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1

Development of the ZEUS central tracking detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design concept and development of the ZEUS central tracking detector is described. This is a cylindrical drift chamber designed for track reconstruction, electron identification and event triggering in a high-crossing-rate, high-magnetic-field environment.

Brooks, C. B.; Bullock, F. W.; Cashmore, R. J.; Devenish, R. C.; Foster, B.; Fraser, T. J.; Gibson, M. D.; Gilmore, R. S.; Gingrich, D.; Harnew, N.; Hart, J. C.; Heath, G. P.; Hiddleston, J.; Holmes, A. R.; Jamdagni, A. K.; Jones, T. W.; Llewellyn, T. J.; Long, K. R.; Lush, G. J.; Malos, J.; Martin, N. C.; McArthur, I.; McCubbin, N. A.; McQuillan, D.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morgado, C.; Nash, J.; Nixon, G.; Parham, A. G.; Payne, B. T.; Roberts, J. H. C.; Salmon, G.; Saxon, D. H.; Sephton, A. J.; Shaw, D.; Shaw, T. B.; Shield, P. D.; Shulman, J.; Silvester, I.; Smith, S.; Strachan, D. E.; Tapper, R. J.; Tkaczyk, S. M.; Toudup, L. W.; Wallis, E. W.; Wastie, R.; Wells, J.; White, D. J.; Wilson, F. F.; Yeo, K. L.; ZEUS-UK Collaboration

1989-11-01

2

Data acquisition for the Zeus central tracking detector  

SciTech Connect

The Zeus experiment is being installed on the Hera electron-proton collider being built at the Desy laboratory in Hamburg. The high-beam crossover rate of the Hera machine will provide experience in data acquisition and triggering relevant to the environment of future accelerators such as the SSC. The Transputer-based data acquisition system for the Zeus central tracking detector is described.

Quinton, S.; Allen, D.; Cambell, D.; Mcarthur, I. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (GB))

1990-12-01

3

Zeus central tracking detector second level trigger and readout architectures  

SciTech Connect

The Zeus central tracking detector (CTD) second level trigger is based on a network of transputers closely integrated with the CTD data acquisition system. The network which has been designed to exploit the natural parallelism inherent in the CTD design is described. Some performance estimates of the trigger algorithm and data flow through the network are given.

Devenish, R.C.E.; Gingrich, D.M.; Hallam-Baker, P.; McArthur, I.; Smith, S. (Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford, (Great Britain))

1990-08-01

4

The performance of the ZEUS central tracking detector z-by-timing electronics in a transputer based data acquisition system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central Tracking Detector of the ZEUS experiment employs a time difference technique to measure the z coordinate of each hit. The method provides fast, three-dimensional space point measurements which are used as input to all levels of the ZEUS trigger. Such a tracking trigger is essential in order to discriminate against events with vertices lying outside the nominal electron-proton

B. Foster; G. P. Heath; T. J. Llewellyn; D. M. Gingrich; N. Harnew; P. M. Hallam-Baker; T. Khatri; I. C. McArthur; P. Morawitz; J. Nash; P. D. Shield; S. Topp-Jorgensen; F. F. Wilson; D. B. Allen; R. C. Carter; M. D. Jeffs; M. C. Morrissey; S. P. H. Quinton; M. Postranecky

1993-01-01

5

The performance of the FADC system for the ZEUS central tracking detector  

SciTech Connect

The Central Tracking Detector (CTD) of the ZEUS experiment uses a Flash Analogue to Digital Converter (FADC) readout system to measure the arrival time of ionization at sense wires as well as the charge deposited. A digitization frequency of 104 MHz is used and the data is written to pipelined data stores. A Digital Signal Processor (DSP) is used to control the main functions on the card as well as perform data parameterization and compression. Test and operational performance results from the first electron-proton interactions are presented.

Morgado, C.J.S.; Cassidy, A.; Cussans, D.; Foster, B.; Gilmore, R.; Heath, H.F.; Malos, J.; Tapper, R.J. (Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom). H.H. Wills Physics Lab.); Baird, S.A.; Galagadera, S.B.; Hardy, P.; Jaroslawski, S.; Matson, R.; Quinton, S.P.H. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Didcot (United Kingdom))

1994-08-01

6

The design and performance of the ZEUS global tracking trigger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Tracking Trigger (GTT) of the ZEUS experiment is described. The GTT is data driven at the ZEUS first level trigger rate of ?600 Hz and performs event-based track finding on data from the experiment's Central Tracking Detector (CTD), silicon Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) and Straw Tube Tracker (STT) forward detectors. The resulting track-based trigger quantities calculated (track multiplicity, vertices, vector meson masses, background event probabilities, etc.) are available within ˜9 ms and are used in the experiment's second level trigger to improve the selection of physics events. Detector information is pushed to the PC farm of the GTT using PowerPC VME board computers which are either embedded within the detector's frontend readout system (MVD) or are parasitically attached to them via multiple serial transputer links (CTD and STT). Data flow and control is performed via point-to-point Fast and Giga ethernet switched network connections using the TCP protocol. The principal design challenges were: integrating new and interfacing to existing frontend systems, providing a useful trigger result, satisfying the rate and latency requirements and not interfering with ongoing data taking during commissioning. These aims have been achieved. The GTT has been actively used in the ZEUS trigger since 2004 when an initial CTD-only algorithm was used; in 2005 this was upgraded to use MVD information which significantly improves track and primary vertex resolutions. Commissioning problems delayed the STT implementation and its use in the GTT has only been tested.

Allfrey, P. D.; Bell, M. A.; Coppola, N.; Devenish, R.; Dhawan, S.; Dunne, W.; Ferrando, J.; Gladkov, D.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Hayes, M.; Jakob, H.-P.; Loizidies, J. H.; Pellegrino, A.; Polini, A.; Roberfroid, V.; Soares, M.; Straub, P. B.; Stifutkin, A.; Sutton, M. R.; Topp-Jørgenssen, S.; West, B. J.; Woolley, N. P.; Youngman, C.

2007-10-01

7

The timing and control systems of the ZEUS tracking detector data acquisition electronics  

SciTech Connect

The very high spatial resolution required by the ZEUS Tracking Detectors and the 96ns periodic interaction between protons and electrons of the Hera collider require real time Analogue Signal Digitization at 104MHz controlled reliably to tight tolerances. Maximum event readout efficiency, fast monitoring of run time errors and testability of front end electronics require pipelining, speed and flexibility. Such an electronic Timing and Control System (TCS) is operational within three main inner detectors of the ZEUS detector and is presented in this paper.

Galagedera, S.B.; Allen, D.; Baird, S.A.; Church, I.; Hardy, P.; Hawthorne, P.A.; Jaroslawski, S.; Jarrett, J.; Madani Bozorg, M.S.; Matson, R.; Quinton, S.P.H. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)); Cassidy, A.; Cussans, D.; Heath, H.F.; Foster, B.; Morgado, C.J.S.; Tapper, R.J. (Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom). H.H. Wills Physics Lab.)

1994-08-01

8

Central and forward tracking chambers of CDF  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Collider Detector at Fermilab is currently studying 1.8 TeV pp interactions at the Fermilab Tevatron. This paper describes the design and construction of the detector's tracking chambers in the light of the measurement requirements dictated by physics goals. The chambers described are the Forward Tracking Chamber, the Central Tracking Chamber, the Central Drift Tubes, and the Vertex Time Projection

R. L. Wagner

1988-01-01

9

D0 central tracking chamber performance studies  

SciTech Connect

The performance of the completed DO central tracking chamber was studied using cosmic rays at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Also studied was a prototype tracking chamber identical in design to the completed DO tracking chamber. The prototype chamber was exposed to a collimated beam of 150 GeV pions at the Fermilab NWA test facility. Results indicate an R{Phi} tracking resolution compatible with the limitations imposed by physical considerations, excellent 2 track resolution, and a high track reconstruction efficiency along with a good rejection power against {gamma} {yields} e {sup +} e{sup {minus}} events.

Pizzuto, D.

1991-12-01

10

40. ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD TRACKS, WITH CHICAGO, MILWAUKEE AND ST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

40. ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD TRACKS, WITH CHICAGO, MILWAUKEE AND ST. PAUL FREIGHT DEPOT AND FARLEY AND LOETSCHER MANUFACTURING COMPANY WAREHOUSE ANNEX IN LEFT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - Dubuque Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

11

Optical alignment system for the ZEUS micro vertex detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electron–proton scattering experiment ZEUS will be equipped with a silicon vertex detector in preparation for the upgrade of the HERA collider. An optical alignment system for the vertex detector is being developed. The alignment system measures the position of the vertex detector with respect to the outer tracking detector as well as the shape of the vertex detector using

Takashi Matsushita; Stewart Boogert; Robin Devenish; Roman Walczak

2001-01-01

12

Simulation of the ZEUS calorimeter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The simulation of the ZEUS uranium-scintillator calorimeter is presented. It is based on the GEANT and GHEISHA Monte Carlo packages. To simulate the high resolution calorimater with adequate precision and feasible execution time, two fast, tunable shower ...

Y. Iga

1995-01-01

13

Performance measurement of the upgraded D0 central track trigger  

SciTech Connect

The D0 experiment was upgraded in spring 2006 to harvest the full physics potential of the Tevatron accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois, USA. It is expected that the peak luminosity delivered by the accelerator will increase to over 300 x 10{sup 30} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. One of the upgraded systems is the Central Track Trigger (CTT). The CTT uses the Central Fiber Tracker (CFT) and Preshower detectors to identify central tracks with p{sub T} > 1.5GeV at the first trigger level. Track candidates are formed by comparing fiber hits to predefined track equations. In order to minimize latency, this operation is performed in parallel using combinatorial logic implemented in FPGAs. Limited hardware resources prevented the use of the full granularity of the CFT. This leads to a high fake track rate as the occupancy increases. In order to mitigate the problem, new track-finding hardware was designed and commissioned. We report on the upgrade and the improved performance of the CTT system.

Mommsen, Remigius, K.; /Manchester U. /Fermilab

2006-12-01

14

Upgrade and Operation of the DZero Central Track Trigger  

SciTech Connect

The D{O} experiment at the Fermilab p{bar p} Tevatron collider (Batavia, IL, USA) has undergone significant upgrades in anticipation of high luminosity running conditions. As part of the upgrade, the capabilities of the Central Track Trigger (CTT) to make trigger decisions based on hit patterns in the Central Fiber Tracker (CFT) have been much improved. We report on the implementation, commissioning and operation of the upgraded CTT system.

Pangilinan, M.P.; /Boston U.; Buehler, M.D.; /Virginia U.

2007-04-01

15

Coseismic mole track structures produced by the 2001 Ms 8.1 Central Kunlun earthquake, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive co-seismic mole track structures have been observed along a 400-km-long surface rupture zone associated with the 2001 Ms 8.1 Central Kunlun earthquake, north Tibet. The mole track structures appear in an angular-ridge pattern, which resembles an angular triangle-shaped frame, and in a bulge pattern forming small flat hillocks. The mole tracks are developed within alluvial fans, river channels, and

Aiming Lin; Jianming Guo; Bihong Fu

2004-01-01

16

FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Central limit theorem and deformed exponentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central limit theorem (CLT) can be ranked among the most important ones in probability theory and statistics and plays an essential role in several basic and applied disciplines, notably in statistical thermodynamics. We show that there exists a natural extension of the CLT from exponentials to so-called deformed exponentials (also denoted as q-Gaussians). Our proposal applies exactly in the usual conditions in which the classical CLT is used.

Vignat, C.; Plastino, A.

2007-11-01

17

Collision Risk and Economic Benefit Analysis of Composite Separation for the Central East Pacific Track System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents and evaluation of the application of composite separation to the Central East Pacific (CEP) track system. Criteria for the evaluation were a collision risk and an economic benefit's comparison of the existing four-route and proposed c...

A. C. Busch B. Colamosca J. R. Vander Veer

1977-01-01

18

Cost analysis of two anaesthetic machines: "Primus®" and "Zeus®"  

PubMed Central

Background Two anaesthetic machines, the "Primus®" and the "Zeus®" (Draeger AG, Lübeck, Germany), were subjected to a cost analysis by evaluating the various expenses that go into using each machine. Methods These expenses included the acquisition, maintenance, training and device-specific accessory costs. In addition, oxygen, medical air and volatile anaesthetic consumption were determined for each machine. Results Anaesthesia duration was 278 ± 140 and 208 ± 112 minutes in the Primus® and the Zeus®, respectively. The purchase cost was €3.28 and €4.58 per hour of operation in the Primus® and the Zeus®, respectively. The maintenance cost was €0.90 and €1.20 per hour of operation in the Primus® and the Zeus®, respectively. We found that the O2 cost was €0.015 ± 0.013 and €0.056 ± 0.121 per hour of operation in the Primus® and the Zeus®, respectively. The medical air cost was €0.005 ± 0.003 and €0.016 ± 0.027 per hour of operation in the Primus® and the Zeus®, respectively. The volatile anaesthetic cost was €2.40 ± 2.40 and €4.80 ± 4.80 per hour of operation in the Primus® and the Zeus®, respectively. Conclusion This study showed that the "Zeus®" generates a higher cost per hour of operation compared to the "Primus®".

2012-01-01

19

ON THE RELIABILITY OF ZEUS-3D  

SciTech Connect

Recent and not-so-recent critiques of the widely used magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code, ZEUS-3D, challenge its reliability and efficiency suggesting that its MHD algorithm is capable of 'significant errors' in some simple one-dimensional shock-tube problems. I show that these concerns are either inapplicable in multi-dimensional astrophysical applications, or result from a misuse of the code rather than 'flaws' in its design. I also describe a few multi-dimensional test problems including one for super-Alfvenic turbulence, and highlight some recent innovations and improvements to the code now available online.

Clarke, David A. [Institute for Computational Astrophysics, Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3 (Canada)], E-mail: dclarke@ap.smu.ca

2010-03-01

20

Identification of leptons by ZEUS calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ZEUS detector has a high-resolution uranium calorimeter which can be used to identify leptons. The segmentation of the calorimeter is sensitive to the longitudinal and transverse particle energy deposition within the calorimeter. The phase space probability method is used to identify muons. It is based on Monte Carlo simulations, with the help of which we construct the muon probability function in the multi-dimensional phase-space of the calorimeter signals. A feed-forward neural network is used to identify electromagnetic showers. Both methods separate leptons with high efficiency and a low level of hadron contamination.

Kuzmin, Valentin A.

2000-10-01

21

DØ upgrade: Central Tracking readout electronics utilizing high speed optical links  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drift chambers making up the Central Tracking region of the DØ detector are being replaced by an 830,000 channel silicon vertex detector and a 90,000 channel scintillating fiber detector. Readout electronics is being designed to be common to both detectors. A custom high-density mixed-technology integrated circuit, mounted in the interaction region, is being used to digitize charge deposited on

M. Baert; F. Borcherding; M. Johnson; M. Matulik; M. Utes; J. Amaral; J. Costa; M. Mendes; L. Moreira; D. Mendoza

1994-01-01

22

Tracks!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity gives students clues for finding animal tracks and explains how to preserve them with plaster casts. Also discussed are investigative uses of animal tracks, such as estimating populations of wildlife and determining habitat requirements. The extension activity involves using replicas of animal feet to develop a poster of tracks with habitat depiction and stories to accompany it.

23

Further development of the ZEUS Expert System: Computer science foundations of design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The prototype version of the ZEUS Expert System, ZEXP, was diagnosing selected aspects of DAQ System during ZEUS running in 1993. In November 1993 ZEUS decided to extend its scope in order to cover all crucial aspects of operating the ZEUS detector (Run C...

M. Flasinski

1994-01-01

24

The gravity field in the central Pacific from satellite-to-satellite tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite-to-satellite Doppler tracking between the ATS 6 and the GEOS 3 spacecraft was used to measure the high-degree and high-order gravity field over an 80-deg region in the central Pacific Ocean. Forty passes of GEOS 3/ATS 6 Doppler data have been analyzed. The precision of these range rate data is about 0.3 mm/s, and the line-of-sight gravity anomalies recovered from these data have a precision of about 0.2 mGal at the GEOS 3 altitude of about 840 km. In general, the agreement between the SST-derived map and the conventional GEM method and an altimeter-derived geoid is good. Eight significant positive gravity anomalies were exposed in the central Pacific. Generally speaking, the anomalies form a roughly east-west pattern of alternating sign in the central region, and near the East Pacific they strike about north and south.

Marsh, J. G.; Marsh, B. D.; Williamson, R. G.; Wells, W. T.

1981-01-01

25

Dinosaur tracks from the Jurassic Shemshak Group in the Central Alborz Mountains (Northern Iran)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Shemshak Group includes alternating layers of coal-bearing shale and siliciclastic sediments in the Baladeh area in the central Alborz Mountains of northern Iran. A diverse and abundant Jurassic dinosaur footprint assemblage is now recognized in the group, which is Toarcian to Bajocian in age in the northern Baladeh. This is the first report of a diverse dinosaur ichnoassemblage from Iran that includes the footprints of sauropods. These tracks can be assigned to three groups of trackmakers: theropods, ornithopods and sauropods. Those of theropods are typically tridactyl in shape, their trackways reflecting bipedal movement. Theropod footprints are very abundant in both northern and western Baladeh. The studied theropod tracks themselves are divided into three major dimensional groups. The medium sized footprints (footprint length, 11-15 cm) are abundant and have a stride length, digit and pace angles like the coelurosaurs footprints and trackway. Theropod footprints were identified as similar to Schizograllator otariensis, Talmontopus tersi and Wildeichnus isp. Ornithopod footprints are tridactyl with rounded and thick toes and belong to bipeds. Some didactyl imprints were also observed. Skin imprints were well preserved in these footprints. The ornithopod tracks resemble Jiayinosorupus johnsoni, as well as Velociraptorichnus sichuanensis for didactyl footprints. Sauropod footprints found in the western part of Baladeh are assigned here to Eosauropus isp., which are pentadactyl pes imprints of a quadruped. The assemblage from Iran resembles similar associations from eastern Asia.

Abbassi, Nasrollah; Madanipour, Saeed

2014-04-01

26

Relative Potentials of Concentrating and Two-Axis Tracking Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Arrays for Central-Station Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to assess the relative economic potentials of concenrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications in the mid-1990's. Specific objectives of this study are to provide information o...

C. S. Borden D. L. Schwartz

1984-01-01

27

Power collection reduction by mirror surface nonflatness and tracking error for a central receiver solar power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of random waviness, curvature, and tracking error of plane-mirror heliostats in a rectangular array around a central-receiver solar power system are determined by subdividing each mirror into 484 elements, assuming the slope of each element to be representative of the surface slope average at its location, and summing the contributions of all elements and then of all mirrors

R. H. McFee

1975-01-01

28

Track reconstruction with a central two-shell scintillating fibre tracker (SFT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a track reconstruction algorithm designed for the scintillating fibre tracker (SFT), having in view the upgrade of the L3 detector for LEP-II. This algorithm can also be applied for particle tracking at future hadron colliders. The tracking elements are polystyrene fibres of 60 mum diameter, which are arranged as fused coherent bundles into fibre layers. We study in

F. Anselmo; F. Block; Luisa Cifarelli; C. D'Ambrosio; Thierry Gys; G. La Commare; H. Leutz; M. Marino; S. Qian

1994-01-01

29

ZEUS: A Submillimeter Grating Spectrometer for Exploring Distant Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The redshift (Z) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS) is a long slit echelle grating spectrometer that we are constructing for use in the submillimeter atmospheric transmission windows (350 ? m, 450 ? m, and 610 ? m) on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). ZEUS has a resolving power of R ? ? /? ? ˜ 1000, optimized for detecting broad, faint lines from extragalactic sources. The detector will be a 4×64 pixel array of pop-up bolometers (PUD) equipped with superconducting transition edge sensors (TES) linked into a SQUID multiplexed readout. The expected point source sensitivities of the TES PUD at 370 ? m and 444 ? m are 4.3 × 10-17 W m-2Hz-1/2 and 2.4 × 10-17 W m-2Hz-1/2. For our lab testing we are using a 1×32 pixel array of thermistor sensed bolometers from GSFC. This array has delivered the requisite sensitivity and spectral coverage for a successful first light at the JCMT in the 350 ? m and 450 ? m windows. We hope to put ZEUS on the JCMT in the spring of 2005. ZEUS is optimized to quickly obtain spectra of point sources over very broad bands in the submillimeter windows. In the 350 ? m window, ZEUS will provide an instantaneous 53 resolution element spectrum, for each of 4 spatial elements on the sky. The roughly 10% bandwidth 350 ? m window can therefore be covered with just two settings of the grating. Each pixel is mapped into 5'' on the sky (roughly ? /D at 350 ? m), so that the field of view is 5''×20''. At 610 ? m, the slit is opened to 10'' (2 pixels) resulting in a resolving power of around 500. ZEUS can quickly change wavelength or telluric window, adapting well to the demanding weather conditions in the short submillimeter windows. Our primary scientific objectives are to (1) Investigate Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIGs) via their [C I] and mid-J CO line emission -- what are the origins of their tremendous infrared (IR) luminosities? Why are some ULIGs weak in the 158 ? m [C II] line? (2) Probe star formation in the early Universe using highly redshifted far-IR fine-structure line emission -- especially that of the 158 ? m [C II] line. How strong are starbursts in the early Universe? and (3) Provide redshifts for all 850 ? m SCUBA sources, providing source distance, luminosity, and number counts as a function of redshift. What is the evolutionary history of starformation in the early Universe? This project is supported by NSF grant AST-0096881.

Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Nikola, T.; Stacey, G. J.; Oberst, T.; Parshley, S.; Benford, D. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Staguhn, J. G.

2004-12-01

30

The Zeus Copper/Uranium Critical Experiment at NCERC  

SciTech Connect

A critical experiment was performed to provide nuclear data in a non-thermal neutron spectrum and to reestablish experimental capability relevant to Stockpile Stewardship and Technical Nuclear Forensic programs. Irradiation foils were placed at specific locations in the Zeus all oralloy critical experiment to obtain fission ratios. These ratios were compared with others from other critical assemblies to assess the degree of softness in the neutron spectrum. This critical experiment was performed at the National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) in Nevada.

Sanchez, Rene G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hayes, David K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bounds, John Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jackman, Kevin R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goda, Joetta M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-15

31

Technical assessment of porcine enteroenterostomy performed with ZEUS™ robotic technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: Limitations of minimally invasive pediatric surgery include the inability to perform precise anastomoses of 2 to 15 mm. Robotic technology facilitates the performance of endoscopic microsurgical procedures. This study examined the technical feasibility of performing an enteroenterostomy in piglets utilizing ZEUS™ robotic technology. Methods: Ten piglets (6.5 to 8.5 kg) underwent enteroenterostomy. Standard laparoscopic techniques were used in the

Celeste M. Hollands; Laramie N. Dixey; Michael J. Torma

2001-01-01

32

The Athena MHD Code: Extensions, Applications, and Comparisons to ZEUS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Athena is a new grid-based code for compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) based on higher-order Godunov methods. This paper describes recent extensions to the basic algorithms in the code motivated by two applications: (1) the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the local shearing box, and (2) gravitational fragmentation in supersonic turbulence. We describe recent results for both problems, including shearing box simulations of the MRI in large domains (up to 32H× 32H× H, where H is the scale height in the disk), and simulations of driven and decaying MHD turbulence at numerical resolutions up to 10243. We compare solutions previously computed using the ZEUS code with new results from Athena for both applications. Both codes converge to the same solution as measured by globally averaged quantities; for example the decay rate of supersonic MHD turbulence is the same. This, combined with the recent demonstration that the ZEUS code gives the correct solution to all of the one-dimensional test problems in Falle (2002), suggests that ZEUS is reliable for astrophysical MHD.

Stone, J. M.

2009-04-01

33

Study and preliminary application of an improved fiber tracking algorithm in central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a noninvasive fiber visualization imaging technique, DTI has been developed rapidly in recent years. It has been considered to have high potential value in the diagnosis and treatment of the nervous system diseases. And in the applications of DTI, the fiber tracking algorithm is critical to the visualization results. So far, researchers have proposed many 3D visualization methods. Among

Liuhong Zhu; Yonggui Yang; Gang Guo

2011-01-01

34

The ZEUS Hadron Electron Separator, Performance and Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hadron electron separator (HES), a component of the ZEUS experiment is designed to improve the identification of electrons generally and, in particular, within jets. It consists of 20518 silicon diodes with 20m2 active area. The diodes are installed after 3-5 X0 of the electromagnetic uranium-calorimeter, where the maximum intensity of the shower is expected. With an analog readout of each channel the deposited energy is measured. The HES improves the electron identification by a energy dependent factor 2.5 to 5 and the granularity by a factor 10. The attained position resolution is 5.4mm.

Göttlicher, P.

2002-01-01

35

Power collection reduction by mirror surface nonflatness and tracking error for a central receiver solar power system.  

PubMed

The effects of random waviness, curvature, and tracking error of plane-mirror heliostats in a rectangular array around a central-receiver solar power system are determined by subdividing each mirror into 484 elements, assuming the slope of each element to be representative of the surface slope average at its location, and summing the contributions of all elements and then of all mirrors in the array. Total received power and flux density distribution are computed for a given sun location and set of array parameter values. Effects of shading and blocking by adjacent mirrors are included in the calculation. Alt-azimuth mounting of the heliostats is assumed. Representative curves for two receiver diameters and two sun locations indicate a power loss of 20% for random waviness, curvature, and tracking error of 0.1 degrees rms, 0.002 m(-1), and 0.5 degrees , 3sigma, respectively, for an 18.2-m diam receiver and 0.3 degrees rms, 0.005 m(-1), and greater than 1 degrees , respectively, for a 30.4-m diam receiver. PMID:20154860

McFee, R H

1975-07-01

36

Relative potentials of concentrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study is to assess the relative economic potentials of concenrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications in the mid-1990's. Specific objectives of this study are to provide information on concentrator photovoltaic collector probabilistic price and efficiency levels to illustrate critical areas of R&D for concentrator cells and collectors, and to compare concentrator and flat-plate PV price and efficiency alternatives for several locations, based on their implied costs of energy. To deal with the uncertainties surrounding research and development activities in general, a probabilistic assessment of commercially achievable concentrator photovoltaic collector efficiencies and prices (at the factory loading dock) is performed. The results of this projection of concentrator photovoltaic technology are then compared with a previous flat-plate module price analysis (performed early in 1983). To focus this analysis on specific collector alternatives and their implied energy costs for different locations, similar two-axis tracking designs are assumed for both concentrator and flat-plate options.

Borden, C. S.; Schwartz, D. L.

1984-01-01

37

Thermal evolution of the Malá Fatra Mountains (Central Western Carpathians): insights from zircon and apatite fission track thermochronology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply zircon and apatite fission track thermochronology (ZFT and AFT, respectively) to the Variscan crystal-line basement of the Malá Fatra Mts (Central Western Carpathians) in order to constrain the thermal history. The samples yielded three Early Cretaceous ZFT ages (143.7±9.6, 143.7±8.3, 135.3±6.9 Ma) and one Eocene age (45.2±2.1 Ma), proving that the basement was affected by a very low-grade Alpine metamorphic overprint. Although the precise timing and mechanisms of the overprint cannot be unequivocally resolved, we propose and discuss three alternative explanations: (i) a Jurassic/Cretaceous thermal event related to elevated heat flow associated with extensional tectonics, (ii) early Late Cretaceous thrusting and/or (iii) an Eocene orogeny. Thermal modelling of the AFT cooling ages (13.8±1.4 to 9.6±0.6 Ma) revealed fast cooling through the apatite partial annealing zone. The cooling is interpreted in terms of exhumation of the basement and creation of topographic relief, as corroborated by the sedimentary record in the surrounding Neogene depressions. Our AFT results significantly refine a general exhumation pattern of basement complexes in the Central Western Carpathians. A younging of AFT ages towards the orogenic front is evident, where all the external massifs located closest to the orogenic front (including Malá Fatra Mts) were exhumed after ~13 Ma from temperatures above ~120 °C.

Danišík, Martin; Kohút, Milan; Broska, Igor; Frisch, Wolfgang

2010-02-01

38

ZEUS: An Advanced ToolKit for Engineering Distributed Multi-Agent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an emerging consensus on the need to develop methodologies and tool-kits for building distributed multi-agent systems. This paper presents ZEUS, an advanced development tool-kit for constructing collaborative agent applications. ZEUS is a culmination of a careful synthesis of established agent technologies with the addition of some new ones, to provide an integrated environment for the rapid software engineering

Hyacinth S. Nwana; Divine T. Ndumu; Lyndon C. Lee

1998-01-01

39

Miocene to Recent exhumation of the central Himalaya determined from combined detrital zircon fission-track and U\\/Pb analysis of Siwalik sediments, western Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fission-track (FT) analysis of detrital zircon from synorogenic sediment is a well established tool to examine the cooling and exhumation history of convergent mountain belts, but has so far not been used to determine the long-term evolution of the central Himalaya. This study presents FT analysis of detrital zircon from 22 sandstone and modern sediment samples that were collected along

Matthias Bernet; Peter van der Beek; Raphaël Pik; Pascale Huyghe; Jean-Louis Mugnier; Erika Labrin; Adam Szulc

2006-01-01

40

Constraints from fission track analysis on the evolution of the Rio Tinguiririca valley area in the Main Cordillera of the Andes, Central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Rio Tinguiririca valley in the Main Cordillera of the Andes of central Chile, 35° south, parts of a stratigraphic section ranging from the late Jurassic to the Quaternary are exposed. Fission track analysis was carried out on samples from all the stratigraphic units exposed in the area in order to gain information on the low-grade metamorphic history of

K. Waite; S. Schmidt

2005-01-01

41

Apatite fission track thermochronometry from central Alberta: Implications for the thermal history of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apatite separated from 47 Cretaceous and Tertiary drill core and surface samples from the foreland basin strata of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) have been analyzed for their apatite fission track (AFT) age and confined track length distribution. Thermal histories of the fission track data were then estimated using a constrained random search inversion technique based on the Durango

Casey E. Ravenhurst; Sean D. Willett; Raymond A. Donelick; Christopher Beaumont

1994-01-01

42

Flood-tracking chart for the Withlacoochee and Little River Basins in south-central Georgia and northern Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with other Federal, State, and local agencies, operates a flood-monitoring system in the Withlacoochee and Little River Basins. This system is a network of automated river stage stations (ten are shown on page 2 of this publication) that transmit stage data through satellite telemetry to the USGS in Atlanta, Georgia and the National Weather Service (NWS) in Peachtree City, Georgia. During floods, the public and emergency response agencies use this information to make decisions about road closures, evacuations, and other public safety issues. This Withlacoochee and Little River Basins flood-tracking chart can be used by local citizens and emergency response personnel to record the latest river stage and predicted flood-crest information along the Withlacoochee River, Little River, and Okapilco Creek in south-central Georgia and northern Florida. By comparing the current stage (water-surface level above a datum) and predicted flood crest to the recorded peak stages of previous floods, emergency response personnel and residents can make informed decisions concerning the threat to life and property.

Gotvald, Anthony J.; McCallum, Brian E.; Painter, Jaime A.

2014-01-01

43

First-level trigger processor for the ZEUS calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

The design of the first-level trigger processor for the Zeus calorimeter is discussed. This processor accepts data from the 13,000 photomultipliers of the calorimeter, which is topologically divided into 16 regions, and after regional preprocessing performs logical and numerical operations that cross regional boundaries. Because the crossing period at the HERA collider is 96 ns, it is necessary that first-level trigger decisions be made in pipelined hardware. One microsecond is allowed for the processor to perform the required logical and numerical operations, during which time the data from ten crossings would be resident in the processor while being clocked through the pipelined hardware. The circuitry is implemented in 100K emitter-coupled logic (ECL), advanced CMOS discrete devices and programmable gate arrays, and operates in a VME environment. All tables and registers are written/read from VME, and all diagnostic codes are executed from VME. Preprocessed data flows into the processor at a rate of 5.2 Gbyte/s, and processed data flows from the processor to the global first-level trigger at a rate of 70 Mbyte/s. The system allows for subsets of the logic to be configured by software and for various important variables to be histogrammed as they flow through the processor.

Dawson, J.W.; Talaga, R.L.; Burr, G.W.; Laird, R.J. (Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)); Smith, W.; Lackey, J. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Dept. of Physics, Madison, WI (US))

1990-12-01

44

First level trigger processor for the ZEUS calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the design of the first level trigger processor for the ZEUS calorimeter. This processor accepts data from the 13,000 photomultipliers of the calorimeter which is topologically divided into 16 regions, and after regional preprocessing, performs logical and numerical operations which cross regional boundaries. Because the crossing period at the HERA collider is 96 ns, it is necessary that first-level trigger decisions be made in pipelined hardware. One microsecond is allowed for the processor to perform the required logical and numerical operations, during which time the data from ten crossings would be resident in the processor while being clocked through the pipelined hardware. The circuitry is implemented in 100K ECL, Advanced CMOS discrete devices, and programmable gate arrays, and operates in a VME environment. All tables and registers are written/read from VME, and all diagnostic codes are executed from VME. Preprocessed data flows into the processor at a rate of 5.2GB/s, and processed data flows from the processor to the Global First-Level Trigger at a rate of 700MB/s. The system allows for subsets of the logic to be configured by software and for various important variables to be histogrammed as they flow through the processor. 2 refs., 3 figs.

Dawson, J.W.; Talaga, R.L.; Burr, G.W.; Laird, R.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Smith, W.; Lackey, J. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Dept. of Physics)

1990-01-01

45

Using Satellite Tracking to Optimize Protection of Long-Lived Marine Species: Olive Ridley Sea Turtle Conservation in Central Africa  

PubMed Central

Tractable conservation measures for long-lived species require the intersection between protection of biologically relevant life history stages and a socioeconomically feasible setting. To protect breeding adults, we require knowledge of animal movements, how movement relates to political boundaries, and our confidence in spatial analyses of movement. We used satellite tracking and a switching state-space model to determine the internesting movements of olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) (n?=?18) in Central Africa during two breeding seasons (2007-08, 2008-09). These movements were analyzed in relation to current park boundaries and a proposed transboundary park between Gabon and the Republic of Congo, both created to reduce unintentional bycatch of sea turtles in marine fisheries. We additionally determined confidence intervals surrounding home range calculations. Turtles remained largely within a 30 km radius from the original nesting site before departing for distant foraging grounds. Only 44.6 percent of high-density areas were found within the current park but the proposed transboundary park would incorporate 97.6 percent of high-density areas. Though tagged individuals originated in Gabon, turtles were found in Congolese waters during greater than half of the internesting period (53.7 percent), highlighting the need for international cooperation and offering scientific support for a proposed transboundary park. This is the first comprehensive study on the internesting movements of solitary nesting olive ridley sea turtles, and it suggests the opportunity for tractable conservation measures for female nesting olive ridleys at this and other solitary nesting sites around the world. We draw from our results a framework for cost-effective protection of long-lived species using satellite telemetry as a primary tool.

Maxwell, Sara M.; Breed, Greg A.; Nickel, Barry A.; Makanga-Bahouna, Junior; Pemo-Makaya, Edgard; Parnell, Richard J.; Formia, Angela; Ngouessono, Solange; Godley, Brendan J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Witt, Matthew J.; Coyne, Michael S.

2011-01-01

46

The Zeus Mission Study — An application of automated collaborative design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the Zeus Mission Study was threefold. As an element of a graduate course in spacecraft system engineering, its purpose was primarily educational — to allow the students to apply their knowledge in a real mission study. The second purpose was to investigate the feasibility of applying advanced technology (the power antenna and solar electric propulsion concepts) to a challenging mission. Finally, the study allowed evaluation of the benefits of using quality-oriented techniques (Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Taguchi Methods) for a mission study. To encourage innovation, several constraints were placed on the study from the onset. While the primary goal was to place at least one lander on Europa, the additional constraint of no nuclear power sources posed an additional challenge, particularly when coupled with the mass constraints imposed by using a Delta II class launch vehicle. In spite of these limitations, the team was able to develop a mission and spacecraft design capable of carrying three simple, lightweight, yet capable landers. The science return will more than adequately meet the science goals established QFD was used to determine the optimal choice of instrumentation. The lander design was selected from several competing lander concepts, including rovers. The carrier design was largely dictated by the needs of the propulsion system required to support the mission, although the development of a Project Trades Model (PTM) in software allowed for rapid recalculation of key system parameters as changes were made. Finally, Taguchi Methods (Design of Experiments) were used in conjunction with the PTM allowing for some limited optimization of design features.

Doyotte, Romain; Love, Stanley G.; Peterson, Craig E.

1999-11-01

47

Miocene to Recent exhumation of the central Himalaya determined from combined detrital zircon fission-track and U\\/Pb analysis of Siwalik sediments, western Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fission-track (FT) analysis of detrital zircon from synorogenic sediment is a well- established tool to examine the cooling and exhumation history of convergent mountain belts, but has so far not been used to determine the long-term evolution of the central Himalaya.This study presents FTanalysis of detrital zircon from 22 sandstone and modern sediment samples that were collected along three stratigraphic

Matthias Bernetn; Peter van der Beekn; Adam Szulc

48

Cattle Grazing and Tracked Vehicle Training on Central and Southwest U.S. Army Lands: Potential Consequences for Grassland Ecosystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sustainability of training lands continues to be a primary concern for natural resource managers on Army installations. Tracked vehicle training, the main disturbance of grasslands, does not occur in isolation from other land uses including cattle grazing...

J. A. Guretzky J. S. Fehmi A. B. Anderson

2005-01-01

49

Measurement of beauty production in DIS and F2b bbar extraction at ZEUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beauty production in deep inelastic scattering with events in which a muon and a jet are observed in the final state has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 114 pb?1. The fraction of events with beauty quarks in the data was determined using the distribution of the transverse momentum of the muon relative

H. Abramowicz; P. Kooijman; L. Adamczyk; M. Adamus; R. Aggarwal; S. Antonelli; P. Antonioli; A. Antonov; M. Arneodo; V. Aushev; Y. Aushev; O. Bachynska; A. Bamberger; A. N. Barakbaev; G. Barbagli; G. Bari; F. Barreiro; D. Bartsch; M. Basile; O. Behnke; J. Behr; U. Behrens; L. Bellagamba; A. Bertolin; S. Bhadra; M. Bindi; C. Blohm; T. Bold; E. G. Boos; M. Borodin; K. Borras; D. Boscherini; D. Bot; S. K. Boutle; I. Brock; E. Brownson; R. Brugnera; N. Bruemmer; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; B. Brzozowska; P. J. Bussey; J. M. Butterworth; B. Bylsma; A. Caldwell; M. Capua; R. Carlin; C. D. Catterall; S. Chekanov; J. Chwastowski; J. Ciborowski; R. Ciesielski; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; A. Contin; A. M. Cooper-Sarkar; N. Coppola; M. Corradi; F. Corriveau; M. Costa; G. D'Agostini; F. Dal Corso; J. de Favereau; J. del Peso; R. K. Dementiev; S. De Pasquale; M. Derrick; R. C. E. Devenish; D. Dobur; B. A. Dolgoshein; A. T. Doyle; V. Drugakov; L. S. Durkin; S. Dusini; Y. Eisenberg; P. F. Ermolov; A. Eskreys; S. Fang; S. Fazio; J. Ferrando; M. I. Ferrero; J. Figiel; M. Forrest; B. Foster; S. Fourletov; G. Gach; A. Galas; E. Gallo; A. Garfagnini; A. Geiser; I. Gialas; L. K. Gladilin; D. Gladkov; C. Glasman; O. Gogota; Yu. A. Golubkov; P. Goettlicher; I. Grabowska-Bold; J. Grebenyuk; I. Gregor; G. Grigorescu; G. Grzelak; C. Gwenlan; T. Haas; W. Hain; R. Hamatsu; J. C. Hart; H. Hartmann; G. Hartner; E. Hilger; D. Hochman; U. Holm; R. Hori; K. Horton; A. Huettmann; G. Iacobucci; Z. A. Ibrahim; Y. Iga; R. Ingbir; M. Ishitsuka; H.-P. Jakob; F. Januschek; M. Jimenez; T. W. Jones; M. Juengst; I. Kadenko; B. Kahle; B. Kamaluddin; S. Kananov; T. Kanno; U. Karshon; F. Karstens; I. I. Katkov; M. Kaur; P. Kaur; A. Keramidas; L. A. Khein; J. Y. Kim; D. Kisielewska; S. Kitamura; R. Klanner; U. Klein; E. Koffeman; D. Kollar; Ie. Korol; I. A. Korzhavina; A. Kotanski; U. Koetz; H. Kowalski; P. Kulinski; O. Kuprash; M. Kuze; V. A. Kuzmin; A. Lee; B. B. Levchenko; A. Levy; V. Libov; S. Limentani; T. Y. Ling; M. Lisovyi; E. Lobodzinska; W. Lohmann; B. Loehr; E. Lohrmann; J. H. Loizides; K. R. Long; A. Longhin; D. Lontkovskyi; O. Yu. Lukina; P. Luzniak; J. Maeda; S. Magill; I. Makarenko; J. Malka; R. Mankel; A. Margotti; G. Marini; J. F. Martin; A. Mastroberardino; T. Matsumoto; M. C. K. Mattingly; I.-A. Melzer-Pellmann; S. Miglioranzi; F. Mohamad Idris; V. Monaco; A. Montanari; J. D. Morris; B. Musgrave; K. Nagano; T. Namsoo; R. Nania; D. Nicholass; A. Nigro; Y. Ning; U. Noor; D. Notz; R. J. Nowak; A. E. Nuncio-Quiroz; B. Y. Oh; N. Okazaki; K. Oliver; K. Olkiewicz; Yu. Onishchuk; O. Ota; K. Papageorgiu; A. Parenti; E. Paul; J. M. Pawlak; B. Pawlik; P. G. Pelfer; A. Pellegrino; W. Perlanski; H. Perrey; K. Piotrzkowski; P. Plucinski; N. S. Pokrovskiy; A. Polini; A. S. Proskuryakov; M. Przybycien; A. Raval; D. D. Reeder; B. Reisert; Z. Ren; J. Repond; Y. D. Ri; A. Robertson; P. Roloff; E. Ron; I. Rubinsky; M. Ruspa; R. Sacchi; A. Salii; U. Samson; G. Sartorelli; A. A. Savin; D. H. Saxon; M. Schioppa; S. Schlenstedt; P. Schleper; W. B. Schmidke; U. Schneekloth; V. Schoenberg; T. Schoerner-Sadenius; J. Schwartz; F. Sciulli; L. M. Shcheglova; R. Shehzadi; S. Shimizu; I. Singh; I. O. Skillicorn; W. Slominski; W. H. Smith; V. Sola; A. Solano; D. Son; V. Sosnovtsev; A. Spiridonov; H. Stadie; L. Stanco; A. Stern; T. P. Stewart; A. Stifutkin; P. Stopa; S. Suchkov; G. Susinno; L. Suszycki; J. Sztuk; D. Szuba; J. Szuba; A. D. Tapper; E. Tassi; J. Terron; T. Theedt; H. Tiecke; K. Tokushuku; O. Tomalak; J. Tomaszewska; T. Tsurugai; M. Turcato; T. Tymieniecka; C. Uribe-Estrada; M. Vazquez; A. Verbytskyi; V. Viazlo; N. N. Vlasov; O. Volynets; R. Walczak; W. A. T. Wan Abdullah; J. J. Whitmore; J. Whyte; L. Wiggers; M. Wing; M. Wlasenko; G. Wolf; H. Wolfe; K. Wrona; A. G. Yagues-Molina; S. Yamada; Y. Yamazaki; R. Yoshida; C. Youngman; A. F. Zarnecki; L. Zawiejski; O. Zenaiev; W. Zeuner; B. O. Zhautykov; N. Zhmak; C. Zhou; A. Zichichi; M. Zolko; D. S. Zotkin; Z. Zulkapli

2010-01-01

50

Erosion, transport and deposition along the South-Central Chilean margin: the detrital apatite fission track perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detrital fission track analysis has become a powerful tool for the study of sediment provenance and exhumation of orogens. Many studies focus on zones of continental collision with no or little volcanic activity, but there are less examples from active arc-trench systems. This type of orogen has a strong magmatic signature, and upper plate tectonothermal histories that are distinct from

B. Heberer; J. H. Behrmann; M. Rahn

2009-01-01

51

Which cue to 'want'? Opioid stimulation of central amygdala makes goal-trackers show stronger goal-tracking, just as sign-trackers show stronger sign-tracking.  

