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1

Remediation of TNT and RDX in Groundwater Using Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barriers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Cost and Performance Report documents the demonstration of a zero-valent iron (ZVI) permeable reactive barriers (PRB) for the removal of explosives from groundwater. The demonstration was conducted at the Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant (CAAP) near ...

P. Tratnyek, R. Johnson

2008-01-01

2

Modelling the remediation of contaminated groundwater using zero-valent iron barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results of modelling studies on remediation of groundwater contaminated with uranium using a zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier (ZVI PRB) at the U.S. Oak Ridge Y-12 site that are used to establish modelling techniques that are of value to other sites such as in the UK. A systematic modelling methodology has been developed to study the problem

S. Kwong; J. Small; B. Tahar

2007-01-01

3

Long-term performance evaluation of permeable reactive barrier using zero-valent iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term performance of a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) filled with zero-valent iron (ZVI) and crushed stone as reactive media was evaluated by about ten years groundwater monitoring from its installation. After 2619 days (about 7.2 years), increase of chlorinated volatile organic carbons (CVOCs) concentrations in groundwater was observed at down-gradient wells. Reactive media was sampled from the center of PRB at 3158 days (about 8.7 years) to conduct a series of laboratory tests, which examines the dechlorination coefficient and the conditions of iron powder. Test results showed the iron powder from PRB still maintains sufficient dechlorination ability of CVOCs, and the thickness of corrosion material ranges less than 5?m and the most of the metal portion remains. Therefore, it was considered that the PRB preserves its function to reduce CVOCs concentration in groundwater met the Environmental Quality Standards for Groundwater (EQSG) of Japan.

Nakashima, Makoto; Negishi, Masanori

4

LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS USING ZERO-VALENT IRON: GEOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Geochemical and microbiological factors that control long-term performance of subsurface permeable reactive barriers were evaluated at the Elizabeth City, NC and the Denver Federal Center, CO sites. These ground water treatment systems use zero-valent iron filings (Peerless Meta...

5

Mineral Precipitation Upgradient from a Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier  

SciTech Connect

Core samples taken from a zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier (ZVI PRB) at Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant, Nebraska, were analyzed for physical and chemical characteristics. Precipitates containing iron and sulfide were present at much higher concentrations in native aquifer materials just upgradient of the PRB than in the PRB itself. Sulfur mass balance on core solids coupled with trends in ground water sulfate concentrations indicates that the average ground water flow after 20 months of PRB operation was approximately twenty fold less than the regional ground water velocity. Transport and reaction modeling of the aquifer PRB interface suggests that, at the calculated velocity, both iron and hydrogen could diffuse upgradient against ground water flow and thereby contribute to precipitation in the native aquifer materials. The initial hydraulic conductivity (K) of the native materials is less than that of the PRB and, given the observed precipitation in the upgradient native materials, it is likely that K reduction occurred upgradient to rather than within the PRB. Although not directly implicated, guar gum used during installation of the PRB is believed to have played a role in the precipitation and flow reduction processes by enhancing microbial activity.

Johnson, R. L.; Thoms, R. B.; Johnson, R. O.; Nurmi, J. T.; Tratnyek, Paul G.

2008-07-01

6

Biogeochemical dynamics in zero-valent iron columns: Implications for permeable reactive barriers  

SciTech Connect

The impact of microbiological and geochemical processes has been a major concern for the long-term performance of permeable reactive barriers containing zero-valent iron (Fe{sup 0}). To evaluate potential biogeochemical impacts, laboratory studies were performed over a 5-month period using columns containing a diverse microbial community. The conditions chosen for these experiments were designed to simulate high concentrations of bicarbonate and sulfate containing groundwater regimes. Groundwater chemistry was found to significantly affect corrosion rates of Fe{sup 0} filings and resulted in the formation of a suite of mineral precipitates. HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions in SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}-containing water were particularly corrosive to Fe{sup 0}, resulting in the formation of ferrous carbonate and enhanced H{sub 2} gas generation that stimulated the growth of microbial populations and increased SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} reduction. Major mineral precipitates identified included lepidocrocite, akaganeite, mackinawite, magnetite/maghemite, goethite, siderite, and amorphous ferrous sulfide. Sulfide was formed as a result of microbial reduction of SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} that became significant after about 2 months of column operations. This study demonstrates that biogeochemical influences on the performance and reaction of Fe{sup 0} may be minimal in the short term, necessitating longer-term operations to observe the effects of biogeochemical reactions on the performance of Fe{sup 0} barriers. Although major failures of in-ground treatment barriers have not been problematic to date, the accumulation of iron oxyhydroxides, carbonates, and sulfides from biogeochemical processes could reduce the reactivity and permeability of Fe{sup 0} beds, thereby decreasing treatment efficiency.

Gu, B.; Phelps, T.J.; Liang, L.; Palumbo, A.V.; Jacobs, G.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Dickey, M.J.; Roh, Y.; Kinsall, B.L. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

1999-07-01

7

Hydraulic and geochemical performance of a permeable reactive barrier containing zero-valent iron, Denver Federal Center  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hydraulic and geochemical performance of a 366 m long permeable reactive barrier (PRB) at the Denver Federal Center; Denver, Colorado, was evaluated. The funnel and gate system, which was installed in 1996 to intercept and remediate ground water contaminated with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), contained four 12.2 m wide gates filled with zero-valent iron. Ground water mounding on the upgradient side of the PRB resulted in a tenfold increase in the hydraulic gradient and ground water velocity through the gates compared to areas of the aquifer unaffected by the PRB. Water balance calculations for April 1997 indicate that about 75% of the ground water moving toward the PRB from upgradient areas moved through the gates. The rest of the water either accumulated on the upgradient side of the PRB or bypassed the PRB. Chemical data from monitoring wells screened down-gradient, beneath, and at the ends of the PRB indicate that contaminants had not bypassed the PRB, except in a few isolated areas. Greater than 99% of the CAH mass entering the gates was retained by the iron. Fifty-one percent of the CAH carbon entering one gate was accounted for in dissolved C1 and C2 hydrocarbons, primarily ethane and ethene, which indicates that CAHs may adsorb to the iron prior to being dehalogenated. Treated water exiting the gates displaced contaminated ground water at a distance of at least 3 m downgradient from the PRB by the end of 1997. Measurements of dissolved inorganic ions in one gate indicate that calcite and siderite precipitation in the gate could reduce gate porosity by about 0.35% per year. Results from this study indicate that funnel and gate systems containing zero-valent iron can effectively treat ground water contaminated with CAHs. However, the hydrologic impacts of the PRB on the flow system need to be fully understood to prevent contaminants from bypassing the PRB.

McMahon, P. B.; Dennehy, K. F.; Sandstrom, M. W.

1999-01-01

8

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS USING ZERO-VALENT IRON: AN EVALUATION AT TWO SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Geochemical and microbiological factors that control long-term performance of subsurface permeable reactive barriers were evaluated at the Elizabeth City, NC and the Denver Federal Center, CO sites. These groundwater treatment systems use zero-valent iron filings to intercept an...

9

Performance evaluation of a zero-valent iron reactive barrier: mineralogical characteristics  

SciTech Connect

There is a limited amount of information about the effects of mineral precipitates and corrosion on the lifespan and long-term performance of in situ Fe{sup 0} reactive barriers. The objectives of this paper are (1) to investigate mineral precipitates through an in situ permeable Fe{sup 0} reactive barrier and (2) to examine the cementation and corrosion of Fe{sup 0} filings in order to estimate the lifespan of this barrier. This field scale barrier (225-ft long x 2-ft wide x 31-ft deep) has been installed in order to remove uranium from contaminated groundwater at the Y-12 plant site, Oak Ridge, TN. According to XRD and SEM-EDX analysis of core samples recovered from the Fe{sup 0} portion of the barrier, iron oxyhydroxides were found throughout, while aragonite, siderite, and FeS occurred predominantly in the shallow portion. Additionally, aragonite and FeS were present in up-gradient deeper zone where groundwater first enters the Fe{sup 0} section of the barrier. After 15 months in the barrier, most of the Fe{sup 0} filings in the core samples were loose, and a little corrosion of Fe{sup 0} filings was observed in most of the barrier. However, larger amounts of corrosion (10-150 {micro}m thick corrosion rinds) occurred on cemented iron particles where groundwater first enters the barrier. Bicarbonate/carbonate concentrations were high in this section of the barrier. Byproducts of this corrosion, iron oxyhydroxides, were the primary binding material in the cementation. Also, aragonite acted as a binding material to a lesser extent, while amorphous FeS occurred as coatings and infilings. Thin corrosion rinds (2-50 {micro}m thick) were also found on the uncemented individual Fe{sup 0} filings in the same area of the cementation. If corrosion continues, the estimated lifespan of Fe{sup 0} filings in the more corroded sections is 5 to 10 years, while the Fe{sup 0} filings in the rest of the barrier perhaps would last longer than 15 years. The mineral precipitates on the Fe{sup 0} filing surfaces may hinder this corrosion but they may also decrease reactive surfaces. This research shows that precipitation will vary across a single reactive barrier and that greater corrosion and subsequent cementation of the filings may occur where groundwater first enters the Fe{sup 0} section of the barrier.

Phillips, Debra Helen [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Roh, Yul [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Lee, S. Y. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2000-08-01

10

Performance evaluation of a zero-valent iron reactive barrier: mineralogical characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a limited amount of information about the effects of mineral precipitates and corrosion on the lifespan and long-term performance of in situ Fe° reactive barriers. The objectives of this paper are (1) to investigate mineral precipitates through an in situ permeable Fe° reactive barrier and (2) to examine the cementation and corrosion of Fe° filings in order to

Debra Helen Phillips; Baohua Gu; David B Watson; Yul Roh; Liyuan Liang; S. Y. Lee

2000-01-01

11

Degradation of organic and inorganic contaminants by zero valent iron  

E-print Network

DEGRADATION OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS BY ZERO VALENT IRON A Thesis DEEPAK BABU MALLA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1997 Major Subject: Civil Engineering DEGRADATION OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS BY ZERO VALENT IRON A Thesis DEEPAK BABU MALLA Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Malla, Deepak Babu

2012-06-07

12

THE APPLICATION OF IN SITU PERMEABLE REACTIVE (ZERO-VALENT IRON) BARRIER TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMEDIATION OF CHROMATE-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER: A FIELD TEST  

EPA Science Inventory

A small-scale field test was initiated in September 1994 to evaluate the in situ remediation of groundwater contaminated with chromate using a permeable reactive barrier composed of a mixture of zero-valent Fe, sand and aquifer sediment. The site used was an old chrome-plating f...

13

ZERO-VALENT IRON FOR HIGH-LEVEL ARSENITE REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

This study conducted by flow through column systems was aimed at investigating the feasibility of using zero-valent iron for arsenic remediation in groundwater. A high concentration arsenic solution (50 mg l-1) was prepared by using sodium arsenite (arsenic (III)) to simulate gr...

14

TREATMENT OF GROUND WATER WITH ZERO VALENT IRON (ZVI)  

EPA Science Inventory

A presentation on the use of zero valent iron (ZVI) for groundwater remediation at the Memphis Defense Depot Site in Memphis, TN, will be given at a public meeting in Memphis on February 24. The presentation is being given in response to a request by a citizen's group associated...

15

CARBON AND SULFUR ACCUMULATION AND IRON MINERAL TRANSFORMATION IN PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS CONTAINING ZERO-VALENT IRON  

EPA Science Inventory

Permeable reactive barrier technology is an in-situ approach for remediating groundwater contamination that combines subsurface fluid flow management with passive chemical treatment. Factors such as the buildup of mineral precipitates, buildup of microbial biomass (bio-fouling...

16

Formation of ferrihydrite and associated iron corrosion products in permeable reactive barriers of zero-valent iron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ferrihydrite, which is known to form in the presence of oxygen and to be stabilized by the adsorption of Si, PO4 and SO4, is ubiquitous in the fine-grained fractions of permeable reactive barrier (PRB) samples from the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center (Elizabeth City, NC) and the Denver Federal Center (Lakewood, CO) studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. The concurrent energy-dispersive X-ray data indicate a strong association between ferrihydrite and metals such as Si, Ca, and Cr. Magnetite, green rust 1, aragonite, calcite, mackinawite, greigite and lepidocrocite were also present, indicative of a geochemical environment that is temporally and spatially heterogeneous. Whereas magnetite, which is known to form due to anaerobic Fe0 corrosion, passivates the Fe0 surface, ferrihydrite precipitation occurs away from the immediate Fe0 surface, forming small (<0.1 microm) discrete clusters. Consequently, Fe0-PRBs may remain effective for a longer period of time in slightly oxidized groundwater systems where ferrihydrite formation occurs compared to oxygen-depleted systems where magnetite passivation occurs. The ubiquitous presence of ferrihydrite suggests that the use of Fe0-PRBs may be extended to applications that require contaminant adsorption rather than, or in addition to, redox-promoted contaminant degradation.

Furukawa, Yoko; Kim, Jin-Wook; Watkins, Janet; Wilkin, Richard T.

2002-01-01

17

High-level arsenite removal from groundwater by zero-valent iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to conduct batch and column studies to (i) assess the effectiveness of zero-valent iron for arsenic remediation in groundwater, (ii) determine removal mechanisms of arsenic, and (iii) evaluate implica- tions of these processes with regard to the stability of arsenic and long-term remedial performance of the permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology. A high concentration

Hsing-Lung Lien; Richard T. Wilkin

2004-01-01

18

High-level arsenite removal from groundwater by zero-valent iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to conduct batch and column studies to (i) assess the effectiveness of zero-valent iron for arsenic remediation in groundwater, (ii) determine removal mechanisms of arsenic, and (iii) evaluate implications of these processes with regard to the stability of arsenic and long-term remedial performance of the permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology. A high concentration arsenic

Hsing-Lung Lien; Richard T. Wilkin

2005-01-01

19

Electrochemical depassivation of zero-valent iron for trichloroethene reduction.  

PubMed

Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) composed of zero-valent iron (ZVI) are susceptible to passivation, resulting in substantially decreased rates of chlorinated solvent removal over time. In this study, the application of low electrical direct current (DC) to restore the reductive capacity of passivated ZVI was examined. Electrical current was applied to a laboratory column reactor filled with a mixture of pre-passivated ZVI and sand. Variable voltage settings (0-12 V) were applied through two stainless steel electrodes placed at the ends of the reactor. While only partial restoration of the reductive capacity of the passivated ZVI was observed, higher rates of trichloroethene (TCE) removal were always obtained when current was applied, and the rates of TCE removal were roughly proportional to the voltage level. Although differences were observed between the rates and extent of TCE removal within the column, it is noteworthy that TCE removal was not restricted to that region of the column where the electrons entered (i.e., at the cathode). While complete "depassivation" of ZVI may be difficult to achieve in practice, the application of DC demonstrated observable restoration of reactivity of the passivated ZVI. This study provides evidence that this approach may significantly extend the life of a ZVI PRB. PMID:23009798

Chen, Liang; Jin, Song; Fallgren, Paul H; Swoboda-Colberg, Norbert G; Liu, Fei; Colberg, Patricia J S

2012-11-15

20

Application of Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron to Marine Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contamination of marine waters and sediments with heavy metals and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) including chlorinated solvents, pesticides and PCBs pose ecological and human health risks through the contaminant's potential bioaccumulation in fish, shellfish and avian populations. The contaminants enter marine environments through improper disposal techniques and storm water run-off. Current remediation technologies for application to marine environments include costly dredging and off-site treatment of the contaminated media. Emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) has been proven to effectively degrade dissolved-phase and DNAPL-phase contaminants in freshwater environments on both the laboratory and field-scale level. However, the application to marine environments is only just being explored. This paper discusses the potential use of EZVI in brackish and saltwater environments, with supporting laboratory data detailed. Laboratory studies were performed in 2005 to establish the effectiveness of EZVI to degrade trichloroethylene (TCE) in saltwater. Headspace vials were setup to determine the kinetic rate of TCE degradation using EZVI in seawater. The reaction vials were analyzed by Gas Chromatographic/Flame Ionization Detection (GC/FID) for ethene production after a 48 day period using a GC/FID Purge and Trap system. Analytical results showed that EZVI was very effective at degrading TCE. The reaction by-products (ethene, acetylene and ethane) were produced at 71% of the rate in seawater as in the fresh water controls. Additionally, iron within the EZVI particles was protected from oxidation of the corrosive seawater, allowing EZVI to perform in an environment where zero-valent iron alone could not compete. Laboratory studies were also performed to establish the effectiveness of emulsified zero-valent metal (EZVM) to remove dissolved-phase cadmium and lead found in seawater. EZVM is comprised of a combination of magnesium and iron metal surrounded by the same oil/surfactant membrane used in EZVI. The removal of cadmium and lead from a seawater matrix is a unique challenge. It requires a system that is resistant to the corrosive nature of seawater while removing specific ions that are in a relatively low concentration compared to naturally occurring seawater salts. Laboratory studies conducted show greater than 99% removal of lead and 96% removal of cadmium from a seawater solution spiked at 5 mg/L that was treated with an Emulsified Zero-Valent Metal (EZVM). The cadmium and lead are removed from the solution as they transport across the emulsion membrane and plate out onto the zero-valent metal surface.

Brooks, Kathleen B.; Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Clausen, Christian A.; Geiger, Cherie L.

2005-01-01

21

Potential artifacts in interpretation of differential breakthrough of colloids and dissolved tracers in the context of transport in a zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier.  

PubMed

Many published studies have used visual comparison of the timing of peak breakthrough of colloids versus conservative dissolved tracers (hereafter referred to as dissolved tracers or tracers) in subsurface media to determine whether they are advected differently, and to elucidate the mechanisms of differential advection. This purely visual approach of determining differential advection may have artifacts, however, due to the attachment of colloids to subsurface media. The attachment of colloids to subsurface media may shift the colloidal peak breakthrough to earlier times, causing an apparent "faster" peak breakthrough of colloids relative to dissolve tracers even though the transport velocities for the colloids and the dissolved tracers may actually be equivalent. In this paper, a peak shift analysis was presented to illustrate the artifacts associated with the purely visual approach in determining differential advection, and to quantify the peak shift due to colloid attachment. This peak shift analysis was described within the context of microsphere and bromide transport within a zero-valent iron (ZVI) permeable reactive barrier (PRB) located in Fry Canyon, Utah. Application of the peak shift analysis to the field microsphere and bromide breakthrough data indicated that differential advection of the microspheres relative to the bromide occurred in the monitoring wells closest to the injection well in the PRB. It was hypothesized that the physical heterogeneity at the grain scale, presumably arising from differences in inter- versus intra-particle porosity, contributed to the differential advection of the microspheres versus the bromide in the PRB. The relative breakthrough (RB) of microspheres at different wells was inversely related to the ionic strength of ground water at these wells, in agreement with numerous studies showing that colloid attachment is directly related to solution ionic strength. PMID:11708449

Zhang, B P; Johnson, W P; Piana, M J; Fuller, C C; Naftz, D L

2001-01-01

22

Potential artifacts in interpretation of differential breakthrough of colloids and dissolved tracers in the context of transport in a zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many published studies have used visual comparison of the timing of peak breakthrough of colloids versus conservative dissolved tracers (hereafter referred to as dissolved tracers or tracers) in subsurface media to determine whether they are advected differently, and to elucidate the mechanisms of differential advection. This purely visual approach of determining differential advection may have artifacts, however, due to the attachment of colloids to subsurface media. The attachment of colloids to subsurface media may shift the colloidal peak breakthrough to earlier times, causing an apparent "faster" peak breakthrough of colloids relative to dissolve tracers even though the transport velocities for the colloids and the dissolved tracers may actually be equivalent. In this paper, a peak shift analysis was presented to illustrate the artifacts associated with the purely visual approach in determining differential advection, and to quantify the peak shift due to colloid attachment. This peak shift analysis was described within the context of microsphere and bromide transport within a zero-valent iron (ZVI) permeable reactive barrier (PRB) located in Fry Canyon, Utah. Application of the peak shift analysis to the field microsphere and bromide breakthrough data indicated that differential advection of the microspheres relative to the bromide occurred in the monitoring wells closest to the injection well in the PRB. It was hypothesized that the physical heterogeneity at the grain scale, presumably arising from differences in inter- versus intra-particle porosity, contributed to the differential advection of the microspheres versus the bromide in the PRB. The relative breakthrough (RB) of microspheres at different wells was inversely related to the ionic strength of ground water at these wells, in agreement with numerous studies showing that colloid attachment is directly related to solution ionic strength.

Zhang, P.; Johnson, W.P.; Piana, M.J.; Fuller, C.C.; Naftz, D.L.

2001-01-01

23

Reduction and Immobilization of Radionuclides and Toxic Metal Ions Using Combined Zero Valent Iron and Anaerobic Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The use of zero valent iron, permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for groundwater remediation continues to increase. AN exciting variation of this technology involves introducing anaerobic bacteria into these barriers so that both biological and abiotic pollutant removal processes are functional. This work evaluated the hypothesis that a system combining a mixed culture of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) with zero valent iron would have a greater cr(VI) removal efficiency and a greater total Cr(VI) removal capacity than a zero valent iron system without the microorganisms. Hence, the overall goal of this research was to compare the performance of these types of systems with regard to their Cr(VI) removal efficiency and total Cr(VI) removal capacity. Both batch and continuous flow reactor systems were evaluated.

Lenly J. Weathers; Lynn E. Katz

2002-05-29

24

Mobility and Deposition of pre-Synthesis Stabilized Nano-scale Zero Valent Iron in Long Column Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive zero-valent iron is currently being used for remediation of contaminated groundwater. Permeable reactive barriers are the current state-of-the-art method for using zero-valent iron. Instead of an excavated trench filled with granular zero-valent iron, a relatively new and promising method is the injection of a nano -scale zero-valent iron colloid suspension (nZVI) into the subsurface using injection wells. One goal of nZVI injection can be to deposit the iron in the aquifer and form a reactive permeable zone which is no longer bound to limited depths and plume treatment, but can also be used for source zone remediation. A good understanding of the transport behavior of nZVI is necessary to design a field application. So far transport was mainly tested using commercially available nZVI, however these studies suggest that further work is required as commercial nZVI was prone to aggregation, resulting in low physical stability of the suspension and very short travel distances in the subsurface. In the presented work, nZVI is stabilized during synthesis to significantly increase the physical suspension stability. To improve our understanding of nZVI transport, the feasibility for injection into various types of porous media and controlled nZVI deposition, a suite of column experiments are conducted. The column experiments are performed using a long 1.5m column and a novel nZVI measuring technique. The measuring technique was developed to non-destructively determine the concentration of nano-scale iron during the injection. It records the magnetic susceptibility, which makes it possible to get transient nZVI retention profiles along the column. These transient nZVI retention profiles of long columns provide unique insights in the transport behavior of nZVI which cannot be obtained using short columns or effluent breakthrough curves.

de Boer, C. V.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Sleep, B. E.

2013-12-01

25

REDUCTION OF AZO DYES WITH ZERO-VALENT IRON. (R827117)  

EPA Science Inventory

The reduction of azo dyes by zero-valent iron metal (Fe0) at pH 7.0 in 10 mM HEPES buffer was studied in aqueous, anaerobic batch systems. Orange II was reduced by cleavage of the azo linkage, as evidenced by the production of sulfanilic acid (a substituted ani...

26

REMOVAL OF HIGH-LEVEL ARSENIC BY ZERO-VALENT IRON  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this study were to conduct batch and column studies to (i) assess the effectiveness of zero-valent iron for arsenic remediation in groundwater, (ii) determine removal mechanisms of arsenic, and (iii) evaluate implications of these processes with regard to the st...

27

HIGH-LEVEL ARSENITE REMOVAL FROM GROUNDWATER BY ZERO-VALENT IRON  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this study were to conduct batch and column studies to (i) assess the effectiveness of zero-valent iron for arsenic remediation in groundwater, (ii) determine removal mechanisms of arsenic, and (iii) evaluate implications of these processes with regard to the st...

28

Partial oxidation (?aging?) and surface modification decrease the toxicity of nano-sized zero valent iron  

EPA Science Inventory

Zero-valent iron (nZVI) is a redox-active nanomaterial used for in situ remediation of contaminated groundwater. To assess the effect of ?aging? and surface modification on its potential neurotoxicity, cultured rodent microglia and neurons were exposed to fresh nZVI, ?aged? (>11...

29

FIELD EVALUATION OF THE TREATMENT OF DNAPL USING EMULSIFIED ZERO-VALENT IRON (Battelle Conference)  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot scale field demonstration of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) treatment using emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) was conducted at Parris Island Marine Corps Recruit Depot (MCRD), Parris Island, SC. The EZVI technology was developed at the University of Central Fl...

30

FIELD EVALUATION OF THE TREATMENT OF DNAPL USING EMULSIFIED ZERO-VALENT IRON  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot scale field demonstration of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) treatment using emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) is being conducted at Parris Island Marine Corps Recruit Depot (MCRD), Parris Island SC. The demonstration is being conducted by Geosyntec, the Nationa...

31

FIELD EVALUATION OF THE TREATMENT OF DNAPL USING EMULSIFIED ZERO-VALENT IRON (DNAPL CONFERENCE)  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot scale field demonstration of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) treatment using emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) is being conducted at Parris Island Marine Corps Recruit Depot (MCRD), Parris Island SC. The demonstration is being conducted by Geosyntec, the Nationa...

32

Multicomponent reactive transport in an in situ zero-valent iron cell  

SciTech Connect

Data collected from a field study of in situ zero-valent iron treatment for TCE were analyzed in the context of coupled transport and reaction processes. The focus of this analysis was to understand the behavior of chemical components, including contaminants, in groundwater transported through the iron cell of a pilot-scale funnel and gate treatment system. A multicomponent reactive transport simulator was used to simultaneously model mobile and nonmobile components undergoing equilibrium and kinetic reactions including TCE degradation, parallel iron dissolution reactions, precipitation of secondary minerals, and complexation reactions. The resulting mechanistic model of coupled processes reproduced solution chemistry behavior observed in the iron cell with a minimum of calibration. These observations included the destruction of TCE and cis-1,2-DCE; increases in pH and hydrocarbons; and decreases in EH, alkalinity, dissolved O2 and CO2, and major ions (i.e., Ca, Mg, Cl, sulfate, nitrate). Mineral precipitation in the iron zone was critical to correctly predicting these behaviors. The dominant precipitation products were ferrous hydroxide, siderite, aragonite, brucite, and iron sulfide. In the first few centimeters of the reactive iron cell, these precipitation products are predicted to account for a 3% increase in mineral volume per year, which could have implications for the longevity of favorable barrier hydraulics and reactivity. The inclusion of transport was key to understanding the interplay between rates of transport and rates of reaction in the field.

Yabusaki, Steven B. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Cantrell, Kirk J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Sass, Bruce (BCO); Steefel, Carl (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)

2000-12-01

33

Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions  

SciTech Connect

Calcium carbonate is a secondary mineral precipitate influencing zero valent iron (ZVI) barrier reactivity and hydraulic performance. We conducted column experiments to investigate electrical signatures resulting from concurrent CaCO{sub 3} and iron oxides precipitation under simulated field geochemical conditions. We identified CaCO{sub 3} as a major mineral phase throughout the columns, with magnetite present primarily close to the influent based on XRD analysis. Electrical measurements revealed decreases in conductivity and polarization of both columns, suggesting that electrically insulating CaCO{sub 3} dominates the electrical response despite the presence of electrically conductive iron oxides. SEM/EDX imaging suggests that the electrical signal reflects the geometrical arrangement of the mineral phases. CaCO{sub 3} forms insulating films on ZVI/magnetite surfaces, restricting charge transfer between the pore electrolyte and ZVI particles, as well as across interconnected ZVI particles. As surface reactivity also depends on the ability of the surface to engage in redox reactions via charge transfer, electrical measurements may provide a minimally invasive technology for monitoring reactivity loss due to CaCO{sub 3} precipitation. Comparison between laboratory and field data shows consistent changes in electrical signatures due to iron corrosion and secondary mineral precipitation.

Wu, Yuxin; Versteeg, R.; Slater, L.; LaBrecque, D.

2009-06-01

34

Zero Valent Iron: Impact of Anions Present during Synthesis on Subsequent Nanoparticle Reactivity  

SciTech Connect

Zero-valent iron particles are an effective remediation technology for groundwater contaminated with halogenated organic compounds. In particular, nano-scale zero-valent iron is a promising material for remediation due to its high specific surface area, which results in faster rate constants and more effective use of the iron. An aspect of iron nanoparticle reactivity that has not been explored is the impact of anions present during iron metal nanoparticle synthesis. Solutions containing chloride, phosphate, sulfate, and nitrate anions and ferric ions were used to generate iron oxide nanoparticles. The resulting materials were dialyzed to remove dissolved byproducts and then dried and reduced by hydrogen gas at high temperature. The reactivity of the resulting zero valent iron nanoparticles was quantified by monitoring the kinetics as well as products of carbon tetrachloride reduction, and significant differences in reactivity and chloroform yield were observed. The reactivity of nanoparticles prepared in the presence of sulfate and phosphate demonstrated the highest reactivity and chloroform yield. Furthermore, substantial variations in the solid-state products of oxidation (magnetite, iron sulfide, and goethite, among others) were also observed.

Moore, Kirsten; Forsberg, Brady; Baer, Donald R.; Arnold, William A.; Penn, R. Lee

2011-10-01

35

Reductive precipitation of uranium(VI) by zero-valent iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of zero-valent iron (Fe°) and several adsorbent materials in removing uranium (U) from contaminated groundwater and to investigate the rates and mechanisms that are involved in the reactions. Fe° filings were used as reductants, and the adsorbents included peat materials, iron oxides, and a carbon-based sorbent (Cercona Bone-Char). Results indicate that Fe°

B. Gu; M. J. Dickey; X. Yin; S. Dai; L. Liang

1998-01-01

36

Enhanced dechlorination of chlorobenzene by microwave-induced zero-valent iron: particle effects and activation energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic compounds such as chlorobenzene cannot be effectively decomposed with currently available biological and chemical\\u000a treatment methods. Preliminary studies show that nano-scale zero-valent iron particles irradiated by microwave is effective\\u000a in decomposing chemically refractive organic compounds such as chlorobenzene. In this study, microwave is applied to enhance\\u000a chlorobenzene removal using micron-scale iron particles and nano-scale zero-valent iron particles suspended in

Chien-Li Lee; Hsien-Yi Lee; Kuo-Hung Tseng; P. K. Andy Hong; Chih-Ju G. Jou

37

Toxicity of nano-zero valent iron to freshwater and marine organisms.  

PubMed

We tested whether three commercial forms (uncoated, organic coating, and iron oxide coating) of nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) are toxic to freshwater and marine organisms, specifically three species of marine phytoplankton, one species of freshwater phytoplankton, and a freshwater zooplankton species (Daphnia magna), because these organisms may be exposed downstream of where nZVI is applied to remediate polluted soil. The aggregation and reactivity of the three types of nZVI varied considerably, which was reflected in their toxicity. Since levels of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) increase as the nZVI react, we also evaluated their toxicity independently. All four phytoplankton species displayed decreasing population growth rates, and Daphnia magna showed increasing mortality, in response to increasing levels of nZVI, and to a lesser degree with increasing Fe(2+) and Fe(3+). All forms of nZVI aggregated in soil and water, especially in the presence of a high concentration of calcium ions in groundwater, thus reducing their transports through the environment. However, uncoated nZVI aggregated extremely rapidly, thus vastly reducing the probability of environmental transport and potential for toxicity. This information can be used to design a risk management strategy to arrest the transport of injected nZVI beyond the intended remediation area, by injecting inert calcium salts as a barrier to transport. PMID:22952836

Keller, Arturo A; Garner, Kendra; Miller, Robert J; Lenihan, Hunter S

2012-01-01

38

Toxicity of Nano-Zero Valent Iron to Freshwater and Marine Organisms  

PubMed Central

We tested whether three commercial forms (uncoated, organic coating, and iron oxide coating) of nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) are toxic to freshwater and marine organisms, specifically three species of marine phytoplankton, one species of freshwater phytoplankton, and a freshwater zooplankton species (Daphnia magna), because these organisms may be exposed downstream of where nZVI is applied to remediate polluted soil. The aggregation and reactivity of the three types of nZVI varied considerably, which was reflected in their toxicity. Since levels of Fe2+ and Fe3+ increase as the nZVI react, we also evaluated their toxicity independently. All four phytoplankton species displayed decreasing population growth rates, and Daphnia magna showed increasing mortality, in response to increasing levels of nZVI, and to a lesser degree with increasing Fe2+ and Fe3+. All forms of nZVI aggregated in soil and water, especially in the presence of a high concentration of calcium ions in groundwater, thus reducing their transports through the environment. However, uncoated nZVI aggregated extremely rapidly, thus vastly reducing the probability of environmental transport and potential for toxicity. This information can be used to design a risk management strategy to arrest the transport of injected nZVI beyond the intended remediation area, by injecting inert calcium salts as a barrier to transport. PMID:22952836

Keller, Arturo A.; Garner, Kendra; Miller, Robert J.; Lenihan, Hunter S.

2012-01-01

39

Effects of dissolved oxygen on dye removal by zero-valent iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of dissolved oxygen concentrations on dye removal by zero-valent iron (Fe0) were investigated. The Vibrio fischeri light inhibition test was employed to evaluate toxicity of decolorized solution. Three dyes, Acid Orange 7 (AO7, monoazo), Reactive Red 120 (RR120, diazo), and Acid Blue 9 (AB9, triphenylmethane), were selected as model dyes. The dye concentration and Fe0 dose used were 100mgL?1

Kai-Sung Wang; Chiou-Liang Lin; Ming-Chi Wei; Hsiu-Hao Liang; Heng-Ching Li; Chih-Hua Chang; Yung-Tai Fang; Shih-Hsien Chang

2010-01-01

40

Laboratory evaluation of zero-valent iron to treat water impacted by acid mine drainage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the applicability and limitations of granular zero-valent iron for the treatment of water impacted by mine wastes. Rates of acid-neutralization and of metal (Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Hg, Al, and Mn) and metalloid (As) uptake were determined in batch systems using simulated mine drainage (initial pH 2.3–4.5; total dissolved solids 14000–16000 mgl?1). Metal removal from solution and

Richard T. Wilkin; Mary S. McNeil

2003-01-01

41

REDUCTION AND IMMOBILIZATION OF RADIONUCLIDES AND TOXIC METAL IONS USING COMBINED ZERO VALENT IRON AND ANAEROBIC BACTERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Large groundwater plumes contaminated with toxic metal ions, including radionuclides, exist at several DOE facilities. Previous research indicated that both zero valent iron and sulfate reducing bacteria can yield significant decreases in concentrations of redox sensitive metals ...

42

Zero-valent Iron Emplacement in Permeable Porous Media Using Polymer Additions  

SciTech Connect

At the Hanford Site in Washington, an extensive In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) permeable reactive barrier was installed to prevent chromate from reaching the Columbia River. However, chromium has been detected in several wells, indicating a premature loss of the reductive capacity in the aquifer. One possible cause for premature chromate breakthrough is associated with the presence of high-permeability zones in the aquifer. The potential emplacement of zero-valent iron (Fe0) into high-permeability Hanford sediments to enhance the barrier’s reductive capacity using shear-thinning fluids containing polymers was investigated in three-dimensional wedge-shaped aquifer models. Porous media were packed in the wedge-shaped flow cell to create either a heterogeneous layered system with a high-permeability zone between two low-permeability zones or a high-permeability channel surrounded by low-permeability materials. The injection flow rate, polymer type, polymer concentration, and injected pore volumes were determined based on preliminary short- and long-column experiments. The flow cell experiments indicated that iron concentration enhancements of at least 0.6% (w/w) could be obtained using moderate flow rates and injection of 30 pore volumes. The aqueous pressure increased by a maximum of 25 KPa during infiltration, but a decrease in permeability was not observed. Under optimal conditions, the 0.6% amended Fe0 concentration would provide approximately 20 times the average reductive capacity that is provided by the dithionite-reduced Fe (II) in the ISRM barrier.

Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Covert, Matthew A.; Vermeul, Vince R.

2007-02-15

43

Assessment of Influence of Magnetic Forces on Aggregation of Zero-valent Iron Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Aggregation of zero-valent nanoparticles in groundwater is influenced by several physical phenomena. The article shortly introduces preceding works in modeling of aggregation of small particles including influence of sedimentation, velocity profile of water, heat fluctuations, and surface electric charge. A brief description of inclusion of magnetic forces into the model of aggregation follows. Rate of influence of the magnetic forces on the aggregation depends on the magnitude of magnetization of the particles, radius of nanoparticles, size of the aggregates, and their concentration in the solution. Presented results show that the magnetic forces have significant influence on aggregation especially of the smallest iron particles.

2011-01-01

44

Methods of preparation and modification of advanced zero-valent iron nanoparticles, their properties and application in water treatment technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zero-valent iron nanoparticles are commonly used in modern water treatment technologies. Compared to conventionally-used macroscopic iron or iron microparticles, the using of nanoparticles has the advantages given mainly by their generally large specific surface area (it drives their high reactivity and/or sorption capacity), small dimensions (it allows their migration e.g. in ground water), and particular physical and chemical properties. Following the applications of zero-valent iron particles in various pilot tests, there arose several critical suggestions for improvements of used nanomaterials and for development of new generation of reactive nanomaterials. In the presentation, the methods of zero-valent iron nanoparticles synthesis will be summarized with a special attention paid to the thermally-induced solid-state reaction allowing preparation of zero-valent iron nanoparticles in an industrial scale. Moreover, the method of thermal reduction of iron-oxide precursors enables to finely tune the critical parameters (mainly particle size and morphology, specific surface area, surface chemistry of nanoparticles etc.) of resulting zero-valet iron nanoparticles. The most important trends of advanced nanoparticles development will be discussed: (i) surface modification of nanomaterilas, (ii) development of nanocomposites and (iii) development of materials for combined reductive-sorption technologies. Laboratory testing of zero-valent iron nanoparticles reactivity and migration will be presented and compared with the field observations: the advanced zero-valent iron nanoparticles were used for groundwater treatment at the locality contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons (VC, DCE, TCE and PCE) and reacted nanoparticles were extracted from the sediments for their fate assessment. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic "Competence Centres" (project No. TE01020218) and the EU FP7 (project NANOREM).

Filip, Jan; Kašlík, Josef; Med?ík, Ivo; Petala, Eleni; Zbo?il, Radek; Slunský, Jan; ?erník, Miroslav; Stav?lová, Monika

2014-05-01

45

Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water, The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles.

Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Gelger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)

2006-01-01

46

Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water. The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles

Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)

2003-01-01

47

Applicability of nano zero valent iron (nZVI) in sono - Fenton process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fenton process is one of the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) used to remove complex organic pollutants in wastewater. In this study, instead of iron sulfate (FeSO4), nano zero valent iron (nZVI) was used as a major source of ferrous iron (Fe2+). In order to enhance the process, ultrasound was utilized in this study. Results show that, with the aid of ultrasound, nZVI produced more Fe2+ compared to FeSO4 at pH 2. Furthermore, combination of higher intensity and longer sonication time in Fenton process acceleratde the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from palm oil mill effluent (POME). Through the process, 80% of COD content was removed within 2 hours instead of 24 hours of silent degradation.

Taha, M. R.; Ibrahim, A. H.; Amat, R. C.; Azhari, A. W.

2014-04-01

48

Injection of Zero Valent Iron into an Unconfined Aquifer Using Shear-Thinning Fluids  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 190 kg of two micron-diameter zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles were injected into a test zone in the top two meters of an unconfined aquifer within a trichloroethene (TCE) source area. A shear-thinning fluid was used to enhance ZVI delivery in the subsurface to a radial distance of up to four meters from a single injection well. The ZVI particles were mixed in-line with the injection water, shear-thinning fluid, and a low concentration of surfactant. ZVI was observed at each of the seven monitoring wells within the targeted radius of influence during injection. Additionally, all wells within the targeted zone showed low TCE concentrations and primarily dechlorination products present 44 days after injection. These results suggest that ZVI can be directly injected into an aquifer with shear-thinning fluids and extends the applicability of ZVI to situations where other emplacement methods may not be viable.

Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Macbeth, Tamzen

2011-02-18

49

Gas-bubbled nano zero-valent iron process for high concentration arsenate removal.  

PubMed

In this study, batch experiments were performed to investigate a novel process for high concentration arsenate removal in the presence of air and/or CO(2) bubbling. The pretreatment step, CO(2) bubbling at 300 mL/min for 5 min, was taken to adjust the solution pH to an acidic environment, followed by air bubbling at 300 mL/min for 10 min to increase dissolved oxygen in the solution. In the treatment period, the nano-scale zero-valent iron was applied to remove aqueous arsenate of 3000 ?g/L, while the treatment system was continuously bubbled by 300 mL/min of air. Such a process resulted in outstanding performance in arsenate removal. Furthermore, in the field groundwater application, the arsenate removal rate for the proposed process was 5 times faster than the rate measured when the system was pretreated by acidic chemical species only. PMID:21256674

Tanboonchuy, Visanu; Hsu, Jia-Chin; Grisdanurak, Nurak; Liao, Chih-Hsiang

2011-02-28

50

Nanoscale zero valent iron and bimetallic particles for contaminated site remediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the late 1990s, the use of nano zero valent iron (nZVI) for groundwater remediation has been investigated for its potential to reduce subsurface contaminants such as PCBs, chlorinated solvents, and heavy metals. nZVI shows tremendous promise in the environmental sector due to its high reactivity and as such, numerous laboratory and field studies have been performed to assess its effectiveness. This paper reviews the current knowledge of nZVI/bimetallic technology as it pertains to subsurface remediation of chlorinated solvents and heavy metals. The manuscript provides background on the technology, summarizing nZVI reactions with chlorinated solvents and metals, and examines the factors affecting nZVI reactivity. Studies on subsurface transport of bare and coated nZVI particles are also reviewed and challenges with field implementation are discussed. This manuscript offers a comprehensive review of nZVI technology and highlights the work still needed to optimize it for subsurface remediation.

O'Carroll, Denis; Sleep, Brent; Krol, Magdalena; Boparai, Hardiljeet; Kocur, Christopher

2013-01-01

51

Degradation of soil-sorbed trichloroethylene by stabilized zero valent iron nanoparticles: Effects of sorption, surfactants, and natural organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zero valent iron (ZVI) nanoparticles have been studied extensively for degradation of chlorinated solvents in the aqueous phase, and have been tested for in-situ remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. However, little is known about its effectiveness for degrading soil-sorbed contaminants. This work studied reductive dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) sorbed in two model soils (a potting soil and Smith Farm

Man Zhang; Feng He; Dongye Zhao; Xiaodi Hao

2011-01-01

52

Mass Transfer Effects on Kinetics of Dibromoethane Reduction by Zero- Valent Iron in Packed-Bed Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mass transfer effects on the kinetics of 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB) reduction by zero-valent iron (ZVI) in batch reactors, a laboratory scale packed-bed reactor, and a pilot scale packed-bed reactor are described. EDB was debrominated by ZVI to ethylene and ...

G. Loraine, D. Burris, L. Li J. Schoolfield

2002-01-01

53

Field Demonstration of DNAPL Dehalogenation Using Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the results of the first field-scale demonstration conducted to evaluate the performance of nano-scale emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) injected into the saturated zone to enhance in situ dehalogenation of dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) containing trichloroethene (TCE). EZVI is an innovative and emerging remediation technology. EZVI is a surfactant-stabilized, biodegradable emulsion that forms emulsion droplets consisting of an oil-liquid membrane surrounding zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles in water. EZVI was injected over a five day period into eight wells in a demonstration test area within a larger DNAPL source area at NASA's Launch Complex 34 (LC34) using a pressure pulse injection method. Soil and groundwater samples were collected before and after treatment and analyzed for volatile organic compounds (V005) to evaluate the changes in VOC mass, concentration and mass flux. Significant reductions in TCE soil concentrations (>80%) were observed at four of the six soil sampling locations within 90 days of EZVI injection. Somewhat lower reductions were observed at the other two soil sampling locations where visual observations suggest that most of the EZVI migrated up above the target treatment depth. Significant reductions in TCE groundwater concentrations (57 to 100%) were observed at all depths targeted with EZVI. Groundwater samples from the treatment area also showed significant increases in the concentrations of cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene. The decrease in concentrations of TCE in soil and groundwater samples following treatment with EZVI is believed to be due to abiotic degradation associated with the ZVI as well as biodegradation enhanced by the presence of the oil and surfactant in the EZVI emulsion.

Quinn, Jacqueline; Geiger, Cherie; Clausen, Chris; Brooks, Kathleen; Coon, Christina; O'Hara, Suzanne; Krug, Thomas; Major, David; Yoon, Sam; Gavaskar, Arun; Holdsworth, Thomas

2004-01-01

54

Field demonstration of DNAPL dehalogenation using emulsified zero-valent iron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the results of the first field-scale demonstration conducted to evaluate the performance of nanoscale emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) injected into the saturated zone to enhance in situ dehalogenation of dense, nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) containing trichloroethene (TCE). EZVI is an innovative and emerging remediation technology. EZVI is a surfactant-stabilized, biodegradable emulsion that forms emulsion droplets consisting of an oil-liquid membrane surrounding zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles in water. EZVI was injected over a five day period into eight wells in a demonstration test area within a larger DNAPL source area at NASA's Launch Complex 34 (LC34) using a pressure pulse injection method. Soil and groundwater samples were collected before and after treatment and analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to evaluate the changes in VOC mass, concentration and mass flux. Significant reductions in TCE soil concentrations (>80%) were observed at four of the six soil sampling locations within 90 days of EZVI injection. Somewhat lower reductions were observed at the other two soil sampling locations where visual observations suggest that most of the EZVI migrated up above the target treatment depth. Significant reductions in TCE groundwater concentrations (57 to 100%) were observed at all depths targeted with EZVI. Groundwater samples from the treatment area also showed significant increases in the concentrations of cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene. The decrease in concentrations of TCE in soil and groundwater samples following treatment with EZVI is believed to be due to abiotic degradation associated with the ZVI as well as biodegradation enhanced by the presence of the oil and surfactant in the EZVI emulsion.

Quinn, Jacqueline; Geiger, Cherie; Clausen, Chris; Brooks, Kathleen; Coon, Christina; O'Hara, Suzanne; Krug, Thomas; Major, David; Yoon, Woong-Sang; Gavaskar, Arun; Holdsworth, Thomas

2005-01-01

55

Treatment of chemical warfare agents by zero-valent iron nanoparticles and ferrate(VI)\\/(III) composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles and a composite containing a mixture of ferrate(VI) and ferrate(III) were prepared by thermal procedures. The phase compositions, valence states of iron, and particle sizes of iron-bearing compounds were determined by combination of X-ray powder diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The applicability of these environmentally friendly iron based materials in treatment of chemical

Radek Zboril; Marek Andrle; Frantisek Oplustil; Libor Machala; Jiri Tucek; Jan Filip; Zdenek Marusak; Virender K. Sharma

56

Removal of As from groundwater by in situ bioprecipitation and zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in situ bioprecipitation (ISBP) and zero-valent iron (ZVI) for removal of arsenic from groundwater. Batch experiments were set up to test the metal/oxyanion removal efficiency using the processes induced by ZVI, by ISBP and by combining both technologies. For the construction of microcosms in anaerobic condition, aquifer material was mixed with synthetic groundwater in serum bottles. Solutions that contained commercial iron (powder, filings), iron from foundry (chips) and lactate with the carbon concentration of 0.02% (w/v) were amended. After 57 days the pH increased to 7.9 in the microcosm with lactate + iron chips. In the microcosms amended with lactate + commercial iron (powder and filings), pH was between 6.9 and 7.5 The highest decrease in sulfate concentrations was observed in the microcosm supplied with lactate (from 1,976 to 630 mg/L), and with lactate + iron filings (from 1,985 to 1,280 mg/L). The results showed that ISBP and ZVI can be efficient in the removal of As from groundwater; however, it strongly depends on the type and particle size of ZVI. The most effective was commercial ZVI. The highest decrease in As concentration was observed in the microcosm supplied with ethanol and iron powder (from 4,832 to 131 ?g/L). PMID:24225108

Tkaczynska, A

2013-01-01

57

[Removal of arsenate from drinking water by activated carbon supported nano zero-valent iron].  

PubMed

A new adsorbent, activated carbon impregnated with nano zero-valent iron was prepared, which size of the needle-shaped iron particles in the pores of carbon was (30-500) nm x (1000-3000) nm and approximately 8.2% of iron was loaded onto it. The arsenate removal percentage was 99.5% by 1.5 g/L NZVI/AC in the 2 mg/L arsenic solution at pH 6.5 and (25 +/- 2) degrees C. The adsorption capacity was about 15.4 mg/g when equilibrium concentration was 1.0 mg/L. Kinetics revealed that uptake of arsenate ion by NZVI/AC was 91.4% in the first 12 h and equilibrium time was about 72 h. The intraparticle diffusion model was applied to study the mechanics of arsenate in the activated carbon. The presence of phosphate and silicate could significantly decrease arsenate removal while the effects of the other anions and cations on the arsenic removal were neglectable. NZVI/AC can be effectively regenerated when elution is done with 0.1 mol/L NaOH solution. Our results suggest that NZVI/AC is a suitable candidate for drinking water treatment due to its high reactivity. PMID:20187387

Zhu, Hui-jie; Jia, Yong-feng; Yao, Shu-hu; Wu, Xing; Wang, Shu-ying

2009-12-01

58

Debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether by organo-montmorillonite-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron: preparation, characterization and influence factors.  

PubMed

An organo-montmorillonite-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron material (M-NZVI) was synthesized to degrade decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). The results showed that nanoscale zero-valent iron had good dispersion on organo-montmorillonite and was present as a core-shell structure with a particle size range of nanoscale iron between 30-90 nm, characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, XRF, ICP-AES, and XPS. The results of the degradation of BDE-209 by M-NZVI showed that the efficiency of M-NZVI in removing BDE-209 was much higher than that of NZVI. The efficiency of M-NZVI in removing BDE-209 decreased as the pH and the initial dissolved oxygen content of the reaction solution increased, but increased as the proportion of water in the reaction solution increased. PMID:25076541

Pang, Zhihua; Yan, Mengyue; Jia, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhenxing; Chen, Jianyu

2014-02-01

59

Polyelectrolyte multilayer film-assisted formation of zero-valent iron nanoparticles onto polymer nanofibrous mats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A facile approach that combines the electrospinning technique and layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly method has been developed to synthesize and immobilize zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVI NPs) onto the surface of nanofibers for potential environmental applications. In this approach, negatively charged cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning CA solution were modified with bilayers composed of positively charged poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammoniumchloride) (PDADMAC) and negatively charged poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) through electrostatic LbL assembly approach to form composite nanofibrous mats. The composite nanofibrous mats were immersed into the ferrous iron solution to allow Fe(II) ions to complex with the free carboxyl groups of PAA, and then ZVI NPs were immobilized onto the composite nanofibrous mats instantly by reducing the ferrous cations. Combined scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and thermogravimetry analysis demonstrated that the ZVI NPs are successfully synthesized and uniformly distributed into the polyelectrolyte (PE) multilayer films assembled onto the CA nanofibers. The present approach to synthesis ZVI NPs opens a new avenue to fabricating various materials with high surface area for environmental, catalytic, and sensing applications.

Xiao, Shili; Wu, Siqi; Shen, Mingwu; Guo, Rui; Wang, Shanyuan; Shi, Xiangyang

2009-09-01

60

Continuous phosphorus removal from water by physicochemical method using zero valent iron packed column.  

