principle known as the Darboux theorem or the Moser lemma in symplectic geometry stating that the electromagnetic force can always be eliminated by a local coordinate transformation as far as spacetime admits a symplectic structure, in other words, a microscopic spacetime becomes noncommutative (NC). If gravity emerges from U(1) gauge theory on NC spacetime, this picture of emergent gravity suggests a completely new quantization scheme where quantum gravity is defined by quantizing spacetime itself, leading to a dynamical NC spacetime. Therefore the quantization of emergent gravity is radically different from the conventional approach trying to quantize a phase space of metric fields. This approach for quantum gravity allows a background independent formulation where spacetime as well as matter fields is equally emergent from a universal vacuum of quantum gravity.
Zero-viscosity limit in a holographic Gauss-Bonnet liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grozdanov, S.; Starinets, A. O.
2015-01-01
In recent papers, it was hypothesized that there exist dissipationless quantum liquids, i.e., liquids with zero or vanishingly small viscosity and zero entropy production, which nevertheless have nontrivial second-order transport coefficients. A natural candidate for a dissipationless liquid is the hypothetical conformal quantum liquid, whose holographically dual description in the infrared limit is given by the five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet gravity. It is known that shear viscosity in that theory can be made arbitrarily small as the Gauss-Bonnet coupling parameter approaches a critical value. We evaluate the transport coefficients of a Gauss-Bonnet liquid (nonperturbatively in the coupling parameter; three of the six coefficients were previously unknown) and consider the zero-viscosity limit. We show that three of the five second-order coefficients are nonzero in this limit, but they do not satisfy the criterion of zero entropy production. Hence, the holographic Gauss-Bonnet liquid is not a dissipationless quantum liquid.
Entropy density of spacetime from the zero point length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kothawala, Dawood; Padmanabhan, T.
2015-09-01
It is possible to obtain gravitational field equations in a large class of theories from a thermodynamic variational principle which uses the gravitational heat density Sg associated with null surfaces. This heat density is related to the structure of spacetime at Planck scale, LP2 = (G? /c3), which assigns A? /LP2 degrees of freedom to any area A?. On the other hand, it is also known that the surface term K?{ h} in the gravitational action correctly reproduces the heat density of the null surfaces. We provide a link between these ideas by obtaining Sg, used in emergent gravity paradigm, from the surface term in the Einstein-Hilbert action. This is done using the notion of a nonlocal qmetric - introduced recently [arxiv:arXiv:1307.5618, arxiv:arXiv:1405.4967] - which allows us to study the effects of zero-point-length of spacetime at the transition scale between quantum and classical gravity. Computing K?{ h} for the qmetric in the appropriate limit directly reproduces the entropy density Sg used in the emergent gravity paradigm.
Surface tension and bubble shapes in a partially filled rotating cylinder under low gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.; Leslie, Fred W.; Hong, B. B.
1988-01-01
A computer algorithm is developed to simulate the profile of a free liquid surface for a cylindrical container partially filled with a Newtonian fluid of constant density, rotating about its axis of symmetry. The equilibrium shape of the free surface is governed by a balance of capillary, centrifugal, and gravity forces. The results can be used to determine the profile of a bubble at various rotating speeds under the gravity environments from low gravity, microgravity to zero-gravity. The present paper discusses the further extension of the study of the determination of bubble shape in a higher rotating speed container developed by Hung and Leslie.
Singularity perturbed zero dynamics of nonlinear systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Isidori, A.; Sastry, S. S.; Kokotovic, P. V.; Byrnes, C. I.
1992-01-01
Stability properties of zero dynamics are among the crucial input-output properties of both linear and nonlinear systems. Unstable, or 'nonminimum phase', zero dynamics are a major obstacle to input-output linearization and high-gain designs. An analysis of the effects of regular perturbations in system equations on zero dynamics shows that whenever a perturbation decreases the system's relative degree, it manifests itself as a singular perturbation of zero dynamics. Conditions are given under which the zero dynamics evolve in two timescales characteristic of a standard singular perturbation form that allows a separate analysis of slow and fast parts of the zero dynamics.
Spacecraft intercept guidance using zero effort miss steering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newman, Brett
The suitability of proportional navigation, or an equivalent zero effort miss formulation, for spacecraft intercepts during midcourse guidance, followed by a ballistic coast to the endgame, is addressed. The problem is formulated in terms of relative motion in a general 3D framework. The proposed guidance law for the commanded thrust vector orientation consists of the sum of two terms: (1) along the line of sight unit direction and (2) along the zero effort miss component perpendicular to the line of sight and proportional to the miss itself and a guidance gain. If the guidance law is to be suitable for longer range targeting applications with significant ballistic coasting after burnout, determination of the zero effort miss must account for the different gravitational accelerations experienced by each vehicle. The proposed miss determination techniques employ approximations for the true differential gravity effect. Theoretical results are applied to a numerical engagement scenario and the resulting performance is evaluated in terms of the miss distances determined from nonlinear simulation.
Exoatmospheric intercepts using zero effort miss steering for midcourse guidance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newman, Brett
The suitability of proportional navigation, or an equivalent zero effort miss formulation, for exatmospheric intercepts during midcourse guidance, followed by a ballistic coast to the endgame, is addressed. The problem is formulated in terms of relative motion in a general, three dimensional framework. The proposed guidance law for the commanded thrust vector orientation consists of the sum of two terms: (1) along the line of sight unit direction and (2) along the zero effort miss component perpendicular to the line of sight and proportional to the miss itself and a guidance gain. If the guidance law is to be suitable for longer range targeting applications with significant ballistic coasting after burnout, determination of the zero effort miss must account for the different gravitational accelerations experienced by each vehicle. The proposed miss determination techniques employ approximations for the true differential gravity effect and thus, are less accurate than a direct numerical propagation of the governing equations, but more accurate than a baseline determination, which assumes equal accelerations for both vehicles. Approximations considered are constant, linear, quadratic, and linearized inverse square models. Theoretical results are applied to a numerical engagement scenario and the resulting performance is evaluated in terms of the miss distances determined from nonlinear simulation.
Gravity gradient modeling using gravity and DEM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Lizhi; Jekeli, Christopher
2009-06-01
A model of the gravity gradient tensor at aircraft altitude is developed from the combination of ground gravity anomaly data and a digital elevation model. The gravity data are processed according to various operational solutions to the boundary-value problem (numerical integration of Stokes’ integral, radial-basis splines, and least-squares collocation). The terrain elevation data are used to reduce free-air anomalies to the geoid and to compute a corresponding indirect effect on the gradients at altitude. We compare the various modeled gradients to airborne gradiometric data and find differences of the order of 10-20 E (SD) for all gradient tensor elements. Our analysis of these differences leads to a conclusion that their source may be primarily measurement error in these particular gradient data. We have thus demonstrated the procedures and the utility of combining ground gravity and elevation data to validate airborne gradiometer systems.
Einstein gravity, massive gravity, multi-gravity and nonlinear realizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goon, Garrett; Hinterbichler, Kurt; Joyce, Austin; Trodden, Mark
2015-07-01
The existence of a ghost free theory of massive gravity begs for an interpre-tation as a Higgs phase of General Relativity. We revisit the study of massive gravity as a Higgs phase. Absent a compelling microphysical model of spontaneous symmetry breaking in gravity, we approach this problem from the viewpoint of nonlinear realizations. We employ the coset construction to search for the most restrictive symmetry breaking pattern whose low energy theory will both admit the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) potentials and nonlinearly realize every symmetry of General Relativity, thereby providing a new perspective from which to build theories of massive gravity. In addition to the known ghost-free terms, we find a novel parity violating interaction which preserves the constraint structure of the theory, but which vanishes on the normal branch of the theory. Finally, the procedure is extended to the cases of bi-gravity and multi-vielbein theories. Analogous parity violating interactions exist here, too, and may be non-trivial for certain classes of multi-metric theories.
Shear waves in inhomogeneous, compressible fluids in a gravity field.
Godin, Oleg A
2014-03-01
While elastic solids support compressional and shear waves, waves in ideal compressible fluids are usually thought of as compressional waves. Here, a class of acoustic-gravity waves is studied in which the dilatation is identically zero, and the pressure and density remain constant in each fluid particle. These shear waves are described by an exact analytic solution of linearized hydrodynamics equations in inhomogeneous, quiescent, inviscid, compressible fluids with piecewise continuous parameters in a uniform gravity field. It is demonstrated that the shear acoustic-gravity waves also can be supported by moving fluids as well as quiescent, viscous fluids with and without thermal conductivity. Excitation of a shear-wave normal mode by a point source and the normal mode distortion in realistic environmental models are considered. The shear acoustic-gravity waves are likely to play a significant role in coupling wave processes in the ocean and atmosphere. PMID:24606251
Equilibrium statistics of an inelastically bouncing ball, subject to gravity and a random force direction, such as gravity, and an additional -correlated random force with zero mean. The Newtonian to a constant force in the -x direction plus a -correlated random force. At x=0 the particle is reflected
Disappearing cosmological constant in f( R) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Starobinsky, A. A.
2007-10-01
For higher-derivative f( R) gravity, where R is the Ricci scalar, a class of models is proposed, which produce viable cosmology different from the ACDM at recent times and satisfy cosmological, Solar System, and laboratory tests. These models have both flat and de Sitter spacetimes as particular solutions in the absence of matter. Thus, a cosmological constant is zero in a flat spacetime, but appears effectively in a curved one for sufficiently large R. A “smoking gun” for these models would be a small discrepancy in the values of the slope of the primordial perturbation power spectrum determined from galaxy surveys and CMB fluctuations. On the other hand, a new problem for dark energy models based on f( R) gravity is pointed out, which is connected with the possible overproduction of new massive scalar particles (scalarons) arising in this theory in the very early Universe.
Entropy, Gravity and the Mass-Boom
Antonio Alfonso-Faus
2010-09-12
Verlinde presents the gravitational force as due to gradients of entropy, an emergent force, with far reaching consequences. Using the Hawking-Bekenstein entropy formulation, we arrive at the conclusion that the Mass-Boom effect, presented elsewhere, forces the entropy of the universe to increase. Then the Mass-Boom is directly related to the existence of gravity. The principle of Mach implies that the Mass-Boom is responsible for the expansion of the universe. Thus, the Mass-Boom effect is a necessary condition for: 1) the increase of entropy with time, 2) the existence of gravity, and 3) for the expansion of the universe. The universe seems to initially appear and grow out of polarization: positive mass-boom (energy) versus negative gravitational potential energy boom, adding both always to zero. Polarization is then the cause of creation and evolution of the universe.
Black hole solutions in massive gravity
Michael V. Bebronne; Peter G. Tinyakov
2011-06-07
The static vacuum spherically symmetric solutions in massive gravity are obtained both analytically and numerically. The solutions depend on two parameters (integration constants): the mass M (or, equivalently, the Schwarzschild radius), and an additional parameter, the "scalar charge" S. At zero value of S and positive mass the standard Schwarzschild black hole solutions are recovered. Depending on the parameters of the model and the signs of M and S, the solutions may or may not have horizon. Those with the horizon describe modified black holes provided they are stable against small perturbations. In the analytically solvable example, the modified black hole solutions may have both attractive and repulsive (anti-gravitating) behavior at large distances. At intermediate distances the gravitational potential of a modified black hole may mimics the presence of dark matter. Modified black hole solutions are also found numerically in more realistic massive gravity models which are attractors of the cosmological evolution.
Unified theory of nonlinear electrodynamics and gravity
Torres-Gomez, Alexander; Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)
2011-01-15
We describe a class of unified theories of electromagnetism and gravity. The Lagrangian is of the BF type, with a potential for the B field, the gauge group is U(2) (complexified). Given a choice of the potential function the theory is a deformation of (complex) general relativity and electromagnetism, and describes just two propagating polarizations of the graviton and two of the photon. When gravity is switched off the theory becomes the usual nonlinear electrodynamics with a general structure function. The Einstein-Maxwell theory can be recovered by sending some of the parameters of the defining potential to zero, but for any generic choice of the potential the theory is indistinguishable from Einstein-Maxwell at low energies. A real theory is obtained by imposing suitable reality conditions. We also study the spherically-symmetric solution and show how the usual Reissner-Nordstrom solution is recovered.
Gribov ambiguity in asymptotically AdS three-dimensional gravity
Anabalon, Andres; Canfora, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Alex; Oliva, Julio
2011-03-15
In this paper the zero modes of the de Donder gauge Faddeev-Popov operator for three-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant are analyzed. It is found that the AdS{sub 3} vacuum produces (infinitely many) normalizable smooth zero modes of the Faddeev-Popov operator. On the other hand, it is found that the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole (including the zero mass black hole) does not generate zero modes. This differs from the usual Gribov problem in QCD where, close to the maximally symmetric vacuum, the Faddeev-Popov determinant is positive definite while 'far enough' from the vacuum it can vanish. This suggests that the zero mass Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole could be a suitable ground state of three-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant. Because of the kinematic origin of this result, it also applies for other covariant gravity theories in three dimensions with AdS{sub 3} as maximally symmetric solution, such as new massive gravity and topologically massive gravity. The relevance of these results for supersymmetry breaking is pointed out.
MANEUVER REGULATION, TRANSVERSE FEEDBACK LINEARIZATION, AND ZERO
Maggiore, Manfredi
MANEUVER REGULATION, TRANSVERSE FEEDBACK LINEARIZATION, AND ZERO DYNAMICS Chris Nielsen,1 Manfredi focus is on output maneuver regulation where stabilizing transverse dynamics is a key requirement. Keywords: Maneuver regulation, path following, feedback linearization, zero dynamics, non-square systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eichhorn, Astrid
2013-06-01
Unimodular gravity is classically equivalent to standard Einstein gravity, but differs when it comes to the quantum theory: the conformal factor is non-dynamical, and the gauge symmetry consists of transverse diffeomorphisms only. Furthermore, the cosmological constant is not renormalized. Thus the quantum theory is distinct from a quantization of standard Einstein gravity. Here we show that within a truncation of the full renormalization group flow of unimodular quantum gravity, there is a non-trivial ultraviolet (UV)-attractive fixed point, yielding a UV completion for unimodular gravity. We discuss important differences to the standard asymptotic-safety scenario for gravity, and provide further evidence for this scenario by investigating a new form of the gauge-fixing and ghost sector. Communicated by P R L V Moniz
Propulsion Investigation for Zero and Near-Zero Emissions Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Snyder, Christopher A.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Brown, Gerald v.; Dolce, James L.; Dravid, Marayan V.; Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Freeh, Joshua E.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Jones, Scott M.; Kundu, Krishna P.; Marek, Cecil J.; Millis, Marc G.; Murthy, Pappu L.; Roach, Timothy M.; Smith, Timothy D.; Stefko, George L.; Sullivan, Roy M.; Tornabene, Robert T.; Geiselhat, Karl A.; Kascak, Albert F.
2009-01-01
As world emissions are further scrutinized to identify areas for improvement, aviation s contribution to the problem can no longer be ignored. Previous studies for zero or near-zero emissions aircraft suggest aircraft and propulsion system sizes that would perform propulsion system and subsystems layout and propellant tankage analyses to verify the weight-scaling relationships. These efforts could be used to identify and guide subsequent work on systems and subsystems to achieve viable aircraft system emissions goals. Previous work quickly focused these efforts on propulsion systems for 70- and 100-passenger aircraft. Propulsion systems modeled included hydrogen-fueled gas turbines and fuel cells; some preliminary estimates combined these two systems. Hydrogen gas-turbine engines, with advanced combustor technology, could realize significant reductions in nitrogen emissions. Hydrogen fuel cell propulsion systems were further laid out, and more detailed analysis identified systems needed and weight goals for a viable overall system weight. Results show significant, necessary reductions in overall weight, predominantly on the fuel cell stack, and power management and distribution subsystems to achieve reasonable overall aircraft sizes and weights. Preliminary conceptual analyses for a combination of gas-turbine and fuel cell systems were also performed, and further studies were recommended. Using gas-turbine engines combined with fuel cell systems can reduce the fuel cell propulsion system weight, but at higher fuel usage than using the fuel cell only.
F. Henry-Couannier; A. Tilquin; C. Tao; A. Ealet
2007-10-24
The previous version of this article was a first attempt to confront the Dark Gravity theory to cosmological data. However, more recent developments lead to the conclusion that the cosmological principle is probably not valid in Dark Gravity so that this kind of analysis is at best very premature. A more recent and living review of the Dark Gravity theory can be found in gr-qc/0610079
Discrete structures in gravity
Tullio Regge; Ruth M. Williams
2000-12-09
Discrete approaches to gravity, both classical and quantum, are reviewed briefly, with emphasis on the method using piecewise-linear spaces. Models of 3-dimensional quantum gravity involving 6j-symbols are then described, and progress in generalising these models to four dimensions is discussed, as is the relationship of these models in both three and four dimensions to topological theories. Finally, the repercussions of the generalisations are explored for the original formulation of discrete gravity using edge-length variables.
Warped Brane worlds in Critical Gravity
Yi Zhong; Feng-Wei Chen; Qun-Ying Xie; Yu-Xiao Liu
2014-11-25
We investigate the brane models in arbitrary dimensional critical gravity presented in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 181302 (2011)]. For the model of the thin branes with codimension one, the Gibbons-Hawking surface term and the junction conditions are derived, with which the analytical solutions for the flat, AdS, and dS branes are obtained at the critical point of the critical gravity. It is found that all these branes are embedded in an AdS$_{n}$ spacetime, but, in general, the effective cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ of the AdS$_{n}$ spacetime is not equal to the naked one $\\Lambda_0$ in the critical gravity, which can be positive, zero, and negative. Another interesting result is that the brane tension can also be positive, zero, or negative, depending on the symmetry of the thin brane and the values of the parameters of the theory, which is very different from the case in general relativity. It is shown that the mass hierarchy problem can be solved in the braneworld model in the higher-derivative critical gravity. We also study the thick brane model and find analytical and numerical solutions of the flat, AdS, and dS branes. It is find that some branes will have inner structure when some parameters of the theory are larger than their critical values, which may result in resonant KK modes for some bulk matter fields. The flat branes with positive energy density and AdS branes with negative energy density are embedded in an $n$-dimensional AdS spacetime, while the dS branes with positive energy density are embedded in an $n$-dimensional Minkowski one.
Warped brane worlds in critical gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Yi; Chen, Feng-Wei; Xie, Qun-Ying; Liu, Yu-Xiao
2014-12-01
We investigate the brane models in arbitrary dimensional critical gravity presented in Lu and Pope (Phys Rev Lett 106:181302, 2011). For the models of the thin branes with codimension one, the Gibbons-Hawking surface term and the junction conditions are derived, with which the analytical solutions for the flat, AdS, and dS branes are obtained at the critical point of the critical gravity. It is found that all these branes are embedded in an AdS spacetime, but, in general, the effective cosmological constant of the AdS spacetime is not equal to the naked one in the critical gravity, which can be positive, zero, and negative. Another interesting result is that the brane tension can also be positive, zero, or negative, depending on the symmetry of the thin brane and the values of the parameters of the theory, which is very different from the case in general relativity. It is shown that the mass hierarchy problem can be solved in the braneworld model in the higher-derivative critical gravity. We also study the thick brane model and find analytical and numerical solutions of the flat, AdS, and dS branes. It is found that some branes will have inner structure when some parameters of the theory are larger than their critical values, which may result in resonant KK modes for some bulk matter fields. The flat branes with positive energy density and AdS branes with negative energy density are embedded in an -dimensional AdS spacetime, while the dS branes with positive energy density are embedded in an -dimensional Minkowski one.
Cylindrical solutions in metric f (R) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azadi, A.; Momeni, D.; Nouri-Zonoz, M.
2008-12-01
We study static cylindrically symmetric vacuum solutions in Weyl coordinates in the context of the metric f (R) theories of gravity. The set of the modified Einstein equations is reduced to a single equation and it is shown how one can construct exact solutions corresponding to different f (R) models. In particular the family of solutions with constant Ricci scalar (R =R0) is found explicitly which, as a special case (R = 0), includes the exterior spacetime of a cosmic string. Another new solution with constant, non-zero Ricci scalar is obtained and its possible relation to the Linet-Tian solution in general relativity is discussed.
Proposed inverse square law tests of gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, M. W.; Boynton, P. E.
The authors propose two null experiments to test the inverse square law of gravity in the critical range between 10 cm and 100 meters with significantly higher precision than earlier work. The tests use an oscillating torsion pendulum whose configuration is sensitive primarily to the horizontal gradient of the Laplacian of the gravitational potential. A non-zero result will indicate a violation of the Newtonian inverse square law. The reasons for choosing to measure the horizontal gradient of the Laplacian of the gravitational potential are discussed along with the proposed design of the torsion pendulum and the source masses.
Holographic Renormalization of New Massive Gravity
Mohsen Alishahiha; Ali Naseh
2010-05-16
We study holographic renormalization for three dimensional new massive gravity (NMG). By studying the general fall off conditions for the metric allowed by the model at infinity, we show that at the critical point where the central charges of the dual CFT are zero it contains a leading logarithmic behavior. In the context of AdS/CFT correspondence it can be identified as a source for an irrelevant operator in the dual CFT. The presence of the logarithmic fall off may be interpreted as the fact that the dual CFT would be a LCFT.
Holographic renormalization of new massive gravity
Alishahiha, Mohsen; Naseh, Ali
2010-11-15
We study holographic renormalization for three-dimensional new massive gravity. By studying the general falloff conditions for the metric allowed by the model at infinity, we show that at the critical point where the central charges of the dual conformal field theory (CFT) are zero, it contains a leading logarithmic behavior. In the context of AdS/CFT correspondence it can be identified as a source for an irrelevant operator in the dual CFT. The presence of the logarithmic falloff may be interpreted as the fact that the dual CFT would be a logarithmic conformal field theory.
Particle cloud combustion in reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berlad, A. L.
1988-01-01
The prinicipal objectives of this microgravity experiment program are to obtain flame propagation rate and flame extinction limit data for several important premixed, quiescent particle cloud combustion systems under near zero-gravity conditions. The data resulting from these experiments are needed for utilization with currently available and tractable flame propagation and extinction theory. These data are also expected to provide standards for the evaluation of fire hazards in particle suspensions in both Earth-based and space-based applications. Both terrestrial and space-based fire safety criteria require the identification of the critical concentrations of particulate fuels and inerts at the flame extinction conditions.
Zero Tolerance in Tennessee Schools: An Update.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Potts, Kim; Njie, Bintou; Detch, Ethel R.; Walton, Jason
As required by Tennessee law, this report examines the state's zero-tolerance disciplinary data collected by the Tennessee Department of Education for school years 1999-00, 2000-01, and 2001-02. The first section displays statewide zero-tolerance statistics. The second section focuses on the zero-tolerance statistics of Tennessee's five major…
Instruction Manual: ZBB. Zero Base Budgeting.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sidman, Bernard; Linstone, Robert T.
This guide to zero base budgeting (ZBB) offers information intended to be useful to those implementing this system in schools. Beginning with an explanation of zero base budgeting, the paper then enumerates the advantages of such a system. Zero base budgeting design is then explained as well as the assumptions that underlie the system. Suggested…
Nonstationary Gravity Wave Forcing of the Stratospheric Zonal Mean Wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alexander, M. J.; Rosenlof, K. H.