PubMed

Pavlovian cues that have been paired with reward can gain incentive salience. Drug addicts find drug cues motivationally attractive and binge eaters are attracted by food cues. But the level of incentive salience elicited by a cue re-encounter still varies across time and brain states. In an animal model, cues become attractive and 'wanted' in an 'autoshaping' paradigm, where different targets of incentive salience emerge for different individuals. Some individuals (sign-trackers) find a predictive discrete cue attractive while others find a reward contiguous goal cue more attractive (location where reward arrives: goal-trackers). Here we assessed whether central amygdala mu opioid receptor stimulation enhances the phasic incentive salience of the goal-cue for goal-trackers during moments of predictive cue presence (expressed in both approach and consummatory behaviors to goal cue), just as it enhances the attractiveness of the predictive cue target for sign-trackers. Using detailed video analysis we measured the approaches, nibbles, sniffs, and bites directed at their preferred target for both sign-trackers and goal-trackers. We report that DAMGO microinjections in central amygdala made goal-trackers, like sign-trackers, show phasic increases in appetitive nibbles and sniffs directed at the goal-cue expressed selectively whenever the predictive cue was present. This indicates enhancement of incentive salience attributed by both goal trackers and sign-trackers, but attributed in different directions: each to their own target cue. For both phenotypes, amygdala opioid stimulation makes the individual's prepotent cue into a stronger motivational magnet at phasic moments triggered by a CS that predicts the reward UCS. PMID:22391118

DiFeliceantonio, Alexandra G; Berridge, Kent C

2012-05-01

52

Which cue to 'want'? Opioid stimulation of central amygdala makes goal-trackers show stronger goal-tracking, just as sign-trackers show stronger sign-tracking  

PubMed Central

Pavlovian cues that have been paired with reward can gain incentive salience. Drug addicts find drug cues motivationally attractive and binge eaters are attracted by food cues. But the level of incentive salience elicited by a cue re-encounter still varies across time and brain states. In an animal model, cues become attractive and ‘wanted’ in an ‘autoshaping’ paradigm, where different targets of incentive salience emerge for different individuals. Some individuals (sign-trackers) find a predictive discrete cue attractive while others find a reward contiguous and goal cue more attractive (location where reward arrives: goal-trackers). Here we assessed whether central amygdala mu opioid receptor stimulation enhances the phasic incentive salience of the goal-cue for goal-trackers during moments of predictive cue presence (expressed in both approach and consummatory behaviors to goal cue), just as it enhances the attractiveness of the predictive cue target for sign-trackers. Using detailed video analysis we measured the approaches, nibbles, sniffs, and bites directed at their preferred target for both sign-trackers and goal-trackers. We report that DAMGO microinjections in central amygdala made goal-trackers, like sign-trackers, show phasic increases in appetitive nibbles and sniffs directed at the goal-cue expressed selectively whenever the predictive cue was present. This indicates enhancement of incentive salience attributed by both goal trackers and sign-trackers, but attributed in different directions: each to their own target cue. For both phenotypes, amygdala opioid stimulation makes the individual’s prepotent cue into a stronger motivational magnet at phasic moments triggered by a CS that predicts the reward UCS.

DiFeliceantonio, Alexandra G.; Berridge, Kent C.

2012-01-01

53

[CII] At 1 < z < 2: Observing Star Formation in the Early Universe with Zeus (1 and 2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the detection of the [CII] 158 micron fine structure line from six submillimeter galaxies with redshifts between 1.12 and 1.73. This more than doubles the total number of [CII] 158 micron detections reported from high redshift sources. These observations were made with the Redshift(z) and Early Universe Spectrometer(ZEUS) at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory on Mauna Kea, Hawaii between December 2006 and March 2009. ZEUS is a background limited submm echelle grating spectrometer (Hailey-Dunsheath 2009). Currently we are constructing ZEUS-2. This new instrument will utilize the same grating but will feature a two dimensional transition-edge sensed bolometer array with SQUID multiplexing readout system enabling simultaneous background limited observations in the 200, 340,450 and 650 micron telluric windows. ZEUS-2 will allow for long slit imaging spectroscopy in nearby galaxies and a [CII] survey from z 0.25 to 2.5.

Ferkinhoff, Carl; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Nikola, T.; Oberst, T.; Parshley, S.; Stacey, G.; Benford, D.; staguhn, J.

2010-01-01

54

Railroad Accident Report. Penn Central Company. Electrocution of Juvenile Trespasser on Penn Central Tracks at Washington, D. C. May 14, 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On May 14, 1971, a male juvenile climbed on top of a draft of freight cars which had been left temporarily adjacent to the Penn Central Sixth Street Yard, Washington, D. C., and was electrocuted when he contacted the electrified catenary system. Within mi...

1972-01-01

55

ZEUS2D: A Radiation Magnetohydrodynamics Code for Astrophysical Flows in Two Space Dimensions. II. The Magnetohydrodynamic Algorithms and Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this, the third of a series of three papers, we conclude a detailed description ofZEUS-2D, a numerical code for the simulation of fluid dynamical flows in astrophysicsincluding a self-consistent treatment of the effects of magnetic fields and radiationtransfer. In this paper, we describe the radiation hydrodynamical (RHD) algorithmsin ZEUS-2D.We develop a two-dimensional full transport algorithm to evolve the radiation

James M. Stone; Michael L. Norman

1992-01-01

56

Measurement of the luminosity in the ZEUS experiment at HERA II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The luminosity in the ZEUS detector was measured using photons from electron bremsstrahlung off protons. In 2001 the HERA collider was upgraded for operation at higher luminosity. At the same time the luminosity-measuring system of the ZEUS experiment was modified to tackle the expected higher photon rate and synchrotron radiation. The existing lead-scintillator calorimeter was equipped with radiation hard scintillator tiles and shielded against synchrotron radiation. In addition, a magnetic spectrometer was installed to measure the luminosity independently using photons converted in the beam-pipe exit window. The redundancy provided a reliable and robust luminosity determination with a systematic uncertainty of 1.7%. The experimental setup, the techniques used for luminosity determination and the estimate of the systematic uncertainty are reported.

Adamczyk, L.; Andruszkow, J.; Bold, T.; Borzemski, P.; Buettner, C.; Caldwell, A.; Chwastowski, J.; Daniluk, W.; Drugakov, V.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Galas, A.; Gil, M.; Helbich, M.; Januschek, F.; Jurkiewicz, P.; Kisielewska, D.; Klein, U.; Kotarba, A.; Lohmann, W.; Ning, Y.; Oliwa, K.; Olkiewicz, K.; Paganis, S.; Pieron, J.; Przybycien, M.; Ren, Z.; Ruchlewicz, W.; Schmidke, W.; Schneekloth, U.; Sciulli, F.; Stopa, P.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Suszycki, L.; Sutiak, J.; Wierba, W.; Zawiejski, L.

2014-04-01

57

Erosion, transport and deposition along the South-Central Chilean margin: the detrital apatite fission track perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detrital fission track analysis has become a powerful tool for the study of sediment provenance and exhumation of orogens. Many studies focus on zones of continental collision with no or little volcanic activity, but there are less examples from active arc-trench systems. This type of orogen has a strong magmatic signature, and upper plate tectonothermal histories that are distinct from collisional mountain belts. Uplift and denudation histories are different, and may comprise long periods of relative upper plate stability, which can be identified by thermochronological methods. In this study, we apply apatite fission track (AFT) single-grain age dating and sediment provenance analysis to modern and Pleistocene turbiditic sediments from the Chilean trench system (trench fans, trench fill, continental slope) complemented by a study of modern sediment samples from large Chilean rivers. The study area covers a ca. 1200 km long north to south transect (29°S to 47°S) encompassing areas of strongly variable characteristics, such as large latitudinal gradients in climate and terrigenous sediment input into the trench. This approach allows us (1) to trace sediment pathways on- and offshore focusing on all parts of the system, i.e. the bedrock sequences of the source, the fluvial transport system, and finally the sink within the trench, (2) to label those units that are under- and overrepresented, respectively, in the sink, making use of drainage system modeling and comparisons of grain age distributions to the cooling age pattern of the bedrocks of the feeder area, and (3) to test thermochronological concepts, such as a negligible transport time within the lag-time concept. We find that AFT dating and sediment analysis point to opposing major sediment sources in the Chilean margin: Whereas sediment petrography mirrors the evacuation of large volumes of volcanic detritus, reflecting the high rate of erosion of volcanic edifices, no such young volcanic signal is seen in the detrital AFT signature. Plutonic units are identified as the main, often unique sources for shedding apatite into the sedimentary system. This finding has important implications for studies on stratigraphically older sequences, where the feeder area has long been eroded, and where the youngest age population is often interpreted as an indicator for active volcanism. The most obvious feature observed within the detrital age population pattern along strike of the Chilean margin is an increasing contribution of sediment from the Andean Range to the south. This is explained by first-order controlling parameters such as lithology, increasing rainfall to the south, as well as ongoing uplift of the Coastal Cordillera. This recent mode of uplift, however, is not reflected in the actual (mainly Cretaceous) age of the population, which dominates the grain-age distributions in the northern half of the study area. This indicates a long-term relative tectonic stability of the forearc, corroborating that subduction erosion rather than tectonic erosion is the prevailing tectonic mode of this long-lived segment of the South American continental margin. For the southernmost study area in the Patagonian Andes, it can be shown, that the sediment is derived from only small portions of the drainage along the main divide. This points to focused and rapid glacial erosion along the highest elevations. The results show, that in addition to the actual FT age, a second signal of short-term tectonic and erosional processes is preserved within the grain-age patterns.

Heberer, B.; Behrmann, J. H.; Rahn, M.

2009-04-01

58

D0 Silicon Upgrade: D0 Central Tracking Solenoid: Specification for Solenoid Energization, controls, Interlocks and Quench Protection  

SciTech Connect

This document has served as the specification for the energization, control, interlocking and quench protection systems for the DZERO superconducting solenoid installation. This does not include the cryogenics system. As the work proceeded, the details of the design were 'fleshed out' such that this document ultimately describes the system 'as built'. See 'Revisions to this document' for a description of all changes incorporated since the initial date. These changes have been integrated into this document; but are listed separately for historical reference. The basis for this specification is the FERMILAB-TM-1886, May 13, 1994: 'Conceptual Design of a 2 Tesla Superconducting Solenoid for the Fermilab DO Detector Upgrade', Chapter 9, 'Control and Instrumentation'; and Chapter 10, 'DC Energization Circuit'. This spec. has provided a stationary target for final design; and a central source of reference to the finished system.

Hance, R.; Jaskierney, W.; Orr, S.; /Fermilab

1995-01-17

59

Study of deep inelastic inclusive and diffractive scattering with the ZEUS forward plug calorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep inelastic scattering and its diffractive component, ep?e???p?e?XN, have been studied at HERA with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 4.2 pb?1. The measurement covers a wide range in the ??p c.m. energy W (37–245 GeV), photon virtuality Q2 (2.2–80 GeV2) and mass MX (0.28–35 GeV). The diffractive cross section for MX>2 GeV rises strongly with W; the rise is

S. Bhadra; C. D. Catterall; Y. Cui; G. Hartner; S. Miglioranzi; U. Noor; M. Soares; J. Standage; J. Whyte; N. Pavel; A. G. Yagües Molina; P. Antonioli; G. Bari; M. Basile; L. Bellagamba; D. Boscherini; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; G. Cara Romeo; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; A. Contin; M. Corradi; S. de Pasquale; P. Giusti; G. Iacobucci; A. Margotti; A. Montanari; R. Nania; F. Palmonari; A. Pesci; A. Polini; L. Rinaldi; G. Sartorelli; A. Zichichi; G. Aghuzumtsyan; D. Bartsch; I. Brock; S. Goers; H. Hartmann; E. Hilger; P. Irrgang; H.-P. Jakob; O. Kind; U. Meyer; E. Paul; J. Rautenberg; R. Renner; K. C. Voss; M. Wang; M. Wlasenko; D. S. Bailey; N. H. Brook; J. E. Cole; G. P. Heath; T. Namsoo; S. Robins; M. Capua; A. Mastroberardino; M. Schioppa; G. Susinno; E. Tassi; J. Y. Kim; K. J. Ma; M. Helbich; Y. Ning; Z. Ren; W. B. Schmidke; F. Sciulli; J. Chwastowski; A. Eskreys; J. Figiel; A. Galas; K. Olkiewicz; P. Stopa; D. Szuba; L. Zawiejski; L. Adamczyk; T. Bold; I. Grabowska-Bold; D. Kisielewska; A. M. Kowal; J. Lukasik; M. Przybycien; L. Suszycki; J. Szuba; A. Kotanski; W. Slominski; V. Adler; U. Behrens; I. Bloch; K. Borras; D. G. Cassel; G. Drews; J. Fourletova; A. Geiser; D. Gladkov; F. Goebel; P. Göttlicher; R. Graciani Diaz; O. Gutsche; T. Haas; W. Hain; C. Horn; B. Kahle; M. Kasemann; U. Kötz; H. Kowalski; G. Kramberger; D. Lelas; H. Lim; B. Löhr; R. Mankel; M. Martinez; I.-A. Melzer-Pellmann; C. N. Nguyen; D. Notz; A. E. Nuncio-Quiroz; A. Raval; R. Santamarta; U. Schneekloth; U. Stösslein; G. Wolf; C. Youngman; W. Zeuner; S. Schlenstedt; G. Barbagli; E. Gallo; C. Genta; P. G. Pelfer; A. Bamberger; A. Benen; F. Karstens; D. Dobur; N. N. Vlasov; P. J. Bussey; A. T. Doyle; J. Ferrando; S. Hanlon; D. H. Saxon; I. O. Skillicorn; I. Gialas; T. Carli; T. Gosau; U. Holm; N. Krumnack; E. Lohrmann; M. Milite; H. Salehi; P. Schleper; T. Schörner-Sadenius; S. Stonjek; K. Wichmann; K. Wick; A. Ziegler; C. Collins-Tooth; C. Foudas; C. Fry; R. Gonçalo; K. R. Long; A. D. Tapper; M. Kataoka; K. Nagano; K. Tokushuku; S. Yamada; Y. Yamazaki; A. N. Barakbaev; E. G. Boos; N. S. Pokrovskiy; B. O. Zhautykov; D. Son; J. de Favereau; K. Piotrzkowski; F. Barreiro; C. Glasman; O. González; M. Jimenez; L. Labarga; J. Del Peso; J. Terrón; M. Zambrana; M. Barbi; F. Corriveau; C. Liu; S. Padhi; M. Plamondon; D. G. Stairs; R. Walsh; C. Zhou; T. Tsurugai; A. Antonov; P. Danilov; B. A. Dolgoshein; V. Sosnovtsev; A. Stifutkin; S. Suchkov; R. K. Dementiev; P. F. Ermolov; L. K. Gladilin; I. I. Katkov; L. A. Khein; I. A. Korzhavina; V. A. Kuzmin; B. B. Levchenko; O. Yu. Lukina; A. S. Proskuryakov; L. M. Shcheglova; D. S. Zotkin; S. A. Zotkin; I. Abt; C. Büttner; A. Caldwell; X. Liu; J. Sutiak; N. Coppola; G. Grigorescu; S. Grijpink; A. Keramidas; E. Koffeman; P. Kooijman; E. Maddox; A. Pellegrino; S. Schagen; H. Tiecke; M. Vázquez; L. Wiggers; E. de Wolf; N. Brümmer; B. Bylsma; L. S. Durkin; T. Y. Ling; P. D. Allfrey; M. A. Bell; A. M. Cooper-Sarkar; A. Cottrell; R. C. E. Devenish; B. Foster; G. Grzelak; C. Gwenlan; T. Kohno; S. Patel; P. B. Straub; R. Walczak; P. Bellan; A. Bertolin; R. Brugnera; R. Carlin; R. Ciesielski; F. Dal Corso; S. Dusini; A. Garfagnini; S. Limentani; A. Longhin; L. Stanco; M. Turcato; E. A. Heaphy; F. Metlica; B. Y. Oh; J. J. Whitmore; Y. Iga; G. D'Agostini; G. Marini; A. Nigro; J. C. Hart; H. Abramowicz; A. Gabareen; M. Groys; S. Kananov; A. Kreisel; A. Levy; M. Kuze; S. Kagawa; T. Tawara; R. Hamatsu; H. Kaji; S. Kitamura; K. Matsuzawa; O. Ota; Y. D. Ri; M. Costa; M. I. Ferrero; V. Monaco; R. Sacchi; A. Solano; M. Arneodo; M. Ruspa; S. Fourletov; T. Koop; J. F. Martin; A. Mirea; J. M. Butterworth; R. Hall-Wilton; T. W. Jones; J. H. Loizides; M. R. Sutton; C. Targett-Adams; M. Wing; J. Ciborowski; P. Kulinski; P. Luzniak; J. Malka; R. J. Nowak; J. M. Pawlak; J. Sztuk; T. Tymieniecka; A. Tyszkiewicz; A. Ukleja; J. Ukleja; A. F. Zarnecki; M. Adamus; P. Plucinski; Y. Eisenberg; D. Hochman; U. Karshon; M. S. Lightwood; A. Everett; D. Kçira; S. Lammers; L. Li; D. D. Reeder; M. Rosin; P. Ryan; A. A. Savin; W. H. Smith; S. Dhawan; S. Menary

2005-01-01

60

The ZEUS forward plug calorimeter with lead-scintillator plates and WLS fiber readout  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Forward Plug Calorimeter (FPC) for the ZEUS detector at HERA has been built as a shashlik lead-scintillator calorimeter with wave length shifter fiber readout. Before installation it was tested and calibrated using the X5 test beam facility of the SPS accelerator at CERN. Electron, muon and pion beams in the momentum range of 10-100 GeV/ c were used. Results of these measurements are presented as well as a calibration monitoring system based on a 60Co source.

Bamberger, A.; Böttcher, S.; Bohnet, I.; Fernández, J. P.; Goebel, F.; Göttlicher, P.; Gabareen, A.; García, G.; Gendner, N.; Graciani, R.; Hauser, M.; Horstmann, D.; Inuzuka, M.; Kasemann, M.; Khein, L. A.; Löhr, B.; Lewis, R.; Lim, H.; Lindemann, L.; Markun, P.; Martínez, M.; Neumann, T.; Park, I. H.; del Peso, J.; Raach, H.; Savin, A.; Son, D.; Tokushuku, K.; Wölfle, S.; Whitmore, J.; Wick, K.; Wolf, G.; Yamada, S.; Yamashita, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; ZEUS FPC Group

2000-08-01

61

Tracking atmospheric and riverine terrigenous supplies variability during the last glacial and the Holocene in central Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives were to retrace the eolian and fluvial terrigenous supplies in a sediment core from the Sicilian-Tunisian Strait by coupling mineralogical, grain-size and geochemical approaches, in order to get informations on the atmospheric versus riverine contributions to sedimentation on the southern side of central Mediterranean since the last glacial. The eolian supply is dominant over the whole interval, excepted during the sapropel S1 when riverine contribution apparently became significant, and particles provenance has been modified since Last Glacial. Saharan contribution increased during the Bølling-Allerød, evidencing the persistence of aridity over North Africa although the northern Mediterranean already experienced moister and warmer conditions. The Younger Dryas is marked by proximal dust inputs highlighting intense regional eolian activity. A southward migration of dust provenance toward Sahel occurred at the onset of the Holocene, likely resulting from a southward position of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone, probably associated with a large-scale atmospheric reorganization. Finally, a peculiar high terrigenous flux associated with drastic modifications of the mineralogical and geochemical sediment signature occurred during the sapropel S1, suggesting the propagation of fine-particles derived from major floodings of the Nile River - resulting from enhanced rainfall on northeastern Africa - and their transportation across the Sicilian-Tunisian Strait by intermediate water-masses.

Bout-Roumazeilles, V.; Combourieu-Nebout, N.; Desprat, S.; Siani, G.; Turon, J.-L.

2012-07-01

62

RESULTS FOR THE INTERMEDIATE-SPECTRUM ZEUS BENCHMARK OBTAINED WITH NEW 63,65Cu CROSS-SECTION EVALUATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The four HEU, intermediate-spectrum, copper-reflected Zeus experiments have shown discrepant results between measurement and calculation for the last several major releases of the ENDF library. The four benchmarks show a trend in reported C/E values with increasing energy of average lethargy causing fission. Recently, ORNL has made improvements to the evaluations of three key isotopes involved in the benchmark cases in question. Namely, an updated evaluation for 235U and evaluations of 63,65Cu. This paper presents the benchmarking results of the four intermediate-spectrum Zeus cases using the three updated evaluations.

Sobes, Vladimir [ORNL] [ORNL; Leal, Luiz C [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

63

Tectonic burial and exhumation cycles tracked by muscovite and K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology in a strike-slip fault zone, central Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Muscovite and K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar ages from the eastern margin of the Ni?de massif in central Anatolia track the timing of initial exhumation, reburial, and final exhumation and cooling of metamorphic rocks deformed within a strike-slip fault zone. Although the ages of initial and final cooling were known from previous studies, our new results document the timing of the reheating/reburial event. Muscovite from four of eight gneiss samples have Late Cretaceous 40Ar/39Ar ages that date initial cooling at ~ 75 Ma. The remaining samples have perturbed spectra that climb to Late Cretaceous ages with increasing extraction temperatures during analysis. These perturbed samples are located beneath a faulted unconformity overlain by Paleogene sedimentary deposits that were derived in part from the metamorphic rocks, then buried, metamorphosed, and deformed under greenschist facies conditions. Samples close to the faulted unconformity are more perturbed than structurally deeper samples. The age of the thermal perturbation is determined at 30 ± 5 Ma using multi-diffusion domain modeling of K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar data from two gneiss samples, one located close to the unconformity and one at a structurally deeper level. Muscovite 40Ar/39Ar results and modeled K-feldspar temperature-time histories show that the eastern margin of the Ni?de massif experienced a reheating event that peaked at ~ 30 Ma. The thermal pulse has been attributed to reburial associated with transpression in the Ecemi? segment of the Central Anatolian Fault Zone along the eastern margin of the Ni?de massif. Activity of this fault zone may represent a far-field expression of the onset of collision of Arabia with Eurasia in SE Anatolia.

Idleman, Lauren; Cosca, Michael A.; Heizler, Matthew T.; Thomson, Stuart N.; Teyssier, Christian; Whitney, Donna L.

2014-02-01

64

Measurement of beauty production in DIS and [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] extraction at ZEUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beauty production in deep inelastic scattering with events in which a muon and a jet are observed in the final state has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 114 pb-1. The fraction of events with beauty quarks in the data was determined using the distribution of the transverse momentum of the muon relative

H. Abramowicz; I. Abt; L. Adamczyk; M. Adamus; R. Aggarwal; S. Antonelli; P. Antonioli; A. Antonov; M. Arneodo; V. Aushev; Y. Aushev; O. Bachynska; A. Bamberger; A. N. Barakbaev; G. Barbagli; G. Bari; F. Barreiro; D. Bartsch; M. Basile; O. Behnke; J. Behr; U. Behrens; L. Bellagamba; A. Bertolin; S. Bhadra; M. Bindi; C. Blohm; T. Bold; E. G. Boos; M. Borodin; K. Borras; D. Boscherini; D. Bot; S. K. Boutle; I. Brock; E. Brownson; R. Brugnera; N. Brümmer; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; B. Brzozowska; P. J. Bussey; J. M. Butterworth; B. Bylsma; A. Caldwell; M. Capua; R. Carlin; C. D. Catterall; S. Chekanov; J. Chwastowski; J. Ciborowski; R. Ciesielski; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; A. Contin; A. M. Cooper-Sarkar; N. Coppola; M. Corradi; F. Corriveau; M. Costa; G. D'Agostini; F. Dal Corso; J. de Favereau; J. Del Peso; R. K. Dementiev; S. de Pasquale; M. Derrick; R. C. E. Devenish; D. Dobur; B. A. Dolgoshein; A. T. Doyle; V. Drugakov; L. S. Durkin; S. Dusini; Y. Eisenberg; P. F. Ermolov; A. Eskreys; S. Fang; S. Fazio; J. Ferrando; M. I. Ferrero; J. Figiel; M. Forrest; B. Foster; S. Fourletov; G. Gach; A. Galas; E. Gallo; A. Garfagnini; A. Geiser; I. Gialas; L. K. Gladilin; D. Gladkov; C. Glasman; O. Gogota; Yu. A. Golubkov; P. Göttlicher; I. Grabowska-Bold; J. Grebenyuk; I. Gregor; G. Grigorescu; G. Grzelak; C. Gwenlan; T. Haas; W. Hain; R. Hamatsu; J. C. Hart; H. Hartmann; G. Hartner; E. Hilger; D. Hochman; U. Holm; R. Hori; K. Horton; A. Hüttmann; G. Iacobucci; Z. A. Ibrahim; Y. Iga; R. Ingbir; M. Ishitsuka; H.-P. Jakob; F. Januschek; M. Jimenez; T. W. Jones; M. Jüngst; I. Kadenko; B. Kahle; B. Kamaluddin; S. Kananov; T. Kanno; U. Karshon; F. Karstens; I. I. Katkov; M. Kaur; P. Kaur; A. Keramidas; L. A. Khein; J. Y. Kim; D. Kisielewska; S. Kitamura; R. Klanner; U. Klein; E. Koffeman; D. Kollar; P. Kooijman; Ie. Korol; I. A. Korzhavina; A. Kotanski; U. Kötz; H. Kowalski; P. Kulinski; O. Kuprash; M. Kuze; V. A. Kuzmin; A. Lee; B. B. Levchenko; A. Levy; V. Libov; S. Limentani; T. Y. Ling; M. Lisovyi; E. Lobodzinska; W. Lohmann; B. Löhr; E. Lohrmann; J. H. Loizides; K. R. Long; A. Longhin; D. Lontkovskyi; O. Yu. Lukina; P. Luzniak; J. Maeda; S. Magill; I. Makarenko; J. Malka; R. Mankel; A. Margotti; G. Marini; J. F. Martin; A. Mastroberardino; T. Matsumoto; M. C. K. Mattingly; I.-A. Melzer-Pellmann; S. Miglioranzi; F. Mohamad Idris; V. Monaco; A. Montanari; J. D. Morris; B. Musgrave; K. Nagano; T. Namsoo; R. Nania; D. Nicholass; A. Nigro; Y. Ning; U. Noor; D. Notz; R. J. Nowak; A. E. Nuncio-Quiroz; B. Y. Oh; N. Okazaki; K. Oliver; K. Olkiewicz; Yu. Onishchuk; O. Ota; K. Papageorgiu; A. Parenti; E. Paul; J. M. Pawlak; B. Pawlik; P. G. Pelfer; A. Pellegrino; W. Perlanski; H. Perrey; K. Piotrzkowski; P. Plucinski; N. S. Pokrovskiy; A. Polini; A. S. Proskuryakov; M. Przybycien; A. Raval; D. D. Reeder; B. Reisert; Z. Ren; J. Repond; Y. D. Ri; A. Robertson; P. Roloff; E. Ron; I. Rubinsky; M. Ruspa; R. Sacchi; A. Salii; U. Samson; G. Sartorelli; A. A. Savin; D. H. Saxon; M. Schioppa; S. Schlenstedt; P. Schleper; W. B. Schmidke; U. Schneekloth; V. Schönberg; T. Schörner-Sadenius; J. Schwartz; F. Sciulli; L. M. Shcheglova; R. Shehzadi; S. Shimizu; I. Singh; I. O. Skillicorn; W. Slominski; W. H. Smith; V. Sola; A. Solano; D. Son; V. Sosnovtsev; A. Spiridonov; H. Stadie; L. Stanco; A. Stern; T. P. Stewart; A. Stifutkin; P. Stopa; S. Suchkov; G. Susinno; L. Suszycki; J. Sztuk; D. Szuba; J. Szuba; A. D. Tapper; E. Tassi; J. Terrón; T. Theedt; H. Tiecke; K. Tokushuku; O. Tomalak; J. Tomaszewska; T. Tsurugai; M. Turcato; T. Tymieniecka; C. Uribe-Estrada; M. Vázquez; A. Verbytskyi; V. Viazlo; N. N. Vlasov; O. Volynets; R. Walczak; W. A. T. Wan Abdullah; J. J. Whitmore; J. Whyte; L. Wiggers; M. Wing; M. Wlasenko; G. Wolf; H. Wolfe; K. Wrona; A. G. Yagües-Molina; S. Yamada; Y. Yamazaki; R. Yoshida; C. Youngman; A. F. Zarnecki; L. Zawiejski; O. Zenaiev; W. Zeuner; B. O. Zhautykov; N. Zhmak; C. Zhou; A. Zichichi; M. Zolko; D. S. Zotkin; Z. Zulkapli

2010-01-01

65

Neural tracking in the ALICE Inner Tracking System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A neural network-based algorithm to perform track recognition in the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) for high transverse momentum particles (pt>1 GeV/c) is presented. The model is based on the Denby-Peterson scheme, especially improved to cope with the very high track density expected in ALICE. Results are shown for central and mid-central Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider energy.

Pulvirenti, A.; Badalà, A.; Barbera, R.; Lo Re, G.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Riggi, F.

2004-11-01

66

Cenozoic tectonics in the Buruanga Peninsula, Panay Island, Central Philippines, as constrained by U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar and fission track thermochronometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buruanga Peninsula forms the westernmost part of Panay Island, Central Philippines and is a part of the Palawan Continental Terrane (PCT), which was formerly attached to south-eastern China. It acted as the leading edge of the continental fragment and collided with the Philippine Mobile Belt (PMB) followed by convergence beneath the latter. Dating of the collision is crucial for understanding the evolution of the archipelago. Samples collected from Buruanga Peninsula were dated using U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar and fission track dating (FTD) techniques to constrain the timing of the tectonic events related to the collision of the PMB with the PCT. These techniques have enabled us to obtain ages over a range of closure temperatures from about 700 °C to about 110 °C. Paleoproterozoic and Permian zircon U-Pb ages from Saboncogon Formation emphasize derivation of the western part of Buruanga Peninsula from SE China; zircon and apatite fission track ages of 51 Ma and 16 Ma, respectively, constrain the exhumation of this formation. The age data suggest tectonic events at ~ 14 Ma, ~ 11-12 Ma and about 7-8 Ma following intrusive activity at about 18 Ma. Uplift and exhumation at ~ 14 Ma are thought to be the result of subduction of low-density crustal rocks, at 11 Ma to be the result of isostatic uplift as a consequence of crustal thickening and at ~ 8 Ma to be due to the isostatic re-equilibration of the sediments overlying the former suture. Hence, collision is constrained to have started at about 14-15 Ma and to have ended before 8 Ma. Multi-element patterns of the 18 Ma Patria-Diorite from Buruanga Peninsula show enrichment in LILE (Rb, Sr, and K) and LREE and depletion in HFSE elements (Ti, Nb, and Ta) similar to those from Luzon volcanics and the volcanic rocks of Negros Island. These arc-signatures indicate a subduction related environment for the emplacement of this intrusive body and show that the diorite belongs to the PMB. The age constraints of the present study neither support the concept of an Early Miocene collision nor the assumption of a Late Miocene collision, thus, have a significant bearing on the controversial issues regarding the evolution of the present day Philippine archipelago.

Walia, M.; Yang, T. F.; Knittel, U.; Liu, T.-K.; Lo, C.-H.; Chung, S.-L.; Teng, L. S.; Dimalanta, C. B.; Yumul, G. P.; Yuan, W. M.

2013-01-01

67

Titanite and apatite fission track analyses on basement rocks of central-southern Madagascar: constraints on exhumation and denudation rates along the eastern rift shoulder of the Morondava basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanite and apatite fission-track (FT) thermochronology from basement rocks in central-southern Madagascar reveals a protracted post Late Neoproterozoic\\/Early Cambrian history of extensional tectonism, denudation and sedimentation. Titanite FT ages range between 379±38 and 276±17 Ma and apatite FT ages vary between 379±19 and 150±8 Ma. Combined titanite and apatite FT data from the western palaeo margin of Madagascar suggest denudation

B. Emmel; J. Jacobs; T. Razakamanana

2004-01-01

68

Investigation of non-uniform radiation damage observed in the ZEUS Beam Pipe Calorimeter at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ZEUS Beam Pipe Calorimeter (BPC) is a small tungsten/scintillator sampling calorimeter. It is positioned at a distance of approximately 4 cm from the HERA beams and approximately 3 m from the interaction point. The accumulated doses measured at the front side of the BPC during the HERA runs 1995, 1996 and 1997 were 12 kGy, 11 kGy and 2.5 kGy, respectively. The radiation dose influenced the optical components of the BPC. The degradation of some of the scintillators due to radiation damage has been examined using different monitoring systems. A simulation code was developed which describes quantitatively the effects of non-uniform radiation damage. The following report describes the radiation monitoring, the effects on the scintillator material and the impact on the energy linearity of the BPC.

Bohnet, I.; Fricke, U.; Surrow, B.; Wick, K.

1999-08-01

69

Measurement of D ± production in deep inelastic ep scattering with the ZEUS detector at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charm production in deep inelastic ep scattering was measured with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 354 pb-1. Charm quarks were identified by reconstructing D ± mesons in the D ± ? K ??±?± decay channel. Lifetime information was used to reduce combinatorial background substantially. Differential cross sections were measured in the kinematic region 5 < Q 2 < 1000 GeV2, 0 .02 < y < 0 .7, 1 .5 < p T ( D ±) < 15 GeV and | ?( D ±)| < 1 .6, where Q 2 is the photon virtuality, y is the inelasticity, and p T ( D ±) and ?( D ±) are the transverse momentum and the pseudorapidity of the D ± meson, respectively. Next-to-leading-order QCD predictions are compared to the data. The charm contribution, F_2^{{coverline{c}}} , to the proton structure-function F 2 was extracted.

Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Arneodo, M.; Arslan, O.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Bartosik, N.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Blohm, C.; Bokhonov, V.; Bold, T.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bot, D.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Brümmer, N.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P. J.; Bylsma, B.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Catterall, C. D.; Chekanov, S.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; D'Agostini, G.; Corso, F. Dal; del Peso, J.; Dementiev, R. K.; De Pasquale, S.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Dobur, D.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dolinska, G.; Doyle, A. T.; Drugakov, V.; Durkin, L. S.; Dusini, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Ermolov, P. F.; Eskreys, A.; Fang, S.; Fazio, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Foster, B.; Gach, G.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gialas, I.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Göttlicher, P.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grigorescu, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Guzik, M.; Gwenlan, C.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J. C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Hilger, E.; Hochman, D.; Hori, R.; Hüttmann, A.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Iudin, A.; Jakob, H.-P.; Januschek, F.; Jones, T. W.; Jüngst, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I. I.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L. A.; Kim, J. Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Koffeman, E.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Kooijman, P.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kotanski, A.; Kötz, U.; Kovalchuk, N.; Kowalski, H.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Lee, A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T. Y.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Löhr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Long, K. R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Martin, J. F.; Mastroberardino, A.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Miglioranzi, S.; Idris, F. Mohamad; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Morris, J. D.; Mujkic, K.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Nigro, A.; Ning, Y.; Nobe, T.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R. J.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Oh, B. Y.; Okazaki, N.; Olkiewicz, K.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Paul, E.; Pawlak, J. M.; Pawlik, B.; Pelfer, P. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Plucinski, P.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Polini, A.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycien, M.; Raval, A.; Reeder, D. D.; Reisert, B.; Ren, Z.; Repond, J.; Ri, Y. D.; Robertson, A.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Samson, U.; Sartorelli, G.; Savin, A. A.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schönberg, V.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Schwartz, J.; Sciulli, F.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shimizu, S.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Slominski, W.; Smith, W. H.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Son, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stanco, L.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T. P.; Stifutkin, A.; Stopa, P.; Suchkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Suszycki, L.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tapper, A. D.; Tassi, E.; Terrón, J.; Theedt, T.; Tiecke, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomaszewska, J.; Trofymov, A.; Trusov, V.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turkot, O.; Tymieniecka, T.; Vázquez, M.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Vlasov, N. N.; Walczak, R.; Abdullah, W. A. T. Wan; Whitmore, J. J.; Wichmann, K.; Wiggers, L.; Wing, M.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolf, G.; Wolfe, H.; Wrona, K.; Yagües-Molina, A. G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Youngman, C.; Zakharchuk, N.; ?arnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zeuner, W.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Zichichi, A.; Zolkapli, Z.; Zotkin, D. S.

2013-05-01

70

Sex-role reversed nuptial feeding reduces male kleptoparasitism of females in Zeus bugs (Heteroptera; Veliidae)  

PubMed Central

Males of a variety of taxa occasionally steal food secured by their mates. In some spiders and insects, males rely entirely on this form of intraspecific kleptoparasitism for their subsistence. However, this male strategy may be costly for females and a variety of different female counteradaptations have been proposed. In Zeus bugs (Phoreticovelia spp.), males ride on the back of their mates for extended periods and females produce a gland secretion that males feed on. By experimentally occluding the dorsal glands in females and varying food availability, we show that nuptial feeding by females reduces the extent to which the males kleptoparasitize their mates. We suggest that females have, at least in part, evolved this unique form of nuptial feeding as a counteradaptation to reduce the rate of kleptoparasitism by males.