PubMed

Excessive phosphorus in aquatic systems causes algal bloom resulting in eutrophication. To treat wastewater including effluent of wastewater treatment plant containing various amounts of phosphorus, a series of continuous experiments on removal of phosphorus from water were performed by using an electrochemical method. The spherical type of zero valent iron (ZVI) and silica sand were packed at appropriate volume ratio of 1:2 in a cylindrical column. An electric potential was applied externally, which can be changed as per the operational requirement. The results indicate that optimum hydraulic retention time of 36 min was required to meet the effluent standards with our laboratory-scale experimental setup. Lower amounts of phosphorus were removed by precipitation due to contact with iron, and additional electric potential was not required. In order to remove high amounts of phosphorus (around 150 mg/L as phosphate), external electric potential of 600 V was applied to the reactor. As the precipitation of phosphate mainly occurs at neutral pH, it is likely that FeHPO4 will be the main phosphorus-containing compound. Through the results of the large-scale experiments, the ZVI packed reactor can be used as a filter for removal of phosphorus of less than 10 mg/L as phosphate concentration. PMID:25225938

Jeong, Joo-Young; Ahn, Byoung-Min; Kim, Yu-Jin; Park, Joo-Yang

2014-01-01

61

The impact of zero-valent iron nanoparticles upon soil microbial communities is context dependent.  

PubMed

Nanosized zero-valent iron (nZVI) is an effective land remediation tool, but there remains little information regarding its impact upon and interactions with the soil microbial community. nZVI stabilised with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose was applied to soils of three contrasting textures and organic matter contents to determine impacts on soil microbial biomass, phenotypic (phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA)), and functional (multiple substrate-induced respiration (MSIR)) profiles. The nZVI significantly reduced microbial biomass by 29 % but only where soil was amended with 5 % straw. Effects of nZVI on MSIR profiles were only evident in the clay soils and were independent of organic matter content. PLFA profiling indicated that the soil microbial community structure in sandy soils were apparently the most, and clay soils the least, vulnerable to nZVI suggesting a protective effect imparted by clays. Evidence of nZVI bactericidal effects on Gram-negative bacteria and a potential reduction of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are presented. Data imply that the impact of nZVI on soil microbial communities is dependent on organic matter content and soil mineral type. Thereby, evaluations of nZVI toxicity on soil microbial communities should consider context. The reduction of AM fungi following nZVI application may have implications for land remediation. PMID:23007947

Pawlett, Mark; Ritz, Karl; Dorey, Robert A; Rocks, Sophie; Ramsden, Jeremy; Harris, Jim A

2013-02-01

62

Atmospherically stable nanoscale zero-valent iron particles formed under controlled air contact: characteristics and reactivity.  

PubMed

Atmospherically stable NZVI (nanoscale zero-valent iron) particles were produced by modifying shell layers of Fe(H2) NZVI particles (RNIP-10DS) by using a controlled air contact method. Shell-modified NZVI particles were resistant to rapid aerial oxidation and were shown to have TCE degradation rate constants that were equivalent to 78% of those of pristine NZVI particles. Fe(H2) NZVI particles that were vigorously contacted with air (rapidly oxidized) showed a substantially compromised reactivity. Aging of shell-modified particles in water for one day resulted in a rate increase of 54%, implying that depassivation of the shell would play an important role in enhancing reactivity. Aging of shell-modified particles in air led to rate decreases by 14% and 46% in cases of one week and two months of aging, respectively. A series of instrumental analyses using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractography, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption near-edge structure showed that the shells of modified NZVI particles primarily consisted of magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). Analyses also implied that the new magnetite layer produced during shell modification was protective against shell passivation. Aging of shell-modified particles in water yielded another major mineral phase, goethite (alpha-FeOOH), whereas aging in air produced additional shell phases such as wustite (FeO), hematite (alpha-Fe(2)O(3)), and maghemite (gamma-Fe(2)O(3)). PMID:20136088

Kim, Hong-Seok; Ahn, Jun-Young; Hwang, Kyung-Yup; Kim, Il-Kyu; Hwang, Inseong

2010-03-01

63

-encapsulated zero-valent iron nanoparticles for degradation of organic dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of nanocomposites consisting of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVI NPs) encapsulated in SiO2 microspheres were successfully synthesized through a successive two-step method, i.e., the wet chemical reduction by borohydride followed by a modified Stöber method. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer. The catalytic performance of SiO2-encapsulated ZVI nanocomposites for the degradation of organic dyes was investigated using methylene blue (MB) as the model dye in the presence of H2O2. The results showed that the degradation efficiency and apparent rate constant of the degradation reaction were significantly enhanced with increased ZVI NPs encapsulated in SiO2 microspheres, whereas the dosage of H2O2 remarkably promoted degradation rate without affecting degradation efficiency. The content-dependent magnetic property ensured the excellent magnetic separation of degradation products under an external magnet. This strategy for the synthesis of SiO2-encapsulated ZVI NPs nanocomposites was low cost and easy to scale-up for industrial production, thereby enabling promising applications in environmental remediation.

Mao, Zhou; Wu, Qingzhi; Wang, Min; Yang, Yushi; Long, Jia; Chen, Xiaohui

2014-09-01

64

Enhanced anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge digestion by the addition of zero valent iron.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion is promising technology to recover energy from waste activated sludge. However, the sludge digestion is limited by its low efficiency of hydrolysis-acidification. Zero valent iron (ZVI) as a reducing material is expected to enhance anaerobic process including the hydrolysis-acidification process. Considering that, ZVI was added into an anaerobic sludge digestion system to accelerate the sludge digestion in this study. The results indicated that ZVI effectively enhanced the decomposition of protein and cellulose, the two main components of the sludge. Compared to the control test without ZVI, the degradation of protein increased 21.9% and the volatile fatty acids production increased 37.3% with adding ZVI. More acetate and less propionate are found during the hydrolysis-acidification with ZVI. The activities of several key enzymes in the hydrolysis and acidification increased 0.6-1 time. ZVI made the methane production raise 43.5% and sludge reduction ratio increase 12.2 percent points. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that the abundances of hydrogen-consuming microorganisms including homoacetogens and hydrogenotrophic methanogens with ZVI were higher than the control, which reduced the H2 accumulation to create a beneficial condition for the sludge digestion in thermodynamics. PMID:24275106

Feng, Yinghong; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Suo

2014-04-01

65

Zero-valent iron pretreatment for detoxifying iodine in liquid crystal display (LCD) manufacturing wastewater.  

PubMed

This study investigated reductive transformation of iodine by zero-valent iron (ZVI), and the subsequent detoxification of iodine-laden wastewater. ZVI completely reduced aqueous iodine to non-toxic iodide. Respirometric bioassay illustrated that the presence of iodine increase the lag phase before the onset of oxygen consumption. The length of lag phase was proportional to increasing iodine dosage. The reduction products of iodine by ZVI did not exhibit any inhibitory effect on the biodegradation. The cumulative biological oxidation associated with iodine toxicity was closely fitted to Gompertz model. When iodine-laden wastewater was continuously fed to a bench-scale activated sludge unit, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies decreased from above 90% to below 80% along with a marked decrease in biomass concentration. On the other hand, the COD removal efficiency and biomass concentration remained constant in the integrated ZVI-activated sludge system. Respirometric bioassay with real iodine-laden LCD manufacturing wastewater demonstrated that ZVI was effective for detoxifying iodine and consequently enhancing biodegradability of wastewater. This result suggested that ZVI pretreatment may be a feasible option for the removal of iodine in LCD processing wastewater, instead of more costly processes such as adsorption and chemical oxidation, which are commonly in the iodine-laden LCD wastewater treatment facility. PMID:18799266

Lee, J W; Cha, D K; Oh, Y K; Ko, K B; Song, J S

2009-05-15

66

Phytotoxicity and uptake of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) by two plant species.  

PubMed

Use of nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI) for the treatment of various environmental pollutants has been proven successful. However, large scale introduction of engineered nanomaterials such as nZVI into the environment has recently attracted serious concerns. There is an urgent need to investigate the environmental fate and impact of nZVI due to the scope of its application. The goal of this study was to evaluate the toxicity and accumulation of bare nZVI by two commonly encountered plant species: cattail (Typha latifolia) and hybrid poplars (Populous deltoids×Populous nigra). Plant seedlings were grown hydroponically in a greenhouse and dosed with different concentrations of nZVI (0-1000 mg/L) for four weeks. The nZVI exhibited strong toxic effect on Typha at higher concentrations (>200 mg/L) but enhanced plant growth at lower concentrations. nZVI also significantly reduced the transpiration and growth of hybrid poplars at higher concentrations. Microscopic images indicated that large amount of nZVI coated on plant root surface as irregular aggregates and some nZVI penetrated into several layers of epidermal cells. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) confirmed the internalization of nZVI by poplar root cells but similar internalization was not observed for Typha root cells. The upward transport to shoots was minimal for both plant species. PMID:23247287

Ma, Xingmao; Gurung, Arun; Deng, Yang

2013-01-15

67

Filamentous sludge bulking control by nano zero-valent iron in activated sludge treatment systems.  

PubMed

Sludge bulking causes loss of biomass in the effluent and deterioration of effluent water quality. This study explored the use of nano zero-valent iron (NZVI with an average particle size of 55 ± 11 nm) for sludge bulking control. In two Modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE) activated sludge treatment systems, a single dose of NZVI at the final concentration of 100 mg Fe per L in the mixed liquor reduced the number of filamentous bacteria Type 021N by 2-3?log units (a reduction of 99.9 and 96.7% in MLE tank #1 and #2, respectively). The side effect of the use of NZVI depended on sludge bulking conditions and biomass concentration. In the system with sludge bulking and significant sludge loss (average biomass concentration of 1022 ± 159 COD mg per L or at the ratio of 0.098 g Fe per g biomass COD), the use of NZVI increased effluent COD, NH4(+)-N and NO2(-)-N concentrations, as also evident with the loss of nitrifying populations and nitrifying activities resulting in more than 40 days to have the full recovery of the activated sludge system. In contrast, in the system with the early stages of bulking and the biomass concentration of 1799 ± 113 COD mg per L (at the ratio of 0.056 g Fe per g biomass COD), the effluent water quality and overall bioreactor performance were only slightly affected for a few days. PMID:25386669

Xu, Shengnan; Sun, Minghao; Zhang, Chiqian; Surampalli, Rao; Hu, Zhiqiang

2014-11-19

68

Chromate transport through columns packed with surfactant-modified zeolite/zero valent iron pellets.  

PubMed

Chromate transport through columns packed with zeolite/zero valent iron (Z/ZVI) pellets, either untreated or treated with the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA), was studied at different flow rates. In the presence of sorbed HDTMA, the chromate retardation factor increased by a factor of five and the pseudo first-order rate constant for chromate reduction increased by 1.5-5 times. The increase in rate constant from the column studies was comparable to a six-fold increase in the rate constant determined in a batch study. At a fast flow rate, the apparent delay in chromate breakthrough from the HDTMA modified Z/ZVI columns was primarily caused by the increase in chromate reduction rate constant. In contrast, at a slower flow rate, the retardation in chromate transport from the HDTMA modified Z/ZVI columns mainly originated from chromate sorption onto the HDTMA modified Z/ZVI pellets. Due to dual porosity, the presence of immobile water was responsible for the earlier breakthrough of chromate in columns packed with zeolite and Z/ZVI pellets. The results from this study further confirm the role of HDTMA in enhancing sorption and reduction efficiency of contaminants in groundwater remediation. PMID:17448519

Li, Zhaohui; Kirk Jones, H; Zhang, Pengfei; Bowman, Robert S

2007-08-01

69

Synergetic decolorization of reactive blue 13 by zero-valent iron and anaerobic sludge.  

PubMed

Efficient decolorization of reactive blue 13 was achieved by a combined use of anaerobic sludge and zero-valent iron (ZVI), and the underlying mechanism of this process was elucidated, Addition of 1.0 g/L ZVI into sludge accelerated the decolorization, with the decoloration ratio after 1-h treatment increased by 29.4% compared with the sum of the individual systems, indicating a synergy between the sludge and ZVI. Meanwhile, substantial changes in sludge morphology and microbial community were observed. The increased dye removal by ZVI was mainly attributed to: (1) a directly chemical reduction and aggregation; and (2) creation of a more favorable pH and anaerobic environment for microorganisms. The acid production by acidogens also partially offset the pH rise in ZVI corrosion and would alleviate ZVI deactivation. This work might offer valuable implications for the optimization and practical application of ZVI-anaerobic sludge processes for treatment of azo dyes or other recalcitrant pollutants. PMID:24084202

Li, Wen-Wei; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Jin-Bao; Yang, Ya-Li; Zeng, Raymond J; Liu, Hou-Qi; Feng, Yu-Jie

2013-12-01

70

Synergistic degradation of deca-BDE by an enrichment culture and zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

Debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether (deca-BDE) by microbe and by zero-valent iron (ZVI) has been reported previously. However, no study has indicated the presence of microorganisms and their effect on ZVI-mediated reduction of deca-BDE. Synergistic degradation of deca-BDE by an enrichment culture and ZVI was studied. It was found that synergistic effects enhanced the debromination of deca-BDE as well as promoting the reduction of lower brominated products. ZVI stimulated microbial debromination by serving as an electron donor. Correlation analysis also confirmed that ZVI was capable of enhancing microbial population in the debromination of deca-BDE. Conversely, the enrichment culture produced acid which maintained pH stability and stimulated the oxidation of ZVI. The enrichment culture supplied its energy requirements by the oxidation of ZVI and concomitant reduction of deca-BDE, but incapable of growth and reduction of BDE-209 without ZVI and vice versa. Compared to the initial culture, the microbial community of the enrichment culture became dominated by several bacterial genera based on the results of 16S rRNA-gene pyrosequencing. PMID:24643388

Chen, Xingjuan; Chen, Guilan; Qiu, Mengde; Sun, Guoping; Guo, Jun; Xu, Meiying

2014-07-01

71

Effects of nano zero-valent iron on Klebsiella oxytoca and stress response.  

PubMed

Nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) is a new option for contaminated soil and groundwater treatment, despite little is known on their impact on environmental microorganisms. Klebsiella oxytoca K5 strain, isolated from the NZVI-treated soil, was used to investigate the bacterial, phenotypical and molecular response to commercial NZVI exposure. Cytotoxicity assays at three NZVI concentrations (1, 5 and 10 mg mL(-1)) suggested a negligible bacteriostatic effect and the lack of bactericidal effect. Structural changes were analysed by electronic microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of NZVI around some bacterial cells, but no apparent morphological changes were seen. NZVI attachment to the cell surface was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, although most of them were not affected. A proteomic approach (two-dimensional electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry) was used to investigate NZVI impact. For the first time to our knowledge, results revealed that exposure of a soil bacterium to NZVI resulted in the overproduction of tryptophanase, associated with oxidative stress response. K5 may set up an adaptative stress response involving indole as a signal molecule to inform the bacterial population about environmental changes. These findings would improve knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial response to NZVI exposure. PMID:23893265

Saccà, Maria Ludovica; Fajardo, Carmen; Nande, Mar; Martín, Margarita

2013-11-01

72

Rapid decolorization of acid orange II aqueous solution by amorphous zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

Some problems including low treatment capacity, agglomeration and clogging phenomena, and short working life, limit the application of pre-treatment methods involving zero-valent iron (ZVI). In this article, ZVI was frozen in an amorphous state through a melt-spinning technique, and the decolorization effect of amorphous ZVI on Acid Orange II solution was investigated under varied conditions of experimental variables such as reaction temperature, ribbon dosage, and initial pH. Batch experiments suggested that the decolorization rate was enhanced with the increase of reaction temperature and ribbon dosage, but decreased with increasing initial solution pH. Kinetic analyses indicated that the decolorization process followed a first order exponential kinetic model, and the surface-normalized decolorization rate could reach 2.09 L/(m2 x min) at room temperature, which was about ten times larger than any previously reported under similar conditions. Recycling experiments also proved that the ribbons could be reused at least four times without obvious decay of decolorization rate and efficiency. This study suggests a tremendous application potential for amorphous ZVI in remediation of groundwater or wastewater contaminated with azo dyes. PMID:23505869

Zhang, Changqin; Zhu, Zhengwang; Zhang, Haifeng; Hu, Zhuangqi

2012-01-01

73

Zero-valent iron mediated degradation of ciprofloxacin - Assessment of adsorption, operational parameters and degradation products.  

PubMed

The zero-valent iron (ZVI) mediated degradation of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP) was studied under oxic condition. Operational parameters such as ZVI concentration and initial pH value were evaluated. Increase of the ZVI concentration from 1 to 5gL(-1) resulted in a sharp increase of the observed pseudo-first order rate constant of CIP degradation, reaching a plateau at around 10gL(-1). The contribution of adsorption to the overall removal of CIP and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was evaluated after a procedure of acidification to pH 2.5 with sulfuric acid and sonication for 2min. Adsorption increased as pH increased, while degradation decreased, showing that adsorption is not important for degradation. Contribution of adsorption was much more important for DOC removal than for CIP. Degradation of CIP resulted in partial defluorination since the fluoride measured corresponded to 34% of the theoretical value after 120min of reaction. Analysis by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed the presence of products of hydroxylation on both piperazine and quinolonic rings generating fluorinated and defluorinated compounds as well as a product of the piperazine ring cleavage. PMID:25150686

Perini, João Angelo de Lima; Silva, Bianca Ferreira; Nogueira, Raquel F Pupo

2014-12-01

74

Reduction of hexavalent chromium by carboxymethyl cellulose-stabilized zero-valent iron nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction of hexavalent chromium or Cr(VI) by zero-valent iron (Fe 0) nanoparticles has received increasing attention in recent years. However, Fe 0 nanoparticles prepared using conventional methods suffered several drawbacks due to their high reactivity towards surrounding media, which led to the formation of much larger flocs and significant loss in reactivity. To overcome these problems, we synthesized Fe 0 nanoparticles by applying water-soluble carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a stabilizer. CMC-stabilized Fe 0 nanoparticles displayed much less agglomeration but greater Cr(VI) reduced power than those prepared without a stabilizer. At a dose of 0.15 g L -1, CMC-stabilized Fe 0 nanoparticles were able to reduce 100% of 10 mg L -1 Cr(VI) in minutes. Several factors that may affect the efficiency of Cr(VI) removal were investigated. These included the concentration of CMC, the concentration of Fe 0 nanoparticles, the initial Cr(VI) concentration, the pH value, the reaction temperature and the concentration of the calcium cation in the reaction mixture. Our study suggested that the introduction of an innocuous stabilizer such as CMC could significantly improve the performance of Fe 0 nanoparticles for environmental remediation applications.

Wang, Qian; Qian, Huijing; Yang, Yueping; Zhang, Zhen; Naman, Cissoko; Xu, Xinhua

2010-05-01

75

Characteristics of two types of stabilized nano zero-valent iron and transport in porous media.  

PubMed

Nano-scale zero-valent iron (NZVI) has been shown to be suitable for remediating contaminated aquifers. However, they usually aggregate rapidly and result in a very limited migration distance that inhibits their usefulness. This study employed poly acrylic acid (PAA) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to synthesize two types of stabilized styles of NZVI with finer sizes (namely PNZVI and CNZVI). The mobility of stabilized NZVI was also demonstrated on the basis of transport in porous media. The results show that the PNZVI has a uniform particle size of 12 nm. However, tens of CNZVI particles with diameters of 1-3 nm were packed into secondary particles. Both the PNZVI and the CNZVI exhibited amorphous structures, and the stabilizer was bound to particle surfaces in the form of bidentate bridging via the carboxylic group, which could provide both electrostatic and steric repulsion to prevent particle aggregation. This study also proposes presumed stabilized configurations of PNZVI and CNZVI to reasonably illustrate their different dispersed suspension types. On the basis of the breakthrough curves and mass recovery, this study observed that the mobility of PNZVI in classic Ca(2+) concentration of groundwater was superior to CNZVI. Nonetheless, the mobility of CNZVI would be decreased less significantly than PNZVI when encountering high Ca(2+) concentrations (40 mM). Presumably, increasing the pore flow velocity would enhance the mobility of stabilized NZVI. Overall, the results of this study indicate that PNZVI has the potential to become an effective reactive material for in situ groundwater remediation. PMID:20163828

Lin, Yu-Hao; Tseng, Hui-Hsin; Wey, Ming-Yen; Lin, Min-Der

2010-04-15

76

Reduction of hexachlorobenzene by nanoscale zero-valent iron: Kinetics, pH effect, and degradation mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles were synthesized in the laboratory and used to investigate the reduction kinetics and degradation mechanisms of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and the environmental effects. The rapid degradation of HCB by NZVI follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. Increasing the dose of NZVI particles enhanced the dechlorination rates of HCB. With an increase in temperature, the degradation rate increases. The activation

Yang-hsin Shih; Chung-yu Hsu; Yuh-fan Su

2011-01-01

77

Degradation of azo dye direct sky blue 5B by sonication combined with zero-valent iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of azo dye direct sky blue 5B by sonication combined with zero-valent iron (US-Fe0)was investigated and an evident synergistic effect was observed. The synergetic effect is mainly due to the increase of OH radical concentration from Fenton’s reaction. The OH radical concentrations in sole sonication and US-Fe0 process were detected by using terephthalic acid as a fluorescent probe

Bing Chen; Xikui Wang; Chen Wang; Wenqiang Jiang; Shuping Li

2011-01-01

78

ARSENATE AND ARSENITE REMOVAL BY ZERO-VALENT IRON: EFFECTS OF PHOSPHATE, SILICATE, CARBONATE, BORATE, SULFATE, CHROMATE, MOLYBDATE, AND NITRATE, RELATIVE TO CHLORIDE: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-ADA-01667 Su, C., and Puls*, R.W. Arsenate and Arsenite Removal by Zero-Valent Iron: Effects of Phosphate, Silicate, Carbonate, Borate, Sulfate, Chromate, Molybdate, and Nitrate, Relative to C...

79

Detoxification of PAX-21 ammunitions wastewater by zero-valent iron for microbial reduction of perchlorate.  

PubMed

US Army and the Department of Defense (DoD) facilities generate perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) from munitions manufacturing and demilitarization processes. Ammonium perchlorate is one of the main constituents in Army's new main charge melt-pour energetic, PAX-21. In addition to ammonium perchlorate, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) are the major constituents of PAX-21. In order to evaluate microbial perchlorate reduction as a practical option for the treatment of perchlorate in PAX-21 wastewater, we conducted biodegradation experiments using glucose as the primary sources of electrons and carbon. Batch experiments showed that negligible perchlorate was removed in microbial reactors containing PAX-21 wastewater while control bottles containing seed bacteria and glucose rapidly and completely removed perchlorate. These results suggested that the constituents in PAX-21 wastewater may be toxic to perchlorate reducing bacteria. A series of batch toxicity test was conducted to identify the toxic constituents in PAX-21 and DNAN was identified as the primary toxicant responsible for inhibiting the activity of perchlorate reducing bacteria. It was hypothesized that pretreatment of PAX-21 by zero-valent iron granules will transform toxic constituents in PAX-21 wastewater to non-toxic products. We observed complete reduction of DNAN to 2,4-diaminoanisole (DAAN) and RDX to formaldehyde in abiotic iron reduction study. After a 3-day acclimation period, perchlorate in iron-treated PAX-21 wastewater was rapidly decreased to an undetectable level in 2 days. This result demonstrated that iron treatment not only removed energetic compounds but also eliminated the toxic constituents that inhibited the subsequent microbial process. PMID:21700387

Ahn, Se Chang; Cha, Daniel K; Kim, Byung J; Oh, Seok-Young

2011-08-30

80

Arsenate removal from water by zero-valent iron/activated carbon galvanic couples.  

PubMed

Galvanic couples composed of zero-valent iron and activated carbon (Fe(0)/AC) were investigated for As(V) removal from water. The effects of Fe(0) to AC mass ratio (FCR), solution pH, ionic strength and co-existing anions (phosphate, carbonate, silicate, nitrate, chloride and sulfate) and humic acid (HA) on As(V) removal were evaluated. The results showed that the optimum mass ratio was 1:1, and Fe(0)/AC with this ratio was more effective for As(V) removal than Fe(0) and AC alone at pH of 7 and ion strength of 0.03 M NaCl. The enhanced performance for As(V) removal was fulfilled through an accelerated corrosion process of Fe(0), which meant more corrosion products for efficient As(V) removal. The As(V) removal followed a pseudo-first order reaction. The rate constants (k) for 1:1 Fe(0)/AC and Fe(0) alone were 0.802 and 0.330 h(-1), respectively. Potentiodynamic polarization scans further confirmed that Fe(0) corrosion was promoted when Fe(0) was coupled with AC. Except silicates, other co-existing anions promoted As(V) removal. No reduction form of As (As(III) or As(0)) could be detected on iron corrosion products (ICPs) and in solutions. Identified ICPs included poorly crystallized lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) and magnetite/maghemite (Fe(3)O(4)/gamma-Fe(2)O(3)) for both of Fe(0)/AC and Fe(0) systems. In conclusion, the Fe(0)/AC couple exhibited higher As removal performance than that of Fe(0) alone from water. PMID:20599323

Dou, Xiaomin; Li, Rui; Zhao, Bei; Liang, Wenyan

2010-10-15

81

Influence of zero-valent iron nanoparticles on nitrate removal by Paracoccus sp.  

PubMed

Nitrate contamination in drinking water is a major threat to public health. This study investigated the efficiency of denitrification of aqueous solutions in the co-presence of synthesized nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI; diameter: 20-80 nm) and a previously isolated Paracoccus sp. strain YF1. Various influencing factors were studied, such as oxygen, pH, temperature, and anaerobic corrosion products (Fe(2+), Fe(3+) and Fe3O4). With slight toxicity to the strain, nZVI promoted denitrification efficiency by providing additional electron sources under aerobic conditions. For example, 50 mg L(-1) nZVI increased the nitrate removal efficiency from 66.9% to 85.2%. However, a high concentration of nZVI could lead to increased production of Fe(2+), a toxic ion which could compromise the removal efficiency. Kinetic studies suggest that denitrification by both free cells, and nZVI-amended cells fitted well to the zero-order model. Temperature and pH are the major factors affecting nitrate removal and cell growth, with or without the presence of nZVI. In this study, nitrate removal and cell growth increased in the pH range of 6.5-8.0, and temperature range of 25-35 °C. These conditions favor the growth of the strain, which dominated denitrification in all scenarios involved. As for anaerobic corrosion products, compared with Fe(2+) and Fe(3+), Fe3O4 promoted denitrification by serving as an electron donor. Finally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed attachments of nZVI on the surface of the cell, and the formation of iron oxides. This study indicated that, as an electron donor source with minimal cellular toxicity, nZVI could be used to promote denitrification efficiency under biotic conditions. PMID:24630453

Liu, Yan; Li, Shibin; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

2014-08-01

82

Transport of carbon colloid supported nanoscale zero-valent iron in porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) for environmental remediation is an emerging technology for in situ remediation of contaminated groundwater. Due to its high surface area and high reactivity nZVI is able to dechlorinate organic contaminants and render them to less harmful substances. Carbo-Iron is a newly developed material consisting of activated carbon particles (d50 = 0.6 - 2.4 µm) that are doted with nZVI particles. These particles combine the sorption capacity of activated carbon and the reactivity of nZVI. Additionally the main limitation for nZVI delivery, a limited mobility due to fast aggregation and sedimentation of nZVI in dispersions and soils, might be solved. According to transport theory, particles with a diameter of approximately 1 µm are more mobile than unsupported nZVI particles in sandy aquifer systems. Results from column tests and a two dimensional laboratory aquifer test system are presented: Column tests using columns of 40 cm length were filled with sand. A particle suspension was pumped against gravity through the system. Results show, addition of a polyanionic stabilizer such as Carboxymethylcellulouse (CMC) is required to enhancing mobility. Ionic strength and pH concentrations in an environmental relevant range do not interfere significantly with transport, but particle size was found to be crucial. Another experiment was performed in a two dimensional aquifer test system. The test system contains a sand filled container with a inner size of 40 x 5 x 110 cm and seven ports on each side. A constant flow of water was applied from the left to the right side through all ports and the middle port was fed with a Carbo-Iron suspension. Results show a transport through the laboratory aquifer within few exchanged pore volumes, and breakthrough of Carbo-Iron at the outlet. Deposits of immobile Carbo-Iron were found to be decreasing with distance from the injection port. No gravity effects were observed. Results suggest high mobility of carbon supported nZVI under environmental relevant conditions. Carbo-Iron might be helpful to deliver nZVI into contaminated aquifers. There 1D and 2D results support the design of a field test and application of Carbo-Iron for nZVI delivery.

Busch, Jan; Oswald, Sascha

2013-04-01

83

Foam-assisted delivery of nanoscale zero valent iron in porous media  

SciTech Connect

Foam is potentially a promising vehicle to deliver nanoparticles for vadose zone remediation as foam can overcome the intrinsic problems associated with solution-based delivery, such as preferential flow and contaminant mobilization. In this work, the feasibility of using foam to deliver nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) in unsaturated porous media was investigated. Foams generated using surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) showed excellent ability to carry nZVI. SLES and nZVI concentrations in the foaming solutions did not affect the percentages of nZVI concentrations in foams relative to nZVI concentrations in the solutions. When foams carrying nZVI were injected through the unsaturated columns, the fractions of nZVI exiting the column were much higher than those when nZVI was injected in liquid. The enhanced nZVI transport implies that foam delivery could significantly increase the radius of influence of injected nZVI. The type and concentrations of surfactants and the influent nZVI concentrations did not noticeably affect nZVI transport during foam delivery. In contrast, nZVI retention increased considerably as the grain size of porous media decreased. Oxidation of foam-delivered nZVI due to oxygen diffusion into unsaturated porous media was visually examined using a flow cell. It was demonstrated that if foams are injected to cover a deep vadose zone layer, oxidation would only cause a small fraction of foam-delivered nZVI to be oxidized before it reacts with contaminants.

Ding, Yuanzhao; Liu, Bo; Shen, Xin; Zhong, Lirong; Li, Xiqing

2013-09-01

84

Reducing the mobility of arsenic in brownfield soil using stabilised zero-valent iron nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) as a new tool for the treatment of polluted soils and groundwater has received considerable attention in recent years due to its high reactivity, in situ application and cost-effectiveness. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of using a commercial stabilised suspension of nZVI to immobilise As in brownfield soil and to investigate its impact on Fe availability in the treated soil. The phytotoxicities of the soil samples were also evaluated using a germination test with two plant species: barley (Hordeum vulgare L) and common vetch (Vicia sativa L). Two doses of the commercial nZVI suspension were studied, 1% and 10%, and two soil-nanoparticle interaction times, 72 h and 3 mo, were used to compare the stabilities of the soils treated with nZVI. The As availability was evaluated using a sequential extraction procedure and the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) test. The application of nZVI significantly decreased the availability of As in the soil. The immobilisation of As was more effective and more stable over time with the 10% dose than with the 1% dose of the commercial nZVI suspension. The application of nZVI did not induce an important increase in Fe mobility because the Fe leachability was less than 2 mg L(-1) over the time period studied. The lower availability of As in the soil led to a decrease in the phytotoxicity of the soil to barley and vetch germination. Thus, the proposed nanotechnology could be a potential alternative for the in situ remediation of As-polluted soils and could be combined with remediation processes where plants are involved. PMID:25072767

Gil-Díaz, Mar; Alonso, Juan; Rodríguez-Valdés, Eduardo; Pinilla, Paloma; Lobo, Maria Carmen

2014-01-01

85

Assessment of transport of two polyelectrolyte-stabilized zero-valent iron nanoparticles in porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the breakthrough patterns of carboxymethyl cellulose- and polyacrylic acid-stabilized zero-valent iron (Fe 0) nanoparticles (NZVI) from packed sand columns under a range of pore water velocities of 0.02, 0.2 and 1 cm min - 1 and NZVI influent concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 3 g L - 1 . The NZVI effluent relative concentrations of both types of particles decreased with slower flow velocities and increasing particle concentrations. PAA-NZVI exhibited slower elution from the columns than CMC-NZVI under identical experimental conditions, and this is attributed to more rapid aggregation kinetics of PAA-NZVI. The elution patterns of PAA-NZVI showed a stronger trend of gradually increasing effluent concentrations with flushing of additional pore volumes, especially at low flushing velocities and higher influent particle concentrations and this phenomenon too can be attributed to increasing aggregate sizes with time which caused decreases in the values of the single collector efficiency and thus the deposition rate constant. A 7 nm increase in CMC-NZVI aggregate size over 60 min was observed using nanoparticle tracking analysis. The reduction in colloidal stability due to aggregation of CMC- and PAA-NZVI was verified using sedimentation tests, and it was found that PAA-NZVI were less stable than CMC-NZVI. There were also notable inherent differences in the two NZVI particles. The CMC-NZVI were monodisperse with a mean diameter of 5.7 ± 0.9 nm, whereas PAA-NZVI had a bimodal particle size distribution with a small sub-population of particles with mean size of 30 ± 21 nm and a more abundant population of 4.6 ± 0.8 nm diameter particles. Furthermore, PAA-NZVI had a lower surface potential. These characteristics are also responsible for the different elution patterns CMC- and PAA-NZVI.

Raychoudhury, Trishikhi; Naja, Ghinwa; Ghoshal, Subhasis

2010-11-01

86

Straining of polyelectrolyte-stabilized nanoscale zero valent iron particles during transport through granular porous media.  

PubMed

In this study, the relevance of straining of nano-sized particles of zero valent iron coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-NZVI) during transport in model subsurface porous media is assessed. Although deposition of polyelectrolyte stabilized-NZVI on granular subsurface media due to physicochemical attachment processes has been reported previously, there is limited knowledge on the significance of the collector (sand) diameter on the deposition and spatial distribution of the retention of such nanoparticles. Experiments were conducted to assess the transport of CMC-NZVI in columns packed with four different-sized sands of mean diameter of 775 ?m, 510 ?m, 250 ?m and 150 ?m and at three different particle concentrations of 0.085 g L(-1), 0.35 g L(-1) and 1.70 g L(-1). CMC-NZVI effluent concentrations decreased with smaller sand diameters. High CMC-NZVI particle retention near the inlet, particularly for the finer sands was observed, even with a low ionic strength of 0.1 mM for the electrolyte medium. These observations are consistent with particle retention in porous media due to straining and/or wedging. Two colloid transport models, one considering particle retention by physicochemical deposition and detachment of those deposited particles, and the other considering particle retention by straining along with particle deposition and detachment, were fitted to the experimental data. The model accounting for straining shows a better fit, especially to the CMC-NZVI retention data along the length of the column. The straining rate coefficients decreased with larger sand diameters. This study demonstrates that CMC-NZVI particles, despite of their small size (hydrodynamic diameters of 167-185 nm and transmission electron microscopy imaged diameters of approximately 85 nm), may be removed by straining during transport, especially through fine granular subsurface media. The tailing effect, observed in the particle breakthrough curves, is attributed to detachment of deposited particles. PMID:24361705

Raychoudhury, Trishikhi; Tufenkji, Nathalie; Ghoshal, Subhasis

2014-03-01

87

Fine structure characterization of zero-valent iron nanoparticles for decontamination of nitrites and nitrates in wastewater and groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objectives of the present study were to investigate the chemical reduction of nitrate or nitrite species by zero-valent iron nanoparticle (ZVIN) in aqueous solution and related reaction kinetics or mechanisms using fine structure characterization. This work also exemplifies the utilization of field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) to reveal the speciation and possible reaction pathway in a very complex adsorption and redox reaction process. Experimentally, ZVIN of this study was prepared by sodium borohydride reduction method at room temperature and ambient pressure. The morphology of as-synthesized ZVIN shows that the nearly ball and ultrafine particles ranged of 20-50 nm were observed with FE-SEM or TEM analysis. The kinetic model of nitrites or nitrates reductive reaction by ZVIN is proposed as a pseudo first-order kinetic equation. The nitrite and nitrate removal efficiencies using ZVIN were found 65-83% and 51-68%, respectively, based on three different initial concentrations. Based on the XRD pattern analyses, it is found that the quantitative relationship between nitrite and Fe(III) or Fe(II) is similar to the one between nitrate and Fe(III) in the ZVIN study. The possible reason is due to the faster nitrite reduction by ZVIN. In fact, the occurrence of the relative faster nitrite reductive reaction suggested that the passivation of the ZVIN have a significant contribution to iron corrosion. The extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) or x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra show that the nitrites or nitrates reduce to N2 or NH3 while oxidizing the ZVIN to Fe2O3 or Fe3O4 electrochemically. It is also very clear that decontamination of nitrate or nitrite species in groundwater via the in-situ remediation with a ZVIN permeable reactive barrier would be environmentally attractive.

Lin, Kuen-Song; Chang, Ni-Bin; Chuang, Tien-Deng

2008-04-01

88

Treatment of chemical warfare agents by zero-valent iron nanoparticles and ferrate(VI)/(III) composite.  

PubMed

Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles and a composite containing a mixture of ferrate(VI) and ferrate(III) were prepared by thermal procedures. The phase compositions, valence states of iron, and particle sizes of iron-bearing compounds were determined by combination of X-ray powder diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The applicability of these environmentally friendly iron based materials in treatment of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has been tested with three representative compounds, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chlorethyl) sulfide, HD), soman ((3,3'-imethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate, GD), and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate (VX). Zero-valent iron, even in the nanodimensional state, had a sluggish reactivity with CWAs, which was also observed in low degrees of CWAs degradation. On the contrary, ferrate(VI)/(III) composite exhibited a high reactivity and complete degradations of CWAs were accomplished. Under the studied conditions, the estimated first-order rate constants (? 10(-2)s(-1)) with the ferrate(VI)/(III) composite were several orders of magnitude higher than those of spontaneous hydrolysis of CWAs (10(-8)-10(-6)s(-1)). The results demonstrated that the oxidative technology based on application of ferrate(VI) is very promising to decontaminate CWAs. PMID:22119195

Zboril, Radek; Andrle, Marek; Oplustil, Frantisek; Machala, Libor; Tucek, Jiri; Filip, Jan; Marusak, Zdenek; Sharma, Virender K

2012-04-15

89

Degradation of Perchloroethene by zero-valent iron evaluated by carbon isotope fractionation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perchloroethene (PCE) is a widely spread groundwater contaminant in formally used industrial sites. Zero valent iron (ZVI) is used for in situ chemical reduction (ISCR) of PCE contaminants in the groundwater. A key factor in the application of in situ remediation technologies is a proper monitoring of contaminant reduction. The measurement of the stable isotope ratio is a promising method that is already used for quantifying microbial degradation of chlorinated contaminants. The carbon isotope ratio of PCE, measured by - isotope ratio mass spectrometry coupled to a gas chromatograph via a combustion interface (GC-C-IRMS), increases during degradation of PCE and can be directly related to the degree of degradation. It can be used to directly quantify chemical degradation and thus serves as a useful monitoring tool for groundwater remediation. An experiment to determine the carbon isotopic fractionation factor was performed as a lab experiment using Nanofer Star (NANOIRON). Two different PCE concentrations (c1: 220mgL-1, c2: 110mgL-1) mixed with 0.5 g of ZVI were sealed under deoxygenated conditions in 250 ml glas bottles locked with mininert caps. The bottles were incubated on a shaker for 865 h. Samples were taken weekly to measure the change in the carbon isotopic ratio of PCE as well as its concentration. Results showed a strong increase in the carbon isotope ratio (?-value) of PCE (start: -27 o end: -4 ), which indicates a significant dechlorination process of PCE. Beside PCE also one degradation product (Trichloroethylene - TCE) was measured. TCE was further dechlorinated as indicated by the ?-value change of TCE from -26 o to -4 oȦn unexpected intermediate value of -45 o for TCE was observed in the experiment. This fluctuation could be induced by the time depending concentration due to degradation and conversation processes. Furthermore, it seems that the progress of the ?-value is affected by the starting concentration of PCE (?-value of c1 < c2) as there is a higher ratio of PCE to ZVI.

Leitner, Simon; Watzinger, Andrea; Reichenauer, Thomas G.

2014-05-01

90

An Experimental Study of Micron-Size Zero-Valent Iron Emplacement in Permeable Porous Media Using Polymer-Enhanced Fluids  

SciTech Connect

At the Hanford Site, an extensive In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) permeable reactive barrier was installed to prevent chromate from reaching the Columbia River. However, chromium has been detected in several wells, indicating a premature loss of the reductive capacity in the aquifer. One possible cause for premature chromate breakthrough is associated with the presence of high-permeability zones in the aquifer. In these zones, groundwater moves relatively fast and is able to oxidize iron more rapidly. There is also a possibility that the high-permeability flow paths are deficient in reducing equivalents (e.g. reactive iron), required for barrier performance. One way enhancement of the current barrier reductive capacity can be achieved is by the addition of micron-scale zero-valent iron to the high-permeability zones within the aquifer. The potential emplacement of zero-valent iron (Fe0) into high-permeability Hanford sediments (Ringold Unit E gravels) using shear-thinning fluids containing polymers was investigated in three-dimensional wedge-shaped aquifer models. Polymers were used to create a suspension viscous enough to keep the Fe0 in solution for extended time periods to improve colloid movement into the porous media without causing a permanent detrimental decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Porous media were packed in the wedge-shaped flow cell to create either a heterogeneous layered system with a high-permeability zone in between two low-permeability zones or a high-permeability channel surrounded by low-permeability materials. The injection flow rate, polymer type, polymer concentration, and injected pore volumes were determined based on preliminary short- and long-column experiments.

Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Covert, Matthew A.; Vermeul, Vince R.

2005-12-22

91

Degradation of simazine from aqueous solutions by diatomite-supported nanosized zero-valent iron composite materials.  

PubMed

A novel composite material based on deposition of nanosized zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles on acid-leached diatomite was synthesised for the removal of a chlorinated contaminant in water. The nZVI/diatomite composites were characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Compared with the pure nZVI particles, better dispersion of nZVI particles on the surface or inside the pores of diatom shells was observed. The herbicide simazine was selected as the model chlorinated contaminant and the removal efficiency by nZVI/diatomite composite was compared with that of the pristine nZVI and commercial iron powder. It was found that the diatomite supported nZVI composite material prepared by centrifugation exhibits relatively better efficient activity in decomposition of simazine than commercial Fe, lab synthesised nZVI and composite material prepared via rotary evaporation, and the optimum experimental conditions were obtained based on a series of batch experiments. This study on immobilising nZVI particles onto diatomite opens a new avenue for the practical application of nZVI and the diatomite-supported nanosized zero-valent iron composite materials have potential applications in environmental remediation. PMID:24231330

Sun, Zhiming; Zheng, Shuilin; Ayoko, Godwin A; Frost, Ray L; Xi, Yunfei

2013-12-15

92

Nanoscale zero-valent iron supported on mesoporous silica: characterization and reactivity for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

MCM-41-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) was sytnhesized by impregnating the mesoporous silica martix with ferric chloride, followed by chemical reduction with NaHB4. The samples were studied with a combination of characterization techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and Mössbauer spectroscopy, N2 adsorption measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), magnetization measurements, and thermal analysis methods. The experimental data revealed development of nanoscale zero-valent iron particles with an elliptical shape and a maximum size of ?80 nm, which were randomly distributed and immobilized on the mesoporous silica surface. Surface area measurements showed that the porous MCM-41 host matrix maintains its hexagonal mesoporous order structure and exhibits a considerable high surface area (609 m(2)/g). Mössbauer and magnetization measurements confirmed the presence of core-shell iron nanoparticles composed of a ferromagnetic metallic core and an oxide/hydroxide shell. The kinetic studies demonstrated a rapid removal of Cr(VI) ions from the aqueous solutions in the presence of these stabilized nZVI particles on MCM-41, and a considerably increased reduction capacity per unit mass of material in comparison to that of unsupported nZVI. The results also indicate a highly pH-dependent reduction efficiency of the material, whereas their kinetics was described by a pseudo-first order kinetic model. PMID:23959249

Petala, Eleni; Dimos, Konstantinos; Douvalis, Alexios; Bakas, Thomas; Tucek, Jiri; Zbo?il, Radek; Karakassides, Michael A

2013-10-15

93

Investigation into the potential toxicity of zero-valent iron nanoparticles to a trichloroethylene-degrading groundwater microbial community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microbiological impact of zero-valent iron remediation of groundwater was investigated by exposing a trichloroethylene-degrading anaerobic microbial community to bare and coated iron nanoparticles. Changes in population numbers and metabolic activity were analyzed using qPCR and were compared to those of a blank, negative, and positive control to assess for microbial toxicity. Additionally, these results were compared to those of samples exposed to an equal concentration of iron filings in an attempt to discern the source of toxicity. Statistical analysis revealed that the three iron treatments were equally toxic to total Bacteria and Archaea populations, as compared with the controls. Therefore, toxicity appears to result either from the release of iron ions and the generation of reactive oxygen species, or from alteration of the redox system and the disruption of microbial metabolisms. There does not appear to be a unique nanoparticle-based toxicity.

Zabetakis, Kara M.

94

Transport of zero-valent iron nanoparticles in carbonate-rich porous aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) for in situ dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater is a promising remediation technology, due to a high dechlorination efficiency of nZVI and possible applications in e.g., great depth or under above-ground infrastructure. The success of the in situ nZVI dechlorination strongly depends on the particle delivery to the contaminants. Previous studies reported a limited transport of nZVI through porous media (cm- to dm-range) and this has been recognized as one of the major obstacles in a widespread utilization of this technology (TRATNYEK & JOHNSON, 2006). Factors that limit the transport are particle aggregation and deposition onto the aquifer solids. Both depend on particle properties (e.g., size, shape, iron content, surface coating, surface charge), on concentrations of suspensions, and on site-specific parameters, such as the groundwater chemistry and the properties and inhomogeneity of the aquifer material. Adsorbed anionic polyelectrolyte coatings provide electrostatic double layer repulsions between negatively charged nZVI particles (SALEH ET AL., 2007), hindering their aggregation and also deposition on the negatively charged quartz surfaces (usually prevailing in aquifers). However, it is shown that the presence of surface charge heterogeneities in the aquifer effects the particle transport (JOHNSON ET AL., 1996). Carbonates, iron oxides, and the edges of clay minerals, for instance, carry a positive surface charge at neutral pH (often encountered in groundwater). This leads to a favorable deposition of negatively charged nZVI particles onto carbonates, metal oxide impurities or clay edges, and finally to a decreased particle transport. Considering the high proportion of carbonates commonly encountered in Alpine porous aquifers, in this study we aimed to evaluate the transport of commercially available polyelectrolyte coated nZVI (polyacrylic acid coated-nZVI, NANOIRON s.r.o., CZ) in both quartz and carbonate-rich porous media and to quantify alteration in travel distances with the increasing proportion of carbonate sands. Transport studies using Nanofer 25S are carried out in 1 D columns filled with different proportions of quartz and carbonate sands at a pH typically encountered in groundwater. Column experiments demonstrated that the travel distance of coated-nZVI systematically decreases with increasing portion of carbonate sand. The transportability of Nanofer 25S was reduced by ~45% in pure carbonate sand, compared to that in pure quartz sand. These results demonstrated different attachment affinities of coated-nZVI for the investigated solids. Current experiments are carried out in order to provide a mechanistic understanding of the observed nanoparticle-solid matrix interactions. Furthermore, the effects of varying groundwater chemistry, size and shape of the packing material, as well as the presence of metal oxides and natural organic matter on the nZVI transport will be investigated. The project is funded by the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW). Management by Kommunalkredit Public Consulting GmbH. Literature TRATNYEK, P.G., JOHNSON, R.L., (2006): Nano Today 1, 44-48. SALEH, N. ET AL., (2007): Environmental Engineering Science24, 45-57. JOHNSON, P.R. ET AL., (1996): Environmental Science & Technology 30, 3284-3293.

Laumann, S.; Micic, V.; Hofmann, T.

2012-04-01

95

Conjunctive effect of CMC-zero-valent iron nanoparticles and FYM in the remediation of chromium-contaminated soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromium is an important industrial metal used in various products and processes but at the same time causing lethal environmental hazards. Remediation of Cr-contaminated soils poses both technological and economic challenges, as conventional methods are often too expensive and difficult to operate. Zero-valent iron particles at nanoscale are proposed to be one of the important reductants of Cr(VI), transforming the same into nontoxic Cr(III). In the present investigation, soils contaminated with Cr(VI) are allowed to react with the various loadings of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (Fe0) for a reaction period of 24 h. Fe0 nanoparticles were synthesized by the reduction of ferrous sulfate in the presence of sodium borohydride and stabilized with carboxy methyl cellulose and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectrophotometer, Fourier transform-infra red spectrophotometer, Raman spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering technique and zeta potential. Further, this work demonstrates the potential utilization of farm yard manure (FYM) and Fe0 nanoparticles in combination and individually for the effective remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated soils. An increase in the reduction of Cr(VI) from 60 to 80 % was recorded with the increase in the loading of Fe0 nanoparticles from 0.1 to 0.3 mg/100 g individually and in combination with FYM ranging from 50 to 100 mg/100 g soil.

Madhavi, Vemula; Prasad, Tollamadugu Naga Venkata Krishna Vara; Reddy, Balam Ravindra; Reddy, Ambavaram Vijay Bhaskar; Gajulapalle, Madhavi

2013-04-01

96

Enhanced degradation of chlorobenzene in aqueous solution using microwave-induced zero-valent iron and copper particles.  

PubMed

Microwaves were applied to reduce the activation energy of chlorobenzene in aqueous solution and enhance its removal using nanoscale zero-valent iron (Fe0) or zero-valent copper (Cu0) particles as dielectric media. When Fe0 and Cu0 particles absorb microwave energy, the electrical potential difference causes the metal electrons to rotate faster, thus producing more heat. The microwave-irradiated metal particles reduced the chlorobenzene activation energy by 6.1 kJ/mol (13.3 kJ/mol versus 19.4 kJ/mol) for Fe0 and 5.4 kJ/mol (15.8 kJ/mol versus 21.4 kJ/mol) for Cu0 and enhanced the chlorobenzene removal 4.1 times (82.8% versus 20.4%) for Fe0 and 3.7 times (72.1% versus 19.5%) for Cu0. The Fe0 has a higher standard reduction potential than Cu0; it is capable of removing more chlorobenzene than Cu0 (82.8% versus 72.1%). Using the microwave-induced nano-scale iron or copper particle is effective in treating toxic organic substances, as demonstrated in this study. PMID:20669726

Lee, Chien-Li; Jou, Chih-Ju G; Wang, H Paul

2010-07-01

97

Degradation of azo dye direct sky blue 5B by sonication combined with zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

The degradation of azo dye direct sky blue 5B by sonication combined with zero-valent iron (US-Fe(0))was investigated and an evident synergistic effect was observed. The synergetic effect is mainly due to the increase of ()OH radical concentration from Fenton's reaction. The ()OH radical concentrations in sole sonication and US-Fe(0) process were detected by using terephthalic acid as a fluorescent probe and found that ()OH radicals were generated continuously during sonication and the production of ()OH radicals in US-Fe(0) process was much higher than that in sole sonication. The degradation of direct sky blue 5B followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics and the degradation rate constants were found to be 0.0206 and 0.169 min(-1) with sole sonication and US-Fe(0) process respectively. It was also found that the degradation ratio of direct sky blue 5B increased with the increase of zero-valent iron dosage and decrease of pH value of the dye aqueous solution. The degradation mechanism of direct sky blue 5B with US-Fe(0) process was discussed by the changes of UV-Vis spectrogram of the dye during degradation. The dramatic changes of UV spectra showed a disappearance of both azo and aromatic groups during the degradation. PMID:21514206

Chen, Bing; Wang, Xikui; Wang, Chen; Jiang, Wenqiang; Li, Shuping

2011-09-01

98

Nanoscale zero-valent iron/AC as heterogeneous Fenton catalysts in three-dimensional electrode system.  