1996-01-01
The role of gravity wave forcing in the zonal mean circulation of the stratosphere is discussed. Starting from some very simple assumptions about the momentum flux spectrum of nonstationary (non-zero phase speed) waves at forcing levels in the troposphere, a linear model is used to calculate wave propagation through climatological zonal mean winds at solstice seasons. As the wave amplitudes exceed their stable limits, a saturation criterion is imposed to account for nonlinear wave breakdown effects, and the resulting vertical gradient in the wave momentum flux is then used to estimate the mean flow forcing per unit mass. Evidence from global, assimilated data sets are used to constrain these forcing estimates. The results suggest the gravity-wave-driven force is accelerative (has the same sign as the mean wind) throughout most of the stratosphere above 20 km. The sense of the gravity wave forcing in the stratosphere is thus opposite to that in the mesosphere, where gravity wave drag is widely believed to play a principal role in decelerating the mesospheric jets. The forcing estimates are further compared to existing gravity wave parameterizations for the same climatological zonal mean conditions. Substantial disagreement is evident in the stratosphere, and we discuss the reasons for the disagreement. The results suggest limits on typical gravity wave amplitudes near source levels in the troposphere at solstice seasons. The gravity wave forcing in the stratosphere appears to have a substantial effect on lower stratospheric temperatures during southern hemisphere summer and thus may be relevant to climate.
Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics of Induced Liouville Gravity
V. Frolov; D. Fursaev; J. Gegenberg; G. Kunstatter
1999-01-20
In this paper we describe a Liouville gravity which is induced by a set of quantum fields (constituents) and represents a two-dimensional analog of Sakharov's induced gravity. The important feature of the considered theory is the presence of massless constituents which are responsible for the appearance of the induced Liouville field. The role of the massive constituents is only to induce the cosmological constant. We consider the instanton solutions of the Euclidean Liouville gravity with negative and zero cosmological constants, some instantons being interpreted as two-dimensional anti-de Sitter $AdS_2$ black holes. We study thermodynamics of all the solutions and conclude that their entropy is completely determined by the statistical-mechanical entropy of the massless constituents. This shows, in particular, that the constituents of the induced gravity are the true degrees of freedom of $AdS_2$ black holes. Special attention is also paid to the induced Liouville gravity with zero cosmological constant on a torus. We demonstrate the equivalence of its thermodynamics to the thermodynamics of BTZ black holes and comment on computations of the BTZ black hole entropy.
Introduction Basics of gravity theory
Visser, Matt
Introduction Basics of gravity theory Actions and Field Equations Phenomenology Discussion and Conclusions Modified gravity: why and how? Thomas P. Sotiriou Centre for Fundamental Physics University;Introduction Basics of gravity theory Actions and Field Equations Phenomenology Discussion and Conclusions
The RHIC Zero Degree Calorimeter
Clemens Adler; Alexei Denisov; Edmundo Garcia; Michael Murray; Herbert Strobele; Sebastian White
2000-08-08
High Energy collisions of nuclei usually lead to the emission of evaporation neutrons from both ``beam'' and ``target'' nuclei. At the RHIC heavy ion collider with 100GeV/u beam energy, evaporation neutrons diverge by less than $~2$ milliradians from the beam axis Neutral beam fragments can be detected downstream of RHIC ion collisions (and a large aperture Accelerator dipole magnet) if $\\theta\\leq$ 4 mr but charged fragments in the same angular range are usually too close to the beam trajectory. In this 'zero degree' region produced particles and other secondaries deposit negligible energy when compared with that of beam fragmentation neutrons. The purpose of the RHIC zero degree calorimeters (ZDC's) is to detect neutrons emitted within this cone along both beam directions and measure their total energy (from which we calculate multiplicity). The ZDC coincidence of the 2 beam directions is a minimal bias selection of heavy ion collisions. This makes it useful as an event trigger and a luminosity monitor\\cite{baltz} and for this reason we built identical detectors for all 4 RHIC experiments. The neutron multiplicity is also known to be correlated with event geometry \\cite{appel} and will be used to measure collision centrality in mutual beam int eractions.
Feasibility of Achieving Net-Zero-Energy Net-Zero-Cost
1 Feasibility of Achieving Net- Zero-Energy Net-Zero-Cost Homes I.S. Walker, Al-Beaini, SSimjanovic,JohnStanley,BretStrogen,IainWalker FeasibilityofAchieving ZeroNetEnergy,Zero NetCostHomes #12;4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Agreenbuildingcompetition,tobeknownastheEnergyFreeHomeChallenge(EFHC),isscheduledto beopenedtoteamsaroundtheworldin2010
NET-ZERO CARBON MANUFACTURING AT NET-ZERO COST Dustin Pohlman
Kissock, Kelly
1 NET-ZERO CARBON MANUFACTURING AT NET-ZERO COST Dustin Pohlman Industrial Assessment Center energy in manufacturing plants that results in net-zero carbon emissions at net-zero costs. The paper is needed for manufacturers to significantly reduce carbon emissions. The manufacturing paradigm capitalizes
Gravity-induced cellular and molecular processes in plants studied under altered gravity conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vagt, Nicole; Braun, Markus
With the ability to sense gravity plants possess a powerful tool to adapt to a great variety of environmental conditions and to respond to environmental changes in a most beneficial way. Gravity is the only constant factor that provides organisms with reliable information for their orientation since billions of years. Any deviation of the genetically determined set-point angle of the plants organs from the vector of gravity is sensed by specialized cells, the statocytes of roots and shoots in higher plants. Dense particles, so-called statoliths, sediment in the direction of gravity and activate membrane-bound gravireceptors. A physiological signalling-cascade is initiated that eventually results in the gravitropic curvature response, namely, the readjust-ment of the growth direction. Experiments under microgravity conditions have significantly contributed to our understanding of plant gravity-sensing and gravitropic reorientation. For a gravity-sensing lower plant cell type, the rhizoid of the green alga Chara, and for statocytes of higher plant roots, it was shown that the interactions between statoliths and the actomyosin system consisting of the actin cytoskeleton and motor proteins (myosins) are the basis for highly efficient gravity-sensing processes. In Chara rhizoids, the actomyosin represents a guid-ing system that directs sedimenting statoliths to a specific graviperception site. Parabolic flight experiments aboard the airbus A300 Zero-G have provided evidence that lower and higher plant cells use principally the same statolith-mediated gravireceptor-activation mechanism. Graviper-ception is not dependent on mechanical pressure mediated through the weight of the sedimented statoliths, but on direct interactions between the statoliths's surface and yet unknown gravire-ceptor molecules. In contrast to Chara rhizoids, in the gravity-sensing cells of higher plants, the actin cytoskeleton is not essentially involved in the early phases of gravity sensing. Dis-rupting the actomyosin system did not impair the sedimentation of statoliths and did not prevent the activation of gravireceptors. However, experiments in microgravity and inhibitor experiments have demonstrated that the actomyosin system optimizes the statolith-receptor interactions by keeping the sedimented statoliths in motion causing a consistent activation of different gravireceptor molecules. Thereby, a triggered gravitropic signal is created which is the basis for a highly sensitive control and readjustment mechanism. In addition, the results of recent parabolic flight studies on the effects of altered gravity conditions on the gene expres-sion pattern of Arabidopsis seedlings support these findings and provide new insight into the molecular basis of the plants response to different acceleration conditions. The work was financially supported by DLR on behalf of Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Technologie (50WB0815).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pearlman, Howard; Stocker, Dennis; Gotti, Daniel; Urban, David; Ross, Howard; Sours, Thomas
1996-01-01
A miniature drop tower, Reduced-Gravity Demonstrator is developed to illustrate the effects of gravity on a variety of phenomena including the way fluids flow, flames burn, and mechanical systems (such as pendulum) behave. A schematic and description of the demonstrator and payloads are given, followed by suggestions for how one can build his (her) own.
Gravity from Quantum Information
Lee, Jae-Weon; Lee, Jungjai
2013-01-01
It is suggested that classical Einstein gravity can be derived by using the Landauer's principle applied to an information erasure at causal horizons and Jacobson's idea linking the Einstein equation to thermodynamics. Our result implies that gravity has a quantum informational origin.
Eric A. Bergshoeff; Mees de Roo; Sven F. Kerstan; Axel Kleinschmidt; Fabio Riccioni
2008-03-27
We consider the problem of finding a dual formulation of gravity in the presence of non-trivial matter couplings. In the absence of matter a dual graviton can be introduced only for linearised gravitational interactions. We show that the coupling of linearised gravity to matter poses obstructions to the usual construction and comment on possible resolutions of this difficulty.
Tethered gravity laboratories study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lucchetti, F.
1989-01-01
The use is studied of tether systems to improve the lowest possible steady gravity level on the Space Station. Particular emphasis is placed by the microgravity community on the achievement of high quality microgravity conditions. The tether capability is explored for active control of the center of gravity and the analysis of possible tethered configurations.
Counterterms in Lovelock Gravity
Mehdizadeh, M R; Zangeneh, M Kord
2015-01-01
In this paper, we introduce the counterterms that remove the non-logarithmic divergences of the action in third order Lovelock gravity. We do this by defining the cosmological constant in such a way that the asymptotic form of the metric have the same form in Lovelock and Einstein gravities. Thus, we employ the counterterms of Einstein gravity and show that the power law divergences in the action of Lovelock gravity can be removed by suitable choice of coefficients. We find that the dependence of these coefficients on the dimension in Lovelock gravity is the same as in Einstein gravity. We also introduce the finite energy-momentum tensor and employ these counterterms to calculate the finite action and mass of the black hole solutions of third order Lovelock gravity. We calculate the thermodynamic quantities and show that the entropy calculated through the use of Gibbs-Duhem relation is consistent with the obtained entropy by Wald's formula. We, also, find that in contrast to Einstein gravity in which there ex...
Gravitomagnetism in Massive Gravity
Tasseten, Kezban
2015-01-01
Massive gravity in the weak field limit is described by the Fierz-Pauli theory with 5 degrees of freedom in four dimensions. In this theory, we calculate the gravitomagnetic effects (potential energy) between two point-like, spinning sources that also orbit around each other in the limit where the spins and the velocities are small. Spin-spin, spin-orbit and orbit-orbit interactions in massive gravity theory have rather remarkable, discrete differences from their counterparts in General Relativity. Our computation is applicable for large distances, for example, for interaction between galaxies or galaxy clusters where massive gravity is expected to play a role. We also extend the computations to quadratic gravity theories in four dimensions and find the lowest order gravitomagnetic effects and show that at small separations quadratic gravity behaves differently than General Relativity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Palsingh, S. (inventor)
1975-01-01
An educational toy useful in demonstrating fundamental concepts regarding the laws of gravity is described. The device comprises a sphere 10 of radius r resting on top of sphere 12 of radius R. The center of gravity of sphere 10 is displaced from its geometrical center by distance D. The dimensions are so related that D((R+r)/r) is greater than r. With the center of gravity of sphere 10 lying on a vertical line, the device is in equilibrium. When sphere 10 is rolled on the surface of sphere 12 it will return to its equilibrium position upon release. This creates an illusion that sphere 10 is defying the laws of gravity. In reality, due to the above noted relationship of D, R, and r, the center of gravity of sphere 10 rises from its equilibrium position as it rolls a short distance up or down the surface of sphere 12.
[Low Fidelity Simulation of a Zero-Y Robot
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sweet, Adam
2001-01-01
The item to be cleared is a low-fidelity software simulation model of a hypothetical freeflying robot designed for use in zero gravity environments. This simulation model works with the HCC simulation system that was developed by Xerox PARC and NASA Ames Research Center. HCC has been previously cleared for distribution. When used with the HCC software, the model computes the location and orientation of the simulated robot over time. Failures (such as a broken motor) can be injected into the simulation to produce simulated behavior corresponding to the failure. Release of this simulation will allow researchers to test their software diagnosis systems by attempting to diagnose the simulated failure from the simulated behavior. This model does not contain any encryption software nor can it perform any control tasks that might be export controlled.
Peterson, T.; Wintercorn, S.; /Fermilab
1987-08-10
This report provides the necessary sizing for the LN{sub 2} cooling coils in the D-Zero cryostats. Natural convection from finned tubes will be the means of cooling the cryostats and their contents until such time as liquid can be made by condensing. Each cryostat will contain three separate cooling runs. Two runs will be cooldown and the other steady state. These runs will be placed in each cryostat as shown in figure 3, 4a and 4b. By assuming a 100 K tube wall temperature, tube diameter (3/4-inch) and wall thickness (0.065-inch) and the total length of tube (2 x 2940-inch + 1463-inch), the heat transfer can be calculated. Table 1 was calculated from relations in 'Handbook of Heat transfer Fundamentals' for free convection, pages 6-34 through 6-40.
Magnetic bearings with zero bias
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, Gerald V.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.
1991-01-01
A magnetic bearing operating without a bias field has supported a shaft rotating at speeds up to 12,000 rpm with the usual four power supplies and with only two. A magnetic bearing is commonly operated with a bias current equal to half of the maximum current allowable in its coils. This linearizes the relation between net force and control current and improves the force slewing rate and hence the band width. The steady bias current dissipates power, even when no force is required from the bearing. The power wasted is equal to two-thirds of the power at maximum force output. Examined here is the zero bias idea. The advantages and disadvantages are noted.
Paul B. Slater
2007-03-26
Wu and Sprung (Phys. Rev. E 48, 2595 (1993)) reproduced the first 500 nontrivial Riemann zeros, using a one-dimensional local potential model. They concluded -- and similarly van Zyl and Hutchinson (Phys. Rev. E 67, 066211 (2003)) -- that the potential possesses a fractal structure of dimension d=3/2. We model the nonsmooth fluctuating part of the potential by the alternating-sign sine series fractal of Berry and Lewis A(x,g). Setting d=3/2, we estimate the frequency parameter (gamma), plus an overall scaling parameter (sigma) we introduce. We search for that pair of parameters (gamma,sigma) which minimizes the least-squares fit S_{n}(gamma,sigma) of the lowest n eigenvalues -- obtained by solving the one-dimensional stationary (non-fractal) Schrodinger equation with the trial potential (smooth plus nonsmooth parts) -- to the lowest n Riemann zeros for n =25. For the additional cases we study, n=50 and 75, we simply set sigma=1. The fits obtained are compared to those gotten by using just the smooth part of the Wu-Sprung potential without any fractal supplementation. Some limited improvement -- 5.7261 vs. 6.39207 (n=25), 11.2672 vs. 11.7002 (n=50) and 16.3119 vs. 16.6809 (n=75) -- is found in our (non-optimized, computationally-bound) search procedures. The improvements are relatively strong in the vicinities of gamma=3 and (its square) 9. Further, we extend the Wu-Sprung semiclassical framework to include higher-order corrections from the Riemann-von Mangoldt formula (beyond the leading, dominant term) into the smooth potential.
Probability around the Quantum Gravity. Part 1: Planar Pure Gravity
Probability around the Quantum Gravity. Part 1: Planar Pure Gravity V.A.Malyshev \\Lambda September 17, 1998 Abstract In this paper we study stochastic dynamics which leaves quantum gravity equilibrium science and biology. At the same time the paper can serve an intro duction to quantum gravity
Vacuum energy: quantum hydrodynamics vs quantum gravity
G. E. Volovik
2005-09-09
We compare quantum hydrodynamics and quantum gravity. They share many common features. In particular, both have quadratic divergences, and both lead to the problem of the vacuum energy, which in the quantum gravity transforms to the cosmological constant problem. We show that in quantum liquids the vacuum energy density is not determined by the quantum zero-point energy of the phonon modes. The energy density of the vacuum is much smaller and is determined by the classical macroscopic parameters of the liquid including the radius of the liquid droplet. In the same manner the cosmological constant is not determined by the zero-point energy of quantum fields. It is much smaller and is determined by the classical macroscopic parameters of the Universe dynamics: the Hubble radius, the Newton constant and the energy density of matter. The same may hold for the Higgs mass problem: the quadratically divergent quantum correction to the Higgs potential mass term is also cancelled by the microscopic (trans-Planckian) degrees of freedom due to thermodynamic stability of the whole quantum vacuum.
Zero-Cost Estimation of Zero-Point Energies.
Császár, Attila G; Furtenbacher, Tibor
2015-10-01
An additive, linear, atom-type-based (ATB) scheme is developed allowing no-cost estimation of zero-point vibrational energies (ZPVE) of neutral, closed-shell molecules in their ground electronic states. The atom types employed correspond to those defined within the MM2 molecular mechanics force field approach. The reference training set of 156 molecules cover chained and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes and cycloalkenes, alkynes, alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, amines, amides, ethers, esters, ketones, benzene derivatives, heterocycles, nucleobases, all the natural amino acids, some dipeptides and sugars, as well as further simple molecules and ones containing several structural units, including several vitamins. A weighted linear least-squares fit of atom-type-based ZPVE increments results in recommended values for the following atoms, with the number of atom types defined in parentheses: H(8), D(1), B(1), C(6), N(7), O(3), F(1), Si(1), P(2), S(3), and Cl(1). The average accuracy of the ATB ZPVEs is considerably better than 1 kcal mol(-1), that is, better than chemical accuracy. The proposed ATB scheme could be extended to many more atoms and atom types, following a careful validation procedure; deviation from the MM2 atom types seems to be necessary, especially for third-row elements. PMID:26398318
The Vibrations of a ``STIFF '' Gravity Pendulum with a Particle Bob
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naguleswaran, S.
1996-03-01
A gravity pendulum is modelled as a vertical uniform Euler-Bernoulli beam with a particle bob. To study the effect of the type of support, ideally clamped, pinned, sliding or free boundary conditions are addressed. The vibrations of the four types of pendulums in "hanging " and in "inverted " positions are considered. The first three dimensionless non-zero natural frequencies ? 1, ? 2and ? 3for various combinations of the gravity parameter ? and the end mass parameter ? are presented. Asymptotic solutions when ? mass parameter for which a natural frequency of an "inverted " pendulum is zero (i.e., buckling conditions) are presented.
Effects of background gravity stimuli on gravity-controlled behavior
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccoy, D. F.
1976-01-01
Physiological and developmental effects of altered gravity were researched. The stimulus properties of gravity have been found to possess reinforcing and aversive properties. Experimental approaches taken, used animals placed into fields of artificial gravity, in the form of parabolic or spiral centrifuges. Gravity preferences were noted and it was concluded that the psychophysics of gravity and background factors which support these behaviors should be further explored.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
George Nelson
2004-09-01
We all know lots of sayings about gravity. "What goes up must come down." "You fail to understand the gravity of the situation." Gravity is the name we give to the phenomenon that any two masses, like you and the earth, that attract each other. This brief introduction to gravity will help elementary educators teach the concept with confidence.
Toroidal solutions in Horava Gravity
Ahmad Ghodsi
2011-02-24
Recently a new four-dimensional non relativistic renormalizable theory of gravity was proposed by Horava. This gravity reduces to Einstein gravity at large distances. In this paper by using the new action for gravity we present different toroidal solutions to the equations of motion. Our solutions describe the near horizon geometry with slow rotating parameter.
BRST symmetry of Unimodular Gravity
Upadhyay, S; Bufalo, R
2015-01-01
We derive the BRST symmetry for two versions of unimodular gravity, namely, fully diffeomorphism-invariant unimodular gravity and unimodular gravity with fixed metric determinant. The BRST symmetry is generalized further to the finite field-dependent BRST, in order to establish the connection between different gauges in each of the two versions of unimodular gravity.
Understanding Something About Nothing: Radiation Zeros
Robert W. Brown
1995-06-02
Radiation symmetry is briefly reviewed, along with its historical, experimental, computational, and theoretical relevance. A sketch of the proof of a theorem for radiation zeros is used to highlight the connection between gauge-boson couplings and Poincare transformations. It is emphasized that while mostly bad things happen to good zeros, the weak-boson self-couplings continue to be intimately tied to the best examples of exact or approximate zeros.
Zero sound in dipolar Fermi gases
Ronen, Shai; Bohn, John L.
2010-03-15
We study the propagation of sound in a homogeneous dipolar gas at zero temperature, which is known as zero sound. We find that undamped zero sound propagation is possible only in a range of solid angles around the direction of polarization of the dipoles. Above a critical dipole moment, we find an unstable mode, by which the gas collapses locally perpendicular to the dipoles' direction.
Counting Majorana zero modes in superconductors
Santos, Luiz; Chamon, Claudio; Mudry, Christopher
2010-01-01
A counting formula for computing the number of (Majorana) zero modes bound to topological point defects is evaluated in a gradient expansion for systems with charge-conjugation symmetry. This semi-classical counting of zero modes is applied to some examples that include graphene and a chiral p-wave superconductor in two-dimensional space. In all cases, we explicitly relate the counting of zero modes to Chern numbers.
Counting Majorana zero modes in superconductors
Luiz Santos; Yusuke Nishida; Claudio Chamon; Christopher Mudry
2011-04-07
A counting formula for computing the number of (Majorana) zero modes bound to topological point defects is evaluated in a gradient expansion for systems with charge-conjugation symmetry. This semi-classical counting of zero modes is applied to some examples that include graphene and a chiral p-wave superconductor in two-dimensional space. In all cases, we explicitly relate the counting of zero modes to Chern numbers.
Codimension zero laminations are inverse limits
Rojo, Álvaro Lozano
2012-01-01
The aim of the paper is to investigate the relation between inverse limit of branched manifolds and codimension zero laminations. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for such an inverse limit to be a lamination. We also show that codimension zero laminations are inverse limits of branched manifolds. The inverse limit structure allows us to show that equicontinuous codimension zero laminations preserves a distance function on transversals.
Zygmunt Lalak; Stefan Pokorski; Krzysztof Turzynski
2008-08-18
We investigate O'Raifeartaigh-type models for F-term supersymmetry breaking in gauge mediation scenarios in the presence of gravity. It is pointed out that the vacuum structure of those models is such that in metastable vacua gravity mediation contribution to scalar masses is always suppressed to the level below 1 percent, almost sufficient for avoiding FCNC problem. Close to that limit, gravitino mass can be in the range 10-100 GeV, opening several interesting possibilities for gauge mediation models, including Giudice-Masiero mechanism for mu and Bmu generation. Gravity sector can include stabilized moduli.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishnan, Chethan
2015-07-01
I consider theories of gravity built not just from the metric and affine connection, but also other (possibly higher rank) symmetric tensor(s). The Lagrangian densities are scalars built from them, and the volume forms are related to Cayley's hyperdeterminants. The resulting diff-invariant actions give rise to geometric theories that go beyond the metric paradigm (even metric-less theories are possible), and contain Einstein gravity as a special case. Examples contain theories with generalizeations of Riemannian geometry. The 0-tensor case is related to dilaton gravity. These theories can give rise to new types of spontaneous Lorentz breaking and might be relevant for "dark" sector cosmology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Visser, Matt
Sakharov's 1967 notion of ``induced gravity'' is currently enjoying a significant resurgence. The basic idea, originally presented in a very brief 3-page paper with a total of four formulas, is that gravity is not ``fundamental'' in the sense of particle physics. Instead it was argued that gravity (general relativity) emerges from quantum field theory in roughly the same sense that hydrodynamics or continuum elasticity theory emerges from molecular physics. In this article we will translate the key ideas into modern language, and explain the various versions of Sakharov's idea currently on the market.
Chethan Krishnan
2014-09-23
I consider theories of gravity built not just from the metric and affine connection, but also other (possibly higher rank) symmetric tensor(s). The Lagrangian densities are scalars built from them, and the volume forms are related to Cayley's hyperdeterminants. The resulting diff-invariant actions give rise to geometric theories that go beyond the metric paradigm (even metric-less theories are possible), and contain Einstein gravity as a special case. Examples contain theories with generalizeations of Riemannian geometry. The 0-tensor case is related to dilaton gravity. These theories can give rise to new types of spontaneous Lorentz breaking and might be relevant for "dark" sector cosmology.