Arnqvist, Goran; Jones, Theresa M; Elgar, Mark A

2006-01-01

71

Comparison of particle-tracking and lumped-parameter models for determining groundwater age distributions and nitrate in water-supply wells, Central Valley, California, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Age distributions for 30 production wells (mostly public-supply) were determined using two methods: 1) calibration of age tracer data with lumped parameter models (LPMs) and 2) by advective particle tracking (PT) simulations using MODPATH and a regional steady-state groundwater flow model. The LPMs were calibrated with measurements of 3H, 3He(trit), and 14C by minimizing the Chi-square test statistic using a non-linear solver. A partial exponential model (PEM) was the primary LPM used in this study and a combination of two PEMs were used in cases where binary age mixtures were identified. The PEM is a reformulated version of the exponential model that is parameterized to simulate the age distribution in a well that is screened over any finite interval within the aquifer. The regional numerical model was calibrated to water-levels and gradients, and simulated PT age tracer concentrations were calibrated to the MODPATH porosity value. Age distributions were then used to predict nitrate concentrations in wells using agricultural application rates of nitrate in the central eastside of the San Joaquin Valley, California. Both methods showed that wells in the study area captured groundwater with a broad range of ages, spanning decades to millennia. Age distributions from the LPMs predicted age tracer and nitrate concentrations more accurately than the regional PT simulation; whereas PT simulations incorporating more detailed information about water-levels and hydraulic gradients near wells also provided good fits. 14C concentrations were not simulated well by the regional steady-state model, especially for wells with a significant fraction of old groundwater, because the model simulates the current, perturbed system and does not simulate recharge rates and velocities of the predevelopment system. Results from the LPMs yielded an average recharge rate of 0.55 m/yr, which was similar to the average recharge rate of 0.54 m/yr determined from a water budget analysis for the regional groundwater flow model. The LPMs also indicated that groundwater less than 50 years old comprised about 40% of the aquifer and had reached an average depth of about 52 meters below the water table as of 2006. This study shows that regional groundwater flow models and LPMs are capable of providing reasonable estimates of the age distribution and predictions of non-point source contaminant trends in wells, although regional numerical models in this study area might yield better results when constructed with a predevelopment condition and calibrated using age tracer information. In addition, the partial exponential model (PEM) can be a useful age distribution model for public-supply wells in unconsolidated aquifers, and it can be parameterized directly with well construction data.

Jurgens, B. C.; Bohlke, J. K.; Kauffman, L. J.; Belitz, K.

2013-12-01

72

Optimization Problems in Multisensor and Multitarget Tracking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research program is to develop optimization algorithms that solve key problems in multiple target tracking and sensor data fusion. The central problem in multiple target tracking is the data association problem of partitioning sensor...

A. B. Poore

2008-01-01

73

Measurement of the cross section for the reaction ?p ? J\\/? p with the ZEUS detector at HERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the cross section measurements for the process ep ? e J\\/? p for Q2 < 4 GeV2 at s = 296 GeV, based on an integrated luminosity of about 0.5 pb?1, using the ZEUS detector. The J\\/? was detected in its e+e? and ?+?? decay modes. The photoproduction cross section was measured to be 52?12+7 ± 10

S. Bhadra; M. L. Cardy; C.-P Fagerstroem; W. R. Frisken; K. M. Furutani; M. Khakzad; W. B. Schmidke; R. L. Talaga; H. Zhang; R. Ayad; G. Bari; M. Basile; L. Bellagamba; D. Boscherini; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; P. Bruni; G. Cara Romeo; G. Castellini; M. Chiarini; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; A. Contin; M. Corradi; I. Gialas; P. Giusti; G. Iacobucci; G. Laurenti; G. Levi; A. Margotti; T. Massam; R. Nania; C. Nemoz; F. Palmonari; A. Polini; G. Sartorelli; R. Timellini; Y. Zamora Garcia; A. Zichichi; A. Bargende; J. Crittenden; K. Desch; B. Diekmann; T. Doeker; M. Eckert; L. Feld; A. Frey; M. Geerts; G. Geitz; M. Grothe; T. Haas; H. Hartmann; D. Haun; K. Heinloth; E. Hilger; H.-P. Jakob; U. F. Katz; S. M. Mari; A. Mass; S. Mengel; J. Mollen; E. Paul; Ch. Rembser; R. Schattevoy; D. Schramm; J. Stamm; R. Wedemeyer; S. Campbell-Robson; A. Cassidy; N. Dyce; B. Foster; S. George; R. Gilmore; G. P. Heath; H. F. Heath; T. J. Llewellyn; C. J. S. Morgado; D. J. P. Norman; J. A. O'Mara; R. J. Tapper; S. S. Wilson; R. Yoshida; R. R. Rau; M. Arneodo; L. Iannotti; M. Schioppa; G. Susinno; A. Bernstein; A. Caldwell; N. Cartiglia; J. A. Parsons; S. Ritz; F. Sciulli; P. B. Straub; L. Wai; S. Yang; Q. Zhu; P. Borzemski; J. Chwastowski; A. Eskreys; K. Piotrzkowski; M. Zachara; L. Zawiejski; L. Adamczyk; B. Bednarek; K. Jelen; D. Kisielewska; T. Kowalski; E. Rulikowska-Zarebska; L. Suszycki; J. Zajac; A. Kotanski; M. Przybycien; L. A. T. Bauerdick; U. Behrens; H. Beier; J. K. Bienlein; C. Coldewey; O. Deppe; K. Desler; G. Drews; M. Flasinski; D. J. Gilkinson; C. Glasman; P. Göttlicher; J. Große-Knetter; B. Gutjahr; W. Hain; D. Hasell; H. Heßling; Y. Iga; P. Joos; M. Kasemann; R. Klanner; W. Koch; L. Köpke; U. Kötz; H. Kowalski; J. Labs; A. Ladage; B. Löhr; M. Löwe; D. Lüke; O. Manczak; T. Monteiro; J. S. T. Ng; S. Nickel; D. Notz; K. Ohrenberg; M. Roco; M. Rohde; J. Roldán; U. Schneekloth; W. Schulz; F. Selonke; E. Stiliaris; B. Surrow; T. Voß; D. Westphal; G. Wolf; C. Youngman; J. F. Zhou; H. J. Grabosch; A. Kharchilava; A. Leich; M. C. K. Mattingly; A. Meyer; S. Schlenstedt; N. Wulff; G. Barbagli; P. Pelfer; G. Anzivino; G. Maccarrone; S. de Pasquale; L. Votano; A. Bamberger; S. Eisenhardt; A. Freidhof; S. Söldner-Rembold; J. Schroeder; T. Trefzger; N. H. Brook; P. J. Bussey; A. T. Doyle; J. I. Fleck; D. H. Saxon; M. L. Utley; A. S. Wilson; A. Dannemann; U. Holm; D. Horstmann; T. Neumann; R. Sinkus; K. Wick; E. Badura; B. D. Burow; L. Hagge; E. Lohrmann; J. Mainusch; J. Milewski; M. Nakahata; N. Pavel; G. Poelz; W. Schott; F. Zetsche; T. C. Bacon; I. Butterworth; E. Gallo; V. L. Harris; B. Y. H. Hung; K. R. Long; D. B. Miller; P. P. O. Morawitz; A. Prinias; J. K. Sedgbeer; A. F. Whitfield; U. Mallik; E. McCliment; M. Z. Wang; S. M. Wang; J. T. Wu; Y. Zhang; P. Cloth; D. Filges; S. H. An; S. M. Hong; S. W. Nam; S. K. Park; M. H. Suh; S. H. Yon; R. Imlay; S. Kartik; H.-J. Kim; R. R. McNeil; W. Metcalf; V. K. Nadendla; F. Barreiro; G. Cases; R. Graciani; J. M. Hernández; L. Hervás; L. Labarga; J. del Peso; J. Puga; J. Terron; J. F. de Trocóniz; G. R. Smith; F. Corriveau; D. S. Hanna; J. Hartmann; L. W. Hung; J. N. Lim; C. G. Matthews; P. M. Patel; L. E. Sinclair; D. G. Stairs; M. St. Laurent; R. Ullmann; G. Zacek; V. Bashkirov; B. A. Dolgoshein; A. Stifutkin; G. L. Bashindzhagyan; P. F. Ermolov; L. K. Gladilin; Y. A. Golubkov; V. D. Kobrin; V. A. Kuzmin; A. S. Proskuryakov; A. A. Savin; L. M. Shcheglova; A. N. Solomin; N. P. Zotov; M. Botje; F. Chlebana; A. Dake; J. Engelen; M. de Kamps; P. Kooijman; A. Kruse; H. Tiecke; W. Verkerke; M. Vreeswijk; L. Wiggers; E. de Wolf; R. van Woudenberg; D. Acosta; B. Bylsma; L. S. Durkin; K. Honscheid; C. Li; T. Y. Ling; K. W. McLean; W. N. Murray; I. H. Park; T. A. Romanowski; R. Seidlein; D. S. Bailey; G. A. Blair; A. Byrne; R. J. Cashmore; A. M. Cooper-Sarkar; D. Daniels; R. C. E. Devenish; N. Harnew; M. Lancaster; P. E. Luffman; L. Lindemann; J. D. McFall; C. Nath; V. A. Noyes; A. Quadt; H. Uijterwaal; R. Walczak; F. F. Wilson; T. Yip; G. Abbiendi; A. Bertolin; R. Brugnera; R. Carlin; F. dal Corso; M. de Giorgi; U. Dosselli; S. Limentani; M. Morandin; M. Posocco; L. Stanco; R. Stroili; C. Voci; J. Bulmahn; J. M. Butterworth; R. G. Field; B. Y. Oh; J. J. Whitmore; G. D'Agostini; G. Marini; A. Nigro; E. Tassi; J. C. Hart; N. A. McCubbin; K. Prytz; T. P. Shah; T. L. Short; E. Barberis; T. Dubbs; C. Heusch; M. van Hook; B. Hubbard; W. Lockman; J. T. Rahn; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; A. Seiden; J. Biltzinger; R. J. Seifert; A. H. Walenta; G. Zech; H. Abramowicz; G. Briskin; S. Dagan; A. Levy; T. Hasegawa; M. Hazumi; T. Ishii; M. Kuze; S. Mine; Y. Nagasawa; M. Nakao; I. Suzuki; K. Tokushuku; S. Yamada; Y. Yamazaki; M. Chiba; R. Hamatsu; T. Hirose; K. Homma; S. Kitamura; Y. Nakamitsu; K. Yamauchi; R. Cirio; M. Costa; M. I. Ferrero; L. Lamberti; S. Maselli

1995-01-01

74

Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic thermotectonic evolution of the central Brooks Range and adjacent North Slope foreland basin, Alaska: Including fission track results from the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Apatite fission track data are used to evaluate the thermal and tectonic history of the central Brooks Range and the North Slope foreland basin in northern Alaska along the northern leg of the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT). Fission track analyses of the detrital apatite grains in most sedimentary units resolve the timing of structures and denudation within the Brooks Range, ranging in scale from the entire mountain range to relatively small-scale folds and faults. Interpretation of the results indicates that rocks exposed within the central Brooks Range cooled rapidly from paleotemperatures 110?? to 50??C during discrete episodes at ???100??5 Ma, ???60??4 Ma, and ???24??3 Ma, probably in response to kilometer-scale denudation. North of the mountain front, rocks in the southern half of the foreland basin were exposed to maximum paleotemperatures 110??C in the Late Cretaceous to early Paleocene as a result of burial by Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. Rapid cooling from these elevated paleotemperatures also occurred due to distinct episodes of kilometer-scale denudation at ???60??4 Ma, 46??3 Ma, 35??2 Ma, and ???24??3 Ma. Combined, the apatite analyses indicate that rocks exposed along the TACT line through the central Brooks Range and foreland basin experienced episodic rapid cooling throughout the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic in response to at least three distinct kilometer-scale denudation events. Future models explaining orogenic events in northern Alaska must consider these new constraints from fission track thermochronology. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

O'Sullivan, P. B.; Murphy, J. M.; Blythe, A. E.

1997-01-01

75

Numerical simulations of anisotropic plasmas using a modified ZEUS-MP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three dimensional linear and nonlinear simulations of collisionless one-fluid plasmas with pressure anisotropy are presented using the Chew- Goldberger-Low (CGL-MHD) and double-isothermal models. For this purpose, the code ZEUS-MP [J. C. Hayes et. al. The APJ Supplement Series 165 (2006) 188.] has been modified. Major modifications include a changed method of characteristics, new compressive and non-compressive forces, and a ``hard wall'' limit on pressure anisotropy that is intended to mimic the effects of plasma micro-instabilities that limit the temperature anisotropy. For purposes of validation, more than 100 test simulations of linear waves (Alfven, slow and fast), instabilities (firehose and mirror) and nonlinear vortices (Orszag-Tang) are presented for a number of initial conditions and parameters. Finally, this model is used to investigate the way that Alfven-wave turbulence leads to a spreading of the temperature-anisotropy probability distribution in the solar wind. Analysis is completed with a detailed analysis of the fluctuation data.

Chandran, Benjamin; Tangri, Varun; Sarkar, Aveek; Perez, Jean; Sharma, Prateek

2012-10-01

76

Makin' Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners make plaster casts of an animal track to learn more about animals and animal behavior. Learners can use real animal tracks found outdoors or rubber track molds if conducted indoors. This lesson guide includes discussion questions, extensions/simplifications, and helpful hints.

Huff, Paula R.

2005-01-01

77

Ship Tracks  

article title:  Ship Tracks in a Stratiform Cloud Layer     ... stratocumulus. These striking linear patterns are known as "ship tracks", and are produced when fine particles (also called aerosols) from ... be used with the red filter placed over your left eye. Ship tracks are important examples of aerosol-cloud interactions. They are ...

2013-04-19

78

Animal Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those of us living in Northern climates, when winter snow covers the landscape it provides great conditions to search for animal tracks. The following websites provide an abundance of information and resources about the ancient art of animal tracking.The first site(1 ), Beartracker's Animal Tracks Den, is an excellent comprehensive "online field guide to tracks and tracking." The site includes animal track images, photos, as well as information about mammals, reptiles, birds, insects, amphibians, and other tracking resources. The second site (2), is an article by Jon C. Boren, Extension Wildlife Specialist and Byron D. Wright, Agricultural Specialist both from the University of New Mexico entitled Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks. The third site (3), on Tracking and Stalking Wildlife, comes from The Virtual Cub Scout Leader's Handbook and provides short information pages on a variety on animals including photos and images of tracks. The fourth site (4) is a well-organized lesson plan with activities on Animal Signs from Eagle Bluff Environmental Learning Center. The fifth site (5) is the Outdoor Action Guide to Animal Tracking by Rick Curtis of Princeton University. This website provides solid and detailed information on many aspects of animal tracking including parts of a track, pattern classification, aging tracks, and more. The sixth site (6) is an article by veteran tracker Jim Halfpenny, Ph.D. about how to determine the accurate track size for an animal. Site visitors can link from this article to the homepage for A Naturalist's World which has information about tracking classes offered in various North American locations. For anyone interested in developing their animal tracking skills, the final two websites also offer courses from very experienced trackers in different regions of North America. The seventh site (7), Tom Brown's Tracker School is the largest school of its kind with locations in New Jersey, California, and Florida. The eighth site, (8) Wilderness Awareness School is located in Washington but offers courses in other regions as well. This website also provides an extensive list of links for many other tracking resources.

79

Hurricane Tracking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This homework assignment is given in the first two weeks of class. Students receive one or two lectures that cover the topics of atmospheric layers, temperature and pressure profiles, concepts of atmospheric mass and pressure and measuring (i.e. dropsonde) instrumentation. At the beginning of each lecture I briefly show them the tropical update from the NOAA National Hurricane Center web site; if there is an active storm, I show where I go to get more info, such as the projected storm track and storm history (for example, from Intellicast Hurricane Tracking). Then, for this assignment, I reintroduce them to these hurricane information web sites and demonstrate how to find the historical data on tropical storms (such as from the Unisys Hurricane Data Archive), and how to copy and paste text data into word and/or excel, as a tab- or space-delimited file. I point out some problem areas with this data-grabbing method, such as headers that get lost from their associated data column or date information that may not format as dates. I then hand out the assignment, which asks them to: Find data on a current or recent (this year) tropical system, provide the name and year of the storm and the reference web site, and plot the wind speed and pressure variables against time. Students should label the axes and give a descriptive title to the chart. Describe what they notice in the graphed data and if it seems believable (this allows students to decide if they have done the task correctly by using their understanding of the data). Predict what will happen if the storm a) intensifies or b) weakens. I then provide another data set (of any long-duration tropical storm that formed, weakened and later re-intensified) and ask them to go through the same process of plotting and interpretation. I tell them that some future climate predictions are for more storms with lower central pressures and ask which of the two charts best represents that future scenario, and why.

Doner, Lisa

80

SPATIAL TRACK TRANSITION EFFECTS FOR HEADPHONE LISTENING  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study the use of different spatial processing tech- niques to create audio effects for forced transitions between music tracks in headphone listening. The audio effect encompasses a movement of the initially playing track to the side of the listener while the next track to be played moves into a central position si- multaneously. We compare seven

Aki Härmä; Steven van de Par

2007-01-01

81

Multitarget Tracking in Distributed Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, a survey of techniques for tracking multiple targets in distributed sensor networks is provided and introduce some recent developments. The single target tracking in distributed sensor networks is reviewed. The tracking and resource management issues can be readily extended to MTT. The MTT problem is also briefly reviewed and describe the traditional approaches in centralized systems. Then

Juan Liu; Maurice Chu; James E. Reich

2007-01-01

82

Track reconstruction at the ILC: the ILD tracking software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key requirements for Higgs physics at the International Linear Collider ILC is excellent track reconstruction with very good momentum and impact parameter resolution. ILD is one of the two detector concepts at the ILC. Its central tracking system comprises of an outer Si-tracker, a highly granular TPC, an intermediate silicon tracker and a pixel vertex detector, and it is complemented by silicon tracking disks in the forward direction. Large hit densities from beam induced coherent electron-positron pairs at the ILC pose an additional challenge to the pattern recognition algorithms. We present the recently developed new ILD tracking software, the pattern recognition algorithms that are using clustering techniques, Cellular Automatons and Kalman filter based track extrapolation. The performance of the ILD tracking system is evaluated using a detailed simulation including dead material, gaps and imperfections.

Gaede, Frank; Aplin, Steven; Glattauer, Robin; Rosemann, Christoph; Voutsinas, Georgios

2014-06-01

83

Fraction Track  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive applet provides a visual model to help students compare fractions and understand equivalent fractions. The applet displays eight fraction tracks (unit number lines) divided into fractional increments from halves to twelfths. The user turns over cards displaying fractions and moves sliders on the tracks a distance equal to or less than the target fractions. The goal is to move all the sliders to the end of each fraction track in the least number of moves.

2009-01-01

84

Tracking Faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robust tracking and segmentation of faces is a prerequi- site for face analysis and recognition. In this paper, we de- scribe an approach to this problem which is well suited to surveillance applications with poorly constrained viewing conditions. It integrates motion-based tracking with model- based face detection to produce segmented face sequences from complex scenes containing several people. The motion

Stephen J. Mckenna; Shaogang Gong

1996-01-01

85

FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Metal vapour causes a central minimum in arc temperature in gas-metal arc welding through increased radiative emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computational model of the argon arc plasma in gas-metal arc welding (GMAW) that includes the influence of metal vapour from the electrode is presented. The occurrence of a central minimum in the radial distributions of temperature and current density is demonstrated. This is in agreement with some recent measurements of arc temperatures in GMAW, but contradicts other measurements and also the predictions of previous models, which do not take metal vapour into account. It is shown that the central minimum is a consequence of the strong radiative emission from the metal vapour. Other effects of the metal vapour, such as the flux of relatively cold vapour from the electrode and the increased electrical conductivity, are found to be less significant. The different effects of metal vapour in gas-tungsten arc welding and GMAW are explained.

Schnick, M.; Füssel, U.; Hertel, M.; Spille-Kohoff, A.; Murphy, A. B.

2010-01-01

86

Factor Track  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem helps learners improve their knowledge of factors, especially those in the usual multiplication tables, and encourages the problem solving strategy of trial and error. The goal of the game is to go around the track in as few moves as possible, keeping to the rules that a player can move any number of spaces which is a factor of the number the player is on, except 1. There is a "training" track to play on initially to see the rules in action and then a more complicated track for players to use. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, key discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

2011-06-01

87

Fraction Track  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"This applet allows students to individually practice working with relationships among fractions and ways of combining fractions. For a two person version of this applet see the Fraction Track E-Example." from NCTM Illuminations.

Mathematics, Illuminations N.

2009-05-12

88

Agent consumption with the Zeus(R) in the automated closed circuit anesthesia mode with O2/air mixtures  

PubMed Central

Background Earlier software versions of the Zeus® (Lübeck, Dräger, Germany) failed to provide true closed circuit anesthesia (CCA) conditions. We examined whether the latest software (SW 4.03 MK 04672–00) achieves this goal. Methods In 8 ASA I–III patients, the CCA mode of the Zeus® was used to maintain the inspired O2 (FIO2) and end-expired sevoflurane % (FAsevo) at 50 and 1.8%, respectively. The fresh gas flow (FGF) of O2 and air and the sevoflurane injection rate (=Vinjsevo, mL liquid sevo/h) were videotaped from the control screen and entered offline into a spreadsheet. Cumulative sevoflurane usage during early wash-in (=0-1 min, CDsevo0-1), late wash-in (=1-5 min, CDsevo1-5), and maintenance (=5-60 min, CDsevo5-60) was calculated, and Vinjsevo between 1 and 60 min was compared with published uptake data. Results FAsevo reached 1.8% within 101 (23) sec. CDsevo0-1 was between 1.24 (0.03) and 3.01(0.25) mL (a range is provided because no absolute Vinjsevo values were displayed once Vinjsevo was?>?100 mL/h, which occurred between 15?±?2 and 46?±?6 sec). CDsevo1-5 was 0.81 (0.37) mL, and CDsevo5-60 was 4.63 (0.94) mL. The Vinjsevo pattern between 1 and 60 min matched previously published uptake data. Brief high FGF periods were used to maintain the target FIO2, and to refill the reservoir bag after external pressure had been applied to the abdomen; subsequent “spikes” wasted 0.08-0.19 mL and 0.14-0.49 mL sevoflurane (1-3% and 3-9% of total agent usage between 1 and 60 min, respectively). Conclusion Under the conditions specified, the Zeus® approaches CCA conditions so closely that further reductions in agent usage would have minimal economic significance.

2014-01-01

89

Measurement of neutral current e±p cross sections at high Bjorken x with the ZEUS detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutral current e±p cross section has been measured up to values of Bjorken x ?1 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 187 pb-1 of e-p and 142 pb-1 of e+p collisions at ?s =318 GeV. Differential cross sections in x and Q2, the exchanged boson virtuality, are presented for Q2?725 GeV2. An improved reconstruction method and greatly increased amount of data allows a finer binning in the high-x region of the neutral current cross section and leads to a measurement with much improved precision compared to a similar earlier analysis. The measurements are compared to Standard Model expectations based on a variety of recent parton distribution functions.

Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Antonelli, S.; Arslan, O.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bloch, I.; Bokhonov, V.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Brock, I.; Brugnera, R.; Bruni, A.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P. J.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Catterall, C. D.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; D'Agostini, G.; Dementiev, R. K.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Dolinska, G.; Drugakov, V.; Dusini, S.; Ferrando, J.; Figiel, J.; Foster, B.; Gach, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Guzik, M.; Hain, W.; Hartner, G.; Hochman, D.; Hori, R.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ishitsuka, M.; Iudin, A.; Januschek, F.; Kadenko, I.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Karshon, U.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Khein, L. A.; Kisielewska, D.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kota?ski, A.; Kötz, U.; Kovalchuk, N.; Kowalski, H.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Löhr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Maeda, J.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Martin, J. F.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Mujkic, K.; Myronenko, V.; Nagano, K.; Nigro, A.; Nobe, T.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R. J.; Olkiewicz, K.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Paul, E.; Perla?ski, W.; Perrey, H.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycie?, M.; Raval, A.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Samojlov, V.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Schwartz, J.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shevchenko, R.; Shkola, O.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; S?omi?ski, W.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Spiridonov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T. P.; Stopa, P.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tassi, E.; Temiraliev, T.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomaszewska, J.; Trofymov, A.; Trusov, V.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turkot, O.; Tymieniecka, T.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Wichmann, K.; Wing, M.; Wolf, G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Zakharchuk, N.; ?arnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Zotkin, D. S.; ZEUS Collaboration

2014-04-01

90

Measurement of beauty production in DIS and [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] extraction at ZEUS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beauty production in deep inelastic scattering with events in which a muon and a jet are observed in the final state has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 114 pb-1. The fraction of events with beauty quarks in the data was determined using the distribution of the transverse momentum of the muon relative to the jet. The cross section for beauty production was measured in the kinematic range of photon virtuality, Q 2>2 GeV2, and inelasticity, 0.05< y<0.7, with the requirement of a muon and a jet. Total and differential cross sections are presented and compared to QCD predictions. The beauty contribution to the structure function F 2 was extracted and is compared to theoretical predictions.

Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Arneodo, M.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Blohm, C.; Bo?d, T.; Boos, E. G.; Borodin, M.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bot, D.; Boutle, S. K.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Brümmer, N.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P. J.; Butterworth, J. M.; Bylsma, B.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Catterall, C. D.; Chekanov, S.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; D'Agostini, G.; Dal Corso, F.; de Favereau, J.; Del Peso, J.; Dementiev, R. K.; de Pasquale, S.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Dobur, D.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Doyle, A. T.; Drugakov, V.; Durkin, L. S.; Dusini, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Ermolov, P. F.; Eskreys, A.; Fang, S.; Fazio, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Forrest, M.; Foster, B.; Fourletov, S.; Gach, G.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gialas, I.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Göttlicher, P.; Grabowska-Bo?d, I.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grigorescu, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gwenlan, C.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J. C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Hilger, E.; Hochman, D.; Holm, U.; Hori, R.; Horton, K.; Hüttmann, A.; Iacobucci, G.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jakob, H.-P.; Januschek, F.; Jimenez, M.; Jones, T. W.; Jüngst, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kamaluddin, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I. I.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L. A.; Kim, J. Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Koffeman, E.; Kollar, D.; Kooijman, P.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kota?ski, A.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kulinski, P.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lee, A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T. Y.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Löhr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Loizides, J. H.; Long, K. R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Yu.; ?u?niak, P.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Martin, J. F.; Mastroberardino, A.; Matsumoto, T.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Morris, J. D.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Nicholass, D.; Nigro, A.; Ning, Y.; Noor, U.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R. J.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Oh, B. Y.; Okazaki, N.; Oliver, K.; Olkiewicz, K.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Ota, O.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Paul, E.; Pawlak, J. M.; Pawlik, B.; Pelfer, P. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Plucinski, P.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Polini, A.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycie?, M.; Raval, A.; Reeder, D. D.; Reisert, B.; Ren, Z.; Repond, J.; Ri, Y. D.; Robertson, A.; Roloff, P.; Ron, E.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Salii, A.; Samson, U.; Sartorelli, G.; Savin, A. A.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schönberg, V.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Schwartz, J.; Sciulli, F.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shimizu, S.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; S?omi?ski, W.; Smith, W. H.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Son, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stanco, L.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T. P.; Stifutkin, A.; Stopa, P.; Suchkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Suszycki, L.; Sztuk, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tapper, A. D.; Tassi, E.; Terrón, J.; Theedt, T.; Tiecke, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomalak, O.; Tomaszewska, J.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Vázquez, M.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, V.; Vlasov, N. N.; Volynets, O.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Whitmore, J. J.; Whyte, J.; Wiggers, L.; Wing, M.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolf, G.; Wolfe, H.; Wrona, K.; Yagües-Molina, A. G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Youngman, C.; ?arnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zeuner, W.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Zhou, C.; Zichichi, A.; Zolko, M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Zulkapli, Z.; ZEUS Collaboration

2010-10-01

91

Combined tracking in the ALICE detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A neural network based algorithm to perform track recognition in the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) for high transverse momentum particles (pt>1 GeV/c) is presented. The model is based on the Denby-Peterson scheme, with some original improvements which are necessary to cope with the very high track density expected in ALICE. The application is used in combination with the standard tracking procedure for track reconstruction in ALICE in order to increase the efficiency, especially for rapidly decaying particles. Results are shown for a test performed simulating some central Pb-Pb events at 5.5 A TeV in the center of mass system.

Badalà, A.; Barbera, R.; Lo Re, G.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pulvirenti, A.; Riggi, F.

2004-11-01

92

Provenance and hinterland exhumation from LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb and fission-track double dating of Cretaceous sediments in the Jianghan Basin, Yangtze block, central China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystallization and cooling ages obtained from fission-track and U-Pb double dating of single zircons using LA-ICP-MS from five samples of Cretaceous Jianghan Basin strata, Yangtze block, central China, refine sediment sources and source-area exhumation. The Huangling basement massif of the northwestern Yangtze Craton and the Qinling-Dabie Orogen along the northern margin of the Yangtze block provided the U-Pb zircon-age populations. Two rapid cooling events at ca. 840-800 and ~ 206-151 to 43 Ma existed in the Huangling massif and the major exhumation period of the Qinling-Dabie Orogen at 221-195 Ma. The important tectonothermal event at 221-195 Ma of the Qinling-Dabie Orogen was characterized by the collision between the south China and the north China block and overprinted the whole Qinling-Dabie Orogen and the north Yangtze block. Together with the published geochronology, our data constrain the paleogeography of eastern China: (i) The Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic strata have their sources in the Qinling-Dabie Orogen and the Cathaysia and Yangtze basement of the South China Block. (ii) In the Middle Jurassic, the Sichuan, Jianghan, Hengyang, and Mayang basins formed a large composite basin with identical provenance from the Qinling-Dabie Orogen and the Cathaysia. (iii) Since the Late Cretaceous, the Jiangnan Orogen and a mountain belt along the Pacific coast constituted important topographic boundaries in southern China. Within the Jianghan Basin, the maximum depositional ages of the Shimen, Wulong, Luojingtan, and Honghuatao Formations are approximately 145.53 ± 11.23, 113.09 ± 11.37, 96.00 ± 9.29, and 89.43 ± 9.29 Ma, respectively. This study demonstrates the feasibility of LA-ICP-MS zircon fission track and U-Pb double dating to refine the identification of sediment sources and determine the exhumation of source areas.

Shen, Chuan-Bo; Donelick, Raymond A.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Jonckheere, Raymond; Yang, Zhao; She, Zhen-Bing; Miu, Xiang-Liang; Ge, Xiang

2012-12-01

93

Transit Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this space science activity, learners explore transits and the conditions when a transit may be seen. Learners use models to investigate how a planet's size and distance from its star affects the behavior of transits. Learners also use mathematics to interpret graphs of brightness vs. time to deduce information about planet-star systems. This lesson includes educator instructions, photocopy masters for Transit Light Curves, Option Math for Transit Tracks, Keplerâs 3rd Law graphs, cube root tables, an account of Jeremiah Horrocks' 1639 observation of the transit of Venus, and an answer key for the Transit Tracks Light Curves.

Science, Lawrence H.

2008-01-01

94

Alpha-beta-tracking index (? -? -? ) tracking %lter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alpha-beta-tracking index (? -? -? ) tracking %lter for the single target tracking is proposed for maneuver-following capability. The tracking %lter incorporates an estimation technique of the tracking index in the gain approximation algorithm (IEEE Trans. Aerospace Electron. Systems AES-20 (March 1984) 174) and uses a gate-growing method to measure the degree of the target's maneuver. It involves a

Jae-Chern Yoo; Young-Soo Kim

95

Tracking Curlews  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Curlews migrate long distances each year. Captured birds are quickly removed from mist nets and transported to the care of a veterinarian, who performs the implant surgeries to outfit the bird with a tracking device. In June 2007, USGS scientists tagged 13 curlews with satellite transmitters at thei...

2010-04-13

96

Number Track  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students can use this interactive Flash applet to practice ordering whole numbers within 20. The applet displays a track and number tiles, which the user drags to create the correct sequence of numbers 1 through 20. Users may choose from four levels: place 5 missing numbers, place 10 numbers, arrange all 20 numbers, or create your own challenge.

Bunker, Dan

2010-01-01

97

Tracking systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tutorial is an overview of tracking and data fusion for surveillance systems with applications both to defense and civilian systems. It is divided into four parts: Part 1 - Filtering: Covers the topics related to state estimation for stochastic dynamic systems: optimal Bayesian estimator, Kalman filter, nonlinear filters (extended and unscented Kalman filter, Gaussian sum filter, particle filter); filters

B. Ristic; M. L. Hernandez

2008-01-01

98

The origin of K-feldspar megacrysts hosted in alkaline potassic rocks from central Italy: a track for low-pressure processes in mafic magmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ Sr-isotope and microchemical studies were used to determine the provenance of K-feldspar megacrysts hosted in mafic alkaline potassic, ultrapotassic rocks and in differentiated rocks from two nearby volcanic apparatus in central Italy. At Monte Cimino volcanic complex, mafic leucite-free ultrapotassic megacryst-bearing rocks of olivine latitic composition are associated with evolved latite and trachyte. Here, latites and trachytes straddle the sub-alkaline field. Age-corrected 87Sr/ 86Sr values (Sr i) of the analysed Cimino olivine latites vary from 0.71330 and 0.71578 and strongly increase at constant Mg value. Latite and trachyte have lower Sr i than olivine latites ranging between 0.71331 and 0.71361. Sr i of K-feldspar megacrysts from olivine latites are between 0.71352 and 0.71397, but core and rim 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios within individual megacryst are indistinguishable. In all the mafic rocks, the megacrysts are not in isotopic equilibrium with the hosts. K-feldspar megacrysts from both the latite and trachyte have similar Sr-isotope compositions (Sr i=0.71357-0.71401) to those in the olivine latites. However, Sr i of megacryst in the trachyte vary significantly from core to rim (Sr i from 0.71401 to 0.71383). As with the olivine latites, the K-feldspar megacrysts are not in isotopic equilibrium with bulk rock compositions of the latite or trachyte. At Vico volcano, megacryst-bearing rocks are mafic leucite-free potassic rocks, mafic leucite-bearing ultrapotassic rocks and old trachytic rocks. The mafic leucite-bearing and leucite-free rocks are a tephri-phonolite and an olivine latite, respectively. A megacryst in Vico trachyte is isotopically homogeneous (Sr i core=0.71129, rim=0.71128) and in equilibrium with the host rock (Sr i bulk rock=0.71125). Sr i of megacryst from tephri-phonolite is clearly not in isotopic equilibrium with its host (Sr i bulk rock=0.71158), and it increases from core (Sr i=0.71063) to rim (Sr i=0.71077). A megacryst in Vico olivine latite is isotopically homogeneous (Sr i core=0.71066, rim=0.71065), but not in equilibrium with the host rock (Sr i bulk rock=0.71013). The Sr isotope microdrilling technique reveals that Cimino megacrysts were crystallised in a Cimino trachytic magma and were subsequently incorporated by mixing/mingling processes in the latitic and olivine latitic melts. A model invoking the presence of a mafic sub-alkaline magma, which was mixed with the olivine latite, is proposed to justify the lack of simple geochemical mixing relation between Cimino trachytes and olivine latites. This magmatological model is able to explain the geochemical characteristics of Cimino olivine latites, otherwise ascribed to mantle heterogeneity. The similarity of core Sr i of megacrysts hosted in Vico tephri-phonolite and olivine latite suggests that the K-feldspar megacrysts are co-genetic. Isotopic equilibrium between megacryst and Vico host trachyte indicates that the trachyte is the parent of this megacryst. On the contrary, the megacrysts hosted in tephri-phonolite and olivine latite do not derive from the old trachytic magma because no diffusion process may explain the core to rim Sr isotope increase of the xenocryst hosted in the tephri-phonolite. The megacrysts hosted in the Vico mafic rocks might derive from a trachytic melt similar in composition to the old Vico trachytes.

Perini, Giulia; Tepley, Frank J.; Davidson, Jon P.; Conticelli, Sandro

2003-02-01

99

Study of charged---current ep interactions at Q 2>200 GeV2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep inelastic charged-current reactions have been studied in e + p and e - p collisions at a center of mass energy of about 300GeV in the kinematic region Q 2>200GeV2 and x>0.006 using the ZEUS detector at HERA. The integrated cross sections for Q 2>200GeV2 are found to be sigma _{e^ + p to bar nu X} = 30.3_{

M. Derrick; D. Krakauer; S. Magill; D. Mikunas; B. Musgrave; J. R. Okrasinski; J. Repond; R. Stanek; R. L. Talaga; H. Zhang; M. C. K. Mattingly; P. Antonioli; G. Bari; M. Basile; L. Bellagamba; D. Boscherini; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; P. Bruni; G. Cara Romeo; G. Castellini; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; A. Contin; M. Corradi; I. Gialas; P. Giusti; G. Iacobucci; G. Laurenti; G. Levi; A. Margotti; T. Massam; R. Nania; F. Palmonari; A. Pesci; A. Polini; G. Sartorelli; Y. Zamora Garcia; A. Zichichi; C. Amelung; A. Bornheim; J. Crittenden; R. Deffner; T. Doeker; M. Eckert; L. Feld; A. Frey; M. Geerts; M. Grothe; H. Hartmann; K. Heinloth; L. Heinz; E. Hilger; H.-P. Jakob; U. F. Katz; S. Mengel; E. Paul; M. Pfeiffer; Ch. Rembser; D. Schramm; J. Stamm; R. Wedemeyer; S. Campbell-Robson; A. Cassidy; W. N. Cottingham; N. Dyce; B. Foster; S. George; M. E. Hayes; G. P. Heath; H. F. Heath; D. Piccioni; D. G. Roff; R. J. Tapper; R. Yoshida; M. Arneodo; R. Ayad; M. Capua; A. Garfagnini; L. Iannotti; M. Schioppa; G. Susinno; A. Caldwell; N. Cartiglia; Z. Jing; W. Liu; J. A. Parsons; S. Ritz; F. Sciulli; P. B. Straub; L. Wai; S. Yang; Q. Zhu; P. Borzemski; J. Chwastowski; A. Eskreys; Z. Jakubowski; M. B. Przybycien; M. Zachara; L. Zawiejski; L. Adamczyk; B. Bednarek; K. Jelen; D. Kisielewska; T. Kowalski; E. Rulikowska-Zarebska; L. Suszycki; J. Zajac; Z. Dulinski; A. Kotanski; G. Abbiendi; L. A. T. Bauerdick; U. Behrens; H. Beier; J. K. Bienlein; G. Cases; O. Deppe; K. Desler; G. Drews; M. Flasinski; D. J. Gilkinson; C. Glasman; P. Göttlicher; J. Große-Knetter; T. Haas; W. Hain; D. Hasell; H. Heßling; Y. Iga; K. F. Johnson; P. Joos; M. Kasemann; R. Klanner; W. Koch; U. Kötz; H. Kowalski; J. Labs; A. Ladage; B. Löhr; M. Löwe; D. Lüke; J. Mainusch; O. Manczak; J. Milewski; T. Monteiro; J. S. T. Ng; D. Notz; K. Ohrenberg; K. Piotrzkowski; M. Roco; M. Rohde; J. Roldán; U. Schneekloth; W. Schulz; F. Selonke; B. Surrow; E. Tassi; T. Voß; D. Westphal; G. Wolf; U. Wollmer; C. Youngman; W. Zeuner; H. J. Grabosch; A. Kharchilava; S. M. Mari; A. Meyer; S. Schlenstedt; N. Wulff; G. Barbagli; E. Gallo; P. Pelfer; G. Maccarrone; S. de Pasquale; L. Votano; A. Bamberger; S. Eisenhardt; T. Trefzger; S. Wölfle; J. T. Bromley; N. H. Brook; P. J. Bussey; A. T. Doyle; D. H. Saxon; L. E. Sinclair; M. L. Utley; A. S. Wilson; A. Dannemann; U. Holm; D. Horstmann; R. Sinkus; K. Wick; B. D. Burow; L. Hagge; E. Lohrmann; G. Poelz; W. Schott; F. Zetsche; T. C. Bacon; N. Brümmer; I. Butterworth; V. L. Harris; G. Howell; B. H. Y. Hung; L. Lamberti; K. R. Long; D. B. Miller; N. Pavel; A. Prinias; J. K. Sedgbeer; D. Sideris; A. F. Whitfield; U. Mallik; M. Z. Wang; S. M. Wang; J. T. Wu; P. Cloth; D. Filges; S. H. An; G. H. Cho; B. J. Ko; S. B. Lee; S. W. Nam; H. S. Park; S. K. Park; S. Kartik; H.-J. Kim; R. R. McNeil; W. Metcalf; V. K. Nadendla; F. Barreiro; J. P. Fernandez; R. Graciani; J. M. Hernández; L. Hervás; L. Labarga; M. Martinez; J. Del Peso; J. Puga; J. Terron; J. F. de Trocóniz; F. Corriveau; D. S. Hanna; J. Hartmann; L. W. Hung; J. N. Lim; C. G. Matthews; P. M. Patel; M. Riveline; D. G. Stairs; M. St-Laurent; R. Ullmann; G. Zacek; T. Tsurugai; V. Bashkirov; B. A. Dolgoshein; A. Stifutkin; G. L. Bashindzhagyan; P. F. Ermolov; L. K. Gladilin; Yu. A. Golubkov; V. D. Kobrin; I. A. Korzhavina; V. A. Kuzmin; O. Yu. Lukina; A. S. Proskuryakov; A. A. Savin; L. M. Shcheglova; A. N. Solomin; N. P. Zotov; M. Botje; F. Chlebana; J. Engelen; M. de Kamps; P. Kooijman; A. Kruse; A. van Sighem; H. Tiecke; W. Verkerke; J. Vossebeld; M. Vreeswijk; L. Wiggers; E. de Wolf; R. van Woudenberg; D. Acosta; B. Bylsma; L. S. Durkin; J. Gilmore; C. Li; T. Y. Ling; P. Nylander; I. H. Park; T. A. Romanowski; D. S. Bailey; R. J. Cashmore; A. M. Cooper-Sarkar; R. C. E. Devenish; N. Harnew; M. Lancaster; L. Lindemann; J. D. McFall; C. Nath; V. A. Noyes; A. Quadt; J. R. Tickner; H. Uijterwaal; R. Walczak; D. S. Waters; F. F. Wilson; T. Yip; A. Bertolin; R. Brugnera; R. Carlin; F. Dal Corso; M. de Giorgi; U. Dosselli; S. Limentani; M. Morandin; M. Posocco; L. Stanco; R. Stroili; C. Voci; F. Zuin; J. Bulmahn; R. G. Feild; B. Y. Oh; J. J. Whitmore; G. D'Agostini; G. Marini; A. Nigro; J. C. Hart; N. A. McCubbin; T. P. Shah; E. Barberis; T. Dubbs; C. Heusch; M. van Hook; W. Lockman; J. T. Rahn; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; A. Seiden; D. C. Williams; J. Biltzinger; R. J. Seifert; O. Schwarzer; A. H. Walenta; H. Abramowicz; G. Briskin; S. Dagan; A. Levy; J. I. Fleck; M. Inuzuka; T. Ishii; M. Kuze; S. Mine; M. Nakao; I. Suzuki; K. Tokushuku; K. Umemori; S. Yamada; Y. Yamazaki; M. Chiba; R. Hamatsu; T. Hirose; K. Homma; S. Kitamura; T. Matsushita; K. Yamauchi; R. Cirio; M. Costa; M. I. Ferrero; S. Maselli; C. Peroni; R. Sacchi; A. Solano; A. Staiano; M. Dardo; D. C. Bailey; F. Benard; M. Brkic; C.-P. Fagerstroem; G. F. Hartner; K. K. Joo; G. M. Levman

1996-01-01

100

Historical Hurricane Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Historical Hurricane Tracks tool is an interactive mapping application that allows you to easily search and display Atlantic Basin and East-Central Pacific Basin tropical cyclone data. At this web site you can learn about historical tropical cyclones occurring in different areas located throughout the Atlantic, Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico. The web site provides information about U.S. coastal county population versus hurricane strikes as well as links to various Internet resources focusing on tropical cyclones. The interactive mapping application allows you to search the National Hurricane Center historical tropical cyclone database and graphically display storms affecting your area since 1851.