PubMed

In the present work, nanoscale zero-valent iron/activated carbon (NZVI/AC) was investigated as heterogeneous Fenton catalyst in three-dimensional (3D) electrode system for methyl orange (MO) degradation. Some important operating parameters such as cathodic potential, pH, and O? flow rate were investigated, exhibiting good decolorization. The mineralization of MO was significantly improved by 20-35% compared to two-dimensional (2D) AC system at the optimum conditions. Although the TOC removal of AC was higher than NZVI/AC due to its good adsorption capacity initially, heterogeneous Fenton catalysis played a more and more important roles in the following test. After eight runs, NZVI/AC still exhibited excellent catalytic properties with low iron leaching. Further, a relatively comprehensive mechanism of NZVI/AC as particle electrodes in 3D system was proposed. PMID:24677061

Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Lei; Yang, Jie; Yu, Xinmin; Jiang, Yonghai; Zhou, Minghua

2014-07-01

99

Micron-Size Zero-Valent Iron Emplacement in Porous Media Using Polymer Additives: Column and Flow Cell Ex-periments  

SciTech Connect

At the Hanford Site, an extensive In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) permeable reactive barrier was installed to prevent chromate from reaching the Columbia River. However, chromium has been detected in several wells, indicating a premature loss of the reductive capacity in the aquifer. Laboratory experiments have been conducted to investigate whether barrier reductive capacity can be enhanced by adding micron-scale zero-valent iron to the high-permeability zones within the aquifer using shear-thinning fluids containing polymers. Porous media were packed in a wedge-shaped flow cell to create either a heterogeneous layered system with a high-permeability zone between two low-permeability zones or a high-permeability channel sur-rounded by low-permeability materials. The injection flow rate, polymer type, polymer concentration, and injected pore volumes were determined based on preliminary short- and long-column experiments. The flow cell experiments indicated that iron concentration enhancements of at least 0.6% (w/w) could be obtained using moderate flow rates and injection of 30 pore volumes. The 0.6% amended Fe0 concentration would provide approximately 20 times the average reductive capacity that is provided by the dithionite-reduced iron in the ISRM barrier. Calculations show that a 1-m-long Fe0 amended zone with an average concentration of 0.6% w/w iron subject to a groundwater velocity of 1 m/day will have an estimated longevity of 7.2 years.

Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Covert, Matthew A.; Vermeul, Vince R.

2006-03-20

100

Enhanced removal of soluble Cr(VI) by using zero-valent iron composite supported by surfactant-modified zeolites.  

PubMed

Zero-valent iron (ZVI) was immobilized onto surfactant-modified zeolites (SMZ) using calcium alginate. Scanning electron microscopy showed that ZVI powder was uniformly immobilized on the surface of the SMZ. The added ZVI powder resulted in enhanced dichromate removal efficiency and the heterogeneous surface of the composite. The adsorption of dichromate onto the ZVI-SMZ composites fitted well to a pseudo-second-order model and the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The maximum dichromate adsorption capacity of the composite was 2.49 mg/g at the temperature of 293 K. Higher removal efficiency was obtained at pH lower than 7. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry revealed that the composites combined the strong reductive quality of ZVI and superior adsorption of SMZ. PMID:25353946

Dang, Hongyu; Zhang, Yongxiang; Du, Peiwen

2014-10-01

101

Capture and storage of hydrogen gas by zero-valent iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Granular Feo, used to reductively degrade a variety of contaminants in groundwater, corrodes in water to produce H2(g). A portion enters the Feo lattice where it is stored in trapping sites such as lattice defects and microcracks. The balance is dissolved by the groundwater where it may exsolve as a gas if its solubility is exceeded. Gas exsolution can reduce the effectiveness of the Feo treatment zone by reducing contact of the contaminant with iron surfaces or by diverting groundwater flow. It also represents a lost electron resource that otherwise could be involved in reductive degradation of contaminants. It is advantageous to select an iron for remediation purposes that captures a large proportion of the H2(g) it generates. This study examines various aspects of the H2(g) uptake process and has found 1) H2(g) does not have to be generated at the water/iron interface to enter the lattice. It can enter directly from the gas/water phases, 2) exposure of granular sponge iron to H2(g) reduces the dormant period for the onset of iron corrosion, 3) the large quantities of H2(g) generated by nano-Feo injected into a reactive barrier of an appropriate granular iron can be captured in the lattice of that iron, and 4) lattice-bound hydrogen represents an additional electron resource to Feo for remediation purposes and may be accessible using physical or chemical means.

Reardon, Eric J.

2014-02-01

102

Application of zero-valent iron nanoparticles for the removal of aqueous zinc ions under various experimental conditions.  

PubMed

Application of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) for Zn²? removal and its mechanism were discussed. It demonstrated that the uptake of Zn²? by nZVI was efficient. With the solids concentration of 1 g/L nZVI, more than 85% of Zn²? could be removed within 2 h. The pH value and dissolved oxygen (DO) were the important factors of Zn²? removal by nZVI. The DO enhanced the removal efficiency of Zn²?. Under the oxygen-contained condition, oxygen corrosion gave the nZVI surface a shell of iron (oxy)hydroxide, which could show high adsorption affinity. The removal efficiency of Zn²? increased with the increasing of the pH. Acidic condition reduced the removal efficiency of Zn²? by nZVI because the existing H? inhibited the formation of iron (oxy)hydroxide. Adsorption and co-precipitation were the most likely mechanism of Zn²? removal by nZVI. The FeOOH-shell could enhance the adsorption efficiency of nZVI. The removal efficiency and selectivity of nZVI particles for Zn²? were higher than Cd²?. Furthermore, a continuous flow reactor for engineering application of nZVI was designed and exhibited high removal efficiency for Zn²?. PMID:24416439

Liang, Wen; Dai, Chaomeng; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei

2014-01-01

103

Application of Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles for the Removal of Aqueous Zinc Ions under Various Experimental Conditions  

PubMed Central

Application of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) for Zn2+ removal and its mechanism were discussed. It demonstrated that the uptake of Zn2+ by nZVI was efficient. With the solids concentration of 1 g/L nZVI, more than 85% of Zn2+ could be removed within 2 h. The pH value and dissolved oxygen (DO) were the important factors of Zn2+ removal by nZVI. The DO enhanced the removal efficiency of Zn2+. Under the oxygen-contained condition, oxygen corrosion gave the nZVI surface a shell of iron (oxy)hydroxide, which could show high adsorption affinity. The removal efficiency of Zn2+ increased with the increasing of the pH. Acidic condition reduced the removal efficiency of Zn2+ by nZVI because the existing H+ inhibited the formation of iron (oxy)hydroxide. Adsorption and co-precipitation were the most likely mechanism of Zn2+ removal by nZVI. The FeOOH-shell could enhance the adsorption efficiency of nZVI. The removal efficiency and selectivity of nZVI particles for Zn2+ were higher than Cd2+. Furthermore, a continuous flow reactor for engineering application of nZVI was designed and exhibited high removal efficiency for Zn2+. PMID:24416439

Liang, Wen; Dai, Chaomeng; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei

2014-01-01

104

Effects of dissolved oxygen on formation of corrosion products and concomitant oxygen and nitrate reduction in zero-valent iron systems with or without aqueous Fe 2+  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch tests were conducted in zero-valent iron (ZVI or Fe0) systems to investigate oxygen consumption and the effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) on formation of iron corrosion products, nitrate reduction, the reactivity of Fe0, the role Fe2+ (aq) played, and the fate of Fe2+. The study indicates that without augmenting Fe2+ (aq), neither nitrate nor DO could be removed efficiently

Yong H. Huang; Tian C. Zhang

2005-01-01

105

Mechanism of enhanced nitrate reduction via micro-electrolysis at the powdered zero-valent iron/activated carbon interface.  

PubMed

Nitrate reduction by zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) powder always works well only at controlled pH lower than 4 due to the formation of iron (hydr)oxides on its surface. Fe(0) powder combined with activated carbon (AC), i.e., Fe(0)/AC micro-electrolysis system, was first introduced to enhance nitrate reduction in aqueous solution. Comparative study was carried out to investigate nitrate reduction by Fe(0)/AC system and Fe(0) under near-neutral conditions, showing that the Fe(0)/AC system successfully reduced nitrate even at initial pH 6 with the reduction efficiency of up to 73%, whereas for Fe(0) only ?10%. The effect of Fe(0) to AC mass ratio on nitrate reduction efficiency was examined. Easier nitrate reduction was achieved with more contact between Fe(0) and AC as the result of decreasing Fe(0) to AC mass ratio. Ferrous ion and oxidation-reduction potential were measured to understand the mechanism of enhanced nitrate reduction by Fe(0)/AC micro-electrolysis. The results suggest that a relative potential difference drives much more electrons from Fe(0) to AC, thus generating adsorbed atomic hydrogen which makes it possible for nitrate to be reduced at near-neural pH. Fe(0)/AC micro-electrolysis thus presents a great potential for practical application in nitrate wastewater treatment without excessive pH adjustment. PMID:25217726

Luo, Jinghuan; Song, Guangyu; Liu, Jianyong; Qian, Guangren; Xu, Zhi Ping

2014-12-01

106

Simultaneous removal of perchlorate and energetic compounds in munitions wastewater by zero-valent iron and perchlorate-respiring bacteria.  

PubMed

Ammonium perchlorate is one of the main constituents in Army's insensitive melt-pour explosive, PAX-21 in addition to RDX and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN). The objective of this study is to develop an innovative treatment process to remove both perchlorate and energetic compounds simultaneously from PAX-21 production wastewater. It was hypothesized that the pretreatment of PAX-21 wastewater with zero-valent iron (ZVI) would convert energetic compounds to products that are more amenable for biological oxidation and that these products serve as electron donors for perchlorate-reducing bacteria. Results of batch ZVI reduction experiments showed that DNAN was completely reduced to 2,4-diaminoanisole and RDX was completely reduced to formaldehyde. Anaerobic batch biodegradation experiments showed that perchlorate (30 mg L(-1)) in ZVI-treated PAX-21 wastewater was decreased to an undetectable level after 5 days. Batch biodegradation experiments also confirmed that formaldehyde in ZVI-treated wastewater was the primary electron donor for perchlorate-respiring bacteria. The integrated iron-anaerobic bioreactor system was effective in completely removing energetic compounds and perchlorate from the PAX-21 wastewater without adding an exogenous electron donor. This study demonstrated that ZVI pretreatment not only removed energetic compounds, but also transformed energetic compounds to products that can serve as the source of electrons for perchlorate-respiring bacteria. PMID:24410688

Ahn, Se Chang; Hubbard, Brian; Cha, Daniel K; Kim, Byung J

2014-01-01

107

Dechlorination of PCBs in the simulative transformer oil by microwave-hydrothermal reaction with zero-valent iron involved.  

PubMed

The conventional hydrothermal reaction with iron powder, NaOH and H(2)O as reactants was reported to occur at temperature above 423K, and iron oxides (Fe(3)O(4) and NaFeO(2)) and hydrogen were produced. In this study, microwave heating was adopted to take the place of conventional heating to induce the hydrothermal reaction. Under microwave irradiation, NaOH and H(2)O absorbed microwave energy by space charge polarization and dipolar polarization and instantly converted it into thermal energy, which initiated the hydrothermal reaction that involved with zero-valent iron. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis found Fe(3)O(4)/NaFeO(2) and confirmed the occurrence of microwave-induced hydrothermal reaction. The developed microwave-hydrothermal reaction was employed for the dechlorination of PCBs. Hexadecane containing 100mgL(-1) of Aroclor1254 was used as simulative transformer oil, and the dechlorination of PCBs was evaluated by GC/ECD, GC/MS and ion chromatography. For PCBs in 10mL simulative transformer oil, almost complete dechlorination was achieved by 750W microwave irradiation for 10min, with 0.3g iron powder, 0.3g NaOH and 0.6mL H(2)O added. The effects of important factors including microwave power and the amounts of reactants added, on the dechlorination degree were investigated, moreover, the dechlorination mechanism was suggested. Microwave irradiation combined with the common and cheap materials, iron powder, NaOH and H(2)O, might provide a fast and cost-effective method for the treatment of PCBs-containing wastes. PMID:21074824

Liu, Xitao; Zhao, Wei; Sun, Ke; Zhang, Guixiang; Zhao, Ye

2011-01-01

108

The role of clay minerals in the reduction of nitrate in groundwater by zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

Bench-scale batch experiments were performed to investigate the feasibility of using different types of clay minerals (bentonite, fuller's earth, and biotite) with zero-valent iron for their potential utility in enhancing nitrate reduction and ammonium control. Kinetics experiments performed with deionized water (DW) and groundwater (GW) revealed nitrate reduction by Fe(0) proceeded at significantly faster rate in GW than in DW, and such a difference was attributed to the formation of green rust in GW. The amendment of the minerals at the dose of 25 g L(-1) in Fe(0) reaction in GW resulted in approximately 41%, 43%, and 33% more removal of nitrate in 64 h reaction for bentonite, fuller's earth, and biotite, respectively, compared to Fe(0) alone reaction. The presumed role of the minerals in the rate enhancement was to provide sites for the formation of surface bound green rust. Bentonite and fuller's earth also effectively removed ammonium produced from nitrate reduction by adsorption, with the removal efficiencies significantly increased with the increase in mineral dose above 5:1 Fe(0) to mineral mass ratio. Such a removal of ammonium was not observed for biotite, presumably due to its lack of swelling property. Equilibrium adsorption experiments indicated bentonite and fuller's earth had maximum ammonium adsorption capacity of 5.6 and 2.1 mg g(-1), respectively. PMID:20797759

Cho, Dong-Wan; Chon, Chul-Min; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Kim, Yongje; Khan, Moonis Ali; Song, Hocheol

2010-10-01

109

Ecotoxicological effects on earthworms of fresh and aged nano-sized zero-valent iron (nZVI) in soil.  

PubMed

Although nano-sized zero-valent iron (nZVI) has been used for several years for remediation of contaminated soils and aquifers, only a limited number of studies have investigated secondary environmental effects and ecotoxicity of nZVI to soil organisms. In this study we therefore measured the ecotoxicological effects of nZVI coated with carboxymethyl cellulose on two species of earthworms, Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus rubellus, using standard OECD methods with sandy loam and artificial OECD soil. Earthworms were exposed to nZVI concentrations ranging from 0 to 2000 mg nZVI kg soil(-1) added freshly to soil or aged in non-saturated soil for 30 d prior to exposure. Regarding avoidance, weight changes and mortality, both earthworm species were significantly affected by nZVI concentrations ?500 mg kg(-1)soil. Reproduction was affected also at 100 mg nZVI kg(-1). Toxicity effects of nZVI were reduced after aging with larger differences between soils compared to non-aged soils. We conclude that doses ?500 mg nZVI kg(-1) are likely to give acute adverse effects on soil organisms, and that effects on reproduction may occur at significantly lower concentrations. PMID:22595530

El-Temsah, Yehia S; Joner, Erik J

2012-09-01

110

Evaluation of the effects of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) dispersants on intrinsic biodegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE).  

PubMed

In this study, the biodegradability of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) dispersants and their effects on the intrinsic biodegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) were evaluated. Results of a microcosm study show that the biodegradability of three dispersants followed the sequence of: polyvinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate-co-itaconic acid (PV3A) > polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20) > polyacrylic acid (PAA) under aerobic conditions, and PV3A > Tween 20 > PAA under anaerobic conditions. Natural biodegradation of TCE was observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. No significant effects were observed on the intrinsic biodegradation of TCE under aerobic conditions with the presence of the dispersants. The addition of PAA seemed to have a slightly adverse impact on anaerobic TCE biodegradation. Higher accumulation of the byproducts of anaerobic TCE biodegradation was detected with the addition of PV3A and Tween 20. The diversity of the microbial community was enhanced under aerobic conditions with the presence of more biodegradable PV3A and Tween 20. The results of this study indicate that it is necessary to select an appropriate dispersant for nZVI to prevent a residual of the dispersant in the subsurface. Additionally, the effects of the dispersant on TCE biodegradation and the accumulation of TCE biodegrading byproducts should also be considered. PMID:24901632

Chang, Y C; Huang, S C; Chen, K F

2014-01-01

111

Remediation of DDTs contaminated soil in a novel Fenton-like system with zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

Application of a novel Fenton-like system with zero-valent iron, EDTA and Air (ZVI/EDTA/Air) was investigated to degrade dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in the actual contaminated soil from an organochlorine pesticide site. It was found DDTs in the soil were effectively degraded by the system at room temperature, ambient atmosphere pressure and near neutral pH. The dosages of EDTA and ZVI were the dominant factors influencing the removal of contaminants. An increase of EDTA from 0.05 to 0.2 mM and ZVI from 1 to 5 g L(-1) improved the removal of the contaminants significantly. However, excessive amount of EDTA led to a negative effect on the degradation process. Meanwhile, EDTA was simultaneously degraded so as to avoid the secondary pollution risk on soil remediation. Only a small amount of 4,4'-DDE and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1-chloroethylene (4,4'-DDMU) generated as the intermediates of DDT degradation during the process. Our investigation suggests that the Fenton-like system is a promising alternative for remediation of organochlorine pesticides contaminated soils. PMID:23102698

Cao, Menghua; Wang, Linling; Wang, Li; Chen, Jing; Lu, Xiaohua

2013-02-01

112

Effect of anions and humic acid on the performance of nanoscale zero-valent iron particles coated with polyacrylic acid.  

PubMed

Effects of anions (NO3(-), HCO3(-), Cl(-), SO4(2-)) and humic acid on the reactivity and core/shell chemistries of polyacrylic acid-coated nanoscale zero-valent iron (PAA-NZVI) and inorganically modified NZVI (INORG-NZVI) particles were investigated. The reactivity tests under various ion concentrations (0.2-30mN) revealed the existence of a favorable molar ratio of anion/NZVI that increased the reactivity of NZVI particles. The presence of a relatively small amount of humic acid (0.5mgL(-1)) substantially decreased the INORG-NZVI reactivity by 76%, whereas the reactivity of PAA-NZVI decreased only by 12%. The XRD and TEM results supported the role of the PAA coating of PAA-NZVI in impeding the oxidation of the Fe(0) core by groundwater solutes. This protective role provided by the organic coating also resulted in a 2.3-fold increase in the trichloroethylene (TCE) reduction capacity of PAA-NZVI compared to that of INORG-NZVI in the presence of anions/humic acid. Ethylene and ethane were simultaneously produced as the major reduction products of TCE in both NZVI systems, suggesting that a hydrodechlorination occurred without the aid of metallic catalysts. The PAA coating, originally designed to improve the mobility of NZVI, enhanced TCE degradation performances of NZVI in the presence of anions and humic acid. PMID:25065795

Kim, Hong-Seok; Ahn, Jun-Young; Kim, Cheolyong; Lee, Seockheon; Hwang, Inseong

2014-10-01

113

Synthesis and characterization of porous zero-valent iron nanoparticles for remediation of chromium-contaminated wastewater.  

PubMed

The physical and chemical properties of porous zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVINs) have highly been acknowledged in the decontamination of heavy metal containing wastes and groundwater. In the present work, the treatment of Cr-contaminant through adsorption onto the ZVINs has been studied. The morphology, crystal structure, and surface composition of Fe(O) nanoparticles were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) revealed that the Cr(VI) species reduce to Cr(III) while oxidizing the ZVINs to Fe2O3, Fe3O4 or FeO electrochemically. Furthermore, the nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm of the porous nanoparticles was similar to a type IV curve with an obvious mesopore-characteristic H3 hysteresis loop, whereas the sizes of mesopores were in the range of 30-50 nm. Experimentally, the efficiency for Cr(VI) removal in the range of 150-300 ppm was found to be > 99.9%. Remarkably, the reduction reaction was completed within 10 min in the absence of additional pH controls. This work also highlights the utility of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with conventional characterization methods to comprehensively study the speciation and possible reaction pathway in adsorption process. PMID:23763143

Lin, Kuen-Song; Dehvari, Khalilalrahman; Liu, Yeu-Jye; Kuo, Hua; Hsu, Pei-Ju

2013-04-01

114

Decolourization of direct blue 15 by Fenton/ultrasonic process using a zero-valent iron aggregate catalyst.  

PubMed

Decolourization of direct azo dye, direct blue 15 (DB15), by an advanced Fenton process coupled with ultrasonic irradiation (Fenton/US) was investigated. Zero-valent iron (ZVI) aggregates were used as the catalyst. A positive synergistic effect occurred when Fenton's reagent was combined with ultrasonic irradiation. Experimental results showed that the optimum conditions for decolourization were pH 3.0, Fe(0) 1g/L, H(2)O(2) 5.15×10(-3)mol/L with ultrasound density of 120W/L at 60kHz. These conditions yielded 99% decolouration of 4.7×10(-5) M DB15 (4130 ADMI) solution within 10min. DB15 decolouration follows the first-order decolouration kinetics. Although the solutions containing H(2)CO(3), Cl(-), ClO(4)(-), NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-) ions did not have a significant effect on the decolouration, the H(2)PO(4)(-) ion did decrease the decolouration rate. High ultrasonic input power accelerated the reaction and increased decolourization efficiency. The cost effectiveness of this process at high ultrasound density could be controlled despite the high electricity costs incurred by the process. ZVI aggregates were reusable; however, an increase in the number of times ZVI was recycled decreased the decolourization rate. This study demonstrates that a Fenton/US process can effectively decolour the direct azo dye DB15 in wastewater. PMID:23187066

Weng, Chih-Huang; Lin, Yao-Tung; Chang, Cheng-Kuan; Liu, Na

2013-05-01

115

Implementation of zero-valent iron (ZVI) into drinking water supply - Role of the ZVI and biological processes.  

PubMed

Arsenic in drinking water is concerning millions of people around the world, even though many solutions to the problem have come up in recent years. One of the promising solutions for removing arsenic from water is by implementation of a zero-valent iron (ZVI) in the drinking water production. The purpose of this work was to study a treatment of As pollution based on the ZVI, aeration and sand filtration that was monitored for period of 45months. In applied configuration and conditions ZVI was not able to remove arsenic alone, but it worked as a source of ferrous ions that during its oxidation enabled to co-precipitate arsenic compounds in the sand filter. The results show that after a lag phase of about 6months, it was possible to achieve water production with an As content from 20?gL(-1) to below 5?gL(-1). The treatment also enabled to remove phosphates that were present in groundwater and affected As uptake by hindering its co-precipitation with Fe compounds. Determination of colony forming units on As amended agar helped to find arsenic resistant bacteria at each stage of treatment and also in the sand filter backwash sludge. Bacterial communities found in groundwater, containing low concentration of As, were found to have high As resistance. The results also indicate that the lag phase might have been also needed to initiate Fe ions release by corrosion from elemental Fe by help of microbial activity. PMID:24996201

Kowalski, Krzysztof P; Søgaard, Erik G

2014-12-01

116

Nonionic surfactant greatly enhances the reductive debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by nanoscale zero-valent iron: mechanism and kinetics.  

PubMed

Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) has been considered as an effective agent for reductive debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). But the high lipophilicity of PBDEs will hinder their debromination owing to the inefficient contact of PBDEs with nZVI. In this study, different ionic forms of surfactants were investigated aiming to promote PBDE debromination, and the beneficial effects of surfactant were found to be: nonionic polyethylene glycol octylphenol ether (Triton X-100, TX)>cationic cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC)>anionic sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDDBS). Except for with SDDBS, the promotion effect for PBDE debromination was positively related to the surfactant concentrations until a critical micelle concentration (CMC). The debromination process of octa-BDE and its intermediates could be described as a consecutive reaction. The corresponding rate constants (k) for the debromination of parent octa-BDE (including nona- to hepta-BDEs), the intermediates hexa-, penta-, and tetra-BDEs are 1.24 × 10(-1) h(-1), 8.97 × 10(-2) h(-1), 6.50 × 10(-2) h(-1) and 2.37 × 10(-3) h(-1), respectively. PMID:25019577

Liang, Da-wei; Yang, Yu-han; Xu, Wei-wei; Peng, Si-kan; Lu, Shan-fu; Xiang, Yan

2014-08-15

117

Tunable synthesis of SiO2-encapsulated zero-valent iron nanoparticles for degradation of organic dyes  

PubMed Central

A series of nanocomposites consisting of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVI NPs) encapsulated in SiO2 microspheres were successfully synthesized through a successive two-step method, i.e., the wet chemical reduction by borohydride followed by a modified Stöber method. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer. The catalytic performance of SiO2-encapsulated ZVI nanocomposites for the degradation of organic dyes was investigated using methylene blue (MB) as the model dye in the presence of H2O2. The results showed that the degradation efficiency and apparent rate constant of the degradation reaction were significantly enhanced with increased ZVI NPs encapsulated in SiO2 microspheres, whereas the dosage of H2O2 remarkably promoted degradation rate without affecting degradation efficiency. The content-dependent magnetic property ensured the excellent magnetic separation of degradation products under an external magnet. This strategy for the synthesis of SiO2-encapsulated ZVI NPs nanocomposites was low cost and easy to scale-up for industrial production, thereby enabling promising applications in environmental remediation.

2014-01-01

118

Influences of humic acid, bicarbonate and calcium on Cr(VI) reductive removal by zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

The influences of various geochemical constituents, such as humic acid, HCO(3)(-), and Ca(2+), on Cr(VI) removal by zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) were investigated in a batch setting. The collective impacts of humic acid, HCO(3)(-), and Ca(2+) on the Cr(VI) reduction process by Fe(0) appeared to significantly differ from their individual impacts. Humic acid introduced a marginal influence on Fe(0) reactivity toward Cr(VI) reduction, whereas HCO(3)(-) greatly enhanced Cr(VI) removal by maintaining the solution pH near neutral. The Cr(VI) reduction rate constants (k(obs)) were increased by 37.8% and 78.3%, respectively, with 2 mM and 6 mM HCO(3)(-) in solutions where humic acid and Ca(2+) were absent. Singly present Ca(2+) did not show a significant impact to Cr(VI) reduction. However, probably due to the formation of passivating CaCO(3), further addition of Ca(2+) to HCO(3)(-) containing solutions resulted in a decrease of k(obs) compared to solutions containing HCO(3)(-) alone. Ca(2+) enhanced humic acid adsorption led to a minor decrease of Cr(VI) reduction rates. In Ca(2+)-free solutions, humic acid increased the amount of total dissolved iron to 25 mg/l due to the formation of soluble Fe-humate complexes and stably dispersed fine Fe (oxy)hydroxide colloids, which appeared to suppress iron precipitation. In contrast, the coexistence of humic acid and Ca(2+) significantly promoted the aggregation of Fe (oxy)hydroxides, with which humic acid co-aggregated and co-precipitated. These aggregates would progressively be deposited on Fe(0) surfaces and impose long-term impacts on the permeability of PRBs. PMID:19232679

Liu, Tongzhou; Rao, Pinhua; Lo, Irene M C

2009-05-01

119

Degradation of trinitroglycerin (TNG) using zero-valent iron nanoparticles/nanosilica SBA-15 composite (ZVINs/SBA-15).  

PubMed

Trinitroglycerin (TNG) is an industrial chemical mostly known for its clinical use in treating angina and manufacturing dynamite. The wide manufacture and application of TNG has led to contamination of vast areas of soil and water. The present study describes degradation of TNG with zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVINs) in water either present alone or stabilized on nanostructured silica SBA-15 (Santa Barbara Amorphous No. 15). The BET surface areas of ZVINs/SBA-15 (275.1 m2 g(-1)), as determined by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, was much larger than the non-stabilized ZVINs (82.0 m2 g(-1)). X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that iron in both ZVINs and ZVINs/SBA-15 was present mostly in the ?-Fe0 crystalline form considered responsible for TNG degradation. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) showed that iron nanoparticles were well dispersed on the surface of the nanosilica support. Both ZVINs and ZVINs/SBA-15 degraded TNG (100%) in water to eventually produce glycerol and ammonium. The reaction followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and was faster with ZVINs/SBA-15 (k1 0.83 min(-1)) than with ZVINs (k1 0.228 min(-1)). The corresponding surface-area normalized rate constants, knorm, were 0.36 and 0.33 L h(-1) m(-2) for ZVINs/SBA-15 and ZVINs, respectively. The ZVINs/SBA-15 retained its original degradation efficiency of TNG after repeatedly reacting with fresh nitrate ester for five successive cycles. The rapid and efficient transformation of TNG with ZVINs/SBA-15, combined with excellent sustained reactivity, makes the nanometal an ideal choice for the clean up of water contaminated with TNG. PMID:20801482

Saad, Rabih; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Dashan, Wang; Hawari, Jalal

2010-11-01

120

2.2 Zero-valent Iron Nanoparticles 2.2.1 Background  

E-print Network

meters wide, contained by gravel supporting beds. The chemistry is well understood as the corrosion) + 2H2O(l) 2Fe3+ (aq) + H2(g) + 2OH- (aq) As ZVI is oxidized to ferrous and/or ferric iron, pH created are favorable for the pathways (oxide-mediated electron transfer from the metal to the chlorinated

121

Enhanced degradation of trichloroethylene in nano-scale zero-valent iron Fenton system with Cu(II).  

PubMed

Degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in nano-scale zero-valent iron (nZVI) Fenton system with Cu(II) was investigated in a closed batch system. TCE was significantly degraded (95%) in 10 min in nZVI Fenton system with 20mM Cu(II) at initial pH 3, while slight degradation (25%) was observed in nZVI Fenton system without Cu(II) at the same experimental condition. Aqueous Fe(II) concentration proportionally increased (1.2-19.6mM) with increasing Cu(II) concentration (1-20mM). Surface analyses using X-ray spectroscopy showed that metallic Cu was formed on the nZVI surface and surface Fe(0) decreased by 1.4 times after the addition of Cu(II) to nZVI suspension. Kinetic rate constant for TCE degradation at 15.3mM nZVI (4.1989 min(-1)) increased by 1.8 times till the increase of nZVI concentration by 5 times and then showed a saturation pattern at higher nZVI concentration. As Cu(II) concentrations increased in the Cu/nZVI Fenton system, the rate constant increased linearly (R(2)=0.979). No significant difference has been observed in the degradation kinetics of TCE by Cu/nZVI Fenton at pH 3 and pH 6 (4.8720 min(-1) vs. 4.9858 min(-1)), whereas the kinetics by nZVI Fenton at pH 6 were 1.6 times faster (0.0318 min(-1)) than at pH 3 (0.0194 min(-1)). PMID:22079185

Choi, Kyunghoon; Lee, Woojin

2012-04-15

122

Transformation of chlorinated hydrocarbons using aquocobalamin or coenzyme F{sub 430} in combination with zero-valent iron  

SciTech Connect

More effective methods are necessary for the remediation of soils, sediments, and ground waters contaminated with halogenated organic compounds. The authors objective was to determine the feasibility and utility of using a tetrapyrrole-Fe(0) mixture for reductive dehalogenation of synthetic organic contaminants. Aquocobalamin or coenzyme F{sub 430} was combined with Fe(0) in aqueous systems containing either a single chlorinated compound or mixtures of chlorinated compounds, and substrate disappearance was monitored using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Zero-valent iron effectively dehalogenated CCl{sub 4} at low to neutral pH values, while increases in CCl{sub 4} dehalogenation resulting from inclusion of tetrapyrrole catalysts along with Fe(0) occurred only at basic pH values. Rates of CCl{sub 4} disappearance increased with additional aquocobalamin, but reached a maximum and decreased at higher aquocobalamin concentrations. overall dehalogenation rates may thus be a function of Fe(0)'s limited reactive surface area. There was a trend for both tetrapyrrole catalysts to promote the disappearance of halogenated compounds in a mixed substrate containing 20 compounds. Studies with five individual substrates likewise showed trends for increased substrate removal with F{sub 430} beyond that for Fe(0) alone. This increase is most important for compounds such as 1,2-dichloroethane and 1,4-dichlorobenzene that are not readily dehalogenated by Fe(0). Chloride concentrations in the reaction mixtures indicated that reductive dehalogenation was the dominant process responsible for substrate disappearance. Use of a combination of aquocobalamin or coenzyme F{sub 430} and Fe(0) may effectively promote dehalogenation, thus producing fewer products and more complete dehalogenation of the target substrates than can be achieved using only one of the abiotic reductants alone.

Morra, M.J.; Borek, V.; Koolpe, J.

2000-06-01

123

Nanoscale zero-valent iron application for in situ reduction of hexavalent chromium and its effects on indigenous microorganism populations.  

PubMed

Because of its high toxicity and mobility, hexavalent chromium is considered to be a high priority pollutant. This study was performed to carry out a pilot-scale in-situ remediation test in the saturated zone of a historically Cr(VI)-contaminated site using commercially available nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI). The site was monitored before and after the nZVI application by means of microbial cultivation tests, phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) and toxicological tests with Vibrio fischeri. Injection of nZVI resulted in a rapid decrease in the Cr(VI) and total Cr concentrations in the groundwater without any substantial effect on its chemical properties. The ecotoxicological test with V. fischeri did not indicate any negative changes in the toxicity of the groundwater following the application of nZVI and no significant changes were observed in cultivable psychrophilic bacteria densities and PLFA concentrations in the groundwater samples during the course of the remediation test. However, PLFA of soil samples revealed that the application of nZVI significantly stimulated the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. Principle component analysis (PCA) was applied to the PLFA results for the soil samples from the site in order to explain how Cr(VI) reduction and the presence of Fe influence the indigenous populations. The PCA results clearly indicated a negative correlation between the Cr concentrations and the biota before the application of nZVI and a significant positive correlation between bacteria and the concentration of Fe after the application of nZVI. PMID:24369106

N?me?ek, Jan; Lhotský, Ond?ej; Cajthaml, Tomáš

2014-07-01

124

Graphene-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron: removal of phosphorus from aqueous solution and mechanistic study.  

PubMed

Excess phosphorus from non-point pollution sources is one of the key factors causing eutrophication in many lakes in China, so finding a cost-effective method to remove phosphorus from non-point pollution sources is very important for the health of the aqueous environment. Graphene was selected to support nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) for phosphorus removal from synthetic rainwater runoff in this article. Compared with nZVI supported on other porous materials, graphene-supported nZVI (G-nZVI) could remove phosphorus more efficiently. The amount of nZVI in G-nZVI was an important factor in the removal of phosphorus by G-nZVI, and G-nZVI with 20 wt.% nZVI (20% G-nZVI) could remove phosphorus most efficiently. The nZVI was very stable and could disperse very well on graphene, as characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy were used to elucidate the reaction process, and the results indicated that Fe-O-P was formed after phosphorus was adsorbed by G-nZVI. The results obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the reaction product between nZVI supported on graphene and phosphorus was Fe?(PO?)?·8H?O (Vivianite). It was confirmed that the specific reaction mechanism for the removal of phosphorus with nZVI or G-nZVI was mainly due to chemical reaction between nZVI and phosphorus. PMID:25108732

Liu, Fenglin; Yang, JingHe; Zuo, Jiane; Ma, Ding; Gan, Lili; Xie, Bangmi; Wang, Pei; Yang, Bo

2014-08-01

125

Comparative studies on montmorillonite-supported zero-valent iron nanoparticles produced by different methods: reactivity and stability.  

PubMed

To mitigate the aggregation and enhance the reactivity of nanosized zero-valent iron (nZVI), montmorillonite is employed as a template-supporting matrix to prepare nZVI through two different pathways: heterogeneous nucleation and homogeneous nucleation processes. Dispersed sub-nanosized ZVI clusters with an average size around 0.5 nm (perpendicular to the clay layers) are intercalated in clay interlayers when using montmorillonite as a template in preparation via heterogeneous nucleation process. However, the particle sizes spanned from 0.62 nm (perpendicular to the clay layers) for the ZV1 intercalated in montmorillonite interlayers to 1-50 nm for the ZVI residing on an external surface when using montmorillonite as a dispersion agent in the preparation via homogeneous nucleation. Furthermore, parallel batch experiments have been conducted with nZVIs synthesized by the two different methods in solutions of nitrobenzene and their reactivity is evaluated via response of nZVI to nitrobenzene remediation. As a result, the reactivity of ZVI synthesized by heterogeneous nucleation is greater than that by homogeneous nucleation, which is inversely correlated to the size of ZVI supported by montmorillonite clay. Evaluation of the stability of montmorillonite-supported ZVI showed that ZVI intercalated in the interlayers of montmorillonite is more stable than that located on the external surface, which can be attributed to the protective effect of montmorillonite layers on ZVI from oxidation. These results suggest that the great reactivity and high stability of montmorillonite-intercalated ZVI synthesized through heterogeneous nucleation process warrants its significant potential in developing in situ remediation and treatment technologies for organic contaminants. PMID:23530312

Jia, Hanzhong; Wang, Chuanyi

2013-01-01

126

Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions  

SciTech Connect

Calcium carbonate is a major secondary mineral precipitate that influences PRB reactivity and hydraulic performance. In this study, we conducted column experiments to investigate electrical signatures resulting from concurrent CaCO3 and iron oxides precipitation in two simulated PRB media. Solid phase analysis identified CaCO3 (calcite and aragonite) as a major mineral phase throughout the columns, with magnetite being another major phase present close to the influent. Electrical measurements revealed a consistent decrease in conductivity and polarization magnitude of both columns, suggesting that the electrically insulating CaCO3 dominates the electrical response despite the presence of both electrically conductive iron oxides and CaCO3 precipitates. SEM/EDX imaging suggests that the electrical properties result from the geometrical arrangement of the mineral phases. The CaCO3 forms an insulating film on ZVI/magnetite surfaces, which we assume restricts redox-driven transfer of electric charge between the pore electrolyte and ZVI particles, as well as across interconnected ZVI particles. As surface reactivity also depends on the ability of the surface to engage in redox reactions, electrical measurements may provide a minimally invasive technology for monitoring reactivity loss.

Yuxin Wu; Roelof Versteeg; Lee Slater; Doug Labrecque

2009-05-01

127

Challenges in the Theoretical Description of Nanoparticle Reactivity: Nano Zero-Valent Iron  

E-print Network

The reactivity of iron atoms, clusters and nanoparticles (nZVI) is of increasing interest owing to their important practical applications, ranging from the steel industry to water remediation technologies. Here, we provide an overview of computational methods and models that can be applied to study nZVI reactions and discuss their benefits and limitations. We also report current progress in calculations through recent examples treating the reactivity of nZVI particles. Finally, we consider the potential use of highly accurate methods with favorable scaling (such as quantum Monte Carlo or random phase approximation), which are currently considered too computationally expensive but are expected to become more amenable in the future as computer power increases.

Karlický, František

2014-01-01

128

Treatment of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane and nitrate-contaminated water with zero-valent iron or hydrogen\\/palladium catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abilities of zero-valent iron powder and hydrogen with a palladium catalyst (H2\\/Pd-alumina) to hydrodehalogenate 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) to propane under water treatment conditions (ambient temperature and circumneutral pH) were compared. DBCP reacted with iron powder (100–200 mesh, 36 g\\/l) in HEPES-buffered water (pH = 7.0) with a t12 of 2.5 min and in different groundwaters (pH = 8.2–8.7) with a

Darsa P. Siantar; Cindy G. Schreier; Chi-Su Chou; Martin Reinhard

1996-01-01

129

Removal of As, Mn, Mo, Se, U, V and Zn from groundwater by zero-valent iron in a passive treatment cell: reaction progress modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three treatment cells were operated at a site near Durango, CO. One treatment cell operated for more than 3 years. The treatment cells were used for passive removal of contamination from groundwater at a uranium mill tailings repository site. Zero-valent iron [Fe(0)] that had been powdered, bound with aluminosilicate and molded into plates was used as a reactive material in one treatment cell. The others used granular Fe(0) and steel wool. The treatment cells significantly reduced concentrations of As, Mn, Mo, Se, U, V and Zn in groundwater that flowed through it. Zero-valent iron [Fe(0)], magnetite (Fe 3O 4), calcite (CaCO 3), goethite (FeOOH) and mixtures of contaminant-bearing phases were identified in the solid fraction of one treatment cell. A reaction progress approach was used to model chemical evolution of water chemistry as it reacted with the Fe(0). Precipitation of calcite, ferrous hydroxide [Fe(OH) 2] and ferrous sulfide (FeS) were used to simulate observed changes in major-ion aqueous chemistry. The amount of reaction progress differed for each treatment cell. Changes in contaminant concentrations were consistent with precipitation of reduced oxides (UO 2, V 2O 3), sulfides (As 2S 3, ZnS), iron minerals (FeSe 2, FeMoO 4) and carbonate (MnCO 3). Formation of a free gas phase and precipitation of minerals contributed to loss of hydraulic conductivity in one treatment cell.

Morrison, Stan J.; Metzler, Donald R.; Dwyer, Brian P.

2002-05-01

130

Incorporation of nanoscale zero-valent iron particles inside the channels of SBA-15 silica rods by a “two solvents” reduction technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new reduction method named a “two solvents” reduction technique was developed for incorporation of nanoscale zero-valent iron particles (NZVIs) inside the channels of SBA-15 silica rods under mild conditions. The resulting NZVIs/SBA-15 composites were compared with the ones prepared by the conventional liquid phase reduction method in structure, morphology and reactivity. All the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and all-direct-reading plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Results showed that abundant ultrasmall zero-valent iron particles were synthesized and well dispersed in the mesopores of SBA-15 silica rods by the new reduction technique, whereas larger iron particles were supported and aggregated on the surface of the silica rods by conventional reduction method. Batch experiment demonstrated that NZVIs incorporated inside the silica channels had higher reactivity for the removal of Cr(VI) in aqueous solution than those supported on the surface.

Sun, Xia; Yu, Hongxia; Zheng, Da; Wang, Xuesong; Li, Jiansheng; Wang, Lianjun

2013-08-01

131

A comparison of the low frequency electrical signatures of iron oxide versus calcite precipitation in granular zero valent iron columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical methods have been proposed as technologies for non-invasively monitoring geochemical alteration in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). We conducted column experiments to investigate the effect of mineralogy on the electrical signatures resulting from iron corrosion and mineral precipitation in Fe 0 columns using (a) Na 2SO 4, and (b) NaHCO 3 plus CaCl 2 mixture, solutions. At the influent interface where the reactions were most severe, a contrasting time-lapse electrical response was observed between the two columns. Solid phase analysis confirmed the formation of corrosion halos and increased mineralogical complexity in the corroded sections of the columns compared to the minimal/non-corroded sections. We attribute the contrasting time-lapse signatures to the differences in the electrical properties of the mineral phases formed within the two columns. While newly precipitated/transformed polarizable and semi-conductive iron oxides (mostly magnetite and green rust) increase the polarization and conductivity of the sulfate column, the decrease of both parameters in the bicarbonate column is attributed to the precipitation of non-polarizable and non-conductive calcite. Our results show that precipitate mineralogy is an important factor influencing the electrical properties of the corroded iron cores and must be considered if electrical geophysical methods are to be developed to monitor PRB barrier corrosion processes in situ.

Wu, Yuxin; Slater, Lee; Versteeg, Roelof; LaBrecque, Douglas

2008-01-01

132

Injection of polyelectrolytes enhances mobility of zero-valent iron nanoparticles in carbonate-rich porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) for in situ groundwater remediation has received increased attention as a beneficial and novel remediation technique. A precondition for effective nZVI field applications is its delivery to the contaminated source zones. This has proved to be difficult due to the limited mobility of nZVI, which remains one major obstacle to widespread utilization of this remediation approach (O'CAROLL ET AL., 2012). One important factor that controls mobility of nZVI is physical and chemical heterogeneity within the subsurface, such as mineralogical variations (KIM ET AL., 2012). In our previous study we showed that the nZVI transport in carbonate-rich porous media is significantly reduced compared to that in quartz porous media (LAUMANN ET AL., 2012). This is caused by favorable nZVI deposition onto carbonate sand and is attributed to the less negative surface charge of carbonate compared to that of quartz sand under the range of water chemical conditions typically encountered in aquifers. New strategies are therefore required to improve nZVI mobility in carbonate-rich porous media. One approach can be the injection of polyelectrolytes in the subsurface, which are expected to adsorb onto aquifer grains and provide greater repulsion between nZVI and the porous media. In this study the effect of co-injected polyelectrolytes on the transport of polyacrylic acid (PAA) coated nZVI in two model porous media, quartz and carbonate sands was evaluated. Column experiments were carried out aiming to evaluate mobility of PAA-nZVI co-injected with four polyelectrolytes, including natural organic matter (NOM), humic acid, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and lignin sulfonate. The results demonstrated that the co-injection of the chosen polyelectrolytes does not influence mobility of PAA-nZVI in quartz sand; the breakthrough with co-injected polyelectrolytes was similar to that of the pure PAA-nZVI dispersion. This observation can be explained by the strong negative surface charge of the quartz sand, which was apparently not changed in the presence of polyelectrolytes. Conversely, the co-injected polyelectrolytes affected the breakthrough in carbonate sand, increasing nZVI mobility for approximately 15%. This can be explained by the attachment of the polyelectrolytes to the less negatively charged carbonate sand, which then promoted the PAA-nZVI mobility. Even though there are structural differences among the polyelectrolytes applied in this study, our results showed no significant variations in the PAA-nZVI mobility when these polyelectrolytes are present at concentration of 50 mg L-1. Lignin sulfonate was furthermore selected to investigate the effect of different polyelectrolyte concentrations (0, 10, 25, 50, 250, and 500 mg L-1) on the PAA-nZVI mobility. The results showed that higher lignin sulfonate concentrations (250 and 500 mg L-1) do not affect the transport of PAA-nZVI in quartz sand. In carbonate sand, on contrary, increasing mobility due to co-injected lignin sulfonate was observed at concentrations above 25 mg L-1, having the highest value with 500 mg L-1 co-injected with the PAA-nZVI dispersion. Overall, the results demonstrated that lignin sulfonate adsorption onto the carbonate sand reduce PAA-nZVI deposition onto aquifer grains and promote its mobility, the effect which is more pronounced at higher polyelectrolyte concentrations co-injected with the PAA-nZVI dispersion. The project is funded by the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW). Management by Kommunalkredit Public Consulting GmbH. Literature O'CAROLL, D. ET AL., (2012): Advances in Water Resources, in press. KIM, H.-J. ET AL., (2012): Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 370, 1-10. LAUMANN, S. ET AL., (2012): Environmental Pollution, submitted.

Laumann, Susanne; Mici?, Vesna; Schmid, Doris; Hofmann, Thilo

2013-04-01

133

Carboxymethyl Cellulose Stabilized Nano-scale Zero Valent Iron Transport in Porous Media: An Experimental and Modeling Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental and modeling study is being conducted to evaluate carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) stabilized nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI) transport in porous media. A two-dimensional water-saturated glass-walled sandbox (55 cm x 45 cm x 1.3 cm in size) is being used for the study. The sandbox was packed uniformly with silica sand (600 ?m to 425 ?m grain diameter) under water-saturated conditions. From a series of hydraulic tests permeability of the system was calculated to be 1.0 x 10-12 m2. The transport tests are being conducted at pore-water velocities of 3, 5, and 10 m.d-1 to identify any shear-thinning effects associated with the CMC (MW = 90,000) solution, and effects of velocity on nZVI attachment to the porous media. A set of transport tests is being carried out using LissamineTM Green B (LGB) dye and CMC mixtures to characterize the CMC transport without nZVI. The transport tests are being conducted at various CMC concentrations ranging from 0.2% to 0.8% (w/v) to determine the effect of CMC concentration on nZVI transport under flowing conditions. For the CMC stabilized nZVI transport tests, nZVI is synthesized freshly in CMC solution before each experiment using sodium borohydride and ferrous sulfate. The synthesized nZVI concentrations range from 0.1 to 2.5 g.L-1. While higher nZVI concentration is desired for higher contaminant degradation, the higher nZVI concentration may cause greater aggregation and attachment to the porous media limiting the delivery distance for nZVI. In each transport experiment, the LGB-CMC solution or nZVI-CMC solution is injected into the sandbox as a pulse of 0.25 pore volume (PV). For LGB, the mass recovery was calculated to be ~ 96.5% indicating non-reactive transport in silica sand. The preliminary results also show that increased concentration of CMC (from 0.2% to 0.4 %) causes higher pressure drop across the sandbox, indicating that use of high CMC concentrations will limit injection rates with a corresponding effect on velocity and nZVI attachment. The transport experiments are being modeled using a two-dimensional multiphase flow and transport model. The sandbox is being discretized into 55 by 45 grid blocks (1 cm x 1 cm x 1.3 cm in size). LGB and CMC are modeled as soluble components, while nZVI is being considered as a colloid. In case of nZVI transport, attachment coefficients are being fitted to match the experimental breakthrough curves. The estimated attachment coefficients can be used to predict the CMC stabilized nZVI transport in field scale applications.

Mondal, P.; Rrokaj, E.; Sleep, B. E.

2013-12-01

134

TREATMENT OF 1,2-DIBROMO-3-CHLOROPROPANE AND NITRATE-CONTAMINATED WATER WITH ZERO-VALENT IRON OR HYDROGEN/PALLADIUM CATALYSTS. (R825689C054,R825689C078)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract The abilities of zero-valent iron powder and hydrogen with a palladium catalyst (H2/Pd-alumina) to hydrodehalogenate 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) to propane under water treatment conditions (ambient temperature and circumneutral pH) were compa...

135

Effects of hardness and alkalinity on the removal of arsenic(V) from humic acid-deficient and humic acid-rich groundwater by zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

The effects of hardness (Ca(2+)) and alkalinity (HCO(3)(-)) on arsenic(V) removal from humic acid (HA)-deficient and HA-rich groundwater by zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) were investigated using batch experiments. Arsenic, in general, is removed from groundwater possibly by adsorption and co-precipitation with the iron corrosion products. However, in the co-presence of HCO(3)(-) and Ca(2+), the removal rate of arsenic increased with increasing concentrations of either Ca(2+) or HCO(3)(-). It was observed that the removal of arsenic was significantly enhanced by the formation of CaCO(3) as a nucleation seed for the growth of large iron (hydr)oxide particles. In the co-existence of Ca(2+), HCO(3)(-) and HA, the presence of HA diminished the positive role of Ca(2+) due to the formation of Fe-humate complexes in solution and delaying of the formation of CaCO(3). As a result, the formation of the large iron (hydr)oxide particles was inhibited in the earlier stage which, in turn, affected the removal of arsenic. However, after the formation of CaCO(3) and the subsequent growth of such particles, the presence of large iron (hydr)oxide particles resulted in the rapid removing of arsenic and Fe-humate by adsorption and/or co-precipitation. PMID:19580986

Mak, Mark S H; Rao, Pinhua; Lo, Irene M C

2009-09-01

136

Effects of humic acid on arsenic(V) removal by zero-valent iron from groundwater with special references to corrosion products analyses.  

