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1

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus for mixing liquids under conditions of zero gravity is disclosed. The apparatus is comprised of a closed reservoir for the liquids, with a means for maintaining a positive pressure on the liquids in the reservoir. A valved liquid supply line is connected to the reservoir for supplying the reservoir with the liquids to be mixed in the reservoir. The portion of the reservoir containing the liquids to be mixed is in communication with a pump which alternately causes a portion of the liquids to flow out of the pump and into the reservoir to mix the liquids. The fluids in the reservoir are in communication through a conduit with the pump which alternately causes a portion of the fluids to flow out of the pump and into the sphere. The conduit connecting the pump and sphere may contain a nozzle or other jet-forming structure such as a venturi for further mixing the fluids.

Booth, F. W.; Bruce, R. A. (inventors)

1973-01-01

2

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of computer graphics to simulate the movement of articulated animals and mechanisms has a number of uses ranging over many fields. Human motion simulation systems can be useful in education, medicine, anatomy, physiology, and dance. In biomechanics, computer displays help to understand and analyze performance. Simulations can be used to help understand the effect of external or internal forces. Similarly, zero-gravity simulation systems should provide a means of designing and exploring the capabilities of hypothetical zero-gravity situations before actually carrying out such actions. The advantage of using a simulation of the motion is that one can experiment with variations of a maneuver before attempting to teach it to an individual. The zero-gravity motion simulation problem can be divided into two broad areas: human movement and behavior in zero-gravity, and simulation of articulated mechanisms.

Badler, N. I.; Fishwick, P.; Taft, N.; Agrawala, M.

1985-01-01

3

Zero gravity liquid transfer screen

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A liquid transfer device for use in a zero gravity environment, for transferring liquid from one container to another is described. The device includes a spiral shaped screen type member which is carried in the container for collecting the randomly dispersed liquid and transferring such to an exit port.

Howard, F. S. (inventor)

1973-01-01

4

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility and scientific benefits of a zero gravity aerosol study in an orbiting laboratory were examined. A macroscopic model was devised to deal with the simultaneous effects of diffusion and coagulation of particles in the confined aerosol. An analytical solution was found by treating the particle coagulation and diffusion constants as ensemble parameters and employing a transformation of variables. The solution was used to carry out simulated zero gravity aerosol decay experiments in a compact cylindrical chamber. The results demonstrate that the limitations of physical space and time imposed by the orbital situation are not prohibitive in terms of observing the history of an aerosol confined under zero gravity conditions. While the absence of convective effects would be a definite benefit for the experiment, the mathematical complexity of the problem is not greatly reduced when the gravitational term drops out of the equation. Since the model does not deal directly with the evolution of the particle size distribution, it may be desirable to develop more detailed models before undertaking an orbital experiment.

Edwards, H. W.

1981-01-01

5

Modeling of zero gravity venting

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The venting of cylindrical containers partially filled with initially saturated liquids was conducted under zero gravity conditions and compared with an analytical model which determined the effect of interfacial mass transfer on the ullage pressure response during venting. A model is proposed to improve the estimation of the interfacial mass transfer. Duhammel's superposition integral is incorporated in this analysis to approximate the transient temperature response of the interface, treating the liquid as a semiinfinite solid with conduction heat transfer. This approach to estimating interfacial mass transfer gives improved response when compared to previous models. The model still predicts a pressure decrease greater than those in the experiments reported.

Merte, H., Jr.

1984-01-01

6

Zero-gravity venting of three refrigerants

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of venting cylindrical containers partially filled with initially saturated liquids under zero-gravity conditions was conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center 5-second zero-gravity facility. The effect of interfacial mass transfer on the ullage pressure response during venting was analytically determined, based on a conduction analysis applied to an infinitely planer (flat) liquid-vapor interface. This pressure response was compared with both the experimental results and an adiabatic decompression computation.

Labus, T. L.; Aydelott, J. C.; Amling, G. E.

1974-01-01

7

Zero-gravity quantity gaging system

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Zero-Gravity Quantity Gaging System program is a technology development effort funded by NASA-LeRC and contracted by NASA-JSC to develop and evaluate zero-gravity quantity gaging system concepts suitable for application to large, on-orbit cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen tankage. The contract effective date was 28 May 1985. During performance of the program, 18 potential quantity gaging approaches were investigated for their merit and suitability for gaging two-phase cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen in zero-gravity conditions. These approaches were subjected to a comprehensive trade study and selection process, which found that the RF modal quantity gaging approach was the most suitable for both liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen applications. This selection was made with NASA-JSC concurrence.

1989-01-01

8

Zero Temperature Black Holes in Semiclassical Gravity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Static spherically symmetric zero temperature black holes are very interesting and important at the classical, semiclassical, and quantum levels. Classically the only static black hole solution to Einstein's equations with zero surface gravity (and hence zero temperature) is the extreme Reissner-Nordström (ERN) black hole, which possesses a charge equal in magnitude to its mass. At the quantum level, the statistical mechanical entropy of zero temperature (extreme) black holes has been calculated in string theory1 and shown to be identical to the usual Bekenstein-Hawking thermodynamic entropy. The usual semiclassical temperature and entropy calculations for ERN black holes have all been made in the test field approximation where the effects of quantized fields on the spacetime geometry are ignored. However, it is well known that quantum effects alter the spacetime geometry near the event horizon of a black hole. In particular they can change its surface gravity and hence its temperature2,3,4...

Anderson, Paul R.; Hiscock, William A.; Taylor, Brett E.

2002-12-01

9

Zero Gravity Research Facility User's Guide

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Zero Gravity Research Facility (ZGF) is operated by the Space Experiments Division of the NASA John H. Glenn Research Center (GRC) for investigators sponsored by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division of NASA Headquarters. This unique facility has been utilized by scientists and engineers for reduced gravity experimentation since 1966. The ZGF has provided fundamental scientific information, has been used as an important test facility in the space flight hardware design, development, and test process, and has also been a valuable source of data in the flight experiment definition process. The purpose of this document is to provide information and guidance to prospective researchers regarding the design, buildup, and testing of microgravity experiments.

Thompson, Dennis M.

1999-01-01

10

Marangoni bubble motion in zero gravity. [Lewis zero gravity drop tower

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was shown experimentally that the Marangoni phenomenon is a primary mechanism for the movement of a gas bubble in a nonisothermal liquid in a low gravity environment. A mathematical model consisting of the Navier-Stokes and thermal energy equations, together with the appropriate boundary conditions for both media, is presented. Parameter perturbation theory is used to solve this boundary value problem; the expansion parameter is the Marangoni number. The zeroth, first, and second order approximations for the velocity, temperature and pressure distributions in the liquid and in the bubble, and the deformation and terminal velocity of the bubble are determined. Experimental zero gravity data for a nitrogen bubble in ethylene glycol, ethanol, and silicone oil subjected to a linear temperature gradient were obtained using the NASA Lewis zero gravity drop tower. Comparison of the zeroth order analytical results for the bubble terminal velocity showed good agreement with the experimental measurements. The first and second order solutions for the bubble deformation and bubble terminal velocity are valid for liquids having Prandtl numbers on the order of one, but there is a lack of appropriate data to test the theory fully.

Thompson, R. L.; Dewitt, K. J.

1979-01-01

11

Experiments with the Skylab fire detectors in zero gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Skylab fire detector was evaluated in a zero gravity environment. To conduct the test, small samples of spacecraft materials were ignited in a 5 psi oxygen-rich atmosphere inside a combustion chamber. The chamber free-floated in the cabin of a C-135 aircraft, as the aircraft executed a Keplerian parabola. Up to 10 seconds of zero-gravity combustion were achieved. The Skylab fire-detector tubes viewed the flames from a simulated distance of 3m, and color movies were taken to record the nature of the fire. The experiments established the unique form of zero-gravity fires for a wide range of materials. From the tube-output data, the alarm threshold and detector time constant were verified for the Skylab Fire Detection System.

Linford, R. M. F.

1972-01-01

12

Combustion of solid carbon rods in zero and normal gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to investigate the mechanism of carbon combustion, spectroscopic carbon rods were resistance ignited and burned in an oxygen environment in normal and zero gravity. Direct mass spectrometric sampling was used in the normal gravity tests to obtain concentration profiles of CO2, CO, and O2 as a function of distance from the carbon surface. The experimental concentrations were compared to those predicted by a stagnant film model. Zero gravity droptower tests were conducted in order to assess the effect of convection on the normal gravity combustion process. The ratio of flame diameter to rod diameter as a function of time for oxygen pressures of 5, 10, 15, and 20 psia was obtained for three different diameter rods. It was found that this ratio was inversely proportional to both the oxygen pressure and the rod diameter.

Spuckler, C. M.; Kohl, F. J.; Miller, R. A.; Stearns, C. A.; Dewitt, K. J.

1979-01-01

13

Passive zero-gravity leg restraint

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A passive zero or microgravity leg restraint is described which includes a central support post with a top and a bottom. Extending from the central support post are a calf pad tab, to which calf pad is attached, and a foot pad tab, to which foot tab is attached. Also extending from central support post are knee pads. When the restraint is in use the user's legs are forced between pads by a user imposed scissors action of the legs. The user's body is then supported in a zero or microgravity neutral body posture by the leg restraint. The calf pad has semi-ridig elastic padding material covering structural stiffener. The foot pad has padding material and a structural stiffener. Knee pads have s structural tube stiffener at their core.

Miller, Christopher R. (inventor)

1989-01-01

14

Marangoni bubble motion in zero gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown experimentally that the Marangoni phenomenon is a primary mechanism for the movement of a gas bubble in a nonisothermal liquid in a low-gravity environment. In such two-phase flow systems, local variations in bubble surface tension are caused by a temperature gradient in the liquid. Shearing stresses thus generated at the bubble surface lead to convection in both media, as a result of which the bubble begins to move. A mathematical model consisting of the Navier-Stokes equations and the thermal energy equations, along with the appropriate boundary conditions for both media, is proposed.

Thompson, R. L.; De Witt, K. J.

1979-01-01

15

Glass fining experiments in zero gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ground based experiments were conducted to demonstrate that thermal migration actually operated in glass melts. Thermal migration consistent with the theory was found in one experiment on a borax melt, i.e., there was an approximately linear relation between the bubble diameter and bubble velocity for a given temperature and temperature gradient. It also appeared that nearby bubbles were attracted to one another, which could greatly aid fining. Interpretation of these results was not possible because of complications arising from gravity, i.e., floating of the bubbles, circulation currents due to buoyancy-driven natural connection, and flow of the melt out from the cell.

Smith, H. D.

1977-01-01

16

Solution growth of crystals in zero gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of experiments will be performed in which triglycine sulfate (TGS) crystals will be grown by a low-temperature solution growth technique in the microgravity environment of the orbital Spacelab. Triglycine sulfate (TGS) crystals will be grown in the Fluid Experiment System (FES) facility on Spacelab 3 by slowly extracting heat at a controlled rate through a seed crystal of TGS suspended on an insulated sting in a saturated solution of TGS. The FES rack assembly designed for SL-3 is shown in Figure I-1, and a detailed view of the test cell layout is presented in Figure I-2. Variations in the liquid density, solution concentration and temperature around the growing crystal will be studied using a variety of techniques, such as schlieren, shadowgraph, and interferometric measurements. Growth in Earth gravity will also be studied by the same optical techniques, and in both cases the resulting crystalline features will be compared and correlated with the growth conditions.

Lai, R. B.

1982-01-01

17

Measurement of choroidal blood flow in zero gravity

In this paper we present preliminary measurements on the effects of zero gravity environment on the choroidal blood flow on human volunteer subjects. These experiments were conducted, for the first time, on-board a wide body aircraft (KC-135) during parabolic flight trajectories (0g to 2g environment) using a head-mounted miniature laser Doppler flowmeter.

Rafat R. Ansari; Kwang I. Suh; Fabrice Moret; Russell K. Messer; Francis K. Manuel

2003-01-01

18

Transient Heat Transfer in Zero Gravity Environment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is to provide computer codes and/or correlations for application in the design of transient heat transfer systems. The mathematical models in the computer codes are being tested by experimental data obtained in the laboratory using optical techniques. The elimination of natural convection (buoyancy) in the experimental data obtained in zero-g (KC-135) facilitates the study of thermal expansion effects which is of interest in the development and testing of the mathematical models of the transient heat transfer. Initial flight in the KC 135 (June 1983) suggested some modifications to the experimental apparatus and the data acquisition technique (high speed video will replace high speed movies for recording optical records generated during the experiments). A series of KC-135 flights with this experiment on board are scheduled for summer/fall 1984. The acquisition of the aforementioned data using interferometry and beam deflection optical techniques is anticipated. The measurements provide time dependent temperature fields above a horizontal heater surface submerged in a static fluid (Freon 13). The heater surface is electrically heated for a time interval approximately 0.100 sec. during which the data are optically recorded.

Giarratano, P. G.; Arp, V. D.; Kumakawa, A.

1985-01-01

19

4He crystals in superfluid under zero gravity.

The response of 4He crystals to the rapid reduction of gravity down to practically zero in a superfluid was investigated visually, utilizing the parabolic flight of a jet plane. At a high temperature of 1.6 K, the shape of 4He crystals in the bcc phase did not change with a reduction of gravity during a parabolic period of 20 s, due to the low crystallization rate. At lower temperatures, such as 0.63 K, where the crystallization rate is sufficiently high, the shape of 4He crystals in the hcp phase changed significantly, relaxing to a quasiequilibrium shape under zero gravity, where the c facet became enlarged and the a facet emerged on the surface. The crystal did not detach from the sample cell wall at any time because the adhesive force manifested as partial wetting to the wall was sufficiently strong. Some crystals removed from the wall by an acoustic wave pulse were found to float and drift in the superfluid for approximately 4.2 s under zero gravity, although most of them were quickly reattached to the wall. PMID:22587030

Takahashi, Takuya; Nomura, Ryuji; Okuda, Yuichi

2012-03-01

20

Experiments on thermoacoustic convection heat transfer in gravity and zero-gravity environments

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an experimental study of thermoacoustic convection (TAC) heat transfer in gravity and zero-gravity environments are presented. The experimental apparatus consisted of a cylinder containing air as the compressible fluid. The enclosed air was heated electrically at the top surface which consisted of a thin high-resistance steel foil connected to a power source. Thermocouples were used to measure the transient temperature of the air on the axis of the cylinder and the heated surface in the both zero-gravity and gravity environments. The zero-gravity tests were performed in the Zero-Gravity Drop Tower Facility of NASA-Lewis Research Center. The experimental results were corrected for the error due to radiation absorption by the thermocouples. A conduction-only numerical heat transfer model was developed to compute the transient air temperature in the cylindrical geometry. The results were compared to the experimental data to determine the significance of the thermoacoustic convection heat transfer mechanism. It is observed that the rate of heat transfer to the air measured during the experiments is consistently higher than that obtained by the conduction-only solution indicating a significant presence of the TAC heat transfer. Further experiments are planned to measure directly (1) the radiative heat transfer contribution to the rise in the air temperature, and (2) the air pressure oscillations within the cylinder that are responsible for the convective heat transfer mode.

Parang, Masood; Salah-Eddine, Adel

1987-01-01

21

Fluid management system for a zero gravity cryogenic storage system

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fluid management system comprises a mixing/recirculation system including an external recirculation pump for receiving fluid from a zero gravity storage system and returning an output flow of the fluid to the storage system. An internal axial spray injection system is provided for receiving a portion of the output flow from the recirculation pump. The spray injection system thermally de-stratifies liquid and gaseous cryogenic fluid stored in the storage system.

Lak, Tibor I. (Inventor)

1995-01-01

22

Crew efficiency on first exposure to zero-gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activation task performance of Skylab crews showed improved efficiency as experience was gained in weightlessness living. During three activation intervals, less than 12 man-hours were lost due to reduced efficiency (including the effects of motion sensitivity) while almost 200 man-hours of productive work were delivered. Work rate improved for tasks in which simulation and training time were extensive and for tasks which allowed zero-gravity operations to be optimized.

Garriott, O. K.; Doerre, G. L.

1977-01-01

23

Investigation of crystal growth from solutions. [in zero gravity environments

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quality was investigated of a crystal of Rochelle salt grown from a solution placed in the zero-gravity environment of Skylab 4. The crystal has the following unique features: (1) the typical cavity is a long tube extending along the c-axis, the average length being 4mm, compared to 0.1mm that is the average size for earth-grown crystals; and (2) the crystal consists of several single crystals, the axes of which are parallel to each other. A preliminary measurement was made on the ferroelectric hysteresis curve of this Rochelle salt crystal.

Miyagawa, I.

1974-01-01

24

Ball Lightning in Zero Gravity in the Laboratory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have created balls of orange plasma in atmospheric - pressure air that survive for over 1/2 second without power input. The technique used was to create a pulsed horizontal electric arc in a zero - gravity environment using 6 neon - sign transformers in parallel, each producing 16,000 V at 60 mA. The zero - gravity environment reduces heat losses by reducing thermal convection, creating a larger ball. Previous work (1) suggests that the ball lifetime scales as the square of the ball radius. The balls were photographed after power turnoff with a high - speed 16 mm movie camera. Movies of the balls being formed and decaying will be shown. We suggest that there are several other forms of ball lightning (2). 1.Igor Alexeff et. al. International Conference On Plasma Science, Jeju, Korea, June 2-5, 2003, Conference Record, p 254. 2. Igor Alexeff and Mark Rader, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 20, No. 6, Dec. 1992, pp.669-671. Igor Alexeff and Mark Rader, Fusion Technology, Vol. 27, May 1995, p. 271.

Alexeff, Igor; Parameswaran, Sriram; Grace, Michael

2004-11-01

25

Ocular Blood Flow Measured Noninvasively in Zero Gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In spaceflight or a reduced-gravity environment, bodily fluids shift to the upper extremities of the body. The pressure inside the eye, or intraocular pressure, changes significantly. A significant number of astronauts report changes in visual acuity during orbital flight. To date this remains of unknown etiology. Could choroidal engorgement be the primary mechanism and a change in the curvature or shape of the cornea or lens be the secondary mechanism for this change in visual acuity? Perfused blood flow in the dense meshwork of capillaries of the choroidal tissue (see the preceding illustration) provides necessary nutrients to the outer layers of the retina (photoreceptors) to keep it healthy and maintain good vision. Unlike the vascular system, the choroid has no baroreceptors to autoregulate fluid shifts, so it can remain engorged, pushing the macula forward and causing a hyperopic (farsighted) shift of the eye. Experiments by researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center could help answer this question and facilitate planning for long-duration missions. We are investigating the effects of zero gravity on the choroidal blood flow of volunteer subjects. This pilot project plans to determine if choroidal blood flow is autoregulated in a reduced-gravity environment.

Ansari, Rafat R.; Manuel, Francis K.; Geiser, Martial; Moret, Fabrice; Messer, Russell K.; King, James F.; Suh, Kwang I.

2003-01-01

26

Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy is required. a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point. the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating, boil-off losses.

Flachbart, Robin H.; Holt, James B.; Hastings, Leon J.

1999-01-01

27

Precise Determination of the Zero-Gravity Surface Figure of a Mirror without Gravity-Sag Modeling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The zero-gravity surface figure of optics used in spaceborne astronomical instruments must be known to high accuracy, but earthbound metrology is typically corrupted by gravity sag. Generally, inference of the zero-gravity surface figure from a measurement made under normal gravity requires finite-element analysis (FEA), and for accurate results the mount forces must be well characterized. We describe how to infer the zero-gravity surface figure very precisely using the alternative classical technique of averaging pairs of measurements made with the direction of gravity reversed. We show that mount forces as well as gravity must be reversed between the two measurements and discuss how the St. Venant principle determines when a reversed mount force may be considered to be applied at the same place in the two orientations. Our approach requires no finite-element modeling and no detailed knowledge of mount forces other than the fact that they reverse and are applied at the same point in each orientation. If mount schemes are suitably chosen, zero-gravity optical surfaces may be inferred much more simply and more accurately than with FEA.

Bloemhof, Eric E.; Lam, Jonathan C.; Feria, V. Alfonso; Chang, Zensheu

2007-01-01

28

Precise determination of the zero-gravity surface figure of a mirror without gravity-sag modeling.

The zero-gravity surface figure of optics used in spaceborne astronomical instruments must be known to high accuracy, but earthbound metrology is typically corrupted by gravity sag. Generally, inference of the zero-gravity surface figure from a measurement made under normal gravity requires finite-element analysis (FEA), and for accurate results the mount forces must be well characterized. We describe how to infer the zero-gravity surface figure very precisely using the alternative classical technique of averaging pairs of measurements made with the direction of gravity reversed. We show that mount forces as well as gravity must be reversed between the two measurements and discuss how the St. Venant principle determines when a reversed mount force may be considered to be applied at the same place in the two orientations. Our approach requires no finite-element modeling and no detailed knowledge of mount forces other than the fact that they reverse and are applied at the same point in each orientation. If mount schemes are suitably chosen, zero-gravity optical surfaces may be inferred much more simply and more accurately than with FEA. PMID:17973011

Bloemhof, Eric E; Lam, Jonathan C; Feria, V Alfonso; Chang, Zensheu

2007-11-01

29

Steady State Detached Solidification of Water at Zero Gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Steady-state detached solidification of water was calculated using the Moving Meniscus Model. Similar to the experimental observation of many materials in microgravity, detached solidification of water is predicted to occur in a sealed ampoule at zero gravity under proper conditions. For steady detachment, the freezing rate must exceed a critical value, Henry's constant of the dissolved gas must be below a critical value, the temperature of the top of the water must be below a critical value, the contact angle of water on the ampoule wall must exceed a critical value, and the diffusion coefficient must exceed a critical value. Each critical value depends on the physical properties and the other operating conditions. Thus different results are obtained for InSb and water. The critical gas pressure above the melt for water is much smaller than for InSb, the critical freezing rate is larger for water, and the critical contact angle of the melt on the ampoule wall is larger for water. For the gases examined here, the solubilities of Ar, N2 and Ne in water are sufficient for detachment to occur, while the solubility of He is not.

Wang, Yazhen; Regel, Liya L.; Wilcox, William R.

2001-01-01

30

Steady State Detached Solidification of Water at Zero Gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Steady-state detached solidification of water was calculated using the Moving Meniscus Model. Similar to the experimental observation of many materials in microgravity, detached solidification of water is predicted to occur in a sealed ampoule at zero gravity under proper conditions. For steady detachment, the freezing rate must exceed a critical value, Henry's constant of the dissolved gas must be below a critical value, the temperature of the top of the water must be below a critical value, the contact angle of water on the ampoule wall must exceed a critical value, and the diffusion coefficient must exceed a critical value. Each critical value depends on the physical properties and the other operating conditions. Thus different results are obtained for InSb and water. The critical gas pressure above the melt for water is much smaller than for InSb, the critical freezing rate is larger for water, and the critical contact angle of the melt on the ampoule wall is larger for water. For the gases examined here, the solubilities of Ar, N2 and Ne in water are sufficient for detachment to occur, while the solubility of He is not.

Wang, Yazhen; Regel, Liya L.; Wilcox, William R.

2003-01-01

31

Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for use in zero gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this effort, a new design concept for an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) that is capable of operation in zero gravity has been developed. The design uses a vortex precooler to lower the initial temperature of magnetic salt from the initial space superfluid helium dewar of 1.8 K to 1.1 K. This reduces the required maximum magnetic field from 4 Tesla to 2 Tesla. The laboratory prototype vortex precooler reached a minimum temperature of 0.78 K, and had a cooling power of 1 mW at 1.1 K. A study was conducted to determine the dependence of vortex cooler performance on system element configuration. A superfluid filled capillary heat switch was used in the design. The laboratory prototype ADR reached a minimum temperature of 0.107 K, and maintained temperatures below 0.125 K for 90 minutes. Demagnetization was carried out from a maximum field of 2 T. A soft iron shield was developed that reduced the radial central field to 1 gauss at 0.25 meters.

Dingus, Michael L.

1988-01-01

32

Vortex motion phase separator for zero gravity liquid transfer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A vortex motion phase separator is disclosed for transferring a liquid in a zero gravity environment while at the same time separating the liquid from vapors found within either the sender or the receiving tanks. The separator comprises a rigid sender tank having a circular cross-section and rigid receiver tank having a circular cross-section. A plurality of ducts connects the sender tank and the receiver tank. Disposed within the ducts connecting the receiver tank and the sender tank is a pump and a plurality of valves. The pump is powered by an electric motor and is adapted to draw either the liquid or a mixture of the liquid and the vapor from the sender tank. Initially, the mixture drawn from the sender tank is directed through a portion of the ductwork and back into the sender tank at a tangent to the inside surface of the sender tank, thereby creating a swirling vortex of the mixture within the sender tank. As the pumping action increases, the speed of the swirling action within the sender tank increases creating an increase in the centrifugal force operating on the mixture. The effect of the centrifugal force is to cause the heavier liquid to migrate to the inside surface of the sender tank and to separate from the vapor. When this separation reaches a predetermined degree, control means is activated to direct the liquid conveyed by the pump directly into the receiver tank. At the same time, the vapor within the receiver tank is directed from the receiver tank back into the sender tank. This flow continues until substantially all of the liquid is transferred from the sender tank to the receiver tank.

Howard, Frank S. (inventor); Fraser, Wilson M., Jr. (inventor)

1989-01-01

33

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental and analytical study of Thermoacoustic Convection heat transfer in gravity and zero-gravity environments is presented. The experimental apparatus consisted of a cylinder containing air as a fluid. The side wall of the cylinder was insulated while the bottom wall was allowed to remain at the ambient temperature. The enclosed air was rapidly heated by the top surface which consisted of a thin stainless steel foil connected to a battery pack as the power source. Thermocouples were used to measure the transient temperature of the air on the axis of the cylinder. The ouput of the thermocouples was displayed on digital thermometers and the temperature displays were recorded on film using a high-speed movie camera. Temperature measurements were obtained in the zero-gravity environment by dropping the apparatus in the 2-Seconds Zero-Gravity Drop Tower Facilities of NASA Lewis Research Center. In addition, experiments were also performed in the gravity environment and the results are compared in detail with those obtained under zero-gravity conditions.

Parang, Masood

1986-01-01

34

HEART RATE AND BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILITY UNDER MOON, MARS AND ZERO GRAVITY CONDITIONS DURING), studied via the heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV). HRV and BPV were predominant during reduced gravity. For the mean heart rate, a non-monotonic relation was found, which can

35

HEART RATE AND BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILITY UNDER MOON, MARS AND ZERO GRAVITY CONDITIONS DURING via the heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV). HRV and BPV were assessed in this study to assess the heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pres- sure variability (BPV). Due to gravity

36

The Dirac point electron in zero-gravity Kerr--Newman spacetime

Dirac's wave equation for a point electron in the topologically nontrivial maximal analytically extended electromagnetic Kerr--Newman spacetime is studied in a zero-gravity limit; here, "zero-gravity" means $G\\to 0$, where $G$ is Newton's constant of universal gravitation. The following results are obtained: the formal Dirac Hamiltonian on the static spacelike slices is essentially self-adjoint; the spectrum of the self-adjoint extension is symmetric about zero, featuring a continuum with a gap about zero that, under two smallness conditions, contains a point spectrum. Some of our results extend to a generalization of the zero-$G$ Kerr--Newman spacetime with different electric-monopole-to-magnetic-dipole-moment ratio.

M. K. -H. Kiessling; A. S. Tahvildar-Zadeh

2014-10-02

37

The Centaur propellant management and thermal control techniques required for zero gravity coasting were successfully demonstrated during an extended mission following spacecraft separation on the TC-2 flight. As part of the demonstration, two successful engine starts were accomplished. The first engine start followed a one-hour zero gravity coast, and the second engine start followed a three-hour zero gravity coast. All

R. F. Lacovic

1975-01-01

38

Feasibility study of a zero-gravity (orbital) atmospheric cloud physics experiments laboratory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A feasibility and concepts study for a zero-gravity (orbital) atmospheric cloud physics experiment laboratory is discussed. The primary objective was to define a set of cloud physics experiments which will benefit from the near zero-gravity environment of an orbiting spacecraft, identify merits of this environment relative to those of groundbased laboratory facilities, and identify conceptual approaches for the accomplishment of the experiments in an orbiting spacecraft. Solicitation, classification and review of cloud physics experiments for which the advantages of a near zero-gravity environment are evident are described. Identification of experiments for potential early flight opportunities is provided. Several significant accomplishments achieved during the course of this study are presented.

Hollinden, A. B.; Eaton, L. R.

1972-01-01

39

Free surface flow into a horizontal slot with zero gravity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-dimensional free surface flow of a finite-depth fluid into a horizontal slot is considered. For this study, the effects of viscosity and gravity are ignored. A generalized Schwarz-Christoffel mapping is used to formulate the problem in terms of a linear integral equation, which is solved exactly with the use of a Fourier transform. The resulting free surface profile is given explicitly in closed form.

McCue, S. W.

2000-08-01

40

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The importance of zero gravity environment in the development and production of new and improved materials is considered along with the gravitational effects on phase changes or critical behavior in a variety of materials. Specific experiments discussed include: fine scale phase separation in zero gravity; glass formation in zero gravity; effects of gravitational perturbations on determination of critical exponents; and light scattering from long wave fluctuations in liquids in zero gravity. It is concluded that the space shuttle/spacelab system is applicable to various fields of interest.

Eisner, M. (editor)

1975-01-01

41

Development of a large support surface for an air-bearing type zero-gravity simulator

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The methods used in producing a large, flat surface to serve as the supporting surface for an air-bearing type zero-gravity simulator using low clearance, thrust-pad type air bearings are described. Major problems encountered in the use of self-leveled epoxy coatings in this surface are discussed and techniques are recommended which proved effective in overcoming these problems. Performance requirements of the zero-gravity simulator vehicle which were pertinent to the specification of the air-bearing support surface are also discussed.

Glover, K. E.

1976-01-01

42

Extracting Zero-Gravity Surface Figure of a Mirror

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technical innovation involves refinement of the classic optical technique of averaging surface measurements made in different orientations with respect to gravity, so the effects of gravity cancel in the averaged image. Particularly for large, thin mirrors subject to substantial deformation, the further requirement is that mount forces must also cancel when averaged over measurement orientations. The zerogravity surface figure of a mirror in a hexapod mount is obtained by analyzing the summation of mount forces in the frame of the optic as surface metrology is averaged over multiple clockings. This is illustrated with measurements taken from the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) PT-Ml mirror for both twofold and threefold clocking. The positive results of these measurements and analyses indicate that, from this perspective, a lighter mirror could be used; that is, one might place less reliance on the damping effects of the elliptic partial differential equations that describe the propagation of forces through glass. The advantage over prior art is relaxing the need for an otherwise substantial thickness of glass that might be needed to ensure accurate metrology in the absence of a detailed understanding and analysis of the mount forces. The general insights developed here are new, and provide the basic design principles on which mirror mount geometry may be chosen.

Bloemhof, Eric E.; Lam, Jonathan C.; Feria, Alfonso; Chang, Zensheu

2011-01-01

43

Solution Growth of Crystals in Zero-Gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a low-g environment, buoyancy driven convection effects in solution crystal growth are greatly reduced and, thus, one can study diffusion mass transport which in 1-g is masked by convective phenomena. Crystals of triglycine sulfate (TGS) will be grown aboard the Spacelab 3 mission, using a specially developed Fluids Experiments System (FES). The objectives of the experiment are: (1) to develop a technique for solution crystal growth in a low-g environment, (2) to characterize the growth environment provided by an orbiting spacecraft and to determine the influence of the environment on the growth behavior, and (3) to determine how gravity in a low-gravity environment influences the properties of a resulting TGS crystal. Single crystals of TGS have been grown using conventional low-temperature solution crystal growth method and the growth process has been extensively characterized. Various physical properties of TGS solution have been measured. Also, a unique technique of growing solution growth crystals by extracting heat at a programmed rate from the crystal through a semi-insulating sting has been developed and tested in 1-g environment.

Lal, R. B.; Kroes, R. L.

1985-01-01

44

On Calculating the Zero-Gravity Surface Figure of a Mirror

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the classical method of calculating the zero-gravity surface figure of a mirror from surface-figure measurements in the presence of gravity has led to improved understanding of conditions under which the calculations are valid. In this method, one measures the surface figure in two or more gravity- reversed configurations, then calculates the zero-gravity surface figure as the average of the surface figures determined from these measurements. It is now understood that gravity reversal is not, by itself, sufficient to ensure validity of the calculations: It is also necessary to reverse mounting forces, for which purpose one must ensure that mountingfixture/ mirror contacts are located either at the same places or else sufficiently close to the same places in both gravity-reversed configurations. It is usually not practical to locate the contacts at the same places, raising the question of how close is sufficiently close. The criterion for sufficient closeness is embodied in the St. Venant principle, which, in the present context, translates to a requirement that the distance between corresponding gravity-reversed mounting positions be small in comparison to their distances to the optical surface of the mirror. The necessity of reversing mount forces is apparent in the behavior of the equations familiar from finite element analysis (FEA) that govern deformation of the mirror.

Bloemhof, Eric E.

2010-01-01

45

Combustion experiments in a zero-gravity laboratory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the payloads that the Shuttle will carry into low-earth orbit is the Spacelab, a laboratory designed by a European consortium which will enable scientist-astronauts to conduct research in a shirt-sleeve environment. The typical flight of seven days will permit numerous experiments to be conducted that take advantage of long-term reduced gravity. A description is presented of plans for the conduction of Spacelab experiments which are related to the study of combustion, taking into account also investigations performed in the preparation of such experiments. Attention is given to an overview study of combustion experiments in a space laboratory, droplet burning, flammability limits in a standard tube, the combustion of particle clouds, smoldering combustion in porous fuels, liquid pool burning, and combustion experimentation aboard the space transportation system.

Cochran, T. H.

1981-01-01

46

Study on processing immiscible materials in zero gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate mixing immiscible metal combinations under several process conditions. Under one-gravity, these included thermal processing, thermal plus electromagnetic mixing, and thermal plus acoustic mixing. The same process methods were applied during free fall on the MSFC drop tower facility. The design is included of drop tower apparatus to provide the electromagnetic and acoustic mixing equipment, and a thermal model was prepared to design the specimen and cooling procedure. Materials systems studied were Ca-La, Cd-Ga and Al-Bi; evaluation of the processed samples included the morphology and electronic property measurements. The morphology was developed using optical and scanning electron microscopy and microprobe analyses. Electronic property characterization of the superconducting transition temperatures were made using an impedance change-tuned coil method.

Reger, J. L.; Mendelson, R. A.

1975-01-01

47

Investigation of crystal growth in zero gravity environment and investigation of metallic whiskers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical and experimental work reported relates to the effects of near-zero gravity on growths of crystals and metallic whiskers during Skylab and Apollo flight experiments. Studies on growth and characterization of candidate materials for flight experiments cover indium-bismuth compounds, bismuth single crystals, gallium arsenide films and single crystals, and cadmium whiskers.

Davis, J. H.; Lal, R. B.; Walter, H. U.; Castle, J. G., Jr.

1972-01-01

48

Shape of a Liquid Surface and Capillary Phenomena under Reduced or Zero Gravity

We have studied the capillary properties of a liquid (including molten metals) under reduced or zero gravity: theoretically, by determination of the shape of the liquid surface and the meniscuses by computer integration of the differential equation of capillarity; and experimentally, by modeling weightlessness under terrestrial conditions using small volumes with weak action of the gravitational vector or by creating

Yurii V. Naydich; Ivan I. Gab; Viktor A. Evdokimov; Dina I. Kurkova; Tatyana Stetsyuk

2004-01-01

49

COMPUTATION OF THE FREE SURFACE FLOW OF A THIN LIQUID FILM AT ZERO AND NORMAL GRAVITY

The results of numerical computations are presented for the free surface flow of a thin liquid film in the presence or absence of a gravitational body force. Three different flow systems were studied: a falling film down a vertical wall, plane and radial film flows under zero gravity, and plane and radial film flows along a horizontal plate in the

M. M. Rahman; A. Faghri; W. L. Hankey; T. D. Swanson

1990-01-01

50

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possible utilization of the zero gravity resource for studies in a variety of fluid dynamics and fluid-dynamic related problems was investigated. A group of experiments are discussed and described in detail; these include experiments in the areas of geophysical fluid models, fluid dynamics, mass transfer processes, electrokinetic separation of large particles, and biophysical and physiological areas.

Eisner, M. (editor)

1974-01-01

51

Zero gravity two-phase flow regime transition modeling compared with data and relap5-3d predictions

This thesis compares air/water two-phase flow regime transition models in zero gravity with data and makes recommendations for zero gravity models to incorporate into the RELAP5-3D thermal hydraulic computer code. Data from numerous researchers...

Ghrist, Melissa Renee

2009-05-15

52

Biomineralisation under zero gravity: A survey of past experience and theoretical considerations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomineralisation denotes the utilisation of inorganic minerals by biological systems for different purposes like mechanical protection (shells), tools (teeth and spicules), internal stabilisation (bones), and gravity sensors (otoliths, statoliths). The main principles are now understood, i.e. the biological control over crystal nucleation, crystal growth, crystallisation in confined compartments, and incorporation of biomolecules (mostly proteins) into inorganic structures. It is a question of fundamental interest whether these processes that have been developed over millions of years under 1 g-gravity on earth are still working properly under zero gravitation. Biominerals like calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, silica, and iron oxide have a high specific weight, and therefore the absence of gravity may well influence the biomineralisation process in a purely physico-chemical and mechanical way. Of course, biological signalling pathways should also depend on the gravitational force. Of immediate medical interest is the influence of gravity on bone formation that is commonly associated with osteoporosis. Further points are teeth development and pathological biomineralisation phenomena like atherosclerosis. The contributions will highlight past experiments from the literature about biomineralisation under zero-gravity and try to formulate principles for the influence of gravity on biomineralisation.

Epple, M.; Slenzka, K.

53

Some physiological effects of alternation between zero gravity and one gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anatomy and physiology of the healthy vestibular system and the history of its study, maintenance of muskuloskeletal fitness under low-gravity conditions, tests of motion sickness, and data and techniques on testing subjects in a slow rotation room, are covered. Components of the inner ear labyrinth and their behavior in relation to equilibrium, gravity and inertial forces, motion sickness, and dizziness are discussed. Preventive medicine, the biologically effective force environment, weightlessness per se, activity in a weightless spacecraft, exercizing required to maintain musculoskeletal function, and ataxia problems are dealt with.

Graybiel, A.

1977-01-01

54

Liquid jet impingement normal to a disk in zero gravity. Ph.D. Thesis Toledo Univ.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The free surface shapes of circular liquid jets impinging normal to sharp-edged disks in zero gravity are determined. Zero gravity drop tower experiments yielded three distinct flow patterns that were classified in terms of the relative effects of surface tension and inertial forces. An order of magnitude analysis was conducted that indicated regions where viscous forces were not significant in the computation of free surface shapes. The free surface analysis was simplified by transforming the governing potential flow equations and boundary conditions into the inverse plane, where the stream function and velocity potential became the coordinates. The resulting nonlinear equations were solved by standard finite difference methods, and comparisons were made with the experimental data for the inertia dominated regime.

Labus, T. L.

1977-01-01

55

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work is summarized which was accomplished from January 1974 to October 1974 for the Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory. The definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineation of candidate experiments that require the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity are reported. The experiment program and the laboratory concept for a Spacelab payload to perform cloud microphysics research are defined. This multimission laboratory is planned to be available to the entire scientific community to utilize in furthering the basic understanding of cloud microphysical processes and phenomenon, thereby contributing to improved weather prediction and ultimately to provide beneficial weather control and modification.

Greco, R. V.; Eaton, L. R.; Wilkinson, H. C.

1974-01-01

56

Liquid jet impingement normal to a disk in zero gravity. Ph.D. Thesis - Toledo Univ.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental and analytical investigation was conducted to determine the free surface shapes of circular liquid jets impinging normal to sharp-edged disks under both normal and zero gravity conditions. An order of magnitude analysis was conducted indicating regions where viscous forces were not significant when computing free surface shapes. The demarcation between the viscous and inviscid region was found to depend upon the flow Reynolds number and the ratio between the jet and disk radius.

Labus, T. L.

1976-01-01

57

The Marshall Space Flight Center KC-135 zero gravity test program for FY 1982

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During FY-82, researchers and experimenters from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducted 11 separate investigations during 26.3 hr of testing aboard the KC-135 zero-gravity aircraft, based at Ellington Air force Base, Texas. Although this represented fewer hours than initially projected, all experiment and test objectives were met or exceeded. This Technical Memorandum compiles all results achieved by MSFC users during FY-82, a year considered to be highly productive.