2010-11-18

101

Fraction Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 17:29 minute video from the classic Annenberg Learner series illustrates the practice standard of communication about mathematics among a teacher and her students as they learn and play the "fraction tracks" game. The video also shows how activities like this allow students to use communication as a tool to deepen their understanding of mathematics. Three analysis questions are given at the end of the video to promote dialogue among teachers of mathematics.

Boston, Wgbh

1996-01-01

102

Tracking Sunspots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students track the movements of sunspots using images from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite. Working in pairs, they observe images of the sun from consecutive days and plot the sunspots on a grid, then calculate average daily movement (in degrees of latitude) and use this information to determine the length of the solar day. The individual daily images are also combined to form a movie showing the sun's rotation.

103

Tracking Otters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on pages 38-43) has learners simulate the way scientists track and map the movement of otters in the wild using radio trackers. One learner plays the role of Sea Otter, and other pairs of learners play the roles of Receiver and Tracker. The Sea Otter uses a clicker to represent the electronic transmitter on the otter, and each blindfolded Receiver listens through a paper towel tube "antenna" while the Tracker records where their partner hears the loudest click.

Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development

2001-01-01

104

Turtle Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"One way to describe a geometric figure is in terms of the path generated by a moving point. Using the computer language LOGO, children can produce a list of commands to govern the motion of a 'turtle' and trace out a geometric track on the computer screen. Such a turtle can be programmed to generate an endless variety of patterns. Mathematicians can use similar algorithms to generate fractals and other forms. Certain sequences of moves produce patterns known as spirolaterals, which generate artistic forms of unexpected complexity and beauty, and can serve as idea generators for architects..."

Peterson, Ivars

2007-04-04

105

Making Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will make trackways by running across sheets of paper; their classmates will then determine what they can interpret from the trackways. The students discover that fossils are evidence of ancient life which is usually preserved in stone and that when most people think about fossils, they think about bones and skeletons. Students learn that not all fossils are the body parts of ancient organisms and that a very important type of fossil is called a trace fossil, scientifically termed an ichnofossil, the tracks or trails an organism leaves behind.

Greb, Stephen

106

Boulder Track  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-408, 1 July 2003

If a boulder rolls down a slope on an uninhabited planet, does it make a sound? While we do not know the sound made by a boulder rolling down a slope in the martian region of Gordii Dorsum, we do know that it made an impression. This full-resolution Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a series of depressions made on a dust-mantled slope as a boulder rolled down it, sometime in the recent past. The boulder track is located just right of center in this picture. The boulder sits at the end of the track. This picture was acquired in May 2003; it is located near 11.2oN, 147.8oW. North is toward the lower left, sunlight illuminates the scene from the right. The picture covers an area only 810 meters (about 886 yards) across.

2003-01-01

107

Target tracking in MIMO radar systems: Techniques and performance analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, moving target tracking performance in multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radar systems with distributed antennas and non-coherent processing is studied. Due to the use of multiple, widely distributed antennas, MIMO radar architectures support both centralized and decentralized tracking techniques. Each receiving radar may contribute to central processing by providing either raw data or partially\\/fully processed data. Estimation

Hana Godrich; V. M. Chiriac; Alexander M. Haimovich; Rick S. Blum

2010-01-01

108

8. Launch closure, closure track apron, tracks and track beam, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Launch closure, closure track apron, tracks and track beam, view towards west - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility D-6, 4 miles north of Badlands National Park Headquarters, 4.5 miles east of Jackson County line on county road, Interior, Jackson County, SD

109

Ocean Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are marine animals moving around when they are deep below the ocean's surface? It's a fascinating question, and one that has driven the work of part of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). On this website, visitors can see the "tracks" of selected marine animals tagged by CSIRO and partner agencies. It's an amazing experience, and visitors just need to download a small plug-in to get started. Some of the marine animals here include white sharks patrolling Australia's southern coast and bluefin tuna on their oceanic migrations. The About area is a great way to learn about the research and technology involved with this complicated endeavor. Also, visitors can check out the low-tech/accessible version of the site if they are so inclined.

110

Radio tracking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles and techniques of deep space radio tracking are described along with the uses of tracking data in navigation and radio science. Emphasis is placed on the measurement functions of radio tracking.

J. C. Breidenthal; T. A. Komarek

1982-01-01

111

Study of charged—current ep interactions at Q 2 >200 GeV 2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep inelastic charged-current reactions have been studied ine\\u000a +\\u000a p ande\\u000a ?\\u000a p collisions at a center of mass energy of about 300GeV in the kinematic regionQ\\u000a 2>200GeV2 andx>0.006 using the ZEUS detector at HERA. The integrated cross sections forQ\\u000a 2>200GeV2 are found to be $$\\\\sigma _{e^ + p \\\\to \\\\bar \\\

M. Derrick; D. Krakauer; S. Magill; D. Mikunas; B. Musgrave; J. R. Okrasinski; J. Repond; R. Stanek; R. L. Talaga; H. Zhang; M. C. K. Mattingly; P. Antonioli; G. Bari; M. Basile; L. Bellagamba; D. Boscherini; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; P. Bruni; G. Cara Romeo; G. Castellini; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; A. Contin; M. Corradi; I. Gialas; P. Giusti; G. Iacobucci; G. Laurenti; G. Levi; A. Margotti; T. Massam; R. Nania; F. Palmonari; A. Pesci; A. Polini; G. Sartorelli; Y. Zamora Garcia; A. Zichichi; C. Amelung; A. Bornheim; J. Crittenden; R. Deffner; T. Doeker; M. Eckert; L. Feld; A. Frey; M. Geerts; M. Grothe; H. Hartmann; K. Heinloth; L. Heinz; E. Hilger; H.-P. Jakob; U. F. Katz; S. Mengel; E. Paul; M. Pfeiffer; Ch. Rembser; D. Schramm; J. Stamm; R. Wedemeyer; S. Campbell-Robson; A. Cassidy; W. N. Cottingham; N. Dyce; B. Foster; S. George; M. E. Hayes; G. P. Heath; H. F. Heath; D. Piccioni; D. G. Roff; R. J. Tapper; R. Yoshida; M. Arneodo; R. Ayad; M. Capua; A. Garfagnini; L. Iannotti; M. Schioppa; G. Susinno; A. Caldwell; N. Cartiglia; Z. Jing; W. Liu; J. A. Parsons; S. Ritz; F. Sciulli; P. B. Straub; L. Wai; S. Yang; Q. Zhu; P. Borzemski; J. Chwastowski; A. Eskreys; Z. Jakubowski; M. B. Przybycie?; M. Zachara; L. Zawiejski; L. Adamczyk; B. Bednarek; K. Jele?; D. Kisielewska; T. Kowalski; E. Rulikowska-Zar?bska; L. Suszycki; J. Zaj?c; Z. Duli?ski; A. Kota?ski; G. Abbiendi; L. A. T. Bauerdick; U. Behrens; H. Beier; J. K. Bienlein; G. Cases; O. Deppe; K. Desler; G. Drews; M. Flasi?ski; D. J. Gilkinson; C. Glasman; P. Göttlicher; J. Große-Knetter; T. Haas; W. Hain; D. Hasell; H. Heßling; Y. Iga; K. F. Johnson; P. Joos; M. Kasemann; R. Klanner; W. Koch; U. Kötz; H. Kowalski; J. Labs; A. Ladage; B. Löhr; M. Löwe; D. Lüke; J. Mainusch; O. Ma?czak; J. Milewski; T. Monteiro; J. S. T. Ng; D. Notz; K. Ohrenberg; K. Piotrzkowski; M. Roco; M. Rohde; J. Roldán; U. Schneekloth; W. Schulz; F. Selonke; B. Surrow; E. Tassi; T. Voß; D. Westphal; G. Wolf; U. Wollmer; C. Youngman; W. Zeuner; H. J. Grabosch; A. Kharchilava; S. M. Mari; A. Meyer; S. Schlenstedt; N. Wulff; G. Barbagli; E. Gallo; P. Pelfer; G. Maccarrone; S. De Pasquale; L. Votano; A. Bamberger; S. Eisenhardt; T. Trefzger; S. Wölfle; J. T. Bromley; N. H. Brook; P. J. Bussey; A. T. Doyle; D. H. Saxon; L. E. Sinclair; M. L. Utley; A. S. Wilson; A. Dannemann; U. Holm; D. Horstmann; R. Sinkus; K. Wick; B. D. Burow; L. Hagge; E. Lohrmann; G. Poelz; W. Schott; F. Zetsche; T. C. Bacon; N. Brümmer; I. Butterworth; V. L. Harris; G. Howell; B. H. Y. Hung; L. Lamberti; K. R. Long; D. B. Miller; N. Pavel; A. Prinias; J. K. Sedgbeer; D. Sideris; A. F. Whitfield; U. Mallik; M. Z. Wang; S. M. Wang; J. T. Wu; P. Cloth; D. Filges; S. H. An; G. H. Cho; B. J. Ko; S. B. Lee; S. W. Nam; H. S. Park; S. K. Park; S. Kartik; H.-J. Kim; R. R. McNeil; W. Metcalf; V. K. Nadendla; F. Barreiro; J. P. Fernandez; R. Graciani; J. M. Hernández; L. Hervás; L. Labarga; M. Martinez; J. del Peso; J. Puga; J. Terron; J. F. de Trocóniz; F. Corriveau; D. S. Hanna; J. Hartmann; L. W. Hung; J. N. Lim; C. G. Matthews; P. M. Patel; M. Riveline; D. G. Stairs; M. St-Laurent; R. Ullmann; G. Zacek; T. Tsurugai; V. Bashkirov; B. A. Dolgoshein; A. Stifutkin; G. L. Bashindzhagyan; P. F. Ermolov; L. K. Gladilin; Yu. A. Golubkov; V. D. Kobrin; I. A. Korzhavina; V. A. Kuzmin; O. Yu. Lukina; A. S. Proskuryakov; A. A. Savin; L. M. Shcheglova; A. N. Solomin; N. P. Zotov; M. Botje; F. Chlebana; J. Engelen; M. de Kamps; P. Kooijman; A. Kruse; A. van Sighem; H. Tiecke; W. Verkerke; J. Vossebeld; M. Vreeswijk; L. Wiggers; E. de Wolf; R. van Woudenberg; D. Acosta; B. Bylsma; L. S. Durkin; J. Gilmore; C. Li; T. Y. Ling; P. Nylander; I. H. Park; T. A. Romanowski; D. S. Bailey; R. J. Cashmore; A. M. Cooper-Sarkar; R. C. E. Devenish; N. Harnew; M. Lancaster; L. Lindemann; J. D. McFall; C. Nath; V. A. Noyes; A. Quadt; J. R. Tickner; H. Uijterwaal; R. Walczak; D. S. Waters; F. F. Wilson; T. Yip; A. Bertolin; R. Brugnera; R. Carlin; F. Dal Corso; M. De Giorgi; U. Dosselli; S. Limentani; M. Morandin; M. Posocco; L. Stanco; R. Stroili; C. Voci; F. Zuin; J. Bulmahn; R. G. Feild; B. Y. Oh; J. J. Whitmore; G. D’Agostini; G. Marini; A. Nigro; J. C. Hart; N. A. McCubbin; T. P. Shah; E. Barberis; T. Dubbs; C. Heusch; M. Van Hook; W. Lockman; J. T. Rahn; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; A. Seiden; D. C. Williams; J. Biltzinger; R. J. Seifert; O. Schwarzer; A. H. Walenta; H. Abramowicz; G. Briskin; S. Dagan; A. Levy; J. I. Fleck; M. Inuzuka; T. Ishii; M. Kuze; S. Mine; M. Nakao; I. Suzuki; K. Tokushuku; K. Umemori; S. Yamada; Y. Yamazaki; M. Chiba; R. Hamatsu; T. Hirose; K. Homma; S. Kitamura; T. Matsushita; K. Yamauchi; R. Cirio; M. Costa; M. I. Ferrero; S. Maselli; C. Peroni; R. Sacchi; A. Solano; A. Staiano; M. Dardo; D. C. Bailey; F. Benard; M. Brkic; C.-P. Fagerstroem; G. F. Hartner; K. K. Joo

1996-01-01

112

Kernel-Based Object Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach toward target representation and localization, the central component in visual tracking of nonrigid objects, is proposed. The feature histogram-based target representations are regularized by spatial masking with an isotropic kernel. The masking induces spatially-smooth similarity functions suitable for gradient-based optimization, hence, the target localization problem can be formulated using the basin of attraction of the local maxima.

Dorin Comaniciu; Visvanathan Ramesh; Peter Meer

2003-01-01

113

71 FR 78217 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Convection Enhanced Delivery and Tracking of Gadolinium...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Convection Enhanced Delivery and Tracking of Gadolinium...No. E-202-2002 ``Method for Convection Enhanced Delivery of Therapeutic Agents...tracer for tracking the distribution of convection enhanced delivered central nervous...

2006-12-28

114

Sled tracking system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sled Tracking System (STS) represents the successful merger of several technologies, including IR and visual sensors, real-time image processing, and real-time data processing and control. STS was developed to solve the dynamics of tracking seat ejection and vehicle tests at the Air Force's High Speed Test Track Facility at Holloman AFB, New Mexico. The system has the ability to track vehicles at transverse speeds exceeding Mach 1, while ignoring momentary loss of track due to background clutter. STS can discriminate among up to four seats sequentially ejected from a single vehicle and track only the event of interest. The system also maintains the track point of interest in the primary sensor's field-of-view while tracking an offset aim point and transitions from a transverse trajectory to a vertical trajectory while maintaining track through seat-mannequin separation and chute deployment. This paper discusses the hardware and software architectures implemented to solve these problems.

Downey, George A.; Fountain, Hubert W.; Riding, Thomas J.; Eggleston, James; Hopkins, Michael; Adams, Billy

1991-08-01

115

To Track or Not to Track?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This paper was written for a graduate level action research course at Muskingum University, located in New Concord, OH. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine which method of instruction best serves ALL high school students. Is it more advantageous to track ("ability group") students or not to track students in high…

Hesson, Heather

2010-01-01

116

Multiple hypothesis tracking for multiple target tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) is generally accepted as the preferred method for solving the data association problem in modern multiple target tracking (MTT) systems. This paper summarizes the motivations for MHT, the basic principles behind MHT and the alternative implementations in common use. It discusses the manner in which the multiple data association hypotheses formed by MHT can be combined

SAMUEL S. BLACKMAN

2004-01-01

117

Computer aided manual tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A scheme was developed to assist the human operator by augmenting an optic sight manual tracking loop with target rate estimates from a computer control algorithm which can either be a Kalman Filter or an alpha, beta, gamma filter. The idea is for the computer to provide rate tracking while the human operator is responsible for nullifying the tracking error. A simple schematic is shown to illustrate the implementation of this concept. A hybrid real-time man-in-loop simulation was used to compare the tracking performance of the same flight trajectory with or without this form of computer-aided track. Preliminary results show the advantage of computer-aided track against high speed aircraft at close range. However, good tracking before target state estimator maturity becomes more critical for aided track than without. Results are presented for a constant velocity flight trajectory.

Yin, Y. K.; Berg, R. F.

1981-01-01

118

Some assignment problems arising from multiple target tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple target tracking is a subject devoted to the estimation of targets’ or objects’ states, e.g., position and velocity, over time using a single or multiple sensors. The development of modern tracking systems requires a wide variety of algorithms ranging from gating (preprocessing), state and bias estimation, and development of likelihood ratios to data association. The central problem is the

Aubrey B. Poore; Sabino Gadaleta

2006-01-01

119

Multiple Object Tracking Via Species-Based Particle Swarm Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple object tracking is particularly challenging when many objects with similar appearances occlude one another. Most existing approaches concatenate the states of different objects, view the multi-object tracking as a joint motion estimation problem and search for the best state of the joint motion in a rather high dimensional space. However, this centralized framework suffers from a high computational load.

Xiaoqin Zhang; Weiming Hu; Wei Qu; Steve J. Maybank

2010-01-01

120

Multi-Object Tracking via Species Based Particle Swarm Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple object tracking is particularly challenging when many objects with similar appearances occlude one another. Most existing approaches concatenate the states of different objects, view the multi-object tracking as a joint motion estimation problem and search for the best state of the joint motion in a rather high dimensional space. How- ever, this centralized framework suffers a great computa- tional

Xiaoqin Zhang; Weiming Hu; Wei Li; Steve Maybank

2009-01-01

121

Tracking Groups of People  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer vision system for tracking multiple people in relatively unconstrained environments is described. Tracking is performed at three levels of abstraction: regions, people and groups. A novel, adaptive background subtraction method that combines color and gradient information is used to cope with shadows and unreliable color cues. People are tracked through mutual occlusions as they form groups and separate

Stephen J. Mckenna; Sumer Jabri; Zoran Duric; Azriel Rosenfeld; Harry Wechsler

2000-01-01

122

Good features to track  

Microsoft Academic Search

No feature-based vision system can work until good features can be identified and tracked from frame to frame. Although tracking itself is by and large a solved problem, selecting features that can be tracked well and correspond to physical points in the world is still an open problem. We propose a feature selection criterion that is optimal by construction because

Jianbo Shi; C. Toamsi

1994-01-01

123

Radar track extraction systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main constituents of a largely automatic radar track-while-scan system are described. It contains a plot extractor, clutter map, stationary plot filter, and automatic tracking software. The system is designed to operate in high false alarm conditions without formation of false tracks. The clutter map is used to select the optimum video for processes by the plot extractor, which is

A. L. C. Quigley; J. E. Holmes; R. J. Tunnicliffe

1977-01-01

124

Concurrent multiple target tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concurrent algorithm for multiple target tracking is presented. The underlying tracking formalism is first described by way of a sequential program, and the issues in generalizing the tracker for efficient concurrent implementations are discussed in detail. Typical tracking results on the Mark III hypercube are presented.

Thomas D. Gottschalk

1988-01-01

125

Microcomputer aided tracking (MCAT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the MCAT project was to investigate the effectiveness of operator initiated tracks followed by automatic tracking. Adding this capability to a display was intended to relieve operator overload and fatigue which results when the operator is limited to grease pencil tracking. MCAT combines several microprocessors and a microcomputer-driven PPI(Plan Position Indications) with graphics capability. The operator is

A. B. Mays; D. C. Cross; J. L. Walters

1983-01-01

126

Track and Field Dynamics. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Track and field coaching is considered an art embodying three sciences--physiology, psychology, and dynamics. It is the area of dynamics, the branch of physics that deals with the action of force on bodies, that is central to this book. Although the book does not cover the entire realm of dynamics, the laws and principles that relate directly to…

Ecker, Tom

127

Game-Theoretic Multiple Target Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video-based multiple target tracking (MTT) is a chal- lenging task when similar targets are present in close vicin- ity. Because their visual observations are mixed and diffi- cult to segment, their motions have to be estimated jointly. Most existing approaches perform this joint motion estima- tion in a centralized fashion and involve searching a rather high dimensional space, and thus

Ming Yang; Ting Yu; Ying Wu

2007-01-01

128

The minitrack tracking function description, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The treatment of tracking data by the Minitrack system is described from the transmission of the nominal 136-MHz radio beacon energy from a satellite and the reception of this signal by the interferometer network through the ultimate derivation of the direction cosines (the angular coordinates of the vector from the tracking station to the spacecraft) as a function of time. Descriptions of some of the lesser-known functions operating on the system, such as the computer preprocessing program, are included. A large part of the report is devoted to the preprocessor, which provides for the data compression, smoothing, calibration correction, and ambiguity resolution of the raw interferometer phase tracking measurements teletyped from each of the worldwide Minitrack tracking stations to the central computer facility at Goddard Space Flight Center. An extensive bibliography of Minitrack hardware and theory is presented.

Englar, T. S., Jr.; Mango, S. A.; Roettcher, C. A.; Watters, D. L.

1973-01-01

129

Parametric Study of Track Response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report was prepared as part of the Improved Track Structures Research Program managed by the Transportation Systems Center. The report presents results from a parametric study of track response using a comprehensive track analysis model. Track respon...

J. C. Kennedy R. H. Prause

1977-01-01

130

Object tracking with stereo vision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A real-time active stereo vision system incorporating gaze control and task directed vision is described. Emphasis is placed on object tracking and object size and shape determination. Techniques include motion-centroid tracking, depth tracking, and contour tracking.

Huber, Eric

1994-01-01

131

Central level fusion of radar and IRST contacts and the choice of coordinate system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The target tracking case, where radar and IRST contacts are fused at the central level fusion architecture, with special attention to the coordinate system, has been analyzed in this presentation. Tracking targets by fusing contacts from dissimilar sensors in a central level fusion process is acknowledged to be the most powerful tracking technique. This approach maximizes the synergy among the

Marc-Alain Simard; Francois Begin

1993-01-01

132

Tracks of Art  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spirit took this panoramic camera image of its wheel tracks on sol 122 (May 7, 2004). This short segment of track represents only a small portion of the long journey Spirit has traveled toward the base of the 'Columbia Hills,' which still loom approximately 1.7 kilometers (1 mile) away. The tracks will be only a temporary scar on this martian landscape, as winds will eventually wipe them away.

2004-01-01

133

Sea Turtle Satellite Tracking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Near real-time tool for collecting, managing and sharing marine life satellite tracking data. Over 30 projects in US, Caribbean, Mediterranean, Indo-Pacific, and Australian waters. Provides links to background information for each project, the animals they are tracking, and maps that are updated regularly. Teaching resources include maps for tracking, suggestions for using data in lessons on geography, biology, earth science, math. Good introduction to satellite telemetry methodology and applications.

134

Hurricanes 2: Tracking Hurricanes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lesson is to examine the role of technology in identifying and tracking hurricanes. It is the second in a two-part series on the science of hurricanes and the kinds of technology being used to identify and track them. Students broaden their study by exploring how technology and science are used today to identify, measure, and track powerful tropical storms to better warn and secure people from a hurricane's often-devastating impact.

2007-12-12

135

Hurricanes 2: Tracking Hurricanes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lesson is to examine the role of technology in identifying and tracking hurricanes. It is the second in a two-part series on the science of hurricanes and the kinds of technology being used to identify and track them. Students broaden their study by exploring how technology and science are used today to identify, measure, and track powerful tropical storms to better warn and secure people from a hurricane's often-devastating impact.

136

Combination of H1 and ZEUS Inclusive Deep Inelastic e{sup {+-}}p Scattering Cross Section Measurements and Extraction of the Proton Parton Density Functions using a NLO-QCD Fit  

SciTech Connect

A new averaging method is used to combine previously published HERA-I data by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations of neutral and charged current inclusive cross sections for e{sup {+-}}p scattering. The combination procedure takes into account the systematic error correlations in a coherent approach, leading to a significantly reduced overall cross section uncertainty. This precise combined HERA-I data set is then used as the sole input for a next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD parton distribution function (PDF) fit. The consistent treatment of systematic uncertainties in the combined data results in PDFs with greatly reduced experimental uncertainties compared to the separate analyses of the H1 and ZEUS experiments. Model uncertainties, including those arising from parametrisation dependence, are also carefully considered. The resulting HERAPDFs have impressive precision compared to the global fits.

Radescu, Voica A. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

2009-03-23

137

Tracking Small Artists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tracks of small animals are important in environmental surveillance, where pattern recognition algorithms allow species identification of the individuals creating tracks. These individuals can also be seen as artists, presented in their natural environments with a canvas upon which they can make prints. We present tracks of small mammals and reptiles which have been collected for identification purposes, and re-interpret them from an esthetic point of view. We re-classify these tracks not by their geometric qualities as pattern recognition algorithms would, but through interpreting the 'artist', their brush strokes and intensity. We describe the algorithms used to enhance and present the work of the 'artists'.

Russell, James C.; Klette, Reinhard; Chen, Chia-Yen

138

Robust online multiobject tracking with data association and track management.  

PubMed

In this paper, we consider a multiobject tracking problem in complex scenes. Unlike batch tracking systems using detections of the entire sequence, we propose a novel online multiobject tracking system in order to build tracks sequentially using online provided detections. To track objects robustly even under frequent occlusions, the proposed system consists of three main parts: 1) visual tracking with a novel data association with a track existence probability by associating online detections with the corresponding tracks under partial occlusions; 2) track management to associate terminated tracks for linking tracks fragmented by long-term occlusions; and 3) online model learning to generate discriminative appearance models for successful associations in other two parts. Experimental results using challenging public data sets show the obvious performance improvement of the proposed system, compared with other state-of-the-art tracking systems. Furthermore, extensive performance analysis of the three main parts demonstrates effects and usefulness of the each component for multiobject tracking. PMID:24801247

Bae, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Kuk-Jin

2014-07-01

139

Stereoscopic Motion Tracking System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Stereoscopic Motion Tracking System is being developed for use with a video game system for rehabilitation of children affected by Cerebral Palsy. Two cameras will be used to track the (x, y) locationof a motion, using stereoscopic principles this data will be used to calculate the Z locationof the motion. This data will be collected for the duration of

A. Calderon; M. Dembele; B. Hossain; Y. Noor; S. Ovsiew

2011-01-01

140

TMDL TRACKING SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The TMDL Tracking System database contains information on the waters listed under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act and to track those listed waters through TMDL development. The purpose of the database is to allow EPA, the States/Territories/Tribes, ...

141

2 Tracks for Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The academic work force has been transformed over the past several decades, less by design than out of expediency. In 1969, professors who were either tenured or tenure-track made up 78 percent of the faculty. Those working part time made up only 18.5 percent. By 2009, those proportions had almost flipped, with tenured and tenure-track making up…

Wilson, Robin

2012-01-01

142

Solar powered tracking device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the design and operation of a device for tracking the traverse of the sun across the sky, to be used in conjunction with a solar concentrator to ensure maximum solar energy collection. The tracking device consists of two solar energy sensors positioned on opposite sides of a parabolic concentrator which faces south and rotates about the north-south

C. A. Morrison; E. A. Farber; H. A. Ingley; D. B. Wiggins

1976-01-01

143

Suspension for Tracked Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A patent is described for a tracked vehicle suspension containing a transverse balance beam spring-supported by means of flat rubber elastic elements. The beam is hinged at the middle to the chassis of the vehicle and the ends rest on the track carriers. ...

V. V. Emelyanenko R. V. Efimova N. A. Litvinov E. R. Melman

1969-01-01

144

Incentives from Curriculum Tracking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I…

Koerselman, Kristian

2013-01-01

145

Tracking Line Segments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development and the implementation of a line segments based token tracker. Given a sequence of time-varying images, the goal is to track line segments corresponding to the edges extracted from the image being analyzed. We will present a tracking approach that combines a prediction and a matching steps. The prediction step is a Kalman filtering based

Rachid Deriche; Olivier D. Faugeras

1990-01-01

146

Can Tracking Improve Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tracking students into different classrooms according to their prior academic performance is controversial among both scholars and policymakers. If teachers find it easier to teach a homogeneous group of students, tracking could enhance school effectiveness and raise test scores of both low- and high-ability students. If students benefit from…

Duflo, Esther; Dupas, Pascaline; Kremer, Michael

2009-01-01

147

Plan Tracking Knowledge Base  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creating project plans is a key management activity. Software project managers spend a lot of their time manually gathering data to track software project compliance to plans. This paper describes a knowledge base framework that is created by computer tools that gather information from project files. The framework provides facts to intelligent agents to help managers track compliance to plans.

Dick B. Simmons; Ching-seh Wu

2000-01-01

148

UWB Tracking Software Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Ultra-Wideband (UWB) two-cluster Angle of Arrival (AOA) tracking prototype system is currently being developed and tested at NASA Johnson Space Center for space exploration applications. This talk discusses the software development efforts for this UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system. The role the software plays in this system is to take waveform data from two UWB radio receivers as an input, feed this input into an AOA tracking algorithm, and generate the target position as an output. The architecture of the software (Input/Output Interface and Algorithm Core) will be introduced in this talk. The development of this software has three phases. In Phase I, the software is mostly Matlab driven and calls C++ socket functions to provide the communication links to the radios. This is beneficial in the early stage when it is necessary to frequently test changes in the algorithm. Phase II of the development is to have the software mostly C++ driven and call a Matlab function for the AOA tracking algorithm. This is beneficial in order to send the tracking results to other systems and also to improve the tracking update rate of the system. The third phase is part of future work and is to have the software completely C++ driven with a graphics user interface. This software design enables the fine resolution tracking of the UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system.

Gross, Julia; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dusl, John; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

2006-01-01

149

Graphs and Tracks Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Graphs and Tracks Model allows instructors to create custom models of a ball rolling on a track with a variable shape. This EJS model was inspired by the Graphs and Tracks program by David Trowbridge. Instructors set the heights of the track segments and the model displays the motion of the ball. Optional displays, including position and velocity graphs, energy graphs, and data tables, can be added depending on the learning goals for the activity. Documents can aslo be added to the model to provide student instructions or activities. The customized simulation is then saved as a new jar file that can be redistributed. The Graphs and Tracks Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2012-05-30

150

Controlled ion track etching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a common practice since long to follow the ion track-etching process in thin foils via conductometry, i.e . by measurement of the electrical current which passes through the etched track, once the track breakthrough condition has been achieved. The major disadvantage of this approach, namely the absence of any major detectable signal before breakthrough, can be avoided by examining the track-etching process capacitively. This method allows one to define precisely not only the breakthrough point before it is reached, but also the length of any non-transient track. Combining both capacitive and conductive etching allows one to control the etching process perfectly. Examples and possible applications are given.

George, J.; Irkens, M.; Neumann, S.; Scherer, U. W.; Srivastava, A.; Sinha, D.; Fink, D.

2006-03-01

151

Balloon track data analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary goal of this program was to design a post-flight data processing system to measure gravity to 1 mgal accuracy. The purpose was to analyze data from balloons flights and to assess the feasibility of measuring gravity to this accuracy. Emphasis during the effort would be on determining the relative contribution of the various error sources to the overall error budget. Primary emphasis was on assessing the performance of GPS as the main tracking system. To facilitate this assessment, a direct comparison of the accuracies in determining gondola position, velocity, and acceleration will be made between GPS tracking, radar tracking, and tracking performance. It is anticipated that using a differential-GPS approach would yield position, velocity, and acceleration accuracies which are significantly better than ground-based radar. The proposed method of estimating gravity based on gravimeter, gondola package tracking data, and inertial motion sensing package data involves an integrated high-order Kalman filter approach.

Burkhardt, P.; Fowler, R.; Moses, M.

1987-03-01

152

Study of charged—current ep interactions at Q 2>200 GeV2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep inelastic charged-current reactions have been studied in e + p and e - p collisions at a center of mass energy of about 300GeV in the kinematic region Q 2>200GeV2 and x>0.006 using the ZEUS detector at HERA. The integrated cross sections for Q 2>200GeV2 are found to be ? _{e^ + p to bar ? X} = 30.3_{ - 4.2 - 2.6}^{ + 5.5 + 1.6} pb and ? _{e^ - p to ? X} = 54.7_{ - 9.8 - 3.4}^{ + 15.9 + 2.8} pb . Differential cross sections have been measured as functions of the variables x, y and Q 2. From the measured differential cross sections d?/dQ 2, the W boson mass is determined to be M_W = 79_{ - 7 - 4}^{ + 8 + 4} GeV . Measured jet rates and transverse energy profiles agree with model predictions. A search for charged-current interactions with a large rapidity gap yielded one candidate event, corresponding to a cross section of ? _{e^ + p to bar ? X} (Q^2 > 200 GeV^2 ; ? _{max }< 2.5) = 0.8_{ - 0.7}^{ + 1.8} ± 0.1 pb

Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.; Mikunas, D.; Musgrave, B.; Okrasinski, J. R.; Repond, J.; Stanek, R.; Talaga, R. L.; Zhang, H.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, P.; Romeo, G. Cara; Castellini, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; Gialas, I.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Laurenti, G.; Levi, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Pesci, A.; Polini, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Garcia, Y. Zamora; Zichichi, A.; Amelung, C.; Bornheim, A.; Crittenden, J.; Deffner, R.; Doeker, T.; Eckert, M.; Feld, L.; Frey, A.; Geerts, M.; Grothe, M.; Hartmann, H.; Heinloth, K.; Heinz, L.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.-P.; Katz, U. F.; Mengel, S.; Paul, E.; Pfeiffer, M.; Rembser, Ch.; Schramm, D.; Stamm, J.; Wedemeyer, R.; Campbell-Robson, S.; Cassidy, A.; Cottingham, W. N.; Dyce, N.; Foster, B.; George, S.; Hayes, M. E.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Piccioni, D.; Roff, D. G.; Tapper, R. J.; Yoshida, R.; Arneodo, M.; Ayad, R.; Capua, M.; Garfagnini, A.; Iannotti, L.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Caldwell, A.; Cartiglia, N.; Jing, Z.; Liu, W.; Parsons, J. A.; Ritz, S.; Sciulli, F.; Straub, P. B.; Wai, L.; Yang, S.; Zhu, Q.; Borzemski, P.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Jakubowski, Z.; Przybycie?, M. B.; Zachara, M.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bednarek, B.; Jele?, K.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowalski, T.; Przybycie?, M.; Rulikowska-Zar?bska, E.; Suszycki, L.; Zaj?c, J.; Duli?ski, Z.; Kota?ski, A.; Abbiendi, G.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Behrens, U.; Beier, H.; Bienlein, J. K.; Cases, G.; Deppe, O.; Desler, K.; Drews, G.; Flasi?ski, M.; Gilkinson, D. J.; Glasman, C.; Göttlicher, P.; Große-Knetter, J.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hasell, D.; Heßling, H.; Iga, Y.; Johnson, K. F.; Joos, P.; Kasemann, M.; Klanner, R.; Koch, W.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Labs, J.; Ladage, A.; Löhr, B.; Löwe, M.; Lüke, D.; Mainusch, J.; Ma?czak, O.; Milewski, J.; Monteiro, T.; Ng, J. S. T.; Notz, D.; Ohrenberg, K.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Roco, M.; Rohde, M.; Roldán, J.; Schneekloth, U.; Schulz, W.; Selonke, F.; Surrow, B.; Tassi, E.; Voß, T.; Westphal, D.; Wolf, G.; Wollmer, U.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Grabosch, H. J.; Kharchilava, A.; Mari, S. M.; Meyer, A.; Schlenstedt, S.; Wulff, N.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Pelfer, P.; Maccarrone, G.; de Pasquale, S.; Votano, L.; Bamberger, A.; Eisenhardt, S.; Trefzger, T.; Wölfle, S.; Bromley, J. T.; Brook, N. H.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Saxon, D. H.; Sinclair, L. E.; Utley, M. L.; Wilson, A. S.; Dannemann, A.; Holm, U.; Horstmann, D.; Sinkus, R.; Wick, K.; Burow, B. D.; Hagge, L.; Lohrmann, E.; Poelz, G.; Schott, W.; Zetsche, F.; Bacon, T. C.; Brümmer, N.; Butterworth, I.; Harris, V. L.; Howell, G.; Hung, B. H. Y.; Lamberti, L.; Long, K. R.; Miller, D. B.; Pavel, N.; Prinias, A.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Sideris, D.; Whitfield, A. F.; Mallik, U.; Wang, M. Z.; Wang, S. M.; Wu, J. T.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; An, S. H.; Cho, G. H.; Ko, B. J.; Lee, S. B.; Nam, S. W.; Park, H. S.; Park, S. K.; Kartik, S.; Kim, H.-J.; McNeil, R. R.; Metcalf, W.; Nadendla, V. K.; Barreiro, F.; Fernandez, J. P.; Graciani, R.; Hernández, J. M.; Hervás, L.; Labarga, L.; Martinez, M.; Del Peso, J.; Puga, J.; Terron, J.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Corriveau, F.; Hanna, D. S.; Hartmann, J.; Hung, L. W.; Lim, J. N.; Matthews, C. G.; Patel, P. M.; Riveline, M.; Stairs, D. G.; St-Laurent, M.; Ullmann, R.; Zacek, G.; Tsurugai, T.; Bashkirov, V.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Stifutkin, A.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Kobrin, V. D.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Savin, A. A.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Solomin, A. N.; Zotov, N. P.; Botje, M.; Chlebana, F.; Engelen, J.; de Kamps, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kruse, A.; van Sighem, A.; Tiecke, H.; Verkerke, W.; Vossebeld, J.; Vreeswijk, M.; Wiggers, L.; de Wolf, E.; van Woudenberg, R.; Acosta, D.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Gilmore, J.; Li, C.; Ling, T. Y.; Nylander, P.; Park, I. H.; Romanowski, T. A.; Bailey, D. S.; Cashmore, R. J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Harnew, N.; Lancaster, M.; Lindemann, L.; McFall, J. D.; Nath, C.; Noyes, V. A.; Quadt, A.; Tickner, J. R.; Uijterwaal, H.; Walczak, R.; Waters, D. S.; Wilson, F. F.; Yip, T.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Dal Corso, F.; de Giorgi, M.; Dosselli, U.; Limentani, S.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Stanco, L.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Zuin, F.; Bulmahn, J.; Feild, R. G.; Oh, B. Y.; Whitmore, J. J.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Hart, J. C.; McCubbin, N. A.; Shah, T. P.; Barberis, E.; Dubbs, T.; Heusch, C.; van Hook, M.; Lockman, W.; Rahn, J. T.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; Williams, D. C.; Biltzinger, J.; Seifert, R. J.; Schwarzer, O.; Walenta, A. H.

1996-12-01

153

Extrapolating target tracks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steady-state performance of a tracking filter is traditionally evaluated immediately after a track update. However, there is commonly a further delay (e.g., processing and communications latency) before the tracks can actually be used. We analyze the accuracy of extrapolated target tracks for four tracking filters: Kalman filter with the Singer maneuver model and worst-case correlation time, with piecewise constant white acceleration, and with continuous white acceleration, and the reduced state filter proposed by Mookerjee and Reifler.1, 2 Performance evaluation of a tracking filter is significantly simplified by appropriate normalization. For the Kalman filter with the Singer maneuver model, the steady-state RMS error immediately after an update depends on only two dimensionless parameters.3 By assuming a worst case value of target acceleration correlation time, we reduce this to a single parameter without significantly changing the filter performance (within a few percent for air tracking).4 With this simplification, we find for all four filters that the RMS errors for the extrapolated state are functions of only two dimensionless parameters. We provide simple analytic approximations in each case.