PubMed

The effects of humic acid (HA) on As(V) removal by zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) from groundwater, associated with corrosion products analyses, were investigated using batch experiments. It was found that arsenic was rapidly removed from groundwater possibly due to its adsorption and co-precipitation with the corrosion products of Fe(0). The removal rate of arsenic by Fe(0) was inhibited in the presence of HA probably because of the formation of soluble Fe-humate in groundwater which hindered the production of iron precipitates. A longer reaction time was then required for arsenic removal. Such an influence of HA on arsenic removal increased with increasing HA concentration from 5 to 25mgL(-1). The binding capacity of HA for dissolved Fe was estimated to be about 0.75mg Femg(-1) HA. When the complexation of HA with dissolved Fe was saturated, further corrosion of Fe(0) would produce precipitates, which significantly accelerated the removal of arsenic from groundwater via adsorption and co-precipitation with the corrosion products. Iron (hydr)oxides such as maghemite, lepidocrocite, and magnetite were characterized by XRD analyses as the corrosion products, while As(V) was found on the surface of these corrosion products as detected by fourier transform infrared spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. PMID:19157491

Rao, Pinhua; Mak, Mark S H; Liu, Tongzhou; Lai, Keith C K; Lo, Irene M C

2009-04-01

137

A comparative evaluation of hexavalent chromium treatment in contaminated soil by calcium polysulfide and green-tea nanoscale zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

A column study for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) removal from contaminated soil was performed using calcium polysulfide (CPS) and nanoscale zero-valent iron stabilized with green tea extract (GT-nZVI). Injection of CPS at 12 times the stoichiometric requirement (12×) resulted in quantitative Cr(VI) removal for up to 195 days of equivalent groundwater flow. Solid-bound Cr(VI) was reduced up to >99% (<2mg/kg). Treatment with CPS resulted in a short-term release of high sulfur concentrations. Injections of 12× and 24× stoichiometric GT-nZVI resulted in decrease in leachate pH from 6 to 2.5, which rebounded to 4.5 after the equivalent of 45 days and remained stable for the next equivalent 3 years. Metals concentrations in the effluent (Pb, Cr and Fe) increased following injection and quickly decreased, such that the mass flux was low with respect to the total amounts in the solid. Aqueous Cr(VI) was non-detect for the majority of the monitoring time, but concentrations eventually increased with respect to the control sample. Solid-bound Cr(VI) concentrations decreased by 30% and 66% in the 12× and 24× treatments, respectively. The low efficiency was attributed to increased sorption to iron surfaces at pH 2.5 and slow dissolution of PbCrO4, both of which were identified by micro-X-ray fluorescence and absorption analyses. PMID:22169240

Chrysochoou, Maria; Johnston, Chad P; Dahal, Geeta

2012-01-30

138

Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI): aspects of the core-shell structure and reactions with inorganic species in water.  

PubMed

Aspects of the core-shell model of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) and their environmental implications were examined in this work. The structure and elemental distribution of nZVI were characterized by X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) with nanometer-scale spatial resolution in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The analysis provides unequivocal evidence of a layered structure of nZVI consisting of a metallic iron core encapsulated by a thin amorphous oxide shell. Three aqueous environmental contaminants, namely Hg(II), Zn(II) and hydrogen sulfide, were studied to probe the reactive properties and the surface chemistry of nZVI. High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HR-XPS) analysis of the reacted particles indicated that Hg(II) was sequestrated via chemical reduction to elemental mercury. On the other hand, Zn(II) removal was achieved via sorption to the iron oxide shell followed by zinc hydroxide precipitation. Hydrogen sulfide was immobilized on the nZVI surface as disulfide (S(2)(2-)) and monosulfide (S(2-)) species. Their relative abundance in the final products suggests that the retention of hydrogen sulfide occurs via reactions with the oxide shell to form iron sulfide (FeS) and subsequent conversion to iron disulfide (FeS(2)). The results presented herein highlight the multiple reactive pathways permissible with nZVI owing to its two functional constituents. The core-shell structure imparts nZVI with manifold functional properties previously unexamined and grants the material with potentially new applications. PMID:20889228

Yan, Weile; Herzing, Andrew A; Kiely, Christopher J; Zhang, Wei-Xian

2010-11-25

139

Transcriptional and proteomic stress responses of a soil bacterium Bacillus cereus to nanosized zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles.  

PubMed

Nanosized zero valent iron (nZVI) is emerging as an option for treating contaminated soil and groundwater even though the potentially toxic impact exerted by nZVI on soil microorganisms remains uncertain. In this work, we focus on nanotoxicological studies performed in vitro using commercial nZVI and one common soil bacterium (Bacillus cereus). Results showed a negative impact of nZVI on B. cereus growth capability, consistent with the entrance of cells in an early sporulation stage, observed by TEM. Despite no changes at the transcriptional level are detected in genes of particular relevance in cellular activity (narG, nirS, pykA, gyrA and katB), the proteomic approach used highlights differentially expressed proteins in B. cereus under nZVI exposure. We demonstrate that proteins involved in oxidative stress-response and tricarboxilic acid cycle (TCA) modulation are overexpressed; moreover proteins involved in motility and wall biosynthesis are repressed. Our results enable to detect a molecular-level response as early warning signal, providing new insight into first line defense response of a soil bacterium after nZVI exposure. PMID:23816452

Fajardo, C; Saccà, M L; Martinez-Gomariz, M; Costa, G; Nande, M; Martin, M

2013-10-01

140

Examination of Cr(VI) treatment by zero-valent iron using in situ, real-time X-ray absorption spectroscopy and Cr isotope measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of replicate flow-through cell experiments was conducted to characterize Cr isotope fractionation during Cr(VI) treatment by granular zero-valent iron (ZVI). Synthetic groundwater containing 50 mg L-1 Cr(VI) was pumped upward through a custom-made cell packed with ZVI under anaerobic conditions. The geochemical evolution of the system was monitored using pH and redox measurements, while aqueous effluent samples were retained for analysis of cations and Cr isotopes. Real-time, in situ X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy collected via a Kapton® window in the cell provided additional information on the speciation of the reaction products. Increases in ?53Cr values corresponding to decreases in Cr(VI) concentration suggested the occurrence of redox processes. Spectroscopic results correlated well with the isotope data, indicating reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The isotope data did not appear to follow a single trend. A two-stage system was proposed to explain the complex isotope trend, where the rapid Cr removal was associated with very little fractionation (? = -0.2‰), whereas slower removal was associated with a greater degree of fractionation (? = -1.2‰ to -1.5‰). Reactive transport modeling was used to quantify distinct isotope fractionation values (?), differentiated by a significant change in the Cr removal rate.

Jamieson-Hanes, Julia H.; Lentz, Adam M.; Amos, Richard T.; Ptacek, Carol J.; Blowes, David W.

2014-10-01

141

Bio-beads with immobilized anaerobic bacteria, zero-valent iron, and active carbon for the removal of trichloroethane from groundwater.  

PubMed

Chlorinated hydrocarbons are the most common organic pollutants in groundwater systems worldwide. In this study, we developed bio-beads with immobilized anaerobic bacteria, zero-valent iron (ZVI), and activated carbon (AC) powder and evaluated their efficacy in removing 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) from groundwater. Bio-beads were produced by polyvinyl alcohol, alginate, and AC powder. We found that the concentration of AC powder used significantly affected the mechanical properties of immobilized bio-beads and that 1.0 % (w/v) was the optimal concentration. The bio-beads effectively degraded TCA (160 mg L(-1)) in the anaerobic medium and could be reused up to six times. The TCA degradation rate of bio-beads was 1.5 and 2.3 times greater, respectively, than ZVI + AC treatment or microbes + AC treatment. Measuring FeS produced by microbial reactions indicated that TCA removal occurred via FeS-catalyzed dechlorination. Analysis of clonal libraries derived from bio-beads demonstrated that the dominant species in the community were Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, which may contribute to the long-term stability of ZVI reactivity during TCA dechlorination. This study shows that the combined use of immobilized anaerobic bacteria, ZVI, and AC in bio-beads is effective and practical for TCA dechlorination and suggests they may be applicable towards developing a groundwater treatment system for the removal of TCA. PMID:24906831

Zhou, Ya-Zhen; Yang, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Li; Pan, Yue-Qing; Li, Hui; Zhou, Dong; Liu, Yong-Di; Wang, Ping; Gu, Ji-Dong; Lu, Qiang; Qiu, Yue-Feng; Lin, Kuang-Fei

2014-10-01

142

Pilot-scale demonstration of the hybrid zero-valent iron process for treating flue-gas-desulfurization wastewater: part I.  

PubMed

The hybrid zero-valent-iron (hZVI) process is a novel chemical treatment process that has shown great potential in previous laboratory and field bench-top scale tests for removing selenium, mercury and nutrients from various industrial wastewaters. In this study, a pilot-scale demonstration was conducted to continuously treat 3.8-7.6 L/min (1-2 gpm) of the flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) wastewater at a coal-fired power plant for five months. Results show that the hZVI process could simultaneously reduce selenate-Se from 1 to 3 mg/L to below 10 ?g/L and mercury from over 100 ?g/L to below 10 ng/L in compliance with the new stringent effluent discharge limits planned by the U.S. EPA for Se and Hg. A three-stage hZVI system with a combined hydraulic retention time of 12 h is sufficient for Se treatment, while a single-stage system can meet Hg treatment requirement. The successful pilot study demonstrated that the hZVI process is scalable and could be a reliable, low-cost, high-performance treatment platform with many application potentials, particularly, for solving some of the toughest heavy metal water problems. PMID:23128616

Huang, Yong H; Peddi, Phani K; Zeng, Hui; Tang, Ci-Lai; Teng, Xinjun

2013-01-01

143

Molecular Stress Responses to Nano-Sized Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) Particles in the Soil Bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri  

PubMed Central

Nanotoxicological studies were performed in vitro using the common soil bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri to assess the potentially toxic impact of commercial nano-sized zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles, which are currently used for environmental remediation projects. The phenotypic response of P. stutzeri to nZVI toxicity includes an initial insult to the cell wall, as evidenced by TEM micrographs. Transcriptional analyses using genes of particular relevance in cellular activity revealed that no significant changes occurred among the relative expression ratios of narG, nirS, pykA or gyrA following nZVI exposure; however, a significant increase in katB expression was indicative of nZVI-induced oxidative stress in P. stutzeri. A proteomic approach identified two major defence mechanisms that occurred in response to nZVI exposure: a downregulation of membrane proteins and an upregulation of proteins involved in reducing intracellular oxidative stress. These biomarkers served as early indicators of nZVI response in this soil bacterium, and may provide relevant information for environmental hazard assessment. PMID:24586957

Sacca, Maria Ludovica; Fajardo, Carmen; Martinez-Gomariz, Montserrat; Costa, Gonzalo; Nande, Mar; Martin, Margarita

2014-01-01

144

Pretreatment of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) producing wastewater using a combined zero-valent iron (ZVI) reduction and Fenton oxidation process.  

PubMed

A combined zero-valent iron (ZVI) reduction and Fenton oxidation process was tested for the pretreatment of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) producing wastewater. Operating conditions were optimized and overall performance of the combined process was evaluated. For ZVI process, almost complete reduction of nitroaromatic compounds was observed at empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 8h. For Fenton process, the optimal pH, H?O? to Fe(II) molar ratio, H?O? dosage and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were found to be 3.0, 15, 0.216 mol/L and 5h, respectively. After pretreatment by the combined ZVI-Fenton process under the optimal conditions, aromatic organic compound removal was as high as 77.2%, while the majority of COD remained to be further treated by sequent biological process. The combined anaerobic-aerobic process consisted of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was operated for 3 months, fed with ZVI-Fenton effluent. The results revealed that the coupled ZVI-Fenton-ABR-MBBR system was significantly efficient in terms of correcting the effluent's main parameters of relevance, mainly aromatic compounds concentration, COD concentration, color and acute toxicity. These results indicate that the combined ZVI-Fenton process offers bright prospects for the pretreatment of wastewater containing nitroaromatic compounds. PMID:23892166

Shen, Jinyou; Ou, Changjin; Zhou, Zongyuan; Chen, Jun; Fang, Kexiong; Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Lianjun

2013-09-15

145

SBA-15-incorporated nanoscale zero-valent iron particles for chromium(VI) removal from groundwater: mechanism, effect of pH, humic acid and sustained reactivity.  

PubMed

Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles (NZVIs) were incorporated inside the channels of SBA-15 rods by a "two solvents" reduction technique and used to remove Cr(VI) from groundwater. The resulting NZVIs/SBA-15 composites before and after reaction were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results helped to propose the mechanism of Cr(VI) removal by NZVIs/SBA-15, where Cr(VI) in aqueous was firstly impregnated into the channels of the silica, then adsorbed on the surfaces of the incorporated NZVIs and reduced to Cr(III) directly in the inner pores of the silica. Corrosion products included Fe2O3, FeO(OH), Fe3O4 and Cr2FeO4. Batch experiments revealed that Cr(VI) removal decreased from 99.7% to 92.8% when the initial solution pH increased from 5.5 to 9.0, accompanied by the decrease of the kobs from 0.600 to 0.024 min(-1). Humic acid (HA) had a little effect on the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) by NZVIs/SBA-15 but could decrease the reduction rate. The stable reduction of NZVIs/SBA-15 was observed within six cycles. NZVIs/SBA-15 composites offer a promising alternative material to remove heavy metals from groundwater. PMID:24374562

Sun, Xia; Yan, Yubo; Li, Jiansheng; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Lianjun

2014-02-15

146

Zero-valent iron/iron oxide-oxyhydroxide/graphene as a magnetic sorbent for the enrichment of polychlorinated biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and phthalates prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A composite magnetic material consisting of zero-valent iron, iron oxide-oxyhydroxide and graphene was synthesized and used successfully as a sorbent for the micro solid-phase extraction of PAHs, PCBs and phthalic acid esters. The components endow the composite with multiple characteristics such as adsorption capability and facile removal due to its magnetic properties. Due to the ?-? electrostatic stacking property of graphene, the high specific surface area and the adsorption capability of both components, the resulting black flaky Fe(0)/iron oxide-oxyhydroxide/graphene composite showed high extraction efficiency for the target analytes from water samples. Compared with the neat graphene, the composite material has improved properties in terms of microextraction capabilities as both the hydrophobic graphene and zero-valent iron participate in the adsorption of the hydrophobic molecules. The precision from the extraction of all three groups of compounds was lower than 7% and the recoveries were from 90 to 93% from a spiked lake water sample. The high recoveries in relation to the low final volume of the desorption solvent ensure high preconcentration efficiency and a promising sorbent for analytical applications. PMID:23228921

Karamani, Anna A; Douvalis, Alexios P; Stalikas, Constantine D

2013-01-01

147

The effects of operational parameters and common anions on the reactivity of zero-valent iron in bromate reduction.  

PubMed

Bromate reduction by Fe(0) was investigated under various conditions in batch tests. The bromate was primarily reduced to bromide ions with possible adsorption onto iron. Bromate reduction by Fe(0) can be described by pseudo-first-order kinetics. The differences in surface areas, numbers of reactive sites, impurities, pretreatment methods and numbers of repeated uses of iron affected the rates of bromate reduction through reducing or accumulating a passive oxide film on the iron surface. The reduction of bromate was significantly affected by only the dissolved oxygen content at supersaturated concentrations or by decreasing the pH from 6 to 5. Increasing the temperature increased the bromate reduction rate, which followed the Arrhenius relationship with activation energy of 52.6 kJmol(-1) and the reduction rate increased with increased mixing rates. These observations indicate that bromate reduction by iron is a surface-mediated process and diffusion to the surface is essential. Under the test conditions, modest inhibitory effects on bromate reduction by Fe(0) from nitrite, chlorate and bicarbonate were observed and the inhibitory effect from phosphate was relatively larger. Enhanced reactivity of Fe(0) to bromate was observed in the presence of nitrate or sulfate. These findings suggest that bromate reduction by Fe(0) can be an effective method for bromate control. PMID:16942788

Xie, Li; Shang, Chii

2007-01-01

148

Pilot-scale demonstration of the hybrid zero-valent iron process for treating flue-gas-desulfurization wastewater: part II.  

PubMed

The hybrid zero-valent-iron (hZVI) process is a novel chemical treatment process that has shown promise for removing heavy metals and nutrients from industrial wastewaters. In this study, a pilot-scale demonstration was conducted to continuously treat 3.8-7.6 L/min (1-2 gpm) of the flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) wastewater at a coal-fired power plant for 5 months. In this paper, a spike test was conducted to evaluate performance of the hZVI process for removing selected toxic metals at artificially elevated concentrations. The results showed that a multiple-stage hZVI process could decrease selenate-Se from 22 mg/L to ~10 ?g/L and dissolved Hg(2+) from 1.15 mg/L to ~10 ng/L. In addition, the process simultaneously removed a broad spectrum of heavy metals such as As(III), As(V), Cr(VI), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) from mg/L to near or sub-ppb (?g/L) level after a single-stage treatment. The process consumed about 0.3 kg ZVI per 1 m(3) FGD wastewater treated at a cost of about US$0.6/m(3). Solid waste production and energy consumption were reasonably low. The successful pilot study demonstrated that the hZVI technology can be a low-cost, high-performance treatment platform for solving some of the toughest heavy metal water problems. PMID:23168619

Huang, Yong H; Peddi, Phani K; Zeng, Hui; Tang, Ci-Lai; Teng, Xinjun

2013-01-01

149

Removal of co-present chromate and arsenate by zero-valent iron in groundwater with humic acid and bicarbonate.  

PubMed

The interactions of co-present Cr(VI) and As(V), and the influences of humic acid and bicarbonate in the process of Cr(VI) and As(V) removal by Fe(0) were investigated in a batch setting using simulated groundwater with 5 mM NaCl, 1 mM Na(2)SO(4), and 0.8 mM CaCl(2) as background electrolytes at an initial pH value of 7. Cr(VI) and As(V) were observed to be subject to different impacts induced by co-existing As(V) or Cr(VI), humic acid and bicarbonate, originating from their distinct removal mechanisms by Fe(0). Cr(VI) removal is a reduction-dominated process, whereas As(V) removal principally involves adsorption onto iron corrosion products. Experimental results showed that Cr(VI) removal was not affected by the presence of As(V) and humic acid. However, As(V) removal appeared to be inhibited by co-present Cr(VI). When the Cr(VI) concentration was 2, 5, and 10 mg/L, in the absence of humic acid and bicarbonate, As(V) removal rate constants were decreased by 27.9%, 49.0%, and 61.2%, respectively, which probably resulted from competition between Cr(VI) and As(V) for adsorption sites of the iron corrosion products. Furthermore, the presence of humic acid significantly varied As(V) removal kinetics by delaying the formation and aggregation of iron hydroxides due to the formation of soluble Fe-humate complexes and stably dispersed fine iron hydroxides colloids. In the presence of bicarbonate, both Cr(VI) and As(V) removal was increased and the inhibitory effect of Cr(VI) on As(V) removal was suppressed, resulting from the buffering effects and the promoted iron corrosion induced by bicarbonate, and the formation of CaCO(3) in solution, which enhanced As(V) adsorption. PMID:19321187

Liu, Tongzhou; Rao, Pinhua; Mak, Mark S H; Wang, Peng; Lo, Irene M C

2009-05-01

150

Removal of Arsenic (III, V) from aqueous solution by nanoscale zero-valent iron stabilized with starch and carboxymethyl cellulose.  

PubMed

In this work, synthetic nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) stabilized with two polymers, Starch and Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were examined and compared for their ability in removing As (III) and As (V) from aqueous solutions as the most promising iron nanoparticles form for arsenic removal. Batch operations were conducted with different process parameters such as contact time, nanoparticles concentration, initial arsenic concentration and pH. Results revealed that starch stabilized particles (S-nZVI) presented an outstanding ability to remove both arsenate and arsenite and displayed?~?36.5% greater removal for As (V) and 30% for As (III) in comparison with CMC-stabilized nanoparticles (C-nZVI). However, from the particle stabilization viewpoint, there is a clear trade off to choosing the best stabilized nanoparticles form. Removal efficiency was enhanced with increasing the contact time and iron loading but reduced with increasing initial As (III, V) concentrations and pH. Almost complete removal of arsenic (up to 500 ?g/L) was achieved in just 5 min when the S-nZVI mass concentration was 0.3 g/L and initial solution pH of 7?±?0.1. The maximum removal efficiency of both arsenic species was obtained at pH?=?5?±?0.1 and starched nanoparticles was effective in slightly acidic and natural pH values. The adsorption kinetics fitted well with pseudo-second-order model and the adsorption data obeyed the Langmuir equation with a maximum adsorption capacity of 14 mg/g for arsenic (V), and 12.2 mg/g for arsenic (III). It could be concluded that starch stabilized Fe(0) nanoparticles showed remarkable potential for As (III, V) removal from aqueous solution e.g. contaminated water. PMID:24860660

Mosaferi, Mohammad; Nemati, Sepideh; Khataee, Alireza; Nasseri, Simin; Hashemi, Ahmad Asl

2014-01-01

151

Removal of uranium (VI) from aqueous systems by nanoscale zero-valent iron particles suspended in carboxy-methyl cellulose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carboxy-methyl-cellulose (CMC), a common "delivery vehicle" for the subsurface deployment of iron nanoparticles (INP) has been tested in the current work for the removal of aqueous uranium from synthetic water samples. A comparison of the removal of aqueous uranium from solutions using carboxy-methyl-cellulose with and without iron nanoparticles (CMC-INP and CMC, respectively) was tested over a 48 h reaction period. Analysis of liquid samples using spectrophotometry determined a maximum sorption capacity of uranium, Qmax, of 185.18 mg/g and 322.58 mg/g for CMC and CMC-INP respectively, providing strong evidence of an independent aqueous uranium removal ability exhibited by CMC. The results point out that CMC provides an additional capacity for aqueous uranium removal. Further tests are required to determine whether similar behaviour will be observed for other aqueous contaminant species and if the presence of CMC within a INP slurry inhibits or aids the reactivity, reductive capacity and affinity of INP for aqueous contaminant removal.

Popescu (Ho?tuc), Ioana-Carmen; Filip, Petru; Humelnicu, Doina; Humelnicu, Ionel; Scott, Thomas Bligh; Crane, Richard Andrew

2013-11-01

152

Field Application of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron Particles to In-Situ Treatment of Trichloroethylene in an Aquifer with an Oxic Condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) is a promising reactive medium for rapid in situ remediation of various contaminants including chlorinated solvents, in the groundwater and soil. However, once NZVI particles are injected into an aquifer, they can have poor mobility and reactivity due to their aggregation tendency and to interactions with groundwater solutes such as anions, dissolved organic matter (NOM), and oxygen. Therefore, key technical challenges in the field application are to distribute NZVI particles effectively within the contaminated area, and to maintain the reactivity of NZVI particles while they are delivered. Field studies were conducted to evaluate: (i) mobility of a polymer-coated NZVI in an aquifer with a strong oxic condition, (ii) effect of dissolved oxygen on the degradation of TCE, and (iii) effects of dissolved anions and oxygen on the sustainability of injected NZVI. Initially, natural gradient and forced gradient tracer tests were carried out to investigate the hydrogeological characteristics of the site before injecting NZVI. Preferential flow paths of the groundwater identified by the tracer tests were towards northeast and northwest. The NZVI slurry was then prepared on site and injected at a concentration of up to 10 g/L into the subsurface having area of 140 ft2. A total of approximately 66 pounds of the coated NZVI were successfully injected. During the field injections, NZVI particles were observed in a monitoring well located 13 feet downgradient from the injection well. Iron monitoring data showed that the NZVI could reasonably be delivered under the oxic condition that could enhance the formation of iron oxides, which could be deleterious for the NZVI transport. TCE degradation was more active at the wells with high DO concentrations, based on the correlation between TCE concentrations and DO or NZVI concentrations. It was suspected that solid or liquid form of ferrous ion from the oxidation of NZVI caused a Fenton reaction in presence of oxygen. The TCE monitoring data showed that 99% of the TCE at the site was removed by the NZVI injection. The concentrations of degradation products such as ethane and ethene increased in the monitoring wells following the NZVI injections. A lab evaluation showed that TCE degradation capacity of the injected NZVI (collected after 5 months) remained up to 30% compared with the initial capacity. Groundwater monitoring was conducted for approximately eight months to evaluate the long-term performance of the NZVI particles.

Ahn, J.; Kim, C.; Huynh, T. N.; Hwang, I.

2013-12-01

153

[Reductive debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in aquifier by nano zero-valent iron: debromination kinetics and pathway].  

PubMed

Nano-zerovalent iron (nZVI) approach is effective in the debromination of polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The kinetics and degradation pathway are the key issues to understand the PBDEs degradation mechanisms. In this study, nZVI, synthesized through liquid phase reduction method, coupled with Triton X-100, could completely debrominate the highly brominated congeners of a commercial octa-BDEs mixture within 46 h. The debromination of octa-BDEs could be described by means of pseudo-first-order kinetics with the reaction constant (k) of 0.106 h(-1). In case of lacking the PBDE standards, an effective approach has been developed to determine the unknown PBDE congeners using the quantitative-structure retention relationship (QSRR) model. The retention time of all 39 PBDE congeners in a standard mixture was firstly analyzed with gas chromatography coupled with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD), and the relative retention time (RRT) for each standard was obtained after normalizing the RT by the average RT of BDE47 and BDE183. Then a QSRR model was developed by fitting the RRT of each PBDE congener and its specific RRT index. The debromination products of octa-BDEs were identified using this QSRR model and the degradation pathway of octa-BDEs was elucidated. The results showed that in the stepwise reductive debromination process of PBDEs by nZVI, meta-debromin was facile to be degraded. PMID:24881384

Yang, Yu-Han; Xu, Wei-Wei; Peng, Si-Kan; Lu, Shan-Fu; Xiang, Yan; Liang, Da-Wei

2014-03-01

154

Effects of carbonate species on the kinetics of dechlorination of 1,1,1-trichloroethane by zero-valent iron.  

PubMed

The effect of precipitates on the reactivity of iron metal (Fe0) with 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) was studied in batch systems designed to model groundwaters that contain dissolved carbonate species (i.e., C(IV)). At representative concentrations for high-C(IV) groundwaters (approximately 10(-2) M), the pH in batch reactors containing Fe0 was effectively buffered until most of the aqueous C(IV) precipitated. The precipitate was mainly FeCO3 (siderite) but may also have included some carbonate green rust. Exposure of the Fe0 to dissolved C(IV) accelerated reduction of TCA, and the products formed under these conditions consisted mainly of ethane and ethene, with minor amounts of several butenes. The kinetics of TCA reduction were first-order when C(IV)-enhanced corrosion predominated but showed mixed-order kinetics (zero- and first-order) in experiments performed with passivated Fe0 (i.e., before the onset of pitting corrosion and after repassivation by precipitation of FeCO3). All these data were described by fitting a Michaelis-Menten-type kinetic model and approximating the first-order rate constant as the ratio of the maximum reaction rate (Vm) and the concentration of TCA at half of the maximum rate (K(1/2)). The decrease in Vm/K(1/2) with increasing C(IV) exposure time was fit to a heuristic model assuming proportionality between changes in TCA reduction rate and changes in surface coverage with FeCO3. PMID:12387405

Agrawal, Abinash; Ferguson, William J; Gardner, Bruce O; Christ, John A; Bandstra, Joel Z; Tratnyek, Paul G

2002-10-15

155

Photo degradation of methyl orange an azo dye by advanced Fenton process using zero valent metallic iron: influence of various reaction parameters and its degradation mechanism.  

PubMed

Advanced Fenton process (AFP) using zero valent metallic iron (ZVMI) is studied as a potential technique to degrade the azo dye in the aqueous medium. The influence of various reaction parameters like effect of iron dosage, concentration of H(2)O(2)/ammonium per sulfate (APS), initial dye concentration, effect of pH and the influence of radical scavenger are studied and optimum conditions are reported. The degradation rate decreased at higher iron dosages and also at higher oxidant concentrations due to the surface precipitation which deactivates the iron surface. The rate constant for the processes Fe(0)/UV and Fe(0)/APS/UV is twice compared to their respective Fe(0)/dark and Fe(0)/APS/dark processes. The rate constant for Fe(0)/H(2)O(2)/UV process is four times higher than Fe(0)/H(2)O(2)/dark process. The increase in the efficiency of Fe(0)/UV process is attributed to the cleavage of stable iron complexes which produces Fe(2+) ions that participates in cyclic Fenton mechanism for the generation of hydroxyl radicals. The increase in the efficiency of Fe(0)/APS/UV or H(2)O(2) compared to dark process is due to continuous generation of hydroxyl radicals and also due to the frequent photo reduction of Fe(3+) ions to Fe(2+) ions. Though H(2)O(2) is a better oxidant than APS in all respects, but it is more susceptible to deactivation by hydroxyl radical scavengers. The decrease in the rate constant in the presence of hydroxyl radical scavenger is more for H(2)O(2) than APS. Iron powder retains its recycling efficiency better in the presence of H(2)O(2) than APS. The decrease in the degradation rate in the presence of APS as an oxidant is due to the fact that generation of free radicals on iron surface is slower compared to H(2)O(2). Also, the excess acidity provided by APS retards the degradation rate as excess H(+) ions acts as hydroxyl radical scavenger. The degradation of Methyl Orange (MO) using Fe(0) is an acid driven process shows higher efficiency at pH 3. The efficiency of various processes for the de colorization of MO dye is of the following order: Fe(0)/H(2)O(2)/UV>Fe(0)/H(2)O(2)/dark>Fe(0)/APS/UV>Fe(0)/UV>Fe(0)/APS/dark>H(2)O(2)/UV approximately Fe(0)/dark>APS/UV. Dye resisted to degradation in the presence of oxidizing agent in dark. The degradation process was followed by UV-vis and GC-MS spectroscopic techniques. Based on the intermediates obtained probable degradation mechanism has been proposed. The result suggests that complete degradation of the dye was achieved in the presence of oxidizing agent when the system was amended with iron powder under UV light illumination. The concentration of Fe(2+) ions leached at the end of the optimized degradation experiment is found to be 2.78 x 10(-3)M. With optimization, the degradation using Fe(0) can be effective way to treat azo dyes in aqueous solution. PMID:18805635

Gomathi Devi, L; Girish Kumar, S; Mohan Reddy, K; Munikrishnappa, C

2009-05-30

156

WITHDRAWN: Influence of hydrogeochemical processes on zero-valent iron reactive barrier performance: A field investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Publisher regrets that this article was an accidental duplication of an article that has already been published in J. Contam. Hydrol. 78 (2005) 291 312, doi:10.1016\\/j.jconhyd.2005.05.006. The duplicate article has therefore been withdrawn from J. Contam. Hydrol. 80 (2005) 71 91.

Liyuan Liang; Gerilynn R. Moline; Wiwat Kamolpornwijit; Olivia R. West

2005-01-01

157

MINERAL PARAGENESIS OF FINE-GRAINED PRECIPITATES IN PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS OF ZERO-VALENT IRON  

EPA Science Inventory

U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) staff developed a field procedure to measure hydraulic conductivity using a direct-push system to obtain vertical profiles of hydraulic conductivity. Vertical profiles were obtained using an in situ field device-composed of a Geopr...

158

[Influence of inorganic ions and humic acid on the removal of Pb(II) and Hg(II) in water by zero-valent iron].  

PubMed

The effects of Ca2+, Cl- and humic acid (HA) on the removal rates of Pb(II) and Hg(II) in water by zero-valent (ZVI) and the kinetic characteristics were studied, and the removal mechanism of Pb(II) and Hg(II) by ZVI were preliminarily investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated that the removal mechanism of Pb(II) might mainly be attributed to the adsorption and co-precipitation of ZVI, while that of Hg(II) might mainly be attributed to the oxidation-reduction of ZVI. With the increase of Ca2+ concentration, the removal rates of Hg(II) and Pb(II) showed the trends of gradual increase and slight decrease, respectively. The Hg(II) removal increased with increasing Cl- concentration, whereas no obvious increase in Pb(II) removal was observed. The removal rates of Hg(II) and Pb(II) showed the trends of slow increase and slow decrease with increasing HA concentration, respectively. When Ca2+, Cl- and HA coexisted, the removal rates of Hg(II) and Pb(II) reached 99.71% and 97.95%, respectively. The removal processes of Pb(II) and Hg(II) could be described by pseudo first-order reaction kinetic equations when Ca2+, Cl- and HA existed alone and in combination. The removal rate constant of Pb(II) was the maxinum (0.024 0 min(-1)) when 5 mg x L(-1) HA existed alone, whereas that of Hg(II) was the maximum (0.0169 min(-1)) when 0.80 mmol x L(-1) Ca2+ existed alone. PMID:25338370

Shi, Qiu-Ling; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Qiu, Xin-Kai

2014-08-01

159

Chromium(VI) reduction kinetics by zero-valent iron in moderately hard water with humic acid: iron dissolution and humic acid adsorption.  

PubMed

In zerovalent iron treatment systems, the presence of multiple solution components may impose combined effects that differ from corresponding individual effects. The copresence of humic acid and hardness (Ca2+/Mg2+) was found to influence Cr(VI) reduction by Feo and iron dissolution in a way different from their respective presence in batch kinetics experiments with synthetic groundwater at initial pH 6 and 9.5. Cr(VI) reduction rate constants (k(obs)) were slightly inhibited by humic acid adsorption on iron filings (decreases of 7-9% and 10-12% in the presence of humic acid alone and together with hardness, respectively). The total amount of dissolved Fe steadily increased to 25 mg L(-1) in the presence of humic acid alone because the formation of soluble Fe-humate complexes appeared to suppress iron precipitation. Substantial amounts of soluble and colloidal Fe-humate complexes in groundwater may arouse aesthetic and safety concerns in groundwater use. In contrast, the coexistence of humic acid and Ca2+/Mg2+ significantly promoted aggregation of humic acid and metal hydrolyzed species, as indicated by XPS and TEM analyses, which remained nondissolved (>0.45 microm) in solution. These metal-humate aggregates may impose long-term impacts on PRBs in subsurface settings. PMID:18409642

Liu, Tongzhou; Tsang, Daniel C W; Lo, Irene M C

2008-03-15

160

Degradation of Toxic Chemicals by Zero-Valent Metal Nanoparticles - A Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate aim of researchers in the area of decontamination is to develop the perfect decontaminant - a substance that will degrade all contaminants but will leave surfaces and environments unharmed. Published research into zero-valent metal particles (ZVMs), in particular iron, shows that these particles, particularly those whose size is on the nanoscale, have the potential to be used as

Lyndal McDowall

161

ARSENATE AND ARSENITE REMOVAL BY ZERO-VALENT IRON: EFFECTS OF PHOSPHATE, SILICATE, CARBONATE, BORATE, SULFATE, CHROMATE, MOLYBDATE, AND NITRATE, RELATIVE TO CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Batch tests were performed to evaluate the effects of inorganic anion competition on the kinetics of arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) removal by zerovalent iron (Peerless Fe0) in aqueous solution. The oxyanions underwent either sorption-dominated reactions (phosphate, sil...

162

Influences of Humic Acid on Cr(VI) Removal by Zero-Valent Iron From Groundwater with Various Constituents: Implication for Long-Term PRB Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 9-month-long continuous flow column study was carried out to investigate Cr(VI) removal by Fe0 with the presence of humic acid. The study focused on the influences of humic acid promoted dissolved iron release and humic\\u000a acid aggregation in Fe0 columns receiving synthetic Cr(VI) contaminated groundwater containing various components such as bicarbonate and Ca. The\\u000a effects of humic acid varied

Tongzhou Liu; Irene M. C. Lo

2011-01-01

163

Reductive dechlorination of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin by nanosized zero-valent zinc: modeling of rate kinetics and congener profile.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), a group of recalcitrant toxic compounds, are ubiquitous in nature. Amongst them, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) is not only prevalent in soil and sediment due to its high lipophilicity and hydrophobicity, but also detected in ground water and surface water. The present study examined the degradation of OCDD in aqueous solutions using four different zero-valent metal nanoparticles; zero-valent aluminum (nZVAL), zero-valent zinc (nZVZ), zero-valent iron (nZVI) and zero-valent nickel (nZVN). Only nZVZ was found to efficiently degrade OCDD into lower chlorinated congeners [OCDD ? 1,2,3,4,6,7,9-HxCDD (63%)? 1,2,3,6,8,9-HpCDD (21%) ? 1,2,4,7,8-PeCDD (46%) ? 1,2,4,7-TeCDD (19%)] under ambient conditions. Simulations were also performed to predict the OCDD dechlorination pathway using a linear free energy relationship (LFER) model. Additionally, toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) and homologue patterns were calculated by LFER modeling. The experimentally observed congener profiles were in excellent agreement with the model-predicted results, especially considering the complexity of the OCDD dechlorination pathway (256 theoretically possible reactions). This study proposes nZVZ as a suitable candidate for OCDD dechlorination and constitutes the first report on OCDD degradation using zero-valent metal nanoparticles under ambient conditions. PMID:23500419

Bokare, Varima; Jung, Ju-Lim; Chang, Yoon-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok

2013-04-15

164

Effect of pH on the dissolution kinetics of zero-valent iron in the presence of EDDHA and EDTA  

SciTech Connect

The effect of environmental factors (e.g., pH, solution composition, and temperature) that affect the longevity of Fe(0) barriers in the subsurface are difficult to quantify independently from changes that occur to the passivating layer. Therefore, to quantify the rate of Fe(0) dissolution under conditions which maintain the pO2 at a relatively constant level and minimize the formation of a passivating layer on the metal surface, a series of experiments have been conducted with the single-pass flow-through (SPFT) apparatus. These experiments were conducted over the pH range from 7.0 to 12.0 at 90°C in the presence of 5 mM EDDHA or 5 mM EDTA. The organic acids, EDDHA and EDTA, helped to maintain the aqueous Fe concentration below saturation with respect to Fe-bearing alteration phases and minimize the formation of a partially oxidized surface film. Results suggest the corrosion of Fe(0) is relatively insensitive to pH and the forward or maximum dissolution rate is 3 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than when a passive film and corrosion products are present.

Lodge, Alexander M.; Pierce, Eric M.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2007-03-25

165

Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron (NZVI) supported on sineguelas waste for Pb(II) removal from aqueous solution: kinetics, thermodynamic and mechanism.  

PubMed

In this study, the synthesis and characterization of a new adsorbent containing nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (NZVI) decorated sineguelas waste (S-NaOH-NZVI) from agriculture biomass was investigated for the adsorption/reduction of inorganic pollution such as Pb(II) ions. The combination of ZVI particles on the surface of sineguelas waste can help to overcome the disadvantage of ultra-fine powders which may have strong tendency to agglomerate into larger particles, resulting in an adverse effect on both effective surface area and catalyst performance. The synthesized materials were characterized with different methods such as FT-IR, BET, XRD, TEM and pHPZC. Good dispersion of NZVI particles (ca. 10-70nm) on the sineguelas waste was observed. The effects of various parameters, such as contact time, pH, concentration, adsorbent dosage and temperature were studied. The adsorption of Pb(II) ions has been studied in terms of pseudo-first- and second-order kinetics, and the Freundlich, Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms models have also been used to the equilibrium adsorption data. The adsorption kinetics followed the mechanism of the pseudo-second-order equation. The thermodynamic parameters (?G, ?H and ?S) indicated that the adsorption of Pb(II) ions were feasible, spontaneous and endothermic at 25-80°C. XRD analysis indicated the presence of Pb(0) on the S-NaOH-NZVI surface. This study suggests that the modified sineguelas waste by NZVI particles can be prepared at low cost and the materials are environmentally benign for the removal of Pb(II) ions, and likely many other heavy metal ions, from water. PMID:24863789

Arshadi, M; Soleymanzadeh, M; Salvacion, J W L; SalimiVahid, F

2014-07-15

166

DIRECT PUSH METHODS FOR LOCATING AND COLLECTING CORES OF AQUIFER SEDIMENT AND ZERO-VALENT IRON FROM PERMEABLE REACYTIVE BARRIERS  

EPA Science Inventory

It is often necessary to collect core samples that do not fit the normal sampling protocol. This Field Innovation Forum submission describes new methodology that enables researchers to collect soil samples in situations where the normal vertical sampling techniques will deliver ...

167

Mineral precipitation and porosity losses in granular iron columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

As permeable reactive barriers containing zero-valent iron are becoming more widely used to remediate contaminated groundwaters, there remains much uncertainty in predicting their long-term performance. This study focuses on two factors affecting performance and lifetime of the granular iron media: plugging at the treatment zone entrance and precipitation in the bulk iron media. Plugging at the system entrance is due

Patricia D. Mackenzie; David P. Horney; Timothy M. Sivavec

1999-01-01

168

FINAL REPORT. FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF THE REMOVAL OF CONTAMINANTS FROM GROUND AND WASTE WATER VIA REDUCTION BY ZERO-VALENT METALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Oxyanions of uranium, selenium, chromium, arsenic, technetium, and chlorine (as perchlorate) are frequently found as contaminants on many DOE sites, and in other areas of the U.S. A potential remediation method is to react the contaminated water with zero-valent iron (ZVI). We ar...

169

AMELIORATION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE USING REACTIVE MIXTURES IN PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The generation and release of acidic drainage from mine wastes is an environmental problem of international scale. The use of zero-valent iron and/or iron mixtures in subsurface Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRB) presents a possible passive alternative for remediating acidic grou...

170

Fundamental Studies of The Removal of Contaminants from Ground and Waste Waters Via Reduction By Zero-Valent metals  

SciTech Connect

Oxyanions of uranium, selenium, chromium, arsenic, technetium, and chlorine (as perchlorate) are frequently found as contaminants on many DOE sites, and in other areas of the U.S.. A potential remediation method is to react the contaminated water with zero-valent iron (ZVI). We are performing fundamental investigations of the interactions of the relevant compounds with Fe filings and single- and poly-crystalline surfaces. The aim of this work is to develop the physical and chemical understanding that is necessary for the development of cleanup techniques and procedures.

Jory A. Yarmoff; Christopher Amrhein

2002-04-23

171

ACCUMULATION RATE OF MICROBIAL BIOMASS AT TWO PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Accumulation of mineral precipitates and microbial biomass are key factors that impact the long-term performance of in-situ Permeable Reactive Barriers for treating contaminated groundwater. Both processes can impact remedial performance by decreasing zero-valent iron reactivity...

172

Electrochemical deposition of green rust on zero-valent iron  

E-print Network

the capability to degrade PCE faster and to a greater extent than either reductant alone (2). An electrochemical cell consists of a source of electrical potential connected to two electrodes (anode and cathode) that are immersed in an electrolyte. Several... hydrogen gas at the cathode. Fe 0 ? Fe 3+ + 3 e - possible Oxidation half reaction (4) Fe 2+ + 2 e - ? Fe 0 possible...

Kulkarni, Dhananjay Vijay

2006-08-16

173

TREATMENT OF METALS IN GROUND WATER USING AN ORGANIC-BASED SULFATE-REDUCING PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot permeable reactive barrier (PRB) consisting of a mixture of leaf compost, zero-valent iron (ZVI) filings, limestone and pea gravel was evaluated at a former phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facility in Charleston, S.C. The PRB is designed to treat arsenic and heavy met...

174

Zero-Valent Metallic Treatment System and Its Application for Removal and Remediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Pcbs)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PCBs are removed from contaminated media using a treatment system including zero-valent metal particles and an organic hydrogen donating solvent. The treatment system may include a weak acid in order to eliminate the need for a coating of catalytic noble metal on the zero-valent metal particles. If catalyzed zero-valent metal particles are used, the treatment system may include an organic hydrogen donating solvent that is a non-water solvent. The treatment system may be provided as a "paste-like" system that is preferably applied to natural media and ex-situ structures to eliminate PCBs.

Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen B. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

175

Performance Evaluation of In-Situ Iron Reactive Barriers at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Site  

SciTech Connect

In November 1997, a permeable iron reactive barrier trench was installed at the S-3 Ponds Pathway 2 Site located at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The overall goal of the project is to evaluate the ability of permeable reactive barrier technology to remove uranium, nitrate, and other inorganic contaminants in groundwater and to assess impacts of biogeochemical interactions on long-term performance of the treatment system. Zero-valent iron (Fe0) was used as the reactive medium, which creates a localized zone of reduction or low oxidation reduction potential (ORP), elevated pH, and dissolved H{sub 2} as Fe{sup 0} corrodes in groundwater. These conditions favor the removal of metals and radionuclides (such as uranium and technetium) through redox-driven precipitation and/or sorption to iron corrosion byproducts, such as iron oxyhydroxides. The technology is anticipated to be economical and low in maintenance as compared with conventional pump-and-treat technology. Groundwater monitoring results indicate that the iron barrier is effectively removing uranium and technetium, the primary contaminants of concern, as anticipated from our previous laboratory studies. In addition to uranium and technetium, nitrate, sulfate, bicarbonate, calcium, and magnesium are also found to be removed, either partially or completely by the iron barrier. Elevated concentrations of ferrous ions and sulfide, and pH were observed within the iron barrier. Although ferrous iron concentrations were initially very high after barrier installation, ferrous ion concentrations have decreased to low to non-detectable levels as the pH within the iron has increased over time (as high as 9 or 10). Iron and soil core samples were taken in February 1999 and May 2000 in order to evaluate the iron surface passivation, morphology, mineral precipitation and cementation, and microbial activity within and in the vicinity of the iron barrier. Results indicate that most of the iron filings collected in cores were still loose and not clogged after approximately 2.5 years of barrier installation. However, significant amounts of cemented iron filings were observed in the upgradient portion of the iron. In particular, the cementation appeared to have increased significantly over time from the 1999 to 2000 coring events in both the upgradient and downgradient portions of the iron. Minerals identified by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray (EDX), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) that have precipitated in the iron include iron sulfide, calcium carbonate (aragonite), iron oxyhydroxides (goethite, akagneite, amorphous), siderite (iron carbonate), makinawite, and green rusts. These mineral precipitants are responsible for the cementation observed within the iron barrier. Elevated microbial activity and increased diversity within and in the vicinity of the iron barrier were also observed, particularly denitrifiers and sulfate-reducers, which may have been responsible or partially responsible for the removal of nitrate and sulfate in groundwater and the formation of ferrous sulfide minerals within the iron barrier. Hydraulic gradients across the Pathway 2 site have remained relatively stable and consistent from east to west. Increases and decreases in the gradients across the site observed over the past 2.5 years appear to be primarily related to recharge during precipitation events and seasonal fluctuations. However, closer inspection of gradient fluctuations within the iron appear to indicate that cementation within the iron may be starting to impact groundwater flow through the iron. Since the spring of 1999, recharge events have had a more pronounced impact on hydraulic gradients observed between wells located upgradient, within, and downgradient of the iron. This data suggests that the connectivity of the iron and gravel in the upgradient portion of the trench to the iron and gravel in the downgradient portion of the trench may be decreasing over time due to cementation in the iron.

Watson, D.B.

2003-12-30

176

Perchlorate reduction during electrochemically induced pitting corrosion of zero-valent titanium (ZVT).  

PubMed

Zero-valent metals and ionic metal species are a popular reagent for the abatement of contaminants in drinking water and groundwater and perchlorate is a contaminant of increasing concern. However, perchlorate degradation using commonly used reductants such as zero-valent metals and soluble reduced metal species is kinetically limited. Titanium in the zero-valent and soluble states has a high thermodynamic potential to reduce perchlorate. Here we show that perchlorate is effectively reduced to chloride by soluble titanium species in a system where the surface oxide film is removed from ZVT and ZVT is oxidized during electrochemically induced pitting corrosion to produce reactive soluble species. The pitting potential of ZVT was measured as 12.77±0.04 V (SHE) for a 100 mM solution of perchlorate. The rate of perchlorate reduction was independent of the imposed potential as long as the potential was maintained above the pitting potential, but it was proportional to the applied current. Solution pH and surface area of ZVT electrodes showed negligible effects on rates of perchlorate reduction. Although perchlorate is effectively reduced during electrochemically induced corrosion of ZVT, this process may not be immediately applicable to perchlorate treatment due to the high potentials needed to produce active reductants, the amount of titanium consumed, the inhibition of perchlorate removal by chloride, and oxidation of chloride to chlorine. PMID:21993148

Lee, Chunwoo; Batchelor, Bill; Park, Sung Hyuk; Han, Dong Suk; Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed; Kramer, Timothy A

2011-12-15

177

Channel flow and trichloroethylene treatment in a partly iron-filled fracture: Experimental and model results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical developments have now made it possible to emplace granular zero-valent iron (Fe0) in fractured media to create a Fe0 fracture reactive barrier (Fe0 FRB) for the treatment of contaminated groundwater. To evaluate this concept, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated water was flushed through a single uniform fracture created between two sandstone blocks. This fracture

Zuansi Cai; Corrine Merly; Neil R. Thomson; Ryan D. Wilson; David N. Lerner

2007-01-01

178

Construction and performance of a field-scale permeable reactive barrier using the deep-soil mixing technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field-scale permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was installed at Launch Complex 34 (LC 34) at the Cape Canaveral Air Station in Florida. During this installation process, zero-valent iron (average 16%) was mixed with native soil (approximately 70%) and gravel (approximately 10%) using the deep-soil column mixing technique. This novel installation technique provides for increased worker safety (less exposure to contaminants)

C. L. Geiger; M. Chopra; D. R. Reinhart; S. Burwinkel; J. Quinn; C. A. Clausen; A. Sonawane

179

Degradation of Acid Orange 7 in aqueous solution by zero-valent aluminum under ultrasonic irradiation.  

PubMed

Degradation of azo dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7) by zero-valent aluminum (ZVAl) in combination with ultrasonic irradiation was investigated. The preliminary studies of optimal degradation methodology were conducted with sole ultrasonic, sole ZVAl/air system, ultrasonication + ZVAl/air system (US-ZVAl). In ZVAl/air system, the degradation of AO7 could almost not be observed within 30 min. The degradation of AO7 by ZVAl/air system was obviously enhanced under ultrasound irradiation, and the enhancement is mainly attributed to that the production of hydroxyl radicals in ultrasound-ZVAl process was much higher than that in sole ultrasonic or in sole ZVAl/air system. The variables considered for the effect of degradation were the power of ultrasound, the initial concentration of AO7, as well as the initial pH value and the dosage of zero-valent aluminum. The results showed that the decolorization rate increased with the increase of power density and the dosage of ZVAl, but decreased with the increase of initial pH value and initial concentration of AO7. More than 96% of AO7 removal was achieved within 30 min under optimum operational conditions (AO7: 20 mg/L, ZVAl: 2 g/L, pH: 2.5, ultrasound: 20 kHz, 300 W). This study demonstrates that ultrasound-ZVAl process can effectively decolorize the azo dye AO7 in wastewater. PMID:24201009

Wang, Anqi; Guo, Weilin; Hao, Feifei; Yue, Xinxin; Leng, Yanqiu

2014-03-01

180

Perchlorate removal by acidified zero-valent aluminum and aluminum hydroxide.  

PubMed

Removal of perchlorate using either acid-washed zero-valent aluminum or aluminum hydroxide was studied in batch reactors under ambient temperature and pressure. Approximately 90-95% of perchlorate was removed within 24h in the presence of 35 g L(-1) aluminum at acidic pH (4.5+/-0.2). Although aluminum is a strong reductant, this study indicated no explicit evidence to support perchlorate reduction while it was found that an adsorption process is involved in the perchlorate removal. The adsorbed perchlorate ions were desorbed effectively using a 1.0 N MgSO(4) solution. The effective composition for the perchlorate adsorption is confirmed as aluminum hydroxide (bayerite), which is a product of the aluminum corrosion. Rapid adsorption of perchlorate was observed in the presence of aluminum hydroxide. The perchlorate adsorption by aluminum hydroxide is dependent on the solution pH. The removal mechanism can be attributed to the ion-pair formation at the aluminum hydroxide surface. PMID:20627355

Lien, Hsing-Lung; Yu, Chia Ching; Lee, Ya-Ching

2010-08-01

181

Stabilization of engineered zero-valent nanoiron with Na-acrylic copolymer enhances spermiotoxicity.  

PubMed

Studies were carried out to assess the effects of stabilized (i.e., coated with organic polyacrylic stabilizer) and nonstabilized forms of zero-valent nanoiron (nZVI) on the development of Mytilus galloprovincialis embryos following 2 h exposure of the sperm prior to in vitro fertilization. Both forms of nZVI caused serious disruption of development, consisting of 30% mortality among spermatozoa with subsequent 20% decline in fertilization success, and delay in development, i.e., over 50% of the larvae were suspended in the trochophore stage. Significant DNA damage was also detected in sperm exposed to the highest exposure concentrations (10 mg L(-1)). Distinct dose response to the two different types of nZVI observed are linked to aggregation behavior that is controlled by the surface stabilizers. This work reports on conventional biomarkers (for membrane integrity, genotoxicity, and developmental toxicity) applied for the rapid assessment of toxicity of nZVI, which are able to detect surface property-related effects to meet the requirements of risk assessments for nanotechnology. The study highlights the potential ecotoxicological impact of an environmentally relevant engineered nanoparticle. Implications of the NOM-nZVI interactions regarding soil and groundwater remediation and wastewater treatment are discussed. PMID:21291273

Kadar, Eniko; Tarran, Glenn A; Jha, Awadhesh N; Al-Subiai, Sherain N

2011-04-15

182

Reduction of perchlorate using zero-valent titanium (ZVT) anode: kinetic models.  