Dimension of Space-Time in Third Quantized Gravity
N. G. Kozimirov; I. I. Tkachev
1989-01-01
Quantum creation of universes is considered within the framework of linear D-dimensional third quantized gravity with non-abelian gauge fields. It is shown that the number density of universes is infinitely peaked up on a sequence of compactified universes Sn+1×Id, where dimensionality of compact internal space Id takes values d=0, 1, ..., D-3 and effective n+1-dimensional cosmological constant tends to zero,
New energy definition for higher-curvature gravities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deser, S.; Tekin, Bayram
2007-04-01
We propose a novel but natural definition of conserved quantities for gravity models of quadratic and higher order in curvature. Based on the spatial asymptotics of curvature rather than of metric, it avoids the more egregious problems—such as zero-energy “theorems” and failure in flat backgrounds—in this fourth-derivative realm. In D>4, the present expression indeed correctly discriminates between second-derivative Gauss-Bonnet and generic, fourth-derivative actions.
Three Dimensional de Sitter Gravity and the Correspondence
Bruno Carneiro da Cunha
2001-11-01
Certain aspects of three dimensional asymptotically de Sitter spaces are studied, with emphasis on the mapping between gravity observables and the representation of the conformal symmetry of the boundary. In particular, we show that non-real conformal weights for the boundary theory correspond to space-times that have non-zero angular momentum. Some miscellaneous results on the role of the holonomies and isometry groups are also presented.
Cosmological stability bound in massive gravity and bigravity
Fasiello, Matteo; Tolley, Andrew J. E-mail: andrew.j.tolley@case.edu
2013-12-01
We give a simple derivation of a cosmological bound on the graviton mass for spatially flat FRW solutions in massive gravity with an FRW reference metric and for bigravity theories. This bound comes from the requirement that the kinetic term of the helicity zero mode of the graviton is positive definite. The bound is dependent only on the parameters in the massive gravity potential and the Hubble expansion rate for the two metrics. We derive the decoupling limit of bigravity and FRW massive gravity, and use this to give an independent derivation of the cosmological bound. We recover our previous results that the tension between satisfying the Friedmann equation and the cosmological bound is sufficient to rule out all observationally relevant FRW solutions for massive gravity with an FRW reference metric. In contrast, in bigravity this tension is resolved due to different nature of the Vainshtein mechanism. We find that in bigravity theories there exists an FRW solution with late-time self-acceleration for which the kinetic terms for the helicity-2, helicity-1 and helicity-0 are generically nonzero and positive making this a compelling candidate for a model of cosmic acceleration. We confirm that the generalized bound is saturated for the candidate partially massless (bi)gravity theories but the existence of helicity-1/helicity-0 interactions implies the absence of the conjectured partially massless symmetry for both massive gravity and bigravity.
Modeling Candle Flame Behavior In Variable Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alsairafi, A.; Tien, J. S.; Lee, S. T.; Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.
2003-01-01
The burning of a candle, as typical non-propagating diffusion flame, has been used by a number of researchers to study the effects of electric fields on flame, spontaneous flame oscillation and flickering phenomena, and flame extinction. In normal gravity, the heat released from combustion creates buoyant convection that draws oxygen into the flame. The strength of the buoyant flow depends on the gravitational level and it is expected that the flame shape, size and candle burning rate will vary with gravity. Experimentally, there exist studies of candle burning in enhanced gravity (i.e. higher than normal earth gravity, g(sub e)), and in microgravity in drop towers and space-based facilities. There are, however, no reported experimental data on candle burning in partial gravity (g < g(sub e)). In a previous numerical model of the candle flame, buoyant forces were neglected. The treatment of momentum equation was simplified using a potential flow approximation. Although the predicted flame characteristics agreed well with the experimental results, the model cannot be extended to cases with buoyant flows. In addition, because of the use of potential flow, no-slip boundary condition is not satisfied on the wick surface. So there is some uncertainty on the accuracy of the predicted flow field. In the present modeling effort, the full Navier-Stokes momentum equations with body force term is included. This enables us to study the effect of gravity on candle flames (with zero gravity as the limiting case). In addition, we consider radiation effects in more detail by solving the radiation transfer equation. In the previous study, flame radiation is treated as a simple loss term in the energy equation. Emphasis of the present model is on the gas-phase processes. Therefore, the detailed heat and mass transfer phenomena inside the porous wick are not treated. Instead, it is assumed that a thin layer of liquid fuel coated the entire wick surface during the burning process. This is the limiting case that the mass transfer process in the wick is much faster than the evaporation process at the wick surface.
Module theoretic zero structures for system matrices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wyman, Bostwick F.; Sain, Michael K.
1987-01-01
The coordinate-free module-theoretic treatment of transmission zeros for MIMO transfer functions developed by Wyman and Sain (1981) is generalized to include noncontrollable and nonobservable linear dynamical systems. Rational, finitely-generated-modular, and torsion-divisible interpretations of the Rosenbrock system matrix are presented; Gamma-zero and Omega-zero modules are defined and shown to contain the output-decoupling and input-decoupling zero modules, respectively, as submodules; and the cases of left and right invertible transfer functions are considered.
Energy in first order 2 +1 gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corichi, Alejandro; Rubalcava-García, Iraís
2015-08-01
We consider ? =0 three-dimensional gravity with asymptotically flat boundary conditions. This system was studied by Ashtekar and Varadarajan within the second-order formalism—with metric variables—who showed that the Regge-Teitelboim formalism yields a consistent Hamiltonian description where, surprisingly, the energy is bounded from below and from above. The energy of the spacetime is, however, determined up to an arbitrary constant. The natural choice was to fix that freedom such that Minkowski spacetime has zero energy. More recently, Marolf and Patiño started from the Einstein-Hilbert action supplemented with the Gibbons-Hawking term and showed that, in the (2 +1 ) decomposition of the theory, the energy is shifted from the Ashtekar-Varadarajan analysis in such a way that Minkowski spacetime possesses a negative energy. In this contribution we consider the first-order formalism, where the fundamental variables are a s o (2 ,1 ) connection waIJ and a triad eaI . We consider two actions. A natural extension to 3 dimensions of the consistent action in 4 D Palatini gravity is shown to be finite and differentiable. For this action, the (2 +1 ) decomposition (that we perform using two methods) yields a Hamiltonian boundary term that corresponds to energy. It assigns zero energy to Minkowski spacetime. We then put forward a totally gauge invariant action and show that it is also well defined and differentiable. Interestingly, it turns out to be related, on shell, to the 3D Palatini action by an additive constant in such a way that its associated energy is given by the Marolf-Patiño expression. Thus, we conclude that, from the perspective of the first-order formalism, Minkowski spacetime can consistently have either zero, or a negative energy equal to -1 /4 G , depending on the choice of consistent action employed as starting point.
Yury M. Zinoviev
2012-01-17
The equations of the relativistic causal Newton gravity law for the planets of the solar system are studied in the approximation when the Sun rests at the coordinates origin and the planets do not iteract between each other.
Swastik Bhattacharya; S. Shankaranarayanan
2015-05-15
General theory of relativity (or Lovelock extensions) is a dynamical theory; given an initial configuration on a space-like hypersurface, it makes a definite prediction of the final configuration. Recent developments suggest that gravity may be described in terms of macroscopic parameters. It finds a concrete manifestation in the fluid-gravity correspondence. Most of the efforts till date has been to relate equilibrium configurations in gravity with fluid variables. In order for the emergent paradigm to be truly successful, it has to provide a statistical mechanical derivation of how a given initial static configuration evolves into another. In this essay, we show that the energy transport equation governed by the fluctuations of the horizon-fluid is similar to Raychaudhuri equation and, hence gravity is truly emergent.
Bhattacharya, Swastik
2015-01-01
General theory of relativity (or Lovelock extensions) is a dynamical theory; given an initial configuration on a space-like hypersurface, it makes a definite prediction of the final configuration. Recent developments suggest that gravity may be described in terms of macroscopic parameters. It finds a concrete manifestation in the fluid-gravity correspondence. Most of the efforts till date has been to relate equilibrium configurations in gravity with fluid variables. In order for the emergent paradigm to be truly successful, it has to provide a statistical mechanical derivation of how a given initial static configuration evolves into another. In this essay, we show that the energy transport equation governed by the fluctuations of the horizon-fluid is similar to Raychaudhuri equation and, hence gravity is truly emergent.
Tethered gravity laboratories study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lucchetti, F.
1989-01-01
Variable Gravity Laboratory studies are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) conceptual design and engineering analysis; (2) control strategies (fast crawling maneuvers, main perturbations and their effect upon the acceleration level); and (3) technology requirements.
Tethered gravity laboratories study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lucchetti, F.
1989-01-01
The following subject areas are covered: (1) thermal control issues; (2) attitude control sybsystem; (3) configuration constraints; (4) payload; (5) acceleration requirements on Variable Gravity Laboratory (VGL); and (6) VGL configuration highlights.
Exercise in artificial gravity
Edmonds, Jessica Leigh
2005-01-01
Artificial gravity provided by short radius centrifugation is considered a promising countermeasure to the deleterious physiological effects of microgravity during long-duration space flight. We investigated the feasibility ...
Rotating Gravity Gradiometer Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forward, R. L.
1976-01-01
The application of a Rotating Gravity Gradiometer (RGG) system on board a Lunar Polar Orbiter (LPO) for the measurement of the Lunar gravity field was investigated. A data collection simulation study shows that a gradiometer will give significantly better gravity data than a doppler tracking system for the altitudes under consideration for the LOP, that the present demonstrated sensitivity of the RGG is adequate for measurement of the Lunar gravity gradient field, and that a single RGG instrument will provide almost as much data for geophysical interpretation as an orthogonal three axis RGG system. An engineering study of the RGG sensor/LPO spacecraft interface characteristics shows that the RGG systems under consideration are compatible with the present models of the LPO spacecraft.
Approaches to Validation of Models for Low Gravity Fluid Behavior
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chato, David J.; Marchetta, Jeffery; Hochstein, John I.; Kassemi, Mohammad
2005-01-01
This paper details the author experiences with the validation of computer models to predict low gravity fluid behavior. It reviews the literature of low gravity fluid behavior as a starting point for developing a baseline set of test cases. It examines authors attempts to validate their models against these cases and the issues they encountered. The main issues seem to be that: Most of the data is described by empirical correlation rather than fundamental relation; Detailed measurements of the flow field have not been made; Free surface shapes are observed but through thick plastic cylinders, and therefore subject to a great deal of optical distortion; and Heat transfer process time constants are on the order of minutes to days but the zero-gravity time available has been only seconds.
New Massive Gravity and AdS{sub 4} Counterterms
Jatkar, Dileep P.; Sinha, Aninda
2011-04-29
We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS{sub 4}). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS{sub 4} Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS{sub 3} gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory.
New massive gravity and AdS(4) counterterms.
Jatkar, Dileep P; Sinha, Aninda
2011-04-29
We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory. PMID:21635026
Use of Crossovers to Evaluate Airborne Gravity Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preaux, S. A.; Weil, C.
2014-12-01
The RMS of crossover mismatch has long been used as a measure of quality in airborne gravity. Some groups even adjust the bias and slope of each line in a survey to minimize the crossover mismatch. Is the expectation that airborne gravity measurements are path independent, leading to a zero crossover mismatch, correct? If the measurements are filtered along the track, the answer is no, we should not expect the same reading at the same location measured from different directions. This presentation will demonstrate the effects of along-track filtering, interpolation and altitude correction that cause a mismatch unrelated to measurement error. A method for computing the expected crossover mismatch will be presented. A comparison of evaluation methods for several GRAV-D airborne gravity surveys will illustrate the magnitude, contributing factors and systematic nature of the differences between these methods.
Asymptotic safety of gravity and the Higgs boson mass
Mikhail Shaposhnikov; Christof Wetterich
2010-01-12
There are indications that gravity is asymptotically safe. The Standard Model (SM) plus gravity could be valid up to arbitrarily high energies. Supposing that this is indeed the case and assuming that there are no intermediate energy scales between the Fermi and Planck scales we address the question of whether the mass of the Higgs boson $m_H$ can be predicted. For a positive gravity induced anomalous dimension $A_\\lambda>0$ the running of the quartic scalar self interaction $\\lambda$ at scales beyond the Planck mass is determined by a fixed point at zero. This results in $m_H=m_{\\rm min}=126$ GeV, with only a few GeV uncertainty. This prediction is independent of the details of the short distance running and holds for a wide class of extensions of the SM as well. For $A_\\lambda 0$ is favored by explicit computations existing in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Del Zotto, Michele; Heckman, Jonathan J.; Morrison, David R.; Park, Daniel S.
2015-06-01
We study how to couple a 6D superconformal field theory (SCFT) to gravity. In F-theory, the models in question are obtained working on the supersymmetric background 5,1 × B where B is the base of a compact elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau threefold in which two-cycles have contracted to zero size. When the base has orbifold singularities, we find that the anomaly polynomial of the 6D SCFTs can be understood purely in terms of the intersection theory of fractional divisors: the anomaly coefficient vectors are identified with elements of the orbifold homology. This also explains why in certain cases, the SCFT can appear to contribute a "fraction of a hypermultiplet" to the anomaly polynomial. Quantization of the lattice of string charges also predicts the existence of additional light states beyond those captured by such fractional divisors. This amounts to a refinement to the lattice of divisors in the resolved geometry. We illustrate these general considerations with explicit examples, focusing on the case of F-theory on an elliptic Calabi-Yau threefold with base.
Quantum Gravity in Large Dimensions
Herbert W. Hamber; Ruth M. Williams
2005-11-30
Quantum gravity is investigated in the limit of a large number of space-time dimensions, using as an ultraviolet regularization the simplicial lattice path integral formulation. In the weak field limit the appropriate expansion parameter is determined to be $1/d$. For the case of a simplicial lattice dual to a hypercube, the critical point is found at $k_c/\\lambda=1/d$ (with $k=1/8 \\pi G$) separating a weak coupling from a strong coupling phase, and with $2 d^2$ degenerate zero modes at $k_c$. The strong coupling, large $G$, phase is then investigated by analyzing the general structure of the strong coupling expansion in the large $d$ limit. Dominant contributions to the curvature correlation functions are described by large closed random polygonal surfaces, for which excluded volume effects can be neglected at large $d$, and whose geometry we argue can be approximated by unconstrained random surfaces in this limit. In large dimensions the gravitational correlation length is then found to behave as $| \\log (k_c - k) |^{1/2}$, implying for the universal gravitational critical exponent the value $\
Michele Del Zotto; Jonathan J. Heckman; David R. Morrison; Daniel S. Park
2014-12-19
We study how to couple a 6D superconformal field theory (SCFT) to gravity. In F-theory, the models in question are obtained working on the supersymmetric background R^{5,1} x B where B is the base of a compact elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau threefold in which two-cycles have contracted to zero size. When the base has orbifold singularities, we find that the anomaly polynomial of the 6D SCFTs can be understood purely in terms of the intersection theory of fractional divisors: the anomaly coefficient vectors are identified with elements of the orbifold homology. This also explains why in certain cases, the SCFT can appear to contribute a "fraction of a hypermultiplet" to the anomaly polynomial. Quantization of the lattice of string charges also predicts the existence of additional light states beyond those captured by such fractional divisors. This amounts to a refinement to the lattice of divisors in the resolved geometry. We illustrate these general considerations with explicit examples, focusing on the case of F-theory on an elliptic Calabi-Yau threefold with base P^2 / Z_3.
Quantum gravity in large dimensions
Hamber, Herbert W.; Williams, Ruth M.
2006-02-15
Quantum gravity is investigated in the limit of a large number of space-time dimensions d, using as an ultraviolet regularization the simplicial lattice path integral formulation. In the weak field limit the appropriate expansion parameter is determined to be 1/d. For the case of a simplicial lattice dual to a hypercube, the critical point is found at k{sub c}/{lambda}=1/d (with k=1/8{pi}G) separating a weak coupling from a strong coupling phase, and with 2d{sup 2} degenerate zero modes at k{sub c}. The strong coupling, large G, phase is then investigated by analyzing the general structure of the strong coupling expansion in the large d limit. Dominant contributions to the curvature correlation functions are described by large closed random polygonal surfaces, for which excluded volume effects can be neglected at large d, and whose geometry we argue can be approximated by unconstrained random surfaces in this limit. In large dimensions the gravitational correlation length is then found to behave as vertical bar log(k{sub c}-k) vertical bar{sup 1/2}, implying for the universal gravitational critical exponent the value {nu}=0 at d={infinity}.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nelson, George
2004-01-01
Gravity is the name given to the phenomenon that any two masses, like you and the Earth, attract each other. One pulls on the Earth and the Earth pulls on one the same amount. And one does not have to be touching. Gravity acts over vast distances, like the 150 million kilometers (93 million miles) between the Earth and the Sun or the billions of…
Entropy density of spacetime as a relic from quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kothawala, Dawood; Padmanabhan, T.
2014-12-01
There is a considerable amount of evidence to suggest that the field equations of gravity have the same status as, say, the equations describing an emergent phenomenon like elasticity. In fact, it is possible to derive the field equations from a thermodynamic variational principle in which a set of normalized vector fields are varied rather than the metric. We show that this variational principle can arise as a low-energy [LP=(G ?/c3)1/2?0 ] relic of a plausible nonperturbative effect of quantum gravity, viz. the existence of a zero-point length in the spacetime. Our result is nonperturbative in the following sense: If we modify the geodesic distance in a spacetime by introducing a zero-point length, to incorporate some effects of quantum gravity, and take the limit LP?0 of the Ricci scalar of the modified metric, we end up getting a nontrivial, leading order (LP-independent) term. This term is identical to the expression for entropy density of spacetime used previously in the emergent gravity approach. This reconfirms the idea that the microscopic degrees of freedom of the spacetime, when properly described in the full theory, could lead to an effective description of geometry in terms of a thermodynamic variational principle. This is conceptually similar to the emergence of thermodynamics from the mechanics of, say, molecules. The approach also has important implications for the cosmological constant which are briefly discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Flandern, Tom
2006-12-01
The strongest of six experiments showing without ambiguity that gravity is faster than the speed of light (c) sets a lower limit to the propagation speed of gravitational force of 20 billion c. Such speeds are allowed and are causal in Lorentzian relativity. Meanwhile, changes in gravitational potential account for the relativistic effects of gravitation such as light-bending, and they propagate at speed c. This dichotomy of speeds strongly favors the Le Sage model for the physical interpretation of relativistic gravitation over the now-dubious geometric interpretation. In the former, space is filled with a flux of ultra-fast, ultra-small “gravitons”. Then the apple falls from the tree, not because of a force originating within the Earth, but because Earth blocks part of an otherwise isotropic flux striking the apple. These concepts are now extensively developed in the references below. ** “Possible new properties of gravity”, Astrophys.&SpaceSci. 244:249-261 (1996) ** “The speed of gravity What the experiments say”, Phys.Lett.A 250:1-11 (1998) ** “Reply to comments on ‘The speed of gravity’”, Phys.Lett.A 262:261-263 (1999) ** “Experimental Repeal of the Speed Limit Found.Phys. 32:1031-1068 (2002) ** Pushing Gravity, M. Edwards, ed., Apeiron Press, Montreal, 93-122 ** Meta Research “Gravity” CD, http://metaresearch.org/ (available at meeting)
H A Marales-Tecotl; C Rovelli
1994-01-13
We study the quantum fermions+gravity system, that is, the gravitational counterpart of QED. We start from the standard Einstein-Weyl theory, reformulated in terms of Ashtekar variables; and we construct its non- perturbative quantum theory by extending the loop representation of general relativity. We construct the fermion equivalent to the loop variables. Not surprisingly, fermions can be incorporated in the loop representation simply by including open curves into ''Loop space''. We explicitely construct the diffeomorphism and hamiltonain operators. The first can be fully solved as in pure gravity. The second is constructed by using a background-independent regularization technique. The theory retains the clean geometrical features of the pure quantum gravity. In particular, the hamiltonian constraint admits the same simple geometrical interpretation as its pure gravity counterpart. Quite surprisingly, a simple action codes the full dynamics of the interacting theory. To unravel the dynamics of the theory we study the evolution of the fermion-gravity system in the physical-time defined by an additional coupled (''clock''-) scalar field. We construct the Hamiltonian operator that evolves the system in this physical time. We show that this Hamiltonian is finite, diffeomorphism invariant, and has a simple geometrical action. The theory fermions+gravity evolving in the clock time is finally given by the combinatorial and geometrical action of this Hamiltonian on a set of graphs with a finite number of end points. This action defines the "topological Feynman rules" of the theory.
Signatures of strong gravity with GRAVITY
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eckart, A.; Zamaninasab, M.; Straubmeier, C.; Fischer, S.; Araujo-Hauck, C.; Garcia-Marin, M.; Wiest, M.; Witzel, G.; Buchholz, R. M.; Sabha, N.; Muzic, K.; Eisenhauer, F.; Paumard, T.; Yazici, S.; Perrin, G.; Brandner, W.; Perraut, K.; Amorim, A.; Schöller, M.
2010-07-01
The dynamics of stars and gas undoubtedly shows the existence of a 4 million solar mass black hole at the center of the Milky Way: Sagittarius A* (SgrA*). Violent flare emission allows us to probe the immediate environment of the central mass. Near-infrared polarimetry now shows signatures of strong gravity that are statistically significant against randomly polarized red noise. Using these signatures we can derive spin and inclination information of SgrA*. A combined synchrotron self Compton (SSC) and adiabatic expansion model with source components peaking in the sub-mm domain can fully account for the observed flare flux densities and the time delays towards the (sub-)mm flares that have been reported in some cases. We discuss the expected centroid paths of the NIR images and summarize how the geometrical structure of the emitting region (i.e. spot shape, presence of a torus or spiral-arm pattern etc.) affects this centroid tracks. While most of the mentioned geometries are able to fit the observed fluxes, future NIR interferometry with GRAVITY at the VLT will break some of the degeneracies between different emission models. In this contribution we summarize several GRAVITY science cases for SgrA*. Our simulations propose that focusing GRAVITY observations on the polarimetry mode could reveal a clear centroid track of the spot(s). A non-detection of centroid shifts cannot rule out the multi-component model or spiral arms scenarios. However, a clear wander between alternating centroid positions during the flares will prove the idea of bright long-lived spots occasionally orbiting the central black hole.
Traversable wormholes and non-singular black holes from the vacuum of quadratic gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duplessis, Francis; Easson, Damien A.
2015-08-01
We present new traversable wormhole and nonsingular black hole solutions in pure, scale-free R2 gravity. These exotic solutions require no null energy condition violating or "exotic" matter and are supported only by the vacuum of the theory. It is well known that f (R ) theories of gravity may be recast as dual theories in the Einstein frame. The solutions we present are found when the conformal transformation required to move to the dual frame is singular. For quadratic R2 gravity, the required conformal factor is identically zero for spacetimes with R =0 . Solutions in this case are argued to arise in the strong coupling limit of general relativity.
Gravity Before Einstein and Schwinger Before Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trimble, Virginia L.
2012-05-01
Julian Schwinger was a child prodigy, and Albert Einstein distinctly not; Schwinger had something like 73 graduate students, and Einstein very few. But both thought gravity was important. They were not, of course, the first, nor is the disagreement on how one should think about gravity that is being highlighted here the first such dispute. The talk will explore, first, several of the earlier dichotomies: was gravity capable of action at a distance (Newton), or was a transmitting ether required (many others). Did it act on everything or only on solids (an odd idea of the Herschels that fed into their ideas of solar structure and sunspots)? Did gravitational information require time for its transmission? Is the exponent of r precisely 2, or 2 plus a smidgeon (a suggestion by Simon Newcomb among others)? And so forth. Second, I will try to say something about Scwinger's lesser known early work and how it might have prefigured his "source theory," beginning with "On the Interaction of Several Electrons (the unpublished, 1934 "zeroth paper," whose title somewhat reminds one of "On the Dynamics of an Asteroid," through his days at Berkeley with Oppenheimer, Gerjuoy, and others, to his application of ideas from nuclear physics to radar and of radar engineering techniques to problems in nuclear physics. And folks who think good jobs are difficult to come by now might want to contemplate the couple of years Schwinger spent teaching elementary physics at Purdue before moving on to the MIT Rad Lab for war work.