Shurney, R. E. (editor)

1983-01-01

58

Zero Gravity Aircraft Testing of a Prototype Portable Fire Extinguisher for Use in Spacecraft

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past five years ADA Technologies has been developing a portable fire extinguisher (PFE) for use in microgravity environments. This technology uses fine water mist (FWM) to effectively and efficiently extinguish fires representative of spacecraft hazards. Recently the FWM PFE was flown on a Zero-G (reduced gravity) aircraft to validate the performance of the technology in a microgravity environment. Test results demonstrated that droplet size distributions generated in the reduced gravity environment were in the same size range as data collected during normal gravity (1-g) discharges from the prototype PFE. Data taken in an obscured test configuration showed that the mist behind the obstacle was more dense in the low-g environment when compared to 1-g discharges. The mist behind the obstacle tended to smaller droplet sizes in both the low-g and 1-g test conditions.

Butz, J.; Carriere, T.; Abbud-Madrid, A.; Easton, J.

2012-01-01

59

Keyhole and weld shapes for plasma arc welding under normal and zero gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A first order study of the interfacial (keyhole) shape between a penetrating argon plasma arc jet and a stationary liquid metal weld pool is presented. The interface is determined using the Young-Laplace equation by assuming that the plasma jet behaves as a one-dimensional ideal gas flow and by neglecting flow within the weld pool. The solution for the keyhole shape allows an approximate determination of the liquid-solid metal phase boundary location based on the assumption that the liquid melt is a stagnant thermal boundary layer. Parametric studies examine the effect of plasma mass flow rate, initial plasma enthalpy, liquid metal surface tension, and jet shear on weldment shape under both normal and zero gravity. Among the more important findings of this study is that keyhole and weld geometries are minimally affected by gravity, suggesting that data gathered under gravity can be used in planning in-space welding.

Keanini, R. G.; Rubinsky, B.

1990-01-01

60

EVA Assembly of Large Space Structure Neutral Buoyancy, Zero-Gravity Simulation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

EVA Assembly of Large Space Structure Neutral Buoyancy, Zero-Gravity Simulation: NASA-LaRC Nestable Columns and Joints. The film depicts an extravehicular activity (EVA) that involved the assembly of six 'space-weight' columns into a regular tetrahedral cell by a team of two 'space'-suited test subjects. This cell represents the fundamental 'element' of a tetrahedral truss structure. The tests were conducted under simulated zero-gravity conditions, achieved by neutral buoyancy in water. The cell was assembled on an 'outrigger' assembly aid off the side of a mockup of the Shuttle Orbiter cargo bay. Both manual and simulated remote manipulator system (RMS) modes were evaluated. The simulated RMS was used only to transfer stowed hardware from the cargo bay to the work sites. Articulation limits of the pressure suit and zero gravity could be accommodated by work stations with foot restraints. The results of this study have confirmed that astronaut EVA assembly of large, erectable space structur is well within man's capabilities. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070031008. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

1979-01-01

61

Aerosol deposition along the respiratory tract at zero gravity: a theoretical study

Significant fractions of airborne particles composing inhaled aerosols can deposit along the respiratory tract during breathing. Depending on the environmental condition, some particles that enter the body via the respiratory route can pose health hazards. On earth, three general rate mechanisms are active in this deposition process: (1) inertial impaction; (2) diffusion; and (3) gravity-dependent sedimentation. Space craft, stations, and bases represent unique settings where potentially pathogenic aerosols may be encountered under the unique condition of zero or reduced gravity. The present study was undertaken in order to predict how particle deposition in the human respiratory tract at zero gravity may differ from that on earth. We employed the aerosol deposition model of the Task Group on Lung Dynamics to assess the regional deposition of particles ranging from 0.01 to 10 ..mu..m diameter at two particulate densities, 1 and 4, during simulated tidal breathing and breathing during moderate - heavy exercise. Our results suggest the gas exchange regions of the lungs of space travelers and residents are afforded some protection, relative to their earth-bound counterparts, against the deposition of particles due to the absence of gravity; and approximately 2 to 10 fold reduction in the efficiency of collection of particles > 0.5 ..mu..m in diameter occurred in the pulmonary region during resting conditions and exercise. Deposition along the tracheobronchial tree, however, is not markedly altered in the absence of gravity, indicating airway sites contributing to this structure remain susceptible to insults by inhaled aerosols. 18 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

Lehnert, B.E.; Smith, D.M.; Holland, L.M.; Tillery, M.I.; Thomas, R.G.

1984-01-01

62

Behavior of the lean methane-air flame at zero-gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A special rig was designed and constructed to be compatible with the NASA Lewis Research Center Airborne Research Laboratory to allow the study of the effect of gravity on the behavior of lean limit in a standard 50.4 mm (2 in.) internal diameter tube when the mixtures are ignited at the open end and propagate towards the closed end of the tube. The lean limit at zero gravity was found to be 5.10% methane and the flame was found to extenguish in a manner previously observed for downward propagating flames at one g. It was observed that g-jitter could be maintained at less than + or 0.04 g on most zero g trajectories. All of propagating lean limit flames were found to be sporadically cellularly unstable at zero g. There was no observable correlation between the occurrence of g-jitter and the lean limit, average propagation speed of the flame through the tube or the occurrence of cellular instability.

Noe, K. A.; Strehlow, R. A.

1985-01-01

63

Subject Load-Harness Interaction During Zero-Gravity Treadmill Exercise

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When astronauts exercise on orbit, a subject load device (SLD) must be used to return the subject back to the supporting surface. The load in the SLD needs to be transferred the body by a harness which typically distributes this load between the pelvis and We shoulders. Through the use of a zero-gravity simulator, this research compared subject comfort and ground reaction forces during treadmill running at three levels of subject load (60%,80%, and 100% of body weight) in two harness designs ("shoulder only" and "waist "and shoulder ").

McCrory, Jean L.; Baron, Heidi A.; Derr, Janice A.; Davis, Brian L.; Cavanagh, Peter R.

1996-01-01

64

STS-45 crewmembers during zero gravity activities onboard KC-135 NASA 930

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-45 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, crewmembers and backup payload specialist participate in zero gravity activities onboard KC-135 NASA 930. The crewmembers, wearing flight suits, float and tumble around an inflated globe during the few seconds of microgravity created by parabolic flight. With his hand on the fuselage ceiling is Payload Specialist Dirk D. Frimout. Clockwise from his position are Mission Specialist (MS) C. Michael Foale, Pilot Brian Duffy, backup Payload Specialist Charles R. Chappell, MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Kathryn D. Sullivan (with eye glasses), Commander Charles F. Bolden, and Payload Specialist Byron K. Lichtenberg.

1991-01-01

65

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Centaur propellant management and thermal control techniques required for zero gravity coasting were successfully demonstrated during an extended mission following spacecraft separation on the TC-2 flight. As part of the demonstration, two successful engine starts were accomplished. The first engine start followed a one-hour zero gravity coast, and the second engine start followed a three-hour zero gravity coast. All of the Centaur systems performed satisfactorily, the design parameters for zero gravity coasting were verified, and no significant problems were encountered. The flight results showed that the propellant location and behavior, propellant heating, and tank pressure rise rates observed during the zero-gravity coasts were less severe than expected. Consequently, the majority of the propellants remained at the tank bottom, the propellant collection times were very short, and more than 7 hours of coast could have been achieved before a tank venting was required. The tank pressurization prior to the engine starts provided boost pump Net Positive Suction Head values well in excess of the values required. The LO2 tank pressurization was accomplished by a new bubbler method that greatly reduced the helium usage.

Lacovic, R. F.

1975-01-01

66

Assessment of zero gravity effects on space worker health and safety

One objective of the study is to assess the effects of all currently known deviations from normal of medical, physiological, and biochemical parameters which appear to be due to zero gravity (zero-g) environment and to acceleration and deceleration to be experienced, as outlined in the reference Solar Power Satellite (SPS) design, by space worker. Study results include identification of possible health or safety effects on space workers - either immediate or delayed - due to the zero gravity environment and acceleration and deceleration; estimation of the probability that an individual will be adversely affected; description of the possible consequence to work efficiently in persons adversely affected; and description of the possible/probable consequences to immediate and future health of individuals exposed to this environment. A research plan, which addresses the uncertainties in current knowledge regarding the health and safety hazards to exposed SPS space workers, is presented. Although most adverse affects experienced during space flight soon disappeared upon return to the Earth's environment, there remains a definite concern for the long-term effects to SPS space workers who might spend as much as half their time in space during a possible five-year career period. The proposed 90-day up/90 day down cycle, coupled with the fact that most of the effects of weightlessness may persist throughout the flight along with the realization that recovery may occupy much of the terrestrial stay, may keep the SPS workers in a deviant physical condition or state of flux for 60 to 100% of their five-year career. (JGB)

Not Available

1980-11-01

67

Assessment of zero gravity effects on space worker health and safety

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One objective of the study is to assess the effects of all currently known deviations from normal of medical, physiological, and biochemical parameters which appear to be due to zero gravity (zero-g) environment and to acceleration and deceleration to be experienced, as outlined in the references Solar Power Satellites (SPS) design, by space worker. Study results include identification of possible health or safety effects on space workers either immediate or delayed due to the zero gravity environment and acceleration and deceleration; estimation of the probability that an individual will be adversely affected; description of the possible consequence to work efficiency in persons adversely affected; and description of the possible/probable consequences to immediate and future health of individuals exposed to this environment. A research plan, which addresses the uncertainties in current knowledge regarding the health and safety hazards to exposed SPS space workers, is presented. Although most adverse affects experienced during space flight soon disappeared upon return to the Earth's environment, there remains a definite concern for the long-term effects to SPS space workers who might spend as much as half their time in space during a possible five year career period. The proposed 90 day up/90 day down cycle, coupled with the fact that most of the effects of weightlessness may persist throughout the flight along with the realization that recovery may occupy much of the terrestrial stay, may keep the SPS workers in a deviant physical condition or state of flux for 60 to 100% of their five year career.

1980-01-01

68

Testing of a Spray-Bar Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System for Upper Stages

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a fundamental technology need that involves practically all uses of subcritical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule- Thomson (J-T) valve to extract then-nal energy from the propellant. In a cooperative effort, Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (N4HTB) was used to test a unique "spray bar" TVS system developed by Boeing. A schematic of this system is included in Figure 1. The system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it radially into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the spray bar heat exchanger element, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. Figure 2 is a plot of ullage pressure (P4) and liquid vapor pressure (PSAI) versus time. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses. The primary advantage of the spray bar configuration is that pressure reduction is achieved independent of liquid and vapor location, thereby enhancing the applicability of normal gravity test data to zero gravity conditions. The in-tank components are minimized with the proposed TVS design. Because the recirculation pump is external to the tank, no electrical power penetration of the tank is required for pump or valve operation. This is especially desirable for L02 tanks since the presence of an electrical ignition source in oxygen represents a critical failure mode. Also, since the critical components (pump, motor, valve, orifice) are external to the tank, system checkout and ground servicing/replacement are easier. For zero-g operation, component replacement external to the tank may be a significant benefit. In addition to satisfying the zero g TVS design objectives, the TVS concept tested offers additional benefits to the integrated subcritical cryogenic storage and launch system.

Lak, Tibor; Flachbart, Robin; Nguyen, Han; Martin, James

1999-01-01

69

You shall not find any new physics, because all physical events are interpreted well-known particles (leptons, quarks, photons, gluons, W-bosons, Z-boson) and forces which have long known (electroweak, gravity, strong interactions). Contents: 1. Pointlike events and probability. 2. Leptons' moving equations and masses. 3. Fermion-antifermion asommetry. 4. Electroweak equations. 5. Chromatic states and gluons. 6. Asimptotic freedom, confinement, Newton's gravity. 7. Dark energy and dark matter. 8. Events and particles. 9. Conclusion.

G. Quznetsov

2007-08-17

70

Human physiological problems in zero gravity - An attempt at understanding through systems analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When the experimental situation is that of man exposed to a gravitationless environment for varying periods of time, the possible importance and value of a related modeling effort is readily apparent. One of the main objectives of the Skylab Program, with its missions of 28, 59, and 85 day duration concerned biomedical investigations of various types, and large amounts of relevant experimental data have been gathered and are in the process of being sorted and interpreted. In order to be of eventual usefulness in forming and testing consistent physiological hypotheses concerning the effect of zero gravity on man, a modeling effort was established in 1972 through the General Electric Company, Space Division, Houston, Texas. An account is given of some of the developments completed or in progress as part of this modeling effort. A long-term cardiovascular model and a large model of the systemic circulation are discussed.

White, R. J.; Croston, R. C.

1974-01-01

71

Myosin heavy chain expression in rodent skeletal muscle: effects of exposure to zero gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study ascertained the effects of 9 days of zero gravity on the relative (percentage of total) and calculated absolute (mg/muscle) content of isomyosin expressed in both antigravity and locomotor skeletal muscle of ground control (CON) and flight-exposed (FL) rats. Results showed that although there were no differences in body weight between FL and CON animals, a significant reduction in muscle mass occurred in the vastus intermedius (VI) (P < 0.05) but not in the vastus lateralis (VL) or the tibialis anterior. Both total muscle protein and myofibril protein content were not different between the muscle regions examined in the FL and CON groups. In the VI, there were trends for reductions in the relative content of type I and IIa myosin heavy chains (MHCs) that were offset by increases in the relative content of both type IIb and possibly type IIx MHC protein (P > 0.05). mRNA levels were consistent with this pattern (P < 0.05). The same pattern held true for the red region of the VL as examined at both the protein and mRNA level (P < 0.05). When the atrophy process was examined, there were net reductions in the absolute content of both type I and IIa MHCs that were offset by calculated increases in type IIb MHC in both VI and red VL. Collectively, these findings suggest that there are both absolute and relative changes occurring in MHC expression in the "red" regions of antigravity skeletal muscle during exposure to zero gravity that could affect muscle function.

Haddad, F.; Herrick, R. E.; Adams, G. R.; Baldwin, K. M.

1993-01-01

72

Transient boiling heat transfer in saturated liquid nitrogen and F113 at standard and zero gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transient and steady state nucleate boiling in saturated LN2 and F113 at standard and near zero gravity conditions were investigated for the horizontal up, vertical and horizontal down orientations of the heating surface. Two distinct regimes of heat transfer mechanisms were observed during the interval from the step increase of power input to the onset of nucleate boiling: the conduction and convection dominated regimes. The time duration in each regime was considerably shorter with LN2 than with F113, and decreased as heat flux increased, as gravity was reduced, and as the orientation was changed from horizontal up to horizontal down. In transient boiling, boiling initiates at a single point following the step increase in power, and then spreads over the surface. The delay time for the inception of boiling at the first site, and the velocity of spread of boiling varies depending upon the heat flux, orientation, body force, surface roughness and liquid properties, and are a consequence of changes in boundary layer temperature levels associated with changes in natural convection. Following the step increase in power input, surface temperature overshoot and undershoot occur before the steady state boiling temperature level is established.

Oker, E.; Merte, H., Jr.

1973-01-01

73

An elegant and accurate way to determine the zero-gravity surface figure of an optic from ground-based interferometric metrology is to average the figures found in two or more configurations that are rotated with respect to the direction of gravity, so gravity forces in the frame of the optic cancel in the average. In a recent elucidation of this technique, we emphasized that care must be taken to ensure that mount forces at each attachment point similarly cancel, and we presented some specific mounting schemes that gave accurate zero-gravity surface determinations during fabrication and acceptance testing of the Space Interferometry Mission PT-M1 mirror. Here we show that multiconfiguration averaging techniques work well for the most important special case of a mirror in a flightlike hexapod mount clocked into either two or three symmetrically placed positions. We explicitly compute mount forces (axial forces in the six struts of the hexapod) and show that at any attachment point their average over multiple clocked configurations vanishes in the frame of the optic, ensuring the success of zero-gravity surface figure extraction. PMID:19623238

Bloemhof, Eric E; Lam, Jonathan C; Feria, V Alfonso; Chang, Zensheu

2009-07-20

74

Spray Bar Zero-Gravity Vent System for On-Orbit Liquid Hydrogen Storage

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During zero-gravity orbital cryogenic propulsion operations, a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) concept is expected to maintain tank pressure control without propellant resettling. In this case, a longitudinal spray bar mixer system, coupled with a Joule-Thompson (J-T) valve and heat exchanger, was evaluated in a series of TVS tests using the 18 cu m multipurpose hydrogen test bed. Tests performed at fill levels of 90, 50, and 25 percent, coupled with heat tank leaks of about 20 and 50 W, successfully demonstrated tank pressure control within a 7-kPa band. Based on limited testing, the presence of helium constrained the energy exchange between the gaseous and liquid hydrogen (LH2) during the mixing cycles. A transient analytical model, formulated to characterize TVS performance, was used to correlate the test data. During self-pressurization cycles following tank lockup, the model predicted faster pressure rise rates than were measured; however, once the system entered the cyclic self-pressurization/mixing/venting operational mode, the modeled and measured data were quite similar. During a special test at the 25-percent fill level, the J-T valve was allowed to remain open and successfully reduced the bulk LH2 saturation pressure from 133 to 70 kPa in 188 min.

Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Martin, J. J.; Hedayat, A.; Fazah, M.; Lak, T.; Nguyen, H.; Bailey, J. W.

2003-01-01

75

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pathophysiological conditions resulting from prolonged exposure to zero gravity, cabin constraint, altered ambient environment, whether it be noise, vibrations, high temperatures, or combinations of such factors, are studied in laboratory animals and applied to manned space flight. Results and plans for further study are presented. Specific topics covered include: thermoregulation and its role in reflecting stress and adaptation to the gravity free environment and cabin confinement with its altered circadian forcings; renal function and its measurement in electrolyte distribution and blood flow dynamics; gastronintestinal function and an assessment of altered absorptive capacity in the intestinal mucosa; and catecholamine metabolism in terms of distribution and turnover rates in specific tissues.

Musacchia, X. J.

1974-01-01

76

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a single-chain polypeptide which is synthesized by the liver and yolk sac of the human fetus, provided a model ligand for assessing the effects of microgravity on ligand binding to surface-immobilized model receptor molecules. Monoclonal antibodies, used as receptors for AFP, were immobilized by covalent attachment to latex microparticles. Zero gravity environment was obtained by parabolic flight aboard NASA 930, a modified KC-135 aircraft. Buring the onset of an episode of zero gravity, ligand and receptor were mixed. Timed incubation (20 s) was terminated by centrifugation, the supernatant removed, and microparticies were assessed for bound AFP by immunochemical methods. The extent of binding was not influenced by microgravity, when compared with 1-G controls, which suggests that aberrant cellular activities observed in microgravity are not the simple expression of altered macromolecular interactions.

Spooner, Brian S.; Guikema, James A.; Barnes, Grady

1990-01-01

77

The present paper presents a ground-based experiment aimed at measuring the momentum transfer between contacting bodies in\\u000a the presence of adhesion under near-zero gravity conditions. The measurement of small impulses is necessary in various fields\\u000a of science and engineering. For instance, in space propulsion studies, the exact knowledge of the impulse imparted by the\\u000a thrusters to an orbiting satellite is

M. Benedetti; D. Bortoluzzi; M. De Cecco

78

Effects of zero gravity on myofibril content and isomyosin distribution in rodent skeletal muscle

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effects of 12.5 days of zero gravity (0 g) exposure (Cosmos 1887 Biosputnik) on the enzymatic properties, protein content, and isomyosin distribution of the myofibril fraction of the slow-twitch vastus intermedius (VI) and the fast-twitch vastus lateralis (VL) muscles of adult male rats. Measurements were obtained on three experimental groups (n = 5 each group) designated as flight group (FG), vivarium control (VC), and synchronous control (SC). Body weight of the FG was significantly lower than that of the two control groups (P less than 0.05). Compared with the two control groups, VI weight was lower by 23% (P less than 0.10), whereas no such pattern was apparent for the VL muscle. Myofibril yields (mg protein/g muscle) in the VI were 35% lower in the FG than in controls (P less than 0.05), whereas no such pattern was apparent for the VL muscle. When myofibril yields were expressed on a muscle basis (mg/g x muscle weight), the loss of myofibril protein was more exaggerated and suggests that myofibril protein degradation is an early event in the muscle atrophy response to 0 g. Analysis of myosin isoforms indicated that slow myosin (Sm) was the primary isoform lost in the calculated degradation of total myosin. No evidence of loss of the fast isomyosins was apparent for either muscle following spaceflight. Myofibril ATPase activity of the VI was increased in the FG compared with controls, which is consistent with the observation of preferential Sm degradation. These data suggest that muscles containing a high percentage of slow-twitch fibers undergo greater degrees of myofibril protein degradation than muscles containing predominantly fast-twitch fibers in response to a relatively short period of 0 g exposure, and the primary target appears to be the Sm molecule.

Baldwin, K. M.; Herrick, R. E.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E.; Oganov, V. S.

1990-01-01

79

Equilibrium fluid interface behavior under low- and zero-gravity conditions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe here some of our recent mathematical work, which forms a basis for the Interface Configuration Experiment scheduled for USML-2. The work relates to the design of apparatus that exploits microgravity conditions for accurate determination of contact angle. The underlying motivation for the procedures rests on a discontinuous dependence of the capillary free surface interface S on the contact angle gamma, in a cylindrical capillary tube whose section (base) omega contains a protruding corner with opening angle 2 alpha. Specifically, in a gravity-free environment, omega can be chosen so that, for all sufficiently large fluid volume, the height of S is uniquely determined as a (single-valued) function mu(x,y) entirely covering the base; the height mu is bounded over omega uniformly in gamma throughout the range absolute value of (gamma -(pion/2)) less than or equal to alpha, while for absolute value of (gamma - (pion/2)) greater than alpha fluid will necessarily move to the corner and uncover the base, rising to infinity (or falling to negative infinity) at the vertex, regardless of volume. We mention here only that procedures based on the phenomenon promise excellent accuracy when gamma is close pion/2 but may be subject to experimental error when gamma is close to zero (orpion), as the 'singular' part of the domain over which the fluid accumulates (or disappears) when a critical angle gamma theta is crossed then becomes very small and may be difficult to observe. We ignore the trivial case gamma is equal to pion/2 (planar free surface), to simplify the discussion.

Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert

1994-01-01

80

Substrate oxidation capacity in rodent skeletal muscle: effects of exposure to zero gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted, as part of the integrated National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Life Sciences 1 mission flown in June of 1991, to ascertain the effects of 9 days of exposure to zero gravity on the capacity of rodent skeletal muscle fiber types to oxidize either [14C]pyruvate or [14C]palmitate under state 3 metabolic conditions, i.e., nonlimiting amounts of substrate and cofactors. In addition, activity levels of marker enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, malate shuttle, and beta-oxidation were measured. Results showed that significant differences in muscle weight occurred in both the predominantly slow vastus intermedius and predominantly fast vastus lateralis of flight vs. control groups (P < 0.05). Total protein content of the muscle samples was similar between groups. Both pyruvate oxidation capacity and the marker oxidative enzymes were not altered in the flight relative to control animals. However, the capacity to oxidize long-chain fatty acids was significantly reduced by 37% in both the high- and low-oxidative regions of the vastus muscle (P < 0.05). Although these findings of a selective reduction in fatty acid oxidation capacity in response to spaceflight are surprising, they are consistent with previous findings showing 1) an increased capacity to take up glucose and upregulate glucose transporter proteins and 2) a marked accumulation of triglycerides in the skeletal muscles of rats subjected to states of unloading. Thus, skeletal muscle of animals exposed to non-weight-bearing environments undergo subcellular transformations that may preferentially bias energy utilization to carbohydrates.

Baldwin, K. M.; Herrick, R. E.; McCue, S. A.

1993-01-01

81

In-shoe force measurements from locomotion in simulated zero gravity during parabolic flight.

INTRODUCTION:: No effective countermeasure for space-induced bone loss has yet been identified. It has been hypothesized that an effective exercise regimen would elicit loads on the lower extremity which resemble those encountered on Earth. Although a treadmill has been used on shuttle flights, the loads to which the lower extremity was exposed have not yet been quantified. It is believed that these loads are much less than the loads experienced in 1G. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of lower extremity loading during tethered treadmill exercise in a 0G environment. METHODS:: Data were collected on five subjects (avg. ht. 177.3+/-10.1 cm, avg. mass 78.3+/-18.0 kg) onboard the KC-135, a NASA airplane used to simulate periods of zero gravity through parabolic flight. Subjects ambulated at 4 speeds: a walk (1.56m/sec), fast walk (2.0m/sec) slow jog (2.75m/sec), and jog (3.35m/sec) on the NASA treadmill operated in either a passive or motorized mode. Each subject wore a harness connected to the Subject Load Device (SLD) to tether them to the treadmill. The tension in the SLD was subjectively adjusted for comfort by each subject. Force data were collected at 60 Hz using Pedar insoles. The number of parabolas per subject was variable due to motion sickness and hardware problems. RESULTS:: Analysis of the insole data showed that the average SLD load was only 35.2% BW, although the values ranged from 20.1% to 56.6%. Maximum ground reaction force values increased with increasing speed and were not affected by treadmill mode. The impulse was higher during walking with the treadmill in the passive mode than in the active mode, but this difference diminished with increasing speed. Subjects tended to run on their forefeet, as shown from the extremely small heel impulse values. At higher speeds, heel contact was absent, while forefoot impulse became more pronounced. DISCUSSION:: All force values were lower than those reported from 1G studies, where typical peak ground reaction forces are 1.2xBW and 2.5xBW for walking and running, respectively. At every speed, the ratio of the rearfoot to forefoot impulse was much lower than reported from 1G studies, and this ratio decreased with increasing speed. CONCLUSIONS:: If the exposure to forces similar to those in 1G is a requirement for countermeasures against space-induced osteoporosis, the loads in the SLD must be greatly increased and should be directly measured before exercise. PMID:11415704

McCrory, JL; Schwass, JP; Connell, RB; Cavanagh, PR

1997-04-01

82

Understanding the effects of gravity on biological organisms is vital to the success of future space missions. Previous studies in Earth orbit have shown that the common fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster) walks more quickly and more frequently in microgravity, compared with its motion on Earth. However, flight preparation procedures and forces endured on launch made it difficult to implement on the Earth's surface a control that exposed flies to the same sequence of major physical and environmental changes. To address the uncertainties concerning these behavioural anomalies, we have studied the walking paths of D. melanogaster in a pseudo-weightless environment (0g*) in our Earth-based laboratory. We used a strong magnetic field, produced by a superconducting solenoid, to induce a diamagnetic force on the flies that balanced the force of gravity. Simultaneously, two other groups of flies were exposed to a pseudo-hypergravity environment (2g*) and a normal gravity environment (1g*) within the spatially varying field. The flies had a larger mean speed in 0g* than in 1g*, and smaller in 2g*. The mean square distance travelled by the flies grew more rapidly with time in 0g* than in 1g*, and slower in 2g*. We observed no other clear effects of the magnetic field, up to 16.5 T, on the walks of the flies. We compare the effect of diamagnetically simulated weightlessness with that of weightlessness in an orbiting spacecraft, and identify the cause of the anomalous behaviour as the altered effective gravity. PMID:22219396

Hill, Richard J. A.; Larkin, Oliver J.; Dijkstra, Camelia E.; Manzano, Ana I.; de Juan, Emilio; Davey, Michael R.; Anthony, Paul; Eaves, Laurence; Medina, F. Javier; Marco, Roberto; Herranz, Raul

2012-01-01

83

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of experiment MA-060 was to investigate quantitatively the effects of near-zero gravity conditions on crystal growth and dopant segregation during directional solidification from the melt. Gallium-doped germanium single crystals were successfully grown from the melt with simultaneous interface demarcation during the Apollo Soyuz Test Project mission. The analysis of the experimental data indicates striking differences of dopant segregation and growth behavior in the presence and absence of gravity. The results obtained are believed to have far-reaching implications on materials processing under zero-gravity conditions and on the theory of crystal growth and segregation in general.

Gatos, H. C.; Herman, C. J.; Lichtensteiger, M.; Witt, A. F.

1976-01-01

84

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project aimed to develop a methodology for evaluating performance and acceptability characteristics of the pressurized crew module volume suitability for zero-gravity (g) ingress of a spacecraft and to evaluate the operational acceptability of the NASA crew return vehicle (CRV) for zero-g ingress of astronaut crew, volume for crew tasks, and general crew module and seat layout. No standard or methodology has been established for evaluating volume acceptability in human spaceflight vehicles. Volume affects astronauts'ability to ingress and egress the vehicle, and to maneuver in and perform critical operational tasks inside the vehicle. Much research has been conducted on aircraft ingress, egress, and rescue in order to establish military and civil aircraft standards. However, due to the extremely limited number of human-rated spacecraft, this topic has been un-addressed. The NASA CRV was used for this study. The prototype vehicle can return a 7-member crew from the International Space Station in an emergency. The vehicle's internal arrangement must be designed to facilitate rapid zero-g ingress, zero-g maneuverability, ease of one-g egress and rescue, and ease of operational tasks in multiple acceleration environments. A full-scale crew module mockup was built and outfitted with representative adjustable seats, crew equipment, and a volumetrically equivalent hatch. Human factors testing was conducted in three acceleration environments using ground-based facilities and the KC-135 aircraft. Performance and acceptability measurements were collected. Data analysis was conducted using analysis of variance and nonparametric techniques.

Sanchez, Merri J.

2000-01-01

85

Aerosol deposition along the respiratory tract at zero gravity: a theoretical study

Significant fractions of airborne particles composing inhaled aerosols can deposit along the respiratory tract during breathing. Depending on the environmental condition, some particles that enter the body via the respiratory route can pose health hazards. On earth, three general rate mechanisms are active in this deposition process: (1) inertial impaction; (2) diffusion; and (3) gravity-dependent sedimentation. Space craft, stations, and

B. E. Lehnert; D. M. Smith; L. M. Holland; M. I. Tillery; R. G. Thomas

1984-01-01

86

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal fining, thermal migration of bubbles under reduced gravity conditions, and data to verify current theoretical models of bubble location and temperatures as a function of time are discussed. A sample, sodium borate glass, was tested during 5 to 6 minutes of zero gravity during rocket flight. The test cell contained a heater strip; thermocouples were in the sample. At present quantitative data are insufficient to confirm results of theoretical calculations.

Wilcox, W. R.; Subramanian, R. S.; Meyyappan, M.; Smith, H. D.; Mattox, D. M.; Partlow, D. P.

1981-01-01

87

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flight responses of common houseflies, velvetbean caterpillar moths, and worker honeybees were observed and filmed for a period of about 25 minutes in a zero-g environment during the third flight of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (flight number STS-3; March 22-30, 1982). Twelve fly puparia, 24 adult moths, 24 moth pupae, and 14 adult bees were loaded into an insect flight box, which was then stowed aboard the Shuttle Orbiter, the night before the STS-3 launch at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The main purpose of the experiment was to observe and compare the flight responses of the three species of insects, which have somewhat different flight control mechanisms, under zero-g conditions.

Nelson, T. E.; Peterson, J. R.

1982-01-01

88

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Project planning for two series of simple experiments on the effect of zero gravity on the melting and freezing of metals and nonmetals is described. The experiments will be performed in the Long Duration Exposure Facility, and their purpose will be to study: (1) the general morphology of metals and nonmetals during solidification, (2) the location of ullage space (liquid-vapor interfaces), and (3) the magnitude of surface tension driven convection during solidification of metals and nonmetals. The preliminary design of the experiments is presented. Details of the investigative approach, experimental procedure, experimental hardware, data reduction and analysis, and anticipated results are given. In addition a work plan and cost analysis are provided.

Bailey, J. A.

1976-01-01

89

Steady state growth and segregation under zero gravity: InSb

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was established that ideal diffusion controlled steady state conditions, never accomplished on earth, were achieved during the growth of Te-doped InSb crystals in Skylab. Surface tension effects were found to establish non-wetting conditions under which free surface solidification took place in confined geometry. It was further found that, under forced contact conditions, surface tension effects led to the formation of surface ridges (not previously observed on earth) which isolated the growth system from its container. In addition, it was possible for the first time to identify unambiguously: the origin of segregation discontinuities associated with facet growth, the mode of nucleation and propagation or rotational twin boundaries, and the specific effect of mechanical-shock perturbations on segregation. The results obtained prove the advantageous conditions provided by outer space. Thus, fundamental data on solidification thought to be unattainable because of gravity induced interference on earth are now within reach.

Witt, A. F.; Lichtensteiger, M.; Lavine, M. C.; Herman, C. J.

1974-01-01

90

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The candidate definition studies on the zero-g cloud physics laboratory are covered. This laboratory will be an independent self-contained shuttle sortie payload. Several critical technology areas have been identified and studied to assure proper consideration in terms of engineering requirements for the final design. Areas include chambers, gas and particle generators, environmental controls, motion controls, change controls, observational techniques, and composition controls. This unique laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamics, electrical, or other type techniques to support the object under study. This report also covers the candidate experiment definitions, chambers and experiment classes, laboratory concepts and plans, special supporting studies, early flight opportunities and payload planning data for overall shuttle payload requirements assessments.

Eaton, L. R.; Greco, R. V.; Hollinden, A. B.

1973-01-01

91

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary purpose of this research is to study the physiological mechanisms associated with the exercise performance of rats subjected to conditions of simulated weightlessness. A secondary purpose is to study related physiological changes associated with other systems. To facilitate these goals, a rodent suspension model was developed (Overton-Tipton) and a VO2 max testing procedure was perfected. Three methodological developments occurred during this past year deserving of mention. The first was the refinement of the tail suspension model so that (1) the heat dissipation functions of the caudal artery can be better utilized, and (2) the blood flow distribution to the tail would have less external constriction. The second was the development on a one-leg weight bearing model for use in simulated weightlessness studies concerned with change in muscle mass, muscle enzyme activity, and hind limb blood flow. The chemical body composition of 30 rats was determined and used to develop a prediction equation for percent fat using underwater weighing procedures to measure carcass specific gravity and to calculate body density, body fat, and fat free mass.

Tipton, Charles M.

1991-01-01

92

A zero-gravity demonstration of the collision and coalescence of water droplets

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanics of the collision and coalescence of liquid droplets is one of the main research areas in the fields of nuclear physics, astrophysics, meteorology and fluid mechanics. The crew members on the Skylab 3 and 4 missions were requested to perform demonstrations of the collision and coalescence of water droplets under the low gravity environment at orbital altitude. In Skylab 4 two water droplets with equal volumes, 30 cu cm each, were used. A dark colored droplet (contaminated with grape drink) moving with a velocity of 3.14 cm/sec collided with a stationary pink colored droplet (contaminated with strawberry drink) and coalescence occurred. Theoretical models are proposed to study the various stages of the collision-coalescence processes. Special considerations are concentrated in the investigation of the bounce-coalescence and coalescence-instability processes. The surface tension of the coalesced droplets was calculated to be 52 dynes/cm in perfect agreement with laboratory measurements made after the flight using a reproduction of the liquids.

Hung, R. J.; Vaughan, O. H.; Smith, R. E.

1974-01-01

93

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sample return missions have made a very significant progress to understanding of geology, the extra-terrestrial materials, processes occurring on surface and subsurface level, as well as of interactions between such materials and mechanisms operating there. The various sample return missions in the past (e.g. Apollo missions, Luna missions, Hayabusa mission) have provided scientists with samples of extra-terrestrial materials allowing to discover answers to critical scientific questions concerning the origin and evolution of the Solar System. Several new missions are currently planned: sample return missions, e.g Russian Luna-28, ESA Phootprint and MarcoPolo-R as well as both robotic and manned exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. One of the key challenges in such missions is the reliable sampling process which can be achieved by using many different techniques, e.g. static excavating technique (scoop), core drilling, sampling using dynamic mechanisms (penetrators), brushes and pneumatic systems. The effectiveness of any sampling strategy depends on many factors, including the required sample size, the mechanical and chemical soil properties (cohesive, hard or porous regolith, stones), the environment conditions (gravity, temperature, pressure, radiation). Many sampling mechanism have been studied, designed and built in the past, two techniques to collect regolith samples were chosen for the Phobos-Grunt mission. The proposed system consisted of a robotic arm with a 1,2m reach beyond the lander (IKI RAN); a tubular sampling device designed for collecting both regolith and small rock fragments (IKI RAN); the CHOMIK device (CBK PAN) - the low velocity penetrator with a single-sample container for collecting samples from the rocky surface. The functional tests were essential step in robotic arm, sampling device and CHOMIK device development process in the frame of Phobos-Grunt mission. Three major results were achieved: (i) operation scenario for autonomous sampling; (ii) technical characteristics of both devices, i.e. progress cycles of CHOMIK device in different materials and torque in the manipulator joints during sampling operations; (iii) confirmation of applicability of both devices to perform such type of tasks. The phases in operational scenario were prepared to meet mission and system requirements mainly connected with: (i) environment (near zero gravity, vacuum, dust), (ii) safety and (iii) to avoid common operation of both devices at the same time.

Kozlova, Tatiana; Karol Seweryn, D..; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Kozlov, Oleg

94

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effects of 12 days of zero gravity (0G) exposure (Cosmos 1887 Biosputnik) on the enzymatic properties, protein content, and isomyosin distribution of the myofibril fraction of the slow-twitch vastus intermedius (VI) and the fast-twitch vastus lateralis (VL) muscles of adult male rats. Measurements were obtained on three experimental groups (n=5 each group) designated as flight-group (FG), vivarium-control (VC), and synchronous-control (SC). Body weight of the FG was significantly lower than the two control groups (p less than 0.05). Compared to the two control groups, VI weight was lower by 23 percent (p less than 0.10); whereas no such reduction was observed for the VL muscle. Myofibril yields (mg protein/g of muscle) in the VI were 35 percent lower in the FG compared to the controls (p less than 0.05); whereas, no such pattern was apparent for the VL muscle. When myofibril yields were expressed on a muscle basis (mg/g x muscle weight), the loss of myofibril protein was more exaggerated and suggests that myofibril protein degradation is an early event in the muscle atrophy response to 0G. Analysis of myosin isoforms indicated that slow-myosin was the primary isoform lost in the calculated degradation of total myosin. No evidence of loss of the fast isomyosins was apparent for either muscle following space flight. Myofibril ATPase activity of the VI was increased in the FG compared to controls, which is consistent with the observation of preferential slow-myosin degradation. These data suggest that muscles containing a high percent of slow-twitch fibers undergo greater degrees of myofibril protein degradation than do muscles containing predominantly fast-twitch fibers in response to a relatively short period of 0G exposure, and the primary target appears to be the slow-myosin molecule.

Baldwin, K.; Herrick, R.; Oganov, V.

1990-01-01

95

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Foundations of Newtonian gravity; 2. Structure of self-gravitating bodies; 3. Newtonian orbital dynamics; 4. Minkowski spacetime; 5. Curved spacetime; 6. Post-Minkowskian theory: formulation; 7. Post-Minkowskian theory: implementation; 8. Post-Newtonian theory: fundamentals; 9. Post-Newtonian theory: system of isolated bodies; 10. Post-Newtonian celestial mechanics, astrometry and navigation; 11. Gravitational waves; 12. Radiative losses and radiation reaction; 13. Alternative theories of gravity; References; Index.

Poisson, Eric; Will, Clifford M.

2014-05-01

96

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The crystal growth and segregation characteristics of a melt in a directional solidification configuration under near zero g conditions were investigated. The germanium (doped with gallium) system was selected because it was extensively studied on Earth and because it lends itself to a very detailed macroscopic and microscopic characterization. An extensive study was performed of the germanium crystals grown during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. It was found that single crystal growth was achieved and that the interface demarcation functioned successfully. On the basis of the results obtained to date, there is no indication that convection driven by thermal or surface tension gradients was present in the melt. The gallium segregation, in the absence of gravity, was found to be fundamentally different in its initial and its subsequent stages from that of the ground based tests. None of the existing theoretical models for growth and segregation can account for the observed segregation behavior in the absence of gravity.

Gatos, H. C.; Witt, A. F.; Lichtensteiger, M.; Herman, C. J.

1982-01-01

97

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and implementation of a vertical degree of freedom suspension system is described which provides a constant force off-load condition to counter gravity over large displacements. By accommodating motions up to one meter for structures weighing up to 100 pounds, the system is useful for experiments which simulate orbital construction events such as docking, multiple component assembly, or structural deployment. A unique aspect of this device is the combination of a large stroke passive off-load device augmented by electromotive torque actuated force feedback. The active force feedback has the effect of reducing break-away friction by a factor of twenty over the passive system alone. The thesis describes the development of the suspension hardware and the control algorithm. Experiments were performed to verify the suspensions system's effectiveness in providing a gravity off-load and simulating the motion of a structure in orbit. Additionally, a three dimensional system concept is presented as an extension of the one dimensional suspension system which was implemented.

Straube, Timothy Milton

1993-01-01

98

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiment MA-060 was designed to establish the crystal growth and segregation characteristics of a melt in a directional solidification configuration under near zero-g conditions. The interface demarcation technique was incorporated into the experiment since it constitutes a unique tool for recording the morphology of the growth rate throughout solidification, and for establishing an absolute time reference framework for all stages of the solidification process. An extensive study was performed of the germanium crystals grown during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. It was found that single crystal growth was achieved and that the interface demarcation functioned successfully. There was no indication that convection driven by thermal or surface tension gradients was present in the melt. The gallium segregation, in the absence of gravity, was found to be fundamentally different in its initial and its subsequent stages from that of the ground-based tests. None of the existing theoretical models for growth and segregation can account for the observed segregation behavior in the absence of gravity.