PubMed

The kinetics of perchlorate reduction by zero-valent titanium (ZVT) undergoing electrical pitting corrosion was described by interactions of two domains (pit and solution). Two kinetic models were developed based on two possible inhibition mechanisms. A competitive adsorption model was developed based on surface coverage of perchlorate and chloride on bare ZVT, and a Ti(II) consumption model was developed based on Ti(II) oxidation by electrochemically developed chlorine. Both models well predicted perchlorate concentration changes in the solution. The competitive adsorption model showed that chloride has a higher adsorption affinity on both sites where oxidative dissolution of ZVT occurs and where chloride oxidation occurs. Also, the rates of perchlorate removal and chloride oxidation were directly proportional to current applied. For the Ti(II) consumption model, the rate constant of Ti(II) production was dependent on current. The rate of chloride oxidation is also believed to be proportional to current, but this conclusion cannot be made with confidence. Both kinetic models described changes in perchlorate concentration well. However, the Ti(II) consumption model was limited in its ability to predict chloride concentration. This limitation was probably caused by a lack of available information like electrochemical oxidation of chloride on bare ZVT and Ti(II) oxidation by chlorine. PMID:22878003

Lee, Chunwoo; Batchelor, Bill; Park, Sung Hyuk; Han, Dong Suk; Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed; Kramer, Timothy A

2012-11-01

183

Degradation of Polymers Coating Nano-scale Zero Valent Iron Particles used in Groundwater Remediation  

E-print Network

. The information will be essential to determine how long they can persist in the groundwater, and to determine if the polymers can enable growth of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB). SRB causes sulfide formation which has been Experiments Starkey's mineral media was prepared to produce favorable growth conditions for the sulphate

Barthelat, Francois

184

Aminoclay-templated nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) synthesis for efficient harvesting of  

E-print Network

to electrostatic attraction between nZVI and aminoclay nanoparticles. This silica-coated nZVI composite (ratio 1.0) exhibited a highly positively charged surface ($+40 mV) and a ferromagnetic property ($30 emu gÃ?1 ). On the basis of these characteristics, oleaginous Chlorella sp. KR-1 was harvested within 3 min at a > 20 g LÃ?1

Mosegaard, Klaus

185

Reductive dehalogenation of chlorinated organic compounds using zero-valent iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the widespread occurrence of halogenated organic compounds, and commonly low drinking water limits, remediation of ground water contaminated by these chemicals has become an important technical challenge. Difficulties associated with conventional remediation methods have stimulated great interest in the development of passive in situ technologies. Studies in progress at the Waterloo Centre for Groundwater Research at the University

Gillham

2008-01-01

186

Dechlorination of PCE by mixtures of green rust and zero-valent iron  

E-print Network

such as pH (8, 9, and 10), ZVI pretreatment, and preparation method of the mixtures (GR[S]?? synthesized in the presence of ZVI; GR[S]?? and ZVI mixed after preparation). For all the experimental conditions evaluated, the activities of these reductants...

Marchal, Fabienne

2012-06-07

187

Changes in Ground-Water Quality near Two Granular-Iron Permeable Reactive Barriers in a Sand and Gravel Aquifer, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 1997-2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two experimental permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) of granular zero-valent iron were emplaced in the path of a tetrachloroethene plume (the Chemical Spill-10 plume) at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, in June 1998. The goal of the field experiment was to achieve emplacement of a granular-iron PRB deeper than attempted before. The PRBs were expected to create a reducing environment and degrade the tetrachloroethene by reductive dechlorination. The goal of the work presented in this report was to observe temporary and sustained changes to the ground-water chemistry downgradient from the PRBs. A hydraulic-fracturing method involving injection of the granular iron with a guar-biopolymer and enzyme slurry was used to install the parallel 30- to 33-foot-wide wall-shaped barriers at a depth of 82 to 113 feet below land surface. An acetic acid and enzyme mixture was subsequently injected in wells near the barriers to degrade the guar biopolymer. Prior to the emplacement, tetrachloroethene concentrations in the Chemical Spill-10 plume at the study area were as high as 250 micrograms per liter. Other water properties in the plume generally were similar to the properties of uncontaminated ground water in the area, which typically has dissolved oxygen concentrations of 250 to 375 micromoles per liter, pH of 5.5 to 6.0, and specific conductance of 60 to 90 microsiemens per centimeter. Water-quality samples were collected periodically from monitoring wells near the PRBs to determine how the emplacement of the granular-iron walls altered the ground-water quality. In addition, an automated well-sampling device measured temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved oxygen every 1?4 days for 16 months in a well downgradient from the two parallel PRBs. Temporary increases (lasting about 5 to 6 months) in specific conductance were observed downgradient from the PRBs as a result of the sodium chloride, potassium carbonate, and other salts included in the slurry and the acetic acid and enzyme mixture that was subsequently injected to degrade the guar biopolymer. Temporary increases in the concentrations of major cations (sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium) were observed downgradient from the PRBs, as were temporary but substantial increases in the dissolved and total organic carbon concentrations. Methane was detected, sulfate concentrations decreased temporarily, and concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon increased in samples from wells downgradient from the PRBs. A sustained (longer than 12 months) reducing environment, in which dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased to zero, the pH increased to about 6.8, and dissolved iron concentrations increased substantially, developed as a result of the oxidation (corrosion) of the granular iron; this zone persisted at least 65 feet downgradient from the PRBs. The pH and dissolved iron concentrations increased with distance from the granular-iron walls. Concentrations of arsenic, cobalt, manganese, and phosphorus increased, and nitrate concentrations were reduced to below the detection limit downgradient from the walls. A sustained decrease of tetrachloroethene concentrations was not observed; however, reductive dechlorination products were observed at wells downgradient from the PRBs during several rounds of sampling. The emplacement of zero-valent iron in the aquifer to remove tetrachloroethene from the ground water caused changes in the water chemistry that persisted farther downgradient from the PRBs than has been observed at other sites because of the low chemical reactivity of the quartz-dominated aquifer sediments and the low ambient dissolved chemical concentrations in the ground water. The small transverse dispersion in the aquifer and the probable long-term persistence of the iron indicate that the chemically altered zone probably will extend a substantial distance downgradient from the PRBs for a substantial period of time (years); fur

Savoie, Jennifer G.; Kent, Douglas B.; Smith, Richard L.; LeBlanc, Denis R.; Hubble, David W.

2004-01-01

188

BIFUNCTIONAL ALUMINUN: A PERMEABLE BARRIER MATERIAL FOR THE DEGRADATION OF MTBE  

EPA Science Inventory

Bifunctional aluminum is an innovative remedial material for the treatment of gasoline oxygenates in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). PRBs represent a promising environmental technology for remediation of groundwater contamination. Although zero-valent metals (ZVM) have been...

189

Preparation of spherical iron nanoclusters in ethanol–water solution for nitrate removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a higher surface area spherical nanoscale zero valent iron (HNZVI) cluster (80nm, 54.25m2g?1) was synthesized in ethanol–water mixed solvent in the presence of dispersion agent of polyglycol (PEG). At the same time, a lower surface area nanoscale zero valent iron (LNZVI) particle (80nm, 8.08m2g?1) was also prepared with only de-ioned water as reaction media. Their structures, compositions

Wei Wang; Zhao-hui Jin; Tie-long Li; Huan Zhang; Si Gao

2006-01-01

190

Reductive Dechlorination of Chlorinated Biphenyls by Palladized Zero-Valent Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory-scale reductive dechlorination studies using bimetals were conducted to detoxify chlorinated biphenyls, which are known as one of the most recalcitrant organic compounds. Palladized iron and palladized zinc readily dechlorinated mono- and di-chlorinated biphenyls while plain metals were not active. Biphenyl and less chlorinated biphenyls were detected as the major products and calculated mass balance was around 100%, indicating that

Young-Hun Kim; Won Sik Shin; Seok-Oh Ko

2004-01-01

191

Assessment of solid reactive mixtures for the development of biological permeable reactive barriers.  

PubMed

Solid reactive mixtures were tested as filling material for the development of biological permeable reactive barriers for the treatment of heavy metals contaminated waters. Mixture selection was performed by taking into account the different mechanisms operating in sulphate and cadmium removal with particular attention to bioprecipitation and sorption onto the organic matrices in the mixtures. Suspensions of eight reactive mixtures were tested for sulphate removal (initial concentration 3 g L(-1)). Each mixture was made up of four main functional components: a mix of organic sources for bacterial growth, a neutralizing agent, a porous medium and zero-valent iron. The best mixture among the tested ones (M8: 6% leaves, 9% compost, 3% zero-valent iron, 30% silica sand, 30% perlite, 22% limestone) presented optimal conditions for SRB growth (pH 7.8 +/- 0.1; E(h)= -410 +/- 5 mV) and 83% sulphate removal in 22 days (25% due to bioreduction, 32% due to sorption onto compost and 20% onto leaves). M8 mixture allowed the complete abatement of cadmium with a significant contribution of sorption over bioprecipitation (6% Cd removal due to SRB activity). Sorption properties, characterised by potentiometric titrations and related modelling, were mainly due to carboxylic sites of organic components used in reactive mixtures. PMID:19505754

Pagnanelli, Francesca; Viggi, Carolina Cruz; Mainelli, Sara; Toro, Luigi

2009-10-30

192

Cysteine-induced modifications of zero-valent silver nanomaterials: implications for particle surface chemistry, aggregation, dissolution, and silver speciation.  

PubMed

The persistence of silver nanoparticles in aquatic environments and their subsequent impact on organisms depends on key transformation processes, which include aggregation, dissolution, and surface modifications by metal-complexing ligands. Here, we studied how cysteine, an amino acid representative of thiol ligands that bind monovalent silver, can alter the surface chemistry, aggregation, and dissolution of zero-valent silver nanoparticles. We compared nanoparticles synthesized with two coatings, citrate and polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP), and prepared nanoparticle suspensions (approximately 8 ?M total Ag) containing an excess of cysteine (400 ?M). Within 48 h, up to 47% of the silver had dissolved, as indicated by filtration of the samples with a 0.025-?m filter. Initial dissolution rates were calculated from the increase of dissolved silver concentration when particles were exposed to cysteine and normalized to the available surface area of nanoparticles in solution. In general, the rates of dissolution were almost 3 times faster for citrate-coated nanoparticles relative to PVP-coated nanoparticles. Rates tended to be slower in solutions with higher ionic strength in which the nanoparticles were aggregating. X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis of the particles suggested that cysteine adsorbed to silver nanoparticles surfaces through the formation of Ag(+I)--sulfhydryl bonds. Overall, the results of this study highlight the importance of modifications by sulfhydryl-containing ligands that can drastically influence the long-term reactivity of silver nanoparticles in the aquatic environment and their bioavailability to exposed organisms. Our findings demonstrate the need to consider multiple interlinked transformation processes when assessing the bioavailability, environmental risks, and safety of nanoparticles, particularly in the presence of metal-binding ligands. PMID:22448900

Gondikas, Andreas P; Morris, Amanda; Reinsch, Brian C; Marinakos, Stella M; Lowry, Gregory V; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

2012-07-01

193

Controlling barrier penetration via exothermic iron oxidation.  

PubMed

Exothermic iron oxidation is an elegant means to generate heat, with the potential to modulate barrier penetration if reaction kinetics can be controlled. This aim of this study was to gain a fundamental understanding of how these temperature change kinetics influenced barrier diffusion rate. Lidocaine transport through a hydrophilic carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) gel was compared using two rapid iron oxidation reactions initiated by water (ExoRap(50), T(max)-47.7 ± 0.6 °C, t(max)-3.3 ± 0.6 min, ExoRap(60), T(max)-60.4 ± 0.3 °C, t(max)-9.3 ± 0.6 min) and a slower reaction initiated by oxygen (ExoSl(45)T(max)-ca. 44 °C, t(max) ca. 240 min). Temperature change induced by the oxygen initiated reaction (ExoSl(45)) was almost double those initiated by water (over 4h), but lidocaine diffusion was approximately 4 times higher for the latter (ExoRap(50), 555.61 ± 22.04 ?g/cm(2)/h; ExoRap(60), 663.1 ± 50.95 ?g/cm(2)/h; compared to ExoSl(45), 159.36 ± 29.44 ?g/cm(2)/h). The large influence of temperature change kinetics on lidocaine diffusion suggested that transport was heavily dependent on temperature induced structural changes of the barrier. CMC, like many polymers adsorbs more water when exposed to moderate increases in temperature and this appeared to be a critical determinant of lidocaine barrier diffusion rate. PMID:21055455

Wood, Daniel G; Brown, Marc B; Jones, Stuart A

2011-02-14

194

Biogeochemical mineralogical, and hydrological characteristics of an iron reactive barrier used for treatment of uranium and other contaminants  

SciTech Connect

A permeable iron reactive barrier was installed in late November, 1997 at the U.S. Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The overall goal of this research was to determine the effectiveness of the use of zero-valent iron (Fe{sup 0}) to retain or remove uranium and other contaminants such as technetium and nitrate in groundwater. The long-term performance issues were investigated by studying the biogeochemical interactions between Fe{sup 0} and groundwater constituents and the mineralogical and biological characteristics over an extended field operation. Results from nearly 3 years of monitoring indicated that the Fe{sup 0} barrier was performing effectively in removing contaminant radionuclides such as uranium and technetium. In addition, a number of groundwater constituents such as bicarbonates, nitrate, and sulfate were found to react with the Fe{sup 0}. Both nitrate and sulfate were reduced within or in the influence zone of the Fe{sup 0} with a low redox potential (i.e., low Eh). An increased anaerobic microbial population was also observed within and in the vicinity of the Fe{sup 0} barrier, and these microorganisms were at least partially responsible for the reduction of nitrate and sulfate in groundwater. Decreased concentrations of Ca{sup 2+} and bicarbonate in groundwater occurred as a result of the formation of minerals such as aragonite (CaCO{sub 3}) and siderite (FeCO{sub 3}), which coincided with the Fe{sup 0} corrosion and an increased groundwater pH. A suite of mineral precipitates was identified in the Fe{sup 0} barrier system, including amorphous iron oxyhydroxides, goethite, ferrous carbonates and sulfides, aragonite, and green rusts. These minerals were found to be responsible for the cementation and possibly clogging of Fe{sup 0} filings observed in a number of core samples from the barrier. Significant increases in cementation of the Fe{sup 0} occurred between two coring events conducted at {approx}1 year apart and appeared to correspond to the changes in an apparent decrease in hydraulic gradient and connectivity. The present study concludes that, while Fe{sup 0} may be used as an effective reactive medium for the retention or degradation of many redox-sensitive contaminants, its long-term reactivity and performance could be severely hindered by its reactions with other groundwater constituents; and groundwater flow may be restricted because of the build up of mineral precipitates at the soil/Fe{sup 0} interface. Depending on the site biogeochemical conditions, the rate of Fe{sup 0} corrosion may increase; therefore, the life span of the Fe{sup 0} barrier could be shorter than predicted in previous studies ({approx}15-30 years).

Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Phillips, Debra H. [Queen's University, Belfast; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL

2002-05-01

195

Experimental Determination of the Dissolution Kinetics of Zero-Valent Iron in the Presence of Organic Complexants  

SciTech Connect

Single-pass flow-through tests were conducted under conditions of relatively constant dissolved O2 [O2 (aq)] over the pH(23°C) range (from 7 to 12) and temperature (23° to 90°C) in the presence of EDTA and EDDHA to maintain dilute conditions and minimize the formation of a partially oxidized surface film and Fe-bearing secondary phase(s) during testing. These results indicate that the corrosion of Fe(0) is relatively insensitive to pH and temperature and the forward rate is 3 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than when a passive film and corrosion products are present. Tests conducted with Amasteel (a low carbon steel) and 99Tc-bearing Fe(0) metal indicated that the forward dissolution rates for both metals were similar, if not identical. In other words, under these test conditions the presence of P and 99Tc in the 99Tc-bearing Fe(0) metal appeared to have little effect on the forward dissolution rate and subsequent release of 99Tc.

Pierce, Eric M.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lodge, Alex M.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.

2007-08-17

196

Conversion of Steel Mill's Surface Waste into Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Generation for PEMFCs  

E-print Network

is expensive and its solutions rather unstable. By using hydrazine as an alternate reductant under solvothermal been obtained. This is a significant result in that hydrazine is more stable and much less expensive reduction (right, bar: 5 nm) and, solvothermal reduction using hydrazine (bottom, bar: 5 nm). References: 1

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

197

Effects and mechanism of humic acid on chromium(VI) removal by zero-valent iron (Fe 0) nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study dealt with the performance evaluation of the nanoscale Fe0 systems for the remediation of chromium contaminated groundwater in the ambient environment. The role of humic acid (HA) in the Cr(VI) removal and the reduction mechanism were investigated. HA was found to exert an obvious inhibitory effect on Cr(VI) removal by Fe0 nanoparticles, and the Cr(VI) removal efficiencies

Qian Wang; Naman Cissoko; Mi Zhou; Xinhua Xu

2011-01-01

198

Hydrocarbon Formation in Metallic Iron/Water Systems  

E-print Network

Hydrocarbon Formation in Metallic Iron/Water Systems B A O L I N D E N G , , § T I M O T H Y J . C, Florida 32403-5323 Chlorinated ethenes can be reduced in metallic (zero- valent) iron/water systems of aqueous CO2 was not a major source of carbon for the background hydrocarbons. Acid dissolution of gray

Deng, Baolin

199

Iron Hydroxy Carbonate Formation in Zerovalent Iron Permeable Reactive Barriers: Characterization and Evaluation of Phase Stability  

EPA Science Inventory

Predicting the long-term potential of permeable reactive barriers for treating contaminated groundwater relies on understanding the endpoints of biogeochemical reactions between influent groundwater and the reactive medium. Iron hydroxy carbonate (chukanovite) is frequently obs...

200

Iron Barrier Walls for Chlorinated Solvent Remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Over the past decade, permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology has progressed through the conceptual, experimental and\\u000a innovative stages to its current status as accepted standard practice for groundwater remediation. As represented in the schematic\\u000a of Figure 16.1, a PRB can be defined as an in situ treatment zone positioned such that it passively captures a contaminant plume and removes or

Robert W. Gillham; John Vogan; Lai Gui; Michael Duchene; Jennifer Son

201

APPLICATIONS OF SURFACE ANALYSIS IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES: DEHALOGENATION OF CHLOROCARBONS WITH ZERO-VALENT IRON AND IRON-CONTAINING MINERAL SURFACES. (R828771C006)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

202

SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL TRENDS IN GROUNDWATER CHEMISTRY AND PRECIPITATE FORMATION AT THE ELIZABETH CITY PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER  

EPA Science Inventory

Accumulation of mineral precipitates and microbial biomass are key factors that impact the long-term performance of PRBs. Both processes can impact remedial performance by affecting zero-valent iron reactivity and permeability. Results will be presented from solid-phase and gro...

203

Investigating dominant processes in ZVI permeable reactive barriers using reactive transport modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reactive and hydraulic efficacy of zero valent iron permeable reactive barriers (ZVI PRBs) is strongly affected by geochemical composition of the groundwater treated. An enhanced version of the geochemical simulation code MIN3P was applied to simulate dominating processes in chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs) treating ZVI PRBs including geochemical dependency of ZVI reactivity, gas phase formation and a basic formulation of degassing. Results of target oriented column experiments with distinct chemical conditions (carbonate, calcium, sulfate, CHCs) were simulated to parameterize the model. The simulations demonstrate the initial enhancement of anaerobic iron corrosion due to carbonate and long term inhibition by precipitates (chukanovite, siderite, iron sulfide). Calcium was shown to enhance long term corrosion due to competition for carbonate between siderite, chukanovite, and aragonite, with less inhibition of iron corrosion by the needle like aragonite crystals. Application of the parameterized model to a field site (Bernau, Germany) demonstrated that temporarily enhanced groundwater carbonate concentrations caused an increase in gas phase formation due to the acceleration of anaerobic iron corrosion.

Weber, Anne; Ruhl, Aki S.; Amos, Richard T.

2013-08-01

204

Investigating dominant processes in ZVI permeable reactive barriers using reactive transport modeling.  

PubMed

The reactive and hydraulic efficacy of zero valent iron permeable reactive barriers (ZVI PRBs) is strongly affected by geochemical composition of the groundwater treated. An enhanced version of the geochemical simulation code MIN3P was applied to simulate dominating processes in chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs) treating ZVI PRBs including geochemical dependency of ZVI reactivity, gas phase formation and a basic formulation of degassing. Results of target oriented column experiments with distinct chemical conditions (carbonate, calcium, sulfate, CHCs) were simulated to parameterize the model. The simulations demonstrate the initial enhancement of anaerobic iron corrosion due to carbonate and long term inhibition by precipitates (chukanovite, siderite, iron sulfide). Calcium was shown to enhance long term corrosion due to competition for carbonate between siderite, chukanovite, and aragonite, with less inhibition of iron corrosion by the needle like aragonite crystals. Application of the parameterized model to a field site (Bernau, Germany) demonstrated that temporarily enhanced groundwater carbonate concentrations caused an increase in gas phase formation due to the acceleration of anaerobic iron corrosion. PMID:23743511

Weber, Anne; Ruhl, Aki S; Amos, Richard T

2013-08-01

205

A new method to produce nanoscale iron for nitrate removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes a novel technology combining electrochemical and ultrasonic methods to produce nanoscale zero valent iron (NZVI). With platinum placed in the cathode and the presence of the dispersion agent, 0.2g\\/l cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cation surfactant, in the solution, the nanoscale iron particle was successfully produced with diameter of 1–20 nm and specific surface area of 25.4m2\\/g. The

Shiao-Shing Chen; Hong-Der Hsu; Chi-Wang Li

2004-01-01

206

Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes  

SciTech Connect

Uranium contamination of the subsurface remains a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB?s) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB?s, such as zero-valent iron, may be a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorus amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain sodium polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is paramount to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection.

Burns, Peter C.

2004-12-01

207

Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes  

SciTech Connect

Uranium contamination of the subsurface remains a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB?s) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB's, such as zero-valent iron, may be a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorous amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain sodium polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is paramount to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection.

Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Burns, Peter C.

2005-06-01

208

Reduction of Contaminant Mobility at the TNX Outfall Delta Through the Use of Apatite and Zero-Valent Iron as Soil Amendments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The TNX pilot-scale research facility released processed waste, containing high concentrations of several metals and radionuclides into an unlined seepage basin between 1958 and 1980. The contents of this basin have entered the nearby swamp, the TNX Outfa...

D. Kaplan, A. Knox, C. Coffey

2002-01-01

209

Treatment of mature landfill leachate by internal micro-electrolysis integrated with coagulation: a comparative study on a novel sequencing batch reactor based on zero valent iron.  

PubMed

A comparative study of treating mature landfill leachate with various treatment processes was conducted to investigate whether the method of combined processes of internal micro-electrolysis (IME) without aeration and IME with full aeration in one reactor was an efficient treatment for mature landfill leachate. A specifically designed novel sequencing batch internal micro-electrolysis reactor (SIME) with the latest automation technology was employed in the experiment. Experimental data showed that combined processes obtained a high COD removal efficiency of 73.7 ± 1.3%, which was 15.2% and 24.8% higher than that of the IME with and without aeration, respectively. The SIME reactor also exhibited a COD removal efficiency of 86.1 ± 3.8% to mature landfill leachate in the continuous operation, which is much higher (p<0.05) than that of conventional treatments of electrolysis (22.8-47.0%), coagulation-sedimentation (18.5-22.2%), and the Fenton process (19.9-40.2%), respectively. The innovative concept behind this excellent performance is a combination effect of reductive and oxidative processes of the IME, and the integration electro-coagulation. Optimal operating parameters, including the initial pH, Fe/C mass ratio, air flow rate, and addition of H(2)O(2), were optimized. All results show that the SIME reactor is a promising and efficient technology in treating mature landfill leachate. PMID:22771343

Ying, Diwen; Peng, Juan; Xu, Xinyan; Li, Kan; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

2012-08-30

210

Iron hydroxy carbonate formation in zerovalent iron permeable reactive barriers: characterization and evaluation of phase stability.  

PubMed

Predicting the long-term potential of permeable reactive barriers for treating contaminated groundwater relies on understanding the endpoints of biogeochemical reactions between influent groundwater and the reactive medium. Iron hydroxy carbonate (chukanovite) is frequently observed as a secondary mineral precipitate in granular iron PRBs. Mineralogical characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy on materials collected from three field-based PRBs in the US (East Helena, MT; Elizabeth City, NC; Denver Federal Center, CO). These PRBs were installed to treat a range of contaminants, including chlorinated organics, hexavalent chromium, and arsenic. Results obtained indicate that chukanovite is a prevalent secondary precipitate in the PRBs. Laboratory experiments on high-purity chukanovite separates were carried out to constrain the room-temperature solubility for this mineral. An estimated Gibbs energy of formation (Delta(f)G degrees) for chukanovite is -1174.4 +/- 6 kJ/mol. A mineral stability diagram is consistent with observations from the field. Water chemistry from the three reactive barriers falls inside the predicted stability field for chukanovite, at inorganic carbon concentrations intermediate to the stability fields of siderite and ferrous hydroxide. These new data will aid in developing better predictive models of mineral accumulation in zerovalent iron PRBs. PMID:20554346

Lee, Tony R; Wilkin, Richard T

2010-07-30

211

Iron hydroxy carbonate formation in zerovalent iron permeable reactive barriers: Characterization and evaluation of phase stability  

SciTech Connect

Predicting the long-term potential of permeable reactive barriers for treating contaminated groundwater relies on understanding the endpoints of biogeochemical reactions between influent groundwater and the reactive medium. Iron hydroxy carbonate (chukanovite) is frequently observed as a secondary mineral precipitate in granular iron PRBs. Mineralogical characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy on materials collected from three field-based PRBs in the US (East Helena, MT; Elizabeth City, NC; Denver Federal Center, CO). These PRBs were installed to treat a range of contaminants, including chlorinated organics, hexavalent chromium, and arsenic. Results obtained indicate that chukanovite is a prevalent secondary precipitate in the PRBs. Laboratory experiments on high-purity chukanovite separates were carried out to constrain the room-temperature solubility for this mineral. An estimated Gibbs energy of formation ({Delta}{sub f}G{sup o}) for chukanovite is - 1174.4 {+-} 6 kJ/mol. A mineral stability diagram is consistent with observations from the field. Water chemistry from the three reactive barriers falls inside the predicted stability field for chukanovite, at inorganic carbon concentrations intermediate to the stability fields of siderite and ferrous hydroxide. These new data will aid in developing better predictive models of mineral accumulation in zerovalent iron PRBs.

Wilkin, Richard T.; Lee, T.R. (U.S. EPA)

2010-10-22

212

Geomicrobiological Regeneration of Iron Sulfides in Engineered barrier Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reactive capacity of iron sulfide-based permeable reactive barriers (PRB) to complex and co-precipitate heavy metal ions from groundwater will depend on the potential for regeneration of reactive FeS during the expected lifetime of the PRB. FeS reactivity may decrease in a PRB in time as the result of the following processes: (i) oxidation of FeS and the formation of ferric iron (Fe(III)) oxide solids in the presence of oxygenated groundwater at the entrance of the PRB, (ii) oxidation of FeS in the presence of redox active metals like As(V) with the formation of ferric solids, (iii) co-precipitation of heavy metals within the PRB with the reactive FeS leading to the formation of insoluble metal sulfides co-precipitates with the concomitant release of ferrous iron and formation of ferrous (Fe(II) oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate solids, (iv) clogging of the PRB structure due to formation of precipitate products from processes (i) - (iii).. We have demonstrated the formation of triolite in the presence of an oxidized form of hydrous ferric oxide (HFO), various sulfate concentrations, and biomass densities for the sulfate reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio vulgaris. This result has allowed us to demonstrate the feasibility of regeneration of FeS from the ferric oxide and hydroxide solids that may be produced under scenarios (i) and (ii) above as well as to establish the electron donor and acceptor requirements for this SRB. Using Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, both HFO and soluble complexed forms of ferric iron gave rise to the formation of mackinawite. The latter have been shown to react with As (V) and Cd (II) to form ferric solids. Both organisms will be used to generate FeS solids in the presence of crystalline forms of ferric solids expected to form from scenarios (i) and (ii) (e.g., goethite and the mixed Fe(II)/(Fe(III) magnetite, and green rusts) and ferrous iron solids from scenarios (iii) and (iv) (Fe(II) oxides and siderite). Similar to the study completed on HFO and ferric citrate, the FeS solids will be characterized in terms of structure (XRD), conversion efficiency to FeS, and subsequent reactivity in batch systems to As and Cd.

Vannela, R.; Adriaens, P.; Hayes, K. F.

2005-12-01

213

A Two and Half-Year-Performance Evaluation of a Field Test on Treatment of Source Zone Tetrachloroethene and Its Chlorinated Daughter Products Using Emulsified Zaro Valent Iron Nanoparticles  

EPA Science Inventory

A field test of emulsified zero valent iron (EZVI) nanoparticles was conducted at Parris Island, SC, USA and was monitored for two and half years to assess the treatment of subsurface-source zone chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) dominated by tetrachloroethene (PCE) ...

214

Reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride with elemental iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was abiotically dechlorinated to chloroform (CHCl3) and methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) by zero valent iron (Fe0). Dechlorination of CCl4 was rapid, and approximately followed first-order kinetics in the range of concentrations tested (CCl4: 1.5–5.5 ?M; Fe0 powder: 1–10 g per 265 ml distilled water). Initial dechlorination rate coefficients for anoxic batch reactors (0.290 ± 0.009 h?1 for 1

Bradley R. Helland; Pedro J. J. Alvarez; Jerald L. Schnoor

1995-01-01

215

Intrinsic Barriers for Electron and Hydrogen Atom Transfer Reactions of Biomimetic Iron Complexes  

E-print Network

Intrinsic Barriers for Electron and Hydrogen Atom Transfer Reactions of Biomimetic Iron Complexes. Kinetic and thermodynamic results preclude stepwise mechanisms of sequential proton and then electron) Meunier, B., Ed. Biomimetic Oxidations Catalyzed by Transition Metal Complexes; Imperial College Press

Roth, Justine P.

216

Iron serves as diffusion barrier in thermally regenerative galvanic cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pure iron or iron-coated diaphragm provides a hydrogen diffusion electrode for a thermally regenerative galvanic cell. It allows the gas to diffuse through its interatomic spaces and resists the corrosive action of the cell environment.

Crouthamel, C. E.

1967-01-01

217

Performance Evaluation of In-Situ Iron Reactive Barriers at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November 1997, a permeable iron reactive barrier trench was installed at the S-3 Ponds Pathway 2 Site located at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The overall goal of the project is to evaluate the ability of permeable reactive barrier technology to remove uranium, nitrate, and other inorganic contaminants in groundwater and to assess impacts of biogeochemical interactions on

2003-01-01

218

Characterization and Properties of Metallic Iron Nanoparticles: Spectroscopy, Electrochemistry, and Kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are reports that nano-sized zero-valent iron (Fe?) exhibits greater reactivity than micro-sized particles of Fe?, which may impart advantages for groundwater remediation or other environmental applications. However, most of these reports are preliminary in that they leave a host of potentially significant (and often challenging) material or process variables either uncontrolled or unresolved. To better understand the reactivity of

James T. Nurmi; Paul G. Tratnyek; Vaishnavi Sarathy; Donald R. Baer; James E. Amonette; Klaus H. Pecher; Chongmin Wang; John C. Linehan; Dean W. Matson; R. Lee Penn; Michelle D. Driessen

2005-01-01

219

Ferritin polarization and iron transport across monolayer epithelial barriers in mammals  

PubMed Central

Epithelial barriers are found in many tissues such as the intestine, kidney and brain where they separate the external environment from the body or a specific compartment from its periphery. Due to the tight junctions that connect epithelial barrier-cells (EBCs), the transport of compounds takes place nearly exclusively across the apical or basolateral membrane, the cell-body and the opposite membrane of the polarized EBC, and is regulated on numerous levels including barrier-specific adapted trafficking-machineries. Iron is an essential element but toxic at excess. Therefore, all iron-requiring organisms tightly regulate iron concentrations on systemic and cellular levels. In contrast to most cell types that control just their own iron homeostasis, EBCs also regulate homeostasis of the compartment they enclose or the body as a whole. Iron is transported across EBCs by specialized transporters such as the transferrin receptor and ferroportin. Recently, the iron storage protein ferritin was also attributed a role in the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis and we gathered evidence from the literature and original data that ferritin is polarized in EBC, suggesting also a role for ferritin in iron trafficking across EBCs. PMID:25202274

Meyron-Holtz, Esther G.; Cohen, Lyora A.; Fahoum, Lulu; Haimovich, Yael; Lifshitz, Lena; Magid-Gold, Inbar; Stuemler, Tanja; Truman-Rosentsvit, Marianna

2014-01-01

220

Chemical stabilization of metals in mine wastes by transformed red mud and other iron compounds: laboratory tests.  

PubMed

A series of static and kinetic laboratory-scale tests were designed in order to evaluate the efficacy of transformed red mud (TRM) from bauxite refining residues, commercial zero-valent iron, and synthetic iron (III) hydroxides as sorbents/reagents to minimize the generation of acid drainage and the release of toxic elements from multi-contaminant-laden mine wastes. In particular, in some column experiments the percolation of meteoric water through a waste pile, alternated with periods of dryness, was simulated. Wastes were placed in columns together with sorbents/reagents in three different set-ups: as blended amendment (mixing method), as a bed at the bottom of the column (filtration method), or as a combination of the two previous methods. The filtration methods, which simulate the creation of a permeable reactive barrier downstream of a waste pile, are the most effective, while the use of sorbents/reagents as amendments leads to unsatisfactory results, because of the selective removal of only some contaminants. The efficacy of the filtration method is not significantly affected by the periods of dryness, except for a temporary rise of metal contents in the leachates due to dissolution of soluble salts formed upon evaporation in the dry periods. These results offer original information on advantages/limits in the use of TRM for the treatment of multi-contaminant-laden mine wastes, and represent the starting point for experimentation at larger scale. PMID:25244134

Ardau, C; Lattanzi, P; Peretti, R; Zucca, A

2014-12-01

221

Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes  

SciTech Connect

Uranium contamination of the subsurface has remained a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of fissile uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB's) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB?s, such as zero-valent iron, are a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorus amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is key to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection. Our other fundamental objective is to synthesize and correctly characterize the uranyl phosphate phases that form in the geochemical conditions under consideration. This report summarizes work conducted at the University of Notre Dame through November of 2003 under DOE grant DE-FG07-02ER63489, which has been funded since September, 2002. The objectives at Notre Dame are development of synthesis techniques for uranyl phosphate phases, together with detailed structural and chemical characterization of the myriad of uranyl phosphate phases that may form under geochemical conditions under consideration.

Burns, Peter C.

2005-06-01

222

CHROMIUM REMOVAL PROCESSES DURING GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION BY A ZEROVALENT IRON PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER  

EPA Science Inventory

Solid-phase associations of chromium were examined in core materials collected from a full-scale, zerovalent iron, permeable reactive barrier (PRB) at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center located near Elizabeth City (NC). The PRB was installed in 1996 to treat groundwater contami...

223

GEOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL REACTIONS AFFECTING THE LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF IN SITU 'IRON BARRIERS'  

EPA Science Inventory

The in situ application of granular iron (Fe0) has become popular for the destruction of halogenated organic compounds for the immobilization of specific metals in groundwater. However, a knowledge gap exists concerning the long-term performance of the Fe0-barriers. The corrosi...

224

Transformation of Reactive Iron Minerals in a Permeable Reactive Barrier (Biowall) Used to Treat TCE in Groundwater  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract: Iron and sulfur reducing conditions are generally created in permeable reactive barrier (PRB) systems constructed for groundwater treatment, which usually leads to formation of iron sulfide phases. Iron sulfides have been shown to play an important role in degrading ch...

225

Column test-based optimization of the permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technique for remediating groundwater contaminated by landfill leachates.  

PubMed

We investigated the optimum composition of permeable reactive barrier (PRB) materials for remediating groundwater heavily contaminated by landfill leachate, in column tests using various mixtures of zero-valent iron (ZVI), zeolite (Zeo) and activated carbon (AC) with 0.01-0.25, 3.0-5.0 and 0.7-1.0mm grain sizes, respectively. The main contributors to the removal of organic/inorganic contaminants were ZVI and AC, and the optimum weight ratio of the three PRB materials for removing the contaminants and maintaining adequate hydraulic conductivity was found to be 5:1:4. Average reductions in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and contents of total nitrogen (TN), ammonium, Ni, Pb and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from test samples using this mixture were 55.8%, 70.8%, 89.2%, 70.7%, 92.7% and 94.2%, respectively. We also developed a systematic method for estimating the minimum required thickness and longevity of the PRB materials. A ?309.6cm layer with the optimum composition is needed for satisfactory longevity, defined here as meeting the Grade III criteria (the Chinese National Bureau of Standards: GB/T14848/93) for in situ treatment of the sampled groundwater for ?10years. PMID:25244420

Zhou, Dan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yinbo; Zhang, Chang; Li, Xiongfei; Chen, Zhiliang; Huang, Junyi; Li, Xia; Flores, Giancarlo; Kamon, Masashi

2014-11-01

226

Column test-based optimization of the permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technique for remediating groundwater contaminated by landfill leachates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the optimum composition of permeable reactive barrier (PRB) materials for remediating groundwater heavily contaminated by landfill leachate, in column tests using various mixtures of zero-valent iron (ZVI), zeolite (Zeo) and activated carbon (AC) with 0.01-0.25, 3.0-5.0 and 0.7-1.0 mm grain sizes, respectively. The main contributors to the removal of organic/inorganic contaminants were ZVI and AC, and the optimum weight ratio of the three PRB materials for removing the contaminants and maintaining adequate hydraulic conductivity was found to be 5:1:4. Average reductions in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and contents of total nitrogen (TN), ammonium, Ni, Pb and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from test samples using this mixture were 55.8%, 70.8%, 89.2%, 70.7%, 92.7% and 94.2%, respectively. We also developed a systematic method for estimating the minimum required thickness and longevity of the PRB materials. A ? 309.6 cm layer with the optimum composition is needed for satisfactory longevity, defined here as meeting the Grade III criteria (the Chinese National Bureau of Standards: GB/T14848/93) for in situ treatment of the sampled groundwater for ? 10 years.

Zhou, Dan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yinbo; Zhang, Chang; Li, Xiongfei; Chen, Zhiliang; Huang, Junyi; Li, Xia; Flores, Giancarlo; Kamon, Masashi

2014-11-01

227

Removal of dinitrotoluenes from water via reduction with iron and peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative polymerization: A comparison between Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase and soybean peroxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-step process for the removal of dinitrotoluene from water is presented: zero-valent iron reduction is coupled with peroxidase-catalyzed polymerization of the resulting diaminotoluenes (DAT). The effect of pH was examined in the reduction step: at pH 6 the reaction occurred much more rapidly than at pH 8. In the second step, optimal pH and substrate ratio, minimal enzyme concentration

Joey Patapas; Mohammad Mousa Al-Ansari; K. E. Taylor; J. K. Bewtra; N. Biswas

2007-01-01

228

Reactive Membrane Barriers for Containment of Subsurface Contamination  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project was to develop reactive membrane barriers--a new and flexible technique to contain and stabilize subsurface contaminants. Polymer membranes will leak once a contaminant is able to diffuse through the membrane. By incorporating a reactive material in the polymer, however, the contaminant is degraded or immobilized within the membrane. These processes increase the time for contaminants to breakthrough the barrier (i.e. the lag time) and can dramatically extend barrier lifetimes. In this work, reactive barrier membranes containing zero-valent iron (Fe{sup 0}) or crystalline silicotitanate (CST) were developed to prevent the migration of chlorinated solvents and cesium-137, respectively. These studies were complemented by the development of models quantifying the leakage/kill time of reactive membranes and describing the behavior of products produced via the reactions within the membranes. First, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes containing Fe{sup 0} and CST were prepared and tested. Although PVA is not useful in practical applications, it allows experiments to be performed rapidly and the results to be compared to theory. For copper ions (Cu{sup 2+}) and carbon tetrachloride, the barrier was effective, increasing the time to breakthrough over 300 times. Even better performance was expected, and the percentage of the iron used in the reaction with the contaminants was determined. For cesium, the CST laden membranes increased lag times more than 30 times, and performed better than theoretical predictions. A modified theory was developed for ion exchangers in reactive membranes to explain this result. With the PVA membranes, the effect of a groundwater matrix on barrier performance was tested. Using Hanford groundwater, the performance of Fe{sup 0} barriers decreased compared to solutions containing a pH buffer and high levels of chloride (both of which promote iron reactivity). For the CST bearing membrane, performance improved by a factor of three when groundwater was used in place of deionized water. The performance of high density polyethylene (HDPE) membranes containing Fe{sup 0} was then evaluating using carbon tetrachloride as the target contaminant. Only with a hydrophilic additive (glycerol), was the iron able to extend lag times. Lag times were increased by a factor of 15, but only 2-3% of the iron was used, likely due to formation of oxide precipitates on the iron surface, which slowed the reaction. With thicker membranes and lower carbon tetrachloride concentrations, it is expected that performance will improve. Previous models for reactive membranes were also extended. The lag time is a measurement of when the barrier is breached, but contaminants do slowly leak through prior to the lag time. Thus, two parameters, the leakage and the kill time, were developed to determine when a certain amount of pollutant has escaped (the kill time) or when a given exposure (concentration x time) occurs (the leakage). Finally, a model was developed to explain the behavior of mobile reaction products in reactive barrier membranes. Although the goal of the technology is to avoid such products, it is important to be able to predict how these products will behave. Interestingly, calculations show that for any mobile reaction products, one half of the mass will diffuse into the containment area and one half will escape, assuming that the volumes of the containment area and the surrounding environment are much larger than the barrier membrane. These parameters/models will aid in the effective design of barrier membranes.

William A. Arnold; Edward L. Cussler

2007-02-26

229

Backfill barriers: the use of engineered barriers based on geologic materials to assure isolation of radioactive wastes in a repository. [Nickel-iron alloys  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary assessment is made to show that canisters fabricated of nickel-iron alloys, and surrounded by a suitable backfill, may produce an engineered barrier where the canister material is thermodynamically stable with respect to its environment. As similar conditions exist in nature, the performance of such systems as barriers to isolate radionuclides can be predicted over very long periods, of the order of 10/sup 6/ years.

Apps, J.A.; Cook, N.G.W.

1981-06-01

230

Manganese transport across the blood-brain barrier: relationship to iron homeostasis.  

PubMed

The binding characteristics of manganese (Mn) to transferrin (Tf) were examined on G-75 Sephadex gel columns. When 54MnCl2 was combined with Tf and immediately fractionated on the Sephadex column, 49% of 54Mn was found to Tf. The fraction of 54Mn which was Tf-bound was dependent upon the incubation period, and increased in a time-dependent fashion. In vivo, 6 hr of intravenous administration of ferric-hydroxide dextran complex significantly inhibited (p less than 0.05) 54Mn brain uptake as compared to its uptake in iron-free dextran-treated rats. These results suggest that iron (Fe) homeostasis may play an important role in the regulation of Mn transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). PMID:2372703

Aschner, M; Aschner, J L

1990-06-01

231

Simulation of Two Strategies to Limit the Impact of Fouling in Permeable Reactive Barriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground water flow (MODFLOW) and geochemical reactive transport models (RT3D) were used to assess the effectiveness of two strategies in limiting mineral fouling and its impact on hydraulic behavior of continuous- wall permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) employing granular zero valent iron (ZVI). A geochemical algorithm including kinetic expressions of oxidation-reduction and mineral precipitation-dissolution was developed for RT3D. The two strategies that were evaluated are (i) adding pea gravel equalization zones upgradient and down gradient of the reactive zone and (ii) placement of sacrificial pretreatment zones upgradient of the reactive zone. The PRB locates at a three-dimensional heterogeneous sandy aquifer. The sacrificial pretreatment zone contains mixtures of pea gravel and ZVI. Results of simulations show that installation of pea gravel zones provides a more conductive path for ground water flow through the ZVI, which enhances preferential flow and causes greater porosity reductions and shorter residence time in the PRB. After installation of pea gravel zones, the residence time decreases which is caused by short travel distances in the ZVI due to short circuit of preferential flow. Sacrificial pretreatment zones can be used to elevate the ground water pH and consume many of the mineral forming ions to form secondary minerals in before the reactive zone is reached. The remaining mineral forming ions that pass into the reactive zone cause less mineral fouling. However, mineral fouling by Fe(OH)2 still occurs, and this mineral is formed regardless of the influent mineral forming ions. Addition of the sacrificial pretreatment zone slightly decreases the initial median residence time. However, the pretreatment zone retains higher residence time after 30 yrs due to less mineral fouling in the pure ZVI zone.

Li, L.; Benson, C.

2008-12-01

232

Verification and monitoring of deep granular iron permeable reactive barriers emplaced by vertical hydraulic fracturing and injection for groundwater remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the use of vertical hydraulic fracturing and injection (VHFI) to emplace granular iron as a deep passive treatment system to remove organic contaminants from groundwater at the Massachusetts Military Reservation on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. It was the first permeable reactive barrier (PRB) constructed at a depth greater than 15 m below the ground surface. VHFI propagates a

David Wallace Hubble

2003-01-01

233

Mineralogical characteristics and transformations during long-term operation of a zerovalent iron reactive barrier  

SciTech Connect

Design and operation of Fe{sup 0} permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) can be improved by understanding the long-term mineralogical transformations that occur within PRBs. Changes in mineral precipitates, cementation, and corrosion of Fe{sup 0} filings within an in situ pilot-scale PRB were examined after the first 30 months of operation and compared with results of a previous study of the PRB conducted 15 months earlier using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy employing energy dispersive X-ray and backscatter electron analyses. Iron (oxy)hydroxides, aragonite, and maghemite and/or magnetite occurred throughout the cores collected 30 mo after installation. Goethite, lepidocrocite, mackinawite, aragonite, calcite, and siderite were associated with oxidized and cemented areas, while green rusts were detected in more reduced zones. Basic differences from our last detailed investigation include (i) mackinawite crystallized from amorphous FeS, (ii) aragonite transformed into calcite, (iii) akaganeite transformed to goethite and lepidocrocite, (iv) iron (oxy)hydroxides and calcium and iron carbonate minerals increased, (v) cementation was greater in the more recent study, and (vi) oxidation, corrosion, and disintegration of Fe{sup 0} filings were greater, especially in cemented areas, in the more recent study. If the degree of corrosion and cementation that was observed from 15 to 30 mo after installation continues, certain portions of the PRB (i.e., up-gradient entrance of the ground water to the Fe{sup 0} section of the PRB) may last less than five more years, thus reducing the effectiveness of the PRB to mitigate contaminants.

Phillips, Debra Helen [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Roh, Yul [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL

2003-04-01

234

Enhanced chitosan beads-supported Fe(0)-nanoparticles for removal of heavy metals from electroplating wastewater in permeable reactive barriers.  

PubMed

The removal of heavy metals from electroplating wastewater is a matter of paramount importance due to their high toxicity causing major environmental pollution problems. Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) became more effective to remove heavy metals from electroplating wastewater when enhanced chitosan (CS) beads were introduced as a support material in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). The removal rate of Cr (VI) decreased with an increase of pH and initial Cr (VI) concentration. However, the removal rates of Cu (II), Cd (II) and Pb (II) increased with an increase of pH while decreased with an increase of their initial concentrations. The initial concentrations of heavy metals showed an effect on their removal sequence. Scanning electron microscope images showed that CS-NZVI beads enhanced by ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE) had a loose and porous surface with a nucleus-shell structure. The pore size of the nucleus ranged from 19.2 to 138.6 ?m with an average aperture size of around 58.6 ?m. The shell showed a tube structure and electroplating wastewaters may reach NZVI through these tubes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) demonstrated that the reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) was complete in less than 2 h. Cu (II) and Pb (II) were removed via predominant reduction and auxiliary adsorption. However, main adsorption and auxiliary reduction worked for the removal of Cd (II). The removal rate of total Cr, Cu (II), Cd (II) and Pb (II) from actual electroplating wastewater was 89.4%, 98.9%, 94.9% and 99.4%, respectively. The findings revealed that EGDE-CS-NZVI-beads PRBs had the capacity to remediate actual electroplating wastewater and may become an effective and promising technology for in situ remediation of heavy metals. PMID:24075723

Liu, Tingyi; Yang, Xi; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Yan, Xiaoxing

2013-11-01

235

X-231A demonstration of in-situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media by soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or reactive barrier destruction  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of the program of activities is to demonstrate robust and cost-effective technologies for in situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media (LPM), including adaptations and enhancements of conventional technologies to achieve improved performance for DNAPLs in LPM. The technologies sought should be potential for application at simple, small sites (e.g., gasoline underground storage tanks) as well as at complex, larger sites (e.g., DOE land treatment units). The technologies involved in the X-231A demonstration at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) utilized subsurface manipulation of the LPM through soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or horizontal barrier in place destruction. To enable field evaluation of these approaches, a set of four test cells was established at the X-231A land treatment unit at the DOE PORTS plant in August 1996 and a series of demonstration field activities occurred through December 1997. The principal objectives of the PORTS X-231A demonstration were to: determine and compare the operational features of hydraulic fractures as an enabling technology for steam and hot air enhanced soil vapor extraction and mass recovery, in situ interception and reductive destruction by zero valent iron, and in situ interception and oxidative destruction by potassium permanganate; determine the interaction of the delivered agents with the LPM matrix adjacent to the fracture and within the fractured zone and assess the beneficial modifications to the transport and/or reaction properties of the LPM deposit; and determine the remediation efficiency achieved by each of the technology strategies.

Siegrist, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Environmental Science and Engineering Div.; Lowe, K.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States). Life Sciences Div.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Murdoch, L.D. [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States); [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Slack, W.W. [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Houk, T.C. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Piketon, OH (United States)] [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Piketon, OH (United States)

1998-03-01

236

Long Term Effect of Biotic Reductive Dechlorination on Permeable Treatment Walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased, reactivity is a potentially important phenomena with respect to the cost effectiveness of zero-valent iron permeable barriers. A column study followed by batch experiments using microcosms was performed to analyze biotic reactions and their impact on kinetic reaction rates. In the biotic iron column study ethylene formation as a by-product of the TCE degradation was decreasing gradually after 200

Hala A. Sfeir; A. Randall; D. Reinhart; C. Clausen; C. Geiger

237

PLANT MULCH TO TREAT TCE IN GROUND WATER IN A PRB  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past ten years, passive reactive barriers (PRBs) have found widespread application to treat chlorinated solvent contamination in ground water. The traditional PRB commonly uses granular zero-valent iron and/or iron alloys as filling materials for treatment of chlorinated ...

238

PLANT MULCH TO TREAT TCE IN GROUND WATER IN A PRB (ABSTRACT ONLY)  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past ten years, passive reactive barriers (PRBs) have found widespread application to treat chlorinated solvent contamination in ground water. The traditional PRB commonly uses granular zero-valent iron and/or iron alloys as filling materials for treatment of chlorinated ...