Van Zandt, James R.

2012-05-01

154

Mechanical design and finite element analysis of the SDC central calorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When designing scintillating calorimeters for the study of particle interactions resulting from colliding beams, a primary goal is to instrument 100 percent of the available solid angle. In pursuit of this goal the challenge for mechanical designers is to minimize the amount of structural mass and still maintain acceptable engineering standards in the design. Argonne National Laboratory's involvement in the design of a central calorimeter for the SSC started in 1989. Our first proposal was to design a depleted uranium scintillator calorimeter similar to the ZEUS detector presently installed at the HERA electron-proton collider in Hamburg, Germany. Argonne was involved at the time in final assembly of modules for ZEUS that were designed and constructed at ANL. Due to the cost of using depleted uranium, lead was chosen as the absorber material. In collaboration with the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a program was launched to optimize the use of lead or lead alloys in the construction of the calorimeter. A cast lead design for the calorimeter evolved from this effort. Subsequent to this design, further pressure to reduce costs have now dictated a design which contains lead only in the electromagnetic sections of the calorimeter. The finite element analysis we will present here was done using lead for the HAD1 section of the barrel.

Guarino, V.; Hill, N. F.; Nasiatka, J.; Hoecker, D. A.; Hordubay, T. D.; Scherbarth, D. W.; Swensrud, R. L.

1992-03-01

155

Satellite Tracking Threatened Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Patuxent Wildlife Research Center and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center have combined forces to produce this Website on the use of satellite tracking to monitor migration routes of endangered birds. Targeting the general public, the site introduces readers to satellite tracking (using Direct Readout technology), offers animations of bird flight paths (see the section entitled Birdtracks), and gives additional information on birds (in the Bird Data Archives, select a bird and watch its flight path through time). While bird information is limited to several larger species (due to the size/weight of attached transmitters), the resource serves as a useful information base for anyone wishing to learn more about satellite tracking.

156

Sun tracking solar energy collector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parabolic reflector is supported so that it can track the sun. The support for this reflector comprises an azimuth frame supported on two wheels and a central pivotal point which are positioned in a substantially triangular configuration. On top of the azimuth frame, there is provided an elevation frame. The reflector rides on wheels captured within curved rails. The wheels of the azimuth frame are driven by an azimuth actuator. The reflector structure is counterbalanced about its elevation axis by a pendulum cable system which is driven by a motor. At the focal point of the parabolic reflector, a heat engine or receiver is mounted independently on the reflector. Suitable means are provided for moving the reflector about its two axes.

Perkins, G. S. (inventor)

1978-01-01

157

Adaptive Arrays and Tracking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Adaptive arrays and tracking share many concepts mathematical tools, practical issues, and algorithms. For example, ill-conditioning of the sample covariance matrix for adaptive arrays and ill-conditioning of the covariance matrix in a Kalman filter are b...

F. E. Daum

2004-01-01

158

Tracking Sea Otters  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS sea otter researcher Tim Tinker drives the boat on an expedition to track and observe sea otters in Monterey Bay, California. USGS scientists study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from near extinction....

159

Braking - Tracked Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Provides a method of evaluating the brake systems of tracked vehicles. Covers brake holding ability, stopping distance, steering brake performance, wet and freezing effects, braking potential, service brake efficiency, fade and recovery tests, brake syste...

1977-01-01

160

Multiple Target Tracking Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A particular multiple target tracking mission was studied to determine the radar requirements. Several phased array radar configurations are described. A limited scan array is selected as the most cost effective. The phased array radar is compared with a ...

E. M. Brown D. N. Thomson

1974-01-01

161

Image Based Tracking System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Air Force (USAF) provides funding to defense contractors for the development new helmet tracker technology for use in modem war fighters. The USAF is looking to find more methods to independently evaluate the performance of helmet tracke...

V. M. Parisi

2006-01-01

162

9. SLED TRACK. Looking east northeast from sled track terminus ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. SLED TRACK. Looking east northeast from sled track terminus at west end of 20,000-foot track. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

163

Track probability hypothesis density filter for multi-target tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter is a practical alternative to the theoretically optimal multi-target Bayesian filter based on random finite sets (RFS) for multi- target tracking. In this paper, we propose Track PHD (TPHD) filter based on a track state space consisted of target position history and it propagates the multi-target intensity function of track RFS. The new filter

Yan Wang; Huadong Meng; Hao Zhang; Xiqin Wang

2011-01-01

164

Scintillating fiber tracking techniques  

SciTech Connect

The current status of the field of scintillating fiber detection and tracking is briefly reviewed, and avenues for further work are suggested. Attention is given to the core material, cladding material, and extra-mural absorber to be used in the scintillating fibers, as well as to the properties of attenuation length, radiation resistance, and fiber profile. Some examples are given of successful recording of tracks and interactions. Current developments are mentioned in relation to plastic and glass fibers and liquid capillaries. (LEW)

Ruchti, R.

1986-02-01

165

Airship attitude tracking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attitude tracking control problem for an airship with parameter uncertainties and external disturbances was considered\\u000a in this paper. The mathematical model of the airship attitude is a multi-input\\/multi-output uncertain nonlinear system. Based\\u000a on the characteristics of this system, a design method of robust output tracking controllers was adopted based on the upper-bounds\\u000a of the uncertainties. Using the input\\/output feedback

Xiao-liang Wang; Xue-xiong Shan

2006-01-01

166

Science and technology with nuclear tracks in solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fission track dating has greatly expanded its usefulness to geology over the last 40 years. It is central to thermochronology—the use of shortened fission tracks to decipher the thermal history, movement, and provenance of rocks. When combined with other indicators, such as zircon color and (U-Th)\\/He, a range of temperatures from 40 ? Ct o 400?C can be studied. Combining

P. Buford Price

2005-01-01

167

Multiple-target tracking: A role for working memory?  

PubMed

In order to identify the cognitive processes associated with target tracking, a dual-task experiment was carried out in which participants undertook a dynamic multiple-object tracking task first alone and then again, concurrently with one of several secondary tasks, in order to investigate the cognitive processes involved. The research suggests that after designated targets within the visual field have attracted preattentive indexes that point to their locations in space, conscious processes, vulnerable to secondary visual and spatial task interference, form deliberate strategies beneficial to the tracking task, before tracking commences. Target tracking itself is realized by central executive processes, which are sensitive to any other cognitive demands. The findings are discussed in the context of integrating dynamic spatial cognition within a working memory framework. PMID:16885145

Allen, Roy; McGeorge, Peter; Pearson, David G; Milne, Alan

2006-06-01

168

Track quality estimation for multiple-target tracking radars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is developed for estimating track quality for a multiple-target tracking radar, such as an electronically scanned array radar or track-while-scan system. It is assumed that tracking error residuals and error variance estimates are available, as is the case when minimum-variance track filters are used. A normalized distance function is selected as the direct measure of a target's instantaneous

THOMAS W. JEFFREY

1989-01-01

169

A spectral clustering and kalman filtering based objects detection and tracking using stereo vision with linear cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

D scene based objects detection and tracking is a central problem in many intelligent transportation applications. Dynamic stereo vision is the known approach to solve this problem. It consists in detecting and tracking objects from their reconstructed features using stereo images. This paper proposes a new method for detecting and tracking objects using stereo vision with linear cameras. Edge points

Safaa Moqqaddem; Y. Ruichek; R. Touahni; A. Sbihi

2011-01-01

170

Fast-track school construction  

SciTech Connect

Engineers must provide the best mechanical systems that budget and construction time allow. This school construction project not only successfully balanced these concerns but also addressed indoor air quality issues. The 175,000 sq.ft. Westfield Community School in Community Unit School District 300, Kane County, Ill., was built following a fast-track schedule. Construction began in January 1994 and was completed in August 1996. The building steel and the site utilities were bid and under construction approximately two months before the mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and fire protection work. Westfield Community School houses kindergarten through eighth grade classes. It is an elementary school and middle school that share the same offices, cafeteria, library, multipurpose room, and building services. Three alternatives for the mechanical systems were examined in the initial phase of design for cost and operating characteristics. These were: a central boiler and chiller plant with variable air volume (VAV) distribution and perimeter baseboard radiation; a central boiler and chiller plant with four-pipe distribution supplying hot and chilled water to four-pipe classroom unit ventilators; and a packaged VAV rooftop HVAC unit with gas heating and electric cooling.

Berg, B.M. Jr. [Brian Berg and Associates, Ltd., Schaumburg, IL (United States)

1997-07-01

171

Image-Based and Range-Based 3d Modelling of Archaeological Cultural Heritage: the Telamon of the Temple of Olympian ZEUS in Agrigento (italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Temple of Olympian Zeus in Agrigento (Italy) was one of the largest temple and at the same time one of the most original of all the Greek architecture. We don't know exactly how it was because the temple is now almost completely destroyed but it is very well-known for the presence of the Telamons. The Telamons were giant statues (about 8 meters high) probably located outside the temple to fill the interval between the columns. In accordance with the theory most accredited by archaeologists the Telamons were a decorative element and also a support for the structure. However, this hypothesis has never been scientifically proven. One Telamon has been reassembled and is shown at the Archaeological Museum of Agrigento. In 2009 a group of researchers at the University of Palermo has begun a study to test the hypothesis that the Telamons support the weight of the upper part of the temple. The study consists of a 3D survey of the Telamon, to reconstruct a detailed 3D digital model, and of a structural analysis with the Finite Element Method (FEM) to test the possibility that the Telamon could to support the weight of the upper portion of the temple. In this work the authors describe the 3D survey of Telamon carry out with Range-Based Modelling (RBM) and Image-Based Modeling (IBM). The RBM was performed with a TOF laser scanner while the IBM with the ZScan system of Menci Software and Image Master of Topcon. Several tests were conducted to analyze the accuracy of the different 3D models and to evaluate the difference between laser scanning and photogrammetric data. Moreover, an appropriate data reduction to generate a 3D model suitable for FEM analysis was tested.

Lo Brutto, M.; Spera, M. G.

2011-09-01

172

Magnetic Low-Friction Track  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard low-friction tracks used to test Newton's laws are the air track and the low-friction cart track. Both are commercially available and provide low-friction environments to test various physics concepts. At a recent science fair, one of the authors (JG) presented a magnetically levitated cart and track. A literature search found no previous testing of magnetically levitated carts.1 This paper compares a magnetically levitated cart against the two standard low-friction tracks.

Paetkau, Mark; Bahniwal, Manpreet; Gamblen, James

2008-05-01

173

Robust superpixel tracking.  

PubMed

While numerous algorithms have been proposed for object tracking with demonstrated success, it remains a challenging problem for a tracker to handle large appearance change due to factors such as scale, motion, shape deformation, and occlusion. One of the main reasons is the lack of effective image representation schemes to account for appearance variation. Most of the trackers use high-level appearance structure or low-level cues for representing and matching target objects. In this paper, we propose a tracking method from the perspective of midlevel vision with structural information captured in superpixels. We present a discriminative appearance model based on superpixels, thereby facilitating a tracker to distinguish the target and the background with midlevel cues. The tracking task is then formulated by computing a target-background confidence map, and obtaining the best candidate by maximum a posterior estimate. Experimental results demonstrate that our tracker is able to handle heavy occlusion and recover from drifts. In conjunction with online update, the proposed algorithm is shown to perform favorably against existing methods for object tracking. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm facilitates foreground and background segmentation during tracking. PMID:24808336

Fan Yang; Huchuan Lu; Ming-Hsuan Yang

2014-04-01

174

Advances in Tracking Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tracking detectors are of vital importance for most experiments in high-energy and nuclear physics. They are used to determine the charge, momentum, and energy of traversing particles and to allow quark-flavor identification through the reconstruction of secondary vertices. Gaseous and semiconductor detectors are the two main types of tracking detectors; other, more exotic ones are fiber or transition radiation tracking devices. These detectors originated with cloud and bubble chambers in the 1950s and wire chambers in the 1970s, which dominated the field until the 1980s, when silicon sensors were developed. Today, silicon strip and pixel sensors, time-projection chambers, gas electron multipliers, and micromegas define the field. More advanced detector types are described in this review, with an emphasis on application examples and future plans.

Hartmann, Frank; Kaminski, Jochen

2011-11-01

175

Tracks to therapy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of the structure of particle tracks have led to models of track effects based on radial dose and radiobiological target theory that have been very successful in describing and predicting track effects in physical, chemical, and biological systems. For describing mammalian cellular inactivation two inactivation modes are required, called gamma-kill and ion-kill, the first due to synergistic effects of delta rays from adjacent ion paths thus resembling the effects from gamma rays, and the second to the effects of single ion transits through a cell nucleus. The ion-kill effect is more severe, where the fraction of cells experiencing ion kill is responsible for a decrease in the oxygen enhancement ratio, and an increase in relative biological effectiveness, but these are accompanied by loss of repair, hence to a reduction in the efficiency of fractionation in high LET therapy, as shown by our calculations for radiobiological effects in the "spread out Bragg Peak".

Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.

1999-01-01

176

Track brake for railways  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The track brake is intended to limit the speed of rolling motion of a freight car according to the track gradient in a marshalling yard. A retarder installed along a braking rail comprises a number of braking tappets each having a portion which projects above the braking rail in the rest position and each being applied in turn beneath each wheel of the car to be braked. The track brake comprises a motion converter constituted by a series of rockers each pivotally mounted on a pin connected to the braking rail. One portion of each rocker cooperates with a braking tappet and another portion of the rocker cooperates with a piston-rod of a substantially horizontal hydraulic brake cylinder.

1980-04-22

177

NASA: Satellite Tracking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While NASA has offered a number of fine sites about their research for the general public over the years, this particular site may be one of their best. With a minimum of fuss, visitors can use several of the online tracking applications offered here to locate hundreds of satellites and other such large objects in space. A good way to start a visit to this site is by taking a look at the J-Track 2.5 section, as it offers a quick way to find out the current location of the Space Station and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Additionally, visitors can also locate weather satellites using this application. The Live 3D Java Tracking Display here allows visitors to monitor close to 700 satellites that are in motion around the earth. Finally, visitors can also use a handy application offered here that allows them to determine which satellites might be seen from their location in the night sky.

2005-01-01

178

Track recording plastic compositions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved nuclear track recording plastic compositions are provided which exhibit greatly decreased surface roughness when etched to produce visible tracks of energetic nuclear particles which have passed into and/or through said plastic. The improved compositions incorporate a small quantity of a phthalic acid ester into the major plastic component which is derived from the polymerization of monomeric di-ethylene glycol bis allyl carbonate. Di-substituted phthalic acid esters are preferred as the added component, with the further perference that the ester substituent has a chain length of 2 or more carbon atoms. The inclusion of the phthalic acid ester to an extent of from about 1-2% by weight of the plastic compositions is sufficient to drastically reduce the surface roughness ordinarily produced when the track recording plastic is contacted by etchants.

Tarle, Gregory (Inventor)

1983-01-01

179

Simple front tracking  

SciTech Connect

A new and simplified front tracking algorithm has been developed as an aspect of the extension of this algorithm to three dimensions. Here the authors emphasize two main results: (1) a simplified description of the microtopology of the interface, based on interface crossings with cell block edges, and (2) an improved algorithm for the interaction of a tracked contact discontinuity with an untracked shock wave. For the latter question, they focus on the post interaction jump at the contact, which is a purely 1D issue. Comparisons to other methods, including the level set method, are included.

Glimm, J.; Grove, J.W.; Li, X.; Zhao, N.

1999-04-01

180

Multi-track financing.  

PubMed

In today's uncertain economic environment, when seeking to finance a capital project, healthcare borrowers should adopt a multi-tracked funding strategy that permits them to change capital-funding routes quickly in response to changing circumstances. The multi-tracking process requires two stages prior to securing a commitment and beginning the closing process: due diligence and indication of interest. This process should present no material additional cost during these two stages, giving healthcare borrowers the flexibility to explore a variety of financing options. PMID:22616512

Kennedy, Steven W; Randolph, John; Taddey, Anthony J

2012-05-01

181

Spirit Leaves Telling Tracks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientists have found clues about the nature of martian soil through analyzing wheel marks from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit in this image. The image was taken by Spirit's rear hazard-identification camera just after the rover drove approximately 1 meter (3 feet) northwest off the Columbia Memorial Station (lander platform) early Thursday morning. That the wheel tracks are shallow indicates the soil has plenty of strength to support the moving rover. The well-defined track characteristics suggest the presence of very fine particles in the martian soil (along with larger particles). Scientists also think the soil may have some cohesive properties.

2004-01-01

182

Track Reconstruction Performance in CMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expected performance of track reconstruction with LHC events using the CMS silicon tracker is presented. Track finding and fitting is accomplished with Kalman Filter techniques that achieve efficiencies above 99% on single muons with p>1 GeV/c. Difficulties arise in the context of standard LHC events with a high density of charged particles, where the rate of fake combinatorial tracks is very large for low pT tracks, and nuclear interactions in the tracker material reduce the tracking efficiency for charged hadrons. Recent improvements with the CMS track reconstruction now allow to efficiently reconstruct charged tracks with pT down to few hundred MeV/c and as few as three crossed layers, with a very small fake fraction, by making use of an optimal rejection of fake tracks in conjunction with an iterative tracking procedure.

Azzurri, Paolo

2009-12-01

183

GEOS-3 Doppler difference tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Doppler difference method as applied to track the GEOS 3 spacecraft is discussed. In this method a pair of 2 GHz ground tracking stations simultaneously track a spacecraft beacon to generate an observable signal in which bias and instability of the carrier frequency cancel. The baselines are formed by the tracking sites at Bermuda, Rosman, and Merritt Island. Measurements were made to evaluate the effectiveness of the Doppler differencing procedure in tracking a beacon target with the high dynamic rate of the GEOS 3 orbit. Results indicate the precision of the differenced data to be at a level comparable to the conventional precise two way Doppler tracking.

Rosenbaum, B.

1977-01-01

184

TRACKING Trounces Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an adaptation of an article from School Board News, January 6, 2004 edition. The article describes the effort of de-tracking students of varying ability levels, made by officials of South Side High School, in Rockville Centre, New York, and Noble High School, in North Berwick, Maine. Officials from both schools say that the…

Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

2004-01-01

185

Dust Devil Tracks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 8 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 50.0 S and 17.7 W displays dust devil tracks on the surface. Most of the lighter portions of the image likely have a thin veneer of dust settled on the surface. As a dust devil passes over the surface, it acts as a vacuum and picks up the dust, leaving the darker substrate exposed. In this image there is a general trend of many of the tracks running from east to west or west to east, indicating the general wind direction. There is often no general trend present in dust devil tracks seen in other images. The track patterns are quite ephemeral and can completely change or even disappear over the course of a few months. Dust devils are one of the mechanisms that Mars uses to constantly pump dust into the ubiquitously dusty atmosphere. This atmospheric dust is one of the main driving forces of the present Martian climate. The Story Vrrrrooooooooom. Think of a tornado, the cartoon Tasmanian devil, or any number of vacuum commercials that powerfully suck up swirls of dust and dirt. That's pretty much what it's like on the surface of Mars a lot of the time. Whirlpools of wind called

2002-01-01

186

Personal Tracking Charts  

MedlinePLUS

... information MEDicinES for HiV (prezista, truvada, viread, norvir, etc.) HiV-rElaTED MEDicinES (bactrim, zithromax, diflucan, etc.) prEScripTion BirTH conTrol (ethinyl estradiol, etc.) keeping track ...

187

Tracking Sea Turtles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom activity introduces the biology of sea turtles, population status, human impacts. Focuses on Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), smallest and more endangered of sea turtle species. This teacher's guide provides NOAA tracking data and instructions for students to follow the migration routes of six turtles in the Gulf of Mexico. Links to related activities using satellite data.

188

Human tracking behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apart from the complexities of closed-loop behavior, which is somewhat more complicated than the open-loop situations used by most psychologists in their studies of human behavior, tracking behavior is beset with the added complications of mediating responses and stimuli which are important variables intervening between the display and the measured motor response  We appear to be a long way from

Jack A. Adams

1961-01-01

189

Spiral track oven  

SciTech Connect

Final report on development of a continuously operating oven system in which the parts are progressing automatically on a spiral track for in-line service installation for the production of electronic and/or other components to be heat cured or dried.

Drobilisch, Sandor

1998-12-20

190

Tracking the Invisible Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For decades it has been happening everywhere in academe, but nowhere in particular. The sweeping shift toward non-tenure-track academic labor has been one of the most worried-over trends in American higher education. But it has been charted mostly with broad-brush data, which give little indication of the trend's progress at the institutional…

Gravois, John

2006-01-01

191

Tracking Self into Place  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to figure out what it means to educate "ecologically," I decided to track down some of the stories that I was living, telling and making as an educator. I ended up lost in the house of environmental education, stuck within the rooms of ecological science and political advocacy. Outside on the lawn sat the story of place based…

Piersol, Laura

2010-01-01

192

Track Telemetering Propagation Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the telemetry propagation characteristics of the AFMDC test track when operated at L and S-band frequencies, and based on this data, an estimate of the cost of changing to these bands from the present 800 MHz band is presented. The re...

D. B. Davis N. C. MacLeod

1966-01-01

193

Track: Electronic Commerce Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are numerous challenges facing managers of e businesses but key among them is what they should monitor to track whether their organisations are delivering value to their customers. What should managers of eBusinesses measure? And are these measures any different to those that should be adopted by traditional business? This paper reports the results of an empirical study into

Bernard Marr; Andy Neely

194

Multitarget Tracking Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of phase I of an investigation of a new concept for tracking multiple targets. This concept is based on modeling the observed data as a multichannel ARMA process. The parameters of the model provide a compact representatio...

B. Friedlander

1980-01-01

195

Multitarget Tracking Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of Phase II of an investigation of a new concept for tracking multiple targets. This concept is based on parametric modeling of the observed data. The recursive maximum likelihood algorithm was used to estimate the paramet...

B. Friedlander

1981-01-01

196

Wideband multiple target tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new scheme involving autoregressive parameter estimation and pattern classification with maximum likelihood (ML) direction of arrival (DOA) estimation to track multiple targets moving in the far-field. The targets are sources of wideband signals which impinge on a uniform linear array of passive sensors. These wideband signals are modeled as vector autoregressive (AR) models so that the spectral

A. Satish; Ratagasard L. Kashyap

1994-01-01

197

Secure tracking of tablets  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a verification method for tracking and tracing tablets, particularly pharmaceutical tablets. It further relates to a visible secure marking or information that is a part of such tablet (10). The invention further relates to tablets suitable for such verification method, processes for manufacturing such tablets, and methods for reading the information.

2014-05-06

198

RESEARCH TRACKING SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The Research Tracking System provides information on the status of research that is being conducted to support new drinking water standards. Presently, the database contains only M-DBP research. It will be expanded to include research on the contaminant ca...

199

Getting back on Track  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This September saw the start of Back on Track, a pioneering pilot course for young people with mental health problems who would like to return to learning or work. The course is being run in Portsmouth by local further education (FE) colleges, with Highbury College the main provider, in collaboration with Headspace, the Portsmouth City Mental…

Ringland, Pam

2007-01-01

200

Tracking falling objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moving lens follows movement of object accelerated by gravity. Lenses and mirrors maintain constant magnification regardless of distance between moving optical carriage mechanism and fixed telescope. Device tracks objects up to 2 cm in diameter over vertical distance of 2 m.

Frazer, R. E.

1981-01-01

201

Tracking Speech Sound Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a procedure to aid in the clinical appraisal of child speech. The approach, based on the work by Dinnsen, Chin, Elbert, and Powell (1990; Some constraints on functionally disordered phonologies: Phonetic inventories and phonotactics. "Journal of Speech and Hearing Research", 33, 28-37), uses a railway idiom to track gains in…

Powell, Thomas W.

2011-01-01

202

Tracking Polar Bears  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Movements of 9 satellite-collared adult female polar bears were tracked in February, 2010 by satellite telemetry. Bears were collared in 2007, 2008, and 2009 on the spring-time sea ice of the southern Beaufort Sea or on the autumn pack ice in 2009. Polar bear satellite telemetry data are shown with ...

2010-04-13

203

On sonobuoy placement for submarine tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the problem of detecting and tracking an unknown number of submarines in a body of water using a known number of moving sonobuoys. Indeed, we suppose there are N submarines collectively maneuvering as a weakly interacting stochastic dynamical system, where N is a random number, and we need to detect and track these submarines using M moving sonobuoys. These sonobuoys can only detect the superposition of all submarines through corrupted and delayed sonobuoy samples of the noise emitted from the collection of submarines. The signals from the sonobuoys are transmitted to a central base to analyze, where it is required to estimated how many submarines there are as well as their locations, headings, and velocities. The delays induced by the propagation of the submarine noise through the water mean that novel historical filtering methods need to be developed. We summarize these developments within and give initial results on a simplified example.

Kouritzin, Michael A.; Ballantyne, David J.; Kim, Hyukjoon; Hu, Yaozhong

2005-05-01

204

Tracking Virtual Trajectories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current models of smooth pursuit eye movements assume that it is largely driven by retinal image motion. We tested this hypothesis by measuring pursuit of elliptical motion (3.2s, 0.9 Hz, 1.4 deg x 1.6 deg, 4 randomly interleaved phases) of either a small spot ("real" motion) or of a line-figure diamond viewed through apertures such that only the motion of four isolated oblique line segments was visible ("virtual" motion). Each segment moved sinusoidally along a linear trajectory yet subjects perceived a diamond moving along an elliptical path behind the aperture. We found, as expected, that real motion produced accurate tracking (N = 2) with mean gain (over horizontal and vertical) of 0.9, mean phase of -6 deg (lag), mean relative phase (H vs V) of 90 +/- 8 deg (RMS error). Virtual motion behind an X-shaped aperture (N= 4 with one naive) yielded a mean gain of 0.7, mean phase of -11 deg, mean relative phase of 87 +/- 15 deg. We also measured pursuit with the X-shaped aperture using a higher segment luminance which prevents the segments from being grouped into a coherently moving diamond while keeping the motion otherwise identical. In this incoherent case, the same four subjects no longer showed consistent elliptical tracking (RMS error in relative phase rose to 60 deg) suggesting that perceptual coherence is critical. Furthermore, to rule out tracking of the centroid, we also used vertical apertures so that all segment motion was vertical (N = 3). This stimulus still produced elliptical tracking (mean relative phase of 84 +/- 19 deg), albeit with a lower gain (0.6). These data show that humans can track moving objects reasonably accurately even when the trajectory can only be derived by spatial integration of motion signals. Models that merely seek to minimize retinal or local stimulus motion cannot explain these results.

Stone, Leland S.; Beutter, Brent R.; Lorenceau, Jean D.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

205

Tracking Tyrannosaurus: Notes on Purported T. rex Tracks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purported T. rex tracks (genus Tyrannosaurus) are rare and, if poorly preserved, difficult to identify or to distinguish with certainty from the tracks of hadrosaurs found in the same deposits. Six possible Tyrannosaurus tracks have been reported, five of which appear to be the right age, that is, Maastrichtian. However, at least two, including one that is pre-Maastrichtian, are interpreted

Martin Lockley; Paul R. Janke; Mike Triebold

2011-01-01

206

31. "FIGURE 310, TRACK LAYOUT (EDWARDS)". Test track footing and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. "FIGURE 3-10, TRACK LAYOUT (EDWARDS)". Test track footing and rail head cross sections. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

207

Sensitivity of Typhoon Track Predictions in a Regional Prediction System to Initial and Lateral Boundary Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tropical cyclone (TC) track predictions from the operational regional nonhydrostatic TC forecast system of the Taiwanese Central Weather Bureau (CWB) are examined for their sensitivities to initial and lateral boundary conditions. Five experiments are des...

D. Chen K. Huang L. Hsiao M. S. Peng T. Yeh

2009-01-01

208

Bring It Home: Animal Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners create handmade animal track stamps. Learners research animal tracks, draw the shapes on moleskin, and then stick the shapes onto blocks of wood to make stamps. Learners use the stamp prints to tell a story of an animal adventure, just how the Native Americans interpreted animal tracks in nature to better understand nature and life. This activity guide includes resources for learning more about animal tracks.

Museum, Chicago C.

2012-03-04

209

Blog track research at TREC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC Blog track aims to explore information seeking behaviour in the blogosphere, by building reusable test collections for blog-related search tasks. Since, its advent in TREC 2006, the Blog track has led to much research in this growing field, and encapsulated cross-pollination from natural language processing research. This paper recaps on the tasks addressed at the TREC Blog track

Craig Macdonald; Rodrygo L. T. Santos; Iadh Ounis; Ian Soboroff

2010-01-01

210

Sun tracking solar energy boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sun tracking solar energy boiler is described comprising, in combination, a solar radiation collector and tracking assembly, a boiler assembly, and an electric power generating assembly, said collector and tracking assembly comprising a lens, a hollow crown plate located approximately at the focal point of the lens, said lens being movable by a diurnal drive means and a declination

1980-01-01

211

The Mystery of Animal Tracking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple animal track guide is given to help students and teachers recognize some of the common animal tracks found in many parts of the country. The tracks are divided into 3 basic categories: 1) flatfoots, 2) toe-walkers, and 3) toe-nail walkers. (NQ)

Communicator, 1975

1975-01-01

212

GEOS-3 Doppler Difference Tracking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Doppler difference method as applied to track the GEOS 3 spacecraft is discussed. In this method a pair of 2 GHz ground tracking stations simultaneously track a spacecraft beacon to generate an observable signal in which bias and instability of the ca...

B. Rosenbaum

1977-01-01

213

Trajectory Planning of Tracked Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The motions of planar tracked vehicles are governed by three force and moment equations. The force equation perpendicular to the tracks represents a dynamic nonholonomic constraint which is explicitly dependent on vehicle speed. It couples path planning with trajectory planning. The nominal track forces required to follow a specified data at desired speeds are determined. The problem is reduced to

Zvi Shiller; William Serate; Minh Hua

1993-01-01

214

Online tracking of mobile users  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the problem of maintaining a distributed directory server, that enables us to keep track of mobile users in a distributed network. The paper introduces the graph-theoretic concept of regional matching, and demonstrates how finding a regional matching with certain parameters enables efficient tracking. The communication overhead of our tracking mechanism is within a polylogarithmic factor of

Baruch Awerbuch; David Peleg

1995-01-01

215

Spark chamber track finding program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spark-chamber track-finding program has been written. The accuracy of the location of the track is good, and if the chamber contains many spurious sparks the computation time is much less than the time used by a least-squares fit routine. Multiple tracks can be found and interaction vertices can thereby be determined.

Arens, J. F.

1974-01-01

216

7. View looking E from top of viaduct at tracks ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. View looking E from top of viaduct at tracks leading to the freight warehouses and sidings in the Dooley Yards. - Central of Georgia Railway, 1860 Brick Arch Viaduct, Spanning West Boundary Street & Savannah-Ogeechee Canal, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

217

Optimization Problems in Multisensor and Multitarget Target Tracking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The central problem in any surveillance system is the data association problem of partitioning observations into tracks and false alarms. Over the last fifteen years and with support from AFOSR, a new approach has been developed based on the use of multi-...

A. B. Poore

2004-01-01

218

Performance Measurement of the Upgraded D0 Central Track Trigger.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DO experiment was upgraded in spring 2006 to harvest the full physics potential of the Tevatron accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois, USA. It is expected that the peak luminosity delivered by the accelerator will inc...

R. K. Mommsen

2007-01-01

219

Displacement thresholds in central and peripheral vision during tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of stimulus duration and angular velocity on a subject's judgment of displacement threshold are examined. Twenty-six male subjects between 17-45 years with uncorrected 20:20 distance acuity and normal color perception and stereopsis studied a series of forced choice, paired comparison trials in which a long, thin, collimated horizontally oriented line moved downward through 12 angles ranging from 0.6-60 arcmin and judged which stimulus moved in each pair. The displacements were produced by 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 sec stimulus duration and 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 deg/sec angular rates. Stimulus velocity, stimulus duration, mean threshold displacement, and mean confidence results are analyzed. It is observed that displacement judgment accuracy is increased with increasing stimulus duration. The data are compared with the results of Johnson and Leibowitz (1976) and Johnson and Scobey (1982), and good correlation with the Johnson and Leibowitz data is detected. The data reveal that threshold is based on a constant stimulus velocity over this range of durations and velocities. The data are applicable to the study of the final approach to landing of medium and large commercial jet aircraft.

Haines, R. F.

1986-01-01

220

On particle track detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aqueous sodium hydroxide is widely used to develop charged particle tracks in polycarbonate film, particularly Lexan. The chemical nature of the etching process for this system has been determined. A method employing ultra-violet absorbance was developed for monitoring the concentration of the etch products in solution. Using this method it was possible to study the formation of the etching solution saturated in etch products. It was found that the system super-saturates to a significant extent before precipitation occurs. It was also learned that the system approaches its equilibrium state rather slowly. It is felt that both these phenomena may be due to the presence of surfactant in the solution. In light of these findings, suggestions are given regarding the preparation and maintenance of the saturated etch solution. Two additional research projects, involving automated techniques for particle track analysis and particle identification using AgCl crystals, are briefly summarized.

Benton, E. V.; Gruhn, T. A.; Andrus, C. H.

1973-01-01

221

Marine Animal Tracking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the ideas and implications of animal tracking, which is useful within scientific and commercial industries. For instance, when planning coastal area development, it is important to take into consideration animal presence and movement. Students are engaged in an activity to monitor animal foraging behavior on a spatial scale by working in groups to track each others' movements as they travel a pre-determined course. They record their results individually and collaboratively in an attempt to understand animal movement regarding foraging behavior. Students also engage in a creative design activity, focusing on how they would design a tag for a marine animal of their choice. To conclude, students are questioned about data interpretation and how spatial information is important in relation to commercial, conservation and scientific research decisions.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program

222

Motion Tracking System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated Sensors, Inc. (ISI), under NASA contract, developed a sensor system for controlling robot vehicles. This technology would enable a robot supply vehicle to automatically dock with Earth-orbiting satellites or the International Space Station. During the docking phase the ISI-developed sensor must sense the satellite's relative motion, then spin so the robot vehicle can adjust its motion to align with the satellite and slowly close until docking is completed. ISI used the sensing/tracking technology as the basis of its OPAD system, which simultaneously tracks an object's movement in six degrees of freedom. Applications include human limb motion analysis, assembly line position analysis and auto crash dummy motion analysis. The NASA technology is also the basis for Motion Analysis Workstation software, a package to simplify the video motion analysis process.

1994-01-01

223

Tracking change over time  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landsat satellites capture images of Earth from space-and have since 1972! These images provide a long-term record of natural and human-induced changes on the global landscape. Comparing images from multiple years reveals slow and subtle changes as well as rapid and devastating ones. Landsat images are available over the Internet at no charge. Using the free software MultiSpec, students can track changes to the landscape over time-just like remote sensing scientists do! The objective of the Tracking Change Over Time lesson plan is to get students excited about studying the changing Earth. Intended for students in grades 5-8, the lesson plan is flexible and may be used as a student self-guided tutorial or as a teacher-led class lesson. Enhance students' learning of geography, map reading, earth science, and problem solving by seeing landscape changes from space.

U.S. Geological Survey

2011-01-01

224

Tracking Online Trails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traceability is a key to the investigation of the internet criminal and a cornerstone of internet research. It is impossible to prevent all internet misuse but may be possible to identify and trace the users, and then take appropriate action. This paper presents the value of traceability within the email/-newsposting utilities, the technologies being using to hide identities, the difficulties in locating the traceable data and the challenges in tracking online trails.

Qi, Man; Edgar-Nevill, Denis; Wang, Yongquan; Xu, Rongsheng

225

Constraining Human Body Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our paper addresses the problem of enforcing constraints in human body tracking. A projection technique is derived to impose kinematic constraints on independent multi-body motion: we show that for small motions the multi-body ar- ticulated motion space can be approximated by a linear manifold estimated directly from the previous body pose. We propose a learning approach to model non-linear con-

David Demirdjian; Teresa Ko; Trevor Darrell

2003-01-01

226

49 CFR 213.63 - Track surface.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.63 Track surface. Each owner of the track to which this part applies shall maintain the surface of its...

2010-10-01

227

49 CFR 213.63 - Track surface.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.63 Track surface. Each owner of the track to which this part applies shall maintain the surface of its...

2009-10-01

228

Respiration tracking in radiosurgery  

SciTech Connect

Respiratory motion is difficult to compensate for with conventional radiotherapy systems. An accurate tracking method for following the motion of the tumor is of considerable clinical relevance. We investigate methods to compensate for respiratory motion using robotic radiosurgery. In this system the therapeutic beam is moved by a robotic arm, and follows the moving target through a combination of infrared tracking and synchronized x-ray imaging. Infrared emitters are used to record the motion of the patient's skin surface. The position of internal gold fiducials is computed repeatedly during treatment, via x-ray image processing. We correlate the motion between external and internal markers. From this correlation model we infer the placement of the internal target during time intervals where no x-ray images are taken. Fifteen patients with lung tumors have recently been treated with a fully integrated system implementing this new method. The clinical trials confirm our hypothesis that internal motion and external motion are indeed correlated. In a preliminar study we have extended our work to tracking without implanted fiducials, based on algorithms for computing deformation motions and digitally reconstructed radiographs.

Schweikard, Achim; Shiomi, Hiroya; Adler, John [Informatik, Universitaet Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Division of Multidisciplinary Radiotherapy, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Neurosurgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2004-10-01

229

@central park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Central Park Conservancy, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to restoring, improving, and managing Central Park's grounds and facilities, offers this "official" site, which contains a wealth of information about what is arguably the world's most famous city park. Each of the site's sections contains useful or interesting information; the Then & Now section, for instance, offers an overview of Central Park's history, a bibliography with 43 entries for those seeking further information, and a list of movies with scenes set in the park. Another highlight of the site is the Virtual Park, which consists of a set of clickable maps through which users can explore 72 points of interest, each described in the affectionate style of a travel guidebook. The site's other sections include such features as events schedules, press releases, information on when and where particular varieties of flowers bloom, and a section devoted entirely to activities for families and children. This site will be especially useful to those who are planning a visit to Central Park, but other users will likely find it informative and entertaining as well.

230

Halloween Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Halloween is coming up, and this site will help readers prepare for an evening of ghouls, goblins, and other nasties. Halloween Central is a fairly extensive metasite with links to a wide variety of Halloween resources, including costumes, clip art, recipes, haunted houses, Halloween safety, and pumpkins, among many others.

231

Feature-aided tracking (FAT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Association of observations and tracks is a fundamental component of most solutions to the tracking problem. Association is frequently formulated as a multiple hypothesis test. Typically, the test statistic, called the track score, is the likelihood or likelihood ratio of the observations conditioned upon the association hypotheses. Assuming that the test is reasonably efficient, further reduction in the association error probability necessitates the introduction of additional information into the track score. This additional information is embodied in quantities called track features which are to be included in the track score. In practice, the necessary conditional probabilities of the track features are unknown. The class of non-parametric hypothesis tests is designed to provide such a test in the absence of any probabilistic information about the data. However, the test statistics used in non-parametric tests cannot be used directly in the track score. The one probabilistic quantity generally available with non-parametric tests is the Type I error probability, the probability of failing to accept a true hypothesis. If the non-parametric test is distribution free then the Type I error probability is independent of the distribution of the track features. This paper presents a distribution free, non-parametric test of the track features that can be used to test the association hypotheses and a quantity that can be included in the track score is derived from the Type I error probability of the test.

Singer, Paul F.; Coursey, Amanda L.