Workshop: Promoting Sustainability Through Net Zero Strategies
In 2011, EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) signed an MOU with the U.S. Army to support the Army’s Net Zero initiative. The 17 Net Zero pilot installations aim to produce as much energy as used; limit freshwater use and increase water reuse; and reduce the generation ...
Chaotic temperature dependence at zero temperature.
Chaotic temperature dependence at zero temperature. A.C.D. van Enter Center for Theoretical Physics; Abstract We present a class of examples of nearestÂneighbour, boundedÂspin models, in which the lowÂtemperature Gibbs measures do not converge as the temperature is lowered to zero, in any dimension. 1 Introduction
Zero Tolerance Policies. ERIC Digest Number 146.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McAndrews, Tobin
State legislatures and school boards are adopting a growing number of zero-tolerance polices toward weapons, guns, and violence. Zero-tolerance polices are rules intended to address specific school-safety issues. They have arisen in part as a response to the threat of the withdrawal of federal funds under the 1994 Gun-Free Schools Act, and…
Prime Algebras and Absolute Zero Divisors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pchelintsev, S. V.
1987-02-01
This paper is devoted to the solution of the problem of absolute zero divisors in the varieties of Jordan algebras and (-1,1)-algebras over a field of characteristic 0. It is shown that in those varieties there exist prime algebras generated by absolute zero divisors. Bibliography: 21 titles.
ON THE GRENANDER ESTIMATOR AT ZERO
Balabdaoui, Fadoua; Jankowski, Hanna; Pavlides, Marios; Seregin, Arseni; Wellner, Jon
2011-01-01
We establish limit theory for the Grenander estimator of a monotone density near zero. In particular we consider the situation when the true density f0 is unbounded at zero, with different rates of growth to infinity. In the course of our study we develop new switching relations using tools from convex analysis. The theory is applied to a problem involving mixtures. PMID:21686086
Determining Absolute Zero Using a Tuning Fork
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goldader, Jeffrey D.
2008-01-01
The Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, we tell our students, are related. We explain that a change in temperature of 1 degree C corresponds to a change of 1 Kelvin and that atoms and molecules have zero kinetic energy at zero Kelvin, -273 degrees C. In this paper, we will show how students can derive the relationship between the Celsius and…
Computation of Zeros of Linear Multivariable Systems
A. EMAMI-NAEIND
Several algorithms have been proposed in the literature for the computation of the zeros of a linear system described by a state-space model {A, B, C, D}. In this paper we discuss the numerical properties of a new algorithm and compare it with some earlier techniques of computing zeros. The method is a modified version of Silverman's structure algorithm and
From Statistical Zero Knowledge to Secret Sharing
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
From Statistical Zero Knowledge to Secret Sharing Vinod Vaikuntanathan MIT CSAIL Prashant Nalini of statistical zero-knowledge (SZK) proof systems and (unconditionally secure) secret sharing schemes. Viewed through the SZK lens, we obtain several new results on secret-sharing: · Characterizations: We obtain
Gravity-Off-loading System for Large-Displacement Ground Testing of Spacecraft Mechanisms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, Olyvia; Kienholz, David; Janzen, Paul; Kidney, Scott
2010-01-01
Gravity-off-loading of deployable spacecraft mechanisms during ground testing is a long-standing problem. Deployable structures which are usually too weak to support their own weight under gravity require a means of gravity-off-loading as they unfurl. Conventional solutions to this problem have been helium-filled balloons or mechanical pulley/counterweight systems. These approaches, however, suffer from the deleterious effects of added inertia or friction forces. The changing form factor of the deployable structure itself and the need to track the trajectory of the center of gravity also pose a challenge to these conventional technologies. This paper presents a novel testing apparatus for high-fidelity zero-gravity simulation for special application to deployable space structures such as solar arrays, magnetometer booms, and robotic arms in class 100,000 clean room environments
Exactly Soluble Sector of Quantum Gravity
Joy Christian
2005-11-07
Cartan's spacetime reformulation of the Newtonian theory of gravity is a generally-covariant Galilean-relativistic limit-form of Einstein's theory of gravity known as the Newton-Cartan theory. According to this theory, space is flat, time is absolute with instantaneous causal influences, and the degenerate `metric' structure of spacetime remains fixed with two mutually orthogonal non-dynamical metrics, one spatial and the other temporal. The spacetime according to this theory is, nevertheless, curved, duly respecting the principle of equivalence, and the non-metric gravitational connection-field is dynamical in the sense that it is determined by matter distributions. Here, this generally-covariant but Galilean-relativistic theory of gravity with a possible non-zero cosmological constant, viewed as a parameterized gauge theory of a gravitational vector-potential minimally coupled to a complex Schroedinger-field (bosonic or fermionic), is successfully cast -- for the first time -- into a manifestly covariant Lagrangian form. Then, exploiting the fact that Newton-Cartan spacetime is intrinsically globally-hyperbolic with a fixed causal structure, the theory is recast both into a constraint-free Hamiltonian form in 3+1-dimensions and into a manifestly covariant reduced phase-space form with non-degenerate symplectic structure in 4-dimensions. Next, this Newton-Cartan-Schroedinger system is non-perturbatively quantized using the standard C*-algebraic technique combined with the geometric procedure of manifestly covariant phase-space quantization. The ensuing unitary quantum field theory of Newtonian gravity coupled to Galilean-relativistic matter is not only generally-covariant, but also exactly soluble.
Toward Large N Thermal QCD from Dual Gravity: The Heavy Quarkonium Potential
Mohammed Mia; Keshav Dasgupta; Charles Gale; Sangyong Jeon
2010-06-28
We continue our study on the gravity duals for strongly coupled large N QCD with fundamental flavors both at zero and non-zero temperatures. The gravity dual at zero temperature captures the logarithmic runnings of the coupling constants at far IR and the almost conformal, albeit strongly coupled, behavior at the UV. The full UV completion of gauge theory is accomplished in the gravity side by attaching an AdS cap to the IR geometry described in our previous work. Attaching such an AdS cap is highly non-trivial because it amounts to finding the right interpolating geometry and sources that take us from a gravity solution with non-zero three-form fluxes to another one that has almost vanishing three-form fluxes. In this paper we give a concrete realisation of such a scenario, completing the program advocated in our earlier paper. One of the main advantage of having such a background, in addition to providing a dual description of the required gauge theory, is the absence of Landau poles and consequently the UV divergences of the Wilson loops. The potential for the heaviest fundamental quark anti-quark pairs, which are like the heavy quarkonium states in realistic QCD, can be computed and their linear behavior at large separations and zero temperature could be demonstrated. At small separations the expected Coulombic behavior appears to dominate. On the other hand, at non-zero temperatures interesting properties like heavy quarkonium type suppressions and melting are shown to emerge from our gravity dual. We provide some discussions of the melting temperature and compare our results with the Charmonium spectrum and lattice simulations. We argue that, in spite of the large N nature of our construction, certain model-independent predictions can be made.
Maglev Facility for Simulating Variable Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Yuanming; Strayer, Donald M.; Israelsson, Ulf E.
2010-01-01
An improved magnetic levitation apparatus ("Maglev Facility") has been built for use in experiments in which there are requirements to impose variable gravity (including zero gravity) in order to assess the effects of gravity or the absence thereof on physical and physiological processes. The apparatus is expected to be especially useful for experiments on the effects of gravity on convection, boiling, and heat transfer in fluids and for experiments on mice to gain understanding of bone loss induced in human astronauts by prolonged exposure to reduced gravity in space flight. The maglev principle employed by the apparatus is well established. Diamagnetic cryogenic fluids such as liquid helium have been magnetically levitated for studying their phase transitions and critical behaviors. Biological entities consist mostly of diamagnetic molecules (e.g., water molecules) and thus can be levitated by use of sufficiently strong magnetic fields having sufficiently strong vertical gradients. The heart of the present maglev apparatus is a vertically oriented superconducting solenoid electromagnet (see figure) that generates a static magnetic field of about 16 T with a vertical gradient sufficient for levitation of water in normal Earth gravity. The electromagnet is enclosed in a Dewar flask having a volume of 100 L that contains liquid helium to maintain superconductivity. The Dewar flask features a 66-mm-diameter warm bore, lying within the bore of the magnet, wherein experiments can be performed at room temperature. The warm bore is accessible from its top and bottom ends. The superconducting electromagnet is run in the persistent mode, in which the supercurrent and the magnetic field can be maintained for weeks with little decay, making this apparatus extremely cost and energy efficient to operate. In addition to water, this apparatus can levitate several common fluids: liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, methane, ammonia, sodium, and lithium, all of which are useful, variously, as rocket fuels or as working fluids for heat transfer devices. A drop of water 45 mm in diameter and a small laboratory mouse have been levitated in this apparatus.
Fisher's Zeros and Perturbative Series in Gluodynamics
A. Denbleyker; D. Du; Y. Meurice; A. Velytsky
2007-10-30
We study the zeros of the partition function in the complex beta plane (Fisher's zeros) in SU(2) and SU(3) gluodynamics. We discuss their effects on the asymptotic behavior of the perturbative series for the average plaquette. We present new methods to infer the existence of these zeros in region of the complex beta plane where MC reweighting is not reliable. These methods are based on the assumption that the plaquette distribution can be approximated by a phi^4 type distribution. We give new estimates of the locations for a 4^4 lattice. For SU(2), we found zeros at beta =2.18(1) \\pm i0.18(2) (which differs from previous estimates), and at beta =2.18(1) \\pm i0.22(2). For SU(3), we confirm beta =5.54(2)\\pm i0.10(2) and found additional zeros at beta =5.54(2)\\pm i0.16(2). Some of the technical material can be found in recent preprints, in the following we emphasize the motivations (why it is important to know the locations of the zeros) and the challenges (why it is difficult to locate the zeros when the volume increases)
Tethered gravity laboratories study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lucchetti, F.
1990-01-01
The scope of the study is to investigate ways of controlling the microgravity environment of the International Space Station by means of a tethered system. Four main study tasks were performed. First, researchers analyzed the utilization of the tether systems to improve the lowest possible steady gravity level on the Space Station and the tether capability to actively control the center of gravity position in order to compensate for activities that would upset the mass distribution of the Station. The purpose of the second task was to evaluate the whole of the experiments performable in a variable gravity environment and the related beneficial residual accelerations, both for pure and applied research in the fields of fluid, materials, and life science, so as to assess the relevance of a variable g-level laboratory. The third task involves the Tethered Variable Gravity Laboratory. The use of the facility that would crawl along a deployed tether and expose experiments to varying intensities of reduced gravity is discussed. Last, a study performed on the Attitude Tether Stabilizer concept is discussed. The stabilization effect of ballast masses tethered to the Space Station was investigated as a means of assisting the attitude control system of the Station.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Konopliv, Alexander S.; Sjogren, William L.
1996-01-01
This report documents the Venus gravity methods and results to date (model MGNP90LSAAP). It is called a handbook in that it contains many useful plots (such as geometry and orbit behavior) that are useful in evaluating the tracking data. We discuss the models that are used in processing the Doppler data and the estimation method for determining the gravity field. With Pioneer Venus Orbiter and Magellan tracking data, the Venus gravity field was determined complete to degree and order 90 with the use of the JPL Cray T3D Supercomputer. The gravity field shows unprecedented high correlation with topography and resolution of features to the 2OOkm resolution. In the procedure for solving the gravity field, other information is gained as well, and, for example, we discuss results for the Venus ephemeris, Love number, pole orientation of Venus, and atmospheric densities. Of significance is the Love number solution which indicates a liquid core for Venus. The ephemeris of Venus is determined to an accuracy of 0.02 mm/s (tens of meters in position), and the rotation period to 243.0194 +/- 0.0002 days.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morey-Holton, Emily R.
1996-01-01
Gravity has been the most constant environmental factor throughout the evolution of biological species on Earth. Organisms are rarely exposed to other gravity levels, either increased or decreased, for prolonged periods. Thus, evolution in a constant 1G field has historically prevented us from appreciating the potential biological consequences of a multi-G universe. To answer the question 'Can terrestrial life be sustained and thrive beyond our planet?' we need to understand the importance of gravity on living systems, and we need to develop a multi-G, rather than a 1G, mentality. The science of gravitational biology took a giant step with the advent of the space program, which provided the first opportunity to examine living organisms in gravity environments lower than could be sustained on Earth. Previously, virtually nothing was known about the effects of extremely low gravity on living organisms, and most of the initial expectations were proven wrong. All species that have flown in space survive in microgravity, although no higher organism has ever completed a life cycle in space. It has been found, however, that many systems change, transiently or permanently, as a result of prolonged exposure to microgravity.
Kazuya Koyama
2015-04-17
Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) is tested accurately within the local universe i.e., the Solar System, but this leaves open the possibility that it is not a good description at the largest scales in the Universe. The standard model of cosmology assumes GR as the theory to describe gravity on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. The standard model of cosmology is based on a huge extrapolation of our limited knowledge of gravity. This discovery of the late time acceleration of the Universe may require us to revise the theory of gravity and the standard model of cosmology based on GR. We will review recent progress in constructing modified gravity models as an alternative to dark energy and developing cosmological tests of gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bailey, Quentin G.
2007-08-01
This work explores the theoretical and experimental aspects of Lorentz violation in gravity. A set of modified Einstein field equations is derived from the general Lorentz-violating Standard-Model Extension (SME). Some general theoretical implications of these results are discussed. The experimental consequences for weak-field gravitating systems are explored in the Earth- laboratory setting, the solar system, and beyond. The role of spontaneous Lorentz-symmetry breaking is discussed in the context of the pure-gravity sector of the SME. To establish the low-energy effective Einstein field equations, it is necessary to take into account the dynamics of 20 coefficients for Lorentz violation. As an example, the results are compared with bumblebee models, which are general theories of vector fields with spontaneous Lorentz violation. The field equations are evaluated in the post- newtonian limit using a perfect fluid description of matter. The post-newtonian metric of the SME is derived and compared with some standard test models of gravity. The possible signals for Lorentz violation due to gravity-sector coefficients are studied. Several new effects are identified that have experimental implications for current and future tests. Among the unconventional effects are a new type of spin precession for a gyroscope in orbit and a modification to the local gravitational acceleration on the Earth's surface. These and other tests are expected to yield interesting sensitivities to dimensionless gravity- sector coefficients.
Seeking the Light: Gravity Without the Influence of Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sack, Fred; Kern, Volker; Reed, Dave; Etheridge, Guy (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
All living things sense gravity like humans might sense light or sound. The Biological Research In Canisters (BRIC-14) experiment, explores how moss cells sense and respond to gravity and light. This experiment studies how gravity influences the internal structure of moss cells and seeks to understand the influences of the spaceflight environment on cell growth. This knowledge will help researchers understand the role of gravity in the evolution of cells and life on earth.
On the no-gravity limit of gravity
J. Kowalski-Glikman; M. Szczachor
2012-12-21
We argue that Relative Locality may arise in the no gravity $G\\rightarrow0$ limit of gravity. In this limit gravity becomes a topological field theory of the BF type that, after coupling to particles, may effectively deform its dynamics. We briefly discuss another no gravity limit with a self dual ground state as well as the topological ultra strong $G\\rightarrow\\infty$ one.
Terrestrial gravity data analysis for interim gravity model improvement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1987-01-01
This is the first status report for the Interim Gravity Model research effort that was started on June 30, 1986. The basic theme of this study is to develop appropriate models and adjustment procedures for estimating potential coefficients from terrestrial gravity data. The plan is to use the latest gravity data sets to produce coefficient estimates as well as to provide normal equations to NASA for use in the TOPEX/POSEIDON gravity field modeling program.
A unified approach to ZMP and gravity center control in biped dynamic stable walking
K. Sorao; T. Murakami; K. Ohnishi
1997-01-01
Summary form only given. In this paper, to realize dynamic stable walking, a novel control strategy is formulated, which is based on both the centre of gravity (COG) and the zero moment point (ZMP) of the biped supporting leg control. This control algorithm involves the following two stages: 1) trajectory generation of the ZMP for the realization of the arbitrary
Macroscopic quantization of gravity
M. Y. Amin
2010-01-09
The moon is receding from earth at an average rate of 3.8 cm/yr [6][7][9][12].This anomaly cannot be attributed to the well-known tidal exchange of angular momentum between earth and moon [8]. A secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern, it is reportedly increasing by about 15 cm/yr [9][10], in this letter; the concept of macroscopic quantization of gravity is introduced to account for these anomalies on theoretical basis. Interestingly, it was found useful in measuring the speed of gravity! What is more interesting is the fact that this concept is based on solid well known classical physics with no modifications to any standard model. It was found that the speed of gravity cg is in the range 10^4 c < cg < 10^5 c.
Macroscopic quantization of gravity
Amin, M Y
2009-01-01
The moon is receding from earth at an average rate of 3.8 cm/yr [6][7][9][12].This anomaly cannot be attributed to the well-known tidal exchange of angular momentum between earth and moon [8]. A secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern, it is reportedly increasing by about 15 cm/yr [9][10], in this letter; the concept of macroscopic quantization of gravity is introduced to account for these anomalies on theoretical basis. Interestingly, it was found useful in measuring the speed of gravity! What is more interesting is the fact that this concept is based on solid well known classical physics with no modifications to any standard model. It was found that the speed of gravity cg is in the range 10^4 c < cg < 10^5 c.
Ivan G. Avramidi; Guglielmo Fucci
2008-11-03
We develop the kinematics in Matrix Gravity, which is a modified theory of gravity obtained by a non-commutative deformation of General Relativity. In this model the usual interpretation of gravity as Riemannian geometry is replaced by a new kind of geometry, which is equivalent to a collection of Finsler geometries with several Finsler metrics depending both on the position and on the velocity. As a result the Riemannian geodesic flow is replaced by a collection of Finsler flows. This naturally leads to a model in which a particle is described by several mass parameters. If these mass parameters are different then the equivalence principle is violated. In the non-relativistic limit this also leads to corrections to the Newton's gravitational potential. We find the first and second order corrections to the usual Riemannian geodesic flow and evaluate the anomalous nongeodesic acceleration in a particular case of static spherically symmetric background.
External Resource: Gravity Assist Simulator
NSDL National Science Digital Library
1900-01-01
A Messenger Education site to explore gravity assist maneuvers, interaction with gravity, and the idea of a collision, to understand the effects of that interaction. Students explore the simulated encounters of spacecraft and planets to answer the questio
Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)
2003-01-01
A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water. The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles
Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Gelger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)
2006-01-01
A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water, The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles.
Polchinski, Joseph [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics
2010-09-01
Gauge theories, which describe the particle interactions, are well understood, while quantum gravity leads to many puzzles. Remarkably, in recent years we have learned that these are actually dual, the same system written in different variables. On the one hand, this provides our most precise description of quantum gravity, resolves some long-standing paradoxes, and points to new principles. On the other, it gives a new perspective on strong interactions, with surprising connections to other areas of physics. I describe these ideas, and discuss current and future directions.
Resummation of Massive Gravity
Rham, Claudia de; Gabadadze, Gregory; Tolley, Andrew J.
2011-06-10
We construct four-dimensional covariant nonlinear theories of massive gravity which are ghost-free in the decoupling limit to all orders. These theories resume explicitly all the nonlinear terms of an effective field theory of massive gravity. We show that away from the decoupling limit the Hamiltonian constraint is maintained at least up to and including quartic order in nonlinearities, hence excluding the possibility of the Boulware-Deser ghost up to this order. We also show that the same remains true to all orders in a similar toy model.
Resummation of massive gravity.
de Rham, Claudia; Gabadadze, Gregory; Tolley, Andrew J
2011-06-10
We construct four-dimensional covariant nonlinear theories of massive gravity which are ghost-free in the decoupling limit to all orders. These theories resum explicitly all the nonlinear terms of an effective field theory of massive gravity. We show that away from the decoupling limit the Hamiltonian constraint is maintained at least up to and including quartic order in nonlinearities, hence excluding the possibility of the Boulware-Deser ghost up to this order. We also show that the same remains true to all orders in a similar toy model. PMID:21770493
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ammon, Martin; Erdmenger, Johanna
2015-04-01
Part I. Prerequisites: 1. Elements of field theory; 2. Elements of gravity; 3. Symmetries in quantum field theory; 4. Introduction to superstring theory; Part II. Gauge/Gravity Duality: 5. AdS/CFT correspondence; 6. Tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence; 7. Integrability and scattering amplitudes; 8. Further examples of AdS/CFT; 9. Holographic renormalisation group flows; 10. Duality with D-branes in supergravity; 11. Finite temperature and density; Part III. Applications: 12. Linear response and hydrodynamics; 13. QCD and holography: confinement and chiral symmetry breaking; 14. QCD and holography: finite temperature and density; 15. Strongly coupled condensed matter systems; Appendixes; References; Index.
Charges for linearized gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aksteiner, Steffen; Andersson, Lars
2013-08-01
Maxwell test fields as well as solutions of linearized gravity on the Kerr exterior admit non-radiating modes i.e. non-trivial time-independent solutions. These are closely related to conserved charges. In this paper we discuss the non-radiating modes for linearized gravity which may be seen to correspond to the Poincaré Lie algebra. The two-dimensional isometry group of Kerr corresponds to a two-parameter family of gauge-invariant non-radiating modes representing infinitesimal perturbations of mass and azimuthal angular momentum. We calculate the linearized mass charge in terms of linearized Newman-Penrose scalars.
Consistency of Semiclassical Gravity
D. Giulini; C. Kiefer
1994-09-08
We discuss some subtleties which arise in the semiclassical approximation to quantum gravity. We show that integrability conditions prevent the existence of Tomonaga-Schwinger time functions on the space of three-metrics but admit them on superspace. The concept of semiclassical time is carefully examined. We point out that central charges in the matter sector spoil the consistency of the semiclassical approximation unless the full quantum theory of gravity and matter is anomaly-free. We finally discuss consequences of these considerations for quantum field theory in flat spacetime, but with arbitrary foliations.
Effective Nonlocal Euclidean Gravity
C. Wetterich
1997-04-18
A nonlocal form of the effective gravitational action could cure the unboundedness of euclidean gravity with Einstein action. On sub-horizon length scales the modified gravitational field equations seem compatible with all present tests of general relativity and post-Newtonian gravity. They induce a difference in the effective Newton's constant between regions of space with vanishing or nonvanishing curvature scalar (or Ricci tensor). In cosmology they may lead to a value $\\Omega<1$ for the critical density after inflation. The simplest model considered here appears to be in conflict with nucleosynthesis, but generalizations consistent with all cosmological observations seem conceivable.
Introduction to Loop Quantum Gravity
Simone Mercuri
2010-01-08
The questions I have been asked during the 5th International School on Field Theory and Gravitation, have compelled me to give an account of the premises that I consider important for a beginner's approach to Loop Quantum Gravity. After a description of some general arguments and an introduction to the canonical theory of gravity, I review the background independent approach to quantum gravity, giving only a brief survey of Loop Quantum Gravity.
Counting Majorana zero modes in superconductors
Santos, Luiz
A counting formula for computing the number of (Majorana) zero modes bound to topological point defects is evaluated in a gradient expansion for systems with charge-conjugation symmetry. This semi-classical counting of ...
On zero energy states in graphene
C. -L. Ho; P. Roy
2014-10-02
We obtain zero energy states in graphene for a number of potentials and discuss the relation of the decoupled Schr\\"odinger-like equations for the the spinor components with non relativistic $\\cal{PT}$ symmetric quantum mechanics.