239

Iron supplement prevents lead-induced disruption of the blood-brain barrier during rat development  

SciTech Connect

Children are known to be venerable to lead (Pb) toxicity. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) in immature brain is particularly vulnerable to Pb insults. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that Pb exposure damaged the integrity of the BBB in young animals and iron (Fe) supplement may prevent against Pb-induced BBB disruption. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Three groups of rats were exposed to Pb in drinking water containing 342 {mu}g Pb/mL as Pb acetate, among which two groups were concurrently administered by oral gavage once every other day with 7 mg Fe/kg and 14 mg Fe/kg as FeSO{sub 4} solution as the low and high Fe treatment group, respectively, for 6 weeks. The control group received sodium acetate in drinking water. Pb exposure significantly increased Pb concentrations in blood by 6.6-folds (p < 0.05) and brain tissues by 1.5-2.0-folds (p < 0.05) as compared to controls. Under the electron microscope, Pb exposure in young animals caused an extensive extravascular staining of lanthanum nitrate in brain parenchyma, suggesting a leakage of cerebral vasculature. Western blot showed that Pb treatment led to 29-68% reduction (p < 0.05) in the expression of occludin as compared to the controls. Fe supplement among Pb-exposed rats maintained the normal ultra-structure of the BBB and restored the expression of occludin to normal levels. Moreover, the low dose Fe supplement significantly reduced Pb levels in blood and brain tissues. These data suggest that Pb exposure disrupts the structure of the BBB in young animals. The increased BBB permeability may facilitate the accumulation of Pb. Fe supplement appears to protect the integrity of the BBB against Pb insults, a beneficial effect that may have significant clinical implications.

Wang Qiang [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, 17 Changlexi Street, Xi'an, 710032 (China); Luo Wenjing [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, 17 Changlexi Street, Xi'an, 710032 (China); Zheng Wei [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Liu Yiping [Institute of Microbiology Epidemiology, Academy of Military Medical Siences, Beijing 100071 (China); Xu Hui [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, 17 Changlexi Street, Xi'an, 710032 (China); Zheng Gang [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, 17 Changlexi Street, Xi'an, 710032 (China); Dai Zhongming [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, 17 Changlexi Street, Xi'an, 710032 (China); Zhang Wenbin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, 17 Changlexi Street, Xi'an, 710032 (China); Chen Yaoming [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, 17 Changlexi Street, Xi'an, 710032 (China); Chen Jingyuan [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, 17 Changlexi Street, Xi'an, 710032 (China)]. E-mail: jy_chen@fmmu.edu.cn

2007-02-15

240

Monitoring trichloroethene remediation at an iron permeable reactive barrier using stable carbon isotopic analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable carbon isotopic analysis, in combination with compositional analysis, was used to evaluate the performance of an iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for the remediation of ground water contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) at Spill Site 7 (SS7), F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming. Compositional data indicated that although the PRB appeared to be reducing TCE to concentrations below treatment goals within and immediately downgradient of the PRB, concentrations remained higher than expected at wells further downgradient (i.e. > 9 m) of the PRB. At two wells downgradient of the PRB, TCE concentrations were comparable to upgradient values, and ?13C values of TCE at these wells were not significantly different than upgradient values. Since the process of sorption/desorption does not significantly fractionate carbon isotope values, this suggests that the TCE observed at these wells is desorbing from local aquifer materials and was present before the PRB was installed. In contrast, three other downgradient wells show significantly more enriched ?13C values compared to the upgradient mean. In addition, ?13C values for the degradation products of TCE, cis-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride, show fractionation patterns expected for the products of the reductive dechlorination of TCE. Since concentrations of both TCE and degradation products drop to below detection limit in wells within the PRB and directly below it, these downgradient chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations are attributed to desorption from local aquifer material. The carbon isotope values indicate that this dissolved contaminant is subject to local degradation, likely due to in situ microbial activity.

VanStone, Nancy; Przepiora, Andrzej; Vogan, John; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Powers, Brian; Perez, Ernesto; Mabury, Scott; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

2005-08-01

241

Monitoring trichloroethene remediation at an iron permeable reactive barrier using stable carbon isotopic analysis.  

PubMed

Stable carbon isotopic analysis, in combination with compositional analysis, was used to evaluate the performance of an iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for the remediation of ground water contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) at Spill Site 7 (SS7), F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming. Compositional data indicated that although the PRB appeared to be reducing TCE to concentrations below treatment goals within and immediately downgradient of the PRB, concentrations remained higher than expected at wells further downgradient (i.e. >9 m) of the PRB. At two wells downgradient of the PRB, TCE concentrations were comparable to upgradient values, and delta13C values of TCE at these wells were not significantly different than upgradient values. Since the process of sorption/desorption does not significantly fractionate carbon isotope values, this suggests that the TCE observed at these wells is desorbing from local aquifer materials and was present before the PRB was installed. In contrast, three other downgradient wells show significantly more enriched delta13C values compared to the upgradient mean. In addition, delta13C values for the degradation products of TCE, cis-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride, show fractionation patterns expected for the products of the reductive dechlorination of TCE. Since concentrations of both TCE and degradation products drop to below detection limit in wells within the PRB and directly below it, these downgradient chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations are attributed to desorption from local aquifer material. The carbon isotope values indicate that this dissolved contaminant is subject to local degradation, likely due to in situ microbial activity. PMID:16026893

VanStone, Nancy; Przepiora, Andrzej; Vogan, John; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Powers, Brian; Perez, Ernesto; Mabury, Scott; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

2005-08-01

242

Verification and monitoring of deep granular iron permeable reactive barriers emplaced by vertical hydraulic fracturing and injection for groundwater remediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluated the use of vertical hydraulic fracturing and injection (VHFI) to emplace granular iron as a deep passive treatment system to remove organic contaminants from groundwater at the Massachusetts Military Reservation on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. It was the first permeable reactive barrier (PRB) constructed at a depth greater than 15 m below the ground surface. VHFI propagates a vertical fracture from a slot cut through the injection-well casing at a selected depth and orientation. Granular iron is suspended in a viscous fluid using a biodegradable guar polymer and pumped through the slot to form a thin vertical sheet. Two PRBs were emplaced 6 m apart and perpendicular to the groundwater flow direction with mid-depths of about 30 m below the ground surface. Due to the depth, all of the emplacement and verification methods used down-hole tools. Resistivity imaging used salt added to the guar as an electrical tracer to map the spread of the VHFI fluid for propagation control and to estimate the extent of the completed PRB. Radar tomography before and after emplacement also provided images of the PRBs and hydraulic pulse testing and electromagnetic logging provided additional data. One PRB consisted of 40 tonnes of granular iron and was estimated to be an average of 80 mm thick. Based on geophysical imaging, the 100% iron PRB was 15 m long and extended from about 24.5 to 35.5 m depth. The second PRB consisted of a mixture of 5.6 tonnes of well sand and 4.4 tonnes of iron, but was only partially completed. Based on imaging, the sand/iron PRB comprised an area 9 m long extending from about 27 to 34.5 m below the ground surface. The proximity of screened wells, which deviated significantly from vertical toward the PRB alignment, resulted in loss of VHFI control. A sub-horizontal layer of iron formed between the 100% iron PRB and several of the wells. Similarly, piping failure zones formed between the sand/iron PRB and two geophysical wells. Selected groundwater constituents were monitored up- and down-gradient of the two PRBs for 11 months before the PRB emplacement and for 48 months afterwards. Temporary elevated levels of sodium, chloride, and conductance (from the salt tracer), total organic carbon (from the guar) and lowered DO were observed down-gradient of the PRBs. Although the various verification methods confirmed the presence of the 100% iron PRB and its overall continuity, the groundwater data showed no evidence of flow through the granular iron (PCE degradation, elevated pH, dissolved oxygen removal and reducing conditions). This suggests that the groundwater flows around the 100% iron PRB. It is possible that the guar used for the VHFI remained cross-linked, creating a low-permeability barrier. In contrast, the partially completed sand/iron wall did affect the groundwater chemistry in several down-gradient wells. Reducing conditions, zero DO, high pH, and high levels of dissolved iron were noted. A reduction in PCE concentrations and formation of degradation products were observed. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Hubble, David Wallace

243

Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the use of hydraulic fracturing to increase permeability in geologic formations where in-situ remedial action of contaminant plumes will be performed. Several in-situ treatment strategies are discussed including the use of hydraulic fracturing to create in situ redox zones for treatment of organics and inorganics. Hydraulic fracturing methods offer a mechanism for the in-situ treatment of gently dipping layers of reactive compounds. Specialized methods using real-time monitoring and a high-energy jet during fracturing allow the form of the fracture to be influenced, such as creation of assymmetric fractures beneath potential sources (i.e. tanks, pits, buildings) that should not be penetrated by boring. Some examples of field applications of this technique such as creating fractures filled with zero-valent iron to reductively dechlorinate halogenated hydrocarbons, and the use of granular activated carbon to adsorb compounds are discussed.

Murdoch, L. [FRX Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)]|[Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Siegrist, B.; Meiggs, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1997-12-31

244

Iron  

MedlinePLUS

... shows that giving iron intravenously can improve some symptoms of heart failure. It is not yet known if taking an iron supplement by mouth would help.Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Developing research shows that taking iron sulfate ( ...

245

Implementation of fluidized granulated iron reactors in a chromate remediation process.  

PubMed

A new approach concerning in-situ remediation on source ('hot-spot') decontamination of a chromate damage in connection with an innovative pump-and-treat-technique has been developed. Iron granulates show significant higher reduction rates, using fluidized bed conditions, than a literature study with a fixed bed installation of small-sized iron granules. First results from an abandoned tannery site concerning injections of sodium dithionite as a chromate reductant for the vadose zone in combination with a pump-and-treat-method, allying the advantages of granulated zero valent iron (ZVI), are reported. Reduction amounts of chromate have been found up to 88% compared with initial values in the soil after a soil water exchange of 8 pore volumes within 2.5 months. Chromate concentrations in the pumped effluent have been reduced to under the detection limit of 0.005 mg/L by treatment with ZVI in the pilot plant. PMID:24530188

Müller, P; Lorber, K E; Mischitz, R; Weiss, C

2014-07-01

246

Performance of a zerovalent iron reactive barrier for the treatment of arsenic in groundwater: Part 1. Hydrogeochemical studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developments and improvements of remedial technologies are needed to effectively manage arsenic contamination in groundwater at hazardous waste sites. In June 2005, a 9.1 m long, 14 m deep, and 1.8 to 2.4 m wide (in the direction of groundwater flow) pilot-scale permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was installed at a former lead smelting facility, located near Helena, Montana (USA). The reactive barrier was designed to treat groundwater contaminated with moderately high concentrations of both As(III) and As(V). The reactive barrier was installed over a 3-day period using bio-polymer slurry methods and modified excavating equipment for deep trenching. The reactive medium was composed entirely of granular iron which was selected based on long-term laboratory column experiments. A monitoring network of approximately 40 groundwater sampling points was installed in July 2005. Monitoring results indicate arsenic concentrations > 25 mg L - 1 in wells located hydraulically upgradient of the PRB. Of 80 groundwater samples collected from the pilot-PRB, 11 samples exceeded 0.50 mg As L - 1 ; 62 samples had concentrations of arsenic at or below 0.50 mg L - 1 ; and, 24 samples were at or below the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic of 0.01 mg L - 1 . After 2 years of operation, monitoring points located within 1 m of the downgradient edge of the PRB showed significant decreases in arsenic concentrations at depth intervals impacted by the emplaced zerovalent iron. This study indicates that zerovalent iron can be effectively used to treat groundwater contaminated with arsenic given appropriate groundwater geochemistry and hydrology. The study also further demonstrates the shortcomings of hanging-wall designs. Detailed subsurface characterization data that capture geochemical and hydrogeologic variability, including a flux-based analysis, are needed for successful applications of PRB technology for arsenic remediation.

Wilkin, Richard T.; Acree, Steven D.; Ross, Randall R.; Beak, Douglas G.; Lee, Tony R.

2009-04-01

247

Evaluation of Geochemical Processes Affecting Uranium Sequestration and Longevity of Permeable Reactive Barriers for Groundwater Remediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of effective remediation techniques for protecting existing drinking water supplies and for mitigating existing contamination problems requires evaluating both the contaminant sequestration processes and the secondary reactions affecting the long term stability of contaminant attenuation. Permeable reactive barriers (PRB) provide a means for passive remediation of dissolved groundwater contaminants and may be an effective strategy for remediation of uranium (U) groundwater contamination provided that long term stability of the sequestered U can be achieved for the geochemical conditions of the aquifer expected subsequent to remediation. Understanding the chemical reaction mechanisms resulting in U uptake and PRB performance are critical to evaluating the potential for release of sequestered U and for improved design of remediation devices. We are using synchrotron X-ray techniques to investigate U sequestration reaction mechanisms and biogeochemical processes in PRB materials recovered from a 9-year field demonstration of zero-valent iron (ZVI) and bone char apatite PRBs in a U contaminated aquifer near Fry Canyon, Utah. X-ray microprobe mapping of iron phases shows that extensive secondary precipitation of mackinawite, siderite and aragonite in the ZVI PRB has resulted from ZVI corrosion coupled with microbial sulfate reduction. Bulk U-EXAFS measurements and micron-scale U-oxidation state mapping indicates that U removal occurs largely by reduction and precipitation of a UO2-like U(IV) phase on the ZVI surfaces, and that the sequestered U is often buried by the secondary Fe precipitates. These findings are significant to the efficacy of ZVI PRBs for remediation of U and other contaminants in that the ongoing secondary phase precipitation cements grains and fills internal porosity resulting in the observed decreased PRB permeability and limits subsequent U removal, but likely limits oxidative remobilization of U. In the bone char apatite PRB, elevated levels of U uptake were observed at up to 20-times above the maximum for U(VI) sorption by surface complexation expected for this material. XAS measurements show that the sequestered U is predominantly in the +4 oxidation state, instead of +6, indicating a reduction process. Bulk U-EXAFS is consistent with the reduced U(IV) occurring as a sorbed species instead of forming biogenic urananite, and thus may be more likely to undergo re-oxidation and mobilization.

Fuller, C. C.; Webb, S.; Bargar, J.; Naftz, D. L.

2009-12-01

248

Monitoring Performance of a Dual Wall Permeable Reactive Barrier for Treating Perchlorate and TCE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AMEC Geomatrix, through collaboration with Aerojet General Corporation and the University of California, Davis (UCD), has performed work leading to the installation of a dual wall permeable reactive barrier (PRB) system capable of treating perchlorate and chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds (CAHs), including trichloroethylene (TCE), at Aerojet's Area 40 site in Sacramento, California. This unique system consisted of an upgradient zero-valent iron (ZVI) permeable reactive barrier (PRB) that is intended to not only degrade CAHs, but also, provide hydrogen generated from the ZVI corrosion process, to a downgradient bio-effective PRB (carbohydrate solution circulated through a gravel-packed trench) for destroying perchlorate. The subsurface was characterized during a site investigation, and numerous logistical and site-specific challenges of installation were addressed. The site-specific challenges included installation of a passive remediation system in a remote location with no access to electricity. The selected remediation system was keyed into the undulating bedrock 20 to 25 feet below the ground surface without the use of shoring. Under a collaborative effort, UCD provided initial bench testing. AMEC Geomatrix designed and installed the dual wall system consisting of two approximately parallel 50-foot long by 2-foot thick by 25-foot deep PRB segments which are separated by about 8 feet perpendicular to the approximate direction of groundwater flow. AMEC Geomatrix performed the installation of performance monitoring network, which consisted of 21 wells, and monitored these points for a 6-month period. Monitoring and sampling techniques were designed to measure water levels and water quality parameters in the subsurface during sampling events, to better assess the hydrologic and chemical processes. The monitoring results indicate that the upgradient ZVI PRB effectively treats groundwater with TCE concentrations approaching 60 mg/L, and in addition, may reduce concentrations of perchlorate from approximately 25 mg/L to less than 1 mg/L. A database was maintained to manage analytical results, water quality parameters, and water levels from each sampling event, and geographic information system (GIS) was used to generate plan diagrams of the treatment and performance. The small footprint of the monitoring network allowed for visualizations of the sample results in vertical segments, cross-gradient, within the PRBs, and upgradient or downgradient of the treatment zone. This method of monitoring treatment performance allowed for rapid assessment of the effectiveness of the dual walled PRB as new data became available. The initial time and cost to set up the data management structure (database to GIS) would allow for the ability to monitor the remediation performance more efficiently and to make more effective decisions, including assessment of the carbohydrate depletion within the bio-effective PRB.

Dowman, C. E.; Hashimoto, Y.; Warner, S.; Bennett, P.; Gandhi, D.; Szerdy, F.; Neville, S.; Fennessy, C.; Scow, K. M.

2008-12-01

249

Impact of microbial activities on the mineralogy and performance of column-scale permeable reactive iron barriers operated under two different redox conditions.  

PubMed

The present study focuses on the impact of microbial activities on the performance of various long-term operated laboratory-scale permeable reactive barriers. The barriers contained both aquifer and Fe0 compartments and had received either sulfate or iron(III)-EDTA to promote sulfate-reducing and iron(III)-reducing bacteria, respectively. After dismantlement of the compartments after almost 3 years of operation, DNA-based PCR-DGGE analysis revealed the presence of methanogenic, sulfate-reducing, metal-reducing, and denitrifying bacteria within as well as up- and downgradient of the Fe0 matrix. Under all imposed conditions, the main secondary phases were vivianite, siderite, ferrous hydroxy carbonate, and carbonate green rust as found by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Under sulfate-reduction promoting conditions, iron sulfides were formed in addition, resulting in 7 and 10 times higher degradation rates for PCE and TCE, respectively, compared to unreacted iron. These results indicate that the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria in or around iron barriers and the subsequent formation of iron sulfides might increase the barrier reactivity. PMID:17874779

Van Nooten, Thomas; Lieben, François; Dries, Jan; Pirard, Eric; Springael, Dirk; Bastiaens, Leen

2007-08-15

250

Solid phase iron–sulfur geochemistry of a reactive barrier for treatment of mine drainage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the solid phase Fe–S geochemistry of a reactive barrier at the Nickel Rim mine site (Ontario, Canada). The barrier, designed to treat groundwater contaminated by acid mine drainage, is composed of leaf and municipal compost and wood chips. This study shows that S is accumulating in the organic material as primarily acid volatile sulfides, at concentrations up

Roger B. Herbert; Shawn G. Benner; David W. Blowes

2000-01-01

251

Iron  

MedlinePLUS

... several factors [ 1 , 3 , 8 , 11-15 ]. Storage levels of iron have the greatest influence on iron ... RDA), Adequate Intakes (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL). The RDA recommends the average daily intake ...

252

THE APPLICATION OF PRB TECHNOLOGY AT TWO SITES: LESSONS LEARNED AFTER 7 YEARS OF PERFORMANCE MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

In June of 1996, a 46 m long, 7.3 m deep, and 0.6 m wide permeable reactive barrier (continuous wall configuration) of zero-valent iron was installed at the USCG-SC site. The reactive wall was designed to remediate hexavalent chromium-contaminated groundwater, in addition to tre...

253

Treatment of Arsenic, Heavy Metals, and Acidity Using a Mixed ZVI-Compost PRB  

EPA Science Inventory

A 30-month performance evaluation of a pilot permeable reactive barrier (PRB) consisting of a mixture of leaf compost, zero-valent iron (ZVI), limestone and pea gravel installed at a former phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facility was conducted. The PRB is designed to remove ...

254

GROUND WATER ARSENIC AND METALS TREATMENT USING A COMBINATION COMPOST-ZVI PRB  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot permeable reactive barrier (PRB) consisting of a mixture of leaf compost, zero-valent iron (ZVI), limestone and pea gravel was installed at a former phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facility in Charleston, S.C. in September 2002. The PRB is designed to treat arsenic an...

255

Thermally Evaporated Iron (Oxide) on an Alumina Barrier Layer, by XPS  

SciTech Connect

We report the XPS characterization of a thermally evaporated iron thin film (6 nm) deposited on an Si/SiO_2/Al_2O_3 substrate using Al Ka X-rays. An XPS survey spectrum, narrow Fe 2p scan, narrow O 1s, and valence band scan are shown.

Madaan, Nitesh; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Jensen, David S.; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Linford, Matthew R.

2013-09-06

256

Dehalogenation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polychlorinated Biphenyl by Bimetallic, Impregnated, and Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron  

PubMed Central

Nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (nZVI), bimetallic nanoparticles (nZVI/Pd), and nZVI/Pd impregnated activated carbon (nZVI/Pd-AC) composite particles were synthesized and investigated for their effectiveness to remove polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and/or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Palladization of nZVI promoted the dehalogenation kinetics for mono- to tri-BDEs and 2,3,4-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 21). Compared to nZVI, the iron-normalized rate constants for nZVI/Pd were about 2-, 3-, and 4-orders of magnitude greater for tri-, di-, and mono-BDEs, respectively, with diphenyl ether as a main reaction product. The reaction kinetics and pathways suggest an H-atom transfer mechanism. The reaction pathways with nZVI/Pd favor preferential removal of para-halogens on PBDEs and PCBs. X-ray fluorescence mapping of nZVI/Pd-AC showed that Pd mainly deposits on the outer part of particles, while Fe was present throughout the activated carbon particles. While BDE 21 was sorbed onto activated carbon composites quickly, debromination was slower compared to reaction with freely dispersed nZVI/Pd. Our XPS and chemical data suggest about 7% of the total iron within the activated carbon was zero-valent, which shows the difficulty with in-situ synthesis of a significant fraction of zero-valent iron in the micro-porous material. Related factors that likely hinder the reaction with nZVI/Pd-AC are the heterogenous distribution of nZVI and Pd on activated carbon and/or immobilization of hydrophobic organic contaminants at the adsorption sites thereby inhibiting contact with nZVI. PMID:21557574

Zhuang, Yuan; Ahn, Sungwoo; Seyfferth, Angelia L.; Masue-Slowey, Yoko; Fendorf, Scott; Luthy, Richard G.

2011-01-01

257

Overview on backfill materials and permeable reactive barriers for nuclear waste disposal facilities.  

SciTech Connect

A great deal of money and effort has been spent on environmental restoration during the past several decades. Significant progress has been made on improving air quality, cleaning up and preventing leaching from dumps and landfills, and improving surface water quality. However, significant challenges still exist in all of these areas. Among the more difficult and expensive environmental problems, and often the primary factor limiting closure of contaminated sites following surface restoration, is contamination of ground water. The most common technology used for remediating ground water is surface treatment where the water is pumped to the surface, treated and pumped back into the ground or released at a nearby river or lake. Although still useful for certain remediation scenarios, the limitations of pump-and-treat technologies have recently been recognized, along with the need for innovative solutions to ground-water contamination. Even with the current challenges we face there is a strong need to create geological repository systems for dispose of radioactive wastes containing long-lived radionuclides. The potential contamination of groundwater is a major factor in selection of a radioactive waste disposal site, design of the facility, future scenarios such as human intrusion into the repository and possible need for retrieving the radioactive material, and the use of backfills designed to keep the radionuclides immobile. One of the most promising technologies for remediation of contaminated sites and design of radioactive waste repositories is the use of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). PRBs are constructed of reactive material(s) to intercept and remove the radionuclides from the water and decontaminate the plumes in situ. The concept of PRBs is relatively simple. The reactive material(s) is placed in the subsurface between the waste or contaminated area and the groundwater. Reactive materials used thus far in practice and research include zero valent iron, hydroxyapatite, magnesium oxide, and others. As the contaminant moves through the reactive material, the contaminant is either sorbed by the reactive material or chemically reacts with the material to form a less harmful substance. Because of the high risk associated with failure of a geological repository for nuclear waste, most nations favor a near-field multibarrier engineered system using backfill materials to prevent release of radionuclides into the surrounding groundwater.

Moore, Robert Charles; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Holt, Kathleen Caroline; Hasan, Mahmoud A. (Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt)

2003-10-01

258

Magnetic resonance imaging of post-ischemic blood-brain barrier damage with PEGylated iron oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage during ischemia may induce devastating consequences like cerebral edema and hemorrhagic transformation. This study presents a novel strategy for dynamically imaging of BBB damage with PEGylated supermagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as contrast agents. The employment of SPIONs as contrast agents made it possible to dynamically image the BBB permeability alterations and ischemic lesions simultaneously with T2-weighted MRI, and the monitoring could last up to 24 h with a single administration of PEGylated SPIONs in vivo. The ability of the PEGylated SPIONs to highlight BBB damage by MRI was demonstrated by the colocalization of PEGylated SPIONs with Gd-DTPA after intravenous injection of SPION-PEG/Gd-DTPA into a mouse. The immunohistochemical staining also confirmed the leakage of SPION-PEG from cerebral vessels into parenchyma. This study provides a novel and convenient route for imaging BBB alteration in the experimental ischemic stroke model. PMID:25374303

Liu, Dong-Fang; Qian, Cheng; An, Yan-Li; Chang, Di; Ju, Sheng-Hong; Teng, Gao-Jun

2014-12-21

259

REMOVAL OF ADDED NITRATE IN THE SINGLE, BINARY, AND TERNARY SYSTEMS OF COTTON BURR COMPOST, ZEROVALENT IRON, AND SEDIMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR GROUNDWATER NITRATE REMEDIATION USING PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent research has shown that carbonaceous solid materials and zerovalent iron (Fe0) may potentially be used as media in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to degrade groundwater nitrate via heterotrophic denitrification in the solid carbon system, and via abiotic reduction and ...

260

Beating the Miscibility Barrier between Iron Group Elements and Magnesium by High-Pressure Alloying  

SciTech Connect

Iron and magnesium are almost immiscible at ambient pressure. The low solubility of Mg in Fe is due to a very large size mismatch between the alloy components. However, the compressibility of Mg is much higher than that of Fe, and therefore the difference in atomic sizes between elements decreases dramatically with pressure. Based on the predictions of ab initio calculations, we demonstrate in a series of experiments in a multianvil apparatus and in electrically and laser-heated diamond anvil cells that high pressure promotes solubility of magnesium in iron. At the megabar pressure range, more than 10 at. % of Mg can dissolve in Fe and then the alloy can be quenched to ambient conditions. A generality of the concept of high-pressure alloying between immiscible elements is demonstrated by its application to two other Fe group elements, Co and Ni.

Dubrovinskaia, N. [Bayerisches Geoinstitut, Universitaet Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Lehrstuhl fuer Kristallographie, Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Dubrovinsky, L.; Kantor, I. [Bayerisches Geoinstitut, Universitaet Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Crichton, W. A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble 38043 (France); Dmitriev, V. [Swiss-Norwegian Beam Lines at ESRF, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Prakapenka, V.; Shen, G. [Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Vitos, L.; Johansson, B. [Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Brinellvaegen 23, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, S-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Ahuja, R. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, S-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Abrikosov, I. A. [Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Linkoepings University (Sweden)

2005-12-09

261

Valiant 'Zero-Valent' Effort Restores Contaminated Grounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) are chemical compounds that can contaminate soil and groundwater to the point of irreparability. These substances are only slightly soluble in water, and are much denser than water. Because of their solubility, DNAPLs form separate liquid phases in groundwater, and because of their density, DNAPLs sink in aquifers instead of floating at the water table, making it extremely difficult to detect their presence. If left untreated in the ground, they can taint fresh water sources. Common DNAPLs include chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds such as carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene. Trichloroethylene was used during the early days of the Space Program, as a solvent for flushing rocket engines, and for metal cleaning and degreasing of equipment, electronics, and heavy machinery. As a result, areas of Cape Canaveral s Launch Complex 34, the site of several historic Saturn rocket launches occurring from 1959 to 1968, were polluted with chlorinated DNAPLs. Through the direction and guidance of Dr. Jacqueline Quinn, an environmental engineer in the Spaceport Engineering and Technology Directorate at NASA s Kennedy Space Center, a biodegradable environmental cleanup technology was developed to reductively dechlorinate DNAPL sources in polluted water at Launch Complex 34. It was important for Kennedy to nip this problem in the bud, in light of the fact that the Space Center is also a National Wildlife Refuge, home to thousands of shorebirds, endangered sea turtles and eagles, manatees, alligators, and diverse habitats that include brackish marshes and salt water estuaries. The success in remediating this historic launch site has led to numerous commercial applications that are restoring the health of our environmental surroundings.

2005-01-01

262

Performance of a zerovalent iron reactive barrier for the treatment of arsenic in groundwater: Part 2. Geochemical modeling and solid phase studies  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic uptake processes were evaluated in a zerovalent iron reactive barrier installed at a lead smelting facility using geochemical modeling, solid-phase analysis, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques. Aqueous speciation of arsenic is expected to play a key role in directing arsenic uptake processes. Geochemical modeling reveals contrasting pH-dependencies for As(III) and As(V) precipitation. At the moderately alkaline pH conditions typically encountered in zerovalent iron reactive barriers, As(III) is unlikely to precipitate as an oxide or a sulfide phase. Conversely, increasing pH is expected to drive precipitation of metal arsenates including ferrous arsenate. Bacterially mediated sulfate reduction plays an important role in field installations of granular iron. Neoformed iron sulfides provide surfaces for adsorption of oxyanion and thioarsenic species of As(III) and As(V) and are expected to provide enhanced arsenic removal capacity. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra indicate that arsenic is sequestered in the solid phase as both As(III) and As(V) in coordination environments with O and S. Arsenic removal in the PRB probably results from several pathways, including adsorption to iron oxide and iron sulfide surfaces, and possible precipitation of ferrous arsenate. Corrosion of granular iron appears to result in some As(III) oxidation to As(V) as the proportion of As(V) to As(III) in the solid phase is greater compared to influent groundwater. As(0) was not detected in the PRB materials. These results are broadly comparable to laboratory based studies of arsenic removal by zerovalent iron, but additional complexity is revealed in the field environment, which is largely due to the influence of subsurface microbiota.

Beak, Douglas G.; Wilkin, Richard T.; (EPA)

2009-06-12

263

Dielectric barrier formation and tunneling magnetoresistance effect in strontium iron molybdate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative X-ray diffraction study of the initial single-phase metal-oxide compound-strontium iron molybdate Sr2FeMoO6 - ? (SFMO)-and that subjected to additional isothermal annealing shows that this heat treatment leads to the appearance of a SrMoO4 (SMO) phase. Small-angle neutron scattering measurements indicate that the SMO phase forms a dielectric shell surrounding SFMO grains, which has a characteristic thickness of 2-4 nm and extends above 120 nm. The character of the temperature dependence of the electric resistance corresponds to the metal-type conduction in single-phase SFMO and changes to a semiconductor type in the material with SMO dielectric shells, which is evidence of a tunneling mechanism of charge transfer. This conclusion is confirmed by an increase in the absolute value of the negative magnetoresistance of SFMO due to the appearance of a tunneling magnetoresistance component of the same sign.

Dem'yanov, S. E.; Kalanda, N. A.; Kovalev, L. V.; Avdeev, M. V.; Zheludkevich, M. L.; Garamus, V. M.; Willumeit, R.

2013-06-01

264

Corrosion and environmental-mechanical characterization of iron-base nuclear waste package structural barrier materials. Annual report, FY 1984  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of high-level nuclear waste in deep underground repositories may require the development of waste packages that will keep the radioisotopes contained for up to 1000 y. A number of iron-base materials are being considered for the structural barrier members of waste packages. Their uniform and nonuniform (pitting and intergranular) corrosion behavior and their resistance to stress-corrosion cracking in aqueous environments relevant to salt media are under study at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The purpose of the work is to provide data for a materials degradation model that can ultimately be used to predict the effective lifetime of a waste package overpack in the actual repository environment. The corrosion behavior of the candidate materials was investigated in simulated intrusion brine (essentially NaCl) in flowing autoclave tests at 150/sup 0/C, and in combinations of intrusion/inclusion (high-Mg) brine environments in moist salt tests, also at 150/sup 0/C. Studies utilizing a /sup 60/Co irradiation facility were performed to determine the corrosion resistance of the candidate materials to products of brine radiolysis at dose rates of 2 x 10/sup 3/ and 1 x 10/sup 5/ rad/h and a temperature of 150/sup 0/C. These irradiation-corrosion tests were ''overtests,'' as the irradiation intensities employed were 10 to 1000 times as high as those expected at the surface of a thick-walled waste package. With the exception of the high general corrosion rates found in the tests using moist salt containing high-Mg brines, the ferrous materials exhibited a degree of corrosion resistance that indicates a potentially satisfactory application to waste package structural barrier members in a salt repository environment.

Westerman, R.E.; Haberman, J.H.; Pitman, S.G.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Sigalla, L.A.

1986-03-01

265

Pulsed Magnetic Field Improves the Transport of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles through Cell Barriers  

PubMed Central

Understanding how a magnetic field affects the interaction of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with cells is fundamental to any potential downstream applications of MNPs as gene and drug delivery vehicles. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of how a pulsed magnetic field influences the manner in which MNPs interact with, and penetrate across a cell monolayer. Relative to a constant magnetic field, the rate of MNP uptake and transport across cell monolayers was enhanced by a pulsed magnetic field. MNP transport across cells was significantly inhibited at low temperature under both constant and pulsed magnetic field conditions, consistent with an active mechanism (i.e. endocytosis) mediating MNP transport. Microscopic observations and biochemical analysis indicated that, in a constant magnetic field, transport of MNPs across the cells was inhibited due to the formation of large (>2 ?m) magnetically-induced MNP aggregates, which exceeded the size of endocytic vesicles. Thus, a pulsed magnetic field enhances the cellular uptake and transport of MNPs across cell barriers relative to a constant magnetic field by promoting accumulation while minimizing magnetically-induced MNP aggregates at the cell surface. PMID:23373613

Min, Kyoung Ah; Shin, Meong Cheol; Yu, Faquan; Yang, Meizhu; David, Allan E.; Yang, Victor C.; Rosania, Gus R.

2013-01-01

266

Efflux of Iron from the Cerebrospinal Fluid to the Blood at the Blood-CSF Barrier: Effect of Manganese Exposure  

PubMed Central

The blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCB) resides within the choroid plexus, with the apical side facing the CSF and the basolateral side towards the blood. Previous studies demonstrate that manganese (Mn) exposure in rats disrupts iron (Fe) homeostasis in the blood and CSF. The present study used a primary culture of rat choroidal epithelial cells grown in the two-chamber Transwell system to investigate the transepithelial transport of Fe across the BCB. Free, unbound Fe as [59Fe] was added to the donor chamber and the radioactivity in the acceptor chamber was quantified to determine the direction of Fe fluxes. Under the normal condition, the [59Fe] efflux (from the CSF to the blood) was 128% higher than that of the influx (P < 0.01). Mn exposure significantly increased the efflux rate of [59Fe] (P < 0.01) and the effect was inhibited when the cells were pre-incubated with the antibody against divalent metal transport 1 (DMT1). Moreover, when the siRNA knocked down the cellular DMT1 expression, the elevated Fe uptake caused by Mn exposure in the choroidal epithelial Z310 cells was completely abolished, indicating that Mn may facilitate Fe efflux via a DMT1-mediated transport mechanism. In vivo subchronic exposure to Mn in rats reduced Fe clearance from the CSF, as demonstrated by the ventriculo-cisternal brain perfusion, along with up-regulated mRNAs encoding DMT1 and transferrin receptor (TfR) in the same animals. Taken together, these data suggest that free Fe appears to be favorably transported from the CSF toward the blood by DMT1 and this process can be facilitated by Mn exposure. Enhanced TfR-mediated influx of Fe from the blood and ferroportin-mediated expelling Fe toward the CSF may compromise DMT1-mediated efflux, leading to an increased Fe concentration in the CSF as seen in Mn-exposed animals. PMID:18849539

Wang, Xueqian; Li, G. Jane; Zheng, Wei

2014-01-01

267

Formulation design for target delivery of iron nanoparticles to TCE zones.  

PubMed

Nanoparticles of zero-valent iron (NZVI) are effective reducing agents for some dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminants such as trichloroethylene (TCE). However, target delivery of iron nanoparticles to DNAPL zones in the aquifer remains an elusive feature for NZVI technologies. This work discusses three strategies to deliver iron nanoparticles to DNAPL zones. To this end, iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oleate (OL) ions were used as stable analogs for NZVI. The OL-coated iron oxide nanoparticles are rendered lipophilic via (a) the addition of CaCl2, (b) acidification, or (c) the addition of a cationic surfactant, benzethonium chloride (BC). Mixtures of OL and BC show promise as a target delivery strategy due to the high stability of the nanoparticles in water, and their preferential partition into TCE in batch experiments. Column tests show that while the OL-BC coated iron oxide nanoparticles remain largely mobile in TCE-free columns, a large fraction of these particles are retained in TCE-contaminated columns, confirming the effectiveness of this target delivery strategy. PMID:24096200

Wang, Ziheng; Acosta, Edgar

2013-12-01

268

Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution by iron nanoparticles*  

PubMed Central

Groundwater remediation by nanoparticles has received increasing interest in recent years. This report presents a thorough evaluation of hexavalent chromium removal in aqueous solutions using iron (Fe0) nanoparticles. Cr(VI) is a major pollutant of groundwater. Zero-valent iron, an important natural reductant of Cr(VI), is an option in the remediation of contaminated sites, transforming Cr(VI) to essentially nontoxic Cr(III). At a dose of 0.4 g/L, 100% of Cr(VI) (20 mg/L) was degraded. The Cr(VI) removal efficiency decreased significantly with increasing initial pH. Different Fe0 type was compared in the same conditions. The reactivity was in the order starch-stabilized Fe0 nanoparticles>Fe0 nanoparticles>Fe0 powder>Fe0 filings. Electrochemical analysis of the reaction process led to the conclusion that Cr(OH)3 should be the final product of Cr(VI). Iron nanoparticles are good choice for the remediation of heavy metals in groundwater. PMID:16187417

Niu, Shao-feng; Liu, Yong; Xu, Xin-hua; Lou, Zhang-hua

2005-01-01

269

Rationalization of the barrier height for p-Z-styrene epoxidation by iron(IV)-oxo porphyrin cation radicals with variable axial ligands.  

PubMed

A versatile class of heme monoxygenases involved in many vital functions for human health are the cytochromes P450, which react via a high-valent iron(IV) oxo heme cation radical species called Compound I. One of the key reactions catalyzed by these enzymes is C?C epoxidation of substrates. We report here a systematic study into the intrinsic chemical properties of substrate and oxidant that affect reactivity patterns. To this end, we investigated the effect of styrene and para-substituted styrene epoxidation by Compound I models with either an anionic (chloride) or neutral (acetonitrile) axial ligand. We show, for the first time, that the activation enthalpy of the reaction is determined by the ionization potential of the substrate, the electron affinity of the oxidant, and the strength of the newly formed C-O bond (approximated by the bond dissociation energy, BDE(OH)). We have set up a new valence bond model that enables us to generalize substrate epoxidation reactions by iron(IV)-oxo porphyrin cation-radical oxidants and make predictions of rate constants and reactivities. We show here that electron-withdrawing substituents lead to early transition states, whereas electron-donating groups on the olefin substrate give late transition states. This affects the barrier heights in such a way that electron-withdrawing substituents correlate the barrier height with BDE(OH), while the electron affinity of the oxidant is proportional to the barrier height for substrates with electron-donating substituents. PMID:23822112

Kumar, Devesh; Latifi, Reza; Kumar, Suresh; Rybak-Akimova, Elena V; Sainna, Mala A; de Visser, Sam P

2013-07-15

270

Fe(o)-based bioremediation of aquifers contaminated with mixed wastes  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Disclosed are methods, devices and apparatus for bioremediation of mixed waste aquifers, based on a synergistic combination of reductive treatment using zero-valent iron and anaerobic biotransformations. Also disclosed are methods for in situ and ex situ remediation of groundwater and wastewater via these iron-bacterial compositions in a variety of devices including batch reactors, permeable and semipermeable reactive barriers, flow-through reactors, fluidized bed reactors, and sediment tanks.

2004-04-13

271

LONG-TERM GEOCHEMICAL BEHAVIOR OF A ZEROVALENT IRON PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Passive, in-situ reactive barriers have proven to be viable, cost-effective systems for the remediation of Cr-contaminated groundwater at some sites. Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are installed in the flow-path of groundwater, most typically as vertical treatment walls. Re...

272

Green rust nanoparticle formation, stability and oxidation, and its role in natural and engineered systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly reactive green rust (GR) nanoparticles are believed to play an important role in the geochemistry of water saturated sediments (e.g. hydromorphic soils) and engineered systems where zero-valent iron is used for decontaminating polluted sites (e.g. permeable reactive barriers). The presence of structural Fe2+ within GR and its high specific surface area make it an effective reductant for many inorganic

S. Shaw; L. Benning; I. Ahmed; G. Kakonyi; A. Sumoondur; N. Terrill

2009-01-01

273

Role of Iron Anode Oxidation on Transformation of Chromium by Electrolysis  

PubMed Central

The potential for chemical reduction of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in contaminated water and formation of a stable precipitate by Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) anode electrolysis is evaluated in separated electrodes system. Oxidation of iron electrodes produces ferrous ions causing the development of a reducing environment in the anolyte, chemical reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and formation of stable iron-chromium precipitates. Cr(VI) transformation rates are dependent on the applied electric current density. Increasing the electric current increases the transformation rates; however, the process is more efficient under lower volumetric current density (for example 1.5 mA L?1 in this study). The transformation follows a zero order rate that is dependent on the electric current density. Cr(VI) transformation occurs in the anolyte when the electrodes are separated as well as when the electrolytes (anolyte/catholyte) are mixed, as used in electrocoagulation. The study shows that the transformation occurs in the anolyte as a result of ferrous ion formation and the product is a stable Fe15Cr5(OH)60 precipitate. PMID:23284182

Sarahney, Hussam; Mao, Xuhui; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

2012-01-01

274

Optimization of soil mixing technology through metallic iron addition.  

SciTech Connect

Enhanced soil mixing is a process used to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from soil. In this process, also known as soil mixing with thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction, or SM/TESVE, a soil mixing apparatus breaks up and mixes a column of soil up to 9 m (30 ft) deep; simultaneously, hot air is blown through the soil. The hot air carries the VOCs to the surface where they are collected and safely disposed of. This technology is cost effective at high VOC concentrations, but it becomes cost prohibitive at low concentrations. Argonne National Laboratory-East conducted a project to evaluate ways of improving the effectiveness of this system. The project investigated the feasibility of integrating the SM/TESVE process with three soil treatment processes--soil vapor extraction, augmented indigenous biodegradation, and zero-valent iron addition. Each of these technologies was considered a polishing treatment designed to remove the contaminants left behind by enhanced soil mixing. The experiment was designed to determine if the overall VOC removal effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the SM/TESVE process could be improved by integrating this approach with one of the polishing treatment systems.

Moos, L. P.

1999-01-15

275

Iron oxide nanotube layer fabricated with electrostatic anodization for heterogeneous Fenton like reaction.  

PubMed

Iron oxide nanotubes (INT) were fabricated with potentiostatic anodization of zero valent iron foil in 1M Na2SO4 containing 0.5wt% NH4F electrolyte, holding the potential at 20, 40, and 60V for 20min, respectively. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry were used to evaluate the morphology and crystalline structure of the INT film. The potential of 40V for 20min was observed to be optimal to produce an optimal catalytic film. Cyanide dissolved in water was degraded through the Fenton-like reaction using the INT film with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In case of INT-40V in the presence of H2O2 3%, the first-order rate constant was found to be 1.7×10(-2)min(-1), and 1.2×10(-2)min(-1) with commercial hematite powder. Degradation of cyanide was much less with only H2O2. Therefore, this process proposed in this work can be an excellent alternative to traditional catalysts for Fenton-like reaction. PMID:24704548

Jang, Jun-Won; Park, Jae-Woo

2014-05-30

276

pH effect on the synthesis, shear properties, and homogeneity of iron-crosslinked hyaluronic acid-based gel/adhesion barrier.  

PubMed

Iron-crosslinked hyaluronic acid hydrogel (FeHA) has been used to reduce postsurgical adhesions in patients undergoing open, gynecological surgery. The performance of FeHA gel as an adhesion barrier device is influenced by many factors, including the physicochemical gel properties, which, in turn, depend on the chemistry and conditions of the device manufacturing. In this work, we demonstrate the effect of reaction pH on rheology and homogeneity of FeHA gels formulated in house and also compare the viscoelastic properties of FeHA gels with that of uncrosslinked HA solution of similar HA concentration and ionic strength. Dynamic mechanical analyses provide evidence that the reaction of HA with Fe(III) ions leads to the formation of "weak" gels. The viscoelastic properties and homogeneity of FeHA gels vary depending on the pH at which crosslinking was initiated. When solution pH, at the start of crosslinking, varied between 1.5 and 3, the low-shear rate viscosity of FeHA varied between 10,000 and 40,000 cPoise (10-40 Pa s). The highest steady-state shear viscosity and viscoelasticity were measured when pH was around 2.6, which is similar to the pH-dependent viscoelasticity of pure HA solution. Initiating HA crosslinking at pH ? 3 led to relatively homogenous solutions, while crosslinking higher pH > 3 caused instantaneous gel precipitation and inhomogeneities. Sensitivity of FeHA gel properties to small variations in reaction pH clearly supports the need for a tight manufacturing control during medical device fabrication. PMID:20665680

Isayeva, Irada; Sarkar Das, Srilekha; Chang, Andrew; Defoe, Jacqueline; Luu, Hoan-My Do; Vorvolakos, Katherine; Patwardhan, Dinesh; Whang, Joyce; Pollack, Steven

2010-10-01

277

Performance Optimization of Metallic Iron and Iron Oxide Nanomaterials for Treatment of Impaired Water Supplies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron nanomaterials including nanoscale zero valent iron (NZVI), NZVI-based bimetallic reductants (e.g., Pd/NZVI) and naturally occurring nanoscale iron mineral phases represent promising treatment tools for impaired water supplies. However, questions pertaining to fundamental and practical aspects of their reactivity may limit their performance during applications. For NZVI treatment of pollutant source zones, a major hurdle is its limited reactive lifetime. In Chapter 2, we report the longevity of NZVI towards 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane (1,1,1,2-TeCA) and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in oxygen-free systems with various anionic co-solutes (e.g., Cl-, SO4 2-, ClO4-, HCO3 -, NO3-). Trends in longevity provide evidence that surface-associated Fe(II) species are responsible for Cr(VI) reduction, whereas 1,1,1,2-TeCA reduction depends on the accessibility of Fe(0) at the NZVI particle surface. In Chapter 3, we show that dithionite, previously utilized for in situ redox manipulation, can restore the reducing capacity of passivated NZVI treatment systems. Air oxidation of NZVI at pH ? 8 quickly exhausted reactivity despite a significant fraction of Fe(0) persisting in the particle core. Reduction of this passive layer by low dithionite concentrations restored suspension reactivity to levels of unaged NZVI, with multiple dithionite additions further improving pollutant removal. In Chapter 4, measurements of solvent kinetic isotope effects reveals that optimal Pd/NZVI reactivity results from accumulation of atomic hydrogen, which only occurs in NZVI-based systems due to their higher rates of corrosion. However, atomic hydrogen formation only occurs in aged Pd/NZVI suspensions for ˜2 weeks, after which any reactivity enhancement likely results from galvanic corrosion of Fe(0). Finally, the activity of hybrid nanostructures consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes decorated with of hematite nanoparticles (alphaFe 2O3/MWCNT) is explored in Chapter 5. Sorption of Cu(II) and Cr(VI) is enhanced in hybrid nanostructure systems beyond what would be expected from simple additive sorption capacities of their building blocks. The enhanced sorption capacity is in part derived from the greater surface area of hematite nanoparticles immobilized on MWCNTs relative to aggregated hematite suspensions. The hybrid alphaFe2O3/MWCNT may also exhibit unique surface chemistry, as supported by the tunable values of zeta potential measured as a function of the mass of alphaFe2O 3 deposited on the MWCNTs.

Xie, Yang

278

Perchlorate reduction using electrochemically induced pitting corrosion of zero-valent titanium  

E-print Network

reduced to chloride using electrochemically developed pitting corrosion on Ti(0). Perchlorate reduction was believed to be caused by an active reductant (dissolved Ti(II)) during the pitting corrosion of Ti(0). The rate of perchlorate reduction...

Lee, Chun Woo

2009-05-15

279

Modeling the injection of non-Newtonian shear-thinning dispersions of iron particles in porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of groundwater remediation, an increasing interest has been devoted to the use of nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles (NZVI and MZVI, respectively). MZVI and NZVI are not stable when dispersed in water, due to the occurrence of fast aggregation and sedimentation. Consequently, the use of shear thinning solutions of green biopolymers has been recently studied as kinetic stabilizers and viscous carrier for the delivery of MZVI and NZVI in the subsurface. Shear thinning fluids exhibit high viscosity in static conditions, improving the colloidal stability, and lower viscosity at high flow rates enabling the injection at limited pressures. In this work, co-funded by European Union project AQUAREHAB (FP7 - Grant Agreement Nr. 226565), a modeling approach is described, and implemented in E-MNM1D software (www.polito.it/groundwater/software), to simulate the transport in porous media of nanoscale iron slurries. Colloid transport mechanisms are controlled by particle-collector and particle-particle interactions, usually modeled using a non equilibrium kinetic model accounting for deposition and release processes. The key aspects included in the E-MNM1D are clogging phenomena (i.e. reduction of porosity and permeability due to particles deposition), and the rheological properties of the carrier fluid (in this project, guar gum solution). The influence of colloid transport on porosity, permeability, and fluid viscosity is explicitly lumped into the model and the shear-thinning nature of the iron slurries is described by a modified Darcy law generalized for non Newtonian fluids. Since during the injection in wells the velocity field is not constant over the distance, E-MNM1D was modified in order to account for variable colloidal transport coefficients, thus allowing the estimation of the radius of influence during a full scale intervention.

sethi, R.; Tosco, T.; Gastone, F.

2013-12-01

280

Iron and Iron Deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... other types of foods eaten at the same meal. Foods containing heme iron (meat, poultry, and fish) ... heme iron absorption when eaten at the same meal. Substances (such as polyphenols, phytates, or calcium) that ...

281

Graduate Student Seminar Series, Fall 2010 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering  

E-print Network

. Monday November 22 Yun-ta Yeh Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide into Oxy-Hydrocarbons #12 Inactivation by Nano Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) Amended Cation Exchange Resin (CER) Monday December 6 Yue Wang

Kirby, James T.

282

Lead exposure results in hearing loss and disruption of the cochlear blood-labyrinth barrier and the protective role of iron supplement.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the impact of lead (Pb(2+)) on the auditory system and its molecular mechanisms. Pb(AC)2 was administrated to male SD rats aged 21-22 d for 8 weeks at a dose of 300ppm. Male guinea pigs were also administrated with 50mg/kg Pb(AC)2 two times a week for 8 weeks. The auditory nerve-brainstem evoked responses (ABR) was recorded and the morphological changes of the outer hair cells (OHCs) were observed with Phallodin-FITC staining. In addition, the integrity of the blood-labyrinth barrier was observed by TEM and the expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs) in the cochlear stria vascularis was determined by immunofluorescence. Our results showed that Pb(2+) exposure resulted in increased ABR threshold in both rats and guinea pigs. Abnormal shapes and loss of OHCs were found in the cochlear basilar membrane following the Pb(2+) exposure. TEM study showed that the tight junctions between the endothelial cells and the border cells were lost and disrupted. Down-regulation of the occludin, ZO-1 and claudin-5 in the stria vascularis suggested that the increased permeability of the blood-labyrinth barrier may attribute to the Pb(2+)-induced decrease of TJPs' expression. Additionally, Fe(2+) supplement partly reversed the Pb(2+)-induced hearing loss and down-regulation of TJPs. Taken together, these data indicate that the disruption of blood-labyrinth barrier by down-regulating the expression of TJPs plays a role in the Pb(2+)-induced hearing loss, and Fe(2+) supplement protects the auditory system against Pb(2+)-induced toxicity and may have significant clinical implications. PMID:24144481

Liu, Xinqin; Zheng, Gang; Wu, Yongxiang; Shen, Xuefeng; Jing, Jinfei; Yu, Tao; Song, Han; Chen, Jingyuan; Luo, Wenjing

2013-12-01

283

Simultaneous adsorption and reduction of U(VI) on reduced graphene oxide-supported nanoscale zerovalent iron.  