2004-08-01

232

Combined 40Ar/39Ar and Fission-Track study of the Freetown Layered Igneous Complex, Freetown, Sierra Leone, West Africa: Implications for the Initial Break-up of Pangea to form the Central Atlantic Ocean and Insight into the Post-rift Evolution of the Sie  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sierra Leone lies within the south-western part of the West African Craton and comprises two major Archaean structural divisions: a low-grade granite-greenstone terrane characterised by N-S striking structures and a NW-SE striking highly metamorphosed belt of strained rocks that form the coastal margin of the craton. Intruded into the belt is the Freetown Layered Igneous Complex (FLIC), a tholeiitic magamtic body emplaced prior to or during the break-up of Pangea to form the Central Atlantic Ocean and, forming today the high ground of the coastal outline of Sierra Leone which is one of the most distinctive features on the West African coast. The break-up of Pangaea to form the Central Atlantic and its passive margins began in the Early Jurassic. Geo-tectonically, the break-up was particularly characterised by the formation of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), covering once-contiguous parts of North America, Europe, Africa and South America. The FLIC forming part of the heart of CAMP is the largest single layered igneous intrusive yet known on either side of the Central Atlantic, measuring on surface, 65 x 14 x 7 km. Geophysical investigations indicate that the intrusion extends offshore to a depth of about 20 km. Geologically the Complex is a rhythmically layered elongated ultramafic-mafic lopolith divisible into 4 major zones each comprising repeated sequences of troctolitic, gabbroic and anorthositic rocks. An idealised unit of layering is from base upwards: dunite, troctolite, olivine-gabbro, leuco-gabbro, gabbro-norite and anorthosite cumulates. 40Ar-39Ar age spectra and 40Ar/36Ar versus 39Ar/36Ar isochron plots obtained by stepwise-heating experiments on plagioclases, biotites and amphiboles from troctolites, olivine-gabbros, gabbro-norites and anorthosites of the four zones yield plateau and isochron ages that seem to depict the cooling history of the Complex after emplacement. The biotites and some of the plagioclases and amphiboles give very good plateaus that range from 196.3 ± 3 Ma to 232.1 ± 9 Ma with the best-fit isochron plots showing a range from 193.3± 10 Ma to 234.1 ± 11 Ma. Because these dates represent cooling ages, we interpret them as representing a minimum intrusion-age of the Complex implying that its true emplacement age might be somewhat older than 230 Ma. Given that most established CAMP ages revolve around 200 Ma or younger, we hypothesise that FLIC represents a hitherto unknown pre-CAMP magmatic event that might have thermally triggered the initial break-up of Pangaea to form the Central Atlantic. This view is consistent with field-observations that the Complex is cross-cut by predominantly coast-parallel mafic dykes attributed to the CAMP dyke-swarm. To ascertain the hypothesis, we are currently carrying out U-Pb zircon dating to establish, precisely, the true emplacement age of the Complex. The Fission-track ages vary from 91.7 ± 7 Ma to 114.6 ± 9 Ma. This age range shows that after emplacement and crystallisation, the FLIC underwent an extremely slow cooling for a long period of time. This in turn implies that after the break-up of Pangea to form, in part, the Sierra Leone margin, a late and slow uplift (Erosion/denudation) that took place during the Cretaceous was a very important geological process that characterised the post-rift evolution of the margin. References: Barrie, I.J., P.A.M. Andriessen, F.F. Beunk, J.R. Wijbrans, V.E.H. Strasser-King, D.V.A.Fode. (2006). Tectonothermal Evolution of the Sierra Leone Passive Continental Margin, West Africa: Constraints from Thermochronology. Geochemica et Cosmochemica Acta 70 (18): A36- A36 Suppl. S Aug-Sep 2006. Marzoli, A., P.R. Renne, E.M. Piccirillo, M. Ernesto, G. Bellieni, A De Min. (1999). Extensive 200-Million-Year-Old Continental Flood Basalts of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. Science284: 616-618. McHone, J.G. (2000). Non-plume magmatism and rifting during the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. Tectonophysics, 316: 287-296. Umeji, A.C. (1983). Geochemistry and Mineralogy of the Freetown Layered Basic Igne

Barrie, Ibrahim; Wijbrans, Jan; Andriessen, Paul; Beunk, Frank; Strasser-King, Victor; Fode, Daniel

2010-05-01

233

Rod centralizer  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a well tool. It includes a pump rod and a centralizer having a single piece cylindrical body rigidly mounted on the rod, an upper pair of ribs integral with an upper portion of the body and extending outwardly therefrom in opposite directions, and a lower pair of ribs integral with a lower portion of the body and extending outwardly therefrom in opposite directions. The lower pair of ribs being displaced on the body from the upper pair of ribs ninety degrees about the central longitudinal axis of the rod, the body having a circumferential intermediate portion integral with the upper and lower portions between the top ends of the lower ribs and the bottom ends of the upper pair of ribs, the intermediate portion of the body being of lower mechanical strength than the portions thereof provided with the ribs.

Sable, D.E.

1991-03-05

234

Central Africa  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Begun in 1996, the International Crisis Group's (ICG) Central Africa Project analyzes political and ethnic conflict within and between the nations that straddle mid-Africa, including the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Burundi, Angola, Uganda, and Rwanda. As part of that effort ICG has released over twelve full text reports in the last year (a few in French only). The two most recent in-depth reports are: "Africa's Seven-Nation War," which examines how the armies of seven African nations have been drawn into the rebellion against DRC President Laurent Dsir Kabila; and "How Kabila Lost His Way," which traces the foundation of the Kabila regime and seeks to discover why it has engendered both internal and external opposition. Well-researched and fully footnoted, yet written with a non-specialist audience in mind, these reports are a good resource for both students and general readers with an interest in the current situation in Central Africa.

1996-01-01

235

PE Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virginia Polytechnic Institute Health and Physical Education Program developed this site, a clearinghouse of information about K-12 physical education and health. An extensive list of lesson plans and assessment ideas, arranged topically and by grade level, is the focal point of this site; the Classroom Teacher Lesson Ideas uses PE "across the curriculum" to help students learn concepts in other subjects. PE Central provides information for PE professionals on relevant journals, job announcements, and equipment purchases, among other topics.

1996-01-01

236

Splitting Tracking through Crossing Fibers: Multidirectional Q-Ball Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new tracking algorithm based on the full multidirectional information of the diffusion orientation distribution function (ODF) estimated from Q-ball imaging (QBI). From the ODF, we extract all available maxima and then extend streamline (STR) tracking to allow for splitting in multiple directions (SPLIT-STR). Our new algorithm SPLIT-STR overcomes important limitations of classical diffusion tensor streamline tracking in

Rachid Deriche; Maxime Descoteaux

2007-01-01

237

On the fast track.  

PubMed

Future nursing programs will be flexible, meeting the learning needs of diverse student populations. Feldman and Jordet describe an accelerated BSN track for nonnurse college graduates that meets that objective. In 3 years of experience with the program, the authors found these adult learners to form cohesive student cohorts and to produce strong graduates. In spite of the highly compressed 1-year program of studies, the project is deemed a success; a high dropout rate is more than compensated for by the high grade point average and the 100/N-CLEX examination pass by graduates. An extraordinary number of graduates intend to pursue graduate study. PMID:2601893

Feldman, H; Jordet, C

1989-11-01

238

Honeypots: Tracking Hackers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Honeypots are a relatively new technology in computer security. They are formally defined as "an information system resource whose value lies in unauthorized or illicit use of that resource." This is an intentionally broad definition, as honeypots can detect network intrusions, track online credit card fraud, and do almost everything in between. A good collection of research papers and technical articles dealing with honeypots can be found at this site. The papers come from some of the pioneers of the technology as well as authors who proposed more recent innovations like honeytokens.

239

Playing Fraction Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive game, similar to "Fraction Game" (catalogued separately) allows two students an opportunity to think about how fractions are related to a unit whole, compare fractional parts of a whole, and find equivalent fractions. Two players move markers a total distance (forwards and backwards directions) that equals the random target fraction box, along their choice of seven parallel number line tracks, which are divided into different fractional parts. The goal is to move each of the seven markers to the right side of the game board before your opponent does. Instructions and discussion questions are given.

2011-01-01

240

Automatic data-quality monitoring for continuous GPS tracking stations in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taiwan has more than 300 Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking stations maintained by the Ministry of the Interior (MOI), Academia Sinica, the Central Weather Bureau and the Central Geological Survey. In the future, GPS tracking stations may replace the GPS control points after being given a legal status. Hence, the data quality of the tracking stations is an increasingly significant factor. This study considers the feasibility of establishing a system for monitoring GPS receivers. This investigation employs many data-quality indices and examines the relationship of these indices and the positioning precision. The frequency stability of the GPS receiver is the most important index; the cycle slip is the second index and the multipath is the third index. An auto-analytical system for analysing GPS data quality and monitoring the MOI's tracking stations can quickly find and resolve problems, or changes in station environment, to maintain high data quality for the tracking stations.

Yeh, T. K.; Wang, C. S.; Chao, B. F.; Chen, C. S.; Lee, C. W.

2007-10-01

241

Automated call tracking systems  

SciTech Connect

User Services groups are on the front line with user support. We are the first to hear about problems. The speed, accuracy, and intelligence with which we respond determines the user`s perception of our effectiveness and our commitment to quality and service. To keep pace with the complex changes at our sites, we must have tools to help build a knowledge base of solutions, a history base of our users, and a record of every problem encountered. Recently, I completed a survey of twenty sites similar to the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC). This informal survey reveals that 27% of the sites use a paper system to log calls, 60% employ homegrown automated call tracking systems, and 13% use a vendor-supplied system. Fifty-four percent of those using homegrown systems are exploring the merits of switching to a vendor-supplied system. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines for evaluating a call tracking system. In addition, insights are provided to assist User Services groups in selecting a system that fits their needs.

Hardesty, C.

1993-03-01

242

Cassini Archive Tracking System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cassini Archive Tracking System (CATS) is a computer program that enables tracking of scientific data transfers from originators to the Planetary Data System (PDS) archives. Without CATS, there is no systematic means of locating products in the archive process or ensuring their completeness. By keeping a database of transfer communications and status, CATS enables the Cassini Project and the PDS to efficiently and accurately report on archive status. More importantly, problem areas are easily identified through customized reports that can be generated on the fly from any Web-enabled computer. A Web-browser interface and clearly defined authorization scheme provide safe distributed access to the system, where users can perform functions such as create customized reports, record a transfer, and respond to a transfer. CATS ensures that Cassini provides complete science archives to the PDS on schedule and that those archives are available to the science community by the PDS. The three-tier architecture is loosely coupled and designed for simple adaptation to multimission use. Written in the Java programming language, it is portable and can be run on any Java-enabled Web server.

Conner, Diane; Sayfi, Elias; Tinio, Adrian

2006-01-01

243

REC Tracking Systems Design Guide  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 The Design Guide is presented in three parts. Section II describes the need for REC tracking, the two principal tracking methods available, and, in simple terms, the operation of certificate-based systems. Section III presents the major issues in the design of certificate-based tracking systems and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of alternative solutions. Finally, Section IV offers design principles or recommendations for most of these issues.

Meredith Wingate

2004-02-03

244

CAMERA OBJECT TRACKING FAST ALGORITHM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses camera real-time object tracking problems. Here we present one camera object tracking solution based on block-matching technique. In our solution object is marked in the first frame, and afterwards its movement is tracked using the block-matching technique in limited area of the picture. The size of limited area depends on predicted object movement between two frames. We

Nikola Teslic; Vladimir Radenkovic; Snezana Crnogorac

245

Micromagnetic simulations of discrete track media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discrete track media were simulated and compared with conventional, continuous media. The optimum write pole width was determined for discrete track media with 60 nm land/30 nm grooves, subject to the condition that there be no adjacent track erasure. Under optimal conditions discrete track media outperformed continuous media in terms of both on-track and off-track SNR. The performance difference became greater at higher linear densities, demonstrating the potential of discrete track media.

Greaves, S. J.; Kanai, Y.; Muraoka, H.

2006-08-01

246

Numerical methods for tracking interfaces  

SciTech Connect

An overview is given of special numerical methods for tracking discontinuous fronts and interfaces. These methods include: surface tracking methods based on connected marker points along the interface, volume-tracking methods that track the volume occupied by the solution regions bounded by the interfaces, and moving mesh methods where the underlying mesh is aligned and moved with the interface. The pros and cons of the current methods are discussed, and a new method is proposed that overcomes some of the difficulties encountered in approximating equations with multiply interacting interfaces.

Hyman, J.M.

1983-01-01

247

Sonnet Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by a dedicated sonnet aficionado, Sonnet Central is not intended for the scholar, per se, but for the reader, the Internaut with a weakness for poetry. The site contains a collection of English-language sonnets, grouped by period and region or by author, and modernized for contemporary readers. Pictures, contemporaneous critical works, a bibliography, and audio files of readings of selected poems complement the sonnets, some of which are maintained off-site (many at the University of Toronto). From Shakespeare to Wilfred Owen, selections from many well-known sonneteers are here alongside those of their less famous contemporaries.

248

Measurement-to-track assignment methods in target tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object tracking is a problem of obtaining usually positional and motional information about the object. The observation is usually in the form of a picture, radar or sonar image. A key element of the tracking problem is to estimate a (non-measurable) state of a stochastic system based on corrupted measurements. This problem is well treated in literature. If the objective

Vaclav Boucek; Miroslav Simandl; Ondrej Straka

2011-01-01

249

Tracking El Nino  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The latest installment of PBS' NOVA Online discusses El Nino, the second strongest influence on global weather. Four main areas allow users to discover what makes El Nino so interesting. Written by Mark Hoover, Dispatches follows the day-to-day effect of El Nino. Satellite images enhance the textual descriptions. Visitors can learn about the science of El Nino in Anatomy of El Nino. El Nino Now provides real time effects of El Nino. Four different presentations will provide information on storm tracking, the weather and the jetstream, mapping, and advance warnings. The current El Nino's Reach allows users to read and see the world wide effects of El Nino. Visitors can select from over twenty countries or areas worldwide. Upcoming Reaches includes a timeline of El Nino's effects and their influence on living things.

250

Tracking the Coriolis Force  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tracking the Coriolis Force uses the Tracker video analysis tool to model the motion of a ball rolling with constant velocity on a rotating merry-go-round. Video includes the motion of the ball as viewed from the rotating reference frame of the merry-go-round. Using the Coriolis force equation, students build a model of the motion. The zip file contains the activity handout, video and Tracker file. The video comes from YouTube and can be found at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LAX3ALdienQ. A talk about this activity from the AAPT Winter Meeting 2013 can be found at http://tinyurl.com/trackerCoriolis. To open the Tracker file, download and run Tracker from http://www.cabrillo.edu/~dbrown/tracker/. Tracker is free.

Cox, Anne

2012-06-16

251

Video Image Tracking Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and system for processing an image including capturing an image and storing the image as image pixel data. Each image pixel datum is stored in a respective memory location having a corresponding address. Threshold pixel data is selected from the image pixel data and linear spot segments are identified from the threshold pixel data selected.. Ihe positions of only a first pixel and a last pixel for each linear segment are saved. Movement of one or more objects are tracked by comparing the positions of fust and last pixels of a linear segment present in the captured image with respective first and last pixel positions in subsequent captured images. Alternatively, additional data for each linear data segment is saved such as sum of pixels and the weighted sum of pixels i.e., each threshold pixel value is multiplied by that pixel's x-location).

Howard, Richard T. (Inventor); Bryan, ThomasC. (Inventor); Book, Michael L. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

252

Microencapsulated cell tracking  

PubMed Central

Microencapsulation of therapeutic cells has been widely pursued to achieve cellular immunoprotection following transplantation. Initial clinical studies have shown the potential of microencapsulation using semi-permeable alginate layers, but much needs to be learned about the optimal delivery route, in vivo pattern of engraftment, and microcapsule stability over time. In parallel with noninvasive imaging techniques for ‘naked’ (i.e. unencapsulated) cell tracking, microcapsules have now been endowed with contrast agents that can be visualized by 1H MRI, 19F MRI, X-ray/computed tomography and ultrasound imaging. By placing the contrast agent formulation in the extracellular space of the hydrogel, large amounts of contrast agents can be incorporated with negligible toxicity. This has led to a new generation of imaging biomaterials that can render cells visible with multiple imaging modalities.

Arifin, Dian R.; Kedziorek, Dorota A.; Fu, Yingli; Chan, Kannie W. Y.; McMahon, Michael T.; Weiss, Clifford R.; Kraitchman, Dara L.; Bulte, Jeff W. M.

2013-01-01

253

Feature tracking and aging  

PubMed Central

There are conflicting results regarding the effect of aging on second-order motion processing (i.e., motion defined by attributes other than luminance, such as contrast). Two studies (Habak and Faubert, 2000; Tang and Zhou, 2009) found that second-order motion processing was more vulnerable to aging than first-order motion processing. Conversely, Billino et al. (2011) recently found that aging affected first- and second-order motion processing by similar proportions. These three studies used contrast-defined motion as a second-order stimulus, but there can be at least two potential issues when using such a stimulus to evaluate age-related sensitivity losses. First, it has been shown that the motion system processing contrast-defined motion varies depending on the stimulus parameters. Thus, although all these three studies assumed that their contrast-defined motion was processed by a low-level second-order motion system, this was not necessarily the case. The second potential issue is that contrast-defined motion consists in a contrast modulation of a texture rich in high spatial frequencies and aging mainly affects contrast sensitivity at high spatial frequencies. Consequently, some age-related sensitivity loss to second-order motion could be due to a lower sensitivity to the texture rather than to motion processing per se. To avoid these two potential issues, we used a second-order motion stimulus void of high spatial frequencies and which has been shown to be processed by a high-level feature tracking motion system, namely fractal rotation (Lagacé-Nadon et al., 2009). We found an age-related deficit on second-order motion processing at all temporal frequencies including the ones for which no age-related effect on first-order motion processing was observed. We conclude that aging affects the ability to track features. Previous age-related results on second-order and global motion processing are discussed in light of these findings.

Allard, Remy; Lagace-Nadon, Sarah; Faubert, Jocelyn

2013-01-01

254

Making Sense of Dinosaur Tracks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What do paleontologists, dinosaur tracks, and the nature of science have in common? They're combined here in an inquiry activity where students use methods of observation and inference to devise evidence-based explanations for the data they collect about dinosaur tracks, much like the methods used by paleontologists. Students then debate the…

MacKenzie, Ann Haley; McDowell, Brian

2012-01-01

255

Guidewire tracking during endovascular neurosurgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new method for guidewire tracking on fluoroscopic images from endovascular brain intervention. The combination of algorithms chosen can be implemented in real time, so that it can be used in an augmented reality 3D representation to assist physicians performing these interventions. A ribbon-like morphing process combined with a minimal path optimization algorithm is used to track

Simon Lessard; Caroline Lau; Ramnada Chav; Gilles Soulez; Daniel Roy; Jacques A. de Guise

2010-01-01

256

Airborne ballistic camera tracking systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An operational airborne ballistic camera tracking system was tested for operational and data reduction feasibility. The acquisition and data processing requirements of the system are discussed. Suggestions for future improvements are also noted. A description of the data reduction mathematics is outlined. Results from a successful reentry test mission are tabulated. The test mission indicated that airborne ballistic camera tracking systems are feasible.

Redish, W. L.

1976-01-01

257

Online multiple support instance tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an online tracking algorithm in which the support instances are selected adaptively within the multiple instance learning framework. The support instances are selected from training 1-norm support vector machines in a feature space, thereby learning large margin classifiers for visual tracking. An algorithm is presented to update the support instances by taking image data obtained previously and recently

Qiu-Hong Zhou; Huchuan Lu; Ming-Hsuan Yang

2011-01-01

258

Track Quality Indicator with Hysteresis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A first object of the present invention is providing a method for indicating the quality of tracks in a passive sonar system. Another object of the invention is providing such a method that is not overly sensitive to track status changes. Accordingly, the...

W. R. Lane

2002-01-01

259

Retention Tracking Using Institutional Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter presents a sophisticated approach for tracking student cohorts from entry through departure within an institution. It describes how a researcher can create a student tracking model to perform longitudinal research on student cohorts. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.)

Lillibridge, Fred

2008-01-01

260

Active contours for tracking distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to tracking using active contours is presented. The class of objects to be tracked is assumed to be char- acterized by a probability distribution over some variable, such as intensity, color, or texture. The goal of the algorithm is to find the region within the current image, such that the sample distribution of the interior of the

Daniel Freedman; Tao Zhang

2004-01-01

261

Precision tracking systems for sonobuoys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system has been developed to track arrays consisting of several sonobuoys deployed for acoustic detection. This navigation technique can be used to track the position of any free-drifting hydrophones. The method, employing bottom-moored acoustic transponders, can provide relative hydrophone positions to within 20 meters. Ultimate geographical positioning is dependent on the accuracy of the primary navigation system available; satellite

R. Spindel; R. Porter

1974-01-01

262

Buyer's Guide for Track Construction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This buyers guide provides information on needs assessment, buying options, and decision making tips when acquiring a new school athletic track. Among the topics covered are developing a budget, choosing a site selection, choosing a track surface, developing working specifications, and selecting a contractor. Also explored is the question of…

United States Tennis Court & Track Builders Association.

263

Multi-camera colour tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a colour tracker for use in visual surveillance. The tracker is part of a framework designed to monitor a dynamic scene with more than one camera. Colour tracking complements spatial tracking: it can also be used over large temporal intervals, and between spatially uncalibrated cameras. The colour distributions from objects are modelled, and measures of difference between them

J. Orwell; P. Remagnino; G. A. Jones

1999-01-01

264

Low-Angle Target Tracking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes an experiment that was performed to evaluate a new low-angle tracking (LAT) radar technique which uses array antenna technology. The process enables the radar to track targets in elevation in the low-angle region between one beamwidt...

R. VanDeusen W. Steckenreiter

1973-01-01

265

On target track covariance consistency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary components of a target track are the estimated state vector and its error variance-covariance matrix (or simply the covariance). The estimated state indicates the location and motion of the target. The track covariance should indicate the uncertainty or inaccuracy of the state estimate. The covariance is computed by the track processor and may or may not realistically indicate the inaccuracy of the state estimate. Covariance Consistency is the property that a computed variance-covariance matrix realistically represents the covariance of the actual errors of the estimate. The computed covariance of the state estimation error is used in the computations of the data association processing function; consequently, degraded track consistency causes misassociations (correlation errors) that can substantially degrade track performance. The computed covariance of the state estimation error is also used by downstream functions, such as the network-level resource management functions, to indicate the accuracy of the target state estimate. Hence, degraded track consistency can mislead those functions and the war fighter about how accurate each target track is. In the past, far more attention has been given to improving the accuracy of the estimated target state than in improving the track covariance consistency. This paper addresses the importance and analyzes properties of covariance consistency. Monte Carlo simulation results illustrate the characteristics of covariance consistency and the performance with some simple methods for improving covariance consistency.

Drummond, Oliver E.; Perrella, Albert J., Jr.; Waugh, Steven

2006-06-01

266

TREC 2013 Web Track Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the TREC Web track is to explore and evaluate retrieval approaches over large-scale subsets of the Web -- currently on the order of one billion pages. For TREC 2013, the fifth year of the Web track, we implemented the following significant upd...

C. L. Clarke E. M. Voorhees F. Diaz K. Collins-Thompson P. Bennett

2014-01-01

267

Columbia's Two-Track System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the two-track system of professional ranks and position categories implemented at the Columbia University Libraries in 1973-74. Aspects covered include evolution of the two-track system, characteristics of the professional ranks system, criteria for promotion, the peer review process, and characteristics of the professional position…

Duda, Frederick

1980-01-01

268

Central hypothyroidism  

PubMed Central

Central hypothyroidism is defined as hypothyroidism due to insufficient stimulation by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) of an otherwise normal thyroid gland. It has an estimated prevalence of approximately 1 in 80,000 to 1 in 120,000. It can be secondary hypothyroidism (pituitary) or tertiary hypothyroidism (hypothalamus) in origin. In children, it is usually caused by craniopharyngiomas or previous cranial irradiation for brain tumors or hematological malignancies. In adults, it is usually due to pituitary macroadenomas, pituitary surgeries or post-irradiation. Fatigue and peripheral edema are the most specific clinical features. Diagnosis is established by the presence of normal to low-normal TSH on the background of low-normal thyroid hormones, confirmed by the thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test. Therapy includes use of levothyroxine titrated to improvement in symptomology and keeping free T4 in the upper limit of normal reference range.

Gupta, Vishal; Lee, Marilyn

2011-01-01

269

Raptor Center: Migration Tracking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the larger University of Minnesota Raptor Center site, this site features regularly updated location information on individual Hawks first captured on their breeding grounds in western Minnesota; they migrate to wintering grounds in central South America. Almost daily information is relayed from the birds to an Argos satellite, then to a receiving station in Maryland and finally to the Raptor Center. Users can follow 1996 individuals from St. Paul, MN to Caimanes, Bolivia.

1997-01-01

270

Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors--I: Track Characteristics and Formation Mechanisms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heavily ionizing charged particles produce radiation damage tracks in a wide variety of insulating materials. The experimental properties of these tracks and track recorders are described. The mechanisms by which the tracks are produced are discussed. (Author/KR)

Lal, Nand

1991-01-01

271

Guidewire tracking during endovascular neurosurgery.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new method for guidewire tracking on fluoroscopic images from endovascular brain intervention. The combination of algorithms chosen can be implemented in real time, so that it can be used in an augmented reality 3D representation to assist physicians performing these interventions. A ribbon-like morphing process combined with a minimal path optimization algorithm is used to track lateral motion between successive frames. Forward motions are then tracked with an endpoint tracking algorithm, based on a circular window processed with the Radon transform. The proposed method was tested on 6 fluoroscopic sequences presenting high-speed motions, which were saved during endovascular brain interventions. The experiments showed above-average precision and robust guidewire tracking, without any permanent error requiring manual correction. PMID:20538498

Lessard, Simon; Lau, Caroline; Chav, Ramnada; Soulez, Gilles; Roy, Daniel; de Guise, Jacques A

2010-10-01

272

Segmentation of Tracking Sequences Using Dynamically Updated Adaptive Learning  

PubMed Central

The problem of segmentation of tracking sequences is of central importance in a multitude of applications. In the current paper, a different approach to the problem is discussed. Specifically, the proposed segmentation algorithm is implemented in conjunction with estimation of the dynamic parameters of moving objects represented by the tracking sequence. While the information on objects’ motion allows one to transfer some valuable segmentation priors along the tracking sequence, the segmentation allows substantially reducing the complexity of motion estimation, thereby facilitating the computation. Thus, in the proposed methodology, the processes of segmentation and motion estimation work simultaneously, in a sort of “collaborative” manner. The Bayesian estimation framework is used here to perform the segmentation, while Kalman filtering is used to estimate the motion and to convey useful segmentation information along the image sequence. The proposed method is demonstrated on a number of both computed-simulated and real-life examples, and the obtained results indicate its advantages over some alternative approaches.

Michailovich, Oleg; Tannenbaum, Allen

2009-01-01

273

Some puzzling findings in multiple object tracking (MOT): I. Tracking without keeping track of object identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The task of tracking a small number (about 4 or 5) visual targets within a larger set of identical items, each of which moves randomly and independently, has been used extensively to study object-based attention. Analysis of this multiple-object tracking task shows that it logically entails solving the correspondence problem for each target over time, and thus that the individuality

Zenon W. Pylyshyn

2003-01-01

274

Today's central receiver power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For 15 years, the United States Department of Energy has worked with industry, both utilities and manufacturers, to develop the technology of solar central receiver power plants. In this type of plant, sunlight is concentrated by a field of sun-tracking mirrors, called heliostats, onto a centrally located receiver. The solar energy is collected in the form of a heated fluid, which is used to generate steam to power a conventional turbine generator. For a number of reasons, molten nitrate salt is now the preferred heat transfer fluid. Commercial plants will be sized between 100 and 200 MW. The impetus for developing central receivers comes from their unique advantages: (1) they produce clean, reliable, low-cost electricity; (2) they have practical energy storage that provides a high degree of dispatchability (annually up to 60 percent) - without fossil fuels; and (3) they are environmentally benign. Development efforts around the world have brought the technology to the brink of commercialization: The technical feasibility has been proven, and cost, performance, and reliability can be confidently predicted. Plans are currently being developed for the final steps toward commercial central receiver power plants.

Alpert, D. J.; Kolb, G. J.; Chavez, J. M.

1991-04-01

275

Thermotectonic history of the Chiplakot Crystalline Belt in the Lesser Himalaya, Kumaon, India: Constraints from apatite fission-track thermochronology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fission-track ages and confined track length distribution of apatite samples separated from the Chiplakot Crystalline Belt (CCB) of the Lesser Himalayan Crystalline (LHC) zone, located to the south of the Main Central Thrust (MCT)\\/Munsiari Thrust (MT) in Kumaon, India, have been determined. Ages from the CCB along the Kali and Darma valleys fall in two distinct groups. In the northern

R. C. Patel; Yogesh Kumar; Nand Lal; Ashok Kumar

2007-01-01

276

Debate Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Courtesy of the National Center for Policy Analysis (NCPA), Debate-Central.org offers resources related to this year's National Forensic League high school debate topic: "Resolved: That the United States federal government should establish a foreign policy significantly limiting the use of weapons of mass destruction." The site, which is updated daily, features a wealth of links sorted into ten categories (each of which is further divided into subcategories). Resources are collected from periodicals, think tanks, and other sources, and the collection should be useful not just for debaters but for anyone looking for authoritative resources on these topics. Other debate topics are listed on the right-hand side of the page, though these are covered in a less comprehensive manner. Also at the site is a bulletin board, through which users can ask questions of experts such as Dr. Hans Mark, former Secretary of the Air Force and Deputy Administrator of NASA, and a link to NCPA's Terrorism in America site. NCPA's mission is "to develop and promote private alternatives to government regulation and control, solving problems by relying on the strength of the competitive, entrepreneurial private sector."

2001-01-01

277

Patrol car and agent tracking/suspect tagging and tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerging technologies in the field of law enforcement are providing today's law enforcement personnel with the advantage of an innovative and faster means of providing safety and service to the public. The use of open such technology, the Automatic Vehicle Locator (AVL) tracking device, is fast becoming a commonplace and cost-effective solution for agencies to efficiently command and control their 'officer' assets. Through the use of AVL's global positioning satellite-based system, the response time of law enforcement is greatly enhanced by permitting a dispatcher to visually identify and assign the officer closest to the location of an accident or incident. The system is effective in reducing delays due to highway blockages, improving the level of protection to the motoring public, and promoting the flow of traffic on busy freeways. Likewise, an officer or agent in distress can be assured that a dispatcher will be constantly aware of his or her location in the field. In the 1990's the demands on law enforcement agencies have grown tremendously. this is due primarily to population increases, limited funding or resources, and increases in drug, property and violent crimes. Frequently, the automobile is used for escape after the commission of these crimes. This often results in high speed pursuits involving law enforcement agencies. In California, by statute, the California Highway Patrol is the central repository for data regarding all pursuits involving state and local law enforcement agencies. Statistics show that more than 10 percent of pursuits result in injuries to the violator and/or innocent bystanders. Most pursuits last less than 10 minutes, and the AVL system provides a tremendous advantage to law enforcement's ability to immediately deploy and direct units into pursuits for rapid closure of the incident. AVL systems not only reduce the risk of personal injury by minimizing public exposure to the unsafe incident, but also enhance officer safety during the high speed chase by pinpointing officer deployment. Officer safety is a primary concern for all law enforcement agencies, nationwide. In addition to the aforementioned benefits of AVL, this system ensures that dispatchers are continually aware of an officer's location. This is a critical feature for an officer who is unable to verbally provide his/her location over the radio due to adversarial or injury circumstances. AVL technology is neither rate nor risky, and it is fast becoming an accepted and cost-effective solution in law enforcement agencies, large and small. The challenge to industry is not merely the development of new AVL technology, but also the ease in which it will integrate with existing law enforcement systems.

Wilkins, Steven C.

1997-01-01

278

Tracking Earthquake Cascades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In assessing their risk to society, earthquakes are best characterized as cascades that can propagate from the natural environment into the socio-economic (built) environment. Strong earthquakes rarely occur as isolated events; they usually cluster in foreshock-mainshock-aftershock sequences, seismic swarms, and extended sequences of large earthquakes that propagate along major fault systems. These cascades are regulated by stress-mediated interactions among faults driven by tectonic loading. Within these cascades, each large event can itself cause a chain reaction in which the primary effects of faulting and ground shaking induce secondary effects, including tsunami, landslides, liquefaction, and set off destructive processes within the built environment, such as fires and radiation leakage from nuclear plants. Recent earthquakes have demonstrated how the socio-economic effects of large earthquakes can reverberate for many years. To reduce earthquake risk and improve the resiliency of communities to earthquake damage, society depends on five geotechnologies for tracking earthquake cascades: long-term probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), short-term (operational) earthquake forecasting, earthquake early warning, tsunami warning, and the rapid production of post-event information for response and recovery (see figure). In this presentation, I describe how recent advances in earthquake system science are leading to improvements in this geotechnology pipeline. In particular, I will highlight the role of earthquake simulations in predicting strong ground motions and their secondary effects before and during earthquake cascades

Jordan, T. H.

2011-12-01

279

Track covariance consistency compensation performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary components of a target track are the estimated state vector and its error variance-covariance matrix (or simply the covariance). The estimated state indicates the location and motion of the target. The track covariance is intended to indicate the uncertainty or inaccuracy of the target state estimate. The covariance is computed by the track processor and may or may not realistically indicate the inaccuracy of the state estimate. Covariance Consistency is the property that a computed variance-covariance matrix realistically represents the covariance of the actual errors of the estimate. The computed covariance of the state estimation error is used in the computations of the data association processing function and the estimation filter; consequently, degraded track consistency might cause misassociations (correlation errors) and degraded filter processing that can degrade track performance. The computed covariance of the state estimation error is also used by downstream functions, such as the network-level resource management functions, to indicate the accuracy of the target state estimate. Hence, degraded track consistency can mislead those functions and the war fighter about the accuracy of each target track. In the development of target trackers, far more attention has been given to improving the accuracy of the estimated target state than in improving the track covariance consistency. This paper addresses covariance compensation to reduce the degradation of consistency due to potential misassociations in measurement fusion using single-frame data association. The compensation approach used is also applicable to other fusion approaches and to tracking with data from a single sensor. This paper also shows how this compensation approach can be applied to a wide variety of data association algorithms.

Drummond, Oliver E.; Dana-Bashian, David

2009-08-01

280

2. West portal of Tunnel 27, contextual view from track ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. West portal of Tunnel 27, contextual view from track level east of Tunnel 26 (HAER CA-202), 210mm lens. Note solar panel providing signal power, evidence of continuing updating of technology by the railroad. Single-light searchlight-type signal was typical system-wide on the Southern Pacific prior to the 1980s merger with the Denver & Rio Grande Western. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 27, Milepost 133.9, Applegate, Placer County, CA

281

Adjacent track encroachment analysis at high track density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The issue of adjacent track encroachment (ATE) has been studied for high track density (TPI) situations. Several techniques and methods have been utilized to determine the root cause of the adjacent track erasure. The new encroachment mechanisms, differing from those reported previously, have been identified for several different cases. It was found that the write-head gap edge corner or shoulder can generate a sizable fringing field, leading to measurable adjacent track encroachment problems in certain conditions. This type of side-erasure problem is not only associated with the amplitude and frequency of the writing current, but is also skew sensitive, depending upon both skew angle and skew polarity. Furthermore, finite element calculations confirm that in the vicinity of the notch corner, the fringing field strength could be as much as 4000 Oe. Experimentally it was also found that the side-erasure process induced by the notch shoulder was asymmetric in some situations.

Li, Zhihao; Schaff, Mike; Munson, Rolf; Jurisch, Mark; Noonon, Ted; Li, Shaoping; Zhou, Yuming

2003-05-01

282

Neural network tracking and extension of positive tracking periods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Feature detectors have been considered for the role of supplying additional information to a neural network tracker. The feature detector focuses on areas of the image with significant information. Basically, if a picture says a thousand words, the feature detectors are looking for the key phrases (keypoints). These keypoints are rotationally invariant and may be matched across frames. Application of these advanced feature detectors to the neural network tracking system at JPL has promising potential. As part of an ongoing program, an advanced feature detector was tested for augmentation of a neural network based tracker. The advance feature detector extended tracking periods in test sequences including aircraft tracking, rover tracking, and simulated Martian landing. Future directions of research are also discussed.

Hanan, Jay C.; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Moreels, Pierre

2004-01-01

283

Merchandising track device having billboard clip  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A merchandising device comprises first and second elongate parallel tracks arranged side by side with a gap therebetween, and a bridging member disposed near the front ends of the tracks. Each track is designed to support a row of articles in such a manner that the articles are suspended from each track for movement along a path defined by that track and are removable from that track through its front end. The gap between the tracks are spanned by the bridging member to provide a billboard surface extending between the tracks.

1998-02-17

284

Multitarget-multisensor tracking: Advanced applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A textbook on advanced applications of multitarget-multisensor tracking is presented. The topics addressed include: development of practical PDA logic for multitarget tracking by microprocessor, automatic track formation in clutter with a recursive algorithm, issues in the design of practical multitarget tracking algorithms, dynamic progamming algorithm for detecting dim moving targets, registration as a prerequisite for multiple sensor tracking. Also discussed are: association and fusion of multiple sensor data, passive multisensor data association using a new relaxation algorithm, distributed multitarget multisensor tracking, multitarget tracking applied to automatic target recognition with an imaging infrared sensor, electromechanical system for optical target tracking sensor.

Bar-Shalom, Yaakov

285

Sun tracking systems: a review.  

PubMed

The output power produced by high-concentration solar thermal and photovoltaic systems is directly related to the amount of solar energy acquired by the system, and it is therefore necessary to track the sun's position with a high degree of accuracy. Many systems have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 20 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the sun tracking system field and then describes some of the more significant proposals for closed-loop and open-loop types of sun tracking systems. PMID:22412341

Lee, Chia-Yen; Chou, Po-Cheng; Chiang, Che-Ming; Lin, Chiu-Feng

2009-01-01

286

High-dynamic GPS tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of comparing four different frequency estimation schemes in the presence of high dynamics and low carrier-to-noise ratios are given. The comparison is based on measured data from a hardware demonstration. The tested algorithms include a digital phase-locked loop, a cross-product automatic frequency tracking loop, and extended Kalman filter, and finally, a fast Fourier transformation-aided cross-product frequency tracking loop. The tracking algorithms are compared on their frequency error performance and their ability to maintain lock during severe maneuvers at various carrier-to-noise ratios. The measured results are shown to agree with simulation results carried out and reported previously.

Hinedi, S.; Statman, J. I.

1988-01-01

287

Abrasion resistant track shoe grouser  

DOEpatents

A track shoe for a track-type vehicle. The track shoe includes a base plate and a grouser projecting away from the base plate. A capping surface structure of substantially horseshoe shaped cross-section is disposed across a distal portion of the grouser. The capping surface structure covers portions of a distal edge surface and adjacent lateral surfaces. The capping surface structure is formed from an material characterized by enhanced wear resistance relative to portions of the grouser underlying the capping surface structure.

Fischer, Keith D; Diekevers, Mark S; Afdahl, Curt D; Steiner, Kevin L; Barnes, Christopher A

2013-04-23

288

The Automatic Library Tracking Database  

SciTech Connect

A library tracking database has been developed and put into production at the National Institute for Computational Sciences and the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (both located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.) The purpose of the library tracking database is to track which libraries are used at link time on Cray XT5 Supercomputers. The database stores the libraries used at link time and also records the executables run in a batch job. With this data, many operationally important questions can be answered such as which libraries are most frequently used and which users are using deprecated libraries or applications. The infrastructure design and reporting mechanisms are presented along with collected production data.

Fahey, Mark R [ORNL; Jones, Nicholas A [ORNL; Hadri, Bilel [ORNL

2010-01-01

289

Visual object recognition and tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention describes a method for identifying and tracking an object from two-dimensional data pictorially representing said object by an object-tracking system through processing said two-dimensional data using at least one tracker-identifier belonging to the object-tracking system for providing an output signal containing: a) a type of the object, and/or b) a position or an orientation of the object in three-dimensions, and/or c) an articulation or a shape change of said object in said three dimensions.

Chang, Chu-Yin (Inventor); English, James D. (Inventor); Tardella, Neil M. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

290

Storm Tracks Across Eastern Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global storm tracks patterns across the Northern Hemisphere are well documented, but their regional impact on populations has yet to be characterized, as very few studies took a local perspective on storm tracks. In this study, a Lagrangian tracking algorithm is applied to the 850 hPa relative vorticity field to characterize extratropical storm tracks that pass through major cities in Canada. Storm tracks are first classified in reference to the metropolitan cities that they impact, such as Toronto, Montreal, Halifax and St-John's. They are then subjected to several analyses, including but not limited to the identification of main development regions, typical tracks, mean growth rate, intensity and typical regions of decay. We found that the preferential development regions are the lee of the Rockies, the Great Lakes and the Western Atlantic. The collection of storm tracks across each city is composed of storms developing not from a single development region, but from several. Results show that the storm track variability at a city is dominated by the storm track variability of its predominant development region. Among others, we found that the ensembles of storms crossing East coast cities (Halifax, St-John's) are dominated by Atlantic storms that are most frequent during the winter. Storms passing through Montreal and Toronto travel primarily from the Great Lakes and the mid-latitude Rockies. In eastern Canada, storms from the southernmost part of the Rockies are much less frequent, but this development region is the main source of extreme storms, and is thus important in terms of impacts on metropolitan areas. The relationship between storm tracks and modes of atmospheric variability are also examined with an emphasis on the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Northern Annular Mode (NAM). We found that teleconnection shifts storm tracks differently in different development regions. The anomalous storm track densities are presented, as well as their direct impact on specific metropolitan areas. Results show that the combination of these shifts impact cities differently according to their geographic location.