Cluster Computing in Zero Knowledge (extended version)
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Cluster Computing in Zero Knowledge (extended version) Alessandro Chiesa alessandro 28, 2015 Abstract Large computations, when amenable to distributed parallel execution, are often executed on computer clusters, for scalability and cost reasons. Such computations are used in many
Fingerprints Theorems for Zero-Crossings
Yuille, A.L.
1983-10-01
We prove that the scale map of the zero-crossings of almost all signals filtered by the second derivative of a gaussian of variable size determines the signal uniquely, up to a constant scaling and a harmonic function. ...
Marcelo Samuel Berman
2009-08-16
We consider the energy of the Universe, from the pseudo-tensor point of view(Berman,1981). We find zero values, when the calculations are well-done.The doubts concerning this subject are clarified, with the novel idea that the justification for the calculation lies in the association of the equivalence principle, with the nature of co-motional observers, as demanded in Cosmology. In Section 4, we give a novel calculation for the zero-total energy result.
Universal fluctuations of zeros of chaotic wavefunctions
P. Leboeuf; P. Shukla
1996-01-01
Wavefunctions of one and two-dimensional quantum systems can be parametrized by a finite number of zeros lying in phase space. We study correlations of these zeros for fully chaotic systems in terms of a statistical model based on random polynomials. Excellent agreement is found for the two-point correlation function and nearest-neighbour spacing distribution of this model and the results obtained
From Classical To Quantum Gravity: Introduction to Loop Quantum Gravity
Kristina Giesel; Hanno Sahlmann
2013-01-02
We present an introduction to the canonical quantization of gravity performed in loop quantum gravity, based on lectures held at the 3rd quantum geometry and quantum gravity school in Zakopane in 2011. A special feature of this introduction is the inclusion of new proposals for coupling matter to gravity that can be used to deparametrize the theory, thus making its dynamics more tractable. The classical and quantum aspects of these new proposals are explained alongside the standard quantization of vacuum general relativity in loop quantum gravity.
Even-dimensional topological gravity from Chern-Simons gravity
Nelson Merino; Alfredo Perez; Patricio Salgado
2009-10-08
It is shown that the topological action for gravity in 2n-dimensions can be obtained from the 2n+1-dimensional Chern-Simons gravity genuinely invariant under the Poincare group. The 2n-dimensional topological gravity is described by the dynamics of the boundary of a 2n+1-dimensional Chern-Simons gravity theory with suitable boundary conditions. The field $\\phi^{a}$, which is necessary to construct this type of topological gravity in even dimensions, is identified with the coset field associated with the non-linear realizations of the Poincare group ISO(d-1,1).
Chern--Simons Gravity from 3+1 Dimensional Gravity
G. Grignani; G. Nardelli
1992-11-09
In the context of a Poincar\\'e gauge theoretical formulation, pure gravity in 3+1-dimensions is dimensionally reduced to gravity in 2+1-dimensions with or without cosmological constant $\\Lambda$. The dimensional reductions are consistent with the gauge symmetries, mapping ISO(3, 1) gauge transformations into ISO(2,1) ones. One of the reductions leads to Chern-Simons-Witten gravity. The solutions of 2+1-gravity with $\\Lambda\\le 0$ (in particular the black-hole solution recently found by Banados, Teitelboim and Zanelli) and those of 1+1-dimensional Liouville gravity, are thus mapped into 3+1-dimensional vacuum solutions.
Thermodynamic foundation of the zero emission concept
Lackner, K.S.; Yegulalp, T. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States). Earth Institute
2005-08-01
By definition, zero emission coal plants generate power without any purposeful emissions to the atmosphere. This is only possible if all the CO{sub 2} produced is captured and if one avoids the admixture of nitrogen from the air with fuel gases. Because zero emission coal plants have no smoke stack, they emit no pollutants to the air. Zero emission plants circulate a gas stream to which fresh fuel is added and from which spent fuel and impurities are removed as solids or liquids. Coal is gasified via hydrogenation (hydrogasification), steam reforming or CO{sub 2} gasification (Boudouard reaction). In one class of zero emission coal plants, the gas (not necessarily hydrogen) is oxidized in a fuel cell and the resultant water and CO{sub 2} are partially removed before returning the remaining gas to the gasifier. The high conversion efficiency of zero emission power plants, which exceeds 70% even in realistic designs, stems from combining fuel cells with careful heat management. The paper generalizes the concepts and outlines the thermodynamic basis of zero emission power plants.
Do cosmological perturbations have zero mean?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armendariz-Picon, Cristian
2011-03-01
A central assumption in our analysis of cosmic structure is that cosmological perturbations have a constant ensemble mean, which can be set to zero by appropriate choice of the background. This property is one of the consequences of statistical homogeneity, the invariance of correlation functions under spatial translations. In this article we explore whether cosmological perturbations indeed have zero mean, and thus test one aspect of statistical homogeneity. We carry out a classical test of the zero mean hypothesis against a class of alternatives in which primordial perturbations have inhomogeneous non-vanishing means, but homogeneous and isotropic covariances. Apart from Gaussianity, our test does not make any additional assumptions about the nature of the perturbations and is thus rather generic and model-independent. The test statistic we employ is essentially Student's t statistic, applied to appropriately masked, foreground-cleaned cosmic microwave background anisotropy maps produced by the WMAP mission. We find evidence for a non-zero mean in a particular range of multipoles, but the evidence against the zero mean hypothesis goes away when we correct for multiple testing. We also place constraints on the mean of the temperature multipoles as a function of angular scale. On angular scales smaller than four degrees, a non-zero mean has to be at least an order of magnitude smaller than the standard deviation of the temperature anisotropies.
Hardware development for Gravity Probe-B
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bardas, D.; Cheung, W. S.; Gill, D.; Hacker, R.; Keiser, G. M.
1986-01-01
Gravity Probe-B (GP-B), also known as the Stanford Relativity Gyroscope Experiment, will test two fundamental predictions of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity by precise measurement of the precessions of nearly perfect gyroscopes in earth orbit. This endeavor embodies state-of-the-art technologies in many fields, including gyroscope fabrication and readout, cryogenics, superconductivity, magnetic shielding, precision optics and alignment methods, and satellite control systems. These technologies are necessary to enable measurement of the predicted precession rates to the milliarcsecond/year level, and to reduce to 'near zero' all non-General Relativistic torques on the gyroscopes. This paper provides a brief overview of the experiment followed by descriptions of several specific hardware items with highlights on progress to date and plans for future development and tests.
The Conformal Constraint in Canonical Quantum Gravity
Hooft, Gerard 't
2010-01-01
Perturbative canonical quantum gravity is considered, when coupled to a renormalizable model for matter fields. It is proposed that the functional integral over the dilaton field should be disentangled from the other integrations over the metric fields. This should generate a conformally invariant theory as an intermediate result, where the conformal anomalies must be constrained to cancel out. When the residual metric is treated as a background, and if this background is taken to be flat, this leads to a novel constraint: in combination with the dilaton contributions, the matter lagrangian should have a vanishing beta function. The zeros of this beta function are isolated points in the landscape of quantum field theories, and so we arrive at a denumerable, or perhaps even finite, set of quantum theories for matter, where not only the coupling constants, but also the masses and the cosmological constant are all fixed, and computable, in terms of the Planck units.
The Conformal Constraint in Canonical Quantum Gravity
Gerard 't Hooft
2010-10-30
Perturbative canonical quantum gravity is considered, when coupled to a renormalizable model for matter fields. It is proposed that the functional integral over the dilaton field should be disentangled from the other integrations over the metric fields. This should generate a conformally invariant theory as an intermediate result, where the conformal anomalies must be constrained to cancel out. When the residual metric is treated as a background, and if this background is taken to be flat, this leads to a novel constraint: in combination with the dilaton contributions, the matter lagrangian should have a vanishing beta function. The zeros of this beta function are isolated points in the landscape of quantum field theories, and so we arrive at a denumerable, or perhaps even finite, set of quantum theories for matter, where not only the coupling constants, but also the masses and the cosmological constant are all fixed, and computable, in terms of the Planck units.
Flat Spacetime Vacuum in Loop Quantum Gravity
A. Mikovic
2004-04-06
We construct a state in the loop quantum gravity theory with zero cosmological constant, which should correspond to the flat spacetime vacuum solution. This is done by defining the loop transform coefficients of a flat connection wavefunction in the holomorphic representation which satisfies all the constraints of quantum General Relativity and it is peaked around the flat space triads. The loop transform coefficients are defined as spin foam state sum invariants of the spin networks embedded in the spatial manifold for the SU(2) quantum group. We also obtain an expression for the vacuum wavefunction in the triad represntation, by defining the corresponding spin networks functional integrals as SU(2) quantum group state sums.
Gravity and the circulation: "open" vs. "closed" systems.
Hicks, J W; Badeer, H S
1992-05-01
The elementary principles of liquid dynamics are described by the equations of Bernoulli and Poiseuille. Bernoulli's equation deals with nonviscous liquids under steady streamline flow. Pressures in such flows are related to gravity and/or acceleration. Changes in elevation affect the gravitational potential energy of the liquid and the velocity of flow determines the kinetic energy. The sum of these three factors represented in the Bernoulli equation remains constant, but the variables are interconvertible. In contrast, the Poiseuille equation describes the pressures related to viscous resistance only, and the energy of flow is dissipated as heat. A combination of the two equations describes the flow in tubes more realistically than either equation alone. In "open" systems gravity hinders uphill flow and causes downhill flow, in which the liquid acts as a falling body. In contrast, in "closed" systems, like the circulation, gravity does not hinder uphill flow nor does it cause downhill flow, because gravity acts equally on the ascending and descending limbs of the circuit. Furthermore, in closed systems, the liquid cannot "fall" by gravity from higher levels of gravitational potential to lower levels of potential. Flow, up or down, must be induced by some source of energy against the resistance of the circuit. In the case of the circulation, the pumping action of the heart supplies the needed energy gradients. Flow in collapsible tubes, like veins, obeys the same basic laws of liquid dynamics except that transmural pressures near zero or below zero reduce markedly the cross-sectional area of the tube, which increases the viscous resistance to flow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1590467
Crevecoeur, F; McIntyre, J; Thonnard, J-L; Lefèvre, P
2014-07-15
Moving requires handling gravitational and inertial constraints pulling on our body and on the objects that we manipulate. Although previous work emphasized that the brain uses internal models of each type of mechanical load, little is known about their interaction during motor planning and execution. In this report, we examine visually guided reaching movements in the horizontal plane performed by naive participants exposed to changes in gravity during parabolic flight. This approach allowed us to isolate the effect of gravity because the environmental dynamics along the horizontal axis remained unchanged. We show that gravity has a direct effect on movement kinematics, with faster movements observed after transitions from normal gravity to hypergravity (1.8g), followed by significant movement slowing after the transition from hypergravity to zero gravity. We recorded finger forces applied on an object held in precision grip and found that the coupling between grip force and inertial loads displayed a similar effect, with an increase in grip force modulation gain under hypergravity followed by a reduction of modulation gain after entering the zero-gravity environment. We present a computational model to illustrate that these effects are compatible with the hypothesis that participants partially attribute changes in weight to changes in mass and scale incorrectly their motor commands with changes in gravity. These results highlight a rather direct internal mapping between the force generated during stationary holding against gravity and the estimation of inertial loads that limb and hand motor commands must overcome. PMID:24790173
Zero/zero rotorcraft certification issues. Volume 2: Plenary session presentations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, Richard J.
1988-01-01
This report analyzes the Zero/Zero Rotorcraft Certification Issues from the perspectives of manufacturers, operators, researchers and the FAA. The basic premise behind this analysis is that zero/zero, or at least extremely low visibility, rotorcraft operations are feasible today from both a technological and an operational standpoint. The questions and issues that need to be resolved are: What certification requirements do we need to ensure safety. Can we develop procedures which capitalize on the performance and maneuvering capabilities unique to rotorcraft. Will extremely low visibility operations be economically feasible. This is Volume 2 of three. It presents the operator perspectives (system needs), applicable technology and zero/zero concepts developed in the first 12 months of research of this project.
Jain, Bhuvnesh; Khoury, Justin
2010-07-15
Modifications of general relativity provide an alternative explanation to dark energy for the observed acceleration of the universe. We review recent developments in modified gravity theories, focusing on higher-dimensional approaches and chameleon/f(R) theories. We classify these models in terms of the screening mechanisms that enable such theories to approach general relativity on small scales (and thus satisfy solar system constraints). We describe general features of the modified Friedman equation in such theories. The second half of this review describes experimental tests of gravity in light of the new theoretical approaches. We summarize the high precision tests of gravity on laboratory and solar system scales. We describe in some detail tests on astrophysical scales ranging from {approx} kpc (galaxy scales) to {approx} Gpc (large-scale structure). These tests rely on the growth and inter-relationship of perturbations in the metric potentials, density and velocity fields which can be measured using gravitational lensing, galaxy cluster abundances, galaxy clustering and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. A robust way to interpret observations is by constraining effective parameters, such as the ratio of the two metric potentials. Currently tests of gravity on astrophysical scales are in the early stages - we summarize these tests and discuss the interesting prospects for new tests in the coming decade.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This resource provides an explanation of gravity, the weakest of the four universal forces. Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation is presented, and certain gravitational phenomena are explained, such as why astronauts float in space. A table that compares gravitational forces on Earth with that on the Moon, the Sun, and other planets is included.
F. F. Faria
2014-12-15
In this article we construct a massive theory of gravity that is invariant under conformal transformations. The massive action of the theory depend on the metric tensor and a scalar field, which are considered as the only field variables. We find the vacuum field equations of the theory and the solution of its Newtonian limit.
G. Gabadadze; M. Shifman
2003-12-24
Large-distance modification of gravity may be the mechanism for solving the cosmological constant problem. A simple model of the large-distance modification -- four-dimensional (4D) gravity with the hard mass term-- is problematic from the theoretical standpoint. Here we discuss a different model, the brane-induced gravity, that effectively introduces a soft graviton mass. We study the issues of unitarity, analyticity and causality in this model in more than five dimensions. We show that a consistent prescription for the poles of the Green's function can be specified so that 4D unitarity is preserved. However, in certain instances 4D analyticity cannot be maintained when theory becomes higher dimensional. As a result, one has to sacrifice 4D causality at distances of the order of the present-day Hubble scale. This is a welcome feature for solving the cosmological constant problem, as was recently argued in the literature. We also show that, unlike the 4D massive gravity, the model has no strong-coupling problem at intermediate scales.
Acausality of massive gravity.
Deser, S; Waldron, A
2013-03-15
We show, by analyzing its characteristics, that the ghost-free, 5 degree of freedom, Wess-Zumino massive gravity model admits superluminal shock wave solutions and thus is acausal. Ironically, this pathology arises from the very constraint that removes the (sixth) Boulware-Deser ghost mode. PMID:25166520
Spaceborne Gravity Gradiometers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wells, W. C. (editor)
1984-01-01
The current status of gravity gradiometers and technology that could be available in the 1990's for the GRAVSAT-B mission are assessed. Problems associated with sensors, testing, spacecraft, and data processing are explored as well as critical steps, schedule, and cost factors in the development plan.
Bao, Ruoyu; /Chicago U., EFI /Chicago U.; Carena, Marcela; /Fermilab; Lykken, Joseph; /Chicago U., EFI /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Park, Minjoon; /Chicago U., EFI /Chicago U.; Santiago, Jose; /Fermilab
2005-11-01
Gravity in five-dimensional braneworld backgrounds often exhibits problematic features, including kinetic ghosts, strong coupling, and the vDVZ discontinuity. These problems are an obstacle to producing and analyzing braneworld models with interesting and potentially observable modifications of 4d gravity. We examine these problems in a general AdS{sub 5}/AdS{sub 4} setup with two branes and localized curvature from arbitrary brane kinetic terms. We use the interval approach and an explicit ''straight'' gauge-fixing. We compute the complete quadratic gauge-fixed effective 4d action, as well as the leading cubic order corrections. We compute the exact Green's function for gravity as seen on the brane. In the full parameter space, we exhibit the regions which avoid kinetic ghosts and tachyons. We give a general formula for the strong coupling scale, i.e. the energy scale at which the linearized treatment of gravity breaks down, for relevant regions of the parameter space. We show how the vDVZ discontinuity can be naturally but nontrivially avoided by ultralight graviton modes. We present a direct comparison of warping versus localized curvature in terms of their effects on graviton mode couplings. We exhibit the first example of DGP-like crossover behavior in a general warped setup.
Bao Ruoyu; Park, Minjoon [Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Carena, Marcela; Santiago, Jose [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Lykken, Joseph [Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)
2006-03-15
Gravity in five-dimensional braneworld backgrounds often exhibits problematic features, including kinetic ghosts, strong coupling, and the van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov (vDVZ) discontinuity. These problems are an obstacle to producing and analyzing braneworld models with interesting and potentially observable modifications of 4d gravity. We examine these problems in a general AdS{sub 5}/AdS{sub 4} setup with two branes and localized curvature from arbitrary brane kinetic terms. We use the interval approach and an explicit straight gauge-fixing. We compute the complete quadratic gauge-fixed effective 4d action, as well as the leading cubic order corrections. We compute the exact Green's function for gravity as seen on the brane. In the full parameter space, we exhibit the regions which avoid kinetic ghosts and tachyons. We give a general formula for the strong coupling scale, i.e., the energy scale at which the linearized treatment of gravity breaks down, for relevant regions of the parameter space. We show how the vDVZ discontinuity can be naturally but nontrivially avoided by ultralight graviton modes. We present a direct comparison of warping versus localized curvature in terms of their effects on graviton mode couplings. We exhibit the first example of Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP)-like crossover behavior in a general warped setup.
Johan Hansson
2006-12-04
A Newtonian approach to quantum gravity is studied. At least for weak gravitational fields it should be a valid approximation. Such an approach could be used to point out problems and prospects inherent in a more exact theory of quantum gravity, yet to be discovered. Newtonian quantum gravity, e.g., shows promise for prohibiting black holes altogether (which would eliminate singularities and also solve the black hole information paradox), breaks the equivalence principle of general relativity, and supports non-local interactions (quantum entanglement). Its predictions should also be testable at length scales well above the "Planck scale", by high-precision experiments feasible even with existing technology. As an illustration of the theory, it turns out that the solar system, superficially, perfectly well can be described as a quantum gravitational system, provided that the $l$ quantum number has its maximum value, $n-1$. This results exactly in Kepler's third law. If also the $m$ quantum number has its maximum value ($\\pm l$) the probability density has a very narrow torus-like form, centered around the classical planetary orbits. However, as the probability density is independent of the azimuthal angle $\\phi$ there is, from quantum gravity arguments, no reason for planets to be located in any unique place along the orbit (or even \\textit{in} an orbit for $m \
Variable gravity research facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allan, Sean; Ancheta, Stan; Beine, Donna; Cink, Brian; Eagon, Mark; Eckstein, Brett; Luhman, Dan; Mccowan, Daniel; Nations, James; Nordtvedt, Todd
1988-01-01
Spin and despin requirements; sequence of activities required to assemble the Variable Gravity Research Facility (VGRF); power systems technology; life support; thermal control systems; emergencies; communication systems; space station applications; experimental activities; computer modeling and simulation of tether vibration; cost analysis; configuration of the crew compartments; and tether lengths and rotation speeds are discussed.
External Resource: Different Gravity
NSDL National Science Digital Library
1900-01-01
This article from NASA's Suited for Spacewalking An Activity Guide for Technology Education explains that gravity is an attractive force that all objects have for one another. It doesn't matter whether the object is a planet, a cannon ball, a feather, or
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Newburgh, Ronald
2010-01-01
It's both surprising and rewarding when an old, standard problem reveals a subtlety that expands its pedagogic value. I realized recently that the role of gravity in the range equation for a projectile is not so simple as first appears. This realization may be completely obvious to others but was quite new to me.
38 CFR 4.31 - Zero percent evaluations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...2010-07-01 false Zero percent evaluations. 4.31 Section 4...RATING DISABILITIES General Policy in Rating § 4.31 Zero percent evaluations. In every instance where...not provide a zero percent evaluation for a diagnostic...
Effect of gravity on the stability and structure of lean hydrogen-air flames
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, G.; Kailasanath, K.
1991-01-01
Detailed, time-dependent, 2D numerical simulations with full hydrogen-oxygen chemistry are used to investigate the effects of gravity on the stability and structure of laminar flames in lean, premixed hydrogen-air mixtures. The calculations show that the effects of gravity becomes more important as the lean flammability limit is approached. In a 12 percent hydrogen-air mixture, gravity plays only a secondary role in determining the multidimensional structure of the flame with the stability and structure of the flame controlled primarily by the thermo-diffusive instability mechanism. However, in leaner hydrogen-air mixtures gravity becomes more important. Upward-propagating flames are highly curved and evolve into a bubble rising upwards in the tube. Downward-propagating flames are flat or even oscillate between structures with concave and convex curvatures. The zero-gravity flame shows only cellular structures. Cellular structures which are present in zero gravity can be suppressed by the effect of buoyancy for mixtures leaner than 11 percent hydrogen. These observations are explained on the basis of an interaction between the processes leading to buoyancy-induced Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the thermo-diffusive instability.
Plants and gravity. Special issue
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiss, J. Z. (Principal Investigator)
2002-01-01
This issue of the Journal of Plant Growth Regulation explores the effects of gravity on plant growth and development from several perspectives. Most of the review papers consider plants and gravity from the viewpoint of ground-based laboratory research, and several papers consider gravitropism, the directed growth in response to gravity, in some detail. However, another approach to study the effects of gravity on plant is to effectively remove the force due to gravity. A very dramatic way to accomplish this goal is through the free-fall conditions achieved by spacecraft in low Earth orbit, so some of the authors have reviewed recent advances in spaceflight research with plant systems.
Analog systems for gravity duals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hossenfelder, Sabine
2015-06-01
We show that analog gravity systems exist for charged, planar black holes in asymptotic anti-de Sitter space. These black holes have been employed to describe, via the gauge-gravity duality, strongly coupled condensed matter systems on the boundary of anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The analog gravity system is a different condensed matter system that, in a suitable limit, describes the same bulk physics as the theory on the AdS boundary. This combination of the gauge-gravity duality and analog gravity therefore suggests a duality between different condensed matter systems.
Non-zero total correlation means non-zero quantum correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Bo; Chen, Lin; Fan, Heng
2014-03-01
We investigated the super quantum discord based on weak measurements. The super quantum discord is an extension of the standard quantum discord defined by projective measurements and also describes the quantumness of correlations. We provide some equivalent conditions for zero super quantum discord by using quantum discord, classical correlation and mutual information. In particular, we find that the super quantum discord is zero only for product states, which have zero mutual information. This result suggests that non-zero correlations can always be detected using the quantum correlation with weak measurements. As an example, we present the assisted state-discrimination method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miwa, Akitsugu
2015-05-01
We reconsider a gravity dual of a 1 /4 BPS Wilson loop. In the case of an expectation value of the Wilson loop, it is known that broken zero modes of a string world sheet in the gravity side play important roles in the limit ? ??, keeping the combination ? cos2?0 finite. Here, ? is the 't Hooft coupling constant and ?0 is a parameter of the Wilson loop. In this paper, we reconsider a gravity dual of a correlation function between the Wilson loop and a 1 /2 BPS local operator with R charge J . We take account of contributions coming from the same configurations of the above-mentioned broken zero modes. We find an agreement with the gauge theory side in the limit J ??{? cos2?0 } .
Rotating gravity currents. Part 1. Energy loss theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, J. R.; Lane-Serff, G. F.