PubMed

The reduced graphene oxide-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI/rGO) composites were synthesized by chemical deposition method and were characterized by SEM, high resolution TEM, Raman and potentiometric acid-base titrations. The characteristic results showed that the nZVI nanoparticles can be uniformly dispersed on the surface of rGO. The removal of U(VI) on nZVI/rGO composites as a function of contact time, pH and U(VI) initial concentration was investigated by batch technique. The removal kinetics of U(VI) on nZVI and nZVI/rGO were well simulated by a pseudo-first-order kinetic model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, respectively. The presence of rGO on nZVI nanoparticles increased the reaction rate and removal capacity of U(VI) significantly, which was attributed to the chemisorbed OH(-) groups of rGO and the massive enrichment of Fe(2+) on rGO surface by XPS analysis. The XRD analysis revealed that the presence of rGO retarded the transformation of iron corrosion products from magnetite/maghemite to lepidocrocite. According to the fitting of EXAFS spectra, the UC (at ?2.9?) and UFe (at ?3.2?) shells were observed, indicating the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes on nZVI/rGO composites. Therefore, the nZVI/rGO composites can be suitable as efficient materials for the in-situ remediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater in the environmental pollution management. PMID:25194557

Sun, Yubing; Ding, Congcong; Cheng, Wencai; Wang, Xiangke

2014-09-15

284

Reductive Sequestration Of Pertechnetate (99TcO4–) By Nano Zerovalent Iron (nZVI) Transformed By Abiotic Sulfide  

SciTech Connect

Under anoxic conditions, soluble 99TcO4– can be reduced to less soluble TcO2•nH2O, but the oxide is highly susceptible to reoxidation. Here we investigate an alternative strategy for remediation of Tc-contaminated groundwater whereby sequestration as Tc sulfide is favored by sulfidic conditions stimulated by nano zero-valent iron (nZVI). nZVI was pre-exposed to increasing concentrations of sulfide in simulated Hanford groundwater for 24 hrs to mimic the stages of aquifer sulfate reduction and onset of biotic sulfidogenesis. Solid-phase characterizations of the sulfidated nZVI confirmed the formation of nanocrystalline FeS phases, but higher S/Fe ratios (>0.112) did not result in the formation of significantly more FeS. The kinetics of Tc sequestration by these materials showed faster Tc removal rates with increasing S/Fe between S/Fe = 0–0.056, but decreasing Tc removal rates with S/Fe > 0.224. The more favorable Tc removal kinetics at low S/Fe could be due to a higher affinity of TcO4– for FeS (over iron oxides), and electron microscopy confirmed that the majority of the Tc was associated with FeS phases. The inhibition of Tc removal at high S/Fe appears to have been caused by excess HS–. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that as S/Fe increased, Tc speciation shifted from TcO2•nH2O to TcS2. The most substantial change of Tc speciation occurred at low S/Fe, coinciding with the rapid increase of Tc removal rate. This agreement further confirms the importance of FeS in Tc sequestration.

Fan, Dimin; Anitori, Roberto; Tebo, Bradley M.; Tratnyek, Paul G.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bowden, Mark E.; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce W.

2013-04-24

285

The influence of humic acid and clay content on the transport of polymer-coated iron nanoparticles through sand.  

PubMed

The introduction of nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) into the subsurface has recently received significant attention as a potentially effective method for remediation of source zones of chlorinated solvents present as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPL). One of the challenges in the deployment of nZVI is to achieve good subsurface nZVI mobility to permit delivery of the nZVI to the target treatment zone. Stabilization of nZVI with various polymers has shown promise for enhancing nZVI subsurface mobility, but the impact of subsurface conditions on nZVI mobility has not been fully explored. In this study, the effect of humic acid and kaolinite on the transport of polymer-stabilized nZVI (carboxylmethyl cellulose-surface modified nZVI, CMC90K-RNIP) in sand was investigated using column experiments. In addition, effects of electrolytes on the stability of CMC90K-RNIP in the presence of humic acid, and the stability of humic acid-coated reactive nanoscale iron particles (HA-RNIP) at various humic acid concentrations were investigated. Humic acid enhanced the mobility of bare RNIP, whereas the transport of CMC90K-RNIP was not significantly affected by humic acid injected as a background solution, except at the highest concentration of 500mg/L. At lower pore water velocity, the effect of humic acid on the transport of CMC90K-RNIP was greater than that at high water velocity. Adding kaolinite up to 2% by weight to the sand column reduced the retention of CMC90K-RNIP, but further increases in kaolinite content (to 5%) did not significantly affect nZVI retention. The impact of kaolinite on nZVI retention was more pronounced at lower pore water velocities. PMID:25079234

Jung, Bahngmi; O'Carroll, Denis; Sleep, Brent

2014-10-15

286

In situ testing of metallic iron nanoparticle mobility and reactivity in a shallow granular aquifer.  

PubMed

This paper describes the results of a series of single well push-pull tests conducted to evaluate the in situ transport of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) stabilized nanoscale zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles in saturated sediments and their reactivity toward chlorinated ethenes. CMC-stabilized nanoscale ZVI particles were synthesized on site by reducing ferrous ions with borohydride in water in the presence of CMC. Nanoscale ZVI and bimetallic ZVI-Pd nanoparticle suspensions were prepared and injected into depth-discrete aquifer zones during three push-pull tests. The injected nanoparticle suspensions contained a conservative tracer (Br(-)) and were allowed to reside in the aquifer pore space for various time periods prior to recovery by groundwater extraction. The comparison between Br(-) and Fe concentrations in extracted groundwater samples indicated that the CMC-stabilized nanoscale ZVI particles were mobile in the aquifer but appeared to lose mobility with time, likely due to the interactions between particles and aquifer sediments. After 13 h in the aquifer, the nanoscale ZVI particles became essentially immobilized. During the push-pull test with injection of Fe-Pd nanoparticles, ethane concentrations increased from non-detectable to 65 microg/L in extracted groundwater within less than 2 h of reaction time, indicating the rapid abiotic degradation of chlorinated ethenes. The amount of total chlorinated ethene mass destroyed was low presumably because the injected solutions "pushed" the dissolved chlorinated ethenes away from the injection well, without substantial mixing, and because stationary (sorbed) chlorinated ethene mass on the aquifer sediments was low. In situ remediation programs using highly reactive metallic nanoparticles should incorporate delivery methods that maintain high groundwater pore velocities during injection to increase advective transport distances (e.g. groundwater circulation wells). Also, source zones with abundant stationary contaminant mass that is accessible by advective transport should be targeted for remediation with the nanoparticles, as opposed to portions of dissolved plumes, in order to maximize the in situ destruction of contaminants. PMID:20542350

Bennett, Peter; He, Feng; Zhao, Dongye; Aiken, Brian; Feldman, Lester

2010-07-30

287

In situ testing of metallic iron nanoparticle mobility and reactivity in a shallow granular aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the results of a series of single well push-pull tests conducted to evaluate the in situ transport of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) stabilized nanoscale zero-valent iron (ZVI) particles in saturated sediments and their reactivity toward chlorinated ethenes. CMC-stabilized nanoscale ZVI particles were synthesized on site by reducing ferrous ions with borohydride in water in the presence of CMC. Nanoscale ZVI and bimetallic ZVI-Pd nanoparticle suspensions were prepared and injected into depth-discrete aquifer zones during three push-pull tests. The injected nanoparticle suspensions contained a conservative tracer (Br -) and were allowed to reside in the aquifer pore space for various time periods prior to recovery by groundwater extraction. The comparison between Br - and Fe concentrations in extracted groundwater samples indicated that the CMC-stabilized nanoscale ZVI particles were mobile in the aquifer but appeared to lose mobility with time, likely due to the interactions between particles and aquifer sediments. After 13 h in the aquifer, the nanoscale ZVI particles became essentially immobilized. During the push-pull test with injection of Fe-Pd nanoparticles, ethane concentrations increased from non-detectable to 65 ?g/L in extracted groundwater within less than 2 h of reaction time, indicating the rapid abiotic degradation of chlorinated ethenes. The amount of total chlorinated ethene mass destroyed was low presumably because the injected solutions "pushed" the dissolved chlorinated ethenes away from the injection well, without substantial mixing, and because stationary (sorbed) chlorinated ethene mass on the aquifer sediments was low. In situ remediation programs using highly reactive metallic nanoparticles should incorporate delivery methods that maintain high groundwater pore velocities during injection to increase advective transport distances (e.g. groundwater circulation wells). Also, source zones with abundant stationary contaminant mass that is accessible by advective transport should be targeted for remediation with the nanoparticles, as opposed to portions of dissolved plumes, in order to maximize the in situ destruction of contaminants.

Bennett, Peter; He, Feng; Zhao, Dongye; Aiken, Brian; Feldman, Lester

2010-07-01

288

Thermal barrier coating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high temperature oxidation resistant, thermal barrier coating system is disclosed for a nickel cobalt, or iron base alloy substrate. An inner metal bond coating contacts the substrate, and a thermal barrier coating covers the bond coating. NiCrAlR, FeCrAlR, and CoCrAlR alloys are satisfactory as bond coating compositions where R=Y or Yb. These alloys contain, by weight, 24.9-36.7% chromium, 5.4-18.5% aluminum, and 0.05 to 1.55% yttrium or 0.05 to 0.53% ytterbium. The coatings containing ytterbium are preferred over those containing yttrium. An outer thermal barrier coating of partial stabilized zirconium oxide (zirconia) which is between 6% and 8%, by weight, of yttrium oxide (yttria) covers the bond coating. Partial stabilization provides a material with superior durability. Partially stabilized zirconia consists of mixtures of cubic, tetragonal, and monoclinic phases.

Stecura, S. (inventor)

1984-01-01

289

Characterization of corrosion products in the permeable reactive barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of geochemical processes and microbial activity has been a major concern for the long-term performance of reactive\\u000a iron barriers because corrosion products and precipitates during the water treatment with reactive materials will decrease\\u000a the reactivity and permeability of the iron bed. This study characterizes corrosion products in reactive iron barrier as well\\u000a as evaluates the effect of the

Y. Roh; S. Y. Lee; M. P. Elless

2000-01-01

290

Vehicle barrier  

DOEpatents

A vehicle security barrier which can be conveniently placed across a gate opening as well as readily removed from the gate opening to allow for easy passage. The security barrier includes a barrier gate in the form of a cable/gate member in combination with laterally attached pipe sections fixed by way of the cable to the gate member and lateral, security fixed vertical pipe posts. The security barrier of the present invention provides for the use of cable restraints across gate openings to provide necessary security while at the same time allowing for quick opening and closing of the gate areas without compromising security.

Hirsh, Robert A. (Bethel Park, PA)

1991-01-01

291

Guar gum solutions for improved delivery of iron particles in porous media (part 1): porous medium rheology and guar gum-induced clogging.  

PubMed

The present work is the first part of a comprehensive study on the use of guar gum to improve delivery of microscale zero-valent iron particles in contaminated aquifers. Guar gum solutions exhibit peculiar shear thinning properties, with high viscosity in static conditions and lower viscosity in dynamic conditions: this is beneficial both for the storage of MZVI dispersions, and also for the injection in porous media. In the present paper, the processes associated with guar gum injection in porous media are studied performing single-step and multi-step filtration tests in sand-packed columns. The experimental results of single-step tests performed by injecting guar gum solutions prepared at several concentrations and applying different dissolution procedures evidenced that the presence of residual undissolved polymeric particles in the guar gum solution may have a relevant negative impact on the permeability of the porous medium, resulting in evident clogging. The most effective preparation procedure which minimizes the presence of residual particles is dissolution in warm water (60°C) followed by centrifugation (procedure T60C). The multi-step tests (i.e. injection of guar gum at constant concentration with a step increase of flow velocity), performed at three polymer concentrations (1.5, 3 and 4g/l) provided information on the rheological properties of guar gum solutions when flowing through a porous medium at variable discharge rates, which mimic the injection in radial geometry. An experimental protocol was defined for the rheological characterization of the fluids in porous media, and empirical relationships were derived for the quantification of rheological properties and clogging with variable injection rate. These relationships will be implemented in the second companion paper (Part II) in a radial transport model for the simulation of large-scale injection of MZVI-guar gum slurries. PMID:25065767

Gastone, Francesca; Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea

2014-10-01

292

Guar gum solutions for improved delivery of iron particles in porous media (Part 1): Porous medium rheology and guar gum-induced clogging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work is the first part of a comprehensive study on the use of guar gum to improve delivery of microscale zero-valent iron particles in contaminated aquifers. Guar gum solutions exhibit peculiar shear thinning properties, with high viscosity in static conditions and lower viscosity in dynamic conditions: this is beneficial both for the storage of MZVI dispersions, and also for the injection in porous media. In the present paper, the processes associated with guar gum injection in porous media are studied performing single-step and multi-step filtration tests in sand-packed columns. The experimental results of single-step tests performed by injecting guar gum solutions prepared at several concentrations and applying different dissolution procedures evidenced that the presence of residual undissolved polymeric particles in the guar gum solution may have a relevant negative impact on the permeability of the porous medium, resulting in evident clogging. The most effective preparation procedure which minimizes the presence of residual particles is dissolution in warm water (60 °C) followed by centrifugation (procedure T60C). The multi-step tests (i.e. injection of guar gum at constant concentration with a step increase of flow velocity), performed at three polymer concentrations (1.5, 3 and 4 g/l) provided information on the rheological properties of guar gum solutions when flowing through a porous medium at variable discharge rates, which mimic the injection in radial geometry. An experimental protocol was defined for the rheological characterization of the fluids in porous media, and empirical relationships were derived for the quantification of rheological properties and clogging with variable injection rate. These relationships will be implemented in the second companion paper (Part II) in a radial transport model for the simulation of large-scale injection of MZVI-guar gum slurries.

Gastone, Francesca; Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea

2014-10-01

293

Iron overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Iron is an ingredient in many mineral and vitamin supplements. Iron supplements are also sold by themselves. Types include: Ferrous sulfate (Feosol, Slow Fe) Ferrous gluconate (Fergon) Ferrous fumarate (Femiron, Feostat) Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

294

Eat Iron?!!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To gain an understanding of mixtures and the concept of separation of mixtures, students use strong magnets to find the element of iron in iron-fortified breakfast cereal flakes. Through this activity, they see how the iron component of this heterogeneous mixture (cereal) retains its properties and can thus be separated by physical means.

NSF GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

295

Guar gum solutions for improved delivery of iron particles in porous media (Part 2): Iron transport tests and modeling in radial geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work column transport tests were performed in order to study the mobility of guar-gum suspensions of microscale zero-valent iron particles (MZVI) in porous media. The results were analyzed with the purpose of implementing a radial model for the design of full scale interventions. The transport tests were performed using several concentrations of shear thinning guar gum solutions as stabilizer (1.5, 3 and 4 g/l) and applying different flow rates (Darcy velocity in the range 1 · 10- 4 to 2 · 10- 3 m/s), representative of different distances from the injection point in the radial domain. Empirical relationships, expressing the dependence of the deposition and release parameters on the flow velocity, were derived by inverse fitting of the column transport tests using a modified version of E-MNM1D (Tosco and Sethi, 2010) and the user interface MNMs (www.polito.it/groundwater/software). They were used to develop a comprehensive transport model of MZVI suspensions in radial coordinates, called E-MNM1R, which takes into account the non Newtonian (shear thinning) rheological properties of the dispersant fluid and the porous medium clogging associated with filtration and sedimentation in the porous medium of both MZVI and guar gum residual undissolved particles. The radial model was run in forward mode to simulate the injection of MZVI dispersed in guar gum in conditions similar to those applied in the column transport tests. In a second stage, we demonstrated how the model can be used as a valid tool for the design and the optimization of a full scale intervention. The simulation results indicated that several concurrent aspects are to be taken into account for the design of a successful delivery of MZVI/guar gum slurries via permeation injection, and a compromise is necessary between maximizing the radius of influence of the injection and minimizing the injection pressure, to guarantee a sufficiently homogeneous distribution of the particles around the injection point and to prevent preferential flow paths.

Tosco, Tiziana; Gastone, Francesca; Sethi, Rajandrea

2014-10-01

296

Guar gum solutions for improved delivery of iron particles in porous media (part 2): iron transport tests and modeling in radial geometry.  

PubMed

In the present work column transport tests were performed in order to study the mobility of guar-gum suspensions of microscale zero-valent iron particles (MZVI) in porous media. The results were analyzed with the purpose of implementing a radial model for the design of full scale interventions. The transport tests were performed using several concentrations of shear thinning guar gum solutions as stabilizer (1.5, 3 and 4g/l) and applying different flow rates (Darcy velocity in the range 1·10(-4) to 2·10(-3)m/s), representative of different distances from the injection point in the radial domain. Empirical relationships, expressing the dependence of the deposition and release parameters on the flow velocity, were derived by inverse fitting of the column transport tests using a modified version of E-MNM1D (Tosco and Sethi, 2010) and the user interface MNMs (www.polito.it/groundwater/software). They were used to develop a comprehensive transport model of MZVI suspensions in radial coordinates, called E-MNM1R, which takes into account the non Newtonian (shear thinning) rheological properties of the dispersant fluid and the porous medium clogging associated with filtration and sedimentation in the porous medium of both MZVI and guar gum residual undissolved particles. The radial model was run in forward mode to simulate the injection of MZVI dispersed in guar gum in conditions similar to those applied in the column transport tests. In a second stage, we demonstrated how the model can be used as a valid tool for the design and the optimization of a full scale intervention. The simulation results indicated that several concurrent aspects are to be taken into account for the design of a successful delivery of MZVI/guar gum slurries via permeation injection, and a compromise is necessary between maximizing the radius of influence of the injection and minimizing the injection pressure, to guarantee a sufficiently homogeneous distribution of the particles around the injection point and to prevent preferential flow paths. PMID:25063698

Tosco, Tiziana; Gastone, Francesca; Sethi, Rajandrea

2014-10-01

297

Barrier Boosting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boosting algorithms like AdaBoost and Arc-GV are iterative strategies to minimize a constrained objective function, equivalent to Barrier algorithms. Based on this new understanding it is shown that convergence of Boosting-type algorithms becomes simpler to prove and we outline directions to de- velop further Boosting schemes. In particular a new Boosting technique for regression - -Boost - is proposed.

Gunnar Rätsch; Manfred K. Warmuth; Sebastian Mika; Takashi Onoda; Steven Lemm; Klaus-robert Müller

2000-01-01

298

Transport of Iron Particles in the Silica Aquifers: Effect of Water Chemistry and Carboxy-Methyl Cellulose Polymer Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zero-valent iron particles are employed to remediate subsurface areas contaminated by chlorinated compounds, degrading them into less harmful substances. An aspect of major importance when assessing the viability of the technology is the ability of the particles to migrate in the subsurface reaching the contaminant source zone. Particle transport is influenced by particle adhesion onto geological substrates, since in the presence of strong adhesion particles are retained and their transport is hindered. Iron particles are generally coated with polymeric materials to prevent their rapid aggregation, and such coatings are expected to affect the surface properties and thus iron particle transport. This study investigates the forces of interaction between bare and carboxy-methyl cellulose CMC coated iron particles and silica (SiO2), to assess the influence of CMC coatings on iron particle adhesion. Atomic force spectroscopy experiments were conducted to measure the interactions between uncoated iron particles and silica in ultra pure water, NaCl and CaCl2 solutions at concentrations of 100 mM, as well as in solutions buffered with acetate and NaHCO3 (pH= 4 and 8 respectively). At pH values below 8 attractive interactions were observed, suggesting that silica could effectively retain the particles due to electrostatic attraction between negatively charged silica and positively charged iron particles. In contrast, at pH values of 8 the forces of interactions were repulsive, possibly because at this pH the positive charge on the iron surface is neutralized and repulsive hydration forces dominate. The interactions between SiO2 and CMC coated iron particles were repulsive in ultra pure water, as well as in solutions buffered with acetate or NaHCO3, and neutral in 100 mM NaCl solutions. In 100 mM CaCl2 solutions the forces of interaction were either neutral or attractive, suggesting that the presence of Ca2+ ions favors attachment of CMC to SiO2. Similar observations were previously reported with regard to the sorption of CMC onto talc in the presence of Ca2+ ions (1). CMC adhesion onto SiO2 was further investigated with the aid of a quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. Under the conditions studied CMC sorption onto SiO2 was reversible, as can be explained due to the electrostatic repulsion between silica and CMC. The point of zero charge for silica is about 3, while CMC completely dissociates, becoming negatively charged at pH values greater than 5.5, and partly dissociated bearing a smaller negative charge at lower pH values. The lack and/or the weakness of CMC adhesion in SiO2 indicates that CMC coatings promote iron particle migration, while uncoated iron particles would be more strongly retained at pH values below 8. (1) Khraisheh M., Holland C., Creany C., Harris P., Parolis L.. Effect of molecular weight and concentration on the adsorption of CMC onto talc at different ionic strengths. Int. J. Miner. Process. (2005) 75.

Pensini, E.; Sleep, B. E.; Yip, C.

2011-12-01

299

Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia  

PubMed Central

Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in adulthood. The disease is refractory to oral iron treatment but shows a slow response to intravenous iron injections and partial correction of the anemia. To date, 40 different Matriptase-2 mutations have been reported, affecting all the functional domains of the large ectodomain of the protein. In vitro experiments on transfected cells suggest that Matriptase-2 cleaves Hemojuvelin, a major regulator of hepcidin expression and that this function is altered in this genetic form of anemia. In contrast to the low/undetectable hepcidin levels observed in acquired iron deficiency, in patients with Matriptase-2 deficiency, serum hepcidin is inappropriately high for the low iron status and accounts for the absent/delayed response to oral iron treatment. A challenge for the clinicians and pediatricians is the recognition of the disorder among iron deficiency and other microcytic anemias commonly found in pediatric patients. The current treatment of iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is based on parenteral iron administration; in the future, manipulation of the hepcidin pathway with the aim of suppressing it might become an alternative therapeutic approach. PMID:23729726

De Falco, Luigia; Sanchez, Mayka; Silvestri, Laura; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Iolascon, Achille; Gouya, Laurent; Camaschella, Clara; Beaumont, Carole

2013-01-01

300

Cross-hole radar scanning of two vertical, permeable, reactive-iron walls at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A pilot-scale study was conducted by the U.S. Army National Guard (USANG) at the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to assess the use of a hydraulic-fracturing method to create vertical, permeable walls of zero-valent iron to passively remediate ground water contaminated with chlorinated solvents. The study was conducted near the source area of the Chemical Spill-10 (CS-10) plume, a plume containing chlorinated solvents that underlies the MMR. Ground-water contamination near the source area extends from about 24 m (meters) to 35 m below land surface. The USANG designed two reactive-iron walls to be 12 m long and positioned 24 to 37 m below land surface to intersect and remediate part of the CS-10 plume.Because iron, as an electrical conductor, absorbs electromagnetic energy, the US Geological Survey used a cross-hole common-depth, radar scanning method to assess the continuity and to estimate the lateral and vertical extent of the two reactive-iron walls. The cross-hole radar surveys were conducted in boreholes on opposite sides of the iron injection zones using electric-dipole antennas with dominant center frequencies of 100 and 250 MHz. Significant decreases in the radar-pulse amplitudes observed in scans that traversed the injection zones were interpreted by comparing field data to results of two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain numerical models and laboratory-scale physical models.The numerical and physical models simulate a wall of perfectly conducting material embedded in saturated sand. Results from the numerical and physical models show that the amplitude of the radar pulse transmitted across the edge of a conductive wall is about 43 percent of the amplitude of a radar pulse transmitted across background material. The amplitude of a radar pulse transmitted through a hole in a conductive wall increases as the aperture of the hole increases. The modeling results indicate that holes with an aperture of less than 40 percent of the dominant wavelength of the radar pulse are not likely to be detected.Based on the results of the numerical and physical modeling, the decreases in radar-pulse amplitudes observed in scans traversing the injection zones are interpreted as electrically conductive zones that outline the distribution of iron. The area interpreted as iron in the northern A-wall contains two zones -- an upper zone about 10 m wide, extending from about 25 to 31 m below land surface, and a lower zone about 8 m wide, extending from 31.5 to 34.5 m below land surface. The area interpreted as iron in the southern B-wall is about 9 m wide, extending from about 27 to 34.5 m below land surface. No discrete holes were interpreted in either the A- or B-wall zones.The interpretation of the field data suggests that (1) the hydraulic-fracturing method introduced iron into the subsurface, but not in the dimensions originally proposed; (2) the iron within the treatment zones is distributed in a generally continuous manner; and (3) excluding the discontinuity in the A-wall, holes within the iron treatment zone, if any, exist at scales smaller than about 10 cm, the resolution limit of the radar antennas and acquisition geometry used for this study. The cross-hole radar method appears to have been an effective method for delineating the distribution of iron in the two walls; however, the veracity of the results cannot be ascertained without excavation or drilling into the treatment zone.

Lane, J.W., Jr.; Joesten, P.K.; Savoie, J.G.

2001-01-01

301

Combined Therapy of Iron Chelator and Antioxidant Completely Restores Brain Dysfunction Induced by Iron Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background Excessive iron accumulation leads to iron toxicity in the brain; however the underlying mechanism is unclear. We investigated the effects of iron overload induced by high iron-diet consumption on brain mitochondrial function, brain synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Iron chelator (deferiprone) and antioxidant (n-acetyl cysteine) effects on iron-overload brains were also studied. Methodology Male Wistar rats were fed either normal diet or high iron-diet consumption for 12 weeks, after which rats in each diet group were treated with vehicle or deferiprone (50 mg/kg) or n-acetyl cysteine (100 mg/kg) or both for another 4 weeks. High iron-diet consumption caused brain iron accumulation, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired brain synaptic plasticity and cognition, blood-brain-barrier breakdown, and brain apoptosis. Although both iron chelator and antioxidant attenuated these deleterious effects, combined therapy provided more robust results. Conclusion In conclusion, this is the first study demonstrating that combined iron chelator and anti-oxidant therapy completely restored brain function impaired by iron overload. PMID:24400127

Sripetchwandee, Jirapas; Pipatpiboon, Noppamas; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn

2014-01-01

302

Iron deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency remains one of the world’s greatest public health problems. Globally it is the greatest contributor to anaemia, affecting 47% of pre-school age children and 25% of school age children worldwide, and is a major contributor to both physical and neuro-developmental morbidity.Iron deficiency results from inadequate intake, excess turnover or excessive loss. Whilst inadequate intake is the commonest cause

Katrina Pettit; Jennifer Rowley; Nick Brown

2011-01-01

303

On the magnetomechanical damping in terbium, gadolinium, iron and nickel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetomechanical behaviour of iron, nickel, gadolinium and terbium is reviewed and it is shown that the classification by Roberts and Barrand (1969) into iron-like or nickel-like materials is unsatisfactory. Magnetic damping is caused by the movement of 90° domain walls over internal stress barriers. Dislocations provide an obvious source of internal stress and a simple model of domain walls

C. P. Burdett

1970-01-01

304

CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS OF ARSENATE, ARSENITE, PHOSPHATE, AND SILICATE WITH IRON (II,III) HYDROXYCARBONATE GREEN RUST  

EPA Science Inventory

Granular zerovalent iron has been proposed to be used as a medium in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remove arsenic from contaminated groundwater. Iron(II, III) hydroxycarbonate green rust (carbonate green rust, or CGR) is a major corrosion product of zerovalent iron under ...

305

CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS OF ARSENATE, ARSENITE, PHOSPHATE, AND SILICATE WITH IRON (II, III) HYDROXYCARBONATE GREEN RUST  

EPA Science Inventory

Granular zerovalent iron has been proposed to be used as a medium in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remove arsenic from contaminated groundwater. Iron(II, III) hydroxycarbonate green rust (carbonate green rust, or CGR) is a major corrosion product of zerovalent iron under ...

306

Taking iron supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ... ABOUT IRON SUPPLEMENTS Iron supplements may be taken as capsules, tablets, chewable tablets, and liquids. The most common tablet size is ...

307

TRANSFORMATION OF HALOGENATED PBTS WITH NANOSCALE BIMETALLIC PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Zero-valent iron nanoparticle technology is becoming a popular option for treatment of a variety of hazardous and toxic wastes, and for remediation of contaminated sites. As a matter of fact, nano iron has quickly become the most widely used nanomaterial in environmental ...

308

Iron and infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron and infection. Intravenous iron therapy maintains iron stores and decreases erythropoietin demand in patients undergoing regular dialysis therapy. Microbiology studies show a close relationship between the availability of iron and bacterial virulence. Iron is also an essential requirement of bacteria for multiplication in the host. Therefore, clinical conditions associated with iron excess in the host may increase the risk

SANDA I. PATRUTA; WALTER H. HORL

1999-01-01

309

Theoretical Investigation of Hydrogen Adsorption and Dissociation on Iron and Iron Carbide Surfaces Using the ReaxFF Reactive Force Field Method  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a ReaxFF reactive force field to describe hydrogen adsorption and dissociation on iron and iron carbide surfaces relevant for simulation of Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis on iron catalysts. This force field enables large system (>>1000 atoms) simulations of hydrogen related reactions with iron. The ReaxFF force field parameters are trained against a substantial amount of structural and energetic data including the equations of state and heats of formation of iron and iron carbide related materials, as well as hydrogen interaction with iron surfaces and different phases of bulk iron. We have validated the accuracy and applicability of ReaxFF force field by carrying out molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen adsorption, dissociation and recombination on iron and iron carbide surfaces. The barriers and reaction energies for molecular dissociation on these two types of surfaces have been compared and the effect of subsurface carbon on hydrogen interaction with iron surface is evaluated. We found that existence of carbon atoms at subsurface iron sites tends to increase the hydrogen dissociation energy barrier on the surface, and also makes the corresponding hydrogen dissociative state relatively more stable compared to that on bare iron. These properties of iron carbide will affect the dissociation rate of H{sub 2} and will retain more surface hydride species, thus influencing the dynamics of the FT synthesis process.

Zou, Chenyu; van Duin, Adri C.T.; Sorescu, Dan C.

2012-06-01

310

Genetics Home Reference: Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... July 2014 What is iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia? Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of ...

311

Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA).  

PubMed

Iron deficiency anemia is a common global problem whose etiology is typically attributed to acquired inadequate dietary intake and/or chronic blood loss. However, in several kindreds multiple family members are affected with iron deficiency anemia that is unresponsive to oral iron supplementation and only partially responsive to parenteral iron therapy. The discovery that many of these cases harbor mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene led to the recognition that they represent a single clinical entity: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA). This article reviews clinical features of IRIDA, recent genetic studies, and insights this disorder provides into the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis. PMID:25064705

Heeney, Matthew M; Finberg, Karin E

2014-08-01

312

Barriers to Interpersonal Communication  

E-print Network

Some barriers to interpersonal communications result from natural human differences such as age, experience or background. Other barriers are the result of personal habits. Changing bad habits such as jumping to conclusions can improve interpersonal...

Warren, Judith L.

2000-03-02

313

Iron chelation and multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Histochemical and MRI studies have demonstrated that MS (multiple sclerosis) patients have abnormal deposition of iron in both gray and white matter structures. Data is emerging indicating that this iron could partake in pathogenesis by various mechanisms, e.g., promoting the production of reactive oxygen species and enhancing the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Iron chelation therapy could be a viable strategy to block iron-related pathological events or it can confer cellular protection by stabilizing hypoxia inducible factor 1?, a transcription factor that normally responds to hypoxic conditions. Iron chelation has been shown to protect against disease progression and/or limit iron accumulation in some neurological disorders or their experimental models. Data from studies that administered a chelator to animals with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of MS, support the rationale for examining this treatment approach in MS. Preliminary clinical studies have been performed in MS patients using deferoxamine. Although some side effects were observed, the large majority of patients were able to tolerate the arduous administration regimen, i.e., 6–8 h of subcutaneous infusion, and all side effects resolved upon discontinuation of treatment. Importantly, these preliminary studies did not identify a disqualifying event for this experimental approach. More recently developed chelators, deferasirox and deferiprone, are more desirable for possible use in MS given their oral administration, and importantly, deferiprone can cross the blood–brain barrier. However, experiences from other conditions indicate that the potential for adverse events during chelation therapy necessitates close patient monitoring and a carefully considered administration regimen. PMID:24397846

Weigel, Kelsey J.; Lynch, Sharon G.; LeVine, Steven M.

2014-01-01

314

Puncture detecting barrier materials  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material. 4 figs.

Hermes, R.E.; Ramsey, D.R.; Stampfer, J.F.; Macdonald, J.M.

1998-03-31

315

Puncture detecting barrier materials  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material.

Hermes, Robert E. (Los Alamos, NM); Ramsey, David R. (Bothel, WA); Stampfer, Joseph F. (Santa Fe, NM); Macdonald, John M. (Santa Fe, NM)

1998-01-01

316

Pharmacology of Iron Transport  

PubMed Central

Elucidating the molecular basis for the regulation of iron uptake, storage, and distribution is necessary to understand iron homeostasis. Pharmacological tools are emerging to identify and distinguish among different iron transport pathways. Stimulatory or inhibitory small molecules with effects on iron uptake can help characterize the mechanistic elements of iron transport and the roles of the transporters involved in these processes. In particular, iron chelators can serve as potential pharmacological tools to alleviate diseases of iron overload. This review focuses on the pharmacology of iron transport, introducing iron transport membrane proteins and known inhibitors. PMID:23020294

Byrne, Shaina L.; Krishnamurthy, Divya; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

2013-01-01

317

Barrier cell sheath formation  

SciTech Connect

The solution for electrostatic potential within a simply modeled tandem mirror thermal barrier is seen to exhibit a sheath at each edge of the cell. The formation of the sheath requires ion collisionality and the analysis assmes that the collisional trapping rate into the barrier is considerably slower than the barrier pump rate.

Kesner, J

1980-04-01

318

The Barriers Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1987, the Barriers Project was initiated by Confederation College of Applied Arts and Technology to engage 31 selected community colleges in Canada in an organized self-appraisal of institutional barriers to the enrollment of part-time credit students. From the outset, colleges were encouraged to limit their investigation to barriers over which…

Confederation Coll. of Applied Arts and Technology, Thunder Bay (Ontario).

319

Disorders of iron metabolism. Part II: iron deficiency and iron overload  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main disorders of iron metabolismIncreased iron requirements, limited external supply, and increased blood loss may lead to iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anaemia. In chronic inflammation, the excess of hepcidin decreases iron absorption and prevents iron recycling, resulting in hypoferraemia and iron restricted erythropoiesis, despite normal iron stores (functional iron deficiency), and finally anaemia of chronic disease (ACD), which

Manuel Muñoz; José Antonio García-Erce; Ángel Francisco Remacha

2010-01-01

320

Iron deficiency anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... You get iron deficiency anemia when your body's iron stores run low. This can occur because: You lose ... ferrous sulfate) are needed to build up the iron stores in your body. Most of the time, your ...

321

Iron and Prochlorococcus/  

E-print Network

Iron availability and primary productivity in the oceans are intricately linked through photosynthesis. At the global scale we understand how iron addition induces phytoplankton blooms through meso-scale iron-addition ...

Thompson, Anne Williford

2009-01-01

322

Comparing barrier algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A barrier is a method for synchronizing a large number of concurrent computer processes. After considering some basic synchronization mechanisms, a collection of barrier algorithms with either linear or logarithmic depth are presented. A graphical model is described that profiles the execution of the barriers and other parallel programming constructs. This model shows how the interaction between the barrier algorithms and the work that they synchronize can impact their performance. One result is that logarithmic tree structured barriers show good performance when synchronizing fixed length work, while linear self-scheduled barriers show better performance when synchronizing fixed length work with an imbedded critical section. The linear barriers are better able to exploit the process skew associated with critical sections. Timing experiments, performed on an eighteen processor Flex/32 shared memory multiprocessor, that support these conclusions are detailed.

Arenstorf, Norbert S.; Jordan, Harry F.

1987-01-01

323

Iron and Stony-iron Meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without iron and stony-iron meteorites, our chances of ever sampling the deep interior of a differentiated planetary object would be next to nil. Although we live on a planet with a very substantial core, we will never be able to sample it. Fortunately, asteroid collisions provide us with a rich sampling of the deep interiors of differentiated asteroids.Iron and stony-iron

H. Haack; T. J. McCoy

2003-01-01

324

Geoecology PhD Seminar WS 2013/14 Institute of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Potsdam  

E-print Network

flood of 2013 on depositional processes within Lake Mondsee Climate change shifts environmental space supported nanoscale zero-valent iron 04.12.13 Abbas Dara (UP) Christian Lehr (ZALF) Mapping Compensating Water Uptake in Heterogeneous Soils via Neutron Radiography Effects of a restored stream channel

Potsdam, Universität

325

NZVI modified magnetic filter paper with high redox and catalytic activities for advanced water treatment technologies.  

PubMed

The in situ synthesis of air-stable zero-valent iron nanoparticles (NZVI) embedded in cellulose fibers leads to the assembly of highly reactive magnetic filter papers. These engineered materials display a wide range of applications in the treatment of wastewater and drinking water, including chromium removal, phenol degradation, environmental bioremediation, and catalysis. PMID:25299729

Datta, K K R; Petala, E; Datta, K J; Perman, J A; Tucek, J; Bartak, P; Otyepka, M; Zoppellaro, G; Zboril, R

2014-12-25

326

PRB STRATEGIES AND PERFORMANCE MONITORING FOR REMEDIATION OF INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A combination of experimental and field investigations will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and long-term performance of zero-valent iron mixtures for treating inorganic contaminants. Long-term performance research will explore the geochemical and microbiological proce...

327

Perchlorate Reduction by Autotrophic Bacteria in the  

E-print Network

Perchlorate Reduction by Autotrophic Bacteria in the Presence of Zero-Valent Iron X U E Y U A N Y U because ClO4 - is completely transformed into chlorideandothernontoxicendproducts(2).Microbiological-limiting step with complete conversion to chloride (7). Perchlorate reducing microorganisms (PRMs) are ubiq

328

Bioremediation of Uranium Plumes with Nano-scale  

E-print Network

Reservation Land MCL for Uranium = 30 g/L MCL for Alpha particles = 15 pCi/L Arizona Well Water energy.cr.usgs.gov/other/uraniumBioremediation of Uranium Plumes with Nano-scale Zero-valent Iron Angela Athey Advisers: Dr. Reyes Undergraduate Student Fellowship Program April 15, 2011 #12;Main Sources of Uranium Natural · Leaching from

Fay, Noah

329

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: METAL-ENHANCED ABIOTIC DEGRADATION TECHNOLOGY - ENVIROMETAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

EnviroMetal Technologies, Inc. (ETI), of Guelph, ON, Canada, has developed the metal-enhanced abiotic degradation technology to treat halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOC) in water. A reactive, zero-valent, granular iron medium causes reductive dehalogenation of VOCs yield...

330

Environmental Aspects of Two Volatile Organic Compound Groundwater Treatment Designs at the Rocky Flats Site - 13135  

SciTech Connect

DOE's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado is a former nuclear weapons production facility that began operations in the early 1950's. Because of releases of hazardous substances to the environment, the federally owned property and adjacent offsite areas were placed on the CERCLA National Priorities List in 1989. The final remedy was selected in 2006. Engineered components of the remedy include four groundwater treatment systems that were installed before closure as CERCLA-accelerated actions. Two of the systems, the Mound Site Plume Treatment System and the East Trenches Plume Treatment System, remove low levels of volatile organic compounds using zero-valent iron media, thereby reducing the loading of volatile organic compounds in surface water resulting from the groundwater pathway. However, the zero-valent iron treatment does not reliably reduce all volatile organic compounds to consistently meet water quality goals. While adding additional zero-valent iron media capacity could improve volatile organic compound removal capability, installation of a solar powered air-stripper has proven an effective treatment optimization in further reducing volatile organic compound concentrations. A comparison of the air stripper to the alternative of adding additional zero-valent iron capacity to improve Mound Site Plume Treatment System and East Trenches Plume Treatment System treatment based on several key sustainable remediation aspects indicates the air stripper is also more 'environmentally friendly'. These key aspects include air pollutant emissions, water quality, waste management, transportation, and costs. (authors)

Michalski, Casey C.; DiSalvo, Rick; Boylan, John [Stoller LMS Team, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States)] [Stoller LMS Team, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States)

2013-07-01

331

EZVI Injection Field Test Leads to Pilot-Scale Application  

EPA Science Inventory

Testing and monitoring of emulsified zero-valent ironTM (EZVI) injections was conducted at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station?s Launch Complex 34, FL, in 2002 to 2005 to evaluate the technology?s efficacy in enhancing in situ dehalogenation of dense nonaqueous-phase liquid (DNAPL) ...

332

Enhanced Bioremediation Field Experience: Using Observed Half Lives in Design and Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A priori assessment of the effectiveness of amendments for enhanced bioremediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons is complicated by the varying geologic settings, groundwater flow rates, and background geochemistry encountered. Amendments employing a combination of carbon, nutrients, and micro-scale zero-valent iron result in multiple biotic and abiotic treatment mechanisms at various length and timescales which makes direct physical and chemical prediction of

Joanna Moreno; Jim Mueller; Fayaz Lakhwala; John Valkenburg; Alan Seech; Kerry Bolanos-Shaw

333

Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts  

DOEpatents

Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

Sachtler, W.M.H.; Tzou, M.S.; Jiang, H.J.

1987-03-31

334

Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts  

DOEpatents

Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H. (Evanston, IL); Tzou, Ming-Shin (Evanston, IL); Jiang, Hui-Jong (Evanston, IL)

1987-01-01

335

HEPCIDIN AND IRON HOMEOSTASIS  

PubMed Central

Despite fluctuations in dietary iron intake and intermittent losses through bleeding, the plasma iron concentrations in humans remain stable at 10–30 ?M. While most of the iron entering blood plasma comes from recycling, appropriate amount of iron is absorbed from the diet to compensate for losses and maintain nontoxic amounts in stores. Plasma iron concentration and iron distribution are similarly regulated in laboratory rodents. The hepatic peptide hepcidin was identified as the systemic iron-regulatory hormone. In the efferent arc, hepcidin regulates intestinal iron absorption, plasma iron concentrations, and tissue iron distribution by inducing degradation of its receptor, the cellular iron exporter ferroportin. Ferroportin exports iron into plasma from absorptive enterocytes, from macrophages that recycle the iron of senescent erythrocytes, and from hepatocytes that store iron. In the more complex and less well understood afferent arc, hepatic hepcidin synthesis is transcriptionally regulated by extracellular and intracellular iron concentrations through a molecular complex of bone morphogenetic protein receptors and their iron-specific ligands, modulators and iron sensors. Through as yet undefined pathways, hepcidin is also homeostatically regulated by the iron requirements of erythroid precursors for hemoglobin synthesis. In accordance with the role of hepcidin-mediated iron redistribution in host defense, hepcidin production is regulated by inflammation as well. Increased hepcidin concentrations in plasma are pathogenic in iron-restrictive anemias including anemias associated with inflammation, chronic kidney disease and some cancers. Hepcidin deficiency causes iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis and ineffective erythropoiesis. Hepcidin, ferroportin and their regulators represent potential targets for the diagnosis and treatment of iron disorders and anemias. PMID:22306005

Ganz, Tomas; Nemeth, Elizabeta

2014-01-01

336

Lipidoid-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Efficient DNA and siRNA delivery  

E-print Network

The safe, targeted and effective delivery of gene therapeutics remains a significant barrier to their broad clinical application. Here we develop a magnetic nucleic acid delivery system composed of iron oxide nanoparticles ...

Jiang, Shan

337

Amino Acid Complexes of Metal Carbonyls: Mechanistic Aspects of the CO-Labilizing Ability of Glycinate Ligands in Zero-Valent Chromium and Tungsten Derivatives.  

PubMed

The amino and phosphino acid derivatives of chromium(0) and tungsten(0), [Et(4)N][Cr(CO)(4)(O(2)CCH(2)NH(2))] (1), [Et(4)N][Cr(CO)(4)(O(2)CCH(2)NHMe)] (2), [Et(4)N][Cr(CO)(4)(O(2)CCH(2)NMe(2))] (3), [Et(4)N][W(CO)(4)(O(2)CCH(C(CH(3))(3))NH(2))] (4), [Et(4)N][W(CO)(4)(O(2)CCH(C(6)H(5))NH(2))], [Et(4)N][W(CO)(4)(O(2)CCH(2)PPh(2))] (5), and [Et(4)N][Cr(CO)(4)(O(2)CCH(2)PPh(2))] have been synthesized from the reaction of the M(CO)(5)THF adduct with the tetraethylammonium salt of the corresponding amino or phosphino acid in THF solution. The complexes have been characterized in solution by (13)C NMR and infrared spectroscopies and in the solid state by X-ray crystallography. The geometry of the metal anion is, in each case, that of a distorted octahedron consisting of four carbonyl ligands and a puckered five-membered glycinate chelate ring, bound through the nitrogen atom and one of its oxygen atoms. Notable about complex 1 is that the crystal obtained exhibited both a different morphology and a different space group than its tungsten analogue. Examination of the packing diagram reveals that this change is due to the different orientation of the chelate ring in 1 relative to the corresponding orientation in the W(CO)(4)(O(2)CCH(2)NH(2))(-) anion. Complexes 1 and 2 exhibit intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions between the amine N-H group and the distal oxygen on an adjacent molecule, with N.O distances of 2.828 and 2.821 Å, respectively. Investigations of the lability of the carbonyl ligands have been carried out. The lability is proposed to be due to base-assisted removal of a proton from the amine ligand leading to a substitutionally labile amide transient species. The tungsten analogue of complex 1 was used to obtain evidence in support of this mechanism. The isotope effect (k(H)/k(D)) was measured for W(CO)(4)(O(2)CCH(2)NH(2))(-) using d(5)-glycine and was found to be 2.34. The activation parameters for the intermolecular exchange of CO in the [Et(4)N][W(CO)(4)(O(2)CCH(2)NH(2))] salt were determined and found to be DeltaH() = 15.4 +/- 1.0 kcal/mol and DeltaS() = -23.2 +/- 3.2 eu, values consistent with the proposed mechanism. In addition, the effect of substitution of electron-donating (C(CH(3))(3)) and electron-withdrawing (C(6)H(5)) substituents on the methylene carbon was evaluated. There was little change in the rate of CO exchange observed for W(CO)(4)(O(2)CCH(C(CH(3))(3))NH(2))(-) (5) and W(CO)(4)(O(2)CCH(C(6)H(5))NH(2))(-) vs W(CO)(4)(O(2)CCH(2)NH(2))(-), showing that steric or electronic effects away from the N center are not responsible for the observed CO lability. As anticipated on the basis of the proposed substitutional pathway, the phosphino acid metal carbonyl derivatives did not exhibit facile intermolecular CO exchange. PMID:11670056

Darensbourg, Donald J.; Draper, Jennifer D.; Reibenspies, Joseph H.

1997-08-13

338

Delayed formation of zero-valent selenium nanoparticles by Bacillus mycoides SeITE01 as a consequence of selenite reduction under aerobic conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Selenite (SeO32?) oxyanion shows severe toxicity to biota. Different bacterial strains exist that are capable of reducing SeO32? to non-toxic elemental selenium (Se0), with the formation of Se nanoparticles (SeNPs). These SeNPs might be exploited for technological applications due to their physico-chemical and biological characteristics. The present paper discusses the reduction of selenite to SeNPs by a strain of Bacillus sp., SeITE01, isolated from the rhizosphere of the Se-hyperaccumulator legume Astragalus bisulcatus. Results Use of 16S rRNA and GyrB gene sequence analysis positioned SeITE01 phylogenetically close to B. mycoides. On agarized medium, this strain showed rhizoid growth whilst, in liquid cultures, it was capable of reducing 0.5 and 2.0 mM SeO32? within 12 and 24 hours, respectively. The resultant Se0 aggregated to form nanoparticles and the amount of Se0 measured was equivalent to the amount of selenium originally added as selenite to the growth medium. A delay of more than 24 hours was observed between the depletion of SeO32 and the detection of SeNPs. Nearly spherical-shaped SeNPs were mostly found in the extracellular environment whilst rarely in the cytoplasmic compartment. Size of SeNPs ranged from 50 to 400 nm in diameter, with dimensions greatly influenced by the incubation times. Different SeITE01 protein fractions were assayed for SeO32? reductase capability, revealing that enzymatic activity was mainly associated with the membrane fraction. Reduction of SeO32? was also detected in the supernatant of bacterial cultures upon NADH addition. Conclusions The selenite reducing bacterial strain SeITE01 was attributed to the species Bacillus mycoides on the basis of phenotypic and molecular traits. Under aerobic conditions, the formation of SeNPs were observed both extracellularly or intracellullarly. Possible mechanisms of Se0 precipitation and SeNPs assembly are suggested. SeO32? is proposed to be enzimatically reduced to Se0 through redox reactions by proteins released from bacterial cells. Sulfhydryl groups on peptides excreted outside the cells may also react directly with selenite. Furthermore, membrane reductases and the intracellular synthesis of low molecular weight thiols such as bacillithiols may also play a role in SeO32? reduction. Formation of SeNPs seems to be the result of an Ostwald ripening mechanism. PMID:24606965

2014-01-01

339

Modelling Iron-Bentonite Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of both iron canisters and bentonitic clay in some engineered barrier system (EBS) designs for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes creates the potential for chemical interactions which may impact upon the long-term performance of the clay as a barrier to radionuclide migration. Flooding of potential radionuclide sorption sites on the clay by ferrous ions and conversion of clay to non-swelling sheet silicates (e.g. berthierine) are two possible outcomes deleterious to long-term performance. Laboratory experimental studies of the corrosion of iron in clay show that corrosion product layers are generally thin (< 1 µm) with magnetite, siderite, or ‘green rust' occurring depending upon temperature and ambient partial pressure of carbon dioxide. In theory, incorporation of iron into clay alteration products could act as a ‘pump' to accelerate corrosion. However, the results of laboratory experiments to characterise the products of iron-bentonite interaction are less than unequivocal. The type and amounts of solid products appear to be strong functions of time, temperature, water/clay ratio, and clay and pore fluid compositions. For example, the products of high temperature experiments (> 250 °C) are dominated by chlorite, whereas lower temperatures produce berthierine, odinite, cronstedtite, or Fe-rich smectite. Unfortunately, the inevitable short-term nature of laboratory experimental studies introduces issues of metastability and kinetics. The sequential formation in time of minerals in natural systems often produces the formation of phases not predicted by equilibrium thermodynamics. Evidence from analogous natural systems suggests that the sequence of alteration of clay by Fe-rich fluids will proceed via an Ostwald step sequence. The computer code, QPAC, has been modified to incorporate processes of nucleation, growth, precursor cannibalisation, and Ostwald ripening to address the issues of the slow growth of bentonite alteration products. This, together with inclusion of processes of iron corrosion and diffusion, has enabled investigation of a representative model of the alteration of bentonite in a typical EBS environment. Simulations with fixed mineral surface areas show that berthierine dominates the solid product assemblage, with siderite replacing it at simulation times greater than 10 000 years. Simulations with time-dependent mineral surface areas show a sequence of solid alteration products, described by: magnetite -> cronstedtite -> berthierine -> chlorite. Using plausible estimates of mineral-fluid interfacial free energies, chlorite growth is not achieved until 5 000 years of simulation time. The results of this modelling work suggest that greater emphasis should be placed upon methods to up-scale the results of laboratory experiments to timescales of relevance to performance assessment.

Watson, C.; Savage, D.; Benbow, S.; Wilson, J.

2009-04-01

340

Pathways of iron absorption.  