Plante, Mathieu; Son, Seok-Woo; Gyakum, John; Kevin, Grise

2013-04-01

291

High resolution track etch autoradiography  

DOEpatents

A detector assembly for use in obtaining alpha-track autoradiographs, the detector assembly including a substantially boron-free substrate; a detector layer deposited on the substantially boron-free substrate, the detector layer being capable of recording alpha particle tracks and exhibiting evidence of the alpha tracks in response to being exposed to an etchant, the detector layer being less than about 2 microns thick; and a protective layer deposited on the detector layer, the protective layer being resistant to the etchant and having a thickness of about 0.5 to 1 microns.

Solares, Guido (Arlington, MA); Zamenhof, Robert G. (Brookline, MA)

1994-01-01

292

Sun Tracking Systems: A Review  

PubMed Central

The output power produced by high-concentration solar thermal and photovoltaic systems is directly related to the amount of solar energy acquired by the system, and it is therefore necessary to track the sun's position with a high degree of accuracy. Many systems have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 20 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the sun tracking system field and then describes some of the more significant proposals for closed-loop and open-loop types of sun tracking systems.

Lee, Chia-Yen; Chou, Po-Cheng; Chiang, Che-Ming; Lin, Chiu-Feng

2009-01-01

293

High resolution track etch autoradiography  

DOEpatents

A detector assembly is disclosed for use in obtaining alpha-track autoradiographs, the detector assembly including a substantially boron-free substrate; a detector layer deposited on the substantially boron-free substrate, the detector layer being capable of recording alpha particle tracks and exhibiting evidence of the alpha tracks in response to being exposed to an etchant, the detector layer being less than about 2 microns thick; and a protective layer deposited on the detector layer, the protective layer being resistant to the etchant and having a thickness of about 0.5 to 1 microns. 13 figures.

Solares, G.; Zamenhof, R.G.

1994-12-27

294

Qualification testing for a central station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Qualification testing for a Central Station Photovoltaic (PV) Facility depends to a great extent on the system design, (fixed versus tracking), and the level of data acquisition/control which is incorporated into the system. The basic elements which require qualification tests include: dc power production/collection; tracker conversion systems; ac utility interface; system level control; and data acquisition/reporting. The qualification tests from the Lungo (ARCO) 1 MW Facility which were completed in January 1983 are discussed. The philosophy and many of the procedures are applicable to any central station PV facility.

Forrester, D. L.

1983-01-01

295

Tracking memory's trace.  

PubMed

There is strong converging evidence that the intermediate and medial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale of the chick brain is a memory store for information acquired through the learning process of imprinting. Neurons in this memory system come, through imprinting, to respond selectively to the imprinting stimulus (IS) neurons and so possess the properties of a memory trace. Therefore, the responses of the intermediate and medial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale neurons to a visual imprinting stimulus were determined before, during, and after training. Of the total recorded population, the proportions of IS neurons shortly after each of two 1-h training sessions were significantly higher (approximately 2 times) than the pretraining proportion. However, approximately 4.5 h later this proportion had fallen significantly and did not differ significantly from the pretraining proportion. Nevertheless, approximately 21.5 h after the end of training, the proportion of IS neurons was at its highest (approximately 3 times the pretraining level). No significant fluctuations occurred in the proportions of neurons responding to the alternative stimulus. In addition, nonmonotonic changes were found commonly in the activity of 230 of the neurons tracked individually from before training to shortly after the end of training. Thus the pattern of change in responsiveness both at the population level and at the level of individual neurons was highly nonmonotonic. Such a pattern of change is not consistent with simple models of memory based on synaptic strengthening to asymptote. A model is proposed that accounts for the changes in the population responses to the imprinting stimulus in terms of changes in the responses of individual neurons. PMID:11296266

Horn, G; Nicol, A U; Brown, M W

2001-04-24

296

Iceland hotspot track  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a model of plate motions relative to major hotspots underneath the African, Indian, North American, South American, and Australian plates to compute the track of the Iceland hotspot after 130 Ma. The present-day hotspot is located under eastern Iceland offset about 240 km east of the Reykjanes and Kolbeinsey ridges. At 40 Ma, the Kangerlussuaq region of East Greenland would have been directly above the hotspot. The anomalous postdrift uplift of the East Greenland margin can also be explained by passage of the rifted margin over a hotspot. At 60 Ma, the Umanak Fjord region of the west coast of Greenland was above the hotspot, where picrites and hyaloclastites of nearby Disko Island are dated at ˜64 to 59 Ma. Our reconstruction shows Ellesmere Island above the hotspot between 130 and 100 Ma. Latest Albian to early Cenomanian volcanic rocks on Axel Heiberg Island and northern Ellesmere Island indicate a nearby hotspot at that time. At 130 Ma, our model locates the hotspot near the northern margin of Ellesmere Island, close to the intersection of the Alpha Ridge with the coast. The hotspot would have been located beneath the Arctic Alaska-Chukotka plate when it formed the Mendeleyev Ridge, and as the spreading center migrated over the hotspot, it transferred to the North American plate, where it formed the Alpha Ridge. Our model suggests that the initiation of the Iceland hotspot predates the opening of the North Atlantic by at least 70 m.y. and that the massive early Tertiary volcanism along the North Atlantic plate margins reflects the effect of rifting in the vicinity of existing thinned crust, rather than the arrival of a plume head.

Lawver, Lawrence A.; Dietmar Müller, R.

1994-04-01

297

FFTF Asbestos Location Tracking Program  

SciTech Connect

An Asbestos Location Tracking Program was prepared to list, locate, and determine Asbestos content and to provide baseline {open_quotes}good faith{close_quotes} for yearly condition inspections for the FFTF Plant and buildings and grounds.

Reynolds, J.A.

1994-09-15

298

The Physics of Fast Track  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Toys can provide motivational contexts for learning and teaching about physics. A cheap car track provides an almost frictionless environment from which a quantitative study of conservation of energy and circular motion can be made.

Kibble, Bob

2007-01-01

299

Tracking Code for Microwave Instability  

SciTech Connect

To study microwave instability the tracking code is developed. For bench marking, results are compared with Oide-Yokoya results [1] for broad-band Q = 1 impedance. Results hint to two possible mechanisms determining the threshold of instability.

Heifets, S.; /SLAC

2006-09-21

300

Microbial Source Tracking Guide Document.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this guide is to provide scientists, engineers, and environmental managers with a comprehensive, interpretive analysis of the current and relevant information (based on both lab and field data) related to Microbial Source Tracking (MST). De...

2005-01-01

301

Calendars: Keeping Track of Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NOVA Australia, an initiative of the Australian Academy of Science, posts new feature articles regularly. These publications include "Calendars: keeping track of time," describing the history of the Western calendar.

1999-01-01

302

Tracking subsystem test requirements survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of the test and checkout requirements of the tracking portion of the communications and tracking subsystem was performed to evaluate adequacy of planned tests and test requirement documents. Emphasis is placed on identifying test completeness, duplications, and omissions. Items that may save time, aid in testing, and present a more complete integrated test program are also noted. The results of this survey are summarized.

Orr, D. H.; Tatosian, C. G.; Bynum, M. C.; Zook, A. W.

1975-01-01

303

Kalman Orbit Optimized Loop Tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under certain conditions of low signal power and/or high noise, there is insufficient signal to noise ratio (SNR) to close tracking loops with individual signals on orbiting Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In addition, the processing power available from flight computers is not great enough to implement a conventional ultra-tight coupling tracking loop. This work provides a method to track GNSS signals at very low SNR without the penalty of requiring very high processor throughput to calculate the loop parameters. The Kalman Orbit-Optimized Loop (KOOL) tracking approach constitutes a filter with a dynamic model and using the aggregate of information from all tracked GNSS signals to close the tracking loop for each signal. For applications where there is not a good dynamic model, such as very low orbits where atmospheric drag models may not be adequate to achieve the required accuracy, aiding from an IMU (inertial measurement unit) or other sensor will be added. The KOOL approach is based on research JPL has done to allow signal recovery from weak and scintillating signals observed during the use of GPS signals for limb sounding of the Earth s atmosphere. That approach uses the onboard PVT (position, velocity, time) solution to generate predictions for the range, range rate, and acceleration of the low-SNR signal. The low- SNR signal data are captured by a directed open loop. KOOL builds on the previous open loop tracking by including feedback and observable generation from the weak-signal channels so that the MSR receiver will continue to track and provide PVT, range, and Doppler data, even when all channels have low SNR.

Young, Lawrence E.; Meehan, Thomas K.

2011-01-01

304

Color-Based Probabilistic Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color-based trackers recently proposed in (3,4,5) have been proved robust and versatile for a modest computational cost. They are especially appealing for tracking tasks where the spatial structure of the tracked objects exhibits such a dramatic variability that trackers based on a space-dependent appearance reference would break down very fast. Trackers in (3,4,5) rely on the deterministic search of a

Patrick Pérez; Carine Hue; Jaco Vermaak; Michel Gangnet

2002-01-01

305

Fission Track Dating of Tanzanite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven crystals of tanzanite from the Ally and D'Souza Mines, Tanzaniao gave an average fission track age of 585 + 28 m.y. Tanzanite, a gem variety of zoisite, has annealing characteristics that are very similar to epidote; both require a temperature above 725oC for complete track annealing in an hour. Sub-gem-quality tanzanite, from a new occrurence ztoO km to the

M. Saul

306

Silicon Tracking Upgrade at CDF  

SciTech Connect

The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is scheduled to begin recording data from Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron in early 2000. The silicon tracking upgrade constitutes both the upgrade to the CDF silicon vertex detector (SVX II) and the new Intermediate Silicon Layers (ISL) located at radii just beyond the SVX II. Here we review the design and prototyping of all aspects of these detectors including mechanical design, data acquisition, and a trigger based on silicon tracking.

Kruse, M.C. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States); CDF Collaboration

1998-04-01

307

De-centralized and centralized control for realistic EMS Maglev systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative study of de-centralized and centralized controllers when used with real EMS Maglev Systems is introduced. This comparison is divided into two parts. Part I is concerned with numerical simulation and experimental testing on a two ton six-magnet EMS Maglev vehicle. Levitation and lateral control with these controllers individually and when including flux feedback control in combination with these controllers to enhance stability are introduced. The centralized controller is better than the de-centralized one when the system is exposed to a lateral disturbing force such as wind gusts. The flux feedback control when combined with de-centralized or centralized controllers does improve the stability and is more resistant and robust with respect to the air gap variations. Part II is concerned with the study of Maglev vehicle-girder dynamic interaction system and the comparison between these two controllers on this typical system based on performance and ride quality achieved. Numerical simulations of the ODU EMS Maglev vehicle interacting with girder are conducted with these two different controllers. The de-centralized and centralized control for EMS Maglev systems that interact with a flexible girder provides similar ride quality. Centralized control with flux feedback could be the best controller for the ODU Maglev system when operating on girder. The centralized control will guarantee the suppression of the undesired lateral displacements; hence it will provide smoother ride quality. Flux feedback will suppress air gap variations due to the track discontinuities.

Moawad, Mohamed M. Aly M.

308

SLR tracking of GPS-35  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment was designed to launch a corner cube retroreflector array on one of the Global Positioning Satellites (GPS). The launch on Aug. 31, 1993 ushered in the era of SLR tracking of GPS spacecraft. Once the space operations group finished the check-out procedures for the new satellite, the agreed upon SLR sites were allowed to track it. The first site to acquire GPS-35 was the Russian system at Maidanak and closely after the MLRS system at McDonald Observatory, Texas. The laser tracking network is currently tracking the GPS spacecraft known as GPS-35 or PRN 5 with great success. From the NASA side there are five stations that contribute data regularly and nearly as many from the international partners. Upcoming modifications to the ground receivers will allow for a further increase in the tracking capabilities of several additional sites and add some desperately needed southern hemisphere tracking. We are analyzing the data and are comparing SLR-derived orbits to those determined on the basis of GPS radiometric data.

Pavlis, Erricos C.

1994-01-01

309

3. 'C.P. Reconstruction Rocklin to Colfax, Standard Double Track Tunnel ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. 'C.P. Reconstruction Rocklin to Colfax, Standard Double Track Tunnel Portal Stones, Wings Parallel to Center Line, Ring Stones,' Southern Pacific Standard Double-Track Tunnel, ca. 1909. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 18 (HAER No. CA-197), Tunnel 34 (HAER No. CA-206), and Tunnel 1 (HAER No. CA-207). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

310

Direction specific error patterns during continuous tracking of the subjective visual vertical.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize the error pattern of continuously tracking the perceived earth-vertical during roll rotations from upright to right or left ear-down and from right or left ear-down to upright. We compared the tracking responses of two paradigms, which either continuously activated the otoliths organs alone (constant velocity tilt) or both the otolith organs and the semicircular canals (constant acceleration tilt). The tracking responses of the subjective visual vertical showed characteristic differences depending on starting position and tilt direction relative to gravity. The error patterns in the constant-velocity and constant-acceleration tilt paradigm were reversed. Estimations during tracking, when otolith information was continuously changing, were more precise compared to estimations following fast tilts to fixed roll tilt positions. We conclude that the central processing underlying these perceptual tracking responses requires, besides the otolith input, information from the vertical semicircular canals. PMID:14726988

Keusch, S; Hess, B J M; Jaggi-Schwarz, K

2004-04-01

311

Microsoft Cambridge at TREC9: Filtering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Summary Apart from a short description of our Query Track contri- bution, this report is concerned with the Adaptive Filter- ing track only. There is a separate report in this volume (1) on the Microsoft Research Cambridge participation in QA track. A number of runs were submitted for the Adaptive Fil- tering track, on all tasks (adaptive filtering, batch

Stephen E. Robertson; Steve Walker

2000-01-01

312

Microsoft Cambridge at TREC 2002: Filtering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

SW alker † 1 Summary Apart from a short description of our Query Track contri- bution, this report is concerned with the Adaptive Filter- ing track only. There is a separate report in this volume (1)on the Microsoft Research Cambridge participation in QA track. A number of runs were submitted for the Adaptive Fil- tering track, on all tasks (adaptive

Stephen E. Robertson; Steve Walker; Hugo Zaragoza; Ralf Herbrich

2002-01-01

313

Visuomotor Tracking Ability of Young Adult Speakers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-five normal young adult speakers tracked sinusoidal and unpredictable target signals using lower lip and jaw movement and fundamental frequency modulation. Tracking accuracy varied as a function of target frequency and articulator used to track. Results show the potential of visuomotor tracking tasks in the assessment of speech articulatory…

Moon, Jerald B.; And Others

1993-01-01

314

Attentional Costs in Multiple-Object Tracking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attentional demands of multiple-object tracking were demonstrated using a dual-task paradigm. Participants were asked to make speeded responses based on the pitch of a tone, while at the same time tracking four of eight identical dots. Tracking difficulty was manipulated either concurrent with or after the tone task. If increasing tracking

Tombu, Michael; Seiffert, Adriane E.

2008-01-01

315

Stabilizing Motion Tracking Using Retrieved Motion Priors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a novel iterative motion track- ing framework that combines 3D tracking techniques with motion retrieval for stabilizing markerless human motion capturing. The basic idea is to start human tracking without prior knowledge about the performed actions. The resulting 3D motion sequences, which may be corrupted due to track- ing errors, are locally classified according to

Andreas Baak; Bodo Rosenhahn; Meinard Müller; Hans-peter Seidel

2009-01-01

316

CONCRETE SLAB TRACK STATE OF THE PRACTICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Railway track technology has evolved over a period of 150 years since the first railroad track on timber ties was introduced. For much of this period, the conventional track system, commonly referred to as the ballasted track system, has consisted of certain components including rails, ties, ballast, and the subgrade (roadbed). Over the last 20 years, there has been an

Shiraz D Tayabji; David Bilow

2001-01-01

317

Nuclear tracks in solids: Principles and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of track etching are considered, taking into account the formation of particle tracks, the basics of track etching, and methods of nuclear particle identification. Earth and space sciences are discussed, giving attention to fission track dating, modern energetic particles in space, and ancient energetic particles in space. Aspects of nuclear science and technology are also investigated, taking into

R. L. Fleischer; P. B. Price; R. M. Walker

1975-01-01

318

Digital Pulse Processing and Gamma Ray Tracking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two of the big changes in new generations of Nuclear Physics instrumentation will be the incorporation of digital processing and the use of gamma ray tracking. The Nuclear Physics Group at Daresbury has set up a project to investigate digital pulse processing for gamma ray detectors and how best to implement gamma ray tracking in large Germanium gamma ray detectors. Topics on this site include but are not limited to: gamma ray tracking, overview of the Gamma Ray Tracking Project, pictures of one of the tracking gamma ray detectors (TIGRE), pictures of test experiment, gamma ray tracking project publications, and links to other gamma ray tracking pages.

2010-09-21

319

UUV-platform cooperation in covert tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In underwater tracking, such as with an unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV) or torpedo it is advantageous to track a target covertly. The Maximum Likelihood-Probabilistic Data Association (ML-PDA) tracking algorithm, which has been demonstrated to establish and maintain track in low SNR/high clutter environments, is used to develop track information in a covert tracking application. By combining intermittent sensor data (active sonar) from the UUV with that of the launch platform (passive sonar) in the ML-PDA track algorithm, fewer active transmissions are required to establish and maintain a given track accuracy thereby reducing the chance of target alertment. We show that this is a viable operating model and demonstrate how sensor placement affects track accuracy, including determination of best sensor placement and requirements on active transmissions to maintain minimum tracking accuracy.

Blanding, Wayne R.; Willett, Peter K.; Bar-Shalom, Yaakov; Lynch, Robert S.

2005-09-01

320

Tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness of image stabilization with a retinal tracker in a multi-function, compact scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO) was demonstrated in initial human subject tests. The retinal tracking system uses a confocal reflectometer with a closed loop optical servo system to lock onto features in the fundus. The system is modular to allow configuration for many research and clinical applications, including hyperspectral imaging, multifocal electroretinography (MFERG), perimetry, quantification of macular and photo-pigmentation, imaging of neovascularization and other subretinal structures (drusen, hyper-, and hypo-pigmentation), and endogenous fluorescence imaging. Optical hardware features include dual wavelength imaging and detection, integrated monochromator, higher-order motion control, and a stimulus source. The system software consists of a real-time feedback control algorithm and a user interface. Software enhancements include automatic bias correction, asymmetric feature tracking, image averaging, automatic track re-lock, and acquisition and logging of uncompressed images and video files. Normal adult subjects were tested without mydriasis to optimize the tracking instrumentation and to characterize imaging performance. The retinal tracking system achieves a bandwidth of greater than 1 kHz, which permits tracking at rates that greatly exceed the maximum rate of motion of the human eye. The TSLO stabilized images in all test subjects during ordinary saccades up to 500 °/sec with an inter-frame accuracy better than 0.05 °. Feature lock was maintained for minutes despite subject eye blinking. Successful frame averaging allowed image acquisition with decreased noise in low-light applications. The retinal tracking system significantly enhances the imaging capabilities of the scanning laser ophthalmoscope.

Hammer, Daniel X.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Magill, John C.; White, Michael A.; Elsner, Ann E.; Webb, Robert H.

2003-07-01

321

Path Tracking using Vector Pursuit Algorithm for Tracked Vehicles Driving on the Soft Cohesive Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally, tracked vehicles are used in military, agricultural and recreational applications where terrain conditions are improper or unpredictable. Tracked vehicles are better than wheeled vehicles due to the larger contact area of tracks providing better floatation and traction at various ground conditions. In this paper, the path tracking method is proposed for tracked vehicle driving on the deep-sea soft cohesive

Tae-Kyeong Yeul; Soung-Jea Park; Sup Hong; Hyung-Woo Kim; Jong-Su Choi

2006-01-01

322

Track structure in biological models.  

PubMed

High-energy heavy ions in the galactic cosmic radiation (HZE particles) may pose a special risk during long term manned space flights outside the sheltering confines of the earth's geomagnetic field. These particles are highly ionizing, and they and their nuclear secondaries can penetrate many centimeters of body tissue. The three dimensional patterns of ionizations they create as they lose energy are referred to as their track structure. Several models of biological action on mammalian cells attempt to treat track structure or related quantities in their formulation. The methods by which they do this are reviewed. The proximity function is introduced in connection with the theory of Dual Radiation Action (DRA). The ion-gamma kill (IGK) model introduces the radial energy-density distribution, which is a smooth function characterizing both the magnitude and extension of a charged particle track. The lethal, potentially lethal (LPL) model introduces lambda, the mean distance between relevant ion clusters or biochemical species along the track. Since very localized energy depositions (within approximately 10 nm) are emphasized, the proximity function as defined in the DRA model is not of utility in characterizing track structure in the LPL formulation. PMID:11537218

Curtis, S B

1986-01-01

323

Feature Tracking Using Reeb Graphs  

SciTech Connect

Tracking features and exploring their temporal dynamics can aid scientists in identifying interesting time intervals in a simulation and serve as basis for performing quantitative analyses of temporal phenomena. In this paper, we develop a novel approach for tracking subsets of isosurfaces, such as burning regions in simulated flames, which are defined as areas of high fuel consumption on a temperature isosurface. Tracking such regions as they merge and split over time can provide important insights into the impact of turbulence on the combustion process. However, the convoluted nature of the temperature isosurface and its rapid movement make this analysis particularly challenging. Our approach tracks burning regions by extracting a temperature isovolume from the four-dimensional space-time temperature field. It then obtains isosurfaces for the original simulation time steps and labels individual connected 'burning' regions based on the local fuel consumption value. Based on this information, a boundary surface between burning and non-burning regions is constructed. The Reeb graph of this boundary surface is the tracking graph for burning regions.

Weber, Gunther H.; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.; Pascucci, Valerio

2010-08-02

324

Dynamic Denoising of Tracking Sequences  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we describe an approach to the problem of simultaneously enhancing image sequences and tracking the objects of interest represented by the latter. The enhancement part of the algorithm is based on Bayesian wavelet denoising, which has been chosen due to its exceptional ability to incorporate diverse a priori information into the process of image recovery. In particular, we demonstrate that, in dynamic settings, useful statistical priors can come both from some reasonable assumptions on the properties of the image to be enhanced as well as from the images that have already been observed before the current scene. Using such priors forms the main contribution of the present paper which is the proposal of the dynamic denoising as a tool for simultaneously enhancing and tracking image sequences. Within the proposed framework, the previous observations of a dynamic scene are employed to enhance its present observation. The mechanism that allows the fusion of the information within successive image frames is Bayesian estimation, while transferring the useful information between the images is governed by a Kalman filter that is used for both prediction and estimation of the dynamics of tracked objects. Therefore, in this methodology, the processes of target tracking and image enhancement “collaborate” in an interlacing manner, rather than being applied separately. The dynamic denoising is demonstrated on several examples of SAR imagery. The results demonstrated in this paper indicate a number of advantages of the proposed dynamic denoising over “static” approaches, in which the tracking images are enhanced independently of each other.

Michailovich, Oleg; Tannenbaum, Allen

2009-01-01

325

Super-Resolution Track Density Imaging of Glioblastoma: Histopathologic Correlation  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Super-resolution track density imaging generates anatomic images with submillimeter voxel resolution by using high-angular-resolution diffusion imaging and fiber-tractography. TDI within the diseased human brain has not been previously described. The purpose of this study was to correlate TDI with histopathologic features of GBM. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 43 tumor specimens (24 contrast-enhancing, 12 NE, and 7 centrally necrotic regions) were collected from 18 patients with treatment-naïve GBM by use of MR imaging–guided neurosurgical techniques. Immunohistochemical stains were used to evaluate the following histopathologic features: hypoxia, architectural disruption, microvascular hyperplasia, and cellular proliferation. We reconstructed track density maps at a 0.25-mm isotropic spatial resolution by using probabilistic streamline tractography combined with constrained spheric deconvolution (model order, 8; 0.1-mm step size; 1 million seed points). Track density values were obtained from each tissue site. A P value of .05 was considered significant and was adjusted for multiple comparisons by use of the false discovery rate method. RESULTS Track density was not significantly different between contrast-enhancing and NE regions but was more likely to be elevated within regions demonstrating aggressive histopathologic features (P < .05). Significant correlation between relative track density and hypoxia (odds ratio, 3.52; P = .01), architectural disruption (odds ratio, 3.49; P = .03), and cellular proliferation (odds ratio, 1.70; P = .05) was observed irrespective of the presence or absence of contrast enhancement. CONCLUSIONS Numeric values of track density correlate with GBM biologic features and may be clinically useful for identification of regions of tumor infiltration within both enhancing and NE components of GBM.

Barajas, R.F.; Hess, C.P.; Phillips, J.J.; Von Morze, C.J.; Yu, J.P.; Chang, S.M.; Nelson, S.J.; McDermott, M.W.; Berger, M.S.; Cha, S.

2014-01-01

326

AHF Booster Tracking with SIMPSONS.  

SciTech Connect

The booster lattice for the Advanced Hydrotest Facility at Los Alamos was tracked in 3-D with the program SIMPSONS, using the full, symplectic lattice from TEAPOT, using the full set of magnet and misalignment errors, as well as full space-charge effects. The only corrections included were a rough closed-orbit correction and chromaticity correction. The lattice was tracked for an entire booster cycle, from multi-turn injection through acceleration to the top energy of 4 GeV, approximately 99,000 turns. An initial injection intensity of 4x1Ol2, injected in 25 turns, resulted in a final intensity of 3 . 2 {approx} 1 0a' {approx}t 4 GeV. Results of the tracking, including emittance growth, particle loss, and particle tune distributions are presented.

Johnson, D. E. (David E.); Neri, F. (Filippo)

2002-01-01

327

Radar assisted passive DF tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time history of bearing data obtained from microwave DF systems at separated sites is used to calculate the position and velocity of a microwave emitter. A Kalman filter tracking algorithm is presented and used in deriving smoothed position and velocity estimates from simulated bearing measurements received at separated DF sites. It is shown that the error statistics of the bearing measurement data can be modified; nonmaneuvering tracks are then analyzed. The inclusion of radar measurements in order to improve the tracking performance shows that care must be exercised when combining two sets of range data unless the range data is accurately modeled. The algorithm involves a foure-element polar state vector filter that is transformed to Cartesian coordinates for the linear extrapolation stage.

Farrow, R. S.

328

Aircraft recognition and tracking device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology of aircraft recognition and tracking has various applications in all areas of air navigation, be they civil or military, spanning from air traffic control and regulation at civilian airports to anti-aircraft weapon handling and guidance for military purposes.1, 18 The system presented in this thesis is an alternative implementation of identifying and tracking flying objects, which benefits from the optical spectrum by using an optical camera built into a servo motor (pan-tilt unit). More specifically, through the purpose-developed software, when a target (aircraft) enters the field of view of the camera18, it is both detected and identified.5, 22 Then the servo motor, being provided with data on target position and velocity, tracks the aircraft while it is in constant communication with the camera (Fig. 1). All the features are so designed as to operate under real time conditions.

Filis, Dimitrios P.; Renios, Christos I.

2011-10-01

329

Frequency Synthesizer For Tracking Filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital frequency-synthesizing subsystem generates trains of pulses, free of jitter, for use as frequency-control signals in tracking filters. Part of assembly of electronic equipment used to measure vibrations in bearings in rotating machinery. Designed to meet requirements for tracking narrow-band cage-rotation and ball-pass components of vibrations, as discussed in "Frequency-Tracking Error Detector" (MFS-29538) and "Ball-Pass Cage-Modulation Detector" (MFS-29539). Synthesizer includes preset counter, output of which controls signal for ball-pass filter. Input to this preset counter updated every 2 microseconds: responds almost immediately, effectively eliminating relatively long response time (lock-in time) and phase jitter.

Randall, Richard L.

1990-01-01

330

Magnetic Launch Assist Experimental Track  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this photograph, a futuristic spacecraft model sits atop a carrier on the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) System, experimental track at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide, and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

1999-01-01

331

Structural and metric correlation of electro-optical and radar generated tracks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integration of electro-optical and radar generated tracks is critical for identifying accurate time and space position information in target tracking and providing a single integrated picture (SIP) of the dynamic situation. This paper proposes a new, robust, real-time algorithm to (i) correctly correlate data from several sensors and the existing system track, (ii) improve target tracking accuracy and (iii) identify when the data represent new tracks. The proposed algorithm uses metric data, linear, and area features extracted from optical and radar images. The major novelty of the algorithm is in use of robust and affine invariant structural relations built on the features for accurate correlation. These features are combined with intelligent adaptation of Kalman filter using Neural Networks. A proposed measure of confidence with the correlation decision is based on both structural and metric similarities of tracks to estimate both bias and random errors. The similarities are based on concepts from the abstract algebraic systems, generalized Gauss-Markov stochastic processes, and Kalman filters for n-dimensional time series that explicitly model measurement dependence on k previous measurements, M(t/t-1,t-2,...,t-k). These techniques are naturally combined with the hierarchical matching approach to increase the overall track accuracy. The proposed approach and algorithm for track correlation/matching is suitable for both centralized and distributed computing architecture.

Kovalerchuk, Boris

2007-04-01

332

Real-Time Depth-Based Hand Detection and Tracking  

PubMed Central

This paper illustrates the hand detection and tracking method that operates in real time on depth data. To detect a hand region, we propose the classifier that combines a boosting and a cascade structure. The classifier uses the features of depth-difference at the stage of detection as well as learning. The features of each candidate segment are to be computed by subtracting the averages of depth values of subblocks from the central depth value of the segment. The features are selectively employed according to their discriminating power when constructing the classifier. To predict a hand region in a successive frame, a seed point in the next frame is to be determined. Starting from the seed point, a region growing scheme is applied to obtain a hand region. To determine the central point of a hand, we propose the so-called Depth Adaptive Mean Shift algorithm. DAM-Shift is a variant of CAM-Shift (Bradski, 1998), where the size of the search disk varies according to the depth of a hand. We have evaluated the proposed hand detection and tracking algorithm by comparing it against the existing AdaBoost (Friedman et al., 2000) qualitatively and quantitatively. We have analyzed the tracking accuracy through performance tests in various situations.

Weon, Sun-Hee; Choi, Hyung-Il

2014-01-01

333

USA Track & Field Coaching Manual. USA Track & Field.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents comprehensive, ready-to-apply information from 33 world-class coaches and experts about major track and field events for high school and college coaches. The volume features proven predictive testing procedures; detailed event-specific technique instruction; carefully crafted training programs; and preparation and performance…

USA Track and Field, Inc., Indianapolis, IN.

334

Track labeling and PHD filter for multitarget tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple target tracking requires data association that operates in conjunction with filtering. When multiple targets are closely spaced, the conventional approaches (as, e.g., MHT\\/assignment) may not give satisfactory results. This is mainly because of the difficulty in deciding what the number of targets is. Recently, the probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter has been proposed and particle filtering techniques have been

L. Lin; Y. Bar-Shalom; T. Kirubarajan

2006-01-01

335

Adaptive Tracking Algorithm for Tracking Air Targets with Search Radars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An adaptive alpha - beta filter used to track targets by search radars is described. The gains alpha and beta are adjusted so as to minimize the mean square error between the target's predicted and measured positions. Several examples are given. These sho...

B. H. Cantrell

1974-01-01

336

Introduction to the programming languages track (track introduction)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the SAC of the year of 2000, in the Programming Languages Track, papers were called in the various topics related to programming languages such as Automatic Parallelization, Specification Languages, Automatic Programming, Compiling Techniques, CORBA, Distributed Object Computing, Formal Semantics, Functional Programming, Logic Programming, Mobile Computing, Object-Oriented Programming Languages for Software Specification, Design and Modeling, Meta and Higher-order Programming, Database

Chang-Hyun Jo

2000-01-01

337

Calculation of track and vertex errors for detector design studies  

SciTech Connect

The Kalman Filter technique has come into wide use for charged track reconstruction in high-energy physics experiments. It is also well suited for detector design studies, allowing for the efficient estimation of optimal track covariance matrices without the need of a hit level Monte Carlo simulation. Although much has been published about the Kalman filter equations, there is a lack of previous literature explaining how to implement the equations. In this paper, the operators necessary to implement the Kalman filter equations for two common detector configurations are worked out: a central detector in a uniform solenoidal magnetic field, and a fixed-target detector with no magnetic field in the region of the interactions. With the track covariance matrices in hand, vertex and invariant mass errors are readily calculable. These quantities are particularly interesting for evaluating experiments designed to study weakly decaying particles which give rise to displaced vertices. The optimal vertex errors are obtained via a constrained vertex fit. Solutions are presented to the constrained vertex problem with and without kinematic constraints. Invariant mass errors are obtained via propagation of errors; the use of vertex constrained track parameters is discussed. Many of the derivations are new or previously unpublished.

Harr, R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Physics Dept.] [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Physics Dept.

1995-06-01

338

Target-type probability combining algorithms for multisensor tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Algorithms for the handing of target type information in an operational multi-sensor tracking system are presented. The paper discusses recursive target type estimation, computation of crosses from passive data (strobe track triangulation), as well as the computation of the quality of the crosses for deghosting purposes. The focus is on Bayesian algorithms that operate in the discrete target type probability space, and on the approximations introduced for computational complexity reduction. The centralized algorithms are able to fuse discrete data from a variety of sensors and information sources, including IFF equipment, ESM's, IRST's as well as flight envelopes estimated from track data. All algorithms are asynchronous and can be tuned to handle clutter, erroneous associations as well as missed and erroneous detections. A key to obtain this ability is the inclusion of data forgetting by a procedure for propagation of target type probability states between measurement time instances. Other important properties of the algorithms are their abilities to handle ambiguous data and scenarios. The above aspects are illustrated in a simulations study. The simulation setup includes 46 air targets of 6 different types that are tracked by 5 airborne sensor platforms using ESM's and IRST's as data sources.

Wigren, Torbjorn

2001-08-01

339

Triplet based online track finding in the PANDA-STT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PANDA-Experiment at the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt will study antiproton-proton collisions in a fixed-target setup with a phase-space cooled antiproton beam with a momentum from 1.5 to 15 GeV/c at a nominal interaction rate of 2 · 107 s?1. The data acquisition of the detectors has to run in a triggerless mode and the physics events of interest are identified by an online event filter. Tracking information is a key input for the event filter to distinguish signal events from background. A variety of tracking algorithms is foreseen to process the different track topologies. The so-called Triplet Finder, which is presented here, is a track finding algorithm based on the central straw tube tracker (STT) of PANDA. The algorithm focuses on mathematical simplicity and robustness to allow an online processing of the incoming detector hits. The algorithm and results of a proof-of-concept implementation are presented.

Mertens, M. C.; Panda collaboration

2014-04-01

340

Robotic vehicle with multiple tracked mobility platforms  

DOEpatents

A robotic vehicle having two or more tracked mobility platforms that are mechanically linked together with a two-dimensional coupling, thereby forming a composite vehicle of increased mobility. The robotic vehicle is operative in hazardous environments and can be capable of semi-submersible operation. The robotic vehicle is capable of remote controlled operation via radio frequency and/or fiber optic communication link to a remote operator control unit. The tracks have a plurality of track-edge scallop cut-outs that allow the tracks to easily grab onto and roll across railroad tracks, especially when crossing the railroad tracks at an oblique angle.

Salton, Jonathan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Buttz, James H. (Albuquerque, NM); Garretson, Justin (Albuquerque, NM); Hayward, David R. (Wetmore, CO); Hobart, Clinton G. (Albuquerque, NM); Deuel, Jr., Jamieson K. (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-07-24

341

Central bank Financial Independence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central bank independence is a multifaceted institutional design. The financial component has been seldom analysed. This paper intends to set a comprehensive conceptual background for central bank financial independence. Quite often central banks are modelled as robot like maximizers of some goal. This perspective neglects the fact that central bank functions are inevitably deployed on its balance sheet and have

J. Ramon Martinez-Resano

2004-01-01

342

NASA Tracking Ship Navigation Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ship position and attitude measurement system that was installed aboard the tracking ship Vanguard is described. An overview of the entire system is given along with a description of how precise time and frequency is utilized. The instrumentation is b...

J. J. Mckenna

1976-01-01

343

Semi-supervised ensemble tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised ensemble tracking approach under the framework of particle filter. The particle filter is used not only for object searching, but also for unlabelled sample generation. By adopting the semi-supervised learning technology, these unlabelled samples which are generated online are utilized to progressively modify the classifier and make the ensemble tracker to be more

Huaping Liu; Fuchun Sun

2009-01-01

344

Deer Tracks in the City?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Why would a deer print be in the city?" wondered a student. She had noticed the track near a grocery store that morning with her mother. She was familiar with deer and had noticed their prints on a trip to a local museum; however, she had never seen a de

Rodriguez, Antonia; Quigley, Cassie F.; Buck, Gayle; Riggs, Morgan; Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole

2009-10-01

345

RFID for personal asset tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed mobile device uses radio frequency identification (RFID) to keep track of registered objects that are within range of the user. The goal is to provide a new security solution for keeping belongings that are carried around. The device consists of a mobile RFID reader and a control program with a graphical user interface. The assets are attached with

S. Chan; A. Connell; R. Kamoua

2009-01-01

346

Multisensor-multitarget tracking testbed  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a multisensor-multitarget tracking testbed for large-scale distributed scenarios. The objective is to develop a testbed capable of handling multiple, heterogeneous sensors in a hierarchical architecture for maritime surveillance. The testbed consists of a scenario generator that can generate simulated data from multiple sensors including radar, sonar, IR and ESM as well as a tracker framework

David Akselrod; Ratnasigham Tharmarasa; T. Kirubarajan; Zhen Ding; Tony Ponsford

2009-01-01

347

Etching fission tracks in zircons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new technique has been developed whereby fission tracks can be etched in zircon with a solution of sodium hydroxide at 220??C. Etching time varied between 15 minutes and 5 hours. Colored zircon required less etching time than the colorless varieties.

Naeser, C. W.

1969-01-01

348

Haptic Tracking Permits Bimanual Independence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study shows that in a novel task--bimanual haptic tracking--neurologically normal human adults can move their 2 hands independently for extended periods of time with little or no training. Participants lightly touched buttons whose positions were moved either quasi-randomly in the horizontal plane by 1 or 2 human drivers (Experiment 1), in…

Rosenbaum, David A.; Dawson, Amanda A.; Challis, John H.

2006-01-01

349

Human tracking by mode seeking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Change detection by background subtraction is a common approach to detect moving foreground. The resulting difference image is usually thresholded to obtain objects based on pixel connectedness and resulting blob objects are subsequently tracked. This paper proposes a detection approach not requiring the binarization of the difference image. Local density maxima in the difference image - usually representing moving objects

Csaba Beleznai; B. Fruhstuck; H. Bischof

2005-01-01

350

Quintessence Tracking in Generalised Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quintessence tracking models have been put forward as a way of providing the missing cosmic energy required to make up for the shortfall between the observed clumped matter density and the critical density - as seems to be demanded by current observations - as well as simultaneously solving the initial condition problem faced by a cosmological constant. The robustness of

Greg Huey; Reza Tavakol

2002-01-01

351

Long distance tracking of birds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of radio telemetry techniques to the long distance tracking of birds is discussed. The types of equipment developed and methods for attachment to a bird are described. The operating range of the radio transmitter receiver system is examined, and methods for acquiring and analyzing the data are explained.

Cochran, W. W.

1972-01-01

352

Models for Railway Track Allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal track allocation problem (OPTRA) is to find, in a given railway network, a conflict free set of train routes of maximum value. We study two types of integer programming formulations for this problem: a standard formulation that models block conflicts in terms of packing constraints, and a novel formulation of the 'extended' type that is based on additional

Ralf Borndörfer; Thomas Schlechte

2007-01-01

353

On Doppler measurements for tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an investigation of the fundamental and practical distinctions between state estimates obtained by using the positional components of a phased array radar (PAR) measurements versus the estimate obtained by using the additional Doppler component. By employing the Doppler component of PAR measurements several significant improvements in tracking system performance are practically achievable including: lower state estimate uncertainty,

Matthew A. Smith

2008-01-01

354

Anonymous Tracking Using RFID Tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing use of RFID tags in many applications have brought forth valid concerns of privacy and anonymity among users. One of the primary concerns with RFID tags is their ability to track an individually tagged entity. While this capability is currently thought to be necessary for supporting some features of RFID systems, such practice can lead to potential privacy

Murali S. Kodialam; Thyaga Nandagopal; Wing Cheong Lau

2007-01-01

355

Fast-Track Teacher Recruitment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools need a Renaissance human-resources director to implement strategic staffing and fast-track teacher-recruitment plans. The HR director must attend to customer satisfaction, candidate supply, web-based recruitment possibilities, stabilization of newly hired staff, retention of veteran staff, utilization of retired employees, and latest…

Grant, Franklin Dean

2001-01-01

356

Program Tracks Cost Of Travel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Travel Forecaster is menu-driven, easy-to-use computer program that plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost of business-related travel of division or branch of organization and compiles information into data base to aid travel planner. Ability of program to handle multiple trip entries makes it valuable time-saving device.