2005-01-01
A comprehensive energy loss theory for gravity currents in rotating rectangular channels is presented. The model is an extension of the non-rotating energy loss theory of Benjamin (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 31, 1968, p. 209) and the steady-state dissipationless theory of rotating gravity currents of Hacker (PhD thesis, 1996). The theory assumes the fluid is inviscid, there is no shear within the current, and the Boussinesq approximation is made. Dissipation is introduced using a simple method. A head loss term is introduced into the Bernoulli equation and it is assumed that the energy loss is uniform across the stream. Conservation of momentum, volume flux and potential vorticity between upstream and downstream locations is then considered. By allowing for energy dissipation, results are obtained for channels of arbitrary depth and width (relative to the current). The results match those from earlier workers in the two limits of (i) zero rotation (but including dissipation) and (ii) zero dissipation (but including rotation). Three types of flow are identified as the effect of rotation increases, characterized in terms of the location of the outcropping interface between the gravity current and the ambient fluid on the channel boundaries. The parameters for transitions between these cases are quantified, as is the detailed behaviour of the flow in all cases. In particular, the speed of the current can be predicted for any given channel depth and width. As the channel depth increases, the predicted Froude number tends to surd 2, as for non-rotating flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schutz, Bernard
2003-12-01
Preface; 1. Gravity on Earth: the inescapable force; 2. And then came Newton: gravity takes center stage; 3. Satellites: what goes up doesn't always come down; 4. The Solar System: a triumph for Newtonian gravity; 5. Tides and tidal forces: the real signature of gravity; 6. Interplanetary travel: the cosmic roller-coaster; 7. Atmospheres: keeping planets covered; 8. Gravity in the Sun: keeping the heat on; 9. Reaching for the stars: the emptiness of outer space; 10. The colors of stars: why they are black (bodies); 11. Stars at work: factories for the Universe; 12. Birth to death: the life cycle of the stars; 13. Binary stars: tidal forces on a huge scale; 14. Galaxies: atoms in the Universe; 15. Physics near the speed of light: Einstein stands on Galileo's shoulders; 16. Relating to Einstein: logic and experiment in relativity; 17. Spacetime geometry: finding out what is not relative; 18. Einstein's gravity: the curvature of spacetime in the Solar System; 19. Einstein's recipe: fashioning the geometry of gravity; 20. Neutron stars: laboratories of strong gravity; 21. Black holes: gravity's one-way street; 22. Gravitational waves: gravity speaks; 23. Gravitational lenses: bringing the Universe into focus; 24. Cosmology: the study of everything; 25. Big Bang: the seed from which we grew; 26. Einstein's Universe: the geometry of cosmology; 27. Ask the Universe: cosmic questions at the frontiers of gravity; Appendix A. Useful constants: values used in this book; Appendix B. Background: what you need to know before you start.
Spherically symmetric conformal gravity and "gravitational bubbles"
V. A. Berezin; V. I. Dokuchaev; Yu. N. Eroshenko
2014-12-09
The general structure of the spherically symmetric solutions in the Weyl conformal gravity is described. The corresponding Bach equation are derived for the special type of metrics, which can be considered as the representative of the general class. The complete set of the pure vacuum solutions is found. It consists of two classes. The first one contains the solutions with constant two-dimensional curvature scalar of our specific metrics, and the representatives are the famous Robertson-Walker metrics. One of them we called the "gravitational bubbles", which is compact and with zero Weyl tensor. The second class is more general, with varying curvature scalar. We found its representative as the one-parameter family. It appears that it can be conformally covered by the thee-parameter Mannheim-Kazanas solution. We also investigated the general structure of the energy-momentum tensor in the spherical conformal gravity and constructed the vectorial equation that reveals clearly the same features of non-vacuum solutions. One of them, the metrics a la Vaidya, is explicitly written.
Nonlinear Properties of Vielbein Massive Gravity
Stefan Groot Nibbelink; Marco Peloso; Matthew Sexton
2007-04-30
We propose a non-linear extension of the Fierz-Pauli mass for the graviton through a functional of the vielbein and an external Minkowski background. The functional generalizes the notion of the measure, since it reduces to a cosmological constant if the external background is formally sent to zero. Such a term and the explicit external background, emerge dynamically from a bi--gravity theory, having both a massless and a massive graviton in its spectrum, in a specific limit in which the massless mode decouples, while the massive one couples universally to matter. We investigate the massive theory using the Stueckelberg method and providing a 't Hooft-Feynman gauge fixing in which the tensor, vector and scalar Stueckelberg fields decouple. We show that this model has the softest possible ultraviolet behavior which can be expected from any generic (Lorentz invariant) theory of massive gravity, namely that it becomes strong only at the scale Lambda_3 = (m_g^2 M_P)^{1/3}.
Spherically symmetric spacetimes in massive gravity
Thibault Damour; Ian I. Kogan; Antonios Papazoglou
2003-02-13
We explore spherically symmetric stationary solutions, generated by ``stars'' with regular interiors, in purely massive gravity. We reexamine the claim that the resummation of non-linear effects can cure, in a domain near the source, the discontinuity exhibited by the linearized theory as the mass m of the graviton tends to zero. First, we find analytical difficulties with this claim, which appears not to be robust under slight changes in the form of the mass term. Second, by numerically exploring the inward continuation of the class of asymptotically flat solutions, we find that, when m is ``small'', they all end up in a singularity at a finite radius, well outside the source, instead of joining some conjectured ``continuous'' solution near the source. We reopen, however, the possibility of reconciling massive gravity with phenomenology by exhibiting a special class of solutions, with ``spontaneous symmetry breaking'' features, which are close, near the source, to general relativistic solutions and asymptote, for large radii, a de Sitter solution of curvature ~m^2.
Scattering amplitudes in super-renormalizable gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donà, Pietro; Giaccari, Stefano; Modesto, Leonardo; Rachwal, Leslaw; Zhu, Yiwei
2015-08-01
We explicitly compute the tree-level on-shell four-graviton amplitudes in four, five and six dimensions for local and weakly nonlocal gravitational theories that are quadratic in both, the Ricci and scalar curvature with form factors of the d'Alembertian operator inserted between. More specifically we are interested in renormalizable, super-renormalizable or finite theories. The scattering amplitudes for these theories turn out to be the same as the ones of Einstein gravity regardless of the explicit form of the form factors. As a special case the four-graviton scattering amplitudes in Weyl conformal gravity are identically zero. Using a field redefinition, we prove that the outcome is correct for any number of external gravitons (on-shell n-point functions) and in any dimension for a large class of theories. However, when an operator quadratic in the Riemann tensor is added in any dimension (with the exception of the Gauss-Bonnet term in four dimensions) the result is completely altered, and the scattering amplitudes depend on all the form factors introduced in the action.
[Dynamics of ECG voltage in changing gravity].
Saltykova, M M; At'kov, O Iu; Capderou, A; Morgun, V V; Gusakov, V A; Khe?mets, G I; Konovalov, G A; Kondratiuk, L L; Kataev, Iu V; Voronin, L I; Kaspranski?, R R; Vaida, P
2006-01-01
Comparative analysis of the QRS voltage response to gravity variations was made using the data about 26 normal human subjects collected in parabolic flights (CNERS-AIRBUS A300 Zero-G, n=23; IL-76MD, n=3) and during the tilt test (head-up tilt at 70 degrees for a min and head-down tilt at-15 degrees for 5 min, n=14). Both the parabolic flights and provocative tilt tests affected R-amplitude in the Z lead. During the hypergravity episodes it was observed in 95% of cases with the mean gain of 16% and maximal--56%. On transition to the horizontal position, the Rz-amplitude showed a rise in each subject (16% on the average). In microgravity, the Rz-amplitude reduced in 95% of the observations. The voltage decline averaged 18% and reached 49% at the maximum. The head-down tilt was conducive to Rz reduction in 78% of observations averaging 2%. Analysis of the ECG records under changing gravity when blood redistribution developed within few seconds not enough for serious metabolic shifts still revealed QRS deviations associated exclusively with the physical factors, i.e., alteration in tissue conduction and distance to electrodes. Our findings can stand in good stead in evaluation of the dynamics of predictive ECG parameters during long-term experiments leading to changes as in tissue conduction, so metabolism. PMID:16915811
Modified Gravity and Coupled Quintessence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wetterich, Christof
The distinction between modified gravity and quintessence or dynamical dark energy is difficult. Many models of modified gravity are equivalent to models of coupled quintessence by virtue of variable transformations. This makes an observational differentiation between modified gravity and dark energy very hard. For example, the additional scalar degree of freedom in f(R)-gravity or non-local gravity can be interpreted as the cosmon of quintessence. Nevertheless, modified gravity can shed light on questions of interpretation, naturalness and simplicity. We present a simple model where gravity is modified by a field dependent Planck mass. It leads to a universe with a cold and slow beginning. This cosmology can be continued to the infinite past such that no big bang singularity occurs. All observables can be described equivalently in a hot big bang picture with inflation and early dark energy.
Algebraic quantum gravity (AQG): I. Conceptual setup
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giesel, K.; Thiemann, T.
2007-05-01
We introduce a new top down approach to canonical quantum gravity, called algebraic quantum gravity (AQG). The quantum kinematics of AQG is determined by an abstract *-algebra generated by a countable set of elementary operators labelled by an algebraic graph. The quantum dynamics of AQG is governed by a single master constraint operator. While AQG is inspired by loop quantum gravity (LQG), it differs drastically from it because in AQG there is fundamentally no topology or differential structure. A natural Hilbert space representation acquires the structure of an infinite tensor product (ITP) whose separable strong equivalence class Hilbert subspaces (sectors) are left invariant by the quantum dynamics. The missing information about the topology and differential structure of the spacetime manifold as well as about the background metric to be approximated is supplied by coherent states. Given such data, the corresponding coherent state defines a sector in the ITP which can be identified with a usual QFT on the given manifold and background. Thus, AQG contains QFT on all curved spacetimes at once, possibly has something to say about topology change and provides the contact with the familiar low energy physics. In particular, in two companion papers we develop semiclassical perturbation theory for AQG and LQG and thereby show that the theory admits a semiclassical limit whose infinitesimal gauge symmetry agrees with that of general relativity. In AQG everything is computable with sufficient precision and no UV divergences arise due to the background independence of the fundamental combinatorial structure. Hence, in contrast to lattice gauge theory on a background metric, no continuum limit has to be taken. There simply is no lattice regulator that must be sent to zero.
Perturbations of nested branes with induced gravity
Sbisà, Fulvio; Koyama, Kazuya E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk
2014-06-01
We study the behaviour of weak gravitational fields in models where a 4D brane is embedded inside a 5D brane equipped with induced gravity, which in turn is embedded in a 6D spacetime. We consider a specific regularization of the branes internal structures where the 5D brane can be considered thin with respect to the 4D one. We find exact solutions corresponding to pure tension source configurations on the thick 4D brane, and study perturbations at first order around these background solutions. To perform the perturbative analysis, we adopt a bulk-based approach and we express the equations in terms of gauge invariant and master variables using a 4D scalar-vector-tensor decomposition. We then propose an ansatz on the behaviour of the perturbation fields when the thickness of the 4D brane goes to zero, which corresponds to configurations where gravity remains finite everywhere in the thin limit of the 4D brane. We study the equations of motion using this ansatz, and show that they give rise to a consistent set of differential equations in the thin limit, from which the details of the internal structure of the 4D brane disappear. We conclude that the thin limit of the ''ribbon'' 4D brane inside the (already thin) 5D brane is well defined (at least when considering first order perturbations around pure tension configurations), and that the gravitational field on the 4D brane remains finite in the thin limit. We comment on the crucial role of the induced gravity term on the 5D brane.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narain, Amitabh; Naik, Ranjeeth; Mitra, Soumya; Kivisalu, Michael
2012-11-01
Annular regimes for internal condensing flow are desirable for high heat transfer rates out of a condenser. Predominantly shear driven flows typically occur in horizontal channels (with condensation on the bottom horizontal-surface), zero gravity flows, and in milli-meter to micro-meter scale hydraulic diameter ducts. This talk presents steady and unsteady computational results obtained from the numerical solutions of the full two-dimensional governing equations for annular internal condensing flows in a channel. Results obtained for inclined, horizontal, and zero-gravity cases (with and without surface-tension) bring out the differences between shear driven and gravity assisted/driven flows. The results highlight the differences between steady solutions, their stability, and their noise-sensitivity. It is shown that annular flows are more stable and easily realized for gravity driven or gravity assisted flows than for primarily shear driven flows. Besides stability, extreme-sensitivity of shear driven flows to typically present persistent fluctuations is also demonstrated. This sensitivity is beneficially exploited to achieve significant heat-transfer rate enhancements. The talk also highlights conditions for which surface tension forces become important. The computational results have been validated by good comparisons with condensing flow experimental results for the annular regimes. NSF-CBET-1033591.
Entanglment assisted zero-error codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matthews, William; Mancinska, Laura; Leung, Debbie; Ozols, Maris; Roy, Aidan
2011-03-01
Zero-error information theory studies the transmission of data over noisy communication channels with strictly zero error probability. For classical channels and data, much of the theory can be studied in terms of combinatorial graph properties and is a source of hard open problems in that domain. In recent work, we investigated how entanglement between sender and receiver can be used in this task. We found that entanglement-assisted zero-error codes (which are still naturally studied in terms of graphs) sometimes offer an increased bit rate of zero-error communication even in the large block length limit. The assisted codes that we have constructed are closely related to Kochen-Specker proofs of non-contextuality as studied in the context of foundational physics, and our results on asymptotic rates of assisted zero-error communication yield non-contextuality proofs which are particularly `strong' in a certain quantitive sense. I will also describe formal connections to the multi-prover games known as pseudo-telepathy games.
ZERO EMISSION POWER GENERATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
Ronald Bischoff; Stephen Doyle
2005-01-20
Clean Energy Systems (CES) was previously funded by DOE's ''Vision 21'' program. This program provided a proof-of-concept demonstration that CES' novel gas generator (combustor) enabled production of electrical power from fossil fuels without pollution. CES has used current DOE funding for additional design study exercises which established the utility of the CES-cycle for retrofitting existing power plants for zero-emission operations and for incorporation in zero-emission, ''green field'' power plant concepts. DOE funding also helped define the suitability of existing steam turbine designs for use in the CES-cycle and explored the use of aero-derivative turbines for advanced power plant designs. This work is of interest to the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum & Energy. California's air quality districts have significant non-attainment areas in which CES technology can help. CEC is currently funding a CES-cycle technology demonstration near Bakersfield, CA. The Norwegian government is supporting conceptual studies for a proposed 40 MW zero-emission power plant in Stavager, Norway which would use the CES-cycle. The latter project is called Zero-Emission Norwegian Gas (ZENG). In summary, current engineering studies: (1) supported engineering design of plant subsystems applicable for use with CES-cycle zero-emission power plants, and (2) documented the suitability and availability of steam turbines for use in CES-cycle power plants, with particular relevance to the Norwegian ZENG Project.
A new criterion for zero quantum discord
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Jie-Hui; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Shi-Yao
2011-06-01
We propose a new criterion for judging zero quantum discord for arbitrary bipartite states. A bipartite quantum state has zero quantum discord if and only if all the blocks of its density matrix are normal matrices and commute with each other. Given a bipartite state with zero quantum discord, the question of how to find the set of local projectors that do not disturb the whole state after being imposed on one subsystem is also presented. A class of two-qubit X-state is used to test the criterion, and an experimental scheme is proposed for realizing it. Consequently, we prove that the positive operator-valued measurement cannot extinguish the quantum correlation of a bipartite state with nonzero quantum discord.
Zero Tolerance, Zero Evidence: An Analysis of School Disciplinary Practice. Policy Research Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Skiba, Russell J.
Despite the controversies that it has created in school districts throughout the country, zero tolerance continues to be a widely used response to school disruption and violence. This paper explores the history, philosophy, and effectiveness of zero-tolerance school disciplinary strategies. Growing out of Reagan-Bush-era drug-enforcement policy,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoffman, Stephen
2014-01-01
This study estimates the effect of zero tolerance disciplinary policies on racial disparities in school discipline in an urban district. Capitalizing on a natural experiment, the abrupt expansion of zero tolerance discipline policies in a mid-sized urban school district, the study demonstrates that Black students in the district were…
When zero is not zero: The problem of ambiguous baseline conditions in fMRI
Squire, Larry R.
When zero is not zero: The problem of ambiguous baseline conditions in fMRI Craig E. L. Stark). The findings have important im- plications for the design and interpretation of a wide range of fMRI studies) signal that is mea- sured in traditional functional MRI (fMRI) studies, researchers often have attempted
Gravity wave initiated convection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, R. J.
1990-01-01
The vertical velocity of convection initiated by gravity waves was investigated. In one particular case, the convective motion-initiated and supported by the gravity wave-induced activity (excluding contributions made by other mechanisms) reached its maximum value about one hour before the production of the funnel clouds. In another case, both rawinsonde and geosynchronous satellite imagery were used to study the life cycles of severe convective storms. Cloud modelling with input sounding data and rapid-scan imagery from GOES were used to investigate storm cloud formation, development and dissipation in terms of growth and collapse of cloud tops, as well as, the life cycles of the penetration of overshooting turrets above the tropopause. The results based on these two approaches are presented and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wieland, Wolfgang M.
2014-01-01
This paper presents a Hamiltonian formulation of spinfoam gravity, which leads to a straightforward canonical quantization. To begin with, we derive a continuum action adapted to a simplicial decomposition of space-time. The equations of motion admit a Hamiltonian formulation, allowing us to perform the constraint analysis. We do not find any secondary constraints, but only get restrictions on the Lagrange multipliers enforcing the reality conditions. This comes as a surprise—in the continuum theory, the reality conditions are preserved in time, only if the torsionless condition (a secondary constraint) holds true. Studying an additional conservation law for each spinfoam vertex, we discuss the issue of torsion and argue that spinfoam gravity may still miss an additional constraint. Finally, we canonically quantize and recover the EPRL (Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine) face amplitudes. Communicated by P R L V Moniz
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sack, F. D.
1991-01-01
This review of plant gravity sensing examines sensing in organ gravitropism, sensing in single-cell gravitropism, and nongravitropic sensing. Topics related to sensing in organ gravitropism are (1) identification of the gravitropic susceptors, including intracellular asymmetry in equilibrium position and after reorientation, susceptor signal-to-noise ratio, signal integration over threshold stimulation periods, intracellular asymmetry and gravitropic competence, and starch deficiency and gravitropic competence; (2) possible root statocytes and receptors, including identification of presumptive statocytes, cytology, and possible receptors and models of sensing; and (3) negatively gravitropic organs, including identification and distribution of presumptive statocytes and cytology and possible receptors. Topics related to nongravitropic sensing include gravitaxis, reaction wood, gravimorphogenesis, other gravity-influenced organ movements, and cytoplasmic streaming.
Computing Gravity's Strongest Grip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shoemaker, Deirdre
2008-04-01
Gravitational physics is entering a new era, one driven by observation, that will begin once gravitational wave interferometers such as LIGO make their first detections. The gravitational waves are produced during violent events such as the merger of two black holes. The detection of these waves or ripples in the fabric of spacetime is a formidable undertaking, requiring innovative engineering, powerful data analysis tools and careful theoretical modeling. In support of this theoretical modeling, recent breakthroughs in numerical relativity have lead to the development of computational tools that allow us to explore where and how gravitational wave observations can constrain or inform our understanding of gravity and astrophysical phenomena. I will review these latest developments, focusing on binary black hole simulations and the role these simulations play in our new understanding of physics and astronomy where gravity exhibits its strongest grip on our spacetime.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cesarone, R. J.
1989-01-01
An account is given of the method by which the 'energy gain' accruing to a spacecraft as a result of its 'gravity-assist', parabolic-trajectory flyby of a massive body, such as a planet. The procedure begins with the solution of the two-body portion of the problem, and the results thus obtained are used to calculate changes with respect to the other massive body in the overall scenario, namely the sun. Attention is given to the 'vector diagram' often used to display the gravity-assist effect. The present procedure is noted to be reasonably accurate for flybys in which the plane of the spacecraft's trajectory is approximately the same as that of the planet's orbit around the sun, or the ecliptic plane; this reduces the problem to one in two dimensions.
Reality in Noncommutative Gravity
B. M. Zupnik
2006-10-24
We study the problem of reality in the geometric formalism of the 4D noncommutative gravity using the known deformation of the diffeomorphism group induced by the twist operator with the constant deformation parameters $\\vt^{mn}$. It is shown that real covariant derivatives can be constructed via $\\star$-anticommutators of the real connection with the corresponding fields. The minimal noncommutative generalization of the real Riemann tensor contains only $\\vt^{mn}$-corrections of the even degrees in comparison with the undeformed tensor. The gauge field $h_{mn}$ describes a gravitational field on the flat background. All geometric objects are constructed as the perturbation series using $\\star$-polynomial decomposition in terms of $h_{mn}$. We consider the nonminimal tensor and scalar functions of $h_{mn}$ of the odd degrees in $\\vt^{mn}$ and remark that these pure noncommutative objects can be used in the noncommutative gravity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chau, Jessica Furrer; Or, Dani; Sukop, Michael C.; Steinberg, S. L. (Principal Investigator)
2005-01-01
Liquid distributions in unsaturated porous media under different gravitational accelerations and corresponding macroscopic gaseous diffusion coefficients were investigated to enhance understanding of plant growth conditions in microgravity. We used a single-component, multiphase lattice Boltzmann code to simulate liquid configurations in two-dimensional porous media at varying water contents for different gravity conditions and measured gas diffusion through the media using a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann code. The relative diffusion coefficients (D rel) for simulations with and without gravity as functions of air-filled porosity were in good agreement with measured data and established models. We found significant differences in liquid configuration in porous media, leading to reductions in D rel of up to 25% under zero gravity. The study highlights potential applications of the lattice Boltzmann method for rapid and cost-effective evaluation of alternative plant growth media designs under variable gravity.
Chau, Jessica Furrer; Or, Dani; Sukop, Michael C
2005-08-01
Liquid distributions in unsaturated porous media under different gravitational accelerations and corresponding macroscopic gaseous diffusion coefficients were investigated to enhance understanding of plant growth conditions in microgravity. We used a single-component, multiphase lattice Boltzmann code to simulate liquid configurations in two-dimensional porous media at varying water contents for different gravity conditions and measured gas diffusion through the media using a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann code. The relative diffusion coefficients (D rel) for simulations with and without gravity as functions of air-filled porosity were in good agreement with measured data and established models. We found significant differences in liquid configuration in porous media, leading to reductions in D rel of up to 25% under zero gravity. The study highlights potential applications of the lattice Boltzmann method for rapid and cost-effective evaluation of alternative plant growth media designs under variable gravity. PMID:16173154
Hwang, Jai-chan [Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Hyerim [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)
2005-03-15
We present cosmological perturbation theory based on generalized gravity theories including string theory correction terms and a tachyonic complication. The classical evolution as well as the quantum generation processes in these varieties of gravity theories are presented in unified forms. These apply both to the scalar- and tensor-type perturbations. Analyses are made based on the curvature variable in two different gauge conditions often used in the literature in Einstein's gravity; these are the curvature variables in the comoving (or uniform-field) gauge and the zero-shear gauge. Applications to generalized slow-roll inflation and its consequent power spectra are derived in unified forms which include a wide range of inflationary scenarios based on Einstein's gravity and others.
Gravity, Dimension, Equilibrium, & Thermodynamics
Jerome Perez
2006-03-30
Is it actually possible to interpret gravitation as space's property in a pure classical way. Then, we note that extended self-gravitating system equilibrium depends directly on the number of dimension of the space in which it evolves. Given those precisions, we review the principal thermodynamical knowledge in the context of classical gravity with arbitrary dimension of space. Stability analyses for bounded 3D systems, namely the Antonov instability paradigm, are then rapproched to some amazing properties of globular clusters and galaxies.