PubMed

Iron is vital for all living organisms but excess iron can be lethal because it facilitates free radical formation. Thus iron absorption is carefully regulated to maintain an equilibrium between absorption and body loss of iron. In countries where meat is a significant part of the diet, most body iron is derived from dietary heme because heme binds few of the dietary chelators that bind inorganic iron. Uptake of heme into enterocytes occurs as a metalloporphyrin in an endosomal process. Intracellular iron is released from heme by heme oxygenase to enter plasma as inorganic iron. Ferric iron is absorbed via a beta(3) integrin and mobilferrin pathway (IMP) which is unshared with other nutritional metals. Ferrous iron uptake is facilitated by a DMT-1 pathway which is shared with manganese. In the iron deficient gut, large quantities of both mobilferrin and DMT-1 are found in goblet cells and intraluminal mucins suggesting that they are secreted with mucin into the intestinal lumen to bind iron to facilitate uptake by the cells. In the cytoplasm, IMP and DMT associate in a large protein complex called paraferritin which serves as a ferrireductase. Paraferritin solublizes iron binding proteins and reduces iron to make iron available for production of iron containing proteins such as heme. Iron uptake by intestinal absorptive cells is regulated by the iron concentration within the cell. Except in hemochromatosis it remains in equilibrium with total body stores via transferrin receptors on the basolateral membrane of absorptive cells. Increased intracellular iron either up-regulates or satiates iron binding proteins on regulatory proteins to alter their location in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:12547224

Conrad, Marcel E; Umbreit, Jay N

2002-01-01

341

Iron metabolism in transplantation.  

PubMed

Recipient's iron status is an important determinant of clinical outcome in transplantation medicine. This review addresses iron metabolism in solid organ transplantation, where the role of iron as a mediator of ischemia-reperfusion injury, as an immune-modulatory element, and as a determinant of organ and graft function is discussed. Although iron chelators reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury in cell and animal models, these benefits have not yet been implemented into clinical practice. Iron deficiency and iron overload are associated with reduced immune activation, whose molecular mechanisms are reviewed in detail. Furthermore, iron overload and hyperferritinemia are associated with poor prognosis in end-stage organ failure in patients awaiting kidney, or liver transplantation. This negative prognostic impact of iron overload appears to persist after transplantation, which highlights the need for optimizing iron management before and after solid organ transplantation. In contrast, iron deficiency and anemia are also associated with poor prognosis in patients with end-stage heart failure. Intravenous iron supplementation should be managed carefully because parenterally induced iron overload could persist after successful transplantation. In conclusion, current evidence shows that iron overload and iron deficiency are important risk factors before and after solid organ transplantation. Iron status should therefore be actively managed in patients on the waiting list and after transplantation. PMID:24964028

Schaefer, Benedikt; Effenberger, Maria; Zoller, Heinz

2014-11-01

342

Coastal barrier reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Coastal barriers are long, narrow, wave-built, sandy islands parallel to the shore. Part of the island has a beach, but many have sand dunes and areas of vegetation above the high-tide line. A lagoon or estuary is behind the barrier on the protected side away from the ocean. Coastal barrier reservoirs can hold major accumulations of oil and gas. Coastal barriers can build by three major processes; addition of sand washed onto the beach from breaker bars, addition on one end by sand washed from the other end and moved by riptides, and deposition of sand into the lagoon by waves breaking over the barrier during storms. Galveston Island, offshore Texas, is a good example of a modern coastal barrier. Waves in the Gulf of Mexico have sufficient energy to transport and deposit fine-grained sand on Galveston Island. (Fine-grained sand is the coarsest sand available in upper Texas coastal waters). Other examples of modern coastal barriers are found in the Gulf of California, where medium-sized sands are deposited. An example of an ancient deposit was found in the Elk City field, where the barrier beach was composed of well-sorted gravel and coarse sand.

Richardson, J.G.; Sangree, J.B.; Sneider, R.M.

1988-09-01

343

Stream Barrier December 2007  

E-print Network

inset photos (clockwise from top left): Dam removal in progress. NOAA A low-head dam in the GulfStream Barrier Removal Monitoring Guide December 2007 #12;#12;Stream Barrier Removal Monitoring Removal Monitoring Workshop Contributors Gulf of Maine Council on the Marine Environment National Oceanic

344

Breaking Down the Barriers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerning the removal of architectural barriers in order to accommodate handicapped students in vocational-technical education, this article presents lists of barrier considerations applicable to the physically handicapped student, sight-disabled student, and hearing-impaired student. Also included is a list of basic concerns applicable for all…

Corley, Joel

1978-01-01

345

Barriers: friend or foe?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern garbage collectors rely on read and write barriers imposed on heap accesses by the mutator, to keep track of references between different regions of the garbage collected heap, and to synchronize actions of the mutator with those of the collector. It has been a long-standing untested assumption that barriers impose significant overhead to garbage-collected applications. As a result, researchers

Stephen M. Blackburn; Antony L. Hosking

2004-01-01

346

Specular graphene transport barrier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a flexible model for a generic straight transport barrier in graphene in the specular limit. The specular limit applies for scattering of carriers sufficiently close to the Fermi level in three quarters of the transport barriers. Using the Lippmann-Schwinger equation, we obtain the wave function, from which we derive the reflection and transmission probabilities as a function of the angle of incidence. The results, which are compared to those from exact multichannel tight-binding quantum transport calculations, show that some barriers exhibit a broader absence of reflection across a wide range of incident angles, whereas other barriers are highly reflective. The power of our model is that it could be used even when the precise atomistic detail of the transport barriers is unknown.

Gunlycke, Daniel; White, Carter T.

2014-07-01

347

Vehicle barrier systems  

SciTech Connect

The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper. 2 tabs.

Sena, P.A.

1986-01-01

348

Vehicle barrier systems  

SciTech Connect

The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

Sena, P.A.

1986-01-01

349

Vehicle barrier systems  

SciTech Connect

The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment, and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper.

Sena, P.A.

1986-01-01

350

Iron deficiency in Europe.  

PubMed

In Europe, iron deficiency is considered to be one of the main nutritional deficiency disorders affecting large fractions of the population, particularly such physiological groups as children, menstruating women and pregnant women. Some factors such as type of contraception in women, blood donation or minor pathological blood loss (haemorrhoids, gynaecological bleeding...) considerably increase the difficulty of covering iron needs. Moreover, women, especially adolescents consuming low-energy diets, vegetarians and vegans are at high risk of iron deficiency. Although there is no evidence that an absence of iron stores has any adverse consequences, it does indicate that iron nutrition is borderline, since any further reduction in body iron is associated with a decrease in the level of functional compounds such as haemoglobin. The prevalence of iron-deficient anaemia has slightly decreased in infants and menstruating women. Some positive factors may have contributed to reducing the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia in some groups of population: the use of iron-fortified formulas and iron-fortified cereals; the use of oral contraceptives and increased enrichment of iron in several countries; and the use of iron supplements during pregnancy in some European countries. It is possible to prevent and control iron deficiency by counseling individuals and families about sound iron nutrition during infancy and beyond, and about iron supplementation during pregnancy, by screening persons on the basis of their risk for iron deficiency, and by treating and following up persons with presumptive iron deficiency. This may help to reduce manifestations of iron deficiency and thus improve public health. Evidence linking iron status with risk of cardiovascular disease or cancer is unconvincing and does not justify changes in food fortification or medical practice, particularly because the benefits of assuring adequate iron intake during growth and development are well established. But stronger evidence is needed before rejecting the hypothesis that greater iron stores increase the incidence of CVD or cancer. At present, currently available data do not support radical changes in dietary recommendations. They include all means for increasing the content of dietary factors enhancing iron absorption or reducing the content of factors inhibiting iron absorption. Increased knowledge and increased information about factors may be important tools in the prevention of iron deficiency in Europe. PMID:11683548

Hercberg, S; Preziosi, P; Galan, P

2001-04-01

351

Iron and Diabetes Risk  

PubMed Central

Iron overload is a risk factor for diabetes. The link between iron and diabetes was first recognized in pathologic conditions—hereditary hemochromatosis and thalassemia—but high levels of dietary iron also impart diabetes risk. Iron plays a direct and causal role in diabetes pathogenesis mediated both by ?-cell failure and insulin resistance. Iron is also a factor in the regulation of metabolism in most tissues involved in fuel homeostasis, with the adipocyte in particular serving an iron-sensing role. The underlying molecular mechanisms mediating these effects are numerous and incompletely understood, but include oxidant stress and modulation of adipokines and intracellular signal transduction pathways. PMID:23473030

Simcox, Judith A.; McClain, Donald A.

2013-01-01

352

Availability of Food Iron  

PubMed Central

Iron has been extracted from 25 common foods under conditions resembling those prevailing in the stomach under physiological conditions. In most cases less than half the iron in the foods is released into solution. The soluble iron is mainly in ionizable form, except in the case of meat products and black pudding. The amount of food iron released is influenced by cooking and the presence of iron-binding substances in some foods. The total dietary iron probably does not represent the amount available for absorption. PMID:5774316

Jacobs, A.; Greenman, D. A.

1969-01-01

353

Spectroscopic and electrochemical characterisation of thin cathodic plasma polymer films on iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complimentary spectroscopic, microscopic and electrochemical studies were performed to characterise the barrier properties as well as the interface structure of model iron substrates covered with thin plasma polymer films. Cathodic plasma polymers were deposited which show high barrier properties. The metal surface was pre-treated by a reducing or oxidising plasma. This allowed the adjustment of the oxidation state of the

V. Barranco; P. Thiemann; H. K. Yasuda; M. Stratmann; G. Grundmeier

2004-01-01

354

Ocean iron cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in the biogeochemical cycle of iron has grown rapidly over the last two decades, due to the potential role of this element in modulating global climate in the geological past and ocean productivity in the present day. This trace metal has a disproportionately large effect (1 × 105 C:Fe) on photosynthetic carbon fixation by phytoplankton. In around one third of the open ocean, so-called high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions, the resident phytoplankton have low growth rates despite an abundance of plant nutrients. This is due to the low supply of iron. Iron is present in the ocean in three phases, dissolved, colloidal, and particulate (biogenic and lithogenic). However, iron chemistry is complex with interactions between chemistry and biology such as the production of iron-binding siderophores by oceanic bacteria. This results in the interplay of inorganic chemistry, photochemistry, and organic complexation. Sources of new iron include dust deposition, upwelling of iron-rich deep waters, and the resuspension and lateral transport of sediments. Sinks for iron are mainly biological as evidenced by the vertical nutrient-like profile for dissolved iron in the ocean. Iron is rapidly recycled by the upper ocean biota within a so-called "ferrous wheel." The fe ratio [(new iron)/(new + regenerated iron)] provides an index of the relative supply of iron to the biota by new versus recycled iron. Over the last 15 years, interest in the potential role of iron in shaping climate in the geological past resulted in some of the most ambitious experiments in oceanography: large-scale (i.e., 50-1000 km2) iron enrichment of HNLC waters. They have provided valuable insights into how iron supply influences the biogeochemical cycles of elements such as carbon, sulfur, silicon, nitrogen, and phosphate.

Boyd, Philip W.

355

Molecular control of vertebrate iron homeostasis by iron regulatory proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both deficiencies and excesses of iron represent major public health problems throughout the world. Understanding the cellular and organismal processes controlling iron homeostasis is critical for identifying iron-related diseases and in advancing the clinical treatments for such disorders of iron metabolism. Iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) 1 and 2 are key regulators of vertebrate iron metabolism. These RNA binding proteins post-transcriptionally

Michelle L. Wallander; Elizabeth A. Leibold; Richard S. Eisenstein

2006-01-01

356

Information barriers and authentication.  

SciTech Connect

Acceptance of nuclear materials into a monitoring regime is complicated if the materials are in classified shapes or have classified composition. An attribute measurement system with an information barrier can be emplo,yed to generate an unclassified display from classified measurements. This information barrier must meet two criteria: (1) classified information cannot be released to the monitoring party, and (2) the monitoring party must be convinced that the unclassified output accurately represents the classified input. Criterion 1 is critical to the host country to protect the classified information. Criterion 2 is critical to the monitoring party and is often termed the 'authentication problem.' Thus, the necessity for authentication of a measurement system with an information barrier stems directly from the description of a useful information barrier. Authentication issues must be continually addressed during the entire development lifecycle of the measurement system as opposed to being applied only after the system is built.

MacArthur, D. W. (Duncan W.); Wolford, J. K. (James K.)

2001-01-01

357

Iron and Your Child  

MedlinePLUS

... they lose monthly when they begin menstruating.) Young athletes who regularly engage in intense exercise tend to ... iron-containing RBCs during menstrual bleeding. Also, teen athletes lose iron through sweating and other routes during ...

358

Iron Chelation Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

... also in other organs that don't normally store iron, such as the: pancreas joints (especially in the ... Ferritin is a protein inside of cells that stores iron for later use by your body. For unknown ...

359

Hemochromatosis: Iron Storage Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... What's this? Submit Button CDC Features Hemochromatosis: Iron Storage Disease Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Excessive ... Learn more about hemochromatosis, a type of iron storage disease, and stay healthy. What Is Hemochromatosis? Hemochromatosis ...

360

Step Barrier Scattering Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Step Barrier Scattering model shows a quantum mechanical experiment in which an incident wave (particle) traveling from the left is transmitted and reflected from a potential step at x=0.  Although the analytic solution to this standard problem is well known, its visualization shows how the incident and reflected waves form an interference pattern and how the incident wave penetrates the classically forbidden region when its energy is less than the barrier height Vâ

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-10-09

361

Conic optimization and barriers Barriers and centro-affine geometry  

E-print Network

Conic optimization and barriers Barriers and centro-affine geometry Lagrangian submanifolds in para paracomplex projective space, and conic optimization Roland Hildebrand Université Grenoble 1 / CNRS June 5 and conic optimization #12;Conic optimization and barriers Barriers and centro-affine geometry Lagrangian

Hildebrand, Roland

362

Iron Dextran Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... called iron replacement products. It works by replenishing iron stores so that the body can make more red blood cells. ... attacks its own joints, causing pain, swelling, and loss of function) or ... become pregnant while receiving iron dextran injection, call your doctor.

363

Iron nutrition in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development. Iron needs are elevated as a result of intensive growth and muscular development, which implies an increase in blood volume; thus, it is extremely important for the adolescent's iron requirements to be met. Diet, therefore, must provide enough iron and, moreover, nutrients producing

MARTA MESÍAS; ISABEL SEIQUER; M. PILAR NAVARRO

2012-01-01

364

Iron deficiency anemia  

PubMed Central

Iron is essential to virtually all living organisms and is integral to multiple metabolic functions. The most important function is oxygen transport in hemoglobin. Iron deficiency anemia in dogs and cats is usually caused by chronic blood loss and can be discovered incidentally as animals may have adapted to the anemia. Severe iron deficiency is characterized by a microcytic, hypochromic, potentially severe anemia with a variable regenerative response. Iron metabolism and homeostasis will be reviewed, followed by a discussion of diagnostic testing and therapeutic recommendations for dogs and cats with iron deficiency anemia. PMID:22942439

Naigamwalla, Dinaz Z.; Webb, Jinelle A.; Giger, Urs

2012-01-01

365

Arsenic removal using steel manufacturing byproducts as permeable reactive materials in mine tailing containment systems.  

PubMed

Steel manufacturing byproducts were tested as a means of treating mine tailing leachate with a high As concentration. Byproduct materials can be placed in situ as permeable reactive barriers to control the subsurface release of leachate from tailing containment systems. The tested materials had various compositions of elemental Fe, Fe oxides, Ca-Fe oxides and Ca hydroxides typical of different steel manufacturing processes. Among these materials, evaporation cooler dust (ECD), oxygen gas sludge (OGS), basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) and to a lesser degree, electrostatic precipitator dust (EPD) effectively removed both As(V) and As(III) during batch experiments. ECD, OGS and BOFS reduced As concentrations to <0.5mg/l from 25mg/l As(V) or As(III) solution in 72 h, exhibiting higher removal capacities than zero-valent iron. High Ca concentrations and alkaline conditions (pH ca. 12) provided by the dissolution of Ca hydroxides may promote the formation of stable, sparingly soluble Ca-As compounds. When initial pH conditions were adjusted to 4, As reduction was enhanced, probably by adsorption onto iron oxides. The elution rate of retained As from OGS and ECD decreased with treatment time, and increasing the residence time in a permeable barrier strategy would be beneficial for the immobilization of As. When applied to real tailing leachate, ECD was found to be the most efficient barrier material to increase pH and to remove As and dissolved metals. PMID:12727260

Ahn, Joo Sung; Chon, Chul-Min; Moon, Hi-Soo; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

2003-05-01

366

Method of installing subsurface barrier  

DOEpatents

Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

Nickelson, Reva A. (Shelley, ID); Richardson, John G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sloan, Paul A. (Rigby, ID)

2007-10-09

367

Iron chelating strategies in systemic metal overload, neurodegeneration and cancer.  

PubMed

Iron is a trace element required for normal performance of cellular processes. Because both the deficiency and excess of this metal are dangerous, its absorption, distribution and accumulation must be tightly regulated. Disturbances of iron homeostasis and an increase in its level may lead to overload and neurodegenerative diseases. Phlebotomy was for a long time the only way of removing excess iron. But since there are many possible disadvantages of this method, chelation therapy seems to be a logical approach to remove toxic levels of iron. In clinical use, there are three drugs: desferrioxamine, deferiprone and deferasirox. FBS0701, a novel oral iron chelator, is under clinical trials with very promising results. Developing novel iron-binding chelators is an urgent matter, not only for systemic iron overload, but also for neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Deferiprone is also used in clinical trials in Parkinson's disease. In neurodegenerative disorders the main goal is not only to remove iron from brain tissues, but also its redistribution in system. Few chelators are tested for their potential use in neurodegeneration, such as nonhalogeneted derivatives of clioquinol. Such compounds gave promising results in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. Drugs of possible use in neurodegeneration must meet certain criteria. Their development includes the improvement in blood brain barrier permeability, low toxicity and the ability to prevent lipid peroxidation. One of the compounds satisfying these requirements is VK28. In rat models it was able to protect neurons in very low doses without significantly changing the iron level in liver or serum. Also iron chelators able to regulate activity of monoamine oxidase were tested. Polyphenols and flavonoids are able to prevent lipid peroxidation and demonstrate neuroprotective activity. While cancer does not involve true iron overload, neoplastic cells have a higher iron requirement and are especially prone to its depletion. It was shown, that desferrioxamine and deferasirox are antiproliferative agents active in several types of cancer. Very potent compounds with possible use as anticancer drugs are thiosemicarbazones. They are able to inhibit ribonucleotide reductase, an enzyme involved in DNA synthesis. Because the relationship between the development of overload / neurodegenerative disorders, or cancer, and iron are very complex, comprehension of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of iron homeostasis is a crucial factor in the development of new pharmacological strategies based on iron chelation. In view of various factors closely involved in pathogenesis of such diseases, designing multifunctional metal-chelators seems to be the most promising approach, but it requires a lot of effort. In this perspective, the review summarizes systemic iron homeostasis, and in brain and cancer cells, iron dysregulation in neurodegenerative disease and possible chelation strategies in the treatment of metal systemic overload, neurodegeneration and cancer. PMID:25005181

Gumienna-Kontecka, Elzbieta; Pyrkosz-Bulska, Monika; Szebesczyk, Agnieszka; Ostrowska, Malgorzata

2014-01-01

368

KINETICS OF SOLUBLE CHROMIUM REMOVAL FROM CONTAMINATED WATER BY ZEROVALENT IRON MEDIA: CORROSION INHIBITION AND PASSIVE OXIDE EFFECTS. (R825223)  

EPA Science Inventory

Permeable reactive barriers containing zerovalent iron are being increasingly employed for in situ remediation of groundwater contaminated with redox active metals and chlorinated organic compounds. This research investigated the effect of chromate concentration on...

369

Field assessment of carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized iron nanoparticles for in situ destruction of chlorinated solvents in source zones.  

PubMed

This study pilot-tested carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) stabilized zero-valent iron (ZVI) nanoparticles (with a trace amount of Pd catalyst) for in situ destruction of chlorinated ethenes such as perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that had been in groundwater for decades. The test site was located in a well-characterized secondary source zone of PCBs and chlorinated ethenes. Four test wells were installed along the groundwater flow direction (spaced 5 ft apart), including one injection well (IW), one up-gradient monitoring well (MW-3) and two down-gradient monitoring wells (MW-1 and MW-2). Stabilized nanoparticle suspension was prepared on-site and injected into the 50-ft deep, unconfined aquifer. Approximately 150 gallons of 0.2 g/L Fe-Pd (CMC = 0.1 wt%, Pd/Fe = 0.1 wt%) was gravity-fed through IW-1 over a 4-h period (Injection #1). One month later, another 150 gallons of 1.0 g/L Fe-Pd (CMC = 0.6 wt%, Pd/Fe = 0.1 wt%) was injected into IW-1 at an injection pressure <5 psi (Injection #2). When benchmarked against the tracer, approximately 37.4% and 70.0% of the injected Fe was detected in MW-1 during injection #1 and #2, respectively, confirming the soil mobility of the nanoparticles through the aquifer, and higher mobility of the particles was observed when the injection was performed under higher pressure. Rapid degradation of PCE and TCE was observed in both MW-1 and MW-2 following each injection, with the maximum degradation being observed during the first week of the injections. The chlorinated ethenes concentrations gradually returned to their pre-injection levels after approximately 2 weeks, indicating exhaustion of the ZVI's reducing power. However, the injection of CMC-stabilized nanoparticle and the abiotic reductive dechlorination process appeared to have boosted a long-term in situ biological dechlorination thereafter, which was evidenced by the fact that PCE and TCE concentrations showed further reduction after two weeks. After 596 days from the first injection, the total chlorinated ethenes concentration decreased by about 40% and 61% in MW-1 and MW-2, respectively. No significant long-term reduction of PCB 1242 was observed in MW-1, but a reduction of 87% was evident in MW-2. During the 596 days of testing, the total concentrations of cis-DCE (dichloroethylene) and VC (vinyl chloride) decreased by 20% and 38% in MW-1 and MW-2, respectively. However, the combined fraction of cis-DCE and VC in the total chlorinated ethenes (PCE, TCE, cis-DCE and VC) increased from 73% to 98% and from 62% to 98%, respectively, which supports the notion that biological dechlorination of PCE and TCE was active. It is proposed that CMC-stabilized ZVI-Pd nanoparticles facilitated the early stage rapid abiotic degradation. Over the long run, the existing biological degradation process was boosted with CMC as the carbon source and hydrogen from the abiotic/biotic processes as the electron donor, resulting in the sustained enhanced destruction of the chlorinated organic chlorinated ethenes in the subsurface. PMID:20106501

He, Feng; Zhao, Dongye; Paul, Chris

2010-04-01

370

Molecular Structure of Iron  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since antiquity, Iron has been known for its malleability and abundance. Iron is a soft grey metal that is very ductile and easy to work; it can be rolled, hammered, bent, and tempered. Iron makes up 5% of the earth's crust in the form of ores such as hematite, limonite, magnetite, and taconite. This makes it the second most abundant metal, following aluminum. Most iron is used to manufacture carbon steel: iron with about 1.5% carbon and traces of other elements, but it is also used for many other alloys and steels of various types. Iron melts at 1808 degrees Kelvin and boils at 3023 degrees Kelvin. Insufficient iron in the bloodstream causes anemia, a medical condition causing unusual tiredness and other symptoms resulting from underdeveloped or few red blood cells.

2003-04-16

371

Iron and thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Although essential for cell physiology, an increase or depletion of body iron has harmful effects on health. Apart from iron deficiency anemia and iron overload-related organ tissue damage, there are increasing evidences that body iron status is implicated in atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. The hypothesis formulated in 1981 that iron depletion may protect against cardiovascular events is intriguing and has generated a significant debate in the last two decades. Indeed, to study this phenomenon, several investigators have tried to design appropriate experimental and clinical studies and to identify useful biochemical and genetic markers of iron status. The results of the literature on the effect of iron deficiency and overload on vascular health are critically reviewed in this study from a pathogenic and clinical point of view. PMID:18066546

Targher, Giovanni; Montagnana, Martina; Lippi, Giuseppe

2007-01-01

372

Mechanisms of Brain Iron Transport: Insight into Neurodegeneration and CNS Disorders  

PubMed Central

Summary Trace metals such as iron, copper, zinc, manganese, and cobalt are essential cofactors for many cellular enzymes. Extensive research on iron, the most abundant transition metal in biology, has contributed to an increased understanding of the molecular machinery involved in maintaining its homeostasis in mammalian peripheral tissues. However, the cellular and intercellular iron transport mechanisms in the central nervous system (CNS) are still poorly understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that impaired iron metabolism is an initial cause of neurodegeneration, and several common genetic and sporadic neurodegenerative disorders have been proposed to be associated with dysregulated CNS iron homeostasis. This review aims to provide a summary of the molecular mechanisms of brain iron transport. Our discussion is focused on iron transport across endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier and within the neuro- and glial-vascular units of the brain, with the aim of revealing novel therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative and CNS disorders. PMID:20161623

Mills, Eric; Dong, Xian-ping; Wang, Fudi; Xu, Haoxing

2009-01-01

373

Modulation of iron metabolism in aging and in Alzheimer's disease: relevance of the choroid plexus  

PubMed Central

Iron is essential for mammalian cellular homeostasis. However, in excess, it promotes free radical formation and is associated with aging-related progressive deterioration and with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are no mechanisms to excrete iron, which makes iron homeostasis a very tightly regulated process at the level of the intestinal absorption. Iron is believed to reach the brain through receptor-mediated endocytosis of iron-bound transferrin by the brain barriers, the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, formed by the choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cells and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by the endothelial cells of the brain capillaries. Importantly, the CP epithelial cells are responsible for producing most of the CSF, the fluid that fills the brain ventricles and the subarachnoid space. Recently, the finding that the CP epithelial cells display all the machinery to locally control iron delivery into the CSF may suggest that the general and progressive senescence of the CP may be at the basis of the impairment of regional iron metabolism, iron-mediated toxicity, and the increase in inflammation and oxidative stress that occurs with aging and, particularly, in AD. PMID:22661928

Mesquita, Sandro D.; Ferreira, Ana C.; Sousa, Joao C.; Santos, Nadine C.; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Sousa, Nuno; Palha, Joana A.; Marques, Fernanda

2012-01-01

374

Hydrogen Permeation Barrier Coatings  

SciTech Connect

Gaseous hydrogen, H2, has many physical properties that allow it to move rapidly into and through materials, which causes problems in keeping hydrogen from materials that are sensitive to hydrogen-induced degradation. Hydrogen molecules are the smallest diatomic molecules, with a molecular radius of about 37 x 10-12 m and the hydrogen atom is smaller still. Since it is small and light it is easily transported within materials by diffusion processes. The process of hydrogen entering and transporting through a materials is generally known as permeation and this section reviews the development of hydrogen permeation barriers and barrier coatings for the upcoming hydrogen economy.

Henager, Charles H.

2008-01-01

375

The blood-ocular barriers.  

PubMed

The introduction of the concept of blood-ocular barriers in the ophthalmic literature is briefly reviewed. Two main blood-ocular barriers are proposed: the blood-aqueous barrier and the blood-retinal barrier. The blood-aqueous barrier is formed by an epithelial barrier located in the nonpigmented layer of the ciliary epithelium and in the posterior iridial epithelium, and by the endothelium of the iridial vessels. Both these layers have tight junctions of the "leaky" type. The pereability of the blood-aqueous barrier shows a significant degree of pressure-dependent diffusion associated with transport activity, resembling the standing gradient osmotic flow model. The blood-retinal barrier is located at two levels, forming an outer barrier in the retinal pigment epithelium and an inner barrier in the endothelial membrane of the retinal vessels. Both these membranes have tight junctions of the "nonleaky" type. The permeability of the blood-retinal barrier resembles cellular permeability in general, diffusion being directly related to the predominant roles of lipid solubility and transport mechanisms. Finally, the clinical significance of the blood-ocular barrier is analyzed. The metabolism of cornea and lens and the regulation of intraocular fluids are directly influenced by the blood-aqueous barrier. Similarly, an alteration of the blood-retinal barrier appears to play an important role in the development of vascular retinopathies, pigment epitheliopathies, and retinal edema. PMID:380030

Cunha-Vaz, J

1979-01-01

376

PHOTON SCIENCE SEMINAR Diamonds, Iron and XDiamonds, Iron and XDiamonds, Iron and XDiamonds, Iron and X----rays:rays:rays:rays  

E-print Network

PHOTON SCIENCE SEMINAR Diamonds, Iron and XDiamonds, Iron and XDiamonds, Iron and XDiamonds, Iron Scientist at the Advanced Photon Source and Postdoctoral Fellow at the Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie

Jackson, Jennifer M.

377

Great Barrier Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Landsat-7 color composite image shows a section of the famous Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest living organism. This view displays the southern end of the reef where it is composed of smaller, individual reef structures as opposed to a continuous bank as in the north.

Nasa; Day, Earth S.

378

Barrier infrared detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1959, Lawson and co-workers publication triggered development of variable band gap Hg1-xCdxTe (HgCdTe) alloys providing an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Over the five decades, this material system has successfully fought off major challenges from different material systems, but despite that it has more competitors today than ever before. It is interesting however, that none of these competitors can compete in terms of fundamental properties. They may promise to be more manufacturable, but never to provide higher performance or, with the exception of thermal detectors, to operate at higher temperatures. In the last two decades a several new concepts of photodetectors to improve their performance have been proposed including trapping detectors, barrier detectors, unipolar barrier photodiodes, and multistage detectors. This paper describes the present status of infrared barrier detectors. It is especially addressed to the group of III-V compounds including type-II superlattice materials, although HgCdTe barrier detectors are also included. It seems to be clear that certain of these solutions have merged as a real competitions of HgCdTe photodetectors.

Martyniuk, P.; Kopytko, M.; Rogalski, A.

2014-06-01

379

Barriers to Technology Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on one segment of a research project which investigates what faculty members perceive to be acting as barriers in their attempts to integrate technology into their teaching at a laptop university. A web-based questionnaire was used to collect information from 69/288 (24%) faculty members from a small U.A.E. university. From the…

Schoepp, Kevin

2005-01-01

380

Barrier Scattering Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Barrier Scattering model computes the 1D quantum scattering-state wave function and shows its time evolution for an arbitrary potential V(x) on the interval [xmin,xmax]. It is a supplemental simulation for the article "Smooth double barriers in quantum mechanics" by Avik Dutt and Sayan Kar in the American Journal of Physics 78(12), 1352-1360 (2010) and has been approved by the authors and the American Journal of Physics (AJP) editor. The transmission probability as a function of incident particle energy is shown in a second window. Users can select a predefined V(x) or their own function and can vary the energy E and then observe the wave function and its time evolution. The transmission amplitude is computed and a data point is added to the transmission probability graph when the energy is changed. Because resonances are often sharp, the transmission probability graph has an energy-scan option that automatically computes the transmission coefficient as the energy is incremented. Set the energy below the resonance and choose a small energy increment ?E to obtain a high-resolution transmission probability spectrum. The Barrier Scattering model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_qm_BarrierScattering.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2010-07-11

381

Thermal barrier coating system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An oxide thermal barrier coating comprises ZrO3-Yb2O3 that is plasma sprayed onto a previously applied bond coating. The zirconia is partially stabilized with about 124 w/o ytterbia to insure cubic, monoclinic, and terragonal phases.

Stecura, S. (inventor)

1985-01-01

382

Great Barrier Reef  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A better than average view of the Great Barrier Reef was captured by SeaWiFS on a recent overpass. There is sunglint northeast of the reef and there appears to be some sort of filamentous bloom in the Capricorn Channel.

2002-01-01

383

Great Barrier Reef  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson addresses the environmental importance of coral reefs and the threats to the conservation of reefs. Through the process of gathering geographic information about a place (in this case, the Great Barrier Reef), students will learn how a geographic focus can sharpen their insights about a conservation issue.

384

Mechanisms of mammalian iron homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Iron is vital for almost all organisms because of its ability to donate and accept electrons with relative ease. It serves as a cofactor for many proteins and enzymes necessary for oxygen and energy metabolism, as well as for several other essential processes. Mammalian cells utilize multiple mechanisms to acquire iron. Disruption of iron homeostasis is associated with various human diseases: iron deficiency resulting from defects in acquisition or distribution of the metal causes anemia; whereas iron surfeit resulting from excessive iron absorption or defective utilization causes abnormal tissue iron deposition, leading to oxidative damage. Mammals utilize distinct mechanisms to regulate iron homeostasis at the systemic and cellular levels. These involve the hormone hepcidin and iron regulatory proteins, which collectively ensure iron balance. This review outlines recent advances in iron regulatory pathways, as well as in mechanisms underlying intracellular iron trafficking, an important but less-studied area of mammalian iron homeostasis. PMID:22703180

Pantopoulos, Kostas; Porwal, Suheel Kumar; Tartakoff, Alan; Devireddy, L.

2012-01-01

385

Iron regulation by hepcidin  

PubMed Central

Hepcidin is a key hormone that is involved in the control of iron homeostasis in the body. Physiologically, hepcidin is controlled by iron stores, inflammation, hypoxia, and erythropoiesis. The regulation of hepcidin expression by iron is a complex process that requires the coordination of multiple proteins, including hemojuvelin, bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), hereditary hemochromatosis protein, transferrin receptor 2, matriptase-2, neogenin, BMP receptors, and transferrin. Misregulation of hepcidin is found in many disease states, such as the anemia of chronic disease, iron refractory iron deficiency anemia, cancer, hereditary hemochromatosis, and ineffective erythropoiesis, such as ?-thalassemia. Thus, the regulation of hepcidin is the subject of interest for the amelioration of the detrimental effects of either iron deficiency or overload. PMID:23722909

Zhao, Ningning; Zhang, An-Sheng; Enns, Caroline A.

2013-01-01

386

Iron and transfusion medicine.  

PubMed

Blood bankers have focused their energy to secure blood transfusion, and only recently have studies been published on the effect of blood donation on iron metabolism. In many facilities, hemoglobin measurement is only performed just before or even during blood donation, but the determination of iron stores is largely ignored. The 2013 paradox of transfusion medicine is due to the fact that blood donation may be harmful and leads to iron deficiency with or without anemia, but for other individuals, it may be a healthy measure preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this review is to discuss iron metabolism in the perspective of blood donation, notably regarding their possible genetic profiles that eventually will discriminate "good" iron absorbers from "bad" iron responders. PMID:24148756

Waldvogel-Abramovski, Sophie; Waeber, Gérard; Gassner, Christoph; Buser, Andreas; Frey, Beat M; Favrat, Bernard; Tissot, Jean-Daniel

2013-11-01

387

IRON IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma is a non-curable B cell malignancy in which iron metabolism plays an important role. Patients with this disorder almost universally suffer from a clinically significant anemia, which is often symptomatic, and which is due to impaired iron utilization. Recent studies indicate that the proximal cause of dysregulated iron metabolism and anemia in these patients is cytokine-induced upregulation of hepcidin expression. Malignant myeloma cells are dependent on an increased influx of iron and therapeutic efforts are being made to target this requirement. The studies detailing the characteristics and biochemical abnormalities in iron metabolism causing anemia and the initial attempts to target iron therapeutically are described in this review. PMID:23879589

VanderWall, Kristina; Daniels-Wells, Tracy R; Penichet, Manuel; Lichtenstein, Alan

2013-01-01

388

Iron sensors and signals in response to iron deficiency.  

PubMed

The transcription of genes involved in iron acquisition in plants is induced under iron deficiency, but our understanding of iron sensors and signals remains limited. Iron Deficiency-responsive Element-binding Factor 1 (IDEF1) and Hemerythrin motif-containing Really Interesting New Gene- and Zinc-finger proteins (HRZs)/BRUTUS (BTS) have recently emerged as candidate iron sensors because of their functions as potent regulators of iron deficiency responses and their iron-binding properties. IDEF1 is a central transcriptional regulator of graminaceous genes involved in iron uptake and utilization, predominantly during the early stages of iron deficiency. HRZs/BTS are E3 ubiquitin ligases and negative regulators of iron deficiency responses in both graminaceous and non-graminaceous plants. Rice OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 are also potent regulators of iron accumulation. Characterizing these putative iron sensors also provides clues to understanding the nature of iron signals, which may involve ionized iron itself, other metals, oxygen, redox status, heme and iron-sulfur clusters, in addition to metabolites affected by iron deficiency. Systemic iron responses may also be regulated by phloem-mobile iron and its chelators such as nicotianamine. Iron sensors and signals will be identified by demonstration of signal transmission by IDEF1, HRZs/BTS, or unknown factors. PMID:24908504

Kobayashi, Takanori; Nishizawa, Naoko K

2014-07-01

389

Reactivity of Iron  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this laboratory excercise, students will be introduced to the oxidation / corrosion of iron from two different sources (flame and water). From the examination of corrosion from multiple sources, students will be able to compare and contrast the effects each has on the iron samples. Students will also be able to observe the effect of various material processing techniques has on the corrosive properties of iron.

Stoebe, Thomas G.

2008-10-28

390

Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers  

SciTech Connect

An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier.

Borns, D.J.

1995-08-01

391

35. GREY IRON TUMBLERS, IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ROTATE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. GREY IRON TUMBLERS, IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ROTATE CASTINGS WITH SHOT TO REMOVE AND SURFACE OXIDES AND REMAINING EXCESS METALS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

392

System and method for producing metallic iron  

DOEpatents

A hearth furnace 10 for producing metallic iron material has a furnace housing 11 having a drying/preheat zone 12, a conversion zone 13, a fusion zone 14, and optionally a cooling zone 15, the conversion zone 13 is between the drying/preheat zone 12 and the fusion zone 14. A moving hearth 20 is positioned within the furnace housing 11. A hood or separation barrier 30 within at least a portion of the conversion zone 13, fusion zone 14 or both separates the fusion zone 14 into an upper region and a lower region with the lower region adjacent the hearth 20 and the upper region adjacent the lower region and spaced from the hearth 20. An injector introduces a gaseous reductant into the lower region adjacent the hearth 20. A combustion region may be formed above the hood or separation barrier.

Bleifuss, Rodney L. (Grand Rapids, MN); Englund, David J. (Bovey, MN); Iwasaki, Iwao (Grand Rapids, MN); Fosnacht, Donald R. (Hermantown, MN); Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

2012-01-17

393

Iron, Meat and Health  

PubMed Central

This article is a summary of the publication “Iron and Health” by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) to the U.K. Government (2010), which reviews the dietary intake of iron and the impact of different dietary patterns on the nutritional and health status of the U.K. population. It concludes that several uncertainties make it difficult to determine dose-response relationships or to confidently characterize the risks associated with iron deficiency or excess. The publication makes several recommendations concerning iron intakes from food, including meat, and from supplements, as well as recommendations for further research. PMID:22254098

Geissler, Catherine; Singh, Mamta

2011-01-01

394

Plea for Iron Astrochemistry  

SciTech Connect

Iron is a key element and compound in living bodies. It is the most abundant refractory element and has the most stable nucleus in the Universe. Also, elemental Iron has a relevant abundance in the interstellar medium and dense clouds, it can be in gas phase or included in dust particles. During this talk, I shall explain why this special interest in Iron and shall give a brief explanation about its origin and the interstellar nucleosynthesis. After this I'll detail the rich chemistry that Iron can be involved in the interstellar medium, dense clouds with several species.

Mostefaoui, T. A.; Benmerad, B.; Kerkar, M. [Faculte des Sciences Exactes, Targa ou Zemmour, Universite de A. Mira, 6000 Bejaiea (Algeria)

2010-10-31

395

Iron storage in bacteria.  

PubMed

Iron is an essential nutrient for nearly all organisms but presents problems of toxicity, poor solubility and low availability. These problems are alleviated through the use of iron-storage proteins. Bacteria possess two types of iron-storage protein, the haem-containing bacterioferritins and the haem-free ferritins. These proteins are widespread in bacteria, with at least 39 examples known so far in eubacteria and archaebacteria. The bacterioferritins and ferritins are distantly related but retain similar structural and functional properties. Both are composed of 24 identical or similar subunits (approximately 19 kDa) that form a roughly spherical protein (approximately 450 kDa, approximately 120 A diameter) containing a large hollow centre (approximately 80 A diameter). The hollow centre acts as an iron-storage cavity with the capacity to accommodate at least 2000 iron atoms in the form of a ferric-hydroxyphosphate core. Each subunit contains a four-helix bundle which carries the active site or ferroxidase centre of the protein. The ferroxidase centres endow ferrous-iron-oxidizing activity and are able to form a di-iron species that is an intermediate in the iron uptake, oxidation and core formation process. Bacterioferritins contain up to 12 protoporphyrin IX haem groups located at the two-fold interfaces between pairs of two-fold related subunits. The role of the haem is unknown, although it may be involved in mediating iron-core reduction and iron release. Some bacterioferritins are composed of two subunit types, one conferring haem-binding ability (alpha) and the other (beta) bestowing ferroxidase activity. Bacterioferritin genes are often adjacent to genes encoding a small [2Fe-2S]-ferredoxin (bacterioferritin-associated ferredoxin or Bfd). Bfd may directly interact with bacterioferritin and could be involved in releasing iron from (or delivering iron to) bacterioferritin or other iron complexes. Some bacteria contain two bacterioferritin subunits, or two ferritin subunits, that in most cases co-assemble. Others possess both a bacterioferritin and a ferritin, while some appear to lack any type of iron-storage protein. The reason for these differences is not understood. Studies on ferritin mutants have shown that ferritin enhances growth during iron starvation and is also involved in iron accumulation in the stationary phase of growth. The ferritin of Campylobacter jejuni is involved in redox stress resistance, although this does not appear to be the case for Escherichia coli ferritin (FtnA). No phenotype has been determined for E. coli bacterioferritin mutants and the precise role of bacterioferritin in E. coli remains uncertain. PMID:9889981

Andrews, S C

1998-01-01

396

Physiology of iron metabolism.  

PubMed

A revolution occurred during the last decade in the comprehension of the physiology as well as in the physiopathology of iron metabolism. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent knowledge that has accumulated, allowing a better comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in iron homeostasis. Iron metabolism is very fine tuned. The free molecule is very toxic; therefore, complex regulatory mechanisms have been developed in mammalian to insure adequate intestinal absorption, transportation, utilization, and elimination. 'Ironomics' certainly will be the future of the understanding of genes as well as of the protein-protein interactions involved in iron metabolism. PMID:25053935

Waldvogel-Abramowski, Sophie; Waeber, Gérard; Gassner, Christoph; Buser, Andreas; Frey, Beat M; Favrat, Bernard; Tissot, Jean-Daniel

2014-06-01

397

Impairment of Interrelated Iron- and Copper Homeostatic Mechanisms in Brain Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Neurodegenerative Disorders  

PubMed Central

Iron and copper are important co-factors for a number of enzymes in the brain, including enzymes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and myelin formation. Both shortage and an excess of iron or copper will affect the brain. The transport of iron and copper into the brain from the circulation is strictly regulated, and concordantly protective barriers, i.e., the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCB) have evolved to separate the brain environment from the circulation. The uptake mechanisms of the two metals interact. Both iron deficiency and overload lead to altered copper homeostasis in the brain. Similarly, changes in dietary copper affect the brain iron homeostasis. Moreover, the uptake routes of iron and copper overlap each other which affect the interplay between the concentrations of the two metals in the brain. The divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) is involved in the uptake of both iron and copper. Furthermore, copper is an essential co-factor in numerous proteins that are vital for iron homeostasis and affects the binding of iron-response proteins to iron-response elements in the mRNA of the transferrin receptor, DMT1, and ferroportin, all highly involved in iron transport. Iron and copper are mainly taken up at the BBB, but the BCB also plays a vital role in the homeostasis of the two metals, in terms of sequestering, uptake, and efflux of iron and copper from the brain. Inside the brain, iron and copper are taken up by neurons and glia cells that express various transporters. PMID:23055972

Skj?rringe, Tina; M?ller, Lisbeth Birk; Moos, Torben

2012-01-01

398

Effect of bimetallic and polymer-coated Fe nanoparticles on biological denitrification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bimetallic nanoparticles (nano Fe–Ni, nano Fe–Cu) and coated iron nanoparticles (chitosan–Fe0, sodium oleate–Fe0) were utilized to support autotrophic denitrification. In comparison to nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles, Ni-containing nanoparticles resulted in faster nitrate removal, but generated 17% more ammonium. The nano Fe–Cu integrated system, required two days less than the unmodified NZVI integrated system to remove all the nitrate and

Yi An; Tielong Li; Zhaohui Jin; Meiying Dong; Hongcai Xia; Xue Wang

2010-01-01

399

Modeling Catastrophic Barrier Island Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barrier islands, thin strips of sand lying parallel to the mainland coastline, along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts appear to have maintained their form for thousands of years in the face of rising sea level. The mechanisms that allow barrier islands to remain robust are transport of sediment from the ocean side of barriers to the top and backside during storms, termed island overwash, and the growth and alongshore propagation of tidal deltas near barrier island inlets. Dynamically these processes provide the necessary feedbacks to maintain a barrier island in an attractor that withstands rising sea level within a phase space of barrier island geometrical characteristics. Current barrier island configurations along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts exist among a wide range of storm climate and underlying geologic conditions and therefore the environment that forces overwash and tidal delta dynamics varies considerably. It has been suggested that barrier islands in certain locations such as those between Avon and Buxton (losing 76% of island width since 1852) and Chandeleur islands (losing 85% of its surface area since 2005) along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, respectively, may be subject to a catastrophic shift in barrier island attractor states - more numerous inlets cutting barriers in some locations and the complete disappearance of barrier islands in other locations. In contrast to common models for barrier islands that neglect storm dynamics and often only consider cross-shore response, we use an alongshore extended model for barrier island dynamics including beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms to explore the response of barrier islands to a wide range of environmental forcing. Results will be presented that show how barrier island attractor states are altered with variations in the rate of sea level rise, storminess, and underlying geology. We will also investigate the conditions necessary for a barrier island attractor similar to those found along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts to become unstable.

Whitley, J. W.; McNamara, D.

2012-12-01

400

Behavior of nine selected emerging trace organic contaminants in an artificial recharge system supplemented with a reactive barrier.  

PubMed

Artificial recharge improves several water quality parameters, but has only minor effects on recalcitrant pollutants. To improve the removal of these pollutants, we added a reactive barrier at the bottom of an infiltration basin. This barrier contained aquifer sand, vegetable compost, and clay and was covered with iron oxide dust. The goal of the compost was to sorb neutral compounds and release dissolved organic carbon. The release of dissolved organic carbon should generate a broad range of redox conditions to promote the transformation of emerging trace organic contaminants (EOCs). Iron oxides and clay increase the range of sorption site types. In the present study, we examined the effectiveness of this barrier by analyzing the fate of nine EOCs. Water quality was monitored before and after constructing the reactive barrier. Installation of the reactive barrier led to nitrate-, iron-, and manganese-reducing conditions in the unsaturated zone below the basin and within the first few meters of the saturated zone. Thus, the behavior of most EOCs changed after installing the reactive barrier. The reactive barrier enhanced the removal of some EOCs, either markedly (sulfamethoxazole, caffeine, benzoylecgonine) or slightly (trimethoprim) and decreased the removal rates of compounds that are easily degradable under aerobic conditions (ibuprofen, paracetamol). The barrier had no remarkable effect on 1H-benzotriazole and tolyltriazole. PMID:24793065

Valhondo, Cristina; Carrera, Jesús; Ayora, Carlos; Barbieri, Manuela; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Huerta, Maria

2014-10-01

401

Iron requirements in erythropoietin therapy.  

PubMed

When erythropoietin (epoetins or darbepoetin) is used to treat the anemias of chronic renal failure, cancer chemotherapy, inflammatory bowel diseases, HIV infection and rheumatoid arthritis, functional iron deficiency rapidly ensues unless individuals are iron-overloaded from prior transfusions. Therefore, iron therapy is essential when using erythropoietin to maximize erythropoiesis by avoiding absolute and functional iron deficiency. Body iron stores (800-1200 mg) are best maintained by providing this much iron intravenously in a year, or more if blood loss is significant (in hemodialysis patients this can be 1-3 g). There is no ideal method for monitoring iron therapy, but serum ferritin and transferrin iron saturation are the most common tests. Iron deficiency is also detected by measuring the percentage of hypochromic red blood cells, content of hemoglobin in reticulocytes, soluble transferrin receptor levels, and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin values, but iron overload is not monitored by these tests. Iron gluconate and iron sucrose are the safest intravenous medications. PMID:15737895

Eschbach, Joseph Wetherill

2005-06-01

402

Barrier coverage with wireless sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In old times, castles were surrounded by moats (deep trenches filled with water, and even alligators) to thwart or discourage intrusion attempts. One can now replace such barriers with stealthy and wireless sensors. In this paper, we develop theoretical foundations for laying barriers of wireless sensors. We define the notion of k-barrier coverage of a belt region using wireless sensors.

Santosh Kumar; Ten-Hwang Lai; Anish Arora

2005-01-01

403

Reconceptualizing barriers to family leisure  

Microsoft Academic Search

While research indicates that leisure is an important source of both family cohesion and conflict, comparatively little attention has been given to the development of conceptual models which define the nature and operation of leisure barriers. Traditionally, barriers have been assumed to constitute intervening variables in the leisure preference?participation relationship. This paper suggests that the prevailing conceptualization of leisure barriers

Duane W. Crawford; Geoffrey Godbey

1987-01-01

404

The magnetic barrier at Venus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic barrier at Venus is a region within which the magnetic pressure dominates all other pressure contributions. The barrier is formed in the inner region of the dayside magnetosheath to transfer solar wind momentum flux to the ionosphere. Passes through the dayside magnetosheath and ionopause with Pioneer Venus have allowed us to probe the magnetic barrier directly. These passes

T. L. Zhang; J. G. Luhmann; C.T. Russell

1991-01-01

405

Underground waste barrier structure  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is an underground waste barrier structure that consists of waste material, a first container formed of activated carbonaceous material enclosing the waste material, a second container formed of zeolite enclosing the first container, and clay covering the second container. The underground waste barrier structure is constructed by forming a recessed area within the earth, lining the recessed area with a layer of clay, lining the clay with a layer of zeolite, lining the zeolite with a layer of activated carbonaceous material, placing the waste material within the lined recessed area, forming a ceiling over the waste material of a layer of activated carbonaceous material, a layer of zeolite, and a layer of clay, the layers in the ceiling cojoining with the respective layers forming the walls of the structure, and finally, covering the ceiling with earth.

Saha, Anuj J. (Hamburg, NY); Grant, David C. (Gibsonia, PA)

1988-01-01

406

Barrier breaching device  

DOEpatents

A barrier breaching device that is designed primarily for opening holes in interior walls of buildings uses detonating fuse for explosive force. The fuse acts as the ribs or spokes of an umbrella-like device that may be opened up to form a cone. The cone is placed against the wall so that detonating fuse that rings the base of the device and which is ignited by the spoke-like fuses serves to cut a circular hole in the wall.

Honodel, Charles A. (Tracy, CA)

1985-01-01

407

Gastrointestinal Mucus Gel Barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family of glycoproteins, known as gel-forming mucins, endow gastrointestinal mucus with its characteristic viscoelastic\\u000a and biological properties. In the mucus, these large oligomeric glycoproteins are organized into entangled networks that occasionally\\u000a can be stabilized by non-covalent interactions as in the stomach lumen. This network is a formidable chemical and physical\\u000a barrier that not only protects the underlying epithelia but

Juan Perez-Vilar

408

Schottky Barrier Betavoltaic Battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new nuclear betavotaic battety is described. It uses a Schottky barrier in place of the more standard p-n junction diode, along with 147Pm metal film rather than Pm2O3 oxide as in the commercially available Betacel. Design details of the battery including measurement of absorption, conversion efficiency, thickness etc. as functions of & resistivity and other cell parameters are described.

F. K. Manasse; J. J. Pinajian; A. N. Tse