Gatos, H. C.; Witt, A. F.

1977-01-01

99

Zero-gravity Mean Free Surface Curvature of a Confined Liquid in a Radially-Vaned Container

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variety of increasingly intricate container geometries are under consideration for the passive manipulation of liquids aboard spacecraft where the impact of gravity may be neglected. In this study we examine the mean curvature of a liquid volume confined within a radial array of disconnected vanes of infinite extent. This particular geometry possesses a number of desirable characteristics relevant to waste water treatment aboard spacecraft for life support. It is observed that under certain conditions the slender shape of the free surface approaches an asymptote, which can be predicted analytically using new hybrid boundary conditions proposed herein. This contribution represents possibly the final extension of what has been referred to as the method of de Lazzer et al. (1996). The method enables the integration of the Young-Laplace equation over a domain with its boundaries, including the wetted portion of the solid boundaries, symmetry planes, and circular arcs representing free surfaces at the center plane of the liquid body. Asymptotic solutions at several limits are obtained and the analysis is confirmed with numerical computations.

Chen, Yongkang; Callahan, Michael; Weislogel, Mark

2013-01-01

100

Space travelling is not possible for human because, by the time, we cross Jupiter, our bones dissolve as there is zero gravity and, by developing a gravity chamber in the space ship itself we will be able to travel in space for generations and explore the universe.

P. Karmakar; Greeninavin

2010-01-01

101

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cardiovascular responses of the Apollo crewmen associated with postflight evaluations indicate varying decrements of orthostatic tolerance. The postflight changes indicate a slightly diminished ability to the cardiovascular system to function effectively against gravity following exposure to weightlessness. The objective of the Skylab LBNP experiments (M092) was to provide information about the magnitude and time course of the cardiovascular changes associated with prolonged periods of exposure to weightlessness. This report details the equipment, signal processing and analysis of the leg volume data obtained from the M092 experiment of the Skylab 3 Mission.

Barnett, R. D.; Gowen, R. J.; Carroll, D. R.

1975-01-01

102

GENERAL RELATIVITY AND THE ZERO POINT ENERGY

An exploration is made of the stochastic electrodynamic (SED) interpretation of mass and gravity. On this approach, gravity has been shown to originate in the attractive secondary electromagnetic fields emitted by charged point particles jostled by the impacting waves of the Zero Point Energy (ZPE). This exploration finds that the four major predictions of General Relativity can be readily reproduced

Barry Setterfield

2001-01-01

103

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

So far the courts have supported most schools' zero-tolerance policies--even those banning toy weapons, over-the-counter drugs, and unseemly conduct. However, wide-ranging get-tough policies can draw criticism. Policy experts advise school boards to ask the community, decide what people want, allow some wiggle room, create an appeals process,…

Jones, Rebecca

1997-01-01

104

GAS-611 firefly in zero gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Get Away Special 611 (GAS-611) project will carry a small, self-contained biological experiment into a microgravity environment for a period of 120 hours. The payload will be a colony of Lampyridae (fireflies). The ability of this beetle to produce light with an efficiency of 98 pct will be evaluated in the micro-G environment. The chemical process that occurs could be assisted by the earth's gravitational pull and the very complex tracheae system found within this species of beetle. The effects of microgravity on mating and beetle larvae will also be studied.

Williams, Tony

1988-01-01

105

It is fundamentally possible to travel with zero energy based on Newton Laws of Motion. According to the first law of motion, a body will continue to travel for infinite distance unless it is acted upon by another force. For a body in motion, the force which stops perpetual motion is friction. However, there are many circumstances that friction is zero, for example in space, where there is vacuum. On earth, gravity makes objects to be in constant contact with each other generating friction but technology exists to separate them in the air using powerful magnetic forces. At low speeds, the friction caused by air is minimal but we can create vacuum even on land for high speed travel. Another condition for travelling is for it to stop at its destination. On land, we can recover the kinetic energy back into electrical energy using brushless permanent magnet generators. These generators can also convert electric energy into kinetic energy in order to provide motion. This article reviews technologies that will allow us to travel with zero energy. It is easier to do it on land but in the air, it is not obvious.

Othman Ahmad; Aroland Kiring; Ali Chekima

2011-09-17

106

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Einstein's cosmological constant as gravity, will unify quantum mechanics to general relativity and link gravity to electromagnetism. Then, an electromagnetic vacuum engine driven by the force that spins, moves, and sustains mass at the subatomic level, will do free, what generators cannot. Flowing outward-bound sinusoidally from its source, this gravity force assumes a three-dimensional spherical universe. Lines of force intersect, spinning into gyroscopic particles and passes as time-present, with a compression gravity of space-time curvature continuum unifying all mass. The spaces between approaching masses suffer a decrease of right-angled vacuum energy, increasing external pressures, pushing them together. Ubiquitous gravity now interacts electromagnetically with mass. Gravity's ``heat energy'' operates below absolute zero and squeezes mass into thermonuclear ignition of stars. Creation needs a gravity field for the propagation of light that will make sense of its wave/particle behavior. Creation from a white hole recycles down through a black one, into new beginnings of galaxies. ``Vacuum energy'' will light cities and factories; faster than light spacecraft will raise silently from the ground utilizing the very gravity it defies, propelling us to the stars.

Masters, Roy

2007-03-01

107

Summary This article contextualizes the production and reception of And the Band Played On, Randy Shilts’s popular history of the initial recognition of the American AIDS epidemic. Published over twenty-five years ago, the book and its most notorious character, “Patient Zero,” are in particular need of a critical historical treatment. The article presents a more balanced consideration—a “patient’s view”—of Gaétan Dugas’s experience of the early years of AIDS. I oppose the assertion that Dugas, the so-called Patient Zero, ignored incontrovertible information about the condition and was intent on spreading his infection. Instead I argue that scientific ideas in 1982 and 1983 about AIDS and the transmissibility of a causative agent were later portrayed to be more self-evident than they were at the time. The article also traces how Shilts’s highly selective—and highly readable—characterization of Dugas rapidly became embedded in discussions about the need to criminalize the reckless transmission of HIV. PMID:24769806

McKay, Richard A.

2014-01-01

108

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an historical lesson on the development of numbers and the special characteristics of zero. Includes activity sheets designed to help students focus their attention on the value of numerals including zero, place value, and operation with zero. (KHR)

Wilson, Patricia S.

2001-01-01

109

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the challenges students face in making sense of zero as a number. A range of different student responses to a computation problem involving zero reveal students' different understandings of zero.

Anthony, Glenda J.; Walshaw, Margaret A.

2004-01-01

110

Structural zeroes and zero-inflated models

Summary In psychosocial and behavioral studies count outcomes recording the frequencies of the occurrence of some health or behavior outcomes (such as the number of unprotected sexual behaviors during a period of time) often contain a preponderance of zeroes because of the presence of ‘structural zeroes’ that occur when some subjects are not at risk for the behavior of interest. Unlike random zeroes (responses that can be greater than zero, but are zero due to sampling variability), structural zeroes are usually very different, both statistically and clinically. False interpretations of results and study findings may result if differences in the two types of zeroes are ignored. However, in practice, the status of the structural zeroes is often not observed and this latent nature complicates the data analysis. In this article, we focus on one model, the zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression model that is commonly used to address zero-inflated data. We first give a brief overview of the issues of structural zeroes and the ZIP model. We then given an illustration of ZIP with data from a study on HIV-risk sexual behaviors among adolescent girls. Sample codes in SAS and Stata are also included to help perform and explain ZIP analyses.

HE, Hua; TANG, Wan; WANG, Wenjuan; CRITS-CHRISTOPH, Paul

2014-01-01

111

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anomalous gravity field of Venus shows high correlation with surface features revealed by radar. We extract gravity models from the Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) by means of a two-step process. In the first step, we solve the nonlinear spacecraft state estimation problem using a Kalman filter-smoother. The Kalman filter was evaluated through simulations. This evaluation and some unusual features of the filter are discussed. In the second step, we perform a geophysical inversion using a linear Bayesian estimator. To allow an unbiased comparison between gravity and topography, we use a simulation technique to smooth and distort the radar topographic data so as to yield maps having the same characteristics as our gravity maps. The maps presented cover 2/3 of the surface of Venus and display the strong topography-gravity correlation previously reported. The topography-gravity scatter plots show two distinct trends.

Reasenberg, Robert D.

1993-01-01

112

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (located on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into the forces of gravity and air pressure. Groups of learners will construct a simple gravity fountain by making a hole near the bottom of a 2-liter bottle, filling it with water, then as the bottle empties, collecting measurements of the water levels and length of the stream, to make a graph for analysis. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Gravity Fountain.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2007-01-01

113

Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production

#12;Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward

Narasayya, Vivek

114

Keeping the Zero in Zero Discharge.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on Great Lakes pollution as it describes the evolution of the zero discharge concept, outlines the major areas of debate, and explores facets of a developing strategy to ensure the ultimate success of the zero discharge approach. (46 references) (LZ)

Muldoon, Paul; Jackson, John

1994-01-01

115

article title: Gravity Waves Ripple over Marine Stratocumulus Clouds ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), a fingerprint-like gravity wave feature occurs over a deck of marine stratocumulus clouds. Similar ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82° north ...

2013-04-19

116

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For polynomials of higher degree, iterative numerical methods must be used. Four iterative methods are presented for approximating the zeros of a polynomial using a digital computer. Newton's method and Muller's method are two well known iterative methods which are presented. They extract the zeros of a polynomial by generating a sequence of approximations converging to each zero. However, both of these methods are very unstable when used on a polynomial which has multiple zeros. That is, either they fail to converge to some or all of the zeros, or they converge to very bad approximations of the polynomial's zeros. This material introduces two new methods, the greatest common divisor (G.C.D.) method and the repeated greatest common divisor (repeated G.C.D.) method, which are superior methods for numerically approximating the zeros of a polynomial having multiple zeros. These methods were programmed in FORTRAN 4 and comparisons in time and accuracy are given.

Wood, C. A.

1974-01-01

117

Linearisation instability of gravity waves?

Gravity waves in irrotational dust spacetimes are characterised by nonzero magnetic Weyl tensor $H_{ab}$. In the linearised theory, the divergence of $H_{ab}$ is set to zero. Recently Lesame et al. [Phys. Rev. D {\\bf 53}, 738 (1996)] presented an argument to show that, in the exact nonlinear theory, $div H=0$ forces $H_{ab}=0$, thus implying a linearisation instability for gravity waves interacting with matter. However a sign error in the equations invalidates their conclusion. Bianchi type V spacetimes are shown to include examples with $div H=0\

Roy Maartens

1996-09-30

118

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Questions of the importance and feasibility of performing experiments on droplet burning at zero gravity in Spacelab were studied. Information on the physics and chemistry of droplet combustion, with attention directed specifically to the chemical kinetics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid mechanics of the phenomena involved, are presented. The work was divided into three phases, the justification, the feasibility, and the conceptual development of a preliminary design. Results from the experiments performed revealed a few new facts concerning droplet burning, notably burning rates in excess of theoretical prediction and a phenomenon of flash extinction, both likely traceable to accumulation of carbon produced by gas-phase pyrolysis in the fuel-rich zone enclosed by the reaction surface. These experiments also showed that they were primarily due to timing difficulties.

Williams, F. A.

1978-01-01

119

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have heard of calling someone "a total zero" as an insult, but what does "zero" really mean? This thoughtful and informative Website from Dr. Hossein Arsham, Wright Distinguished Research Professor of Statistics and Management Science at the University of Baltimore, discusses the history and philosophy of zero. Items presented include arguments for and against dividing by zero, the ideas of zero as a void and as a number, zero in limits, square roots, and divergent series and floating points. The text is peppered with links to related mathematics, computer science, and history of mathematics sites. The Zero Saga is a good read for mathematicians, college and graduate level students in mathematics, or anyone interested in logic.

Arsham, Hossein.

120

A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.

Lujan, Richard E. (Santa Fe, NM)

2001-01-01

121

Improved Airborne Gravity Results Using New Relative Gravity Sensor Technology

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne gravity data has contributed greatly to our knowledge of subsurface geophysics particularly in rugged and otherwise inaccessible areas such as Antarctica. Reliable high quality GPS data has renewed interest in improving the accuracy of airborne gravity systems and recent improvements in the electronic control of the sensor have increased the accuracy and ability of the classic Lacoste and Romberg zero length spring gravity meters to operate in turbulent air conditions. Lacoste and Romberg type gravity meters provide increased sensitivity over other relative gravity meters by utilizing a mass attached to a horizontal beam which is balanced by a ';zero length spring'. This type of dynamic gravity sensor is capable of measuring gravity changes on the order of 0.05 milliGals in laboratory conditions but more commonly 0.7 to 1 milliGal in survey use. The sensor may have errors induced by the electronics used to read the beam position as well as noise induced by unwanted accelerations, commonly turbulence, which moves the beam away from its ideal balance position otherwise known as the reading line. The sensor relies on a measuring screw controlled by a computer which attempts to bring the beam back to the reading line position. The beam is also heavily damped so that it does not react to most unwanted high frequency accelerations. However this heavily damped system is slow to react, particularly in turns where there are very high Eotvos effects. New sensor technology utilizes magnetic damping of the beam coupled with an active feedback system which acts to effectively keep the beam locked at the reading line position. The feedback system operates over the entire range of the system so there is now no requirement for a measuring screw. The feedback system operates at very high speed so that even large turbulent events have minimal impact on data quality and very little, if any, survey line data is lost because of large beam displacement errors. Airborne testing along with results from ground based van testing and laboratory results have shown that the new sensor provides more consistent gravity data, as measured by repeated line surveys, as well as preserving the inherent sensitivity of the Lacoste and Romberg zero length spring design. The sensor also provides reliability during survey operation as there is no mechanical counter screw. Results will be presented which show the advantages of the new sensor system over the current technology in both data quality and survey productivity. Applications include high resolution geoid mapping, crustal structure investigations and resource mapping of minerals, oil and gas.

Brady, N.

2013-12-01

122

Pure Quantum Solutions of Bohmian Quantum Gravity

In this paper we have investigated the pure quantum solutions of Bohmian quantum gravity. By pure quantum solution we mean a solution in which the quantum potential cannot be ignored with respect to the classical potential, especially in Bohmian quantum gravity we are interested in the case where these two potentials are equal in their magnitude and in fact their sum is zero. Such a solutions are obtained both using the perturbation and using the linear field approximation.

Fatimah Shojai; Ali Shojai

2001-05-28

123

Zero stiffness tensegrity structures

Tension members with a zero rest length allow the construction of tensegrity structures that are in equilibrium along a continuous path of configurations, and thus exhibit mechanism-like properties; equivalently, they have zero stiffness. The zero-stiffness modes are not internal mechanisms, as they involve first-order changes in member length, but are a direct result of the use of the special tension

M. Schenk; S. D. Guest; J. L. Herder

2007-01-01

124

Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for) gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing) and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity).

Carlos Barcelo; Stefano Liberati; Matt Visser

2005-05-13

125

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economic and physical realities of an energy shortage have caused many educators to consider alternative sources of energy when constructing their schools. This book contains studies and designs by fifth-year architecture students concerning the proposed construction of a zero energy-use elementary school in Albany, Oregon. "Zero energy use"…

Nelson, Brian, Ed.; And Others

126

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zero is a schoolwide antibullying program developed by the Centre for Behavioural Research at the University of Stavanger, Norway. It is based on three main principles: a zero vision of bullying, collective commitment among all employees at the school using the program, and continuing work. Based on these principles, the program aims to reduce…

Roland, Erling; Midthassel, Unni Vere

2012-01-01

127

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes one classroom activity in which the author simulates the Newtonian gravity, and employs the Euclidean Geometry with the use of new technologies (NT). The prerequisites for this activity were some knowledge of the formulae for a particle free fall in Physics and most certainly, a good understanding of the notion of similarity…

Pipinos, Savas

2010-01-01

128

International Space University variable gravity research facility design

A manned mission to Mars will require long travel times between Earth and Mars. However, exposure to long-duration zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body. Some of the harmful effects are loss of heart and lung capacity, inability to stand upright, muscular weakness, and loss of bone calcium. A variable gravity research facility (VGRF) that will

Sheila G. Bailey; Francis P. Chiaramonte; Kenneth J. Davidian

1994-01-01

129

The International Space University's variable gravity research facility design

A manned mission to Mars will require long travel times between Earth and Mars. However, exposure to long-duration zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body. Some of the harmful effects are loss of heart and lung capacity, inability to stand upright, muscular weakness and loss of bone calcium. A variable gravity research facility (VGRF) that would

Sheila G. Bailey; Francis P. Chiaramonte; Kenneth J. Davidian

1991-01-01

130

Zero-G Condensing Heat Exchanger with Integral Disinfection

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The system that operates in a zero gravity environment and has an integral ozone generating capability is disclosed. The system contributes to the control of metabolic water vapors in the air, and also provided disinfection of any resulting condensate within the system, as well as disinfection of the air stream that flows throughout the disclosed system.

Burke, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

131

Motivated mainly by the fact that no charged elementary particles having zero mass have been observed up to now, we investigate the question whether the mass of the elementary particles is connected with their electric charge and whether gravity can be derived from QED. The graviton is considered as a two-photon bound state. A relation between mass and charge of elementary particles is derived. Masses of the light quarks $d$ and $u$ are calculated from the electron mass, assuming that $d$, $u$ and $e$ are all fundamental and not composite. In this picture, the heavier quarks and leptons are considered as not fundamental, the massive neutral gauge bosons (and then their charged partners) are composite. The here calculated $u$ and $d$ quark masses, result in quark-mass ratios which display interesting regularities. The lightest quark mass turns out to be quite small. This may be interesting in connection to the strong CP problem.

Athanasios Markou

2009-03-03

132

Analytical comparison of condensing flows inside tubes under earth-gravity and space environments

The heat transfer behavior of flow condensation inside horizontal tubes under conditions of zero gravity and earth gravity is modeled and analyzed. For earth conditions for wetting fluids, the annular flow region changes to a stratified flow pattern as a result of gravity drainage of the condensate from the upper portion of the tube. The stratified condensate layer is considered

E. G. Keshock; M. S. Sadeghipour

1981-01-01

133

Spatially homogeneous Lifshitz black holes in five dimensional higher derivative gravity

We consider spatially homogeneous Lifshitz black hole solutions in five dimensional higher derivative gravity theories, which can be possible near horizon geometries of some systems that are interesting in the framework of gauge/gravity duality. We show the solutions belonging to the nine Bianchi classes in the pure R^2 gravity. We find that these black holes have zero entropy at non-zero temperatures and this property is the same as the case of BTZ black holes in new massive gravity at the critical point. In the most general quadratic curvature gravity theories, we find new solutions in Bianchi Type I and Type IX cases.

Yan Liu

2012-02-08

134

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Elliott Kimmel may have created zeroBio for the students of London, Ontario's Central Secondary School, but high school biology students anywhere would benefit tremendously from a visit to this extensive collection of biology learning resources. In addition to functioning as an online biology textbook, zeroBio offers dissection photos for a number of specimens, multimedia presentations, self-quizzing flashcards for organic chemistry, downloadable worksheets, interactive quizzes, games, puzzles, and more.

2000-01-01

135

be achieved, for instance, by twisting the wire prior to the coiling of the spring.) The Anglepoise spring mechanism illustrates two zero stiffness interpretations: by generating a constant upward force the weight of the lamp shade is continuously balanced... proven to be powerful in analysing more complex zero-stiffness structures [60]. It is interesting to consider the parallel of this example to a cable-stayed mast, where the tension in the guy-ropes is increased. Intuitively, an increase in pretension...

Schenk, Mark; Guest, Simon D.

2013-11-17

136

In the present work, the authors construct a theory of cohomological gravity in arbitrary dimensions based upon a local vector supersymmetry algebra. The observables in this theory are polynomial, but generally non-local operators, and have a natural interpretation in terms of a universal bundle for gravity. As such, their correlation functions correspond to cohomology classes on moduli spaces of Riemannian connections. In this uniformization approach, different moduli spaces are obtained by introducing curvature singularities on codimension two submanifolds via a puncture operator. This puncture operator is constructed from a naturally occurring differential form of co-degree two in the theory, and the authors are led to speculate on connections between this continuum quantum field theory, and the discrete Regge calculus. 16 refs.

Birmingham, D. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Rakowski, M. (Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz (Germany))

1993-07-01

137

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newton's gravitational constant Gn and Laws of Gravity are based upon observations in our solar system. Mysteries appear when they are used far outside our solar system Apparently, Newton's gravitational constant can not be applied at large distances. Dark matter was needed to explain the observed flat rotational velocity curves of spiral galaxies (Rubin), and of groups of remote galaxies (Zwicky). Our expansion of Newton's gravitational constant Gn as a power series in distance r, is sufficient to explain these observations without using dark matter. This is different from the MOND theory of Milgrom involving acceleration. Also, our Expanded Gravitational Constant (EGC) can show the correct use of the red shift. In addition to the Doppler contribution, there are three other contributions and these depend only upon gravity. Thus, velocity observations only based on the red shift can not be used to support the concept of the expanding universe, the accelerating expansion, or dark energy. Our expanded gravity constant can predict and explain Olbers' paradox (dark sky), and the temperature of the CMB (cosmic microwave background). Thus, CMB may not support the big bang and inflation.

Aisenberg, Sol

2005-04-01

138

Gravity and positional homeostasis of the cell

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Normally bilateralization takes place in the presence of the Earth's gravity which produces torque, shear, tension and compression acting upon the naked aggregates of cytoplasm in the zygote which is only stabilized by a weak cytoskeleton. In an initial examination of the effects of these quantities on development, an expression is derived to describe the tendency of torque to rotate the egg and reorganize its constituents. This expression yields the net torque resulting from buoyancy and gravity acting upon a dumbbell shaped cell with heavy and light masses at either end and ``floating'' in a medium. Using crude values for the variables, torques of 2.5 × 10-13 to 8.5 × 10-1 dyne-cm are found to act upon cells ranging from 6.4 ?m to 31 mm (chicken egg). By way of comparison six microtubules can exert a torque of 5 × 10-9 dyne-cm. (1) Gravity imparts torque to cells; (2) torque is reduced to zero as gravity approaches zero; and (3) torque is sensitive to cell size and particulate distribution. Cells must expend energy to maintain positional homeostasis against gravity. Although not previously recognized, Skylab 3 results support this hypothesis: tissue cultures used 58% more glucose on Earth than in space. The implications for developmental biology, physiology, genetics, and evolution are considered. At the cellular and tissue level the concept of ``gravity receptors'' may be unnecessary.

Nace, George W.

139

Venipuncture and intravenous infusion access during zero-gravity flight

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this experiment is to establish the difficulty associated with securing an intravenous (IV) catheter in place in microgravity flight and the techniques applicable in training the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) for Space Station Freedom, as well as aiding in the selection of appropriate hardware and supplies for the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF). The objectives are the following: (1) to determine the difficulties associated with venipuncture in a microgravity environment; (2) to evaluate the various methods of securing an IV catheter and attached tubing for infusion with regard to the unique environment; (3) to evaluate the various materials available for securing an intravenous catheter in place; and (4) to evaluate the fluid therapy administration system when functioning in a complete system. The inflight test procedures and other aspects of the KC-135 parabolic flight test to simulate microgravity are presented.

Krupa, Debra T.; Gosbee, John; Billica, Roger; Bechtle, Perry; Creager, Gerald J.; Boyce, Joey B.

1991-01-01

140

A Zero-Gravity Cup for Drinking Beverages in Microgravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To date, the method for astronauts to drink liquids in microgravity or weightless environments is to suck the liquid from a bag or pouch through a straw. A new beverage cup works in microgravity and allows astronauts to drink liquids from a cup in a manner consistent with that on Earth. The cup is capable of holding beverages with an angled channel running along the wall from the bottom to the lip. In microgravity, a beverage is placed into the cup using the galley dispenser. The angled channel acts as an open passage that contains only two sides where capillary forces move the liquid along the channel until it reaches the top lip where the forces reach an equilibrium and the flow stops. When one sips the liquid at the lip of the channel, the capillary force equilibrium is upset and more liquid flows to the lip from the reservoir at the bottom to re-establish the equilibrium. This sipping process can continue until the total liquid contents of the cup is consumed, leaving only a few residual drops about the same quantity as in a ceramic cup when it is drunk dry on Earth.

Pettit, Donald R.; Weislogel, Mark; Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert

2011-01-01

141

Venipuncture and Intravenous Infusion Access During Zero-Gravity Flight.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this experiment is to establish the difficulty associated with securing an intravenous (IV) catheter in place in microgravity flight and the techniques applicable in training the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) for Space Station Freedom, as well...

D. T. Krupa, J. Gosbee, R. Billica, P. Bechtle, G. J. Creager

1991-01-01

142

Fluid mass sensor for a zero gravity environment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sensor for measuring the mass of fluids, is described which includes a housing having an inlet and outlet for receiving and dumping the fluid, a rotary impeller within the housing for imparting centrifugal motion to the fluid and a pressure sensitive transducer attached to the housing to sense the rotating fluid pressure. The fluid may be drawn into the housing by entrainment within a gas stream. The resulting mixture is then separated into two phases: gas and liquid. The gas is removed from the housing and the pressure of the liquid, under centrifugal motion, is sensed and correlated with the mass of the fluid.

Fogal, G. L. (inventor)

1976-01-01

143

Intravenous fluid flow meter concept for zero gravity environment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measuring chamber, included in infusion-set tubing, and peristaltic flow meter concept can be incorporated into flow meter that measures fluid flow rates between 100 and 600 cu cm per hour and at the same time maintains sterilization.

Miller, C. G.

1972-01-01

144

Neural-Thyroid Interaction on Skeletal Isomyosin in Zero Gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary goal of the project was to develop a ground based model to first study the role of the nerve and of thyroid hormone (T3) in the regulation of body growth and skeletal muscle growth and differentiation in rodents. A primary objective was to test the hypothesis that normal weight bearing activity is essential for the development of antigravity, slow twitch skeletal muscle and the corresponding slow myosin heavy chain (MHC) gene; whereas, T3 was obligatory for general body and muscle growth and the establishment of fast MHC phenotype in typically fast locomoter muscles. These ground based experiments would provide both the efficacy and background for a spaceflight experiment (referred to as the Neurolab Mission) jointly sponsored by the NIH and NASA.

Baldwin, Kenneth M.

2000-01-01

145

Separation Of Liquid And Gas In Zero Gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pair of reports describe scheme for separating liquid from gas so liquid could be pumped. Designed to operate in absence of gravitation. Jet of liquid, gas, or liquid/gas mixture fed circumferentially into cylindrical tank filled with liquid/gas mixture. Jet starts liquid swirling. Swirling motion centrifugally separates liquid from gas. Liquid then pumped from tank at point approximately diametrically opposite point of injection of jet. Vortex phase separator replaces such devices as bladders and screens. Requires no components inside tank. Pumps for gas and liquid outside tank and easily accessible for maintenance and repairs.

Howard, Frank S.; Fraser, Wilson S.

1991-01-01

146

Dental equipment test during zero-gravity flight

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall objectives of this program were to establish performance criteria and develop prototype equipment for use in the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) in meeting the needs of dental emergencies during space missions. The primary efforts during this flight test were to test patient-operator relationships, patent (manikin) restraint and positioning, task lighting systems, use and operation of dental rotary instruments, suction and particle containment system, dental hand instrument delivery and control procedures, and the use of dental treatment materials. The initial efforts during the flight focused on verification of the efficiency of the particle containment system. An absorptive barrier was also tested in lieu of the suction collector. To test the instrument delivery system, teeth in the manikin were prepared with the dental drill to receive restorations, some with temporary filling materials and another with definitive filling material (composite resin). The best particle containment came from the combination use of the laminar-air/suction collector in concert with immediate area suction from a surgical high-volume suction tip. Lighting in the treatment area was provided by a flexible fiberoptic probe. This system is quite effective for small areas, but for general tasks ambient illumination is required. The instrument containment system (elastic cord network) was extremely effective and easy to use. The most serious problem with instrument delivey and actual treatment was lack of time during the microgravity sequences. The restorative materials handled and finished well.

Young, John; Gosbee, John; Billica, Roger

1991-01-01

147

Cardiovascular effects of simulated zero-gravity in humans

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Head-down and heat-up tilted bedrest (5 degrees) and head out water immersion (HOWI) for 6 hr were compared. Parameters: Cardiac output (rebreathing method), blood pressure (arm cuff), forearm blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography), total peripheral (TPR), and forearm vascular (FVR) resistances, Hct, Hb, relativ? plasma volume (PV) changes, and plasma catecholamines (single-isotope assay). During HOWI there was as expected a decrement in TPR, FVR, Mean arterial pressure (MAP, from 100 to 80 mmHg), Hct, and PV, and—as a new finding—catecholamines, which were 30-50% lower compared with both + 5 and - 5 degrees bedrest. During head down tilt, MAP was elevated (to 100-110 mmHg) and catecholamines did not fall, while TPR and FVR slowly decreased over 6 hr. HOWI is a stronger stimulus than - 5 degrees bedrest, probably because HOWI elevates central venous pressure more markedly emptying the peripheral veins, while bedrest permits a distension of veins, which induces an increase in sympathetic nervous activity.

Bonde-Petersen, F.; Suzuki, Y.; Sadámoto, T.; Juel Christensen, N.

148

Zero temperature black holes and the failure of semi-classical analysis

The extreme Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes have zero surface gravity. However, a semi-classical analysis seems to be ill-definite for these objects and apparently no notion of temperature exists for them. It is argued here that these properties are shared for all kind of black holes whose surface gravity is zero. Two examples are worked out explicitely: the scalar-tensor cold black holes and extreme black holes resulting from a gravity system coupled to a generalized Maxwell field in higher dimensions. The reasons for this anomolous behaviour are discussed as well as its thermodynamics implications.

F. G. Alvarenga; A. B. Batista; J. C. Fabris; G. T. Marques

2003-09-03

149

Quasilocalization of gravity on a brane by resonant modes.

We examine the behavior of gravity in brane theories with extra dimensions in a nonfactorizable background geometry. We find that for metrics which are asymptotically flat far from the brane there is a resonant graviton mode at zero energy. The presence of this resonance ensures quasilocalization of gravity, whereby at intermediate scales the gravitational laws on the brane are approximately four dimensional. However, for scales larger than the lifetime of the graviton resonance the five-dimensional laws of gravity will be reproduced due to the decay of the four-dimensional graviton. We also give a simple classification of effective gravity theories for general background geometries. PMID:10991092

Csáki, C; Erlich, J; Hollowood, T J

2000-06-26

150

Static Spherically Symmetric Solution of (R +- ?^4/R) Gravity

The static spherically symmetric solution for (R +- {\\mu}^4/R) model of f(R)gravity is investigated. We obtain the metric for space-time in the solar system that reduces to the Schwarzschild metric, when {\\mu} tends to zero. For the obtained metric, the deviation from Einstein gravity is very small. This result is different from the other results have been obtained by equivalence between f(R) gravity and scalar tensor theory. Also it is shown that the vacuum solution in the solar system depends on the shape of matter distribution which differ from the Einstein's gravity.

Kh. Saaidi; A. Vaji; A. Aghamomammadi

2010-01-23

151

It is fundamentally possible to travel with zero energy based on Newton Laws of Motion. According to the first law of motion, a body will continue to travel for infinite distance unless it is acted upon by another force. For a body in motion, the force which stops perpetual motion is friction. However, there are many circumstances that friction is

Othman Ahmad; Aroland Kiring; Ali Chekima

2011-01-01

152

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the robots used to aid in rescue and recovery at Ground Zero after the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center. The robots were developed as a result of national Science Foundation Quick Response Research Awards. Describes several awards that were made following the attack. (JOW)

Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers, 2002

2002-01-01

153

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An excerpt from the opening piece in "Everything That Rises: A Book of Convergences" by Lawrence Weschler is presented where the author is talking with Joel Meyerowitz, the only photographer granted unimpeded access to the clean-up operations at ground zero after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The two discuss the parallels between…

Chronicle of Higher Education, 2006

2006-01-01

154

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The walnut sized brain of the African grey parrot may actually be capable of comprehending abstract mathematical concepts. The bird seems to understand a numerical concept akin to zero--an abstract notion that humans don't typically understand until they are three or four years old. Alex, the 28-year-old parrot who lives in a Brandeis University…

Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

2005-01-01

155

On my way to Ground Zero in an almost empty train. Each stop takes me farther downtown, farther toward the site. I think of myself as Marlowe, Conrad's protagonist in Heart of Darkness, traveling in a steamboat down a river into a jungle, toward a primal nightmare. When Marlowe finds Kurtz, he discovers more than he bargained for. I too

DEVIN SULLIVAN

156

Graviresponses of osteocytes under altered gravity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single cell was capable of sensing and responding to alterations of gravity. Osteocytes, as the most abundant cells of the bone tissue playing an important role in the bone mechanotransduction, are very sensitive to mechanical stimuli. However, the effect of altered gravity on osteocytes so far is less known according to the public papers. Further study on this issue will help to verify and develop the theory of how cells perceive and respond to gravity. It also brings new ideas to the study of space bone loss. In our study, Osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells were exposed to 30 parabolic flights three times on ZERO-G airbus A300 to investigate the comprehensive effect on osteocytes stimulated by hyper- and hypo-gravity forces. It showed that the cell morphology, as well as cell area and height, was not changed significantly by hyper-gravity and hypo-gravity. However, the cytoskeleton was reorganized. In flight cells, F-actin polymerization was enhanced at the cell periphery and microtubule organizing center disappeared, but no apoptotic feathers were detected. The results of western blot showed that connexin 43 (Cx43) expression was down-regulated, indicating an decrease of gap-junction. In conclusion, hyper- and hypo-gravity stimulation altered the cytoskeleton architecture and suppressed gap-junction of osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells.

Di, S. M.; Qian, A. R.; Qu, L. N.; Zhang, W.; Wang, Z.; Ding, C.; Li, Y. H.; Ren, H. G.; Shang, P.

2011-09-01

157

How much gravity is needed to establish the perceptual upright?

Might the gravity levels found on other planets and on the moon be sufficient to provide an adequate perception of upright for astronauts? Can the amount of gravity required be predicted from the physiological threshold for linear acceleration? The perception of upright is determined not only by gravity but also visual information when available and assumptions about the orientation of the body. Here, we used a human centrifuge to simulate gravity levels from zero to earth gravity along the long-axis of the body and measured observers' perception of upright using the Oriented Character Recognition Test (OCHART) with and without visual cues arranged to indicate a direction of gravity that differed from the body's long axis. This procedure allowed us to assess the relative contribution of the added gravity in determining the perceptual upright. Control experiments off the centrifuge allowed us to measure the relative contributions of normal gravity, vision, and body orientation for each participant. We found that the influence of 1 g in determining the perceptual upright did not depend on whether the acceleration was created by lying on the centrifuge or by normal gravity. The 50% threshold for centrifuge-simulated gravity's ability to influence the perceptual upright was at around 0.15 g, close to the level of moon gravity but much higher than the threshold for detecting linear acceleration along the long axis of the body. This observation may partially explain the instability of moonwalkers but is good news for future missions to Mars. PMID:25184481

Harris, Laurence R; Herpers, Rainer; Hofhammer, Thomas; Jenkin, Michael

2014-01-01

158

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The piston rod of a reciprocating compressor is sealed with elastic cylindrical sealing elements. Across the sealings the pressure drops from the operating pressure to the ambient pressure. The lubrication gap between the elastic sealing and reciprocating piston rod is studied with the aim to find conditions of a leakage free sealing. The flow in the lubrication gap and the elastic deformation of the sealing are determined simultaneously. The net-flow during one cycle of the reciprocating piston rod is calculated. It turns out that maintaining zero leakage is very sensible. Indeed the outbound flow during out-stroke has to be equal the inbound flow during the in-stroke. By prescribing a special shape of the undeformed sealing zero leakage can be attained - at least theoretically for certain operating conditions. It turns out that temperature dependent material data and a model for cavitation is necessary. The model, its numerical implementation and results will be discussed.

Kotesovec, Bernhard; Steinrück, Herbert

2010-11-01

159

Windows in the U.S. consume 30 percent of building heating and cooling energy, representing an annual impact of 4.1 quadrillion BTU (quads) of primary energy. Windows have an even larger impact on peak energy demand and on occupant comfort. An additional 1 quad of lighting energy could be saved if buildings employed effective daylighting strategies. The ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program has made standard windows significantly more efficient. However, even if all windows in the stock were replaced with today's efficient products, window energy consumption would still be approximately 2 quads. However, windows can be ''net energy gainers'' or ''zero-energy'' products. Highly insulating products in heating applications can admit more useful solar gain than the conductive energy lost through them. Dynamic glazings can modulate solar gains to minimize cooling energy needs and, in commercial buildings, allow daylighting to offset lighting requirements. The needed solutions vary with building type and climate. Developing this next generation of zero-energy windows will provide products for both existing buildings undergoing window replacements and products which are expected to be contributors to zero-energy buildings. This paper defines the requirements for zero-energy windows. The technical potentials in terms of national energy savings and the research and development (R&D) status of the following technologies are presented: (1) Highly insulating systems with U-factors of 0.1 Btu/hr-ft{sup 2}-F; (2) Dynamic windows: glazings that modulate transmittance (i.e., change from clear to tinted and/or reflective) in response to climate conditions; and (3) Integrated facades for commercial buildings to control/ redirect daylight. Market transformation policies to promote these technologies as they emerge into the marketplace are then described.

Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

2006-05-17

160

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flammability limits in a zero gravity environment were defined. Key aspects of a possible spacelab experiment were investigated analytically, experimentally on the bench, and in drop tower facilities. A conceptual design for a spacelab experiment was developed.

Strehlow, R. A.; Reuss, D. L.

1980-01-01

161

Airglow response to vertically standing gravity waves

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is currently much interest in fluctuations of airglow emissions caused by atmospheric gravity waves. The fluctuations of brightness tend to be found in phase (or occasionally in antiphase) with the fluctuations of measured temperature, whereas current theory tends to anticipate substantial phase differences. We suggest here that the discrepancy results from failure of the common theoretical assumption that the relevant gravity waves are dominated by a single upgoing component: that, instead, there is an accompanying downgoing component of comparable magnitude, produced by reflection. In the case of total reflection, simple, steady state chemistry and vertical viewing, the phase difference is necessarily zero (or 180 deg).

Hines, Colin O.; Tarasick, David W.

1994-01-01

162

Quantum statistical zero-knowledge

In this paper we propose a definition for (honest verifier) quantum statistical zero-knowledge interactive proof systems and study the resulting complexity class, which we denote QSZK. We prove several facts regarding this class that establish close connections between classical statistical zero-knowledge and our definition for quantum statistical zero-knowledge, and give some insight regarding the effect of this zero-knowledge restriction on quantum interactive proof systems.

John Watrous

2002-02-20

163

Inertial waste separation system for zero G WMS

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, operation, and flight test are presented for an inertial waste separation system. Training personnel to use this system under simulated conditions is also discussed. Conclusions indicate that before the system is usable in zero gravity environments, a mirror for the user's guidance should be installed, the bounce cycle and bag changing system should be redesigned, and flange clips should be added to improve the user's balance.

1971-01-01

164

Low Gravity venting of Refrigerant 11

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted in a five-second zero gravity facility to examine the effects of venting initially saturated Refrigerant 11 from a cylindrical container (15-cm diameter) under reduced gravitational conditions. The system Bond numbers studied were 0 (weightlessness), 9 and 63; the liquid exhibited a nearly zero-degree contact angle on the container surface. During the venting process, both liquid-vapor interface and liquid bulk vaporization occurred. The temperature of the liquid in the immediate vicinity of the liquid-vapor interface was found to decrease during venting, while the liquid bulk temperature remained constant. Qualitative observations of the effects of system acceleration, vent rate, and vapor volume presented. Quantitative information concerning the ullage pressure decay during low gravity venting is also included.

Labus, T. L.; Aydelott, J. C.; Lacovic, R. F.

1972-01-01

165

Quantum liquids are characterized by the distinctive properties such as the low temperature behavior of heat capacity and the spectrum of low-energy quasiparticle excitations. In particular, at low temperature, Fermi liquids exhibit the zero sound, predicted by L. D. Landau in 1957 and subsequently observed in liquid He-3. In this paper, we ask a question whether such a characteristic behavior is present in theories with holographically dual description. We consider a class of gauge theories with fundamental matter fields whose holographic dual in the appropriate limit is given in terms of the Dirac-Born-Infeld action in AdS_{p+1} space. An example of such a system is the N=4 SU(N_c) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with N_f massless N=2 hypermultiplets at strong coupling, finite baryon number density, and low temperature. We find that these systems exhibit a zero sound mode despite having a non-Fermi liquid type behavior of the specific heat. These properties suggest that holography identifies a new type of quantum liquids.