R. Bluhm
2013-07-22
Gravitational theories with Lorentz violation must account for a number of possible features in order to be consistent theoretically and phenomenologically. A brief summary of these features is given here. They include evasion of a no-go theorem, connections between spontaneous Lorentz breaking and diffeomorphism breaking, the appearance of massless Nambu-Goldstone modes and massive Higgs modes, and the possibility of a Higgs mechanism in gravity.
Yu. M. Zinoviev
2000-10-18
The main object of the proposed theory is not a pseudometric, but a symmetric affine connection on the Minkowski space. The coefficients of this connection have one upper and two lower indices. These coefficients are symmetric with respect to the permutation of the lower indices. We identify the convolution of the connection coefficients with the vector - potential of the electromagnetic field. Then the gravity is the Lorentz force of this electromagnetic field.
Reduced Gravity Walking Simulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1963-01-01
A test subject being suited up for studies on the Reduced Gravity Walking Simulator located in the hanger at Langley Research Center. The initial version of this simulator was located inside the hanger. Later a larger version would be located at the Lunar Landing Facility. The purpose of this simulator was to study the subject while walking, jumping or running. Researchers conducted studies of various factors such as fatigue limit, energy expenditure, and speed of locomotion. Francis B. Smith wrote in his paper 'Simulators For Manned Space Research,' 'I would like to conclude this talk with a discussion of a device for simulating lunar gravity which is very effective and yet which is so simple that its cost is in the order of a few thousand dollars at most, rather than hundreds of thousands. With a little ingenuity, one could almost build this type simulator in his backyard for children to play on. The principle is ...if a test subject is suspended in a sling so that his body axis makes an angle of 9 1/2 degrees with the horizontal and if he then 'stands' on a platform perpendicular to his body axis, the component of the earth's gravity forcing him toward the platform is one times the sine of 9 1/2 degrees or approximately 1/6 of the earth's normal gravity field. That is, a 180 pound astronaut 'standing' on the platform would exert a force of only 30 pounds - the same as if he were standing upright on the lunar surface.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308; Francis B. Smith, 'Simulators For Manned Space Research,' Paper for 1966 IEEE International Convention, New York, NY, March 21-25, 1966.
Abilities of multidimensional gravity
K. A. Bronnikov; S. G. Rubin
2007-12-22
We show that a number of problems of modern cosmology may be addressed and solved in the framework of multidimensional gravity with high-order curvature invariants, without invoking other fields. As applications of this approach, we mention primordial inflation and particle production after it; description of the modern accelerated stage of the Universe with stable compact extra dimensions; construction of asymmetric thick brane-world models.
Artificial gravity Mars spaceship
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clark, Benton C.
1989-01-01
Experience gained in the study of artificial gravity for a manned trip to Mars is reviewed, and a snowflake-configured interplanetary vehicle cluster of habitat modules, descent vehicles, and propulsion systems is presented. An evolutionary design is described which permits sequential upgrading from five to nine crew members, an increase of landers from one to as many a three per mission, and an orderly, phased incorporation of advanced technologies as they become available.
Cambridge Cosmology: Quantum Gravity
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Thomas Hertog
This section of Cambridge Cosmology explains the concepts of quantum gravity and quantum cosmology, and how they are useful in understanding space and the space-time continuum. This includes the M-theory, formerly known as the string theory, and the Holographic Principle, in order to explain phenomena such as black holes and the first one-hundredth of a second of the Big Bang.
T. Padmanabhan
2008-01-01
I review the problem of dark energy focussing on cosmological constant as the candidate and discuss what it tells us regarding\\u000a the nature of gravity. Section 1 briefly overviews the currently popular “concordance cosmology” and summarizes the evidence\\u000a for dark energy. It also provides the observational and theoretical arguments in favour of the cosmological constant as a\\u000a candidate and emphasizes
S. Carlip
2008-03-24
In view of the enormous difficulties we seem to face in quantizing general relativity, we should perhaps consider the possibility that gravity is a fundamentally classical interaction. Theoretical arguments against such mixed classical-quantum models are strong, but not conclusive, and the question is ultimately one for experiment. I review some work in progress on the possibility of experimental tests, exploiting the nonlinearity of the classical-quantum coupling, that could help settle this question.
Unimodular Gravity and Averaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coley, Alan
The question of the averaging of inhomogeneous spacetimes in cosmology is important for the correct interpretation of cosmological data. In this paper we suggest a conceptually simpler approach to averaging in cosmology based on the averaging of scalars within unimodular gravity. As an illustration, we consider the example of an exact spherically symmetric dust model, and show that within this approach averaging introduces correlations (corrections) to the effective dynamical evolution equation in the form of a spatial curvature term.
Unimodular Gravity and Averaging
A. Coley; J. Brannlund; J. Latta
2011-02-16
The question of the averaging of inhomogeneous spacetimes in cosmology is important for the correct interpretation of cosmological data. In this paper we suggest a conceptually simpler approach to averaging in cosmology based on the averaging of scalars within unimodular gravity. As an illustration, we consider the example of an exact spherically symmetric dust model, and show that within this approach averaging introduces correlations (corrections) to the effective dynamical evolution equation in the form of a spatial curvature term.
Brocato, Robert Wesley
2004-09-01
This report describes both a general methodology and some specific examples of passive radio receivers. A passive radio receiver uses no direct electrical power but makes sole use of the power available in the radio spectrum. These radio receivers are suitable as low data-rate receivers or passive alerting devices for standard, high power radio receivers. Some zero-power radio architectures exhibit significant improvements in range with the addition of very low power amplifiers or signal processing electronics. These ultra-low power radios are also discussed and compared to the purely zero-power approaches.
Gravity Resonance Spectroscopy and Einstein-Cartan Gravity
Abele, Hartmut; Jenke, Tobias; Pitschmann, Mario; Geltenbort, Peter
2015-01-01
The qBounce experiment offers a new way of looking at gravitation based on quantum interference. An ultracold neutron is reflected in well-defined quantum states in the gravity potential of the Earth by a mirror, which allows to apply the concept of gravity resonance spectroscopy (GRS). This experiment with neutrons gives access to all gravity parameters as the dependences on distance, mass, curvature, energy-momentum as well as on torsion. Here, we concentrate on torsion.
Gravity field information from Gravity Probe-B
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Colombo, O. L.; Everitt, C. W. F.
1989-01-01
The Gravity Probe-B Mission will carry the Stanford Gyroscope relativity experiment into orbit in the mid 1990's, as well as a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver whose tracking data will be used to study the earth gravity field. Estimates of the likely quality of a gravity field model to be derived from the GPS data are presented, and the significance of this experiment to geodesy and geophysics are discussed.
Massive Gravity from Higher Derivative Gravity with Boundary Conditions
Minjoon Park; Lorenzo Sorbo
2012-10-29
With an appropriate choice of parameters, a higher derivative theory of gravity can describe a normal massive sector and a ghost massless sector. We show that, when defined on an asymptotically de Sitter spacetime with Dirichlet boundary conditions, such a higher derivative gravity can provide a framework for a unitary theory of massive gravity in four spacetime dimensions. The resulting theory is free not only of higher derivative ghosts but also of the Boulware-Deser mode.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goradia, Shantilal
2014-05-01
Our quantum mechanical derivation of the strong coupling using modified Newtonian inverse square logic in (1) and the fine structure constant (ALPHA) using Boltzmann expression in our book (2) come close to Einstein (1919) merging nuclear force with gravitation and retracting his cosmological constant. Its conflict with the inflationary aspect of the universe can be reconciled with the possibility that the light coming from the receding galaxies follow a curvilinear path increasing in length due to its ever increasing curvature without receding only in the radial direction. In (1), we implicitly show gravity as nothing but the cumulative effect of quantum mechanical forces, making G vary at different locations in the universe. The subsequent effects of gravitational variation would be on the curvature of the paths of the geodesics they create. Further investigation along these lines is warranted as we do not have unification, evidence of graviton, quantum gravity or anything else very concrete after a century of hard work. Strong coupling and ALPHA may be the boundary conditions of gravitational constants. Newtonian Gravity in Natural Units, Journal of Physical Science and Application 2 (7) (2012)265-268, [2] Quantum Consciousness - The Road to Reality by S. Goradia, 4/27/20.
Miguel F. Paulos
2010-05-10
We consider gravity in three dimensions with an arbitrary number of curvature corrections. We show that such corrections are always functions of only three independent curvature invariants. Demanding the existence of a holographic c-theorem we show how to fix the coefficients in the action for an arbitrarily high order, recovering the new massive gravity lagrangian at quadratic order. We calculate the central charge $c$ and show that using Cardy's formula it matches the entropy of black hole solutions, which we construct. We also consider fluctuations about an AdS background, and find that it is possible to obtain two derivative equations by imposing a single constraint, thereby lifting the pathologic massive modes of new massive gravity. If we do not impose this, there is a set of ghosty massive modes propagating in the bulk. However, at $c=0$ these become massless and it is expected that these theories encode the dynamics of the spin two sector of strongly coupled logarithmic CFT's.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harko, Tiberiu; Lake, Matthew J.
2015-02-01
We consider Kasner-type static, cylindrically symmetric interior string solutions in the theory of modified gravity. The physical properties of the string are described by an anisotropic energy-momentum tensor satisfying the condition ; that is, the energy density of the string along the -axis is equal to minus the string tension. As a first step in our study we obtain the gravitational field equations in the theory for a general static, cylindrically symmetric metric, and then for a Kasner-type metric, in which the metric tensor components have a power law dependence on the radial coordinate . String solutions in two particular modified gravity models are investigated in detail. The first is the so-called "exponential" modified gravity, in which the gravitational action is proportional to the exponential of the sum of the Ricci scalar and matter Lagrangian, and the second is the "self-consistent model", obtained by explicitly determining the gravitational action from the field equations under the assumption of a power law dependent matter Lagrangian. In each case, the thermodynamic parameters of the string, as well as the precise form of the matter Lagrangian, are explicitly obtained.
Quantum gravity and renormalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anselmi, Damiano
2015-01-01
The properties of quantum gravity are reviewed from the point of view of renormalization. Various attempts to overcome the problem of non-renormalizability are presented, and the reasons why most of them fail for quantum gravity are discussed. Interesting possibilities come from relaxing the locality assumption, which also can inspire the investigation of a largely unexplored sector of quantum field theory. Another possibility is to work with infinitely many independent couplings, and search for physical quantities that only depend on a finite subset of them. In this spirit, it is useful to organize the classical action of quantum gravity, determined by renormalization, in a convenient way. Taking advantage of perturbative local field redefinitions, we write the action as the sum of the Hilbert term, the cosmological term, a peculiar scalar that is important only in higher dimensions, plus invariants constructed with at least three Weyl tensors. We show that the FRLW configurations, and many other locally conformally flat metrics, are exact solutions of the field equations in arbitrary dimensions d>3. If the metric is expanded around such configurations the quadratic part of the action is free of higher-time derivatives. Other well-known metrics, such as those of black holes, are instead affected in nontrivial ways by the classical corrections of quantum origin.
Eloy Ayón-Beato; Gaston Giribet; Mokhtar Hassaine
2012-07-06
Critical Gravity in D dimensions is discussed from the point of view of its exact solutions. The special features that certain type of solutions of higher-curvature gravity develop when one approaches the critical point of the parameter space are reviewed. In particular, a non-linear realization of the logarithmic modes of linearized Critical Gravity is seen to emerge as a peculiarity of the sector of anti-de Sitter wave solutions. Logarithmic solutions are shown to occur at a second point of the parameter space, at which the effective mass of the anti-de Sitter waves equals the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. Other type of solutions with anisotropic scale invariance are also discussed and the special features they develop at the critical point are studied as well. This note is the written version of the talk delivered by one of the authors at the 13th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on general relativity, held in Stockholm, Sweden, in July 2012. The proceeding contribution is based on authors' previous works.
Ayón-Beato, Eloy; Hassaine, Mokhtar
2012-01-01
Critical Gravity in D dimensions is discussed from the point of view of its exact solutions. The special features that certain type of solutions of higher-curvature gravity develop when one approaches the critical point of the parameter space are reviewed. In particular, a non-linear realization of the logarithmic modes of linearized Critical Gravity is seen to emerge as a peculiarity of the sector of anti-de Sitter wave solutions. Logarithmic solutions are shown to occur at a second point of the parameter space, at which the effective mass of the anti-de Sitter waves equals the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. Other type of solutions with anisotropic scale invariance are also discussed and the special features they develop at the critical point are studied as well. This note is the written version of the talk delivered by one of the authors at the 13th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on general relativity, held in Stockholm, Sweden, in July 2012. The proceeding contribution is based on authors' previous works.
Granular Superconductors and Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noever, David; Koczor, Ron
1999-01-01
As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (approx. 10(exp -6) g cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with a relatively high percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 104 was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In experiments using a sensitive gravimeter, bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field and exposed without levitation to low-field strength AC magnetic fields. Changes in observed gravity signals were measured to be less than 2 parts in 108 of the normal gravitational acceleration. Given the high sensitivity of the test, future work will examine variants on the basic magnetic behavior of granular superconductors, with particular focus on quantifying their proposed importance to gravity.
Koyama, Kazuya
2015-01-01
Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) is tested accurately within the local universe i.e., the Solar System, but this leaves open the possibility that it is not a good description at the largest scales in the Universe. The standard model of cosmology assumes GR as the theory to describe gravity on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. The standard model of cosmology is based on a huge extrapolation of our limited knowledge of gravity. This discovery of the late time acceleration of the Universe may require us to revise the theory of gravity and the standard model of cosmology based on GR. We will review recent ...
Gaston Giribet; Yerko Vásquez
2015-01-07
Minimal Massive Gravity (MMG) is an extension of three-dimensional Topologically Massive Gravity that, when formulated about Anti-de Sitter space, accomplishes to solve the tension between bulk and boundary unitarity that other models in three dimensions suffer from. We study this theory at the chiral point, i.e. at the point of the parameter space where one of the central charges of the dual conformal field theory vanishes. We investigate the non-linear regime of the theory, meaning that we study exact solutions to the MMG field equations that are not Einstein manifolds. We exhibit a large class of solutions of this type, which behave asymptotically in different manners. In particular, we find analytic solutions that represent two-parameter deformations of extremal Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black holes. These geometries behave asymptotically as solutions of the so-called Log Gravity, and, despite the weakened falling-off close to the boundary, they have finite mass and finite angular momentum, which we compute. We also find time-dependent deformations of BTZ that obey Brown-Henneaux asymptotic boundary conditions. The existence of such solutions show that Birkhoff theorem does not hold in MMG at the chiral point. Other peculiar features of the theory at the chiral point, such as the degeneracy it exhibits in the decoupling limit of the Cotton tensor, are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1974-01-01
The feasibility of extracting, isolating, purifying, separating, or preparing medical and biological products of high socio-economic value in space was studied. In particular, the study was designed to concentrate on the isolation or purification of virals, pharmaceutical and immunological agents by means of electrophoresis, as the Apollo 16 flight demonstrated that a mixed population of latex spheres (.2 and .8 microns) could be successfully separated by electrophoresis in space and without sedimentation with minimal convection. This prompted NASA scientists to look into the possibility of carrying out types of biochemical experiments that would utilize space for medical purposes.
Manual control in space--research on perceptual-motor functions under zero gravity condition.
Tada, A; Suematsu, S; Okabe, M
2001-10-01
Microgravity effects on human factor were studied through a series of manual control experiments conducted in the First Material Processing Test. The Japanese Payload Specialist operated a finger stick for 130 seconds to maintain a light spot movement around the center of a vertical LED array display. The stick angle is doubly integrated to make the controlled element motion. The light spot position indicates the difference between the motion and pseudo-random wave patterns which drives the man-machine tracking system. 24 runs were conducted in each of 2 months before launch, immediately pre-flight, and post-flight experiments. During the flight experiments, the PS felt pain in fast eye movement. He was obliged to fix his line of sight at the center of display and to watch the displayed error movement using peripheral view. He also felt difficulty in supporting his body against reaction force of his hand movement. During a few days after landing, disturbance was observed in the PS's posture. The operator describing function analysis revealed the disappearance of the "regression" phenomenon and increment of the effective time delay. As the result, the flight describing function showed better fit to the simplified model of lead with pure time delay. PMID:12101353
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sobick, V.; Briegleb, W.
Detrimental effects of weight lessness are no longer expected to hinder successful mitosis. Experiments in space and on the fast clinostat give no hints of this. Nevertheless we are thinking of a g sensitivity during the process of chromosome condensation and distribution. The time course of nuclear division in microplasmodia of the slime mold Physarum polycephalum was investigated under 0 g simulation on the fast rotating clinostat in comparison to 1 g controls. The result of this experiment is: A significant shortening of mitosis under 0 g simulation compared to 1 g controls.
Petrov, A N
2005-01-01
It is a review paper. General relativity (GR) is presented in the field theoretical form, where gravitational field (metric perturbations) together with other physical fields are propagated in an auxiliary arbitrary curved background spacetime. Conserved currents are constructed and expressed through divergences of antisymmetrical tensor densities (superpotentials). This permits to connect local properties of perturbations with the quasi-local nature of the conserved quantities in GR. The problem of the non-localization of energy in GR is presented in exact mathematical expressions. A modification of GR developed recently by Babak and Grishchuk on the basis of the field formulation of GR is described. Their theory includes massive of spin-2 and spin-0 gravitons. All its local weak-field predictions are in agreement with experimental data. The exact equations of the massive theory eliminate the black hole event horizons and give an oscillator behavior for the homogeneous isotropic universe.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haber, E.; Re, R. N.; Kourides, I. A.; Weihl, A. C.; Maloof, F.
1978-01-01
Prolactin, thyrotropin and aldosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay and plasma renin activity by the radioimmunoassay of angiotensin I in normal women before and after the intravenous injection of 200 micrograms of thyrotropin releasing hormone. Prolactin increased at 15 minutes following thyrotropin releasing hormone. Plasma renin activity was not different from control levels during the first hour following the administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone, nor did the plasma aldosterone concentration differ significantly from the control levels during this period. However, with upright posture, an increase in aldosterone and in plasma renin activity was noted, demonstrating a normal capacity to secrete aldosterone. Similarly, no change in aldosterone was seen in 9 patients with primary hypothyroidism given thyrotropin releasing hormone, despite the fact that the increase in prolactin was greater than normal. These data demonstrate that acutely or chronically elevated serum prolactin levels do not result in increased plasma aldosterone levels in humans.
Application of UV-laser-diagnostics to combustion research under zero-gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
König, J.; Dinkelacker, F.; Eigenbrod, Ch.; Rath, H. J.; Schröder, Th.; Albrecht, H.; Müller, D.; Triebel, W.
1995-08-01
The application of modern laser diagnostical measurement techniques for combustion research in earth-based laboratories has brought essential experimental progress. In this paper the development of an UV-laser system is described, which for the first time will allow the application of two dimensional laser spectroscopic measurement techniques for experiments at the drop tower ``Bremen''. The laser system will be integrated at the top of the tower; the laser beam follows the falling drop capsule and enters it from above. The drift between capsule and laser beam has to be compensated with an accuracy in the sub-mm range. Described are the laser-, control-, detection- and data acquisition systems, first results of the experimental properties and planned applications for experiments at the drop tower ``Bremen''.
Radiation and zero-gravity effects on human leukocytes and Neurospora crassa
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bender, M. A.; Deserres, F. J.; Gooch, P. C.; Miller, I. R.; Smith, D. B.; Kondo, S.
1971-01-01
The two parts of this experiment have resulted in proof that neither orbital space flight nor any of the stresses connected with it produced significant, unpredicted genetic damage, at least insofar as chromosomal-aberration production is a valid measure of this general type of effect. Furthermore, the Gemini 11 results lead to the conclusion that no synergistic effect exists between radiation and factors that are associated with space flight. No significant difference was found between dose-effect curves for survival or mutation induction of the inflight and ground-based samples irradiated on filters. Thus, like the blood experiment, this part of the experiment failed to result in data that were appropriate for confirmation of the apparent synergism that was observed in the Gemini 3 blood experiment. Also, the Nuerospora crassa experiment provided conclusive data that there is no difference in the genetic effects of irradiation during space flight and the genetic effects obtained in ground-based experiments. Both the Gemini 11 blood experiment and the Neurospora crassa experiment thus have failed to result in data confirmatory of the apparent synergism observed on the Gemini 3 mission.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Misselhorn, J. E.; Witz, S.; Hartung, W. H.
1973-01-01
The development of a laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system for use in the evaluation of candidate water recovery systems and for study of techniques for measuring potability parameters is reported. Sensing techniques for monitoring of the most desirable parameters are reviewed in terms of their sensitivities and complexities, and their recommendations for sensing techniques are presented. Rationale for selection of those parameters to be monitored (pH, specific conductivity, Cr(+6), I2, total carbon, and bacteria) in a next generation water monitor is presented along with an estimate of flight system specifications. A master water monitor development schedule is included.
Evaluation of AAFE apparatus to measure residual and transient convection in zero-gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruff, R. C.; Facemire, B. R.; Witherow, W. K.
1978-01-01
An evaluation apparatus which photographs convective and diffusive flows in crystal growth experiments is presented. Results in the following catagories are reported: (1) Human factors; (2) Electrical and mechanical; (3) Optical performance; and (4) Thermal performance.
The dissolution or growth of a gas bubble inside a drop in zero gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kondos, Pericles A.; Subramanian, R. Shankar; Weinberg, Michael C.
1987-01-01
The radius-time history of a gas bubble located concentrically within a spherical liquid drop in a space laboratory is analyzed within the framework of the quasi-stationary approximation. Illustrative results are calculated from the theory which demonstrate interesting qualitative features. For instance, when a pure gas bubble dissolves within a liquid drop in an environment containing the same gas and some inert species, the dissolution can be more or less rapid than that in an unbounded liquid depending on the initial relative size of the drop. Further, given a similar growth situation, indefinite growth is not possible, and the bubble will initially grow, but always dissolve in the end.
Proposal for the design of a zero gravity tool storage device
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stuckwisch, Sue; Carrion, Carlos A.; Phillips, Lee; Laughlin, Julia; Francois, Jason
1994-01-01
Astronauts frequently use a variety of hand tools during space missions, especially on repair missions. A toolbox is needed to allow storage and retrieval of tools with minimal difficulties. The toolbox must contain tools during launch, landing, and on-orbit operations. The toolbox will be used in the Shuttle Bay and therefore must withstand the hazardous space environment. The three main functions of the toolbox in space are: to protect the tools from the space environment and from damaging one another, to allow for quick, one-handed access to the tools; and to minimize the heat transfer between the astronaut's hand and the tools. This proposal explores the primary design issues associated with the design of the toolbox. Included are the customer and design specifications, global and refined function structures, possible solution principles, concept variants, and finally design recommendations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Symons, E. P.
1972-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to study the relative effectiveness of various outlet baffles in reducing liquid residuals resulting from the draining of hemispherically ended cylindrical tanks in a weightless environment. Three different baffles were employed. The relative effectiveness of each baffle was determined by comparing the results obtained, in the form of liquid residuals, with results for an unbaffled tank. Data indicate that all the baffles tested reduced residuals. Reductions betweem 10 and 60 percent were obtained, depending on baffle geometry and outlfow Weber number.
Free-surface phenomena under low- and zero-gravity conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hesselink, L.
1985-01-01
A free surface experiment using a liquid doped with a fluorescent dye under sheet illumination is summarized. The work includes the selection of a CCD camera for use during the design stages of the experiment as well as a preliminary demonstration of this technique in the production of a contour map of a liquid-liquid interface with better than 0.1 mm resolution. With a different data sampling and storage procedure, the image processing is reduced to a simple thresholding procedure which can be done in hardware.