A. Karch; D. T. Son; A. O. Starinets

2008-06-24

166

Critical regimes of internal gravity wave generation

The problem of constructing an asymptotic representation of the solution of the internal gravity wave field exited by a source moving at a velocity close to the maximum group velocity of the individual wave mode is considered. For the critical regimes of individual mode generation the asymptotic representation of the solution obtained is expressed in terms of a zero-order Macdonald function. The results of numerical calculations based on the exact and asymptotic formulas are given.

Vitaly V. Bulatov; Yuriy V. Vladimirov; Vasily A. Vakorin

2005-11-27

167

Chiral Gravity, Log Gravity and Extremal CFT

We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS3 vacuum have positive energy. Non-chiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity-- the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions --has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic CFT. Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We normally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.

Alexander Maloney; Wei Song; Andrew Strominger

2009-03-26

168

Non-Newtonian gravity or gravity anomalies?

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geophysical measurements of G differ from laboratory values, indicating that gravity may be non-Newtonian. A spherical harmonic formulation is presented for the variation of (Newtonian) gravity inside the Earth. Using the GEM-10B Earth Gravitational Field Model, it is shown that long-wavelength gravity anomalies, if not corrected, may masquerade as non-Newtonian gravity by providing significant influences on experimental observation of delta g/delta r and G. An apparent contradiction in other studies is also resolved: i.e., local densities appear in equations when average densities of layers seem to be called for.

Rubincam, David P.; Chao, B. Fong; Schatten, Kenneth H.; Sager, William W.

1988-01-01

169

Resonance mass spectra of gravity and fermion on Bloch branes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, by presenting the potentials of Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes in the corresponding Schrödinger equations, we investigate the localization and resonances of gravity and fermion on the symmetric and asymmetric Bloch branes. We find that the localization properties of zero modes for gravity and fermion in the symmetric brane case are the same, whereas, for the asymmetric brane case, the fermion zero mode is localized on one of the sub-branes, while the gravity zero mode is localized on another sub-brane. The spectra of the gravity and the left- or right-handed fermion are composed of a bound zero mode and a series of gapless continuous massive KK modes. Among the continuous massive KK modes, we obtain some discrete gravity and fermion resonant (quasilocalized) KK states on the brane, which have a finite probability of escaping into the bulk. The KK states with lower resonant masses have a longer lifetime on the brane. And the number of the resonant KK states increases linearly with the width of the brane and the scalar-fermion coupling constant, but it decreases with the asymmetric factor ?. The structure of the resonance spectrum is investigated in detail.

Xie, Qun-Ying; Yang, Jie; Zhao, Li

2013-11-01

170

Feeling Gravity's Pull: Gravity Modeling. The Gravity Field of Mars

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most people take the constant presence of gravitys pull for granted. However, the Earth's gravitational strength actually varies from location to location. This variation occurs because mass, which influences an object's gravitational pull, is not evenly distributed within the planet. Changes in topography, such as glacial movement, an earthquake, or a rise in the ocean level, can subtly affect the gravity field. An accurate measurement of the Earth's gravity field helps us understand the distribution of mass beneath the surface. This insight can assist us in locating petroleum, mineral deposits, ground water, and other valuable substances. Gravity mapping can also help notice or verify changes in sea surface height and other ocean characteristics. Such changes may indicate climate change from polar ice melting and other phenomena. In addition, gravity mapping can indicate how land moves under the surface after earthquakes and other plate tectonic processes. Finally, changes in the Earth's gravity field might indicate a shift in water distribution that could affect agriculture, water supplies for population centers, and long-term weather prediction. Scientists can map out the Earth's gravity field by watching satellite orbits. When a satellite shifts in vertical position, it might be passing over an area where gravity changes in strength. Gravity is only one factor that may shape a satellite's orbital path. To derive a gravity measurement from satellite movement, scientists must remove other factors that might affect a satellite's position: 1. Drag from atmospheric friction. 2. Pressure from solar radiation as it heads toward Earth and. as it is reflected off the surface of the Earth 3. Gravitational pull from the Sun, the Moon, and other planets in the Solar System. 4. The effect of tides. 5. Relativistic effects. Scientists must also correct for the satellite tracking process. For example, the tracking signal must be corrected for refraction through the atmosphere of the Earth. Supercomputers can calculate the effect of gravity for specific locations in space following a mathematical process known as spherical harmonics, which quantifies the gravity field of a planetary body. The process is based on Laplace's fundamental differential equation of gravity. The accuracy of a spherical harmonic solution is rated by its degree and order. Minute variations in gravity are measured against the geoid, a surface of constant gravity acceleration at mean sea level. The geoid reference gravity model strength includes the central body gravitational attraction (9.8 m/sq s) and a geopotential variation in latitude partially caused by the rotation of the Earth. The rotational effect modifies the shape of the geoid to be more like an ellipsoid, rather than a perfect, circle. Variations of gravity strength from the ellipsoidal reference model are measured in units called milli-Galileos (mGals). One mGal equals 10(exp -5) m/sq s. Research projects have also measured the gravity fields of other planetary bodies, as noted in the user profile that follows. From this information, we may make inferences about our own planet's internal structure and evolution. Moreover, mapping the gravity fields of other planets can help scientists plot the most fuel-efficient course for spacecraft expeditions to those planets.

Lemoine, Frank; Smith, David; Rowlands, David; Zuber, Maria; Neumann, G.; Chinn, Douglas; Pavlis, D.

2000-01-01

171

Observational bounds on modified gravity models

Modified gravity provides a possible explanation for the currently observed cosmic acceleration. In this paper, we study general classes of modified gravity models. The Einstein-Hilbert action is modified by using general functions of the Ricci and the Gauss-Bonnet scalars, both in the metric and in the Palatini formalisms. We do not use an explicit form for the functions, but a general form with a valid Taylor expansion up to second order about redshift zero in the Riemann-scalars. The coefficients of this expansion are then reconstructed via the cosmic expansion history measured using current cosmological observations. These are the quantities of interest for theoretical considerations relating to ghosts and instabilities. We find that current data provide interesting constraints on the coefficients. The next-generation dark energy surveys should shrink the allowed parameter space for modified gravity models quite dramatically.

De Felice, Antonio; Mukherjee, Pia [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Wang Yun [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)

2008-01-15

172

Zero Temperature Hope Calculations

The primary purpose of the HOPE code is to calculate opacities over a wide temperature and density range. It can also produce equation of state (EOS) data. Since the experimental data at the high temperature region are scarce, comparisons of predictions with the ample zero temperature data provide a valuable physics check of the code. In this report we show a selected few examples across the periodic table. Below we give a brief general information about the physics of the HOPE code. The HOPE code is an ''average atom'' (AA) Dirac-Slater self-consistent code. The AA label in the case of finite temperature means that the one-electron levels are populated according to the Fermi statistics, at zero temperature it means that the ''aufbau'' principle works, i.e. no a priory electronic configuration is set, although it can be done. As such, it is a one-particle model (any Hartree-Fock model is a one particle model). The code is an ''ion-sphere'' model, meaning that the atom under investigation is neutral within the ion-sphere radius. Furthermore, the boundary conditions for the bound states are also set at the ion-sphere radius, which distinguishes the code from the INFERNO, OPAL and STA codes. Once the self-consistent AA state is obtained, the code proceeds to generate many-electron configurations and proceeds to calculate photoabsorption in the ''detailed configuration accounting'' (DCA) scheme. However, this last feature is meaningless at zero temperature. There is one important feature in the HOPE code which should be noted; any self-consistent model is self-consistent in the space of the occupied orbitals. The unoccupied orbitals, where electrons are lifted via photoexcitation, are unphysical. The rigorous way to deal with that problem is to carry out complete self-consistent calculations both in the initial and final states connecting photoexcitations, an enormous computational task. The Amaldi correction is an attempt to address this problem by distorting the outer part of the self-consistent potential in such a way that in the final state after photoexcitation or photoionization the newly occupied orbital sees the hole left in the initial state. This is very important to account for the large number of Rydberg states in the case of low densities. In the next Section we show calculated photoabsorptions compared with experimental data in figures with some rudimentary explanations.

Rozsnyai, B F

2002-07-26

173

Warped Brane worlds in Critical Gravity

We investigate the brane models in arbitrary dimensional critical gravity presented in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 181302 (2011)]. For the model of the thin branes with codimension one, the Gibbons-Hawking surface term and the junction conditions are derived, with which the analytical solutions for the flat, AdS, and dS branes are obtained at the critical point of the critical gravity. It is found that all these branes are embedded in an AdS$_{n}$ spacetime, but, in general, the effective cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ of the AdS$_{n}$ spacetime is not equal to the naked one $\\Lambda_0$ in the critical gravity, which can be positive, zero, and negative. Another interesting result is that the brane tension can also be positive, zero, or negative, depending on the symmetry of the thin brane and the values of the parameters of the theory, which is very different from the case in general relativity. It is shown that the mass hierarchy problem can be solved in the higher-order braneworld model in the critical gravity....

Zhong, Yi; Chen, Feng-Wei; Xie, Qun-Ying

2014-01-01

174

Multiphase Flow: The Gravity of the Situation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief survey is presented of flow patterns in two-phase, gas-liquid flows at normal and microgravity, the differences between them being explored. It seems that the flow patterns in zero gravity are in general much simpler than those in normal gravity with only three main regimes (namely bubbly, slug and annular flows) being observed. Each of these three regimes is then reviewed, with particular reference to identification of areas of study where investigation of flows at microgravity might not only be interesting in themselves, but also throw light on mechanisms at normal earth gravity. In bubbly flow, the main area of interest seems to be that of bubble coalescence. In slug flow, the extension of simple displacement experiments to the zero gravity case would appear to be a useful option, supplemented by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies. For annular flow, the most interesting area appears to be the study of the mechanisms of disturbance waves; it should be possible to extend the region of investigation of the onset and behavior of these waves to much low gas velocities where measurements are clearly much easier.

Hewitt, Geoffrey F.

1996-01-01

175

Quantum Physics Einstein's Gravity

Quantum Physics confronts Einstein's Gravity Matt Visser Physics Department Washington University Saint Louis USA Science Saturdays 13 October 2001 #12; Quantum Physics confronts Einstein's Gravity Abstract: The search for an overall master theory that is compatible both with quantum physics

Visser, Matt

176

Analytical Study of Gravity Effects on Laminar Diffusion Flames

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model is presented for the description of axisymmetric laminar-jet diffusion flames. The analysis includes the effects of inertia, viscosity, diffusion, gravity and combustion. These mechanisms are coupled in a boundary layer type formulation and solutions are obtained by an explicit finite difference technique. A dimensional analysis shows that the maximum flame width radius, velocity and thermodynamic state characterize the flame structure. Comparisons with experimental data showed excellent agreement for normal gravity flames and fair agreement for steady state low Reynolds number zero gravity flames. Kinetics effects and radiation are shown to be the primary mechanisms responsible for this discrepancy. Additional factors are discussed including elipticity and transient effects.

Edelman, R. B.; Fortune, O.; Weilerstein, G.

1972-01-01

177

Aerosol bolus dispersion in acinar airways--influence of gravity and airway asymmetry

The aerosol bolus technique can be used to estimate the degree of convective mixing in the lung; however, contributions of different lung compartments to measured dispersion cannot be differentiated unambiguously. To estimate dispersion in the distal lung, we studied the effect of gravity and airway asymmetry on the dispersion of 1 ?m-diameter particle boluses in three-dimensional computational models of the lung periphery, ranging from a single alveolar sac to four-generation (g4) structures of bifurcating airways that deformed homogeneously during breathing. Boluses were introduced at the beginning of a 2-s inhalation, immediately followed by a 3-s exhalation. Dispersion was estimated by the half-width of the exhaled bolus. Dispersion was significantly affected by the spatial orientation of the models in normal gravity and was less in zero gravity than in normal gravity. Dispersion was strongly correlated with model volume in both normal and zero gravity. Predicted pulmonary dispersion based on a symmetric g4 acinar model was 391 ml and 238 ml under normal and zero gravity, respectively. These results accounted for a significant amount of dispersion measured experimentally. In zero gravity, predicted dispersion in a highly asymmetric model accounted for ?20% of that obtained in a symmetric model with comparable volume and number of alveolated branches, whereas normal gravity dispersions were comparable in both models. These results suggest that gravitational sedimentation and not geometrical asymmetry is the dominant factor in aerosol dispersion in the lung periphery. PMID:22678957

Ma, Baoshun

2012-01-01

178

Absolute Zero: Science Educator's Guide

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides recommendations for curricular modules on low temperature physics. Designed for teachers and informal educators of middle school students. this guide complements the Absolute Zero Community Education Outreach Guide. Suggestions on leading discussions, increasing student participation, and the use of inquiry are included. This material is related to a two-part public broadcasting special, Absolute Zero, produced by Meridian Productions and Windfall Films. Absolute Zero is underwritten by the National Science Foundation and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and is based largely on Tom Shachtmanâs acclaimed book, Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold.

2008-09-18

179

We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

2000-08-01

180

A zero-home locator includes a fixed phototransistor switch and a moveable actuator including two symmetrical, opposed wedges, each wedge defining a point at which switching occurs. The zero-home location is the average of the positions of the points defined by the wedges.

Stone, W.J.

1983-10-31

181

Zero knowledge proofs of identity

In this paper we extend the notion of zero knowledge proofs of membership (which reveal one bit of information) to zero knowledge proofs of knowledge (which reveal no information whatsoever). After formally defining this notion, we show its relevance to identification schemes, in which parties prove their identity by demonstrating their knowledge rather than by proving the validity of assertions.

U. Fiege; Amos Fiat; Adi Shamir

1987-01-01

182

BF Models in Dual Formulations of Linearized Gravity

The case of couplings in D = 5 between a simple, maximal BF model and the dual formulation of linearized gravity is considered. All the possible interactions are exhausted by means of computing the 'free' local BRST cohomology in ghost number zero.

Bizdadea, Constantin; Cioroianu, Eugen M.; Danehkar, Ashbiz; Iordache, Marius; Saliu, Solange O.; Sararu, Silviu C. [Faculty of Physics, University of Craiova, 13 A. I. Cuza Str., Craiova 200585 (Romania)

2009-05-22

183

Can we see gravitational collapse in (quantum) gravity perturbation theory?

In this paper, by making use of the perturbative expansion around topological field theory we are trying to understand why the standard perturbation theory for General Relativity, which starts with linearized gravity does not see gravitational collapse. We start with investigating classical equations of motion. For zero Immirzi parameter the ambiguity of the standard perturbative expansion is reproduced. This ambiguity

J. Kowalski-Glikman; A. Starodubtsev

2006-01-01

184

Density-metric unimodular gravity: Vacuum maximal symmetry

We have investigated the vacuum maximally symmetric solutions of recently proposed density-metric unimodular gravity theory. The results are widely different from inflationary scenario. The exponential dependence on time in deSitter space is substituted by a power law. Open space-times with non-zero cosmological constant are excluded.

Abbassi, A.H., E-mail: ahabbasi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14155-4838, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abbassi, A.M., E-mail: amabasi@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14155-6455, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-05-15

185

Non-Unitary Fermionic Quasinormal Modes at Zero Frequency

We consider the dynamics of a probe fermion charged under a U(1) Maxwell field and a two form potential $B_{(2)}$ in a five dimensional gravity background. The gravity background is constructed from a new solution we find of type IIB supergravity. This new solution is expected to be dual to non-commutative Yang-Mills theory in the 't Hooft limit with global U(1) currents. We study the zero frequency, near horizon behavior of the fermion, where the equations of motion reduce to that of two interacting fermions in AdS$_2$ with an electric field. We show that the operator dimensions in the AdS$_2$ space are complex, leading to the two components of the retarded Green's function in the dual theory to be complex conjugates of each other. In order to preserve unitarity, this result implies there are no zero frequency quasinormal modes in our system. This has important implications for generalizations of recent holographic Fermi liquid setups with AdS$_2$ regions, as it suggests that infinite lifetime excitations can have energies above/below the chemical potential. Therefore, the Fermi energy may not be uniquely set by the chemical potential. Furthermore, since the gravity background breaks rotational symmetry along the spatial directions of the dual Yang-Mills theory, we do not expect the Fermi surface to be spherical in shape in momentum space.

Tameem Albash

2010-02-23

186

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Least Action (Gravity/Free) model illustrates the principle of least action for the one dimensional motion of a free particle or a particle subject to a constant gravitational force. The simulation displays height versus time, with the path broken into equally spaced time intervals. The user can set the initial and final heights, as well as the number of time intervals to be used. The user can then adjust the intermediate heights in order to minimize the action along the path, or else allow the computer to implement an algorithm for finding the path of least action. Both the action of the current path and the least action so far observed with the current parameters are displayed. The simulation can also display average values for velocity, change in velocity, acceleration, kinetic energy, potential energy, the Lagrangian function, and total mechanical energy for each segment of the path. This helps to illustrate that the path of least action is also a path of constant acceleration (zero if there is no gravity) and constant total energy. The algorithm minimizes the action by examining three consecutive points on the path. The outer two points are held fixed and basic calculus can be used to determine the value for the middle height that minimizes the action for this segment of the path. This procedure is repeated for each segment of three points on the path, moving left to right. If this entire process is repeated over and over the path will gradually approach the path of global least action. This approach, and the entire EJS Least Action (Gravity/Free) model, was inspired by the Principle of Least Action Interactive page by Edwin Taylor and Slavomir Tuleja.

Timberlake, Todd

2012-09-05

187

Anisotropic stress and stability in modified gravity models

The existence of anisotropic stress of a purely geometrical origin seems to be a characteristic of higher order gravity models, and has been suggested as a probe to test these models observationally, for example, in weak lensing experiments. In this paper, we seek to find a class of higher order gravity models of f(R,G) type that would give us a zero anisotropic stress and study the consequences for the viability of the actual model. For the special case of a de Sitter background, we identify a subclass of models with the desired property. We also find a direct link between anisotropic stress and the stability of the model as well as the presence of extra degrees of freedom, which seems to be a general feature of higher order gravity models. Particularly, setting the anisotropic stress equal to zero for a de Sitter background leads to a singularity that makes it impossible to reach the de Sitter evolution.

Saltas, Ippocratis D. [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Kunz, Martin [Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)

2011-03-15

188

Synergistic Gravity and the Role of Resonances in GRS-Inspired Braneworlds

We consider 5D braneworld models of quasi-localized gravity in which 4D gravity is reproduced at intermediate scales while the extra dimension opens up at both the very short and the very long distances, where the geometry is flat. Our main interest is the interplay between the zero mode of these models, whenever a normalizable zero mode exists, and the effects of zero energy graviton resonant modes coming from the contributions of massive KK modes. We first consider a compactified version of the GRS model and find that quasi-localized gravity is characterized by a scale for which both the resonance and the zero mode have significant contribution to 4D gravity. Above this scale, gravity is primarily mediated by the zero mode, while the resonance gives only minor corrections. Next, we consider an asymmetric version of the standard non-compact GRS model, characterized by different cosmological constants on each AdS side. We show that a resonance is present but the asymmetry, through the form of the localizing potential, can weaken it, resulting in a shorter lifetime and, thus, in a shorter distance scale for 4D gravity. As a third model exhibiting quasi-localization, we consider a version of the GRS model in which the central positive tension brane has been replaced by a configuration of a scalar field propagating in the bulk.

C. Bogdanos; A. Dimitriadis; K. Tamvakis

2007-06-07

189

Zero/zero rotorcraft certification issues. Volume 1: Executive summary

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report analyzes the Zero/Zero Rotorcraft Certification Issues from the perspectives of manufacturers, operators, researchers and the FAA. The basic premise behind this analysis is the zero/zero, or at least extremely low visibility, rotorcraft operations are feasible today from both a technological and an operational standpoint. The questions and issues that need to be resolved are: What certification requirements do we need to ensure safety. Can we develop procedures which capitalize on the performance and maneuvering capabilities unique to rotorcraft. Will exptremely low visibility operations be economically feasible. This is Volume 1 of three. It provides an overview of the Certification Issues Forum held in Phoenix, Arizona in August of 1987. It presents a consensus of 48 experts from government, manufacturer, and research communities on 50 specific Certification Issues. The topics of Operational Requirements, Procedures, Airworthiness, and Engineering Capabilities are discussed.

Adams, Richard J.

1988-01-01

190

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students write a biographical sketch of an artist or athlete who lives on the edge, riding the gravity wave, to better understand how these artists and athletes work with gravity and manage risk. Note: The literacy activities for the Mechanics unit are based on physical themes that have broad application to our experience in the world â concepts of rhythm, balance, spin, gravity, levity, inertia, momentum, friction, stress and tension.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

191

The previous version of this article was a first attempt to confront the Dark Gravity theory to cosmological data. However, more recent developments lead to the conclusion that the cosmological principle is probably not valid in Dark Gravity so that this kind of analysis is at best very premature. A more recent and living review of the Dark Gravity theory can be found in gr-qc/0610079

F. Henry-Couannier; A. Tilquin; C. Tao; A. Ealet

2005-09-05

192

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about center of gravity (page 23 of PDF), learners investigate how the body adjusts to the force of gravity to remain balanced. In part 1, learners use different amounts of weight and meter sticks to explore balance and stability. In part 2, learners will conduct two experiments to explore their own centers of gravity. This guide includes background information, extensions, and data sheets.

Chang, Kimberly; Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Institute, National S.

2000-01-01

193

This short report explains the parameters, and their basis, of the D-Zero calorimeter multiplan spread sheet Macintosh Multiplan worksheets have been found to be a valuable asset to the D-Zero design effort. The spread sheet contains parameters (constants) and results that come from the parameters. The full effect of changes in D-Zero calorimeter parameters can be calculated quite easily with Multiplan. When a change in a parameter is made, any results that pertain to that parameter automatically change also. This report will explain how some of the unobvious results were obtained.

Wintercorn, S.J.; /Fermilab

1987-06-15

194

A Simple Volcano Potential with an Analytic, Zero-Energy, Ground State

We describe a simple volcano potential, which is supersymmetric and has an analytic, zero-energy, ground state. (The KK modes are also analytic.) It is an interior harmonic oscillator potential properly matched to an exterior angular momentum-like tail. Special cases are given to elucidate the physics, which may be intuitively useful in studies of higher-dimensional gravity.

Michael Martin Nieto

2000-05-30

195

Feeling Gravity's Pull: Gravity Modeling. The Gravity Field of Mars

Most people take the constant presence of gravitys pull for granted. However, the Earth's gravitational strength actually varies from location to location. This variation occurs because mass, which influences an object's gravitational pull, is not evenly distributed within the planet. Changes in topography, such as glacial movement, an earthquake, or a rise in the ocean level, can subtly affect the

Frank Lemoine; David Smith; David Rowlands; Maria Zuber; G. Neumann; Douglas Chinn; D. Pavlis

2000-01-01

196

Low-gravity facilities for Space Station planetology experiments

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For experimentation, space offers an environment which is unobtainable on earth. One characteristic is a gravity force less than 1 g, where g is the mean earth gravity acceleration of 9.8 m/sq s. The production of uniform gravity levels above zero g in space is discussed in relationship to experimental needs. For planetology experiments, providing gravity in space will make it possible to more nearly simulate conditions on natural bodies. The g-level is but one parameter involved in the design of a specific experiment. Other requirements may be: g-level range; g-level tolerance value; Coriolis tolerance value; volume requirement g-level duration; power and materials for the experiment; and automated or man-tended operations. These requirements, and certainly others, will dictate the type of facility which should be considered. The use of the Space Station of the Tethered Satellite System configurations is discussed.

Penzo, Paul A.

1987-01-01

197

Quasi-Localization of Gravity by Resonant Modes

We examine the behaviour of gravity in brane theories with extra dimensions in a non-factorizable geometry. We find that for metrics which are asymptotically flat far from the brane there is a resonant graviton mode at zero energy. The presence of this resonance ensures quasi-localization of gravity, whereby at intermediate scales the gravitational laws on the brane are approximately four dimensional. However, for scales larger than the lifetime of the graviton resonance the five dimensional laws of gravity will be reproduced due to the decay of the four dimensional graviton. We also present a simple classification of the possible types of effective gravity theories on the brane that can appear for general non-factorizable background theories.

Csaba Csaki; Joshua Erlich; Timothy J. Hollowood

2000-02-21

198

A possibility to solve the problems with quantizing gravity

It is generally believed that quantum gravity is necessary to resolve the known tensions between general relativity and the quantum field theories of the standard model. Since perturbatively quantized gravity is non-renormalizable, the problem how to unify all interactions in a common framework has been open since the 1930s. Here, I propose a possibility to circumvent the known problems with quantizing gravity, as well as the known problems with leaving it unquantized: By changing the prescription for second quantization, a perturbative quantization of gravity is sufficient as an effective theory because matter becomes classical before the perturbative expansion breaks down. This is achieved by considering the vanishing commutator between a field and its conjugated momentum as a symmetry that is broken at low temperatures, and by this generates the quantum phase that we currently live in, while at high temperatures Planck's constant goes to zero.

S. Hossenfelder

2012-08-29

199

Shear waves in inhomogeneous, compressible fluids in a gravity field.

While elastic solids support compressional and shear waves, waves in ideal compressible fluids are usually thought of as compressional waves. Here, a class of acoustic-gravity waves is studied in which the dilatation is identically zero, and the pressure and density remain constant in each fluid particle. These shear waves are described by an exact analytic solution of linearized hydrodynamics equations in inhomogeneous, quiescent, inviscid, compressible fluids with piecewise continuous parameters in a uniform gravity field. It is demonstrated that the shear acoustic-gravity waves also can be supported by moving fluids as well as quiescent, viscous fluids with and without thermal conductivity. Excitation of a shear-wave normal mode by a point source and the normal mode distortion in realistic environmental models are considered. The shear acoustic-gravity waves are likely to play a significant role in coupling wave processes in the ocean and atmosphere. PMID:24606251

Godin, Oleg A

2014-03-01

200

Unified theory of nonlinear electrodynamics and gravity

We describe a class of unified theories of electromagnetism and gravity. The Lagrangian is of the BF type, with a potential for the B field, the gauge group is U(2) (complexified). Given a choice of the potential function the theory is a deformation of (complex) general relativity and electromagnetism, and describes just two propagating polarizations of the graviton and two of the photon. When gravity is switched off the theory becomes the usual nonlinear electrodynamics with a general structure function. The Einstein-Maxwell theory can be recovered by sending some of the parameters of the defining potential to zero, but for any generic choice of the potential the theory is indistinguishable from Einstein-Maxwell at low energies. A real theory is obtained by imposing suitable reality conditions. We also study the spherically-symmetric solution and show how the usual Reissner-Nordstrom solution is recovered.

Torres-Gomez, Alexander; Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

2011-01-15

201

We consider the problem of finding a dual formulation of gravity in the presence of non-trivial matter couplings. In the absence of matter a dual graviton can be introduced only for linearised gravitational interactions. We show that the coupling of linearised gravity to matter poses obstructions to the usual construction and comment on possible resolutions of this difficulty.

Eric A. Bergshoeff; Mees de Roo; Sven F. Kerstan; Axel Kleinschmidt; Fabio Riccioni

2008-03-13

202

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The activity provided on this web page offers students a chance to understand how mirrors can be used to create the appearance of defying gravity. With an easy setup, these activities can make students appear to perform many gravity-defying stunts such as flying.

2006-07-13

203

Entrainment in Gravity Currents

Gravity currents are common in the Atmosphere (Haboobs, Dust Storms, Fronts, Breezes, Katabathic winds, etc.) and in the Ocean (Estuary outflows, Coastal fronts, Turbidities, etc.) and due to the conversion of potential energy to horizontal movements produce locally much larger transport rates than those of small scale turbulence. A series of laboratory experiments with 2D and 3D gravity currents produced

P. Huq; P. Medina; J. M. Redondo

2003-01-01

204

Comments on noncommutative gravity

We study the possibility of obtaining noncommutative gravity dynamics from string theory in the Seiberg-Witten limit. We find that the resulting low-energy theory contains more interaction terms than those proposed in noncommutative deformations of gravity. The role of twisted diffeomorphisms in string theory is studied and it is found that they are not standard physical symmetries. It is argued that

Frank Meyer; Miguel A. Vazquez-Mozoc; Arnold Somerfeld

205

Comments on noncommutative gravity

We study the possibility of obtaining noncommutative gravity dynamics from string theory in the Seiberg–Witten limit. We find that the resulting low-energy theory contains more interaction terms than those proposed in noncommutative deformations of gravity. The rôle of twisted diffeomorphisms in string theory is studied and it is found that they are not standard physical symmetries. It is argued that

Luis Álvarez-Gaumé; Frank Meyer; Miguel Angel Vázquez-Mozo

2006-01-01

206

Date Lot # Specific Gravity pH Leukocytes Nitrite Protein Glucose Ketone Urobilinogen Bilirubin Blood / Hemoglobin HCG: Method Lot # AcetestÂ® (Ketone): Lot # ClinitestÂ® (Glucose): Lot # IctotestÂ®(Bilirubin # Specific Gravity pH Leukocytes Nitrite Protein Glucose Ketone Urobilinogen Bilirubin Blood / Hemoglobin HCG

Rodriguez, Carlos

207

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A miniature drop tower, Reduced-Gravity Demonstrator is developed to illustrate the effects of gravity on a variety of phenomena including the way fluids flow, flames burn, and mechanical systems (such as pendulum) behave. A schematic and description of the demonstrator and payloads are given, followed by suggestions for how one can build his (her) own.

Pearlman, Howard; Stocker, Dennis; Gotti, Daniel; Urban, David; Ross, Howard; Sours, Thomas

1996-01-01

208

Tethered gravity laboratories study

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use is studied of tether systems to improve the lowest possible steady gravity level on the Space Station. Particular emphasis is placed by the microgravity community on the achievement of high quality microgravity conditions. The tether capability is explored for active control of the center of gravity and the analysis of possible tethered configurations.

Lucchetti, F.

1989-01-01

209

Zeros of Multivariable Systems: Definitions and Algorithms.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of definitions of zeros of linear time-invariant multivariable systems have appeared recently. This work surveys selected literature on these zeros. Two questions are addressed here. First, how are zeros defined and how are these definitions inte...

D. K. Lindner

1979-01-01

210

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This broadcast reports on Gravity Probe B, a satellite designed to test the frame dragging prediction of Einstein's theory of general relativity, where a spinning object such as the Earth will push spacetime in front of it. Gravity Probe B uses gyroscopes which will shift direction while orbiting the Earth (if general relativity is correct). The broadcast contains comments from a scientist who has worked on the Gravity Probe B mission for over 44 years. There is a brief explanation of the difference between the behavior of gravity in Newtonian physics and general relativity. The broadcast also discusses why it took so long to build the satellite (a dozen technologies had to be invented first), the cost involved, and whether the plug would be pulled on the mission; however, Gravity Probe B was finally launched on April 20, 2004. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

211

Black Hole Remnant from Gravity's Rainbow

In this work, we investigate black hole (BH) physics in the context of gravity rainbow. We investigate this through rainbow functions that have been proposed by Amelino-Camelia, et el. in [arXiv:0806.0339, hep-th/9605211]. This modification will give corrections to both the temperature and the entropy of BH and hence it changes the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of BH approaches the Planck scale. It prevents BH from total evaporation, predicting the existence of BH remnant which may resolve the catastrophic behavior of Hawking radiation as the BH mass approaches zero.

Ali, Ahmed Farag

2014-01-01

212

Black Hole Remnant from Gravity's Rainbow

In this work, we investigate black hole (BH) physics in the context of gravity rainbow. We investigate this through rainbow functions that have been proposed by Amelino-Camelia, et el. in [arXiv:0806.0339, hep-th/9605211]. This modification will give corrections to both the temperature and the entropy of BH and hence it changes the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of BH approaches the Planck scale. It prevents BH from total evaporation, predicting the existence of BH remnant which may resolve the catastrophic behavior of Hawking radiation as the BH mass approaches zero.

Ahmed Farag Ali

2014-02-21

213

Particle cloud combustion in reduced gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prinicipal objectives of this microgravity experiment program are to obtain flame propagation rate and flame extinction limit data for several important premixed, quiescent particle cloud combustion systems under near zero-gravity conditions. The data resulting from these experiments are needed for utilization with currently available and tractable flame propagation and extinction theory. These data are also expected to provide standards for the evaluation of fire hazards in particle suspensions in both Earth-based and space-based applications. Both terrestrial and space-based fire safety criteria require the identification of the critical concentrations of particulate fuels and inerts at the flame extinction conditions.

Berlad, A. L.

1988-01-01

214

Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics of Induced Liouville Gravity

In this paper we describe a Liouville gravity which is induced by a set of quantum fields (constituents) and represents a two-dimensional analog of Sakharov's induced gravity. The important feature of the considered theory is the presence of massless constituents which are responsible for the appearance of the induced Liouville field. The role of the massive constituents is only to induce the cosmological constant. We consider the instanton solutions of the Euclidean Liouville gravity with negative and zero cosmological constants, some instantons being interpreted as two-dimensional anti-de Sitter $AdS_2$ black holes. We study thermodynamics of all the solutions and conclude that their entropy is completely determined by the statistical-mechanical entropy of the massless constituents. This shows, in particular, that the constituents of the induced gravity are the true degrees of freedom of $AdS_2$ black holes. Special attention is also paid to the induced Liouville gravity with zero cosmological constant on a torus. We demonstrate the equivalence of its thermodynamics to the thermodynamics of BTZ black holes and comment on computations of the BTZ black hole entropy.

V. Frolov; D. Fursaev; J. Gegenberg; G. Kunstatter

1999-01-20

215

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The D-Zero Experiment is a worldwide collaboration of physics researchers centrally located at the Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory's Tevratron Collider. The experiment focuses on the fundamental nature of matter, with particular attention paid to "precise studies of interactions of protons and antiprotons at the highest available energies." Researchers will be especially interested in the results section within which they can access summaries of new results, D-Zero results presented at 1999 summer conferences, Run II Fermilab Supersymmetry/ Higgs Workshop documents and summaries, and documents of work conducted by various Physics Groups working in specialized areas. The site also offers a technical section featuring information on experiment upgrades and computing, as well as contact information for experiment collaborators. Note, some areas are restricted to D-Zero collaboration members.

216

Homes fit for zero: Dwellings in a zero-carbon

-academic reports #12;Core research themes Building performance simulation/modelling Low and zero-carbon buildings involvement (PhD) Fuel poverty and refurbishment campaigns Whole life analysis of building components (RAEng 2005 Variant Demand-side interventions Supply-side interventions 2030 Variant Economics User

Painter, Kevin

217

ZERI: Zero Emissions Research Initiative

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the Zero Emissions Research Foundation based in Geneva, Switzerland, ZERI seeks to support industry's transformation to zero emission operations. ZERI advocates either full use of inputs in an industry's own final product or conversion of the inputs for use by other industries or processes. At the site, the user can get information about the fourth Annual World ZERI Congress, read research articles and reports, or learn about ZERI's Worldwide Projects. The site also provides access to other ZERI sites in Brazil, Mexico, Namibia, Japan, and Germany.

218

Brane World Gravity in an AdS Black Hole

We consider a model of brane world gravity in the context of non-conformal non-SUSY matter. In particular we modify the earlier strong coupling solution to the glueball spectrum in an $AdS^7$ Black Hole by introducing a Randall-Sundrum Planck brane as a UV cut-off. The consequence is a new normalizable zero mass tensor state, which gives rise to an effective Einstein-Hilbert theory of gravity, with exponentially small corrections set by the mass gap to the discrete glueball spectrum. However the simplest microscopic theory for the Planck brane is found to have a tachyonic instability in the radion mode.

Richard C. Brower; Samir D. Mathur; Chung-I Tan

2002-10-29

219

Complete Classification of 1+1 Gravity Solutions

A classification of the maximally extended solutions for 1+1 gravity models (comprising e.g. generalized dilaton gravity as well as models with non-trivial torsion) is presented. No restrictions are placed on the topology of the arising solutions, and indeed it is found that for generic models solutions on non-compact surfaces of arbitrary genus with an arbitrary non-zero number of holes can be obtained. The moduli space of classical solutions (solutions of the field equations with fixed topology modulo gauge transformations) is parametrized explicitly.

T. Kloesch; T. Strobl

1997-11-25

220

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We all know lots of sayings about gravity. "What goes up must come down." "You fail to understand the gravity of the situation." Gravity is the name we give to the phenomenon that any two masses, like you and the earth, that attract each other. This brief introduction to gravity will help elementary educators teach the concept with confidence.

Nelson, George

2004-09-01

221

Abstract—The photon, that is the messenger of the electromagnetic force, is considered with a zero restmass. Yet, just as there is no energy with a zero value, so we talk about a “Zero Point Energy”, for the equivalence between mass and energy (datum point of the Theory of Relativity and foundation of modern Physics), there should exist also a “Zero

Antonio Puccini

2005-01-01

222

Zero Stiffness Tensegrity Structures M. Schenk a

Zero Stiffness Tensegrity Structures M. Schenk a S.D. Guest b, J.L. Herder a aMechanical, Maritime members with a zero rest length allow the construction of tensegrity struc- tures that are in equilibrium interesting observations regarding zero stiffness tensegrity structures. Key words: zero stiffness, tensegrity

Guest, Simon

223

Exercise in artificial gravity

Artificial gravity provided by short radius centrifugation is considered a promising countermeasure to the deleterious physiological effects of microgravity during long-duration space flight. We investigated the feasibility ...

Edmonds, Jessica Leigh

2005-01-01

224

Superconducting tensor gravity gradiometer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The employment of superconductivity and other material properties at cryogenic temperatures to fabricate sensitive, low-drift, gravity gradiometer is described. The device yields a reduction of noise of four orders of magnitude over room temperature gradiometers, and direct summation and subtraction of signals from accelerometers in varying orientations are possible with superconducting circuitry. Additional circuits permit determination of the linear and angular acceleration vectors independent of the measurement of the gravity gradient tensor. A dewar flask capable of maintaining helium in a liquid state for a year's duration is under development by NASA, and a superconducting tensor gravity gradiometer for the NASA Geodynamics Program is intended for a LEO polar trajectory to measure the harmonic expansion coefficients of the earth's gravity field up to order 300.

Paik, H. J.

1981-01-01

225

The equations of the relativistic causal Newton gravity law for the planets of the solar system are studied in the approximation when the Sun rests at the coordinates origin and the planets do not iteract between each other.

Yury M. Zinoviev

2012-01-17

226

Quantum, Gravity, and Geometry

Recently, it is shown that, the quantum effects of matter are well described by the conformal degree of freedom of the space-time metric. On the other hand, it is a wellknown fact that according to Einstein's gravity theory, gravity and geometry are interconnected. In the new quantum gravity theory, matter quantum effects completely determine the conformal degree of freedom of the space-time metric, while the causal structure of the space-time is determined by the gravitational effects of the matter, as well as the quantum effects through back reaction effects. This idea, previousely, is realized in the framework of scalar-tensor theories. In this work, it is shown that quantum gravity theory can also be realized as a purely metric theory. Such a theory is developed, its consequences and its properties are investigated. The theory is applied, then, to black holes and the radiation-dominated universe. It is shown that the initial singularity can be avoided.

Ali Shojai

2000-10-04

227

Local stretch zeroing NMO correction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a new method of normal move-out (NMO) correction called local stretch zeroing (LSZ) method that avoids NMO stretch. The method eliminates the theoretical curves that generate interpolated data samples responsible for NMO stretch. Pre-correction time sampling interval is preserved by reassigning and zero padding of true data samples. The optimum mute zone selection feature of the LSZ method eliminates all interfering reflection events at far offsets. The resulted stacked section from the LSZ method contains generally higher frequency components than a normal stack, and preserves most of the shallow reflectors. The LSZ method requires that zero-offset width of the time gate, i.e. zero-offset time difference between two adjacent reflections, be larger than the dominant period. The major shortcoming of the method occurs when CMP data are over- or under-NMO corrected. Both synthetic and real world examples show the efficiency of the LSZ method over the conventional NMO (CNMO) correction. The method loses its superiority when CMP data are over- or under-NMO corrected.

Kazemi, N.; Siahkoohi, H. R.

2012-01-01

228

A zero-tolerance attitude towards birds on airfields is generally considered to be the best way to prevent bird strikes. Any airport claiming such an approach is making a firm statement that leaves the public with a suggestion of safety and convinces airline operators that maximum effort is put in bird strike prevention. Because of the mobility of birds it is

Arie Dekker; Luit Buurma

229

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The last ten years have seen an explosion of research in the zero-divisor graphs of commutative rings--by professional mathematicians "and" undergraduates. The objective is to find algebraic information within the geometry of these graphs. This topic is approachable by anyone with one or two semesters of abstract algebra. This article gives the…

Axtell, M.; Stickles, J.

2010-01-01

230

Stepping Back from Zero Tolerance

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools' use of zero tolerance policies has been increasing since the 1980s as part of a societal movement to crack down on drug abuse and violence among youth. But far from making schools safer, this harsh, inflexible approach to discipline has been eroding the culture of schools and creating devastating consequences for children, writes…

Browne-Dianis, Judith

2011-01-01

231

Questioning Zero and Negative Numbers

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After experiencing a Developing Mathematical Ideas (DMI) class on the construction of algebraic concepts surrounding zero and negative numbers, the author conducted an interview with a first grader to determine the youngster's existing level of understanding about these topics. Uncovering young students' existing understanding can provide focus…

Wilcox, Virginia B.

2008-01-01

232

Partition function zeros in QCD

We find a relationship between the partition function mass zeros and the spectral properties of the QCD Dirac operator in the context of chiral Random Matrix Theory. Introducing the concept of normal modes we see that certain features of the QCD partition function are universal.

Michaela Oswald

2001-11-01

233

Zero Waste, Renewable Energy & Environmental

-12-06: There are basically two problems with incinerators Â no matter what name you may give them. Â· First, they produce business, namely "zero waste" and "clean production." #12;Arguments given against WTE: People who think we can make the transition to a sustainable economy without stopping incinerators (in all their forms

Columbia University

234

The ATLAS zero degree calorimeter

In May of 2009 the ATLAS zero degree calorimeter was installed in its initial configuration and integrated into the ATLAS trigger/daq. The detector was designed to measure Global characteristics of events - particularly in PbPb collisions - through the measurement of energy and position of very forward neutral particles. Here we discuss the design and tests - particularly of radiation hardness.

White, S.

2009-10-17

235

Reviewing the Zero Point Energy

A review of recent developments in the study of the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) is made. The origin and behavior of the electromagnetic fields making up the vacuum ZPE is elucidated. From this it is deduced that the ZPE should increase with time even in a static universe such as Narliker and Arp propose. The small oscillations that a static

Barry Setterfield

236

Program Planning Steps Phase Zero

Program Planning Steps Phase Zero: At the annual Council of Deans retreat, Deans and other units present two page concept papers about new academic programs which might be ready to be considered for Graduate Affairs, and the Provost discuss which of the new programs might be ready for proceeding to Phase

237

A versatile zero ripple topology

A lightweight and efficient converter topology is described that presents zero ripple current on both input and output terminals simultaneously. The static and dynamic analyses are performed by using state representation with the current-injected method. A hardware application suitable for a space-station battery conditioner is presented as a validation of the theoretical model.

A. Capel; H. Spruyt; A. Weinberg; D. O'Sullivan; A. Crausaz; J. C. Marpinard

1988-01-01

238

Thermodynamical Quantum Gravity

The canonically quantized 3+1 General Relativity with the global one dimensionality conjecture defines the model, which dimensionally reduced and secondary quantized yields the one-dimensional quantum field theory wherein the generic one-point correlations create a boson mass responsible for quantum gravity. In this paper, this simple model is developed in a wider sense. We propose to consider the thermodynamics of space quanta, constructed ab initio from the entropic formalism, as the quantum gravity phenomenology.

Lukasz Andrzej Glinka

2009-06-20

239

We develop a topological theory of gravity with torsion where metric has a dynamical rather than a kinematical origin. This approach towards gravity resembles pre-geometrical approaches in which a fundamental metric does not exist, but the affine connection gives place to a local inertial structure. Such feature reminds us of Mach's principle, that assumes the inertial forces should have dynamical origin. Additionally, a Newtonian gravitational force is obtained in the non-relativistic limit of the theory.

Skirzewski, Aureliano

2014-01-01

240

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gravity is the name given to the phenomenon that any two masses, like you and the Earth, attract each other. One pulls on the Earth and the Earth pulls on one the same amount. And one does not have to be touching. Gravity acts over vast distances, like the 150 million kilometers (93 million miles) between the Earth and the Sun or the billions of…

Nelson, George

2004-01-01

241

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study is to investigate comprehensive design requirements associated with designing habitats for humans in a partial gravity environment, then to apply them to a lunar base design. Other potential sites for application include planetary surfaces such as Mars, variable-gravity research facilities, and a rotating spacecraft. Design requirements for partial gravity environments include locomotion changes in less than normal earth gravity; facility design issues, such as interior configuration, module diameter, and geometry; and volumetric requirements based on the previous as well as psychological issues involved in prolonged isolation. For application to a lunar base, it is necessary to study the exterior architecture and configuration to insure optimum circulation patterns while providing dual egress; radiation protection issues are addressed to provide a safe and healthy environment for the crew; and finally, the overall site is studied to locate all associated facilities in context with the habitat. Mission planning is not the purpose of this study; therefore, a Lockheed scenario is used as an outline for the lunar base application, which is then modified to meet the project needs. The goal of this report is to formulate facts on human reactions to partial gravity environments, derive design requirements based on these facts, and apply the requirements to a partial gravity situation which, for this study, was a lunar base.

Capps, Stephen; Lorandos, Jason; Akhidime, Eval; Bunch, Michael; Lund, Denise; Moore, Nathan; Murakawa, Kiosuke

1989-01-01

242

Vacuum energy: quantum hydrodynamics vs quantum gravity

We compare quantum hydrodynamics and quantum gravity. They share many common features. In particular, both have quadratic divergences, and both lead to the problem of the vacuum energy, which in the quantum gravity transforms to the cosmological constant problem. We show that in quantum liquids the vacuum energy density is not determined by the quantum zero-point energy of the phonon modes. The energy density of the vacuum is much smaller and is determined by the classical macroscopic parameters of the liquid including the radius of the liquid droplet. In the same manner the cosmological constant is not determined by the zero-point energy of quantum fields. It is much smaller and is determined by the classical macroscopic parameters of the Universe dynamics: the Hubble radius, the Newton constant and the energy density of matter. The same may hold for the Higgs mass problem: the quadratically divergent quantum correction to the Higgs potential mass term is also cancelled by the microscopic (trans-Planckian) degrees of freedom due to thermodynamic stability of the whole quantum vacuum.

G. E. Volovik

2005-05-20

243

Modeling Candle Flame Behavior In Variable Gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The burning of a candle, as typical non-propagating diffusion flame, has been used by a number of researchers to study the effects of electric fields on flame, spontaneous flame oscillation and flickering phenomena, and flame extinction. In normal gravity, the heat released from combustion creates buoyant convection that draws oxygen into the flame. The strength of the buoyant flow depends on the gravitational level and it is expected that the flame shape, size and candle burning rate will vary with gravity. Experimentally, there exist studies of candle burning in enhanced gravity (i.e. higher than normal earth gravity, g(sub e)), and in microgravity in drop towers and space-based facilities. There are, however, no reported experimental data on candle burning in partial gravity (g < g(sub e)). In a previous numerical model of the candle flame, buoyant forces were neglected. The treatment of momentum equation was simplified using a potential flow approximation. Although the predicted flame characteristics agreed well with the experimental results, the model cannot be extended to cases with buoyant flows. In addition, because of the use of potential flow, no-slip boundary condition is not satisfied on the wick surface. So there is some uncertainty on the accuracy of the predicted flow field. In the present modeling effort, the full Navier-Stokes momentum equations with body force term is included. This enables us to study the effect of gravity on candle flames (with zero gravity as the limiting case). In addition, we consider radiation effects in more detail by solving the radiation transfer equation. In the previous study, flame radiation is treated as a simple loss term in the energy equation. Emphasis of the present model is on the gas-phase processes. Therefore, the detailed heat and mass transfer phenomena inside the porous wick are not treated. Instead, it is assumed that a thin layer of liquid fuel coated the entire wick surface during the burning process. This is the limiting case that the mass transfer process in the wick is much faster than the evaporation process at the wick surface.

Alsairafi, A.; Tien, J. S.; Lee, S. T.; Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.

2003-01-01

244

Experimental concept for examination of biological effects of magnetic field concealed by gravity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space is not only a place to study biological effects of gravity, but also provides unique opportunities to examine other environmental factors, where the biological actions are masked by gravity on the ground. Even the earth's magnetic field is steadily acting on living systems, and is known to influence many biological processes. A systematic survey and assessment of its action are difficult to conduct in the presence of dominant factors, such as gravity. Investigation of responses of biological systems against the combined environment of zero-gravity and zero-magnetic field might establish the baseline for the analysis of biological effects of magnetic factors. We propose, in this paper, an experimental concept in this context, together with a practical approach of the experiments, both in orbit and on the ground, with a thin magnetic shielding film. Plant epicotyl growth was taken as an exemplar index to evaluate technical and scientific feasibility of the proposed system concept.

Yamashita, M.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Takai, M.; Tsushima, M.; Nakamura, T.

2004-01-01

245

Minimal Liouville Gravity correlation numbers from Douglas string equation

We continue the study of $(q,p)$ Minimal Liouville Gravity with the help of Douglas string equation. We generalize the results of \\cite{Moore:1991ir}, \\cite{Belavin:2008kv}, where Lee-Yang series $(2,2s+1)$ was studied, to $(3,3s+p_0)$ Minimal Liouville Gravity, where $p_0=1,2$. We demonstrate that there exist such coordinates $\\tau_{m,n}$ on the space of the perturbed Minimal Liouville Gravity theories, in which the partition function of the theory is determined by the Douglas string equation. The coordinates $\\tau_{m,n}$ are related in a non-linear fashion to the natural coupling constants $\\lambda_{m,n}$ of the perturbations of Minimal Lioville Gravity by the physical operators $O_{m,n}$. We find this relation from the requirement that the correlation numbers in Minimal Liouville Gravity must satisfy the conformal and fusion selection rules. After fixing this relation we compute three- and four-point correlation numbers when they are not zero. The results are in agreement with the direct calculations in Minimal Liouville Gravity available in the literature \\cite{Goulian:1990qr}, \\cite{Zamolodchikov:2005sj}, \\cite{Belavin:2006ex}.

Alexander Belavin; Boris Dubrovin; Baur Mukhametzhanov

2013-10-21

246

Exoatmospheric intercepts using zero effort miss steering for midcourse guidance

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The suitability of proportional navigation, or an equivalent zero effort miss formulation, for exatmospheric intercepts during midcourse guidance, followed by a ballistic coast to the endgame, is addressed. The problem is formulated in terms of relative motion in a general, three dimensional framework. The proposed guidance law for the commanded thrust vector orientation consists of the sum of two terms: (1) along the line of sight unit direction and (2) along the zero effort miss component perpendicular to the line of sight and proportional to the miss itself and a guidance gain. If the guidance law is to be suitable for longer range targeting applications with significant ballistic coasting after burnout, determination of the zero effort miss must account for the different gravitational accelerations experienced by each vehicle. The proposed miss determination techniques employ approximations for the true differential gravity effect and thus, are less accurate than a direct numerical propagation of the governing equations, but more accurate than a baseline determination, which assumes equal accelerations for both vehicles. Approximations considered are constant, linear, quadratic, and linearized inverse square models. Theoretical results are applied to a numerical engagement scenario and the resulting performance is evaluated in terms of the miss distances determined from nonlinear simulation.

Newman, Brett

247

Zero discharge may prove expensive

Although many of the wastewater sources from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) powerplant are similar to those from a conventional coal-fired powerplant, the contaminated process blowdowns from gasification and gas cleanup are new to the electric utility industry. The treatment and ultimate disposal of these process wastewaters can be a principal concern in the overall wastewater management strategy for an IGCC plant. Work carried out by CH2M Hill and the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center has been addressing the unknowns in this area. This paper summarizes their analysis, discussing wastewater sources and quality, discharge standards, new source performance standards, water quality based standards, zero liquid discharge, systems for NSPS discharge standard, systems for water quality limited standard, systems for zero discharge, and wastewater treatment costs. 2 tables.

Not Available

1987-03-01

248

Quantum Back-Reaction in Scale Invariant Induced Gravity

A quartic, self-interacting potential in the induced gravity framework is known to have a pure de Sitter attractor for the homogeneous mode. In order to obtain non-zero slow roll parameters we therefore study the quantum back-reaction of the scalar and the tensor perturbations on such a homogeneous dynamics and compare the results with inflationary observables. Finally some possible effects of the quantum back-reaction on the Dark Energy equation of state are also addressed.

Tronconi, A

2010-01-01

249

Moving Toward Zero Energy Buildings

, labeling programs, lighting research, solar and geothermal heat pumps are all part of a bigger goal: zero energy buildings. To achieve them, we need the world?s best energy efficiency components (lighting, insulation, windows, heating, cooling..., appliances, etc) and systems integration to optimize the performance of the building. Then we need the best renewable energy technologies that can be incorporated into buildings: solar, small wind, and geothermal heat pumps (some day hydrogen storage...

Ginsberg, M.

2008-01-01

250

Disposable remote zero headspace extractor

The remote zero headspace extractor uses a sampling container inside a stainless steel vessel to perform toxicity characteristics leaching procedure to analyze volatile organic compounds. The system uses an in line filter for ease of replacement. This eliminates cleaning and disassembly of the extractor. All connections are made with quick connect fittings which can be easily replaced. After use, the bag can be removed and disposed of, and a new sampling container is inserted for the next extraction.

Hand, Julie J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Roberts, Mark P. (Arco, ID)

2006-03-21

251

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zero-Copy Objects System software enables application data to be encapsulated in layers of communication protocol without being copied. Indirect referencing enables application source data, either in memory or in a file, to be encapsulated in place within an unlimited number of protocol headers and/or trailers. Zero-copy objects (ZCOs) are abstract data access representations designed to minimize I/O (input/output) in the encapsulation of application source data within one or more layers of communication protocol structure. They are constructed within the heap space of a Simple Data Recorder (SDR) data store to which all participating layers of the stack must have access. Each ZCO contains general information enabling access to the core source data object (an item of application data), together with (a) a linked list of zero or more specific extents that reference portions of this source data object, and (b) linked lists of protocol header and trailer capsules. The concatenation of the headers (in ascending stack sequence), the source data object extents, and the trailers (in descending stack sequence) constitute the transmitted data object constructed from the ZCO. This scheme enables a source data object to be encapsulated in a succession of protocol layers without ever having to be copied from a buffer at one layer of the protocol stack to an encapsulating buffer at a lower layer of the stack. For large source data objects, the savings in copy time and reduction in memory consumption may be considerable.

Burleigh, Scott C.

2011-01-01

252

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work explores the theoretical and experimental aspects of Lorentz violation in gravity. A set of modified Einstein field equations is derived from the general Lorentz-violating Standard-Model Extension (SME). Some general theoretical implications of these results are discussed. The experimental consequences for weak-field gravitating systems are explored in the Earth- laboratory setting, the solar system, and beyond. The role of spontaneous Lorentz-symmetry breaking is discussed in the context of the pure-gravity sector of the SME. To establish the low-energy effective Einstein field equations, it is necessary to take into account the dynamics of 20 coefficients for Lorentz violation. As an example, the results are compared with bumblebee models, which are general theories of vector fields with spontaneous Lorentz violation. The field equations are evaluated in the post- newtonian limit using a perfect fluid description of matter. The post-newtonian metric of the SME is derived and compared with some standard test models of gravity. The possible signals for Lorentz violation due to gravity-sector coefficients are studied. Several new effects are identified that have experimental implications for current and future tests. Among the unconventional effects are a new type of spin precession for a gyroscope in orbit and a modification to the local gravitational acceleration on the Earth's surface. These and other tests are expected to yield interesting sensitivities to dimensionless gravity- sector coefficients.

Bailey, Quentin G.

2007-08-01

253

Variational principle and one-point functions in three-dimensional flat space Einstein gravity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a well-defined variational principle for three-dimensional flat space Einstein gravity by adding one-half of the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term to the bulk action. We check the zero-point function, recovering consistency with thermodynamics of flat space cosmologies. We then apply our result to calculate the one-point functions in flat space Einstein gravity for the vacuum and all flat space cosmologies. The results are compatible with the ones for the zero-mode charges obtained by canonical analysis.

Detournay, Stephane; Grumiller, Daniel; Schöller, Friedrich; Simón, Joan

2014-04-01

254

Singularity perturbed zero dynamics of nonlinear systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stability properties of zero dynamics are among the crucial input-output properties of both linear and nonlinear systems. Unstable, or 'nonminimum phase', zero dynamics are a major obstacle to input-output linearization and high-gain designs. An analysis of the effects of regular perturbations in system equations on zero dynamics shows that whenever a perturbation decreases the system's relative degree, it manifests itself as a singular perturbation of zero dynamics. Conditions are given under which the zero dynamics evolve in two timescales characteristic of a standard singular perturbation form that allows a separate analysis of slow and fast parts of the zero dynamics.

Isidori, A.; Sastry, S. S.; Kokotovic, P. V.; Byrnes, C. I.

1992-01-01

255

Asymptotic safety of gravity and the Higgs boson mass

There are indications that gravity is asymptotically safe. The Standard Model (SM) plus gravity could be valid up to arbitrarily high energies. Supposing that this is indeed the case and assuming that there are no intermediate energy scales between the Fermi and Planck scales we address the question of whether the mass of the Higgs boson $m_H$ can be predicted. For a positive gravity induced anomalous dimension $A_\\lambda>0$ the running of the quartic scalar self interaction $\\lambda$ at scales beyond the Planck mass is determined by a fixed point at zero. This results in $m_H=m_{\\rm min}=126$ GeV, with only a few GeV uncertainty. This prediction is independent of the details of the short distance running and holds for a wide class of extensions of the SM as well. For $A_\\lambda 0$ is favored by explicit computations existing in the literature.

Mikhail Shaposhnikov; Christof Wetterich

2009-12-01

256

Diluting Cosmological Constant via Large Distance Modification of Gravity

We review a solution of the cosmological constant problem in a brane-world model with infinite-volume extra dimensions. The solution is based on a nonlinear generally covariant theory of a metastable graviton that leads to a large-distance modification of gravity. From the extra-dimensional standpoint the problem is solved due to the fact that the four-dimensional vacuum energy curves mostly the extra space. The four-dimensional curvature is small, being inversely proportional to a positive power of the vacuum energy. The effects of infinite-volume extra dimensions are seen by a brane-world observer as nonlocal operators. From the four-dimensional perspective the problem is solved because the zero-mode graviton is extremely weakly coupled to localized four-dimensional sources. The observable gravity is mediated not by zero mode but, instead, by a metastable graviton with a lifetime of the order of the present-day Hubble scale. Therefore, laws of gravity are modified in the infrared above the Hubble scale. Large wave-length sources, such as the vacuum energy, feel only the zero-mode interaction and, as a result, curve space very mildly. Shorter wave-length sources interact predominantly via exchange of the metastable graviton. Because of this, all standard properties of early cosmology, including inflation, are intact.

Gia Dvali; Gregory Gabadadze; M. Shifman

2002-08-14

257

Results from the Middeck 0-gravity Dynamics Experiment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental results of the Middick Zero-gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE) are presented. MODE investigated the dynamics of two key spacecraft components; contained fluids and jointed truss structures. The change in the lateral slosh behavior of contained fluids and the changes in the modal parameters of space structural test articles from one- to zero-gravity were studied. The experimental apparatus used to determine the dynamic characteristics is described. For the MODE fluid experiments, the forced response characteristics of silicone oil and distilled water in cylinder tanks with either a flat or spherical bottom are reported and discussed. A comparison of the measured earth and space results identifies and highlights the effects of gravity on the linear and nonlinear slosh behavior of these fluids. For the MODE structural experiments, an analytic and experimental study is presented. Deployable, erectable, and rotary modules were assembled to form three one- and two-dimensional structures in which variations in bracing wire and rotary joint preload could be introduced. Analysis is compared with ground experimental measurements made on a spring/wire suspension system with a nominal plunge frequency of one Hertz, and with measurements made on the Shuttle middeck. The degree of change in linear modal parameters as well as the change in nonlinear nature of the response is examined. Trends in modal parameters are presented as a function of force amplitude, joint preload, and ambient gravity level.

Van Schoor, M. C.; Crawley, E. F.; Miller, D. W.

1993-01-01

258

Role of Gravity Waves in Determining Cirrus Cloud Properties

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cirrus clouds are important in the Earth's radiation budget. They typically exhibit variable physical properties within a given cloud system and from system to system. Ambient vertical motion is a key factor in determining the cloud properties in most cases. The obvious exception is convectively generated cirrus (anvils), but even in this case, the subsequent cloud evolution is strongly influenced by the ambient vertical motion field. It is well know that gravity waves are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and occur over a wide range of scales and amplitudes. Moreover, researchers have found that inclusion of statistical account of gravity wave effects can markedly improve the realism of simulations of persisting large-scale cirrus cloud features. Here, we use a 1 -dimensional (z) cirrus cloud model, to systematically examine the effects of gravity waves on cirrus cloud properties. The model includes a detailed representation of cloud microphysical processes (bin microphysics and aerosols) and is run at relatively fine vertical resolution so as to adequately resolve nucleation events, and over an extended time span so as to incorporate the passage of multiple gravity waves. The prescribed gravity waves "propagate" at 15 m s (sup -1), with wavelengths from 5 to 100 km, amplitudes range up to 1 m s (sup -1)'. Despite the fact that the net gravity wave vertical motion forcing is zero, it will be shown that the bulk cloud properties, e.g., vertically-integrated ice water path, can differ quite significantly from simulations without gravity waves and that the effects do depend on the wave characteristics. We conclude that account of gravity wave effects is important if large-scale models are to generate realistic cirrus cloud property climatology (statistics).

OCStarr, David; Singleton, Tamara; Lin, Ruei-Fong

2008-01-01

259

Terrestrial gravity data analysis for interim gravity model improvement

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the first status report for the Interim Gravity Model research effort that was started on June 30, 1986. The basic theme of this study is to develop appropriate models and adjustment procedures for estimating potential coefficients from terrestrial gravity data. The plan is to use the latest gravity data sets to produce coefficient estimates as well as to provide normal equations to NASA for use in the TOPEX/POSEIDON gravity field modeling program.

1987-01-01

260

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observable universe could be a 1+3-surface (the "brane") embedded in a 1+3+d-dimensional spacetime (the "bulk"), with Standard Model particles and fields trapped on the brane while gravity is free to access the bulk. At least one of the d extra spatial dimensions could be very large relative to the Planck scale, which lowers the fundamental gravity scale, possibly even down to the electroweak (˜TeV) level. This revolutionary picture arises in the framework of recent developments in M theory. The 1+10-dimensional M theory encompasses the known 1+9-dimensional superstring theories, and is widely considered to be a promising potential route to quantum gravity. At low energies, gravity is localized at the brane and general relativity is recovered, but at high energies gravity “leaks” into the bulk, behaving in a truly higher-dimensional way. This introduces significant changes to gravitational dynamics and perturbations, with interesting and potentially testable implications for high-energy astrophysics, black holes, and cosmology. Brane-world models offer a phenomenological way to test some of the novel predictions and corrections to general relativity that are implied by M theory. This review analyzes the geometry, dynamics and perturbations of simple brane-world models for cosmology and astrophysics, mainly focusing on warped 5-dimensional brane-worlds based on the Randall-Sundrum models. We also cover the simplest brane-world models in which 4-dimensional gravity on the brane is modified at low energies - the 5-dimensional Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati models. Then we discuss co-dimension two branes in 6-dimensional models.

Maartens, Roy; Koyama, Kazuya

2010-09-01

261

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity is one of the most inexplicable forces of nature, controlling everything, from the expansion of the Universe to the ebb and flow of ocean tides. The search for the laws of motion and gravitation began more than two thousand years ago, a quest that Prabhakar Gondhalekar recounts in The Grip of Gravity. Beginning with Aristotle and concluding with Planck, Gondhalekar outlines a 'genealogy' of gravity and lucidly explains how previous explanations have shaped the most recent development in the field, string theory. In this work, physicist and astronomer Gondhalekar describes experiments, both planned and proposed, and clearly explains natural phenomena like ocean tides, seasons, ice ages, the formation of planets, stars, and exotic objects like black holes and neutron stars, which are all controlled by gravity. Including anecdotes and thumb-nail sketches of the personalities involved, The Grip of Gravity provides an introduction to the foundation of modern physics and shows how the current developments in string theory may lead to a new and radical interpretation of gravity. Prabhakar Gondhalekar is an Honorary Fellow in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College, London. Until his retirement in 1998, he was the head of the Space Astronomy Group at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, where he had been a researcher for 18 years. His research has included a number of topics in galactic and extragalactic astronomy, with his major work focusing on the interstellar medium and active galactic nuclei. Gondhalekar has been awarded Royal Society, Leverhulme Trust, and NATO Research Fellowships to do research in universities in the United States and Israel.

Gondhalekar, Prabhakar

2001-09-01

262

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity from the Exploratorium provides a technique for determining the center of gravity of a long, thin object using only oneÃ¢ÂÂs hands. A yard stick, with a piece of clay to displace its center of mass, is placed on a participants separated hands. Each time the hands are slid together, they meet under the stickÃ¢ÂÂs center of gravity. Materials needed, assembly, and an explanation of the results are also provided. This activity is part of Exploratorium's Science Snacks series.

2008-06-20

263

Consistency of Semiclassical Gravity

We discuss some subtleties which arise in the semiclassical approximation to quantum gravity. We show that integrability conditions prevent the existence of Tomonaga-Schwinger time functions on the space of three-metrics but admit them on superspace. The concept of semiclassical time is carefully examined. We point out that central charges in the matter sector spoil the consistency of the semiclassical approximation unless the full quantum theory of gravity and matter is anomaly-free. We finally discuss consequences of these considerations for quantum field theory in flat spacetime, but with arbitrary foliations.

D. Giulini; C. Kiefer

1994-09-08

264

Effective Nonlocal Euclidean Gravity

A nonlocal form of the effective gravitational action could cure the unboundedness of euclidean gravity with Einstein action. On sub-horizon length scales the modified gravitational field equations seem compatible with all present tests of general relativity and post-Newtonian gravity. They induce a difference in the effective Newton's constant between regions of space with vanishing or nonvanishing curvature scalar (or Ricci tensor). In cosmology they may lead to a value $\\Omega<1$ for the critical density after inflation. The simplest model considered here appears to be in conflict with nucleosynthesis, but generalizations consistent with all cosmological observations seem conceivable.

C. Wetterich

1997-04-18

265

Charges for linearized gravity

Maxwell test fields as well as solutions of linearized gravity on the Kerr exterior admit non-radiating modes, i.e. non-trivial time-independent solutions. These are closely related to conserved charges. In this paper we discuss the non-radiating modes for linearized gravity, which may be seen to correspond to the Poincare Lie-algebra. The 2-dimensional isometry group of Kerr corresponds to a 2-parameter family of gauge-invariant non-radiating modes representing infinitesimal perturbations of mass and azimuthal angular momentum. We calculate the linearized mass charge in terms of linearized Newman-Penrose scalars.

Steffen Aksteiner; Lars Andersson

2013-01-12

266

Maglev Facility for Simulating Variable Gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved magnetic levitation apparatus ("Maglev Facility") has been built for use in experiments in which there are requirements to impose variable gravity (including zero gravity) in order to assess the effects of gravity or the absence thereof on physical and physiological processes. The apparatus is expected to be especially useful for experiments on the effects of gravity on convection, boiling, and heat transfer in fluids and for experiments on mice to gain understanding of bone loss induced in human astronauts by prolonged exposure to reduced gravity in space flight. The maglev principle employed by the apparatus is well established. Diamagnetic cryogenic fluids such as liquid helium have been magnetically levitated for studying their phase transitions and critical behaviors. Biological entities consist mostly of diamagnetic molecules (e.g., water molecules) and thus can be levitated by use of sufficiently strong magnetic fields having sufficiently strong vertical gradients. The heart of the present maglev apparatus is a vertically oriented superconducting solenoid electromagnet (see figure) that generates a static magnetic field of about 16 T with a vertical gradient sufficient for levitation of water in normal Earth gravity. The electromagnet is enclosed in a Dewar flask having a volume of 100 L that contains liquid helium to maintain superconductivity. The Dewar flask features a 66-mm-diameter warm bore, lying within the bore of the magnet, wherein experiments can be performed at room temperature. The warm bore is accessible from its top and bottom ends. The superconducting electromagnet is run in the persistent mode, in which the supercurrent and the magnetic field can be maintained for weeks with little decay, making this apparatus extremely cost and energy efficient to operate. In addition to water, this apparatus can levitate several common fluids: liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, methane, ammonia, sodium, and lithium, all of which are useful, variously, as rocket fuels or as working fluids for heat transfer devices. A drop of water 45 mm in diameter and a small laboratory mouse have been levitated in this apparatus.

Liu, Yuanming; Strayer, Donald M.; Israelsson, Ulf E.

2010-01-01

267

Propulsion Investigation for Zero and Near-Zero Emissions Aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As world emissions are further scrutinized to identify areas for improvement, aviation s contribution to the problem can no longer be ignored. Previous studies for zero or near-zero emissions aircraft suggest aircraft and propulsion system sizes that would perform propulsion system and subsystems layout and propellant tankage analyses to verify the weight-scaling relationships. These efforts could be used to identify and guide subsequent work on systems and subsystems to achieve viable aircraft system emissions goals. Previous work quickly focused these efforts on propulsion systems for 70- and 100-passenger aircraft. Propulsion systems modeled included hydrogen-fueled gas turbines and fuel cells; some preliminary estimates combined these two systems. Hydrogen gas-turbine engines, with advanced combustor technology, could realize significant reductions in nitrogen emissions. Hydrogen fuel cell propulsion systems were further laid out, and more detailed analysis identified systems needed and weight goals for a viable overall system weight. Results show significant, necessary reductions in overall weight, predominantly on the fuel cell stack, and power management and distribution subsystems to achieve reasonable overall aircraft sizes and weights. Preliminary conceptual analyses for a combination of gas-turbine and fuel cell systems were also performed, and further studies were recommended. Using gas-turbine engines combined with fuel cell systems can reduce the fuel cell propulsion system weight, but at higher fuel usage than using the fuel cell only.

Snyder, Christopher A.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Brown, Gerald v.; Dolce, James L.; Dravid, Marayan V.; Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Freeh, Joshua E.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Jones, Scott M.; Kundu, Krishna P.; Marek, Cecil J.; Millis, Marc G.; Murthy, Pappu L.; Roach, Timothy M.; Smith, Timothy D.; Stefko, George L.; Sullivan, Roy M.; Tornabene, Robert T.; Geiselhat, Karl A.; Kascak, Albert F.

2009-01-01

268

Charged Particle Gravity Meter Research.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research was conducted into an absolute gravity meter based on the novel concept of a microscopic, free-bouncing, charged particle. Design and assembly of an experimental gravity meter system including automatic data processing to aid in the performance e...

F. H. Inderwiesen

1971-01-01

269

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technique of single unit recording from body systems generating electrical pulses coherent with their basic function (CNS, muscles, sense organs) has been proved feasible during the OFO A orbital flight, an automatic physiological experiment. The results of recording 155 hours of orbital flight of pulses from the nerve fibres of four vestibular gravity sensors in two bull frogs indicate that the vestibular organ adjusts to zero g. As all the other biological changes observed during orbit are due to lack of exercise, it is concluded that artificial gravity might not be necessary during prolonged space missions or on low gravity celestial bodies.

Gualtierotti, T.; Bracchi, F.

1972-01-01

270

Generalized Gravity and a Ghost

We show that generalized gravity theories involving the curvature invariants of the Ricci tensor and the Riemann tensor as well as the Ricci scalar are equivalent to multi- scalar-tensor gravities with four derivatives terms. By expanding the action around a vacuum spacetime, the action is reduced to that of the Einstein gravity with four derivative terms, and consequently there appears a massive spin-2 ghost in such generalized gravity theories in addition to a massive spin-0 field.

Takeshi Chiba

2005-02-15

271

Zero Tolerance: Advantages and Disadvantages. Research Brief

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the positives and negatives of zero tolerance? What should be considered when examining a school's program? Although there are no definitive definitions of zero tolerance, two commonly used ones are as follows: "Zero tolerance means that a school will automatically and severely punish a student for a variety of infractions" (American Bar…

Walker, Karen

2009-01-01

272

40 CFR 180.5 - Zero tolerances.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zero tolerances. 180.5 Section 180.5 Protection...Definitions and Interpretative Regulations § 180.5 Zero tolerances. A zero tolerance means that no amount of the pesticide...

2010-07-01

273

Zero Tolerance in Tennessee Schools: An Update.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As required by Tennessee law, this report examines the state's zero-tolerance disciplinary data collected by the Tennessee Department of Education for school years 1999-00, 2000-01, and 2001-02. The first section displays statewide zero-tolerance statistics. The second section focuses on the zero-tolerance statistics of Tennessee's five major…

Potts, Kim; Njie, Bintou; Detch, Ethel R.; Walton, Jason

274

Gravity-Off-loading System for Large-Displacement Ground Testing of Spacecraft Mechanisms

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravity-off-loading of deployable spacecraft mechanisms during ground testing is a long-standing problem. Deployable structures which are usually too weak to support their own weight under gravity require a means of gravity-off-loading as they unfurl. Conventional solutions to this problem have been helium-filled balloons or mechanical pulley/counterweight systems. These approaches, however, suffer from the deleterious effects of added inertia or friction forces. The changing form factor of the deployable structure itself and the need to track the trajectory of the center of gravity also pose a challenge to these conventional technologies. This paper presents a novel testing apparatus for high-fidelity zero-gravity simulation for special application to deployable space structures such as solar arrays, magnetometer booms, and robotic arms in class 100,000 clean room environments

Han, Olyvia; Kienholz, David; Janzen, Paul; Kidney, Scott

2010-01-01

275

Loop quantum gravity and observations

Quantum gravity has long been thought to be completely decoupled from experiments or observations. Although it is true that smoking guns are still missing, there are now serious hopes that quantum gravity phenomena might be tested. We review here some possible ways to observe loop quantum gravity effects either in the framework of cosmology or in astroparticle physics.

Barrau, A

2014-01-01

276

Phenomenological Quantum Gravity

Planck scale physics represents a future challenge, located between particle physics and general relativity. The Planck scale marks a threshold beyond which the old description of spacetime breaks down and conceptually new phenomena must appear. In the last years, increased efforts have been made to examine the phenomenology of quantum gravity, even if the full theory is still unknown.

S. Hossenfelder

2006-11-01

277

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Letter, we propose a massive gravity theory with 5 degrees of freedom. The mass term is constructed by 3 Stückelberg scalar fields, which respects SO(3) symmetry in the fields' configuration. By the analysis on the linear cosmological perturbations, we found that such 5 d.o.f. are free from ghost instability, gradient instability, and tachyonic instability.

Lin, Chunshan

2013-11-01

278

CONSERVATION VOICES GRAVITY RULES

CONSERVATION VOICES GRAVITY RULES By David R. Montgomery When it comes to runoff and erosion opportunities. They provide cool, clear water clean enough to provide drinking water for Seattle with hardly any, and cleared of large woody debris, and cities, towns, and suburbs were paved over. Recognition

Montgomery, David R.

279

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show, by analyzing its characteristics, that the ghost-free, 5 degree of freedom, Wess-Zumino massive gravity model admits superluminal shock wave solutions and thus is acausal. Ironically, this pathology arises from the very constraint that removes the (sixth) Boulware-Deser ghost mode.

Deser, S.; Waldron, A.

2013-03-01

280

External Resource: Different Gravity

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from NASA's Suited for Spacewalking An Activity Guide for Technology Education explains that gravity is an attractive force that all objects have for one another. It doesn't matter whether the object is a planet, a cannon ball, a feather, or

1900-01-01

281

I show how the observed particle spectrum in its various flavors and generations can be accommodated within a scheme involving five complex anticommuting Lorentz scalar coordinates {zeta}, carrying 'property'. A general relativistic extension of the scheme shows that gravity lies in the x - x sector, gauge fields in the x - {zeta} sector and Higgs field in the {zeta} - {zeta} sector.

Delbourgo, R. [University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, GPO Hobart, 7001 (Australia)

2007-06-19

282

Stephen Hawking Quantum Gravity

are appearing, including Hawking's own \\Brief History of Time". Many of these books still leave non of fellow physicists. (Everyone agrees he's famous.) Public perception: #15; Brief history of time. #15 explosions. { Black hole thermodynamics. { Black hole geometric entropy. #15; Quantum gravity? (Un#12;nished

Visser, Matt

283

Starting from the definition of entropy used in statistical mechanics we show that it is proportional to the gravity action. For a stationary black hole this entropy is expressed as S=E/2T, where T is the Hawking temperature and E is shown to be the Komar energy. This relation is also compatible with the generalized Smarr formula for mass.

Banerjee, Rabin; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan [S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata-700098 (India)

2010-06-15

284

Artificial Gravity Research Plan

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.

Gilbert, Charlene

2014-01-01

285

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reports results of a large-scale study that investigated the knowledge of gravity and related principles of mechanics possessed by first-year physics students (N=468) at Monash University, Australia. One conclusion is that students know a lot of physics but do not relate it to the everyday world.

Gunstone, Richard; White, Richard T.

2006-05-08

286

Noncommutative Symmetries and Gravity

Spacetime geometry is twisted (deformed) into noncommutative spacetime geometry, where functions and tensors are now star-multiplied. Consistently, spacetime diffeomorhisms are twisted into noncommutative diffeomorphisms. Their deformed Lie algebra structure and that of infinitesimal Poincare' transformations is defined and explicitly constructed. This allows to construct a noncommutative theory of gravity.

Paolo Aschieri; Erwin Schrodinger

2006-01-01

287

Gravity in five-dimensional braneworld backgrounds often exhibits problematic features, including kinetic ghosts, strong coupling, and the van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov (vDVZ) discontinuity. These problems are an obstacle to producing and analyzing braneworld models with interesting and potentially observable modifications of 4d gravity. We examine these problems in a general AdS{sub 5}/AdS{sub 4} setup with two branes and localized curvature from arbitrary brane kinetic terms. We use the interval approach and an explicit straight gauge-fixing. We compute the complete quadratic gauge-fixed effective 4d action, as well as the leading cubic order corrections. We compute the exact Green's function for gravity as seen on the brane. In the full parameter space, we exhibit the regions which avoid kinetic ghosts and tachyons. We give a general formula for the strong coupling scale, i.e., the energy scale at which the linearized treatment of gravity breaks down, for relevant regions of the parameter space. We show how the vDVZ discontinuity can be naturally but nontrivially avoided by ultralight graviton modes. We present a direct comparison of warping versus localized curvature in terms of their effects on graviton mode couplings. We exhibit the first example of Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP)-like crossover behavior in a general warped setup.

Bao Ruoyu; Park, Minjoon [Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Carena, Marcela; Santiago, Jose [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Lykken, Joseph [Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

2006-03-15

288

Gravity in five-dimensional braneworld backgrounds often exhibits problematic features, including kinetic ghosts, strong coupling, and the vDVZ discontinuity. These problems are an obstacle to producing and analyzing braneworld models with interesting and potentially observable modifications of 4d gravity. We examine these problems in a general AdS{sub 5}/AdS{sub 4} setup with two branes and localized curvature from arbitrary brane kinetic terms. We use the interval approach and an explicit ''straight'' gauge-fixing. We compute the complete quadratic gauge-fixed effective 4d action, as well as the leading cubic order corrections. We compute the exact Green's function for gravity as seen on the brane. In the full parameter space, we exhibit the regions which avoid kinetic ghosts and tachyons. We give a general formula for the strong coupling scale, i.e. the energy scale at which the linearized treatment of gravity breaks down, for relevant regions of the parameter space. We show how the vDVZ discontinuity can be naturally but nontrivially avoided by ultralight graviton modes. We present a direct comparison of warping versus localized curvature in terms of their effects on graviton mode couplings. We exhibit the first example of DGP-like crossover behavior in a general warped setup.

Bao, Ruoyu; /Chicago U., EFI /Chicago U.; Carena, Marcela; /Fermilab; Lykken, Joseph; /Chicago U., EFI /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Park, Minjoon; /Chicago U., EFI /Chicago U.; Santiago, Jose; /Fermilab

2005-11-01

289

Date Lot # Specific Gravity pH Leukocytes Nitrite Protein Glucose Ketone Urobilinogen Bilirubin Blood / Hemoglobin HCG: Method Lot # AcetestÂ® (Ketone): Lot # ClinitestÂ® (Glucose): Lot # IctotestÂ®(Bilirubin Urobilinogen Bilirubin Blood / Hemoglobin HCG: Method Lot # AcetestÂ® (Ketone): Lot # ClinitestÂ® (Glucose): Lot

Rodriguez, Carlos

290

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the problem of gravity as it relates to distance from the center of the earth, and reports contradictory explanations from different source books. Uses this example to illustrate that science should not be taught from a single source, such as a textbook. (JR)

Oberlin, Lynn

1974-01-01

291

OBSERVED POLARIZATION OF BROWN DWARFS SUGGESTS LOW SURFACE GRAVITY

Light scattering by atmospheric dust particles is responsible for the polarization observed in some L dwarfs. Whether this polarization arises from an inhomogeneous distribution of dust across the disk or an oblate shape induced by rotation remains unclear. Here, we argue that the latter case is plausible and, for many L dwarfs, the more likely one. Furthermore, evolutionary models of mature field L dwarfs predict surface gravities ranging from about 200 to 2500 m s{sup -2} (corresponding to masses of {approx}15-70 M {sub Jupiter}). Yet comparison of observed spectra to available synthetic spectra often does not permit more precise determination of the surface gravity of individual field L dwarfs, leading to important uncertainties in their properties. Since rotationally induced non-sphericity, which gives rise to non-zero disk-integrated polarization, is more pronounced at lower gravities, polarization is a promising low gravity indicator. Here, we combine a rigorous multiple scattering analysis with a self-consistent cloudy atmospheric model and observationally inferred rotational velocities and find that the observed optical polarization can be explained if the surface gravity of the polarized objects is about 300 m s{sup -2} or less, potentially providing a new method for constraining L dwarf masses.