On a zero-gravity limit of the Kerr--Newman spacetimes and their electromagnetic fields
A. Shadi Tahvildar-Zadeh
2014-11-16
We discuss the limit of vanishing $G$ (Newton's constant of universal gravitation) of the maximal analytically extended Kerr--Newman electrovacuum spacetimes {represented in Boyer--Lindquist coordinates}. We investigate the topologically nontrivial spacetime emerging in this limit and show that it consists of two copies of flat Minkowski spacetime glued at a timelike solid cylinder. As $G\\to 0$, the electromagnetic fields of the Kerr-Newman spacetimes converge to nontrivial solutions of Maxwell's equations on this background spacetime. We show how to obtain these fields by solving Maxwell's equations with singular sources supported only on a circle in a spacelike slice of the spacetime. These sources do not suffer from any of the pathologies that plague the alternate sources found in previous attempts to interpret the Kerr--Newman fields on the topologically simple Minkowski spacetime. We characterize the singular behavior of these sources and prove that the Kerr-Newman electrostatic potential and magnetic stream function are the unique solutions of the Maxwell equations among all functions that have the same blow-up behavior at the ring singularity.
Instability of ocular torsion in zero gravity - Possible implications for space motion sickness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diamond, Shirley G.; Markham, Charles H.; Money, Ken E.
1990-01-01
It is proposed that study of the eye torsion reflex and its behavior under novel gravitational states may possibly provide the basis for a long-sought test to predict space motion sickness (SMS). Measures of eye torsion such as ocular counterrolling and spontaneous eye torsion, were examined during hypo- and hypergravity in parabolic flight on the NASA KC-135 aircraft. Ten subjects, including two astronauts, one who had experienced SMS and one who had not, were ranked according to scores of torsional inability at 0 G and divided into two equal groups of high and low susceptibility to SMS. At 1.8 G the groups were significantly different in both the instability measure and the measure of torsional ability. No differences were detected in eye torsion in either 0 G or 1.8 G and none of the tests were significantly different in 1 G. Results suggest that tests of eye torsion on the KC-135 might differentiate those who would experience SMS from those who would not, although it is noted that this is not yet proven.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krikorian, A. D.; Steward, F. C.
1978-01-01
An experiment designed to test whether embryos capable of developing from isolated somatic carrot cells could do so under conditions of weightlessness in space was performed aboard the unmanned Soviet biosatellite Kosmos 782 under the auspices of the joint United States-Soviet Biological Satellite Mission. Space flight and weightlessness seem to have had no adverse effects on the induction of embryoids or on the development of their organs. A portion of the crop of carrot plantlets originated in space and grown to maturity were not morphologically different from controls.
Growth of single crystals by vapor transport in zero-gravity environment, ground-based experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wiedemeier, H.
1978-01-01
Mass and heat transfer phenomena associated with the growth of single crystals by chemical vapor transport reactions were investigated. In this technique, a gaseous transport agent reacts with the solid source material to form exclusively gaseous products. The gas phase species migrate from the source to the condensation zone of the closed reaction ampoule where the reverse reaction occurs with formation of single crystals. The necessary concentration gradient is achieved by means of a temperature gradient.
Options for transpiration water removal in a crop growth system under zero gravity conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blackwell, C. C.; Kliss, M.; Yendler, B.; Borchers, B.; Yendler, Boris S.; Nguyen, Thoi K.; Waleh, Ahmad
1991-01-01
The operation of a microgravity crop-growth system is a critical feature of NASA's Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) development program. Transpiration-evolved water must be removed from the air that is recirculated in such a system, perhaps supplying potable water in the process. The present consideration of candidate systems for CELSS water removal gives attention to energy considerations and to a mechanical, inertial-operation water-separation system that was chosen due to the depth of current understanding of its operation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubin, A. L.; Stenzel, K. H.; Cheigh, J. S.; Seaman, G. V. F.; Novogrodsky, A.
1977-01-01
Electrophoretic mobilities (EPM) of peripheral lymphocytes were studied from normal subjects, chronic hemodialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients. A technique to separate B lymphocytes and null cells from non-T lymphocyte preparation was developed. The experiments were designed to determine which subpopulation of the non-T lymphocytes is primarily affected and shows a decreased EPM in chronic hemodialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients.
Separation of lymphocytes by electrophoresis under terrestrial conditions and at zero gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubin, A. L.
1977-01-01
Electrophoretic mobility (EPM) of human peripheral lymphocytes were examined with the following objectives: To determine differences in EPM of lymphocytes under immuno-stimulated and immuno-suppressed states. To define the conditions necessary for the separation of lymphocyte sub-populations in normal and pathological conditions; To investigate immunological active, charged chemical groups on lymphocyte surfaces; and to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms of immune responsiveness, as reflected by alterations in EPM. To evaluate the potential of lymphocyte electrophoresis as: (1) a means of monitoring the immune status of kidney transplant recipients, (2) in predicting the outcome of kidney transplants, and (3) as a method for separation of lymphocyte sub-populations, the EPM was studied for unfractionated human peripheral lymphocytes and of populations enriched with T and "B" cells from normal adults, hemodialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients.
On a zero-gravity limit of the Kerr-Newman spacetimes and their electromagnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tahvildar-Zadeh, A. Shadi
2015-04-01
We discuss the limit of vanishing G (Newton's constant of universal gravitation) of the maximal analytically extended Kerr-Newman electrovacuum spacetimes represented in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates. We investigate the topologically nontrivial spacetime M 0 emerging in this limit and show that it consists of two copies of flat Minkowski spacetime cross-linked at a timelike solid cylinder (spacelike 2-disk × timelike ?). As G ? 0, the electromagnetic fields of the Kerr-Newman spacetimes converge to nontrivial solutions of Maxwell's equations on this background spacetime M 0 . We show how to obtain these fields by solving Maxwell's equations with singular sources supported only on a circle in a spacelike slice of M 0 . These sources do not suffer from any of the pathologies that plague the alternate sources found in previous attempts to interpret the Kerr-Newman fields on the topologically simple Minkowski spacetime. We characterize the singular behavior of these sources and prove that the Kerr-Newman electrostatic potential and magnetic scalar potential are the unique solutions of the Maxwell equations among all functions that have the same blow-up behavior at the ring singularity.
Preliminary design for a Zero Gravity Test Facility (ZGTF). Volume 1: Technical
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Germain, A.
1981-01-01
The functional requirements and best conceptual design of a test facility that simulates weightless operating conditions for a high gain antenna systems (HGAS), that will broadcast to the Tracking Data Relay Satellites were defined. The typical HGAS defined is mounted on a low Earth orbiting satellite, and consists of an antenna with a double gimbal pointing system mounted on a 13 foot long mast. Typically, the gimbals are driven by pulse modulated dc motors or stepper motors. These drivers produce torques on the mast, with jitter that excites the satellite and may cause disturbances to sensitive experiments. The dynamic properties of the antenna support structure (mast), including flexible mode characteristics were defined. The torque profile induced on the spacecraft by motion of the high gain antenna was estimated. Gain and phase margins of the servo control loop of the gimbal drive electronics was also verified.
Free-surface phenomena under low- and zero-gravity conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coles, D.
1985-01-01
An apparatus to measure contact angle was constructed to exploit the proposed internal-corner criterion. If 2 alfa is the internal angle between two intersecting vertical planes and gamma is the contact angle, a meniscus at the corner rises to a finite height if alfa + gamma pi/2 and to an infinite height if alfa + gamma pi/2. The apparatus operates by decreasing the angle alfa from pi/2 until the meniscus height changes abruptly. A number of liquids are tested on glass and plexiglas.
Design, fabrication and acceptance testing of a zero gravity whole body shower, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1973-01-01
The effort to design whole body shower for the space station prototype is reported. Clothes and dish washer/dryer concepts were formulated with consideration given to integrating such a system with the overall shower design. Water recycling methods to effect vehicle weight savings were investigated and it was concluded that reusing wash and/or rinse water resulted in weight savings which were not sufficient to outweigh the added degree of hardware complexity. The formulation of preliminary and final designs for the shower are described. A detailed comparison of the air drag vs. vacuum pickup method was prepared that indicated the air drag concept results in more severe space station weight penalties; therefore, the preliminary system design was based on utilizing the vacuum pickup method. Tests were performed to determine the optimum methods of storing, heating and sterilizing the cleansing agent utilized in the shower; it was concluded that individual packages of pre-sterilized cleansing agent should be used. Integration features with the space station prototype system were defined and incorporated into the shower design as necessary.
The Complete Book of Spaceflight: From Apollo 1 to Zero Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darling, David
2002-11-01
A commanding encyclopedia of the history and principles of spaceflight-from earliest conceptions to faster-than-light galaxy-hopping Here is the first truly comprehensive guide to space exploration and propulsion, from the first musings of the Greeks to current scientific speculation about interstellar travel using "warp drives" and wormholes. Space buffs will delight in its in-depth coverage of all key manned and unmanned missions and space vehicles-past, present, and projected-and its clear explanations of the technologies involved. Over the course of more than 2,000 extensively cross-referenced entries, astronomer David Darling also provides fascinating insights into the cultural development of spaceflight. In vivid accounts of the major characters and historical events involved, he provides fascinating tales of early innovators, the cross-pollination that has long existed between science fiction and science fact, and the sometimes obscure links between geopolitics, warfare, and advances in rocketry.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ludwig, E.
1984-01-01
The recent advances in the psychological aspects of space station design are discussed, including the impact of the increase in awareness of both the public in general as well as space environmental experts of the importance of psychological factors when designing space stations and training astronauts.
The International Space University's variable gravity research facility design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bailey, Sheila G.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Davidian, Kenneth J.
1991-09-01
A manned mission to Mars will require long travel times between Earth and Mars. However, exposure to long-duration zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body. Some of the harmful effects are loss of heart and lung capacity, inability to stand upright, muscular weakness and loss of bone calcium. A variable gravity research facility (VGRF) that would be placed in low Earth orbit (LEO) was designed by students of the International Space University 1989 Summer Session held in Strasbourg, France, to provide a testbed for conducting experiments in the life and physical sciences in preparation for a mission to Mars. This design exercise was unique because it addressed all aspects concerning a large space project. The VGRF design was described which was developed by international participants specializing in the following areas: the politics of international cooperation, engineering, architecture, in-space physiology, material and life science experimentation, data communications, business, and management.
International Space University variable gravity research facility design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bailey, Sheila G.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Davidian, Kenneth J.
1994-03-01
A manned mission to Mars will require long travel times between Earth and Mars. However, exposure to long-duration zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body. Some of the harmful effects are loss of heart and lung capacity, inability to stand upright, muscular weakness, and loss of bone calcium. A variable gravity research facility (VGRF) that will be placed in low Earth orbit (LEO) was designed by students of the International Space University 1989 Summer Session held in Strasbourg, France, to provide a testbed for conducting experiments in the life and physical sciences in preparation for a mission to Mars. This design exercise was unique because it addressed all aspects concerning a large space project. This report describes the VGRF design that was developed by international participants specializing in the following areas: the politics of international cooperation; engineering, architecture; in-space physiological, materials, and life science experimentation; data communications; and business and management.
Cosmological perturbations in massive gravity and the Higuchi bound
Fasiello, Matteo; Tolley, Andrew J. E-mail: andrew.j.tolley@case.edu
2012-11-01
In de Sitter spacetime there exists an absolute minimum for the mass of a spin-2 field set by the Higuchi bound m{sup 2} ? 2H{sup 2}. We generalize this bound to arbitrary spatially flat FRW geometries in the context of the recently proposed ghost-free models of Massive Gravity with an FRW reference metric, by performing a Hamiltonian analysis for cosmological perturbations. We find that the bound generically indicates that spatially flat FRW solutions in FRW massive gravity, which exhibit a Vainshtein mechanism in the background as required by consistency with observations, imply that the helicity zero mode is a ghost. In contradistinction to previous works, the tension between the Higuchi bound and the Vainshtein mechanism is equally strong regardless of the equation of state for matter.
Utilization of Low Gravity Environment for Measuring Liquid Viscosity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin
1998-01-01
The method of drop coalescence is used for determining the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids. Low gravity environment is necessary in order to allow for examining large volumes affording much higher accuracy for the viscosity calculations than possible for smaller volumes available under 1 - g conditions. The drop coalescence method is preferred over the drop oscillation technique since the latter method can only be applied for liquids with vanishingly small viscosities. The technique developed relies on both the highly accurate solution of the Navier-Stokes equations as well as on data from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment. Results are presented for method validation experiments recently performed on board the NASA/KC-135 aircraft. While the numerical solution was produced using the Boundary Element Method. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, glycerine at room temperature, was determined using the liquid coalescence method. The results from these experiments will be discussed.
Gauss-Bonnet gravity renders negative tension braneworlds unstable
Charmousis, Christos; Dufaux, Jean-Francois [LPT, Universite de Paris-Sud, Bat. 210, 91405 Orsay CEDEX (France)
2004-11-15
We show that the addition of the Gauss-Bonnet term to Einstein gravity induces a tachyon mode in the spin two fluctuations of the Randall-Sundrum I model. We demonstrate that this instability is generically related to the presence of a flat negative tension brane, of codimension one, embedded in an anti-de Sitter background. In particular its presence is independent of Z{sub 2}-symmetry or compactness of the extra dimension. The gravitational tachyon mode persists for arbitrarily small but nonvanishing Gauss-Bonnet coupling. It is a bound state localized on the negative tension brane, much like the graviton zero-mode is localized on a positive tension one. We discuss the possible resolution of this instability by the inclusion of induced gravity terms on the branes or by an effective four-dimensional cosmological constant.
Convective and Absolute Instability of Liquid Jets under Gravity Effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amini, Ghobad; Ihme, Matthias; Dolatabadi, Ali
2012-11-01
The break-up of liquid jets is of practical importance for several applications, including liquid-fuel-injection and ink-jet printing. In this work, the effect of gravity on the onset and growth rate of absolute and convective instabilities in liquid jets is studied. The mathematical problem is formulated in terms of quasi-one-dimensional equations, and the linearized stability equations are solved using a first-order perturbation method. An analytic form of the dispersion equation is derived, and the variation of the growth rate is investigated for a range of positive and negative Bond numbers, corresponding to downward-pointing and rising liquid jet. The critical Weber number, demarcating the transition between convective and absolute instability is determined as function of Reynolds and Froude numbers. Model-results for the limiting case of zero gravity are compared with classical results of Chandrasekhar and Leib & Goldstein, confirming the validity of this approach.
The International Space University's variable gravity research facility design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bailey, Sheila G.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Davidian, Kenneth J.
1991-01-01
A manned mission to Mars will require long travel times between Earth and Mars. However, exposure to long-duration zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body. Some of the harmful effects are loss of heart and lung capacity, inability to stand upright, muscular weakness and loss of bone calcium. A variable gravity research facility (VGRF) that would be placed in low Earth orbit (LEO) was designed by students of the International Space University 1989 Summer Session held in Strasbourg, France, to provide a testbed for conducting experiments in the life and physical sciences in preparation for a mission to Mars. This design exercise was unique because it addressed all aspects concerning a large space project. The VGRF design was described which was developed by international participants specializing in the following areas: the politics of international cooperation, engineering, architecture, in-space physiology, material and life science experimentation, data communications, business, and management.
Gravity, Bose-Einstein Condensates and Gross-Pitaevskii Equation
Patrick Das Gupta
2015-05-04
We explore the effect of mutual gravitational interaction between ultra-cold gas atoms on the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC). Small amplitude oscillation of BEC is studied by applying variational technique to reduce the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, with gravity included, to the equation of motion of a particle moving in a potential. According to our analysis, if the s-wave scattering length can be tuned to zero using Feshbach resonance for future BEC with occupation numbers as high as $\\approx 10^{20}$, there exists a critical ground state occupation number above which the BEC is unstable, provided that its constituents interact with a $1/r^3 $ gravity at short scales.
Gravity, Bose-Einstein Condensates and Gross-Pitaevskii Equation
Gupta, Patrick Das
2015-01-01
We explore the effect of mutual gravitational interaction between ultra-cold gas atoms on the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC). Small amplitude oscillation of BEC is studied by applying variational technique to reduce the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, with gravity included, to the equation of motion of a particle moving in a potential. According to our analysis, if the s-wave scattering length can be tuned to zero using Feshbach resonance for future BEC with occupation numbers as high as $\\approx 10^{20}$, there exists a critical ground state occupation number above which the BEC is unstable, provided that its constituents interact with a $1/r^3 $ gravity at short scales.
Holographic entanglement entropy for the most general higher derivative gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miao, Rong-Xin; Guo, Wu-zhong
2015-08-01
The holographic entanglement entropy for the most general higher derivative gravity is investigated. We find a new type of Wald entropy, which appears on entangling surface without the rotational symmetry and reduces to usual Wald entropy on Killing horizon. Furthermore, we obtain a formal formula of HEE for the most general higher derivative gravity and work it out exactly for some squashed cones. As an important application, we derive HEE for gravitational action with one derivative of the curvature when the extrinsic curvature vanishes. We also study some toy models with non-zero extrinsic curvature. We prove that our formula yields the correct universal term of entanglement entropy for 4d CFTs. Furthermore, we solve the puzzle raised by Hung, Myers and Smolkin that the logarithmic term of entanglement entropy derived from Weyl anomaly of CFTs does not match the holographic result even if the extrinsic curvature vanishes. We find that such mismatch comes from the `anomaly of entropy' of the derivative of curvature. After considering such contributions carefully, we resolve the puzzle successfully. In general, we need to fix the splitting problem for the conical metrics in order to derive the holographic entanglement entropy. We find that, at least for Einstein gravity, the splitting problem can be fixed by using equations of motion. How to derive the splittings for higher derivative gravity is a non-trivial and open question. For simplicity, we ignore the splitting problem in this paper and find that it does not affect our main results.
Absolute parallelism, modified gravity, and suppression of gravitational short waves
I. L. Zhogin
2011-09-08
There is a unique variant of Absolute Parallelism, which is very simple as it has no free parameters: nothing (nor D=5) can be changed if to keep the theory safe from emerging singularities of solutions. On the contrary, eternal solutions of this theory, due to the linear instability of the trivial solution, should be of great complexity which can in some scenarios (with a set of slowly varying parameters of solutions) provide a few phenomenological models including a modified (better to say, new or another) gravity and an expanding-shell cosmology (the longitudinal polarization gives the anti-Milne model). The former looks (mostly) like a variant of tensor-Ricci-squared gravity on a brane of a huge scale L along the extra-dimension. The correction to Newton's law of gravity, which depends in this theory on two parameters (bi-Laplace equation) and behaves as 1/r on large scales, r>L (kpc>L>pc), can start from zero (the Rindler term vanishes) if a constraint is imposed on these parameters. On further consideration, one can conclude that generation of gravitational `short' waves, \\lambda
Net Zero Ft. Carson: making a greener Army base
The US Army Net Zero program seeks to reduce the energy, water, and waste footprint of bases. Seventeen pilot bases aim to achieve 100% renewable energy, zero depletion of water resources, and/or zero waste to landfill by 2020. Some bases are pursuing Net Zero in a single secto...
Gravity: Simple Experiments for Young Scientists.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
White, Larry
This book contains 12 simple experiments through which students can learn about gravity and its implications. Some of the topics included are weight, weightlessness, artificial gravity, the pull of gravity on different shapes, center of gravity, the universal law of gravity, and balancing. Experiments include: finding the balancing point; weighing…
Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Oberdörster, Gunter
2006-06-01
Inhalation of particles generated as a result of thermal degradation from fire or smoke, as may occur on spacecraft, is of major health concern to space-faring countries. Knowledge of lung airflow and particle transport under different gravity environments is required to addresses this concern by providing information on particle deposition. Gravity affects deposition of particles in the lung in two ways. First, the airflow distribution among airways is changed in different gravity environments. Second, particle losses by sedimentation are enhanced with increasing gravity. In this study, a model of airflow distribution in the lung that accounts for the influence of gravity was used for a mathematical description of particle deposition in the human lung to calculate lobar, regional, and local deposition of particles in different gravity environments. The lung geometry used in the mathematical model contained five lobes that allowed the assessment of lobar ventilation distribution and variation of particle deposition. At zero gravity, it was predicted that all lobes of the lung expanded and contracted uniformly, independent of body position. Increased gravity in the upright position increased the expansion of the upper lobes and decreased expansion of the lower lobes. Despite a slight increase in predicted deposition of ultrafine particles in the upper lobes with decreasing gravity, deposition of ultrafine particles was generally predicted to be unaffected by gravity. Increased gravity increased predicted deposition of fine and coarse particles in the tracheobronchial region, but that led to a reduction or even elimination of deposition in the alveolar region for coarse particles. The results from this study show that existing mathematical models of particle deposition at 1 G can be extended to different gravity environments by simply correcting for a gravity constant. Controlled studies in astronauts on future space missions are needed to validate these predictions. PMID:16603478
Geometric scalar theory of gravity
Novello, M.; Bittencourt, E.; Goulart, E.; Salim, J.M.; Toniato, J.D. [Instituto de Cosmologia Relatividade Astrofisica ICRA - CBPF Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150 - 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro - Brazil (Brazil); Moschella, U., E-mail: novello@cbpf.br, E-mail: eduhsb@cbpf.br, E-mail: Ugo.Moschella@uninsubria.it, E-mail: egoulart@cbpf.br, E-mail: jsalim@cbpf.br, E-mail: toniato@cbpf.br [Università degli Studi dell'Insubria - Dipartamento di Fisica e Matematica Via Valleggio 11 - 22100 Como - Italy (Italy)
2013-06-01
We present a geometric scalar theory of gravity. Our proposal will be described using the ''background field method'' introduced by Gupta, Feynman, Deser and others as a field theory formulation of general relativity. We analyze previous criticisms against scalar gravity and show how the present proposal avoids these difficulties. This concerns not only the theoretical complaints but also those related to observations. In particular, we show that the widespread belief of the conjecture that the source of scalar gravity must be the trace of the energy-momentum tensor — which is one of the main difficulties to couple gravity with electromagnetic phenomenon in previous models — does not apply to our geometric scalar theory. From the very beginning this is not a special relativistic scalar gravity. The adjective ''geometric'' pinpoints its similarity with general relativity: this is a metric theory of gravity. Some consequences of this new scalar theory are explored.
Prediction of annular two-phase flow in microgravity and earth-normal gravity
Reinarts, T.R.; Ungar, E.K.
1996-12-31
Annular flow occurs in zero-g over a much broader range of conditions than in Earth-normal gravity (one-g). In horizontal tubing at one-g, annular flow is typically limited to the case of small tubing (where surface tension overwhelms the gravity effects) and the case of high speed vapor flow (where inertial effects overwhelm the gravity effects). Data obtained from one-g experiments in these conditions can be applied to the case of zero-g two-phase flow, but care must be taken that they are applied correctly. The analysis here utilizes the available, validated data-base of annular zero-g data and accompanying (where available) pure annular one-g flow. This data base includes ammonia, dichlordifluoromethane (R12), air/water, air/water-glycerin, and air/water Zonyl FSP in a variety of tube inside diameters. The first step is an analysis of the flow regime data and the flow regime prediction models for annular flow. The applicability and validity of each model is analyzed. The pressure drop data are then presented, analyzed, and compared with the available predictive models. A comparison of one-g and microgravity pressure drop is made, and the limits of using small ID tubing and high speed vapor flows to simulate micro gravity conditions are given.
Introduction to Loop Quantum Gravity
Abhay Ashtekar
2012-01-22
This article is based on the opening lecture at the third quantum geometry and quantum gravity school sponsored by the European Science Foundation and held at Zakopane, Poland in March 2011. The goal of the lecture was to present a broad perspective on loop quantum gravity for young researchers. The first part is addressed to beginning students and the second to young researchers who are already working in quantum gravity.