Sengupta, Sujan [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala 2nd Block, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Marley, Mark S., E-mail: sujan@iiap.res.i, E-mail: Mark.S.Marley@NASA.go [NASA Ames Research Center, MS-245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

2010-10-20

292

Plants and gravity. Special issue

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This issue of the Journal of Plant Growth Regulation explores the effects of gravity on plant growth and development from several perspectives. Most of the review papers consider plants and gravity from the viewpoint of ground-based laboratory research, and several papers consider gravitropism, the directed growth in response to gravity, in some detail. However, another approach to study the effects of gravity on plant is to effectively remove the force due to gravity. A very dramatic way to accomplish this goal is through the free-fall conditions achieved by spacecraft in low Earth orbit, so some of the authors have reviewed recent advances in spaceflight research with plant systems.

Kiss, J. Z. (Principal Investigator)

2002-01-01

293

Flat Spacetime Vacuum in Loop Quantum Gravity

We construct a state in the loop quantum gravity theory with zero cosmological constant, which should correspond to the flat spacetime vacuum solution. This is done by defining the loop transform coefficients of a flat connection wavefunction in the holomorphic representation which satisfies all the constraints of quantum General Relativity and it is peaked around the flat space triads. The loop transform coefficients are defined as spin foam state sum invariants of the spin networks embedded in the spatial manifold for the SU(2) quantum group. We also obtain an expression for the vacuum wavefunction in the triad represntation, by defining the corresponding spin networks functional integrals as SU(2) quantum group state sums.

A. Mikovic

2004-04-06

294

Black hole remnant from gravity's rainbow

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we investigate black hole (BH) physics in the context of the gravity rainbow. We investigate this through rainbow functions that have been proposed by Amelino-Camelia [Living Rev. Relativity 16, 5 (2013)] and Amelino-Camelia et al. in [Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 12, 607 (1997)]. This modification will give corrections to both the temperature and the entropy of BHs, and hence it changes the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of the BH approaches the Planck scale. It prevents the BH from total evaporation, predicting the existence of a BH remnant, which may resolve the catastrophic behavior of Hawking radiation as the BH mass approaches zero.

Farag Ali, Ahmed

2014-05-01

295

Wu and Sprung (Phys. Rev. E 48, 2595 (1993)) reproduced the first 500 nontrivial Riemann zeros, using a one-dimensional local potential model. They concluded -- and similarly van Zyl and Hutchinson (Phys. Rev. E 67, 066211 (2003)) -- that the potential possesses a fractal structure of dimension d=3/2. We model the nonsmooth fluctuating part of the potential by the alternating-sign sine series fractal of Berry and Lewis A(x,g). Setting d=3/2, we estimate the frequency parameter (gamma), plus an overall scaling parameter (sigma) we introduce. We search for that pair of parameters (gamma,sigma) which minimizes the least-squares fit S_{n}(gamma,sigma) of the lowest n eigenvalues -- obtained by solving the one-dimensional stationary (non-fractal) Schrodinger equation with the trial potential (smooth plus nonsmooth parts) -- to the lowest n Riemann zeros for n =25. For the additional cases we study, n=50 and 75, we simply set sigma=1. The fits obtained are compared to those gotten by using just the smooth part of the Wu-Sprung potential without any fractal supplementation. Some limited improvement -- 5.7261 vs. 6.39207 (n=25), 11.2672 vs. 11.7002 (n=50) and 16.3119 vs. 16.6809 (n=75) -- is found in our (non-optimized, computationally-bound) search procedures. The improvements are relatively strong in the vicinities of gamma=3 and (its square) 9. Further, we extend the Wu-Sprung semiclassical framework to include higher-order corrections from the Riemann-von Mangoldt formula (beyond the leading, dominant term) into the smooth potential.

Paul B. Slater

2006-06-01

296

Gravity and the circulation: "open" vs. "closed" systems.

The elementary principles of liquid dynamics are described by the equations of Bernoulli and Poiseuille. Bernoulli's equation deals with nonviscous liquids under steady streamline flow. Pressures in such flows are related to gravity and/or acceleration. Changes in elevation affect the gravitational potential energy of the liquid and the velocity of flow determines the kinetic energy. The sum of these three factors represented in the Bernoulli equation remains constant, but the variables are interconvertible. In contrast, the Poiseuille equation describes the pressures related to viscous resistance only, and the energy of flow is dissipated as heat. A combination of the two equations describes the flow in tubes more realistically than either equation alone. In "open" systems gravity hinders uphill flow and causes downhill flow, in which the liquid acts as a falling body. In contrast, in "closed" systems, like the circulation, gravity does not hinder uphill flow nor does it cause downhill flow, because gravity acts equally on the ascending and descending limbs of the circuit. Furthermore, in closed systems, the liquid cannot "fall" by gravity from higher levels of gravitational potential to lower levels of potential. Flow, up or down, must be induced by some source of energy against the resistance of the circuit. In the case of the circulation, the pumping action of the heart supplies the needed energy gradients. Flow in collapsible tubes, like veins, obeys the same basic laws of liquid dynamics except that transmural pressures near zero or below zero reduce markedly the cross-sectional area of the tube, which increases the viscous resistance to flow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1590467

Hicks, J W; Badeer, H S

1992-05-01

297

Dripping of a Liquid from a Tube in the Absence of Gravity

In zero gravity, liquid does not drip from a tube but hangs from it for all time as a pendant drop. It is shown that a drop can be made to fall off a tube by heating the contact line (CL), which causes a temperature gradient between the drop's CL and its tip. Simulations show that whether a drop detaches

Ronald Suryo; Osman A. Basaran

2006-01-01

298

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An account is given of the method by which the 'energy gain' accruing to a spacecraft as a result of its 'gravity-assist', parabolic-trajectory flyby of a massive body, such as a planet. The procedure begins with the solution of the two-body portion of the problem, and the results thus obtained are used to calculate changes with respect to the other massive body in the overall scenario, namely the sun. Attention is given to the 'vector diagram' often used to display the gravity-assist effect. The present procedure is noted to be reasonably accurate for flybys in which the plane of the spacecraft's trajectory is approximately the same as that of the planet's orbit around the sun, or the ecliptic plane; this reduces the problem to one in two dimensions.

Cesarone, R. J.

1989-01-01

299

Gravity wave initiated convection

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vertical velocity of convection initiated by gravity waves was investigated. In one particular case, the convective motion-initiated and supported by the gravity wave-induced activity (excluding contributions made by other mechanisms) reached its maximum value about one hour before the production of the funnel clouds. In another case, both rawinsonde and geosynchronous satellite imagery were used to study the life cycles of severe convective storms. Cloud modelling with input sounding data and rapid-scan imagery from GOES were used to investigate storm cloud formation, development and dissipation in terms of growth and collapse of cloud tops, as well as, the life cycles of the penetration of overshooting turrets above the tropopause. The results based on these two approaches are presented and discussed.

Hung, R. J.

1990-01-01

300

We investigate a possible unified theory of all interactions which is based only on fundamental spinor fields. The vielbein and metric arise as composite objects. The effective quantum gravitational theory can lead to a modification of Einstein's equations due to the lack of local Lorentz symmetry. We explore the generalized gravity with global instead of local Lorentz symmetry in first order of a systematic derivative expansion. At this level diffeomorphisms and global Lorentz symmetry allow for two new invariants in the gravitational effective action. The one which arises in the one loop approximation to spinor gravity is consistent with all present tests of general relativity and cosmology. This shows that local Lorentz symmetry is tested only very partially by present observations. In contrast, the second possible new coupling is severely restricted by present solar system observations.

Wetterich, C. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2004-11-15

301

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does gravity cause tides in the oceans? This section, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to four activities on tides and gravity that cover critical orbital speed between Earth and the moon, gravitational forces between two bodies, tidal effects from the sun and moon, and the change in tidal levels over time. The activities include hands-on animations of concepts whose variables can be manipulated by students. Questions posed to students include answer boxes that are printable upon conclusion of the activities. The final activity involves collecting tidal data over 24-hour and 29-day periods. Student data are stored in printable tables. Views of moon phases for each time period are provided, as is a downloadable worksheet. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2002-01-01

302

Gravity on Conformal Superspace

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The configuration space of general relativity is superspace - the space of all Riemannian 3-metrics modulo diffeomorphisms. However, it has been argued that the configuration space for gravity should be conformal superspace - the space of all Riemannian 3-metrics modulo diffeomorphisms and conformal transformations. Taking this conformal nature seriously leads to a new theory of gravity which although very similar to general relativity has some very different features particularly in cosmology and quantisation. It should reproduce the standard tests of general relativity. The cosmology is studied in some detail. The theory is incredibly restrictive and as a result admits an extremely limited number of possible solutions. The problems of the standard cosmology are addressed and most remarkably the cosmological constant problem is resolved in a natural way. The theory also has several attractive features with regard to quantisation particularly regarding the problem of time.

Kelleher, Bryan

2003-11-01

303

Deformation Quantisation of Gravity

We study the deformation (Moyal) quantisation of gravity in both the ADM and the Ashtekar approach. It is shown, that both can be treated, but lead to anomalies. The anomaly in the case of Ashtekar variables, however, is merely a central extension of the constraint algebra, which can be ``lifted''. Finally we write down the equations defining physical states and comment on their physical content. This is done by defining a loop representation. We find a solution in terms of a Chern-Simons state, whose Wigner function then becomes related to BF-theory. This state exist even in the absence of a cosmological constant but only if certain extra conditions are imposed. Another solution is found where the Wigner function is a Gaussian in the momenta. Some comments on ``quantum gravity'' in lower dimensions are also made.

Frank Antonsen

1997-12-02

304

An experiment is being developed to measure the acceleration of the antiproton in the gravitational field of the earth. Antiprotons of a few MeV from the LEAR facility at CERN will be slowed, captured, cooled to a temperature of about 10 K, and subsequently launched a few at a time into a drift tube where the effect of gravity on their motion will be determined by a time-of-flight method. Development of the experiment is proceeding at Los Alamos using normal matter. The fabrication of a drift tube that will produce a region of space in which gravity is the dominant force on moving ions is of major difficulty. This involves a study of methods of minimizing the electric fields produced by spatially varying work functions on conducting surfaces. Progress in a number of areas is described, with stress on the drift-tube development.

Brown, R.E.; Camp, J.B.; Darling, T.W.

1990-01-01

305

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a Hamiltonian formulation of spinfoam gravity, which leads to a straightforward canonical quantization. To begin with, we derive a continuum action adapted to a simplicial decomposition of space-time. The equations of motion admit a Hamiltonian formulation, allowing us to perform the constraint analysis. We do not find any secondary constraints, but only get restrictions on the Lagrange multipliers enforcing the reality conditions. This comes as a surprise—in the continuum theory, the reality conditions are preserved in time, only if the torsionless condition (a secondary constraint) holds true. Studying an additional conservation law for each spinfoam vertex, we discuss the issue of torsion and argue that spinfoam gravity may still miss an additional constraint. Finally, we canonically quantize and recover the EPRL (Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine) face amplitudes. Communicated by P R L V Moniz

Wieland, Wolfgang M.

2014-01-01

306

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This review of plant gravity sensing examines sensing in organ gravitropism, sensing in single-cell gravitropism, and nongravitropic sensing. Topics related to sensing in organ gravitropism are (1) identification of the gravitropic susceptors, including intracellular asymmetry in equilibrium position and after reorientation, susceptor signal-to-noise ratio, signal integration over threshold stimulation periods, intracellular asymmetry and gravitropic competence, and starch deficiency and gravitropic competence; (2) possible root statocytes and receptors, including identification of presumptive statocytes, cytology, and possible receptors and models of sensing; and (3) negatively gravitropic organs, including identification and distribution of presumptive statocytes and cytology and possible receptors. Topics related to nongravitropic sensing include gravitaxis, reaction wood, gravimorphogenesis, other gravity-influenced organ movements, and cytoplasmic streaming.

Sack, F. D.

1991-01-01

307

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site has students understanding that: 1) Without air resistance, all objects would fall at the same acceleration, regardless of mass. 2) Gravity is the force that causes objects to fall. 3) Air resistance, a type of friction, works against gravity to decrease the acceleration of a falling object. Included in this two day lesson plan are the objectives, needed materials, procedures, adaptations for older students, discussion questions, a rubric for assessment, extension activities, suggested reading, links to other sites, vocabulary, and academic standards. Students can click on a vocabulary word to hear its pronunciation and a sentence using the word. Teachers can link to Teaching Tools to create custom worksheets, puzzles, and quizzes. A printable version can be downloaded. Teachers can purchase the video, The Invisible Force, and download comprehension questions and answers.

Discoveryschool.com; Cahill, Mary

2007-12-12

308

Gravity, Dimension, Equilibrium, & Thermodynamics

Is it actually possible to interpret gravitation as space's property in a pure classical way. Then, we note that extended self-gravitating system equilibrium depends directly on the number of dimension of the space in which it evolves. Given those precisions, we review the principal thermodynamical knowledge in the context of classical gravity with arbitrary dimension of space. Stability analyses for bounded 3D systems, namely the Antonov instability paradigm, are then rapproched to some amazing properties of globular clusters and galaxies.

Jerome Perez

2006-03-30

309

Abilities of multidimensional gravity

We show that a number of problems of modern cosmology may be addressed and solved in the framework of multidimensional gravity with high-order curvature invariants, without invoking other fields. As applications of this approach, we mention primordial inflation and particle production after it; description of the modern accelerated stage of the Universe with stable compact extra dimensions; construction of asymmetric thick brane-world models.

K. A. Bronnikov; S. G. Rubin

2007-12-06

310

I review the problem of dark energy focussing on cosmological constant as the candidate and discuss what it tells us regarding\\u000a the nature of gravity. Section 1 briefly overviews the currently popular “concordance cosmology” and summarizes the evidence\\u000a for dark energy. It also provides the observational and theoretical arguments in favour of the cosmological constant as a\\u000a candidate and emphasizes

T. Padmanabhan

2008-01-01

311

In view of the enormous difficulties we seem to face in quantizing general relativity, we should perhaps consider the possibility that gravity is a fundamentally classical interaction. Theoretical arguments against such mixed classical-quantum models are strong, but not conclusive, and the question is ultimately one for experiment. I review some work in progress on the possibility of experimental tests, exploiting the nonlinearity of the classical-quantum coupling, that could help settle this question.

S. Carlip

2008-03-24

312

Noncommutative Symmetries and Gravity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spacetime geometry is twisted (deformed) into noncommutative spacetime geometry, where functions and tensors are now star-multiplied. Consistently, spacetime diffeomorhisms are twisted into noncommutative diffeomorphisms. Their deformed Lie algebra structure and that of infinitesimal Poincaré transformations is defined and explicitly constructed. This allows to construct a noncommutative theory of gravity. This article is based on common work with Christian Blohmann, Marija Dimitrijevig, Frank Meyer, Peter Schupp and Julius Wess.

Aschieri, Paolo

2006-11-01

313

Cambridge Cosmology: Quantum Gravity

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of Cambridge Cosmology explains the concepts of quantum gravity and quantum cosmology, and how they are useful in understanding space and the space-time continuum. This includes the M-theory, formerly known as the string theory, and the Holographic Principle, in order to explain phenomena such as black holes and the first one-hundredth of a second of the Big Bang.

Hertog, Thomas; Herdeiro, Carlos; Chamblin, H.; Ashbourn, J.; Reall, Harvey

314

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students take a series of gravity measurements to estimate the height of the walkway near the top of the atrium in Howe-Russell. Students turn in a copy of the data sheet plus 1) an explanation of how they converted dial measurements to mgals; 2) plot of instrument drift/Earth tides correction; 3) estimate of elevation of the walkway using a Free-Air Correction; and 4) a brief (paragraph or two) discussion of potential errors in the survey.

315

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the third of three Science Objects in the Gravity and Orbits SciPack. It provides an understanding of how gravitational forces influence the motion of an object in orbit. When a force acts toward a single center, an object's forward motion and its motion toward that center can combine to create a curved path around the center. Gravity governs the motion of all objects in the solar system. The Sun's gravitational pull holds the Earth and other planets in their orbits, just as the planets' gravitational pull keeps their moons in orbit around them. Learning Outcomes:ï¿½ Describe the conditions that would lead an object into orbital motion in terms of the effects of gravitational force.ï¿½ Explain how an object orbits a planet in terms of trajectories and free fall.ï¿½ Identify gravity as the force that keeps the planets in their orbits around the Sun and the moons in their orbits around the planets.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

316

Granular Superconductors and Gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (approx. 10(exp -6) g cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with a relatively high percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 104 was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In experiments using a sensitive gravimeter, bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field and exposed without levitation to low-field strength AC magnetic fields. Changes in observed gravity signals were measured to be less than 2 parts in 108 of the normal gravitational acceleration. Given the high sensitivity of the test, future work will examine variants on the basic magnetic behavior of granular superconductors, with particular focus on quantifying their proposed importance to gravity.

Noever, David; Koczor, Ron

1999-01-01

317

Locomotion in simulated microgravity: gravity replacement loads

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: When an astronaut walks or runs on a treadmill in microgravity, a subject load device (SLD) is used to return him or her back to the treadmill belt. The gravity replacement load (GRL) in the SLD is transferred, via a harness, to the pelvis and/or the shoulders. This research compared comfort and ground reaction forces during treadmill running in a microgravity locomotion simulator at GRLs of 60%, 80%, and 100% of body weight (BW). Two harness designs (shoulder springs only (SSO) and waist and shoulder springs (WSS)) were used. HYPOTHESES: 1) The 100% BW gravity replacement load conditions would be comfortably tolerated and would result in larger ground reaction forces and loading rates than the lower load conditions, and 2) the WSS harness would be more comfortable than the SSO harness. METHODS: Using the Penn State Zero Gravity Locomotion Simulator (ZLS), 8 subjects ran at 2.0 m x s(-1) (4.5 mph) for 3 min at each GRL setting in each harness. Subjective ratings of harness comfort, ground reaction forces, and GRL data were collected during the final minute of exercise. RESULTS: The 100% BW loading conditions were comfortably tolerated (2.3 on a scale of 0-10), although discomfort increased as the GRL increased. There were no overall differences in perceived comfort between the two harnesses. The loading rates (27.1, 33.8, 39.1 BW x s(-1)) and the magnitudes of the first (1.0, 1.4, 1.6 BW) and second (1.3, 1.7, 1.9 BW) peaks of the ground reaction force increased with increasing levels (60, 80, 100% BW respectively) of GRL. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects were able to tolerate a GRL of 100% BW well. The magnitude of the ground reaction force peaks and the loading rate is directly related to the magnitude of the GRL.

McCrory, Jean L.; Baron, Heidi A.; Balkin, Sandy; Cavanagh, Peter R.

2002-01-01

318

Nonlinear modal resonances in low-gravity slosh-spacecraft systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonlinear models of low gravity slosh, when coupled to spacecraft vibrations, predict intense nonlinear eigenfrequency shifts at zero gravity. These nonlinear frequency shifts are due to internal quadratic and cubic resonances between fluid slosh modes and spacecraft vibration modes. Their existence has been verified experimentally, and they cannot be correctly modeled by approximate, uncoupled nonlinear models, such as pendulum mechanical analogs. These predictions mean that linear slosh assumptions for spacecraft vibration models can be invalid, and may lead to degraded control system stability and performance. However, a complete nonlinear modal analysis will predict the correct dynamic behavior. This paper presents the analytical basis for these results, and discusses the effect of internal resonances on the nonlinear coupled response at zero gravity.

Peterson, Lee D.

1991-01-01

319

Zero-knowledge against quantum attacks

This paper proves that several interactive proof systems are zero-knowledge against quantum attacks. This includes a few well-known classical zero-knowledge proof systems as well as quantum interactive proof systems for the complexity class HVQSZK, which comprises all problems having "honest verifier" quantum statistical zero-knowledge proofs. It is also proved that zero-knowledge proofs for every language in NP exist that are secure against quantum attacks, assuming the existence of quantum computationally concealing commitment schemes. Previously no non-trivial proof systems were known to be zero-knowledge against quantum attacks, except in restricted settings such as the honest-verifier and common reference string models. This paper therefore establishes for the first time that true zero-knowledge is indeed possible in the presence of quantum information and computation.

John Watrous

2005-11-03

320

Zero sound in dipolar Fermi gases

We study the propagation of sound in a homogeneous dipolar gas at zero temperature, which is known as zero sound. We find that undamped zero sound propagation is possible only in a range of solid angles around the direction of polarization of the dipoles. Above a critical dipole moment, we find an unstable mode, by which the gas collapses locally perpendicular to the dipoles' direction.

Ronen, Shai [JILA and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, and Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Bohn, John L. [JILA and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)

2010-03-15

321

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How accurately do we need to measure seasonal variations in Mars gravity, in order to significantly contribute to an understanding of the seasonal climate cycle? It has long been understood that seasonal cycles of volatile mass transport on Mars, mainly involving CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and the polar caps, will change the gravitational field by measurable amounts. In recent years, the gravitational field models, which are obtained from measured Doppler shifts in the tracking data for Mars-orbiting satellites, have become accurate enough that they can resolve some seasonal variations. However, the present models only resolve seasonal cycles for two parameters, nominally J2 and J3, which are zonal components of degree 2 and 3, respectively. In fact, what is actually observed is an unresolved linear combination of even degree zonals, in the guise of J2, and a similar combination of odd degree zonals for J3. Mars climate models are currently constrained mainly by the surface atmospheric pressure measurements made at the two Viking Lander sites. Wood and Paige (1992) showed that the observed seasonal pressure cycles at these two locations can be very well simulated by a simple one-dimensional surface thermal balance model, when its 6 free parameters (separate values for albedo and emissivity for each polar cap, and a soil thermal inertia for each hemisphere ) are properly chosen. However, it also emerged that the preferred values for albedo and emissivity are quite different from those obtained via optical remote sensing. It thus appears that the 1-D climate model yields aliased estimates of these parameters. It seems clear that, if we had sufficiently accurate gravity measurements, it would be equivalent to having a global grid of effective Viking Lander pressure measurements, with the number of grid points related to the spatial resolution of the gravity measurements. For example, if the seasonal variations were seen in a full Nth degree and order gravity model, that would comprise M = (N+1)2 -4 separate time series (M = 437 for N = 20), and would dramatically decrease the aliasing of thermal parameters in the climate models. To partially address this question, we have used the MarsWRF GCM to compute an annual cycle of surface and atmospheric mass values, on a 5x5 degree surface grid, at 10 day time steps, and then converted the resulting mass distributions into equivalent gravitational potential spherical harmonic coefficients. We can then compare the corresponding signal amplitude spectrum to the estimated gravitational model error amplitude spectrum, for various future mission measurement scenarios. From these simulations, it appears that resolving the seasonal cycle in a full N = 20 gravity model with 30 day time steps, will require substantial improvements beyond the current generation of Mars gravity models. The job of finding solutions to the associated technical problems is still in an early phase. However, it appears that adaptations to Mars of Earth-orbiting gravity missions, such as GRACE or GOCE, should suffice.

Bills, B. G.; Mischna, M. A.

2011-12-01

322

Effect of gravity on the stability and structure of lean hydrogen-air flames

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed, time-dependent, 2D numerical simulations with full hydrogen-oxygen chemistry are used to investigate the effects of gravity on the stability and structure of laminar flames in lean, premixed hydrogen-air mixtures. The calculations show that the effects of gravity becomes more important as the lean flammability limit is approached. In a 12 percent hydrogen-air mixture, gravity plays only a secondary role in determining the multidimensional structure of the flame with the stability and structure of the flame controlled primarily by the thermo-diffusive instability mechanism. However, in leaner hydrogen-air mixtures gravity becomes more important. Upward-propagating flames are highly curved and evolve into a bubble rising upwards in the tube. Downward-propagating flames are flat or even oscillate between structures with concave and convex curvatures. The zero-gravity flame shows only cellular structures. Cellular structures which are present in zero gravity can be suppressed by the effect of buoyancy for mixtures leaner than 11 percent hydrogen. These observations are explained on the basis of an interaction between the processes leading to buoyancy-induced Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the thermo-diffusive instability.

Patnaik, G.; Kailasanath, K.

1991-01-01

323

Module theoretic zero structures for system matrices

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The coordinate-free module-theoretic treatment of transmission zeros for MIMO transfer functions developed by Wyman and Sain (1981) is generalized to include noncontrollable and nonobservable linear dynamical systems. Rational, finitely-generated-modular, and torsion-divisible interpretations of the Rosenbrock system matrix are presented; Gamma-zero and Omega-zero modules are defined and shown to contain the output-decoupling and input-decoupling zero modules, respectively, as submodules; and the cases of left and right invertible transfer functions are considered.

Wyman, Bostwick F.; Sain, Michael K.

1987-01-01

324

Primer on Gravity and Magnetics

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page explains the goals and benefits of studying gravity and magnetic data to understand subsurface geology of the Earth. It discusses uses of gravity and magnetic measurements in providing information about the density of rocks, and explains how these measurements are useful in exploration for oil and gas and mineral deposits. The page uses gravity and magnetic maps and as well as figures to illustrate some of the concepts of interpretation, such as amplitude, frequency and anomalies.

Gibson, Richard

325

Cascading gravity is ghost free

We perform a full perturbative stability analysis of the 6D cascading gravity model in the presence of 3-brane tension. We demonstrate that for sufficiently large tension on the (flat) 3-brane, there are no ghosts at the perturbative level, consistent with results that had previously only been obtained in a specific 5D decoupling limit. These results establish the cascading gravity framework as a consistent infrared modification of gravity.

Rham, Claudia de [Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, 24 Quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneve (Switzerland); Khoury, Justin [Center for Particle Cosmology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6395 (United States); Tolley, Andrew J. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

2010-06-15

326

Entropic Gravity in Rindler Space

We show that Rindler horizons are entropic screens and gravity is an entropic force in Rindler space by deriving the Verlinde entropy formula from the focusing of light due to a mass close to the horizon. Consequently, gravity is also entropic in the near horizon regions of Schwarzschild and de Sitter space-times. In different limits, the entropic nature of gravity in Rindler space leads to the Bekenstein entropy bound and the uncertainty principle.

Edi Halyo

2011-04-13

327

We discuss the structure of Dyson--Schwinger equations in quantum gravity and conclude in particular that all relevant skeletons are of first order in the loop number. There is an accompanying sub Hopf algebra on gravity amplitudes equivalent to identities between n-graviton scattering amplitudes which generalize the Slavnov Taylor identities. These identities map the infinite number of charges and finite numbers of skeletons in gravity to an infinite number of skeletons and a finite number of charges needing renormalization. Our analysis suggests that gravity, regarded as a probability conserving but perturbatively non-renormalizable theory, is renormalizable after all, thanks to the structure of its Dyson--Schwinger equations.

Dirk Kreimer

2007-05-26

328

Dynamics of Superfluid Helium in Low-Gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the work performed under a contract entitled 'Dynamics of Superfluid Helium in Low Gravity'. This project performed verification tests, over a wide range of accelerations of two Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes of which one incorporates the two-fluid model of superfluid helium (SFHe). Helium was first liquefied in 1908 and not until the 1930s were the properties of helium below 2.2 K observed sufficiently to realize that it did not obey the ordinary physical laws of physics as applied to ordinary liquids. The term superfluidity became associated with these unique observations. The low temperature of SFHe and it's temperature unifonrmity have made it a significant cryogenic coolant for use in space applications in astronomical observations with infrared sensors and in low temperature physics. Superfluid helium has been used in instruments such as the Shuttle Infrared Astronomy Telescope (IRT), the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), the Cosmic Background Observatory (COBE), and the Infrared Satellite Observatory (ISO). It is also used in the Space Infrared Telescope (SIRTF), Relativity Mission Satellite formally called Gravity Probe-B (GP-B), and the Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) presently under development. For GP-B and STEP, the use of SFHE is used to cool Superconducting Quantum Interference Detectors (SQUIDS) among other parts of the instruments. The Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) experiment flown in the Shuttle studied the behavior of SFHE. This experiment attempted to get low-gravity slosh data, however, the main emphasis was to study the low-gravity transfer of SFHE from tank to tank. These instruments carried tanks of SFHE of a few hundred liters to 2500 liters. The capability of modeling the behavior of SFHE is important to spacecraft control engineers who must design systems that can overcome disturbances created by the movement of the fluid. In addition instruments such as GP-B and STEP are very sensitive to quasi-steady changes in the mass distribution of the liquid. The CFD codes were used to model the fluid's dynamic motion. Tests in one-g were performed with the main emphasis on being able to compute the actual damping of the fluid. A series of flights on the NASA Lewis reduced gravity DC-9 aircraft were performed with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Low Temperature Flight Facility and a superfluid Test Cell. The data at approximately 0.04g, lg and 2g were used to determine if correct fundamental frequencies can be predicted based on the acceleration field. Tests in zero gravity were performed to evaluate zero gravity motion.

Frank, David J.

1997-01-01

329

Gravity field of the Western Weddell Sea: Comparison of airborne gravity and Geosat derived gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marine gravity surveying in polar regions was typically difficult and costly, requiring expensive long range research vessels and ice-breakers. Satellite altimetry can recover the gravity field in these regions where it is feasible to survey with a surface vessel. Unfortunately, the data collected by the first global altimetry mission, Seasat, was collected only during the austral winter, producing a very poor quality gravitational filed for the southern oceans, particularly in the circum-Antarctic regions. The advent of high quality airborne gravity (Brozena, 1984; Brozena and Peters, 1988; Bell, 1988) and the availability of satellite altimetry data during the austral summer (Sandwell and McAdoo, 1988) has allowed the recovery of a free air gravity field for most of the Weddell Sea. The derivation of the gravity field from both aircraft and satellite measurements are briefly reviewed, before presenting along track comparisons and shaded relief maps of the Weddell Sea gravity field based on these two data sets.

Bell, R. E.; Brozena, J. M.; Haxby, W. F.; Labrecque, J. L.

1989-01-01

330

It is shown that, under a conformal transformation with reference to the Higgs field, the Higgs boson can be completely decoupled from electroweak interactions with no apparent change in known properties of leptons, quarks and vector bosons. Higgs boson becomes part of a scalar-tensor gravity which can be relevant for Dark Energy. It interacts with matter sector via higher-dimensional terms (e.g. neutrino Majorana mass), and via the fields (of new physics) whose masses are not generated by the Higgs mechanism. Dark Matter and two-Higgs-doublet model are the simplest examples.

Durmus A. Demir

2011-10-17

331

The study of anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation is progressing at a phenomenal rate, both experimentally and theoretically. These anisotropies can teach us an enormous amount about the way that fluctuations were generated and the way they subsequently evolved into the clustered galaxies which are observed today. In particular, on sub-degree scales the rich structure in the anisotropy spectrum is the consequence of gravity-driven acoustic oscillations occurring before the matter in the universe became neutral. The frozen-in phases of these sound waves imprint a dependence on many cosmological parameters, that we may be on the verge of extracting.

Douglas Scott; Martin White

1995-05-22

332

Nonperturbative simplicial quantum gravity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First results are presented for a discrete model of quantum gravity in two and four dimensions. The theory is defined on a simplicial lattice with the topology of a torus, and the edge lengths are taken as elementary variables. The problems of indefiniteness and non-renormalizability of the euclidean Einstein action are cured by adding cosmological constant and higher derivative terms, which are shown to be essential for approaching the lattice continuum limit. The theory is quantized using the stochastic method. The numerical results indicate that at strong coupling the average curvature is negative. A procedure for computing the renormalized, effective low energy, cosmological constant is outlined.

Hamber, Herbert W.; Williams, Ruth M.

1985-07-01

333

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Derivation of first and second partials of the gravitational potential is given in both normalized and unnormalized form. Two different recursion formulas are considered. Derivation of a general gravity gradient torque algorithm which uses the second partial of the gravitational potential is given. Derivation of the geomagnetic field vector is given in a form that closely mimics the gravitational algorithm. Ada code for all algorithms that precomputes all possible data is given. Test cases comparing the new algorithms with previous data are given, as well as speed comparisons showing the relative efficiencies of the new algorithms.

Gottlieb, Robert G.

1993-01-01

334

In the context of Lorentz-invariant massive gravity we show that classical solutions around heavy sources are plagued by ghost instabilities. The ghost shows up in the effective field theory at huge distances from the source, much bigger than the Vainshtein radius. Its presence is independent of the choice of the non-linear terms added to the Fierz-Pauli Lagrangian. At the Vainshtein radius the mass of the ghost is of order of the inverse radius, so that the theory cannot be trusted inside this region, not even at the classical level.

Paolo Creminelli; Alberto Nicolis; Michele Papucci; Enrico Trincherini

2005-05-16

335

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the necessary concepts for an algebraic construction of a gravity theory on noncommutative spaces. The ?-deformed diffeomorphisms are studied and a tensor calculus is defined. This leads to a deformed Einstein-Hilbert action which is invariant with respect to deformed diffeomorphisms. The dynamical variable is the vierbein field. The deformed action is a deformation of the usual Einstein-Hilbert action and reduces to it in the limit where the noncommutativity vanishes. This contribution is based on joint work with P. Aschieri, C. Blohmann, M. Dimitrijevi?, P. Schupp and J. Wess.

Meyer, Frank

2006-06-01

336

It is well-known that energy-momentum is the source of gravitational field. For a long time, it is generally believed that only stars with huge masses can generate strong gravitational field. Based on the unified theory of gravitational interactions and electromagnetic interactions, a new mechanism of the generation of gravitational field is studied. According to this mechanism, in some special conditions, electromagnetic energy can be directly converted into gravitational energy, and strong gravitational field can be generated without massive stars. Gravity impulse found in experiments is generated by this mechanism.

Ning Wu

2005-10-01

337

ZERO DYNAMICS OF UNDERACTUATED PLANAR BIPED WALKERS

ZERO DYNAMICS OF UNDERACTUATED PLANAR BIPED WALKERS E.R. Westervelt 1 J.W. Grizzle 1 D of the zero dynamics correspond to asymptotically stabilizable orbits of the full hybrid model of the walker A planar biped walker is a robot that locomotes via alternation of two legs in the sagittal plane (see

Grizzle, Jessy W.

338

Teacher Perceptions of Division by Zero

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dividing by zero can be confusing for students at all levels. If teachers are to provide clear and understandable explanations of this topic, they must possess a strong conceptual understanding of it themselves. In this article, the authors present qualitative data on fourth- through eighth-grade teachers' perceptions of division by zero. They…

Quinn, Robert J.; Lamberg, Teruni D.; Perrin, John R.

2008-01-01

339

Determining Absolute Zero Using a Tuning Fork

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, we tell our students, are related. We explain that a change in temperature of 1 degree C corresponds to a change of 1 Kelvin and that atoms and molecules have zero kinetic energy at zero Kelvin, -273 degrees C. In this paper, we will show how students can derive the relationship between the Celsius and…

Goldader, Jeffrey D.

2008-01-01

340

Zero-point momentum in Complex media

In this work we apply field regularization techniques to formulate a number of new phenomena related to momentum induced by electromagnetic zero-point fluctuations. We discuss the zero-point momentum associated with magneto-electric media, with moving media, and with magneto-chiral media.

B. A. van Tiggelen

2007-06-22

341

Zero-Knowledge Proofs of Identity

In this paper we extend the notion of interactive proofs of assertions to interactive proofs of knowledge. This leads to the definition of unrestricted input zero-knowledge proofs of knowledge in which the prover demonstrates possession of knowledge without revealing any computational information whatsoever (not even the one bit revealed in zero-knowledge proofs of assertions). We show the relevance of these

Uriel Feige; Amos Fiat; Adi Shamir

1988-01-01

342

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid distributions in unsaturated porous media under different gravitational accelerations and corresponding macroscopic gaseous diffusion coefficients were investigated to enhance understanding of plant growth conditions in microgravity. We used a single-component, multiphase lattice Boltzmann code to simulate liquid configurations in two-dimensional porous media at varying water contents for different gravity conditions and measured gas diffusion through the media using a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann code. The relative diffusion coefficients (D rel) for simulations with and without gravity as functions of air-filled porosity were in good agreement with measured data and established models. We found significant differences in liquid configuration in porous media, leading to reductions in D rel of up to 25% under zero gravity. The study highlights potential applications of the lattice Boltzmann method for rapid and cost-effective evaluation of alternative plant growth media designs under variable gravity.

Chau, Jessica Furrer; Or, Dani; Sukop, Michael C.; Steinberg, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

2005-01-01

343

The structure of local gravity theories

We discuss the structure of local gravity theories as resulting from the idea that locally gravity must be physically characterized by tidal acceleration, and show how this relates to both Newtonian gravity and Einstein's general relativity.

Maurice J. Dupre

2014-03-12

344

The role of information in gravity

It is argued that particle-specific information on energy-momentum adjusts the strength of gravity. This form of gravity has no free parameters, preserves Einstein gravity locally and predicts 6 times stronger accelerations on galaxy scales.

M. Spaans

2009-03-25

345

The lunar environment as a fractional-gravity biological laboratory.

A quarter of a century ago men stepped upon the lunar surface and established the possibility of human expansion beyond Earth. When humans return to the moon to occupy it with greater permanency, an applied lunar biological laboratory would provide a means of conducting experiments on the long-term effects of fractional gravity in animals and plants and provide necessary data to enhance the health, safety and well-being of lunar workers and inhabitants. In-depth studies can go beyond zero-g observations, on-orbit centrifuge studies, and ground-based research providing important insight into continuous 1/6-g effects on biological systems. Studies concentrating on development, gravity sensing, and adaptation/readaptation would provide preliminary data on whether long-term fractional gravity is detrimental or compromising to fundamental biological function. Food production research in 1/6-g would provide important information for on site application to improve the yield and quality of food (animal and plant) produced in the unique lunar environment. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some examples of the major gravitational biology areas that could be studied on the moon and applied to lunar population needs utilizing lunar biological facilities and continuous fractional gravity. PMID:11539524

Garshnek, V

1994-07-01

346

Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes

A green building competition, to be known as the Energy Free Home Challenge (EFHC), is scheduled to be opened to teams around the world in 2010. This competition will encourage both design innovation and cost reduction, by requiring design entries to meet 'zero net energy' and 'zero net cost' criteria. For the purposes of this competition, a 'zero net energy'

S. Al-Beaini; S. Borgeson; B. Coffery; D. Gregory; K. Konis; C. Scown; J. Simjanovic; B. Strogen; I. Walker

2009-01-01

347

International Space University variable gravity research facility design

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A manned mission to Mars will require long travel times between Earth and Mars. However, exposure to long-duration zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body. Some of the harmful effects are loss of heart and lung capacity, inability to stand upright, muscular weakness, and loss of bone calcium. A variable gravity research facility (VGRF) that will be placed in low Earth orbit (LEO) was designed by students of the International Space University 1989 Summer Session held in Strasbourg, France, to provide a testbed for conducting experiments in the life and physical sciences in preparation for a mission to Mars. This design exercise was unique because it addressed all aspects concerning a large space project. This report describes the VGRF design that was developed by international participants specializing in the following areas: the politics of international cooperation; engineering, architecture; in-space physiological, materials, and life science experimentation; data communications; and business and management.

Bailey, Sheila G.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Davidian, Kenneth J.

1994-03-01

348

The International Space University's variable gravity research facility design

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A manned mission to Mars will require long travel times between Earth and Mars. However, exposure to long-duration zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body. Some of the harmful effects are loss of heart and lung capacity, inability to stand upright, muscular weakness and loss of bone calcium. A variable gravity research facility (VGRF) that would be placed in low Earth orbit (LEO) was designed by students of the International Space University 1989 Summer Session held in Strasbourg, France, to provide a testbed for conducting experiments in the life and physical sciences in preparation for a mission to Mars. This design exercise was unique because it addressed all aspects concerning a large space project. The VGRF design was described which was developed by international participants specializing in the following areas: the politics of international cooperation, engineering, architecture, in-space physiology, material and life science experimentation, data communications, business, and management.

Bailey, Sheila G.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Davidian, Kenneth J.

1991-09-01

349

The International Space University's variable gravity research facility design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A manned mission to Mars will require long travel times between Earth and Mars. However, exposure to long-duration zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body. Some of the harmful effects are loss of heart and lung capacity, inability to stand upright, muscular weakness and loss of bone calcium. A variable gravity research facility (VGRF) that would be placed in low Earth orbit (LEO) was designed by students of the International Space University 1989 Summer Session held in Strasbourg, France, to provide a testbed for conducting experiments in the life and physical sciences in preparation for a mission to Mars. This design exercise was unique because it addressed all aspects concerning a large space project. The VGRF design was described which was developed by international participants specializing in the following areas: the politics of international cooperation, engineering, architecture, in-space physiology, material and life science experimentation, data communications, business, and management.

Bailey, Sheila G.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Davidian, Kenneth J.

1991-01-01

350

Modified gravity and cosmology

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this review we present a thoroughly comprehensive survey of recent work on modified theories of gravity and their cosmological consequences. Amongst other things, we cover General Relativity, scalar-tensor, Einstein-æther, and Bimetric theories, as well as TeVeS, f(R), general higher-order theories, Ho?ava-Lifschitz gravity, Galileons, Ghost Condensates, and models of extra dimensions including Kaluza-Klein, Randall-Sundrum, DGP, and higher co-dimension braneworlds. We also review attempts to construct a Parameterised Post-Friedmannian formalism, that can be used to constrain deviations from General Relativity in cosmology, and that is suitable for comparison with data on the largest scales. These subjects have been intensively studied over the past decade, largely motivated by rapid progress in the field of observational cosmology that now allows, for the first time, precision tests of fundamental physics on the scale of the observable Universe. The purpose of this review is to provide a reference tool for researchers and students in cosmology and gravitational physics, as well as a self-contained, comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to the subject as a whole.

Clifton, Timothy; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Padilla, Antonio; Skordis, Constantinos

2012-03-01

351

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. Introduction to Gravity and Supergravity: 1. Differential geometry; 2. Noether's theorems; 3. A perturbative introduction to general relativity; 4. Action principles for gravity; 5. N = 1, 2, d = 4 supergravities; 6. Conserved charges in general relativity; Part II. Gravitating Point-Particles: 7. The Schwarzschild black hole; 8. The Reissner-Nordström black hole; 9. The Taub-NUT solution; 10. Gravitational pp-waves; 11. The Kaluza-Klein black hole; 12. Dilaton and dilaton/axion black holes; 13. Unbroken supersymmetry; Part III. Gravitating Extended Objects of String Theory: 14. String theory; 15. The string effective action and T duality; 16. From eleven to four dimensions; 17. The type-IIB superstring and type-II T duality; 18. Extended objects; 19. The extended objects of string theory; 20. String black holes in four and five dimensions; Appendix A. Lie groups, symmetric spaces and Yang-Mills fields; Appendix B. Gamma matrices and spinors; Appendix C. n-Spheres; Appendix D. Palatini's identity; Appendix E. Conformal rescalings; Appendix F. Connections and curvature components; Appendix G. The harmonic operator on R3 x S1; References; Index.

Ortín, Tomás.

2007-03-01

352

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. Introduction to Gravity and Supergravity: 1. Differential geometry; 2. Noether's theorems; 3. A perturbative introduction to general relativity; 4. Action principles for gravity; 5. N = 1, 2, d = 4 supergravities; 6. Conserved charges in general relativity; Part II. Gravitating Point-Particles: 7. The Schwarzschild black hole; 8. The Reissner-Nordström black hole; 9. The Taub-NUT solution; 10. Gravitational pp-waves; 11. The Kaluza-Klein black hole; 12. Dilaton and dilaton/axion black holes; 13. Unbroken supersymmetry; Part III. Gravitating Extended Objects of String Theory: 14. String theory; 15. The string effective action and T duality; 16. From eleven to four dimensions; 17. The type-IIB superstring and type-II T duality; 18. Extended objects; 19. The extended objects of string theory; 20. String black holes in four and five dimensions; Appendix A. Lie groups, symmetric spaces and Yang-Mills fields; Appendix B. Gamma matrices and spinors; Appendix C. n-Spheres; Appendix D. Palatini's identity; Appendix E. Conformal rescalings; Appendix F. Connections and curvature components; Appendix G. The harmonic operator on R3 x S1; References; Index.

Ortín, Tomás.

2004-03-01

353

General relativity (GR) is a phenomenologically successful theory that rests on firm foundations, but has not been tested on cosmological scales. The deep mystery of dark energy (and possibly even the requirement of cold dark matter (CDM)) has increased the need for testing modifications to GR, as the inference of such otherwise undetected fluids depends crucially on the theory of gravity. Here, I discuss a general scheme for constructing consistent and covariant modifications to the Einstein equations. This framework is such that there is a clear connection between the modification and the underlying field content that produces it. I argue that this is mandatory for distinguishing modifications of gravity from conventional fluids. I give a non-trivial example, a simple metric-based modification of the fluctuation equations for which the background is exact ?CDM, but differs from it in the perturbations. I show how this can be generalized and solved in terms of two arbitrary functions. Finally, I discuss future prospects and directions of research. PMID:22084286

Skordis, Constantinos

2011-12-28

354

New gravity meter improves measurements

One of the best-known anecdotes in the history of science recounts how the observation of an apple falling from a tree led Isaac Newton to discover the law of gravitation. For good reason, Newton's discovery did not trigger the development of ``free-fall'' gravity meters and grand expeditions to the far corners of the Earth to measure gravity. Directly measuring the

W. E. Carter; G. Peter; G. S. Sasagawa; F. J. Klopping; K. A. Berstis; R. L. Hilt; G. L. Christy; T. M. Niebauer; H. Seeger; B. Richter; H. Wilmes; A. Lothammer

1994-01-01

355

This book invites the reader to understand our Universe, not just marvel at it. From the clock-like motions of the planets to the catastrophic collapse of a star into a black hole, gravity controls the Universe. Gravity is central to modern physics, helping to answer the deepest questions about the nature of time, the origin of the Universe and the

Bernard Schutz

2003-01-01

356

Quantum Corrections to Entropic Gravity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The entropic gravity scenario recently proposed by Erik Verlinde reproduced Newton's law of purely classical gravity yet the key assumptions of this approach all have quantum mechanical origins. As is typical for emergent phenomena in physics, the underlying, more fundamental physics often reveals itself as corrections to the leading classical behavior. So one naturally wonders: where is ? hiding in entropic gravity? To address this question, we first revisit the idea of holographic screen as well as entropy and its variation law in order to obtain a self-consistent approach to the problem. Next we argue that as the concept of minimal length has been invoked in the Bekenstein entropic derivation, the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), which is a direct consequence of the minimal length, should be taken into consideration in the entropic interpretation of gravity. Indeed based on GUP it has been demonstrated that the black hole Bekenstein entropy area law must be modified not only in the strong but also in the weak gravity regime where in the weak gravity limit the GUP modified entropy exhibits a logarithmic correction. When applying it to the entropic interpretation, we demonstrate that the resulting gravity force law does include sub-leading order correction terms that depend on ?. Such deviation from the classical Newton's law may serve as a probe to the validity of entropic gravity.

Chen, Pisin; Wang, Chiao-Hsuan

2013-12-01

357

The spherically symmetric solutions in Weyl gravity interacting with U(1) or SU(2) gauge fields are examined. It is shown that these solutions are conformally equivalent to an infinite flux tube with constant (color) electric and magnetic fields. Thus, Weyl gravity has a classical confinement mechanism. We discuss a relation to QCD.

V. Dzhunushaliev; H.-J. Schmidt

2000-01-01

358

Quantum Gravity Yesterday and Today

We present a talk given by Bryce DeWitt on Quantum Gravity, and present many references. This article is the first installment of the book "The Pursuit of Quantum Gravity 1946-2004; Memoirs of Bryce DeWitt" that Cecile DeWitt is preparing.

DeWitt, Bryce

2008-01-01

359

Quantum Gravity Yesterday and Today

We present a talk given by Bryce DeWitt on Quantum Gravity, and present many references. This article is the first installment of the book "The Pursuit of Quantum Gravity 1946-2004; Memoirs of Bryce DeWitt" that Cecile DeWitt is preparing.

Bryce DeWitt

2008-05-19

360

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes six simple experiments that can enable students to better understand gravity and the role it plays in the universe. Includes discussions of Newton's experiments, weight and mass, center of gravity, center of mass, and the velocity of falling objects. (JJK)

Lewis, Carol

1992-01-01

361

Topological methods in quantum gravity

The main technical problem with background independent approaches to quantum gravity is inapplicability of standard quantum field theory methods. New methods are needed which would be adapted to the basic principles of General Relativity. Topological field theory is a model which provides natural tools for background independent quantum gravity. It is exactly soluble and, at the same time, diffeomorphism invariant.

Artem Starodubtsev

2005-01-01

362

Physicists who work on canonical quantum gravity will sometimes remark that the general covariance of general relativity is responsible for many of the thorni-est technical and conceptual problems in their field., In particular, it is some-times alleged that one can trace to this single source a variety of deep puzzles about the nature of time in quantum gravity, deep disagreements

Gordon Belot; John Earman

2001-01-01

363

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates students' ideas about gravity beyond the earth's surface. Presents a lesson plan designed to help students understand that gravity can act beyond Earth's atmosphere. Also helps students gain a more adequate intuitive understanding of how natural and artificial satellites stay in orbit. Reports that this strategy changed some students'…

Bar, Varda; And Others

1997-01-01

364

Reduced Gravity Zblan Optical Fiber

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two optical fiber pullers have been designed for pulling ZBLAN optical fiber in reduced gravity. One fiber puller was designed, built and flown on board NASA's KC135 reduced gravity aircraft. A second fiber puller has been designed for use on board the International Space Station.

Tucker, Dennis S.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

2000-01-01

365

Inhalation of particles generated as a result of thermal degradation from fire or smoke, as may occur on spacecraft, is of major health concern to space-faring countries. Knowledge of lung airflow and particle transport under different gravity environments is required to addresses this concern by providing information on particle deposition. Gravity affects deposition of particles in the lung in two ways. First, the airflow distribution among airways is changed in different gravity environments. Second, particle losses by sedimentation are enhanced with increasing gravity. In this study, a model of airflow distribution in the lung that accounts for the influence of gravity was used for a mathematical description of particle deposition in the human lung to calculate lobar, regional, and local deposition of particles in different gravity environments. The lung geometry used in the mathematical model contained five lobes that allowed the assessment of lobar ventilation distribution and variation of particle deposition. At zero gravity, it was predicted that all lobes of the lung expanded and contracted uniformly, independent of body position. Increased gravity in the upright position increased the expansion of the upper lobes and decreased expansion of the lower lobes. Despite a slight increase in predicted deposition of ultrafine particles in the upper lobes with decreasing gravity, deposition of ultrafine particles was generally predicted to be unaffected by gravity. Increased gravity increased predicted deposition of fine and coarse particles in the tracheobronchial region, but that led to a reduction or even elimination of deposition in the alveolar region for coarse particles. The results from this study show that existing mathematical models of particle deposition at 1 G can be extended to different gravity environments by simply correcting for a gravity constant. Controlled studies in astronauts on future space missions are needed to validate these predictions. PMID:16603478

Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Oberdörster, Gunter

2006-06-01

366

Lovelock gravity from entropic force

In this paper, we first generalize the formulation of entropic gravity to (n+1)-dimensional spacetime. Then, we propose an entropic origin for Gauss-Bonnet gravity and more general Lovelock gravity in arbitrary dimensions. As a result, we are able to derive Newton's law of gravitation as well as the corresponding Friedmann equations in these gravity theories. This procedure naturally leads to a derivation of the higher dimensional gravitational coupling constant of Friedmann/Einstein equation which is in complete agreement with the results obtained by comparing the weak field limit of Einstein equation with Poisson equation in higher dimensions. Our study shows that the approach presented here is powerful enough to derive the gravitational field equations in any gravity theory. PACS: 04.20.Cv, 04.50.-h, 04.70.Dy.

A. Sheykhi; H. Moradpour; N. Riazi

2011-09-11

367

Apparent universality of semiclassical gravity in the far field limit

The universality of semiclassical gravity is investigated by considering the behavior of the quantities and , along with quantum corrections to the effective Newtonian potential in the far field limits of static spherically symmetric objects ranging from stars in the weak field Newtonian limit to black holes. For scalar fields it is shown that when differences occur they all result from the behavior of a single mode with zero frequency and angular momentum and are thus due to a combination of infrared and s-wave effects. An intriguing combination of similarities and differences between the extreme cases of a Schwarzschild black hole and a star in the weak field Newtonian limit is explained.

Paul R. Anderson; A. Fabbri

2006-12-04

368

Naked singularities are not singular in distorted gravity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) induced by a naked singularity with the help of a reformulation of the Wheele-DeWitt equation. A variational approach is used for the calculation with Gaussian Trial Wave Functionals. The one loop contribution of the graviton to the ZPE is extracted keeping under control the UltraViolet divergences by means of a distorted gravitational field. Two examples of distortion are taken under consideration: Gravity's Rainbow and Noncommutative Geometry. Surprisingly, we find that the ZPE is no more singular when we approach the singularity.

Garattini, Remo; Majumder, Barun

2014-07-01

369

Entrainment in oscillatory zero-mean flow

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamical processes associated with the stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer or in the ocean thermocline are less well understood than those of its convective counterparts. This is due to its complexity, and the fact that buoyancy reduces entrainment across density interfaces. We present results on a series of laboratory experiments where a sharp density interface generated by either salt concentration or heat, advances due to grid stirred turbulence. We parametrize the level of buoyancy at the density interface by a local Richardson number defined in terms of the density difference across the interface, which may be due to a temperature or salinity jump. L is the integral lengthscale and u' is the r.m.s. velocity scale. So Ri = C L/u 2. The laboratory experiments were designed to compare the entrainment produced by zero-mean turbulence in heat or salt density interfaces. In the experiment we used a small perspex box of 15 by 10 cm in base, a small mesh grid (M= 0.8 cm ) driven by a motor. So as to generate the density interface by disolving salt in the bottom layer of the water column or by heating the top layer, we added the top light layer, which had a density difference carefully set up by means of a sponge float. The grid was set to oscillate with fixed frequency and stroke at the begining of the experiment and the velocity of advance of the interface Ve was measured by looking at a Shadowgraph or by video recording. The turbulent parameters are derived from previous measurements as a function of the distance between the grid center and the interface z as: l = 0.1 z and the turbulent velocity údecays inversely proportinal to the distance z. There are several mechanisms that produce mixing across the density interface. And there is a dependence of the Prandtl number on the Entrainment law. The entrainment is a power function of the local Richardson number, and the value of the empirical exponent n(Ri,Pr) is compared with previous results. The relationship between the Flux Richardson number and the Gradient or local one and the ways in which the interface extracts energy from the turbulence source via internal waves Internal gravity (or buoyancy) waves are characteristic of the stable boundary layer and contribute to its transport processes, both directly, and indirectly via internal waveinduced turbulence. These proceses are able to control entrainment across strong density interfaces as those defined by Kings et al (1989) in the Antartica. A comparison of the range of entrainment values from laboratory experiments with those ocurring in nature, both in the atmosphere and ocean shows the importance of modeling correctly the integral lengthscales of the environmental turbulence.

Medina, P.; Sanchez, M. A.

2009-04-01

370

Superconducting gravity gradiometer for sensitive gravity measurements. I. Theory

Because of the equivalence principle, a global measurement is necessary to distinguish gravity from acceleration of the reference frame. A gravity gradiometer is therefore an essential instrument needed for precision tests of gravity laws and for applications in gravity survey and inertial navigation. Superconductivity and SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) technology can be used to obtain a gravity gradiometer with very high sensitivity and stability. A superconducting gravity gradiometer has been developed for a null test of the gravitational inverse-square law and space-borne geodesy. Here we present a complete theoretical model of this instrument. Starting from dynamical equations for the device, we derive transfer functions, a common mode rejection characteristic, and an error model of the superconducting instrument. Since a gradiometer must detect a very weak differential gravity signal in the midst of large platform accelerations and other environmental disturbances, the scale factor and common mode rejection stability of the instrument are extremely important in addition to its immunity to temperature and electromagnetic fluctuations. We show how flux quantization, the Meissner effect, and properties of liquid helium can be utilized to meet these challenges.

Chan, H.A.; Paik, H.J.

1987-06-15

371

Further studies of propellant sloshing under low-gravity conditions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variational integral is formulated from Hamilton's Principle and is proved to be equivalent to the usual differential equations of low-gravity sloshing in ellipsoidal tanks. It is shown that for a zero-degree contact angle the contact line boundary condition corresponds to the stuck condition, a result that is due to the linearization of the equations and the ambiguity in the definition of the wave height at the wall. The variational integral is solved by a Rayleigh-Ritz technique. Results for slosh frequency when the free surface is not bent-over compare well with previous numerical solutions. When the free surface is bent over, however, the results for slosh frequency are considerably larger than those predicted by previous finite-difference, numerical approaches: the difference may be caused by the use of a zero degree contact angle in the present theory in contrast to the nonzero contact angle used in the numerical approaches.

Dodge, F. T.

1971-01-01

372

Low gravity synthesis of polymers with controlled molecular configuration

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heterogeneous chemical systems have been studied for the synthesis of isotactic polypropylene in order to establish baseline parameters for the reaction process and to develop sensitive and accurate methods of analysis. These parameters and analytical methods may be used to make a comparison between the polypropylene obtained at one g with that of zero g (gravity). Baseline reaction parameters have been established for the slurry (liquid monomer in heptane/solid catalyst) polymerization of propylene to yield high purity, 98% isotactic polypropylene. Kinetic data for the slurry reaction showed that a sufficient quantity of polymer for complete characterization can be produced in a reaction time of 5 min; this time is compatible with that available on a sounding rocket for a zero-g simulation experiment. The preformed (activated) catalyst was found to be more reproducible in its activity than the in situ formed catalyst.

Heimbuch, A. H.; Parker, J. A.; Schindler, A.; Olf, H. G.

1975-01-01

373

Gravity Estimation from a Simulated GRACE Mission: Short vs. Long Arcs

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present simulations of gravity estimation from a GRACE-like satellite mission: low-low intersatellite tracking with a precision of order 1 micron s(exp -1) yielding gravity fields of degree and order 120. We employ a unique parameterization of the intersatellite baseline vector which allows the gravity estimation to be performed (relatively) independently of the GPS (global positioning system) tracking data once sufficiently accurate orbits are obtained. This considerably simplifies data processing during the gravity estimation. During that process only certain components of the baseline parameterization need be adjusted; other components are uncorrelated with gravity and may be adopted unchanged from the initial GPS orbits. The technique is also amenable to very short arcs of data. We present comparisons of gravity estimation from 30 days of observations with arcs of length 15 minutes vs. arcs of one day. Our 'truth' field is the EGM96 (Earth Gravitational Model) model; our prior field is a degree-70 clone of EGM96, perturbed from it by amounts comparable to the standard errors of EGM96 (and identically zero for degrees 71-120). For a high inclination orbit, the short-arc analysis recovers low order gravity coefficients remarkably well, although higher order terms, especially sectorial terms, are understandably less accurate. The simulations suggest that either long or short arcs of GRACE data are likely to improve parts of the geopotential spectrum by several orders of magnitude. This is especially so for low order coefficients, which are markedly improved for all degrees through 120.

Rowlands, David D.; Ray, Richard D.; Chinn, D. S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

374

Gravity quantized: Loop quantum gravity with a scalar field

...''but we do not have quantum gravity.'' This phrase is often used when analysis of a physical problem enters the regime in which quantum gravity effects should be taken into account. In fact, there are several models of the gravitational field coupled to (scalar) fields for which the quantization procedure can be completed using loop quantum gravity techniques. The model we present in this paper consists of the gravitational field coupled to a scalar field. The result has similar structure to the loop quantum cosmology models, except that it involves all the local degrees of freedom of the gravitational field because no symmetry reduction has been performed at the classical level.

Domagala, Marcin; Kaminski, Wojciech [Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej, Uniwersytet Warszawski, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warszawa (Warsaw), Polska (Poland) (Poland); Giesel, Kristina [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Lewandowski, Jerzy [Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej, Uniwersytet Warszawski, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warszawa (Warsaw), Polska (Poland) (Poland); Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Physics Department, Penn State, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

2010-11-15

375

Gravity quantized: Loop quantum gravity with a scalar field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

…“but we do not have quantum gravity.” This phrase is often used when analysis of a physical problem enters the regime in which quantum gravity effects should be taken into account. In fact, there are several models of the gravitational field coupled to (scalar) fields for which the quantization procedure can be completed using loop quantum gravity techniques. The model we present in this paper consists of the gravitational field coupled to a scalar field. The result has similar structure to the loop quantum cosmology models, except that it involves all the local degrees of freedom of the gravitational field because no symmetry reduction has been performed at the classical level.

Domaga?a, Marcin; Giesel, Kristina; Kami?ski, Wojciech; Lewandowski, Jerzy

2010-11-01

376

The detection of a stochastic background of long-wavelength gravitational waves (tensors) in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy would be an invaluable probe of the high energy physics of the early universe. Unfortunately a combination of factors now makes such a detection seem unlikely: the vast majority of the CMB signal appears to come from density perturbations (scalars) - detailed fits to current observations indicate a tensor-to-scalar quadrupole ratio of T/S < 0.5 for the simplest models; and on the theoretical side the best-motivated inflationary models seem to require very small T/S. Unfortunately CMB temperature anisotropies can only probe a gravity wave signal down to T/S \\sim 10% and optimistic assumptions about polarization of the CMB only lower this another order of magnitude.

J. P. Zibin; Douglas Scott; Martin White

1999-04-18

377

Supersymmetrizing massive gravity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When four scalar fields with global Lorentz symmetry are coupled to gravity and take a vacuum expectation value, breaking diffeomorphism invariance spontaneously, the graviton becomes massive. This model is supersymmetrized by considering four N=1 chiral superfields with global Lorentz symmetry. The global supersymmetry is promoted to a local one using the rules of tensor calculus of coupling the N=1 supergravity Lagrangian to the four chiral multiplets. When the scalar components of the chiral multiplets zA acquire a vacuum expectation value, both diffeomorphism invariance and local supersymmetry are broken spontaneously. The global Lorentz index A becomes identified with the space-time Lorentz index, making the scalar fields zA vectors and the chiral spinors ?A spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fields. We show that the spectrum of the model in the broken phase consists of a massive spin-2 field, two massive spin-3/2 fields with different mass and a massive vector.

Malaeb, O.

2013-07-01

378

Low Gravity Freefall Facilities

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite of Marshall Space Flight Center's Low-Gravity Free Fall Facilities.These facilities include a 100-meter drop tower and a 100-meter drop tube. The drop tower simulates in-flight microgravity conditions for up to 4.2 seconds for containerless processing experiments, immiscible fluids and materials research, pre-flight hardware design test and flight experiment simulation. The drop tube simulates in-flight microgravity conditions for up to 4.6 seconds and is used extensively for ground-based microgravity convection research in which extremely small samples are studied. The facility can provide deep undercooling for containerless processing experiments that require materials to remain in a liquid phase when cooled below the normal solidification temperature.

1981-01-01

379

We systematically study the most general Lorentz-violating graviton mass invariant under three-dimensional Eucledian group using the explicitly covariant language. We find that at general values of mass parameters the massive graviton has six propagating degrees of freedom, and some of them are ghosts or lead to rapid classical instabilities. However, there is a number of different regions in the mass parameter space where massive gravity can be described by a consistent low-energy effective theory with cutoff $\\sim\\sqrt{mM_{Pl}}$ free of rapid instabilities and vDVZ discontinuity. Each of these regions is characterized by certain fine-tuning relations between mass parameters, generalizing the Fierz--Pauli condition. In some cases the required fine-tunings are consequences of the existence of the subgroups of the diffeomorphism group that are left unbroken by the graviton mass. We found two new cases, when the resulting theories have a property of UV insensitivity, i.e. remain well behaved after inclusion of arbitrary higher dimension operators without assuming any fine-tunings among the coefficients of these operators, besides those enforced by the symmetries. These theories can be thought of as generalizations of the ghost condensate model with a smaller residual symmetry group. We briefly discuss what kind of cosmology can one expect in massive gravity and argue that the allowed values of the graviton mass may be quite large, affecting growth of primordial perturbations, structure formation and, perhaps, enhancing the backreaction of inhomogeneities on the expansion rate of the Universe.

S. L. Dubovsky

2004-09-13

380

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space vehicle Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. In this photograph, engineer Gary Reynolds is inspecting the inside of the probe neck during probe thermal repairs. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Gravity Probe B, Stanford University)

2000-01-01

381

Detrimental effects of weight lessness are no longer expected to hinder successful mitosis. Experiments in space and on the fast clinostat give no hints of this. Nevertheless we are thinking of a g sensitivity during the process of chromosome condensation and distribution. The time course of nuclear division in microplasmodia of the slime mold Physarum polycephalum was investigated under 0

V. Sobick; W. Briegleb

1983-01-01

382

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detrimental effects of weight lessness are no longer expected to hinder successful mitosis. Experiments in space and on the fast clinostat give no hints of this. Nevertheless we are thinking of a g sensitivity during the process of chromosome condensation and distribution. The time course of nuclear division in microplasmodia of the slime mold Physarum polycephalum was investigated under 0 g simulation on the fast rotating clinostat in comparison to 1 g controls. The result of this experiment is: A significant shortening of mitosis under 0 g simulation compared to 1 g controls.

Sobick, V.; Briegleb, W.

383

KC-135 zero-gravity two-phase flow pressure drop experiments and modelling

-g pressure dmp data are used in this study; that of Kachnik (1) and that of a recent experiment funded by the U. S. Air Force, and conducted in conjunction with Foster-Miller and Texas A&M University. Both experiments were flown aboard the NASA KC-135... to the predictions from the Friedel model or the Ttoniewski and Ulbrich model. The experimental two-phase multiplier appeared to follow the Martinelli-Nelson trend, but with lower values. Also, a comparison of data collected at 1-g and 0-g for the Foster-Miller...

Lambert, Anne

2012-06-07

384

Preliminary design for a Zero Gravity Test Facility (ZGTF). Volume 1: Technical

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The functional requirements and best conceptual design of a test facility that simulates weightless operating conditions for a high gain antenna systems (HGAS), that will broadcast to the Tracking Data Relay Satellites were defined. The typical HGAS defined is mounted on a low Earth orbiting satellite, and consists of an antenna with a double gimbal pointing system mounted on a 13 foot long mast. Typically, the gimbals are driven by pulse modulated dc motors or stepper motors. These drivers produce torques on the mast, with jitter that excites the satellite and may cause disturbances to sensitive experiments. The dynamic properties of the antenna support structure (mast), including flexible mode characteristics were defined. The torque profile induced on the spacecraft by motion of the high gain antenna was estimated. Gain and phase margins of the servo control loop of the gimbal drive electronics was also verified.

Germain, A.

1981-01-01

385

The Complete Book of Spaceflight: From Apollo 1 to Zero Gravity

A commanding encyclopedia of the history and principles of spaceflight-from earliest conceptions to faster-than-light galaxy-hopping Here is the first truly comprehensive guide to space exploration and propulsion, from the first musings of the Greeks to current scientific speculation about interstellar travel using \\

David Darling

2002-01-01

386

The Complete Book of Spaceflight: From Apollo 1 to Zero Gravity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A commanding encyclopedia of the history and principles of spaceflight-from earliest conceptions to faster-than-light galaxy-hopping Here is the first truly comprehensive guide to space exploration and propulsion, from the first musings of the Greeks to current scientific speculation about interstellar travel using "warp drives" and wormholes. Space buffs will delight in its in-depth coverage of all key manned and unmanned missions and space vehicles-past, present, and projected-and its clear explanations of the technologies involved. Over the course of more than 2,000 extensively cross-referenced entries, astronomer David Darling also provides fascinating insights into the cultural development of spaceflight. In vivid accounts of the major characters and historical events involved, he provides fascinating tales of early innovators, the cross-pollination that has long existed between science fiction and science fact, and the sometimes obscure links between geopolitics, warfare, and advances in rocketry.

Darling, David

2002-11-01

387

Free-surface phenomena under low- and zero-gravity conditions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus to measure contact angle was constructed to exploit the proposed internal-corner criterion. If 2 alfa is the internal angle between two intersecting vertical planes and gamma is the contact angle, a meniscus at the corner rises to a finite height if alfa + gamma pi/2 and to an infinite height if alfa + gamma pi/2. The apparatus operates by decreasing the angle alfa from pi/2 until the meniscus height changes abruptly. A number of liquids are tested on glass and plexiglas.

Coles, D.

1985-01-01

388

Convective Motions in Near-Critical Fluids under Real Zero-Gravity Conditions

The results of processing and interpreting the data of joint Russian–French experiments for studying the heat and mass transfer in near-critical fluids are presented. The experiments were carried out with the ALICE-1 instrument during an orbital flight of the Mirstation from September 30 to October 2, 1995 [1]. For such fluids with a point-like source of heat, when they are

A. V. Zyuzgin; A. I. Ivanov; V. I. Polezhaev; G. F. Putin; E. B. Soboleva

2001-01-01

389

Proposal for a zero-gravity toilet facility for the space station

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This proposed toilet facility has a straightforward design. It has few moving parts and is easily maintained. Air and water flow provide sanitary movement of the waste. The toilet's chambers are coated with Teflon which, along with the water flow, makes it self-cleaning. An added disinfectant called Betadiene kills any bacteria that may form on the chamber walls. The chair is contoured to take into account the neutral body position and the necessary strain position for defecation. Restraints at the ankles, knees, and midsection hold the body in the chair. The waste is stored in discs of Gortex material which are inside a replaceable storage chamber. This chamber can be removed, capped and stored until eventual return to earth.

Fleri, Edgar L., Jr.; Galliano, Paul A.; Harrison, Mark E.; Johnson, William B.; Meyer, Gregory J.

1989-01-01

390

Instability of ocular torsion in zero gravity - Possible implications for space motion sickness

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is proposed that study of the eye torsion reflex and its behavior under novel gravitational states may possibly provide the basis for a long-sought test to predict space motion sickness (SMS). Measures of eye torsion such as ocular counterrolling and spontaneous eye torsion, were examined during hypo- and hypergravity in parabolic flight on the NASA KC-135 aircraft. Ten subjects, including two astronauts, one who had experienced SMS and one who had not, were ranked according to scores of torsional inability at 0 G and divided into two equal groups of high and low susceptibility to SMS. At 1.8 G the groups were significantly different in both the instability measure and the measure of torsional ability. No differences were detected in eye torsion in either 0 G or 1.8 G and none of the tests were significantly different in 1 G. Results suggest that tests of eye torsion on the KC-135 might differentiate those who would experience SMS from those who would not, although it is noted that this is not yet proven.

Diamond, Shirley G.; Markham, Charles H.; Money, Ken E.

1990-01-01

391

Radiation and zero-gravity effects on human leukocytes and Neurospora crassa

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two parts of this experiment have resulted in proof that neither orbital space flight nor any of the stresses connected with it produced significant, unpredicted genetic damage, at least insofar as chromosomal-aberration production is a valid measure of this general type of effect. Furthermore, the Gemini 11 results lead to the conclusion that no synergistic effect exists between radiation and factors that are associated with space flight. No significant difference was found between dose-effect curves for survival or mutation induction of the inflight and ground-based samples irradiated on filters. Thus, like the blood experiment, this part of the experiment failed to result in data that were appropriate for confirmation of the apparent synergism that was observed in the Gemini 3 blood experiment. Also, the Nuerospora crassa experiment provided conclusive data that there is no difference in the genetic effects of irradiation during space flight and the genetic effects obtained in ground-based experiments. Both the Gemini 11 blood experiment and the Neurospora crassa experiment thus have failed to result in data confirmatory of the apparent synergism observed on the Gemini 3 mission.

Bender, M. A.; Deserres, F. J.; Gooch, P. C.; Miller, I. R.; Smith, D. B.; Kondo, S.

1971-01-01

392

The dissolution or growth of a gas bubble inside a drop in zero gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radius-time history of a gas bubble located concentrically within a spherical liquid drop in a space laboratory is analyzed within the framework of the quasi-stationary approximation. Illustrative results are calculated from the theory which demonstrate interesting qualitative features. For instance, when a pure gas bubble dissolves within a liquid drop in an environment containing the same gas and some inert species, the dissolution can be more or less rapid than that in an unbounded liquid depending on the initial relative size of the drop. Further, given a similar growth situation, indefinite growth is not possible, and the bubble will initially grow, but always dissolve in the end.

Kondos, Pericles A.; Subramanian, R. Shankar; Weinberg, Michael C.

1987-01-01

393

Proposal for the design of a zero gravity tool storage device

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts frequently use a variety of hand tools during space missions, especially on repair missions. A toolbox is needed to allow storage and retrieval of tools with minimal difficulties. The toolbox must contain tools during launch, landing, and on-orbit operations. The toolbox will be used in the Shuttle Bay and therefore must withstand the hazardous space environment. The three main functions of the toolbox in space are: to protect the tools from the space environment and from damaging one another, to allow for quick, one-handed access to the tools; and to minimize the heat transfer between the astronaut's hand and the tools. This proposal explores the primary design issues associated with the design of the toolbox. Included are the customer and design specifications, global and refined function structures, possible solution principles, concept variants, and finally design recommendations.

Stuckwisch, Sue; Carrion, Carlos A.; Phillips, Lee; Laughlin, Julia; Francois, Jason

1994-01-01

394

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system for use in the evaluation of candidate water recovery systems and for study of techniques for measuring potability parameters is reported. Sensing techniques for monitoring of the most desirable parameters are reviewed in terms of their sensitivities and complexities, and their recommendations for sensing techniques are presented. Rationale for selection of those parameters to be monitored (pH, specific conductivity, Cr(+6), I2, total carbon, and bacteria) in a next generation water monitor is presented along with an estimate of flight system specifications. A master water monitor development schedule is included.

Misselhorn, J. E.; Witz, S.; Hartung, W. H.

1973-01-01

395

N zero gravity, aboard the space shuttle Columbia's upcoming flight, Air Force Colonel

the molecular mechanisms involved in loss of bone mass (which occurs among some elderly people and all, top: Computerized reading of novel gene expression in bone formation, below: computer and x-ray images

Linial, Michal

396

Equilibrium Fluid Interface Behavior Under Low- and Zero-Gravity Conditions. 2

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mathematical basis for the forthcoming Angular Liquid Bridge investigation on board Mir is described. Our mathematical work is based on the classical Young-Laplace-Gauss formulation for an equilibrium free surface of liquid partly filling a container or otherwise in contact with solid support surfaces. The anticipated liquid behavior used in the apparatus design is also illustrated.

Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert

1996-01-01

397

Zero-gravity growth of NaF-NaCl eutectics in the NASA Skylab program

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous and discontinuous NaF fibers, embedded in a NaCl matrix, were produced in space and on earth. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture is attributed to the absence of convection current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It is shown that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of NaF fibers along the ingot axis. A new concept is advanced to explain the phenomenon of transmittance versus far infrared wavelength of the directionally solidified NaCl-NaF eutectic in terms of the two-dimensional Bragg Scattering and the polarization effect of Rayleigh scattering. This concept can be applied to other eutectic systems as long as the index of refraction of the matrix over a range of wavelengths is known. Experimental data are in agreement with the theoretical prediction.

Yue, A. S.; Allen, F. G.; Yu, J. G.

1976-01-01

398

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment designed to test whether embryos capable of developing from isolated somatic carrot cells could do so under conditions of weightlessness in space was performed aboard the unmanned Soviet biosatellite Kosmos 782 under the auspices of the joint United States-Soviet Biological Satellite Mission. Space flight and weightlessness seem to have had no adverse effects on the induction of embryoids or on the development of their organs. A portion of the crop of carrot plantlets originated in space and grown to maturity were not morphologically different from controls.

Krikorian, A. D.; Steward, F. C.

1978-01-01

399

Mobile work station concept for assembly of large space structures (zero gravity simulation tests)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept presented is intended to enhance astronaut assembly of truss structure that is either too large or complex to fold for efficient Shuttle delivery to orbit. The potential of augmented astronaut assembly is illustrated by applying the result of the tests to a barebones assembly of a truss structure. If this structure were assembled from the same nestable struts that were used in the Mobile Work Station assembly tests, the spacecraft would be 55 meters in diameter and consist of about 500 struts. The struts could be packaged in less than 1/2% of the Shuttle cargo bay volume and would take up approximately 3% of the mass lift capability. They could be assembled in approximately four hours. This assembly concept for erectable structures is not only feasible, but could be used to significant economic advantage by permitting the superior packaging feature of erectable structures to be exploited and thereby reduce expensive Shuttle delivery flights.

Heard, W. L., Jr.; Bush, H. G.; Wallsom, R. E.; Jensen, J. K.

1982-01-01

400

Flame propagation along an array of liquid fuel droplets at zero gravity

The transfer of flame between hydrocarbon droplets has been studied in free-fall experiments. The flame transfer time, tau/sub p/ (sometimes called propagation time) was measured from streak photographs for droplets with diameter d between 1.2 and 2.2 mm and spacing l from 8 to 14 mm. The principal trend of the data is that tau/sup p/ is proportional to l/sup 3/, but at a given l, tau/sub p/ decreases weakly with increasing d. Streak photographs show that the ignition delay tau/sub i/ of the droplet is much longer than the time tau/sub s/ required for the flame to spread from the local ignition site over the whole droplet. This leads to a non-uniform velocity of flame propagation along an array. Schlieren motion pictures show that tau/sub i/ is made up of tau/sub t/ the time required for the thermal wave from the droplet ignited first to reach the surface of the second, plus tau/sub d/ the subsequent delay, which is probably mainly a heat-up time. 21 refs.

Brzustowski, T.A.; Sobiesiak, A.; Wojcicki, S.

1981-01-01

401

Zero-gravity growth of a sodium chloride-lithium fluoride eutectic mixture

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous and discontinuous lithium fluoride fibers embedded in a sodium chloride matrix were produced in space and on Earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convective current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and Earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of lithium fluoride fibers along the growth direction.

Yue, A. S.; Yeh, C. W.; Yue, B. K.

1982-01-01

402

On a zero-gravity limit of the Kerr--Newman spacetimes and their electromagnetic fields

We discuss the limit of vanishing $G$ (Newton's constant of universal gravitation) of the maximal analytically extended Kerr--Newman electrovacuum spacetimes {represented in Boyer--Lindquist coordinates}. We investigate the topologically nontrivial spacetime emerging in this limit and show that it consists of two copies of flat Minkowski spacetime glued at a timelike solid cylinder. As $G\\to 0$, the electromagnetic fields of the Kerr-Newman spacetimes converge to nontrivial solutions of Maxwell's equations on this background spacetime. We show how to obtain these fields by solving Maxwell's equations with singular sources supported only on a circle in a spacelike slice of the spacetime. These sources do not suffer from any of the pathologies that plague the alternate sources found in previous attempts to interpret the Kerr--Newman fields on the topologically simple Minkowski spacetime. We characterize the singular behavior of these sources and prove that the Kerr-Newman electrostatic potential and magnetic st...

Tahvildar-Zadeh, A Shadi

2014-01-01

403

Separation of lymphocytes by electrophoresis under terrestrial conditions and at zero gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrophoretic mobility (EPM) of human peripheral lymphocytes were examined with the following objectives: To determine differences in EPM of lymphocytes under immuno-stimulated and immuno-suppressed states. To define the conditions necessary for the separation of lymphocyte sub-populations in normal and pathological conditions; To investigate immunological active, charged chemical groups on lymphocyte surfaces; and to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms of immune responsiveness, as reflected by alterations in EPM. To evaluate the potential of lymphocyte electrophoresis as: (1) a means of monitoring the immune status of kidney transplant recipients, (2) in predicting the outcome of kidney transplants, and (3) as a method for separation of lymphocyte sub-populations, the EPM was studied for unfractionated human peripheral lymphocytes and of populations enriched with T and "B" cells from normal adults, hemodialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients.

Rubin, A. L.

1977-01-01

404

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prolactin, thyrotropin and aldosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay and plasma renin activity by the radioimmunoassay of angiotensin I in normal women before and after the intravenous injection of 200 micrograms of thyrotropin releasing hormone. Prolactin increased at 15 minutes following thyrotropin releasing hormone. Plasma renin activity was not different from control levels during the first hour following the administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone, nor did the plasma aldosterone concentration differ significantly from the control levels during this period. However, with upright posture, an increase in aldosterone and in plasma renin activity was noted, demonstrating a normal capacity to secrete aldosterone. Similarly, no change in aldosterone was seen in 9 patients with primary hypothyroidism given thyrotropin releasing hormone, despite the fact that the increase in prolactin was greater than normal. These data demonstrate that acutely or chronically elevated serum prolactin levels do not result in increased plasma aldosterone levels in humans.

Haber, E.; Re, R. N.; Kourides, I. A.; Weihl, A. C.; Maloof, F.

1978-01-01

405

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrophoretic mobilities (EPM) of peripheral lymphocytes were studied from normal subjects, chronic hemodialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients. A technique to separate B lymphocytes and null cells from non-T lymphocyte preparation was developed. The experiments were designed to determine which subpopulation of the non-T lymphocytes is primarily affected and shows a decreased EPM in chronic hemodialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients.

Rubin, A. L.; Stenzel, K. H.; Cheigh, J. S.; Seaman, G. V. F.; Novogrodsky, A.

1977-01-01

406

Options for transpiration water removal in a crop growth system under zero gravity conditions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operation of a microgravity crop-growth system is a critical feature of NASA's Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) development program. Transpiration-evolved water must be removed from the air that is recirculated in such a system, perhaps supplying potable water in the process. The present consideration of candidate systems for CELSS water removal gives attention to energy considerations and to a mechanical, inertial-operation water-separation system that was chosen due to the depth of current understanding of its operation.

Blackwell, C. C.; Kliss, M.; Yendler, B.; Borchers, B.; Yendler, Boris S.; Nguyen, Thoi K.; Waleh, Ahmad

1991-01-01

407

Design, fabrication and acceptance testing of a zero gravity whole body shower, volume 1

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effort to design whole body shower for the space station prototype is reported. Clothes and dish washer/dryer concepts were formulated with consideration given to integrating such a system with the overall shower design. Water recycling methods to effect vehicle weight savings were investigated and it was concluded that reusing wash and/or rinse water resulted in weight savings which were not sufficient to outweigh the added degree of hardware complexity. The formulation of preliminary and final designs for the shower are described. A detailed comparison of the air drag vs. vacuum pickup method was prepared that indicated the air drag concept results in more severe space station weight penalties; therefore, the preliminary system design was based on utilizing the vacuum pickup method. Tests were performed to determine the optimum methods of storing, heating and sterilizing the cleansing agent utilized in the shower; it was concluded that individual packages of pre-sterilized cleansing agent should be used. Integration features with the space station prototype system were defined and incorporated into the shower design as necessary.

1973-01-01

408

Lovelock gravity from entropic force

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we first generalize the formulation of entropic gravity to (n+1)-dimensional spacetime and derive Newton's law of gravity and Friedmann equation in arbitrary dimensions. Then, we extend the discussion to higher order gravity theories and propose an entropic origin for Gauss-Bonnet gravity and more general Lovelock gravity in arbitrary dimensions. As a result, we are able to derive Newton's law of gravitation as well as the corresponding Friedmann equations in these gravity theories. This procedure naturally leads to a derivation of the higher dimensional gravitational coupling constant of Friedmann/Einstein equation which is in complete agreement with the results obtained by comparing the weak field limit of Einstein equation with Poisson equation in higher dimensions. Our strategy is to start from first principles and assuming the entropy associated with the apparent horizon given by the expression previously known via black hole thermodynamics, but replacing the horizon radius r_+ with the apparent horizon radius R. Our study shows that the approach presented here is powerful enough to derive the gravitational field equations in any gravity theory and further supports the viability of Verlinde's proposal.

Sheykhi, A.; Moradpour, H.; Riazi, N.

2013-05-01

409

Model selection for modified gravity.

In this article, we review model selection predictions for modified gravity scenarios as an explanation for the observed acceleration of the expansion history of the Universe. We present analytical procedures for calculating expected Bayesian evidence values in two cases: (i) that modified gravity is a simple parametrized extension of general relativity (GR; two nested models), such that a Bayes' factor can be calculated, and (ii) that we have a class of non-nested models where a rank-ordering of evidence values is required. We show that, in the case of a minimal modified gravity parametrization, we can expect large area photometric and spectroscopic surveys, using three-dimensional cosmic shear and baryonic acoustic oscillations, to 'decisively' distinguish modified gravity models over GR (or vice versa), with odds of ?1:100. It is apparent that the potential discovery space for modified gravity models is large, even in a simple extension to gravity models, where Newton's constant G is allowed to vary as a function of time and length scale. On the time and length scales where dark energy dominates, it is only through large-scale cosmological experiments that we can hope to understand the nature of gravity. PMID:22084296

Kitching, T D; Simpson, F; Heavens, A F; Taylor, A N

2011-12-28

410

Existence Verification for Singular Zeros of Nonlinear

Existence Verification for Singular Zeros of Nonlinear Systems by R. Baker Kearfott, rbk@usl.edu Department of Mathematics, University of Southwestern Louisiana and Jianwei Dian, dian@usl.edu Department

Kearfott, R. Baker

411

Fingerprints Theorems for Zero-Crossings

We prove that the scale map of the zero-crossings of almost all signals filtered by the second derivative of a gaussian of variable size determines the signal uniquely, up to a constant scaling and a harmonic function. ...

Yuille, A.L.

1983-10-01

412

Partnerships to continue moving toward zero emissions

that zero emission vehicles are critical to achieve sustainable transportation of interdisciplinary expertise in sustainable transportation to cities and states interested MAP A new program helping states and cities meet their sustainable

California at Davis, University of

413

On zero energy states in graphene

We obtain zero energy states in graphene for a number of potentials and discuss the relation of the decoupled Schr\\"odinger-like equations for the the spinor components with non relativistic $\\cal{PT}$ symmetric quantum mechanics.

C. -L. Ho; P. Roy

2014-05-27

414

Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLs

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water, The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles.

Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Gelger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)

2006-01-01

415

Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLS

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water. The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles

Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)

2003-01-01

416

Planar Multicontact Locomotion Using Hybrid Zero Dynamics

with zero at the start of the fully actuated domain dua Constant used to align time with zero at the start of the under actuated domain Av Unilateral constraints on the domain v sor Denoting a source domain tar Denoting a target domain Roa?fa Relabeling....2.1 Holonomic Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.2.2 Unilateral Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.3 Modeling Impacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.4 Reset Map...

Lack, Jordan Thomas

2013-11-26

417

Novel zero-current-switching PWM converters

This paper presents a new family of pulsewidth-modulated (PWM) converters, featuring soft commutation of the semiconductors at zero current (ZC) in the transistors and zero voltage (ZV) in the rectifiers. Besides operating at constant frequency and with reduced commutation losses, these new converters have output characteristics similar to the hard-switching-PWM counterpart, which means that there is no circulating reactive energy

Carlos A. Canesin; Ivo Barbi

1997-01-01

418

Quantum Histories and Quantum Gravity

This paper reviews the histories approach to quantum mechanics. This discussion is then applied to theories of quantum gravity. It is argued that some of the quantum histories must approximate (in a suitable sense) to classical histories, if the correct classical regime is to be recovered. This observation has significance for the formulation of new theories (such as quantum gravity theories) as it puts a constraint on the kinematics, if the quantum/classical correspondence principle is to be preserved. Consequences for quantum gravity, particularly for Lorentz symmetry and the idea of "emergent geometry", are discussed.

Joe Henson

2009-01-26

419

Topology, Decoherence, and Semiclassical Gravity

We address the issue of recovering the time-dependent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation from quantum gravity in a natural way. To reach this aim it is necessary to understand the nonoccurrence of certain superpositions in quantum gravity. We explore various possible explanations and their relation. These are the delocalisation of interference terms through interaction with irrelevant degrees of freedom (decoherence), gravitational anomalies, and the possibility of $\\theta$ states. The discussion is carried out in both the geometrodynamical and connection representation of canonical quantum gravity.

C. Kiefer

1993-06-11

420

Ghost Constraints on Modified Gravity

We show that general infrared modifications of the Einstein-Hilbert action obtained by addition of curvature invariants are not viable. These modifications contain either ghosts or light gravity scalars. A very specific fine-tuning might solve the problem of ghosts, but the resulting theory is still equivalent to a scalar-tensor gravity and thus gives a corrupted picture of gravity at the solar system scale. The only known loophole is that the theory becomes higher dimensional at large distances. The infinite number of degrees of freedom introduced in this way is not reducible to the addition of an arbitrary function of curvature invariants.

Alvaro Nunez; Slava Solganik

2004-11-09

421

String theory, gravity and experiment

The aim of these lectures is to give an introduction to several topics which lie at the intersection of string theory, gravity theory and gravity phenomenology. One successively reviews: (i) the "membrane" approach to the dissipative dynamics of classical black holes, (ii) the current experimental tests of gravity, and their theoretical interpretation, (iii) some aspects of the string-inspired phenomenology of the gravitational sector, and (iv) some possibilities for observing string-related signals in cosmology (including a discussion of gravitational wave signals from cosmic superstrings).

Thibault Damour; Marc Lilley

2008-02-28

422

Thermodynamics of Black Holes in Massive Gravity

We present a class of charged black hole solutions in an ($n+2)$-dimensional massive gravity with a negative cosmological constant, and study thermodynamics and phase structure of the black hole solutions both in grand canonical ensemble and canonical ensemble. The black hole horizon can have a positive, zero or negative constant curvature characterized by constant $k$. By using Hamiltonian approach, we obtain conserved charges of the solutions and find black hole entropy still obeys the area formula and the gravitational field equation at the black hole horizon can be cast into the first law form of black hole thermodynamics. In grand canonical ensemble, we find that thermodynamics and phase structure depends on the combination $k -\\mu^2/4 +c_2 m^2$ in the four dimensional case, where $\\mu$ is the chemical potential and $c_2m^2$ is the coefficient of the second term in the potential associated with graviton mass. When it is positive, the Hawking-Page phase transition can happen, while as it is negative, the black hole is always thermodynamically stable with a positive capacity. In canonical ensemble, the combination turns out to be $k+c_2m^2$ in the four dimensional case. When it is positive, a first order phase transition can happen between small and large black holes if the charge is less than its critical one. In higher dimensional ($n+2 \\ge 5$) case, even when the charge is absent, the small/large black hole phase transition can also appear, the coefficients for the third ($c_3m^2$) and/or the fourth ($c_4m^2$) terms in the potential associated with graviton mass in the massive gravity can play the same role as the charge does in the four dimensional case.

Rong-Gen Cai; Ya-Peng Hu; Qi-Yuan Pan; Yun-Long Zhang

2014-09-08

423

The Gravity Probe B Flight Dewar

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. This photograph is of the Gravity Probe B flight dewar, a metal container made like a vacuum bottle that is used especially for storing liquefied gases, that will maintain the experiment at a temperature just above absolute zero, staying cold for two years. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies -- technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched in 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Photo Credit: Lockheed Martin Corporation/R. Underwood)

2001-01-01

424

The Effect of Gravity on the Combustion of Bulk Metals

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent years, metal combustion studies at the University of Colorado have focused on the effects of gravity (g) on the ignition and burning behavior of bulk metals. The impetus behind this effort is the understanding of the ignition conditions and flammability properties of structural metals found in oxygen (O2) systems for space applications. Since spacecraft are subjected to higher-than-1g loads during launch and reentry and to a zero-gravity environment while in orbit, the study of ignition and combustion of bulk metals at different gravitational accelerations is of great practical concern. From the scientific standpoint, studies conducted under low gravity conditions provide simplified boundary conditions, since buoyancy is removed, and make possible the identification of fundamental ignition and combustion mechanisms. This investigation is intended to provide experimental verification of the influence of natural convection on the burning behavior of metals. In addition, the study offers the first findings of the influence of gravity on ignition of bulk metals and on the combustion mechanism and structure of metal-oxygen, vapor-phase diffusion flames in a buoyancy-free environment. Titanium (Ti) and magnesium (Mg) metals were chosen because of their importance as elements of structural materials and their simple chemical composition-pure metals instead of multicomponent alloys to simplify chemical and spectroscopic analyses. In addition, these elements present the two different combustion modes observed in metals: heterogeneous or surface burning (for Ti) and homogeneous or gas-phase reaction (for Mg). Finally, Mg, Ti, and their oxides exhibit a wide range of thermophysical and chemical properties. Metal surface temperature profiles, critical and ignition temperatures, propagation rates, burning times, and spectroscopic measurements are obtained under normal and reduced gravity. Visual evidence of all phenomena is provided by high-speed photography.

Branch, Melvyn C.; Abbud-Madrid, Angel; Daily, John W.

1997-01-01

425

Ballistic orbit perturbations arising from terrestrial gravity and reentry aerodynamic drag

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-Newtonian gravity, caused by an aspherical earth, and reentry aerodynamic drag result in significant perturbations in the Keplerian elements of a ballistic orbit. The number of terms retained in the geopotential model, coupling between gravity and drag, and selection of initial trajectory parameters are shown to influence prediction accuracy of position and velocity on the actual orbit. It is demonstrated that, with drag, ballistic orbits can be 'captured' by a rotating atmosphere such that, at impact, the local horizontal components of relative velocity are zero and radial velocity is constant. Proximity to 'capture' in velocity space is primarily controlled by the drag coefficient and the initial velocity vector.

Hough, M. E.

1980-08-01

426

The Earth's Gravity and Its Geological Significance.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is the earth's gravity and its geological significance. Variations of gravity around the earth can be produced by a great variety of possible distributions of density within the earth. Topics discussed include isostasy, local structures, geological exploration, change of gravity in time, and gravity on the moon and planets. (DS)

Cook, A. H.

1980-01-01

427

When is Multimetric Gravity Ghost-free?

We study ghosts in multimetric gravity by combining the mini-superspace and the Hamiltonian constraint analysis. We first revisit bimetric gravity and explain why it is ghost-free. Then, we apply our method to trimetric gravity and clarify when the model contains a ghost. More precisely, we prove trimetric gravity generically contains a ghost. However, if we cut the interaction of a pair of metrics, trimetric gravity becomes ghost-free. We further extend the Hamiltonian analysis to general multimetric gravity and calculate the number of ghosts in various models. Thus, we find multimetric gravity with loop type interactions never becomes ghost-free.

Kouichi Nomura; Jiro Soda

2012-07-16

428

Artificial Gravity Research Project

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Protecting the health, safety, and performance of exploration-class mission crews against the physiological deconditioning resulting from long-term weightlessness during transit and long-term hypogravity during surface operations will require effective, multi-system countermeasures. Artificial gravity (AG), which would replace terrestrial gravity with inertial forces generated by rotating the transit vehicle or by a human centrifuge device within the transit vehicle or surface habitat, has long been considered a potential solution. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient, multi-system countermeasure and its potential for improving the environment and simplifying operational activities (e.g., WCS, galley, etc.), much still needs to be learned regarding the human response to rotating environments before AG can be successfully implemented. This paper will describe our approach for developing and implementing a rigorous AG Research Project to address the key biomedical research questions that must be answered before developing effective AG countermeasure implementation strategies for exploration-class missions. The AG Research Project will be performed at JSC, ARC, extramural academic and government research venues, and international partner facilities maintained by DLR and IMBP. The Project includes three major ground-based human research subprojects that will lead to flight testing of intermittent short-radius AG in ISS crewmembers after 201 0, continuous long-radius AG in CEV crews transiting to and from the Moon, and intermittent short-radius AG plus exercise in lunar habitats. These human ground-based subprojects include: 1) a directed, managed international short-radius project to investigate the multi-system effectiveness of intermittent AG in human subjects deconditioned by bed rest, 2) a directed, managed long-radius project to investigate the capacity of humans to live and work for extended periods in rotating environments, and 3) a focused, investigator-initiated project to investigate system-specific adaptation to and from rotating environments. The AG Research Project also includes two major animal research subprojects: 1) a directed, managed ground-based subproject using rodents and, possibly, sub-human primates, to address mechanistic issues that cannot be studied in humans, to rapidly develop higher sample numbers than can be achieved in the human subprojects, and to establish feasible parameter operating bands to reduce the breadth of the human subprojects, and 2) a flight subproject using rodents to estimate the physiological effects of long term exposure to hypogravity and to investigate the effects of contamination by terrestrial gravity in estimating AG effectiveness. The animal flight subproject would be performed aboard ISS using the CAM module in approximately the 2008-201 1 timeframe. The paper will first present an overview of the key biomedical research questions to be answered. It will then describe the overall approaches to be utilized in developing and implementing the AG Research Project, including definition of the intended scientific research, management and development approaches, identification of roles and responsibilities, risk management, and definition of project deliverables. The primary focus of the paper will be on the first of the three ground-based human research subprojects, since it is the only one currently in development and is scheduled to start active subject investigations in April of 2005.

Kamman, Michelle R.; Paloski, William H.

2005-01-01

429

Gravity Currents in Aquatic Canopies

A lock exchange experiment is used to investigate the propagation of gravity currents through a random array of rigid, emergent cylinders which represents a canopy of aquatic plants. As canopy drag increases, the propagating ...

Tanino, Yukie

430

Unifying Einstein and Palatini gravities

We consider a novel class of f(R) gravity theories where the connection is related to the conformally scaled metric g{sub {mu}{nu}=}C(R)g{sub {mu}{nu}} with a scaling that depends on the scalar curvature R only. We call them C theories and show that the Einstein and Palatini gravities can be obtained as special limits. In addition, C theories include completely new physically distinct gravity theories even when f(R)=R. With nonlinear f(R), C theories interpolate and extrapolate the Einstein and Palatini cases and may avoid some of their conceptual and observational problems. We further show that C theories have a scalar-tensor formulation, which in some special cases reduces to simple Brans-Dicke-type gravity. If matter fields couple to the connection, the conservation laws in C theories are modified. The stability of perturbations about flat space is determined by a simple condition on the Lagrangian.

Amendola, Luca; Enqvist, Kari; Koivisto, Tomi [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, University of Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Physics Department, University of Helsinki, and Helsinki Institute of Physics, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Leuvenlaan 4, 3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

2011-02-15

431

Critical Gravity in Four Dimensions

We study four-dimensional gravity theories that are rendered renormalizable by the inclusion of curvature-squared terms to the usual Einstein action with a cosmological constant. By choosing the parameters appropriately, the massive scalar mode can be eliminated and the massive spin-2 mode can become massless. This ''critical'' theory may be viewed as a four-dimensional analogue of chiral topologically massive gravity, or of critical 'new massive gravity' with a cosmological constant, in three dimensions. We find that the on-shell energy for the remaining massless gravitons vanishes. There are also logarithmic spin-2 modes, which have positive energy. The mass and entropy of standard Schwarzschild-type black holes vanish. The critical theory might provide a consistent toy model for quantum gravity in four dimensions.

Lue, H. [China Economics and Management Academy, Central University of Finance and Economics, Beijing 100081 (China); Institute for Advanced Study, Shenzhen University, Nanhai Avenue 3688, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Pope, C. N. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 OWA (United Kingdom)

2011-05-06

432

Materials processing in low gravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work is reported on the Materials Processing Low Gravity Program in which the University of Alabama worked with scientists and engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center to design, implement and perform low gravity experiments with various scientific investigators in materials processing science through March 15, 1989. The facilities used in these short duration low gravity experiments include the Drop Tube and Drop Tower at MSFC, and the KC-135 aircraft at Ellington Field. The utilization of these ground-based low gravity facilities for materials processing was instrumental in determining the feasibility of either performing a particular experiment in the microgravity of Space or continuing on-going activities which may have been delayed due to the absence of shuttle flights during this contractual effort.

Workman, Gary L.

1989-01-01

433

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the effects of gravity, local density compared to the density of the earth, the mine shaft, centrifugal force, and air buoyancy on the weight of an object at the top and at the bottom of a mine shaft. (JRH)

Hall, Peter M.; Hall, David J.

1995-01-01

434

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend the techniques of double field theory to more general gravity theories and U-duality symmetries, having in mind applications to the complete D = 11 supergravity. In this paper we work out a (3 + 3)-dimensional `U-duality covariantization' of D = 4 Einstein gravity, in which the Ehlers group SL(2, ) is realized geometrically, acting in the 3 representation on half of the coordinates. We include the full (2 + 1)-dimensional metric, while the `internal vielbein' is a coset representative of SL(2, )/SO(2) and transforms under gauge transformations via generalized Lie derivatives. In addition, we introduce a gauge connection of the `C-bracket', and a gauge connection of SL(2, ), albeit subject to constraints. The action takes the form of (2 + 1)-dimensional gravity coupled to a Chern-Simons-matter theory but encodes the complete D = 4 Einstein gravity. We comment on generalizations, such as an ` E 8(8) covariantization' of M-theory.

Hohm, Olaf; Samtleben, Henning

2013-09-01

435

23 CFR 1210.4 - Adoption of zero tolerance law.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Adoption of zero tolerance law. 1210.4 Section 1210...INTOXICATED MINORS § 1210.4 Adoption of zero tolerance law. (a) The Secretary...authorized for any violation of the State zero tolerance...

2010-04-01

436

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive site introduces the concept of gravitational attraction and provides some examples. It introduces Sir Isaac Newton and points out that he was the first to recognize that the force that keeps the moon in orbit is the same force that pulls a ball to Earth. There are also brief descriptions of the role of gravity in the universe, and a 'thought experiment' in which students try to imagine what would happen if the force of gravity were turned off.

437

The spherically symmetric solutions in Weyl gravity interacting with U(1) or SU(2) gauge fields are examined. It is shown that these solutions are conformally equivalent to an infinite flux tube with constant (color) electric and magnetic fields. This allows us to say that Weyl gravity has in some sense a classical confinement mechanism. We discuss a possible connection with flux tubes in quantum chromodynamics.

V. Dzhunushaliev; H. -J. Schmidt

1999-08-30

438

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an alternative to topologically massive gravity (TMG) with the same ‘minimal’ bulk properties; i.e. a single local degree of freedom that is realized as a massive graviton in linearization about an anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum. However, in contrast to TMG, the new ‘minimal massive gravity’ has both a positive energy graviton and positive central charges for the asymptotic AdS-boundary conformal algebra.

Bergshoeff, Eric; Hohm, Olaf; Merbis, Wout; Routh, Alasdair J.; Townsend, Paul K.

2014-07-01

439

Consistent extension of Horava gravity.

We propose a natural extension of Horava's model for quantum gravity, which is free from the notorious pathologies of the original proposal. The new model endows the scalar graviton mode with a regular quadratic action and remains power-counting renormalizable. At low energies, it reduces to a Lorentz-violating scalar-tensor gravity theory. The deviations with respect to general relativity can be made weak by an appropriate choice of parameters. PMID:20482165

Blas, D; Pujolàs, O; Sibiryakov, S

2010-05-01

440

Model Categories and Quantum Gravity

We propose a mathematically concrete way of modelling the suggestion that in quantum gravity the spacetime disappears, replacing it with a discrete approximation to the causal path space described as an object in a model category. One of the versions of our models appears as a thickening of spacetime, which we interpret as a formulation of relational geometry. Avenues toward constructing an actual quantum theory of gravity on our models are given a preliminary exploration.

Louis Crane

2008-10-24

441

Nonlocal Effects in Quantum Gravity

It is shown explicitly that in the framework of Bohmian quantum gravity, the equations of motion of the space-time metric are Einstein's equations plus some quantum corrections. It is observed that these corrections are not covariant. So that in the framework of Bohmian quantum gravity the general covariance principle breaks down at the individual level. This principle is restored at the statistical level.

Ali Shojai; Fatimah Shojai; Mehdi Golshani

1999-03-13

442

We discuss the structure of Dyson–Schwinger equations in quantum gravity and conclude in particular that all relevant skeletons are of first order in the loop number. There is an accompanying sub-Hopf algebra on gravity amplitudes equivalent to identities between n-graviton scattering amplitudes which generalize the Slavnov–Taylor identities. These identities map the infinite number of charges and finite numbers of skeletons

Dirk Kreimer

2008-01-01

443

Gravity results in western Washington

Gravity surveys in western Washington have been conducted by this author and University of Puget Sound students since 1962, and about 5000 gravity measurements have been made. Two instruments have been used: Worden meter 358, owned by the University, and a LaCoste-Romberg G-68 loaned by the Army Map Service, which has also financed the survey during the past four years.Simple

Zdenko F. Danes

1969-01-01

444

Quantum gravity and charge renormalization

We study the question of the gauge dependence of the quantum gravity contribution to the running gauge coupling constant for electromagnetism. The calculations are performed using dimensional regularization in a manifestly gauge-invariant and gauge-condition-independent formulation of the effective action. It is shown that there is no quantum gravity contribution to the running charge, and hence there is no alteration to asymptotic freedom at high energies as predicted by Robinson and Wilczek.

Toms, David J. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

2007-08-15

445

Flammability Limits of Gases Under Low Gravity Conditions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this combustion science investigation is to determine the effect of zero, fractional, and super gravity on the flammability limits of a premixed methane air flame in a standard 51 mm diameter flammability tube and to determine, if possible, the fluid flow associated with flame passage under zero-g conditions and the density (and hence, temperature) profiles associated with the flame under conditions of incipient extinction. This is accomplished by constructing an appropriate apparatus for placement in NASA's Lewis Research Center Lear Jet facility and flying the prescribed g-trajectories while the experiment is being performed. Data is recorded photographically using the visible light of the flame. The data acquired is: (1) the shape and propagation velocity of the flame under various g-conditions for methane compositions that are inside the flammable limits, and (2) the effect of gravity on the limits. Real time accelerometer readings for the three orthogonal directions are displayed in full view of the cameras and the framing rate of the cameras is used to measure velocities.

Strehlow, R. A.

1985-01-01

446

We present a new constraint on the biased galaxy formation picture. Gravitational instability theory predicts that the two-point mass density correlation function, \\xi(r), has an inflection point at the separation r=r_0, corresponding to the boundary between the linear and nonlinear regime of clustering, \\xi = 1. We show how this feature can be used to constrain the square of the biasing parameter, b^2 = \\xi_g / \\xi on scales r = r_0, where \\xi_g is the galaxy-galaxy correlation function, allowed to differ from \\xi. We apply our method to real data: the \\xi_g(r), estimated from the APM galaxy survey. Our results suggest that the APM galaxies trace the mass at separations r > 5 Mpc/h, where h is the Hubble constant in units of 100 km/s Mpc. The present results agree with earlier studies, based on comparing higher order correlations in the APM with weakly non-linear perturbation theory. Both approaches constrain the "b" factor to be within 20% of unity. If the existence of the feature we identified in the APM \\xi_g(r) -- the inflection point near \\xi_g = 1 -- is confirmed by more accurate surveys, we may have discovered gravity's smoking gun: the long awaited ``shoulder'' in \\xi, predicted by Gott and Rees 25 years ago.

E. Gaztanaga; R. Juszkiewicz

2001-07-20

447

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In dispersive wave systems, it is known that 1-D plane solitary waves can bifurcate from linear sinusoidal wavetrains at particular wave numbers k = k0 where the phase speed c(k) happens to be an extremum (dc/dk| _0=0) and equals the group speed c_g(k_0). Two distinct possibilities thus arise: either the extremum occurs in the long-wave limit (k_0=0) and, as in shallow water, the bifurcating solitary waves are of the KdV type; or k0 ne 0 and the solitary waves are in the form of packets, described by the NLS equation to leading order, as for gravity-capillary waves in deep water. Here it is pointed out that an entirely analogous scenario is valid for the genesis of 2-D solitary waves or `lumps'. Lumps also may bifurcate at extrema of the phase speed and do so when 1-D solitary waves happen to be unstable to transverse perturbations; moreover, they have algebraically decaying tails and are either of the KPI type (e.g. in shallow water in the presence of strong surface tension) or of the wave packet type (e.g. in deep water) and are described by an elliptic-elliptic Davey-Stewartson equation system to leading order. Examples of steady lump profiles are presented and their dynamics is discussed.

Akylas, Triantaphyllos R.; Kim, Boguk

2004-11-01

448

Nonperturbative quantum gravity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asymptotic safety describes a scenario in which general relativity can be quantized as a conventional field theory, despite being nonrenormalizable when expanding it around a fixed background geometry. It is formulated in the framework of the Wilsonian renormalization group and relies crucially on the existence of an ultraviolet fixed point, for which evidence has been found using renormalization group equations in the continuum. “Causal Dynamical Triangulations” (CDT) is a concrete research program to obtain a nonperturbative quantum field theory of gravity via a lattice regularization, and represented as a sum over spacetime histories. In the Wilsonian spirit one can use this formulation to try to locate fixed points of the lattice theory and thereby provide independent, nonperturbative evidence for the existence of a UV fixed point. We describe the formalism of CDT, its phase diagram, possible fixed points and the “quantum geometries” which emerge in the different phases. We also argue that the formalism may be able to describe a more general class of Ho?ava-Lifshitz gravitational models.

Ambjørn, J.; Görlich, A.; Jurkiewicz, J.; Loll, R.

2012-10-01

449

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being encapsulated atop the Delta II launch vehicle. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

2004-01-01

450

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of a cubic Galileon model in which the Vainshtein mechanism suppresses the scalar field interactions with matter, we study low-density stars with slow rotation and static relativistic stars. We develop an expansion scheme to find approximated solutions inside the Vainshtein radius, and show that deviations from General Relativity (GR), while considering rotation, are also suppressed by the Vainshtein mechanism. In a quadratic coupling model, in which the scalarisation effect can significantly enhance deviations from GR in normal scalar tensor gravity, the Galileon term successfully suppresses the large deviations away from GR. Moreover, using a realistic equation of state, we construct solutions for a relativistic star, and show that deviations from GR are more suppressed for higher density objects. However, we found that the scalar field solution ceases to exist above a critical density, which roughly corresponds to the maximum mass of a neutron star. This indicates that, for a compact object described by a polytropic equation of state, the configuration that would collapse into a black hole cannot support a non-trivial scalar field.

Chagoya, Javier; Koyama, Kazuya; Niz, Gustavo; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

2014-10-01

451

Information Processing Structure of Quantum Gravity

The theory of quantum gravity is aimed to fuse general relativity with quantum theory into a more fundamental framework. The space of quantum gravity provides both the non-fixed causality of general relativity and the quantum uncertainty of quantum mechanics. In a quantum gravity scenario, the causal structure is indefinite and the processes are causally non-separable. In this work, we provide a model for the information processing structure of quantum gravity. We show that the quantum gravity environment is an information resource-pool from which valuable information can be extracted. We analyze the structure of the quantum gravity space and the entanglement of the space-time geometry. We study the information transfer capabilities of quantum gravity space and define the quantum gravity channel. We reveal that the quantum gravity space acts as a background noise on the local environment states. We characterize the properties of the noise of the quantum gravity space and show that it allows the separate local parties to simulate remote outputs from the local environment state, through the process of remote simulation. We characterize the information transfer of the gravity space and the correlation measure functions of the gravity channel. We investigate the process of stimulated storage for quantum gravity memories, a phenomenon that exploits the information resource-pool property of quantum gravity. The results confirm the perception that the benefits of the quantum gravity space can be exploited in quantum computations, particularly in the development of quantum computers.

Laszlo Gyongyosi

2014-01-26

452

Threshold Gravity Determination and Artificial Gravity Studies Using Magnetic Levitation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

What is the threshold gravity (minimum gravity level) required for the nominal functioning of the human system? What dosage is required (magnitude and duration)? Do human cell lines behave differently in microgravity in response to an external stimulus? The critical need for a variable gravity simulator is emphasized by recent experiments on human epithelial cells and lymphocytes on the Space Shuttle clearly showing that cell growth and function are markedly different from those observed terrestrially. Those differences are also dramatic between cells grown in space and those in Rotating Wall Vessels (RWV), or NASA bioreactor often used to simulate microgravity, indicating that although morphological growth patterns (three dimensional growth) can be successfully simulated using RWVs, cell function performance is not reproduced - a critical difference. If cell function is dramatically affected by gravity off-loading, then cell response to stimuli such as radiation, stress, etc. can be very different from terrestrial cell lines. Yet, we have no good gravity simulator for use in study of these phenomena. This represents a profound shortcoming for countermeasures research. We postulate that we can use magnetic levitation of cells and tissue, through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients, as a terrestrial microgravity model to study human cells. Specific objectives of the research are: 1. To develop a tried, tested and benchmarked terrestrial microgravity model for cell culture studies; 2. Gravity threshold determination; 3. Dosage (magnitude and duration) of g-level required for nominal functioning of cells; 4. Comparisons of magnetic levitation model to other models such as RWV, hind limb suspension, etc. and 5. Cellular response to reduced gravity levels of Moon and Mars.

Ramachandran, N.; Leslie, F.

2005-01-01

453

Modelling bivariate count series with excess zeros.

Bivariate time series of counts with excess zeros relative to the Poisson process are common in many bioscience applications. Failure to account for the extra zeros in the analysis may result in biased parameter estimates and misleading inferences. A class of bivariate zero-inflated Poisson autoregression models is presented to accommodate the zero-inflation and the inherent serial dependency between successive observations. An autoregressive correlation structure is assumed in the random component of the compound regression model. Parameter estimation is achieved via an EM algorithm, by maximizing an appropriate log-likelihood function to obtain residual maximum likelihood estimates. The proposed method is applied to analyze a bivariate series from an occupational health study, in which the zero-inflated injury count events are classified as either musculoskeletal or non-musculoskeletal in nature. The approach enables the evaluation of the effectiveness of a participatory ergonomics intervention at the population level, in terms of reducing the overall incidence of lost-time injury and a simultaneous decline in the two mean injury rates. PMID:16024052

Lee, Andy H; Wang, Kui; Yau, Kelvin K W; Carrivick, Philip J W; Stevenson, Mark R

2005-08-01

454

ZERO EMISSION POWER GENERATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

Clean Energy Systems (CES) was previously funded by DOE's ''Vision 21'' program. This program provided a proof-of-concept demonstration that CES' novel gas generator (combustor) enabled production of electrical power from fossil fuels without pollution. CES has used current DOE funding for additional design study exercises which established the utility of the CES-cycle for retrofitting existing power plants for zero-emission operations and for incorporation in zero-emission, ''green field'' power plant concepts. DOE funding also helped define the suitability of existing steam turbine designs for use in the CES-cycle and explored the use of aero-derivative turbines for advanced power plant designs. This work is of interest to the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum & Energy. California's air quality districts have significant non-attainment areas in which CES technology can help. CEC is currently funding a CES-cycle technology demonstration near Bakersfield, CA. The Norwegian government is supporting conceptual studies for a proposed 40 MW zero-emission power plant in Stavager, Norway which would use the CES-cycle. The latter project is called Zero-Emission Norwegian Gas (ZENG). In summary, current engineering studies: (1) supported engineering design of plant subsystems applicable for use with CES-cycle zero-emission power plants, and (2) documented the suitability and availability of steam turbines for use in CES-cycle power plants, with particular relevance to the Norwegian ZENG Project.

Ronald Bischoff; Stephen Doyle

2005-01-20

455

Stability of zero modes in parafermion chains

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One-dimensional topological phases can host localized zero-energy modes that enable high-fidelity storage and manipulation of quantum information. Majorana fermion chains support a classic example of such a phase, having zero modes that guarantee twofold degeneracy in all eigenstates up to exponentially small finite-size corrections. Chains of "parafermions"—generalized Majorana fermions—also support localized zero modes, but, curiously, only under much more restricted circumstances. We shed light on the enigmatic zero-mode stability in parafermion chains by analytically and numerically studying the spectrum and developing an intuitive physical picture in terms of domain-wall dynamics. Specifically, we show that even if the system resides in a gapped topological phase with an exponentially accurate ground-state degeneracy, higher-energy states can exhibit a splitting that scales as a power law with system size, categorically ruling out exact localized zero modes. The transition to power-law behavior is described by critical behavior appearing exclusively within excited states.

Jermyn, Adam S.; Mong, Roger S. K.; Alicea, Jason; Fendley, Paul

2014-10-01

456

Perfect magnetic compensation of gravity along a vertical axis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic compensation of gravity allows for ground-based experiments to be carried out under weightless conditions at reasonable cost and without the time limitation of systems such as zero-g airplanes or drop towers. Most of the time classical superconducting solenoids are operated to perform such experiments, which lead to a poor quality of the gravity compensation due to the non-ideal shape of the current and field distribution. In order to improve the quality of simulated microgravity, scientists need to build novel ground-based systems fully dedicated to magnetic levitation. The magnetic design of these levitation apparatuses would be based on theoretical studies of magnetic forces and associated field distributions. The work presented in this paper demonstrates the possibility of producing a magnetic force on paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials that is constant, thus providing a uniform gravity compensation, along a segment in a 3D geometry. These results come from both the decomposition in spherical harmonics of the magnetic field and specific conditions applied on the magnetic force. The magnetic field configuration leads to conical-shape isohomogeneity of the resulting acceleration. As an additional remark to previous works, the impossibility to get a magnetic force varying as 1/r2 is briefly described.

Lorin, Clément; Mailfert, Alain; Jeandey, Christian; Masson, Philippe J.

2013-04-01

457

Is Quantum Gravity a Chern-Simons Theory?

We propose a model of quantum gravity in arbitrary dimensions defined in terms of the BV quantization of a supersymmetric, infinite dimensional matrix model. This gives an (AKSZ-type) Chern-Simons theory with gauge algebra the space of observables of a quantum mechanical Hilbert space H. The model is motivated by previous attempts to formulate gravity in terms of non-commutative, phase space, field theories as well as the Fefferman-Graham curved analog of Dirac spaces for conformally invariant wave equations. The field equations are flat connection conditions amounting to zero curvature and parallel conditions on operators acting on H. This matrix-type model may give a better defined setting for a quantum gravity path integral. We demonstrate that its underlying physics is a summation over Hamiltonians labeled by a conformal class of metrics and thus a sum over causal structures. This gives in turn a model summing over fluctuating metrics plus a tower of additional modes-we speculate that these could yield improved UV behavior.

R. Bonezzi; O. Corradini; A. Waldron

2014-07-22

458

Entropy and temperature of black holes in a gravity's rainbow

The linear relation between the entropy and area of a black hole can be derived from the Heisenberg principle, the energy-momentum dispersion relation of special relativity, and general considerations about black holes. There exist results in quantum gravity and related contexts suggesting the modification of the usual dispersion relation and uncertainty principle. One of these contexts is the gravity's rainbow formalism. We analyze the consequences of such a modification for black hole thermodynamics from the perspective of two distinct rainbow realizations built from doubly special relativity. One is the proposal of Magueijo and Smolin and the other is based on a canonical implementation of doubly special relativity put forward recently by the authors. In these scenarios, we obtain modified expressions for the entropy and temperature of black holes. We show that, for a family of doubly special relativity theories satisfying certain properties, the temperature can vanish in the limit of zero black hole mass. For the Magueijo and Smolin proposal, this is only possible for some restricted class of models with bounded energy and unbounded momentum. With the proposal of a canonical implementation, on the other hand, the temperature may vanish for more general theories; in particular, the momentum may also be bounded, with bounded or unbounded energy. This opens new possibilities for the outcome of black hole evaporation in the framework of a gravity's rainbow.

Galan, Pablo; Mena Marugan, Guillermo A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

2006-08-15

459

Entropy and temperature of black holes in a gravity's rainbow

The linear relation between the entropy and area of a black hole can be derived from the Heisenberg principle, the energy-momentum dispersion relation of special relativity, and general considerations about black holes. There exist results in quantum gravity and related contexts suggesting the modification of the usual dispersion relation and uncertainty principle. One of these contexts is the gravity's rainbow formalism. We analyze the consequences of such a modification for black hole thermodynamics from the perspective of two distinct rainbow realizations built from doubly special relativity. One is the proposal of Magueijo and Smolin and the other is based on a canonical implementation of doubly special relativity put forward recently by the authors. In these scenarios, we obtain modified expressions for the entropy and temperature of black holes. We show that, for a family of doubly special relativity theories satisfying certain properties, the temperature can vanish in the limit of zero black hole mass. For the Magueijo and Smolin proposal, this is only possible for some restricted class of models with bounded energy and unbounded momentum. With the proposal of a canonical implementation, on the other hand, the temperature may vanish for more general theories; in particular, the momentum may also be bounded, with bounded or unbounded energy. This opens new possibilities for the outcome of black hole evaporation in the framework of a gravity's rainbow.

Pablo Galan; Guillermo A. Mena Marugan

2006-08-11

460

Is quantum gravity a Chern-Simons theory?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a model of quantum gravity in arbitrary dimensions defined in terms of the Batalin Vilkovisky (BV) quantization of a supersymmetric, infinite dimensional matrix model. This gives an Alexandrov-Kontsevich-Schwarz-Zaboronsky (AKSZ)-type Chern-Simons theory with gauge algebra the space of observables of a quantum mechanical Hilbert space H. The model is motivated by previous attempts to formulate gravity in terms of noncommutative, phase space, field theories as well as the Fefferman-Graham (FG) curved analog of Dirac spaces for conformally invariant wave equations. The field equations are flat connection conditions amounting to zero curvature and parallel conditions on operators acting on H. This matrix-type model may give a better defined setting for a quantum gravity path integral. We demonstrate that its underlying physics is a summation over Hamiltonians labeled by a conformal class of metrics and thus a sum over causal structures. This gives in turn a model summing over fluctuating metrics plus a tower of additional modes—we speculate that these could yield improved UV behavior.

Bonezzi, R.; Corradini, O.; Waldron, A.

2014-10-01