Mauldin, Lemuel E., III

1993-01-01

357

Ship Tracks South of Alaska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from NASA's Earth Observatory shows images of visible tracks made in the Earth's atmosphere from clouds forming around ship exhaust particles. One of these images shows the relative sizes of the particles, and the text relates the relative sizes to the relative brightness of the clouds that are formed.

2009-05-27

358

Interface Tracking for Axisymmetric Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

A front tracking methodfor inviscidgas d ynamics is presented . The key construc- tions andalgorithms usedin the cod e are d escribedandthe interrelations between shock capturing, interface d ynamics, computational geometry, gridconstruction, andparallelism are d iscussedfor the code as a whole. Validation is carried out by comparing the single mode bubble velocity for Rayleigh-Taylor instability with theoretical models and experimental

James Glimm; John W. Grove; Yongmin Zhang

2002-01-01

359

Quadrotor Helicopter Trajectory Tracking Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Stanford Testbed of Autonomous Rotorcraft for Multi-Agent Control (STARMAC), a eet of quadrotor helicopters, has been developed as a testbed for novel algorithms that enable autonomous operation of aerial vehicles. This paper develops an autonomous vehicle trajectory tracking algorithm through cluttered environments for the STARMAC platform. A system relying on a single optimization must trade o the complexity of

Gabriel M. Homann; Steven L. Waslander; Claire J. Tomlin

360

Radio Tracking of Meteorological Balloons  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need for upper air meteorological observation at night as well as in the daytime, in cloudy and in foggy weather as well as in clear. This need has given rise to a number of interesting methods of obtaining these data, among them radio tracking of meteorological balloons. A free balloon moves in the air current prevailing at

W. R. Blair; H. M. Lewis

1931-01-01

361

Opportunity Tracks Seen from Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity landed on the red planet a year ago. This enhanced-resolution image from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter is the only picture obtained thus far (by Jan. 24, 2005) that shows the tracks made by Opportunity.

The image was acquired on April 26, 2004, during Opportunity's 91st martian day, or sol. That was the first day of Opportunity's extended mission, and the rover had recently completed exploration of small 'Fram Crater' on the route from its landing site toward 'Endurance Crater,' where it would eventually spend six months. The rover itself can be seen in this image -- an amazing accomplishment, considering that the orbiter was nearly 400 kilometers (nearly 250 miles) away at the time! Also visible and labeled on this image are the spacecraft's lander, backshell, parachute and heat shield, plus effects of its landing rockets.

The camera captured this image with use of a technique called compensated pitch and roll targeted observation. In this method, the entire spacecraft rolls as it passes over the target area so the camera can scan in a way that sees details at three times higher resolution than the camera's normal high-resolution capability.

The tracks made by Opportunity on the sandy surface of Meridiani Planum are not quite as visible from orbit as are the tracks made in Gusev Crater by the other Mars Exploration Rover, Spirit. A dustier surface at the Spirit site increases contrast between the tracks and the surrounding surfaces. Indeed, some parts of the track made by Opportunity are not visible in this image. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left. North is toward the top of the image. The 100-meter scale bar is 109 yards long.

2005-01-01

362

Particle tracking and mean residence time in barchan dunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze sediment particles motions in steady-state barchan dunes by tracking individual cells of a 3-D cellular automaton dune model. The overall sediment flux may be decomposed into advective and dispersive fluxes to estimate the relative contribution of the underlying physical processes to the barchan dune shape. The net lateral sediment transport from the center to the horns indicates that dispersion on the stoss slope is more efficient than avalanches on the lee slope. The combined effect of these two antagonistic dispersive processes restricts the lateral mixing of sediment particles in the central region of barchan dunes. Then, for different flow strength and dune size, we find that the mean residence time of sediment particles in barchan dunes is equal to the surface of the central longitudinal dune slices divided by the input sand flux. We infer that this central slice contains most of the relevant information about barchan dune morphodynamics. Finally, we initiate a discussion about sediment transport and memory in presence of bedforms using the advantages of the particle tracking technique.

Zhang, Deguo; Narteau, Clement; Rozier, Olivier

2013-04-01

363

Work Flow Analysis Report Action Tracking  

SciTech Connect

The Work Flow Analysis Report will be used to facilitate the requirements for implementing the further deployment of the Action Tracking module of Passport. The report consists of workflow integration processes for Action Tracking.

PETERMANN, M.L.

1999-12-14

364

Energy Tracking Software Platform, (Final Report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acceleration has created an interactive energy tracking and visualization platform that supports decreasing electric, water, and gas usage. Homeowners have access to tools that allow them to gauge their use and track progress toward a smaller energy footp...

H. Knowles N. Bird R. Birx R. Davis

2011-01-01

365

21 CFR 1271.290 - Tracking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracking. 1271.290 Section 1271.290...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...Tissue Practice § 1271.290 Tracking. (a) General . If...

2010-04-01

366

21 CFR 1271.290 - Tracking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Tracking. 1271.290 Section 1271.290...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...Tissue Practice § 1271.290 Tracking. (a) General . If...

2009-04-01

367

Real-Time Video Tracking Concepts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Real-time video (RTV) tracking concepts are developed for tracking high performance targets in noisy background scenes. Image processing techniques are combined with parallel processing methods to perform a statistical analysis of a TV image, partition th...

G. M. Flachs P. I. Perez R. B. Rogers S. J. Szymanski J. M. Taylor

1979-01-01

368

Enhancement of Multiple Target Track Simulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Enhancement of Multiple Target Track Simulation task had as its primary objective the development of an integrated simulation of Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) Acquisition, Tracking, Pointing, and Fire Control (ATP-FC) functions from previously de...

J. L. Penatzer

1992-01-01

369

Wood Tie Track Resistance Characterization and Correlations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work presented here is part of a major program to evaluate lateral buckling of continuous welded rail (CUR) tracks. The program to develop the technical information to support safety guidelines and specifications for track buckling prevention is being...

A. Kanaan A. Kish A. Sluz G. Samavedam J. Pietrak

1995-01-01

370

Tracking Algorithm Performance Analysis Program (TRAPP).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Target-tracking is an estimation problem for which many different computer algorithms may be designed. The choice of which algorithm best suits a particular problem is a tradeoff of tracking performance versus computational cost (memory size and speed, CP...

S. G. Azevedo

1985-01-01

371

More Durable Tracks for Heavy Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tie bars instead of threaded fasteners make track throwing less likely. Proposed undercarriage for tank or bulldozer has flanged edges to prevent rocks and other road debris from getting caught in track drive and damaging or casting off track. Improved track has no threaded fasteners to be loosened by road shock and vibration. Continuous chain of floating guide bars articulated at web junctions. Pins replace bolted connections. Guide bars and flanges on vehicle keep out stones.

Collins, Earl R., Jr.

1987-01-01

372

Electromagnetic servoing-a new tracking paradigm.  

PubMed

Electromagnetic (EM) tracking is highly relevant for many computer assisted interventions. This is in particular due to the fact that the scientific community has not yet developed a general solution for tracking of flexible instruments within the human body. Electromagnetic tracking solutions are highly attractive for minimally invasive procedures, since they do not require line of sight. However, a major problem with EM tracking solutions is that they do not provide uniform accuracy throughout the tracking volume and the desired, highest accuracy is often only achieved close to the center of tracking volume. In this paper, we present a solution to the tracking problem, by mounting an EM field generator onto a robot arm. Proposing a new tracking paradigm, we take advantage of the electromagnetic tracking to detect the sensor within a specific sub-volume, with known and optimal accuracy. We then use the more accurate and robust robot positioning for obtaining uniform accuracy throughout the tracking volume. Such an EM servoing methodology guarantees optimal and uniform accuracy, by allowing us to always keep the tracked sensor close to the center of the tracking volume. In this paper, both dynamic accuracy and accuracy distribution within the tracking volume are evaluated using optical tracking as ground truth. In repeated evaluations, the proposed method was able to reduce the overall error from 6.64±7.86 mm to a significantly improved accuracy of 3.83±6.43 mm. In addition, the combined system provides a larger tracking volume, which is only limited by the reach of the robot and not the much smaller tracking volume defined by the magnetic field generator. PMID:23911947

Reichl, Tobias; Gardiazabal, José; Navab, Nassir

2013-08-01

373

Track formation models: A short review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two models of nuclear track formation in minerals, one due to Fleischer, Price and Walker, the other to Dartyge et al. are briefly described, and their respective drawbacks discussed. New experimental results, with implications on the modelling of the track behavior, on the measurement of the etch rate of 150 MeV/amu U ion tracks, and on the determination of fission track annealing kinetics in minerals, are reported.

Pellas, P.; Perron, C.

1984-02-01

374

Exhumation and relief history of the Southern Carpathians (Romania) as evaluated from apatite fission track chronology in crystalline basement and intramontane sedimentary rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of apatite fission track (FT) thermochronology from basement units and the FT age distributions of apatites in the Miocene intramontane sedimentary rocks allows describing the exhumation history of the central segment of the Southern Carpathians, Romania. Exhumation and cooling from the total track annealing temperature (>120°C) of the Cozia and Cibin massifs occurred in the Palaeocene–Early Eocene. Between

F. Moser; H. P. Hann; I. Dunkl; W. Frisch

2005-01-01

375

AnnoTrack - a tracking system for genome annotation  

PubMed Central

Background As genome sequences are determined for increasing numbers of model organisms, demand has grown for better tools to facilitate unified genome annotation efforts by communities of biologists. Typically this process involves numerous experts from the field and the use of data from dispersed sources as evidence. This kind of collaborative annotation project requires specialized software solutions for efficient data tracking and processing. Results As part of the scale-up phase of the ENCODE project (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements), the aim of the GENCODE project is to produce a highly accurate evidence-based reference gene annotation for the human genome. The AnnoTrack software system was developed to aid this effort. It integrates data from multiple distributed sources, highlights conflicts and facilitates the quick identification, prioritisation and resolution of problems during the process of genome annotation. Conclusions AnnoTrack has been in use for the last year and has proven a very valuable tool for large-scale genome annotation. Designed to interface with standard bioinformatics components, such as DAS servers and Ensembl databases, it is easy to setup and configure for different genome projects. The source code is available at http://annotrack.sanger.ac.uk.

2010-01-01

376

Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration

Langner; G. Harold

1993-01-01

377

Learning to Track Objects Through Unobserved Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

As tracking systems become more effective at reliably tracking multiple objects over extended periods of time within single camera views and across overlapping cam- era views, increasing attention is being focused on track- ing objects through periods where they are not observed. This paper investigates an unsupervised hypothesis testing method for learning the characteristics of objects passing unobserved from one

Chris Stauffer

2005-01-01

378

Galilean Tracks in the Physics Lab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations of Galileo's famous track experiments in acceleration are commonly performed in high school and college.1 The purpose of this article is to present a sequence of three low-tech basic kinematics experiments using Galilean tracks that can be set up extremely quickly and yet generally yield excellent results. A low-cost construction method for the tracks is also given.

Hellman, Walter

2011-11-01

379

A brief review on visual tracking methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term robust visual tracking is still a challenge, primarily due to the appearance changes of the scene and target. In this paper, we briefly review the recent progress in image representation, appearance model and motion model for building a general tracking system. The models reviewed here are basic enough to be applicable for tracking either single target or multiple targets.

Xiang Xiang

2011-01-01

380

Probabilistic detection and tracking of IR targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of automatic target recognition (ATR) and image classification have been active research fields in image processing. In this research, we explore ATR techniques such as object pre-processing, detection, tracking and classification for sequence of infrared (IR) images. The detection and tracking of IR images is performed using Bayesian probabilistic technique. The tracked part of the object frame is

Jahangheer S. Shaik; Khan M. Iftekharuddin

2004-01-01

381

Fission track dating of zircon: a multichronometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scattering in Fission Track ages of zircons of a single rock is possible when they present morphological and geochemical variations, if the greatest care is not taken in the choice of the etching conditions and the counting of tracks. The Fission Track st...

J. Carpena

1992-01-01

382

Concurrent Online Tracking of Mobile Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the problem of maintaining distributed directory server, that enables us to keep track of mobile users in a distributed network in the presence of concurrent requests. The paper uses the graph-theoretic concept of regional matching for imple- menting efficient tracking mechanisms. The communi- cation overhead of our tracking mechanism is within a polylogarithmic factor of the

Baruch Awerbuch; David Peleg

1991-01-01

383

The Contours of Tracking in North Carolina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this analysis of North Carolina high schools the author examines school tracking policies using an amended version of Sorensen's (1970) conceptualization of the organizational dimensions of tracking. Data from curriculum guides in a stratified sample of 92 high schools reveal both consistency and variation in how tracking is implemented at the…

Kelly, Sean

2007-01-01

384

Human hand tracking from binocular image sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensing of human hand motion is very important for a variety of applications, such as computer animation and athletic performance measurement. Tracking a hand is difficult because the hand has high degree of freedom articulated mechanisms. This paper presents a 3D model-based hand tracking method which is robust to occlusions and local minima. Tracking is performed by minimizing the estimation

K. Nirei; H. Saito; M. Mochimaru; S. Ozawa

1996-01-01

385

Human tracking using distributed vision systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a wide area human tracking method using distributed computer vision systems. Each vision system consists of a camera and an image processor and they are all connected through a computer network. In this paper, we propose a method for human tracking and for coordination of all the vision systems. The human tracking method works on each vision system

Atsushi NAKAZAWA; Hirokazu KATO; Seiji INOKUCHI

1998-01-01

386

The Improved Particle Filter for Object Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of object tracking encountered in video processing. The proposed approach is mainly composed of object modeling, the improved particle filter and mixture filtering. First, each of visual objects can be modeled by multi-part color likelihood model. To tackle self-occlusion of the tracked objects, the color distribution representing the tracked object can be updated over time. We

Qicong Wang; Jilin Liu

2006-01-01

387

Improved particle filtering schemes for target tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose two improved particle filtering schemes for target tracking, one based on a gradient proposal and the other based on the turbo principle. We present the basic ideas and derivations and show detailed results of three tracking applications. Favorable experimental findings have shown the efficiency of our proposed schemes and their potential in other tracking scenarios.

Zhe Chen; Thia Kirubarajan; Mark R. Morelande

2005-01-01

388

Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration

Langner; G. H. Jr

1991-01-01

389

Topic Tracking in a News Stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a Topic Tracking system based on unigrammodels, submitted by Dragon Systems in the December 1998 TopicDetection and Tracking (TDT) Evaluation. We focus on the mostrecent developments, including improvements in the smoothing ofsparse unigram models, a better discriminator, and the implementationof unsupervised adaptation. We give results on the default testconditions, namely, tracking in newswire and automatically

J. p. Yamron; I. Carp; L. Gillick; S. Lowe

1999-01-01

390

SPINK, A Thin Elements Spin Tracking Code  

SciTech Connect

Spink is a spin tracking code for spin polarized particles. The code tracks both trajectories in 3D and spin. It works using thick element modeling from MAD and thin element modeling based on the BMT equation to track spin. The code is written in Fortran and typically runs on a Linux platform, either sequentially or MPI-parallel.

Luccio, Alfredo U. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

2009-08-04

391

Tracking multiple speakers using random sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracking multiple speakers in an acoustic environment involves jointly estimating the number of speakers and their states. This important problem in signal processing is challenging in theory as well as implementation. The paper presents a novel and fundamentally well-grounded framework for tracking multiple speakers using random finite sets. Simulations are also presented to demonstrate the performance in tracking a randomly

Ba-Ngu Vo; Sumeetpal Singh; Wing Kin Ma

2004-01-01

392

Detection and frequency tracking of chirping signals  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses several methods to detect the presence of and track the frequency of a chirping signal in broadband noise. The dynamic behavior of each of the methods is described and tracking error bounds are investigated in terms of the chirp rate. Frequency tracking and behavior in the presence of varying levels of noise are illustrated in examples. 11 refs., 29 figs.

Elliott, G.R.; Stearns, S.D.

1990-08-01

393

Multiple-target tracking with radar applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory and evaluation methods for the design of multiple target tracking (MTT) systems are examined. The Kalman and fixed-gain filtering, techniques for adaptive filtering, and the selection of tracking coordinate systems for filtering and prediction are described. Gating and data association techniques, measurement formation and processing for MTT, and methods for track confirmation and deletion are discussed. MTT system

S. S. Blackman

1986-01-01

394

Fuzzy contour tracking of human silhouettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video-based tracking of contours on the human body has been shown to be useful for many applications, including gait and gesture recognition, posture estimation, and activity analysis. We present a contour tracking method that incorporates a novel edge feature and fuzzy contour template. We apply our method in tracking the motions of older adults exercising in a gym environment. The

Timothy C. Havens; Gregory L. Alexander; James M. Keller; Marjorie Skubic; Marilyn Rantz

2009-01-01

395

Complete Solution of Sun Tracking for Heliostat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general solution of sun tracking for an arbitrarily oriented heliostat towards an arbitrarily located target on the earth is published. With the most general form of solar tracking formulae, it is seen that the used azimuth-elevation, spinning-elevation tracking formulae etc. are the special cases of it. The possibilities of utilizing the general solution and its significance in solar energy

Chen Ying-Tian; Lim Boon-Han; Lim Chern-Sing

2006-01-01

396

AMSTE precision fire control tracking overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DARPA Affordable Moving Surface Target Engagement (AMSTE) program is a research effort to develop a system concept to track and engage a moving surface target with a single unitary warhead. Engaging a moving surface target requires precision tracking to a degree that has not been demonstrated in previous work. Tracking moving surface targets is especially difficult because of the

David R. Kirk; T. Grayson; D. Garren; Chee-Yee Chong

2000-01-01

397

Online Selection of Discriminative Tracking Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an online feature selection mechanism for evaluating multiple features while tracking and adjusting the set of features used to improve tracking performance. Our hypothesis is that the features that best discriminate between object and background are also best for tracking the object. Given a set of seed features, we compute log likelihood ratios of class conditional sample

Robert T. Collins; Yanxi Liu; Marius Leordeanu

2005-01-01

398

Novel observation model for probabilistic object tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treating visual object tracking as foreground and background classification problem has attracted much attention in the past decade. Most methods adopt mean shift or brute force search to perform object tracking on the generated probability map, which is obtained from the classification results; however, performing probabilistic object tracking on the probability map is almost unexplored. This paper proposes a novel

Dawei Liang; Qingming Huang; Hongxun Yao; Shuqiang Jiang; Rongrong Ji; Wen Gao

2010-01-01

399

Advances in Eye Tracking in Infancy Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2004, McMurray and Aslin edited for "Infancy" a special section on eye tracking. The articles in that special issue revealed the enormous promise of automatic eye tracking with young infants and demonstrated that eye-tracking procedures can provide significant insight into the emergence of cognitive, social, and emotional processing in infancy.…

Oakes, Lisa M.

2012-01-01

400

Leadership Lessons from the Fast Track Programme for Teachers in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Fast Track Teaching (FTT) programme in England, developed and funded by central government, is an accelerated leadership development programme designed for teachers in the early years of their careers. It was intended to promote their retention and rapid promotion in the profession through advancing their leadership skills. It provides a…

Jones, Jeffrey

2010-01-01

401

Location Tracking in a Wireless Sensor Network by Mobile Agents and Its Data Fusion Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wireless sensor network is an emerging technology that may greatly facilitate human life by providing ubiquitous sensing, computing, and communi- cation capability, through which people can more closely interact with the envi- ronment wherever he\\/she goes. To be context-aware, one of the central issues in sensor networks is location tracking, whose goal is to monitor the roaming path of

Yu-chee Tseng; Sheng-po Kuo; Hung-wei Lee; Chi-fu Huang

2003-01-01

402

The North Pole Environmental Observatory: A Community Resource for Tracking Change in the Arctic Marine Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North Pole Environmental Observatory (NPEO) was first established in 2000 as means of long-term tracking of change in the central Arctic Basin. The multiple investigators of NPEO intend the site to provide information and field research opportunities to a broad range of investigators. It is not limited to a single location, but is a distributed observatory consisting of three

J. Morison; K. Aagaard; K. Falkner; T. Kikuchi; M. McPhee; D. Moritz; J. Overland; T. Stanton; M. Steele

2004-01-01

403

Location Tracking in a Wireless Sensor Network by Mobile Agents and Its Data Fusion Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wireless sensor network is an emerging technology that may greatly aid humans by providing ubiquitous sensing, computing and communication capabilities, through which people can more closely interact with the environment wherever they go. To be context-aware, one of the central issues in sensor networks is location tracking, whose goal is to monitor the roaming path of a moving object.

Yu-chee Tseng; Sheng-po Kuo; Hung-wei Lee; Chi-fu Huang

2004-01-01

404

Three-dimensional tracking solar energy concentrator and method for making same  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three dimensional tracking solar energy concentrator, consisting of a stretched aluminized polymeric membrane supported by a hoop, was presented. The system is sturdy enough to withstand expected windage forces and precipitation. It can provide the high temperature output needed by central station power plants for power production in the multi-megawatt range.

Miller, C. G.; Pohl, J. G. (inventors)

1977-01-01

405

New technologies in the D0 central tracker upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The D0 collaboration has undertaken an aggressive upgrade of its central tracking system. The existing tracker will be completely removed and replaced by a two Tesla superconducting solenoidal magnet, an 837 000 channel silicon vertex system, and 80 000 channel scintillating fiber tracker, followed by a 7 680 channel central preshower detector and a 16 000 channel forward preshower detector. In this paper the author discusses all of the subsystems of the D0 central tracker upgrade, but will emphasize those aspects which involve new technology: radiation hard scintillating fiber, VLPC`s and extruded scintillating strips.

Lincoln, D. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); D0 Collaboration

1996-06-01

406

Automated nuclei tracking in C. elegans based on spherical model fitting with multiple target tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for tracking nuclei of C. elegans cells in three dimensional time lapse (4D) data during embryogenesis. It is based on spherical model fitting with multiple target tracking. The algorithm tracks nuclei in a local search space, detects cell division, and searches for newborn sister cells locally. It tracks multiple candidates and postpones the decision to select

Sukryool Kang; Claudiu A. Giurumescu; Andrew D. Chisholm; Pamela Cosman

2012-01-01

407

Track to track association performed on mahalanobis distance in both observable and unobservable situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical procedures for inter-arrays bearing track to track association in passive sonar are adressed. Usually this task was performed directly on bearing measurements which requires transmission of the whole tracks during long time periods. Here a simpler suboptimal approach is presented : bearings tracks are processed on each platform to obtain local kinematic source parameters estimates which are exchanged by

J. M. Passerieux; D. Pillon; P. Verveur

1989-01-01

408

[Tracking axis of the body tracking test(BTT)].  

PubMed

We report herein on the use of the body tracking test (BTT), which is a method for quantitatively evaluating dynamic body balancing function, and how the body center moves during tracking by healthy subjects. We investigated 779 healthy subjects with no history of vertigo or balance disorder and a mean age of 37.9 years. Breakdown is as follows. Under 10 years old is 81 (37 boy and 44 girl), 10 years of age is 162 (73 boy and 89 girl), 20 years of age is 110 (43 men and 67 women), 30 years of age is 73 (44 male, 29 female), 40 years of age is 79 (49 men and 30 women), 50 years of age is 77 (40 men and 37 women), 60 years of age is 100 (53 men and 47 women), 70 years of age is 73 (27 men and 46 women), 80 years of age is 24 (15 men and 9 women). For the visual stimulus, we used a constant-speed antero-posterior (A-P) stimulus BTT and a constant-speed lateral BTT. BTT analysis involved principal axis analysis, in which the principal axis was the first principal component according to a principal component analysis technique. The axis tilt in the principal axis direction was assessed by calculating the coordinate Y-axis and X-axis tilt. In the anteroposterior (A-P) BTT, subjects of all ages exhibited an angle of tilt in the clockwise direction (the "plus" direction), together with the position vector and velocity vector. In the lateral BTT, we observed that the subjects tracked with a tilt in the counter-clockwise direction (the "minus" direction), together with the position vector and velocity vector. In terms of the subjects' ages, the angle of tilt from 0 degree in the antero-posterior (A-P) BTT showed the clockwise direction (the "plus" direction). In the lateral BTT, subjects 10 to 30 years of age exhibited tracking along the X-axis, with no observable tilt. Movement of the center of gravity may be a major acquired ability (practice) with respect to the direction of tilt of the tracking axis. Spatial sensory ability primarily involves the right parietal lobe of the brain, and somatosensory information from the left side of the body is believed to be used more for the positional relationships between the legs and the torso. Deviation of the principal axis appears to be related to the relationship between the dominant foot and the pivot foot, as well as to the functions of the parietal lobe that are involved in spatial sensing. PMID:24558946

Yoshida, Tomoe; Ikemiyagi, Fuyuko; Ikemiyagi, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Toshitake; Takanami, Taro; Tamura, Yuya; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Suzuki, Mitsuya

2013-12-01

409

Particle tracking velocimetry in swirl-stabilised burners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle tracking velocimetry was applied in a water model of a swirl-stabilised burner and quantified Lagrangian particle residence time distributions in the near burner region and temporal evolution of particle mean square dispersion in axial and radial directions. The results suggest that instantaneous flow eddies with appropriate timescales increase particle response to the flow and ``trap'' particles within the time-averaged recirculation zone in the near burner region. Central particle injection doubled particle residence time up to the end of the internal recirculation zone relative to off-axis injection and this may lead to lower NOx emissions.

Hardalupas, Y.; Pantelides, K.; Whitelaw, J. H.

410

Tracking with the mind's eye  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two components of voluntary tracking eye-movements in primates, pursuit and saccades, are generally viewed as relatively independent oculomotor subsystems that move the eyes in different ways using independent visual information. Although saccades have long been known to be guided by visual processes related to perception and cognition, only recently have psychophysical and physiological studies provided compelling evidence that pursuit is also guided by such higher-order visual processes, rather than by the raw retinal stimulus. Pursuit and saccades also do not appear to be entirely independent anatomical systems, but involve overlapping neural mechanisms that might be important for coordinating these two types of eye movement during the tracking of a selected visual object. Given that the recovery of objects from real-world images is inherently ambiguous, guiding both pursuit and saccades with perception could represent an explicit strategy for ensuring that these two motor actions are driven by a single visual interpretation.

Krauzlis, R. J.; Stone, L. S.

1999-01-01

411

Rover Tracks at Crater's Edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tracks left by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity as it traveled along the rim of Victoria Crater can be seen clearly in this image taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft.

This is a subframe of a larger image that the camera acquired on June 26, 2007. The larger image will be released as HiRISE catalogue number PSP_004289_1780 after geometric processing.

Opportunity first approached Victoria Crater at an alcove informally named 'Duck Bay' (see tracks at left). It then drove along the crater's sinuous edge in a clockwise direction before heading back to Duck Bay, where it is expected to enter the crater in early July 2007.

2007-01-01

412

Emission characteristics of VOCs from athletic tracks.  

PubMed

Dynamic and flow-through flux chambers are convenient tools for field measurements of gas or VOC emission flux from solid surfaces in the field. This study was undertaken to collect on site and quantify the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from athletic running tracks. Three typical types of tracks, one synthetic rubber and two tracks (types I and II) consisting mainly of polyurethane, were studied. They were all installed with adhesives and backings, both of which contributed significant amount of VOCs. VOCs released from the track surface were collected with a flux chamber and subsequently analyzed by a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Also, for each track and at each selected time the emission flux and mass emission were measured on site under outdoor conditions over a period of 40 min. GC/MS analyses show that the VOCs emitted include 2-methyl furan, butanal, methyl ethyl ketone, benzene, heptane, methyl isobutyl ketone, toluene+octane, hexanal, nonane+ethylbenzene, xylenes+styrene, propyl benzene, decane, 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene, 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene, 1,2, 3-trimethyl benzene and undecane. Of these, hexanal was the common and principal compound for all three types of tracks. 2-Methyl furan and methyl isobutyl ketone were the characteristic compounds for the synthetic rubber and the type II of polyurethane tracks, respectively. In the field studies, no unique compounds were found in the type I of polyurethane tracks. For each of these three types of tracks the total-VOCs emission flux was correlated to the track age and track surface temperature. The results of multiple regression analysis showed good correlation. The type II polyurethane track had the highest decay rate, while the synthetic rubber track had the lowest decay rate. Two years after the track installation, the VOC concentrations measured at 1.5 m above the track, the breathing height of school children, were not significantly higher than the background levels. PMID:10611425

Chang, F H; Lin, T C; Huang, C I; Chao, H R; Chang, T Y; Lu, C S

1999-12-23

413

Single nanoparticle tracking spectroscopic microscope  

DOEpatents

A system that can maintain and track the position of a single nanoparticle in three dimensions for a prolonged period has been disclosed. The system allows for continuously imaging the particle to observe any interactions it may have. The system also enables the acquisition of real-time sequential spectroscopic information from the particle. The apparatus holds great promise in performing single molecule spectroscopy and imaging on a non-stationary target.

Yang, Haw (Moraga, CA); Cang, Hu (Berkeley, CA); Xu, Cangshan (Berkeley, CA); Wong, Chung M. (San Gabriel, CA)

2011-07-19

414

Infrared tag and track technique  

SciTech Connect

A method of covertly tagging an object for later tracking includes providing a material capable of at least one of being applied to the object and being included in the object, which material includes deuterium; and performing at least one of applying the material to the object and including the material in the object in a manner in which in the appearance of the object is not changed, to the naked eye.

Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Slater, John (Albuquerque, NM); Davidson, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-12-04

415

Tracking the West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can viral sequences help us establish the origin of the virus that appeared in the US in 1999? Epidemiologists have adopted bioinformatics approaches using sequence data from strains of pathogens to track the movement of bacteria and viruses from continent to continent. * explore a data set of West Nile Virus sequences from all over the world that date from the mid-20th century to the present

Erica Suchmann (University of California - San Diego;Biology); Mark Gallo (Niagara University;Biology)

2006-05-20

416

Visual Tracking Using Harmony Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter we present a novel method for tracking an arbitrary target through a video sequence using the Harmony Search\\u000a algorithm called the Harmony Filter. The Harmony Filter models the target using a color histogram and compares potential matches\\u000a in each video frame using the Bhattacharyya coefficient. Matches are found using the Improved Harmony Search (IHS) algorithm.\\u000a Experimental results

Jaco Fourie; Steven Mills; Richard Green

2010-01-01

417

Electrochemical Development of Particle Tracks in CR-39 Polymer Dosimeter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electrochemical etching of CR-39 polymeric track etch neutron detectors results in proton-recoil tracks can be distinguished from background tracks much better than tracks developed solely by chemical etching. A newly designed and constructed electrochemi...

D. E. Hadlock M. A. Parkhurst C. S. Yang J. Groeger J. R. Johnson

1985-01-01

418

Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit. Second Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit, Second Edition provides guidelines and descriptions for the design of various common types of light rail transit (LRT) track. The track structure types include ballasted track, direct fixation (ballastless) tr...

2012-01-01

419

PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Fast Track Communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are very pleased to announce that Classical and Quantum Gravity will launch a new Fast Track Communications section from January 2007, after which date Letters to the Editor will no longer be published. Fast Track Communications (FTCs) are short, timely papers presenting only the most important new developments. To reflect their high significance FTCs will be published at the front of the journal and will be freely available online to ensure the widest visibility. As with all articles submitted to Classical and Quantum Gravity, there are no page charges, including online colour reproduction and multi-media attachments. Authors who wish to include colour in the print version of their article will, however, be required to cover the costs. Submissions to the new Fast Track Communications section are very welcome. For details of how to submit an FTC please visit IOP Publishing's webpages http://authors.iop.org, or contact the journal at cqg@iop.org. To facilitate refereeing, authors are asked to submit a short statement accompanying their FTC, outlining why they feel that the article merits high-priority publication. Length restrictions will also be applied such that FTCs should be a maximum of 8 journal pages (5000 words) in length. The section will aim to be a high-quality, high-profile outlet for new and important research of interest to the Classical and Quantum Gravity community. We look forward to seeing it grow and take shape over the next year.

Wald, Robert; Adams, Judith

2006-12-01

420

SWAMIS Magnetic Feature Tracking for SDO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flux emergence is central to a host of problems in solar dynamics, from the birth of new active regions and the space weather effects that result, to the maintenance of quiet sun magnetism at all phases of the solar cycle. The Southwest Automatic Magnetic Identification Suite emerging magnetic flux region detection module (SWAMIS-EF) is running on near-real-time magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. This enables near-real-time automated detection and cataloging of emerging flux regions from the active region scale down to the scale of the supergranular magnetic network. We will present an overview of the emerging flux detection algorithm, show some detailed observations of emerging flux at a variety of spatial scales, and describe some of the emerging flux region summary quantities that are output to the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase. Finally, we will describe current progress in developing Scientific SWAMIS, an adaptation and optimization of the SWAMIS tracking algorithm to run on full disk, full resolution HMI line-of-sight magnetograms.

DeForest, Craig; Lamb, D.; Davey, A.; Timmons, R.

2012-05-01

421

Central Limit Theorem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from David Lane features a description of the central limit theorem used in statistics. Examples of frequency distributions are shown, and there is also a link to an interactive demonstration of the central limit theorem.

Lane, David M.

422

Central line infections - hospitals  

MedlinePLUS

... and increase how long you are in the hospital. Your central line needs special care to prevent ... The hospital staff will use aseptic technique when a central line is put in your chest or arm. Aseptic ...

423

Peripheral signal detection and concurrent compensatory tracking.  

PubMed

A Mackworth-clock monitoring task was introduced into a standard compensatory tracking task located at different lateral positions in S's visual field, while the tracking task was located in the center of the visual field. The variables tracking frequency and monitor position were hypothesized to produce mutual interference in the dual-task arrangement, and the spatial separation of the two tasks was assumed to adversely affect peripheral signal detection. As the tracking frequency increased, peripheral monitoring performance remained high, while tracking accuracy was reduced. The position of the monitor task did not affect monitoring performance, but did influence tracking accuracy at the low tracking frequency. A divided-attention effect was found with respect to the monitoring task when both tasks were located directly in S's field of view. Eye-movement data provided some support for the notion of a functional visual field. PMID:23952728

Putz, V R; Rothe, R

1974-09-01

424

Design of a photovoltaic central power station  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic central power station designs have been developed for both high-efficiency flat-panel arrays and two-axis tracking concentrator arrays. Both designs are based on a site adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The plants are 100 MW each, made of 5 MW subfields. The site specific designs allow detailed cost estimate for site preparation, installation, and engineering. These designs are summarized and cost estimates analyzed. Provided also are recommendations for future work to reduce system cost for each plant design.

Not Available

1984-02-01

425

Martian Central Pit Craters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Impact craters containing central pits are rare on the terrestrial planets but common on icy bodies. Mars is the exception among the terrestrial planets, where central pits are seen on crater floors ('floor pits') as well as on top of central peaks ('summ...

E. Hillman N. G. Barlow

2005-01-01

426

Centrality of Cognitive Attributes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Develops measures of individual differences in attribute centrality, investigates convergent validity, and explores differences in central and noncentral attribute functions within same person. University students in three countries completed questionnaires. Four relative centrality measures correlated with information required to make decisions…

Scott, William A.; And Others

1980-01-01

427

Adjacent track aging in heat assisted magnetic recording  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adjacent track aging is the erasure of tracks near a written track. Adjacent track aging in heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) will differ from adjacent track aging in perpendicular recording because the adjacent tracks in HAMR will be exposed to heat in addition to fringing fields from the write head. In this thesis we have used multiple experimental techniques to

Brian R. Knight

2009-01-01

428

Effect of finger tracking combined with electrical stimulation on brain reorganization and hand function in subjects with stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synergism of rehabilitative interventions could maximize recovery following stroke. We examined whether the combination of\\u000a peripherally initiated electrical stimulation of finger extensors and centrally operating finger tracking training could accentuate\\u000a brain reorganization and its relationship to recovery, beyond the effects of either treatment alone. Twenty subjects with\\u000a stroke were randomly assigned to an electrical stimulation (ES), tracking training (TR) or

Ela Bhatt; Ashima Nagpal; Kristine H. Greer; Tiffany K. Grunewald; Jennifer L. Steele; Jeff W. Wiemiller; Scott M. Lewis; James R. Carey

2007-01-01

429

Comparison of track loss performance of single- and multiple-model tracking algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the more difficult problems in target tracking involves the use of a phased array radar to track an aircraft performing high speed maneuvers. Most tracking algorithms use single motion model track filters whose performance can degrade significantly when the target maneuvers. Multiple model algorithms can be used to improve the tracking accuracy and avoid the decision-directed techniques of single model track filters for maneuvering response. The interacting multiple model (IMM) algorithm uses multiple models that interact through state mixing to track a target maneuvering through an arbitrary trajectory. When tracking highly maneuvering targets with a phased array radar (i.e., agile beam), the issue of radar beam pointing is critical because poor pointing can lead to missed detections and eventually declaring lost tracks. The IMM algorithm provides a better method for beam pointing when compared to single model filters. This paper compares single and multiple model track filters with track loss as a measure of effectiveness. The effects of target maneuvers, data rate, track filter configuration, and radar beam pointing on the percentage of tracks lost are discussed. A phased array radar simulation that includes a fluctuating target, probability of detection, radar beamshape effects, and monopulse processing was used to assess the track loss performance of each algorithm.

Watson, Gregory A.; Blair, William D.

1994-07-01

430

ORTHO- ELIMINATION OF TRACKING SYSTEM CLOCK ERRORS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ORTHO is part of the Global Positioning System (GPS) being developed by the U.S. Air Force, a navigational system that will use 18 NAVSTAR satellites to broadcast navigation messages and achieve worldwide coverage. The normal positioning technique uses one receiver which receives signals from at least four GPS satellites. For higher accuracy work it is often necessary to use a differential technique in which more than one receiver is used. The geodetic measurement has all receivers on the ground and allows the determination of the relative locations of the ground sites. The main application of the ORTHO program is in the elimination of clock errors in a GPS based tracking system. The measured distance (pseudo-range) from a GPS receiver contains errors due to differences in the receiver and satellite clocks. The conventional way of eliminating clock errors is to difference pseudo-ranges between different GPS satellites and receivers. The Householder transformation used in this program performs a function similar to the conventional single differencing or double differencing. This method avoids the problem of redundancy and correlation encountered in a differencing scheme. It is able to keep all information contained in the measurements within the scope of a least square estimation. For multiple transmitter and receiver GPS tracking network, this method is in general more accurate than the differencing technique. This program assumes that the non-clock measurement partial derivatives for the particular application are computed earlier by another program. With the partial derivatives and information to identify the transmitters and receivers as the input, the program performs the Householder transformation on the partial derivatives. The transformed partials are output by the program and may be used as an input to the filter program in the subsequent estimation process. Clock partial derivatives are generated internally and are not part of the input to the program. ORTHO is written completely in FORTRAN 77 on the DEC VAX operating under VMS 4.5 and requires 805K of central memory. LINPACK, a public domain subroutine package distributed by Argonne National Laboratory and IMSL subroutine library, is required. ORTHO was released in 1988.

Wu, J. T.

1994-01-01

431

Image tracking analysis and simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combined predictor-tracker-filter algorithm is developed for tracking a well resolved object with an active direct detection sensor system. The prediction/filtering algorithm is a discounted least squares filter whose gain matrix, in closed form, is a function of a single parameter. The tracker component of the algorithm accounts for additive and multiplicative noise in the sensed object image. Simulation results are presented for the discounted least-squares filter, the alpha-beta-gamma filter, and the recursive Kalman filter using the same correlation tracker.

Ramos, J. A.; Nadal, M.; Roman, J. R.

1988-01-01

432

Particle displacement tracking for PIV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) data acquisition and analysis system, which is an order of magnitude faster than any previously proposed system has been constructed and tested. The new Particle Displacement Tracing (PDT) system is an all electronic technique employing a video camera and a large memory buffer frame-grabber board. Using a simple encoding scheme, a time sequence of single exposure images are time coded into a single image and then processed to track particle displacements and determine velocity vectors. Application of the PDT technique to a counter-rotating vortex flow produced over 1100 velocity vectors in 110 seconds when processed on an 80386 PC.

Wernet, Mark P.

1990-01-01

433

Tracking system for solar collectors  

DOEpatents

A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

Butler, Barry L. (Golden, CO)

1984-01-01

434

Tracking and activity recognition through consensus in distributed camera networks.  

PubMed

Camera networks are being deployed for various applications like security and surveillance, disaster response and environmental modeling. However, there is little automated processing of the data. Moreover, most methods for multicamera analysis are centralized schemes that require the data to be present at a central server. In many applications, this is prohibitively expensive, both technically and economically. In this paper, we investigate distributed scene analysis algorithms by leveraging upon concepts of consensus that have been studied in the context of multiagent systems, but have had little applications in video analysis. Each camera estimates certain parameters based upon its own sensed data which is then shared locally with the neighboring cameras in an iterative fashion, and a final estimate is arrived at in the network using consensus algorithms. We specifically focus on two basic problems-tracking and activity recognition. For multitarget tracking in a distributed camera network, we show how the Kalman-Consensus algorithm can be adapted to take into account the directional nature of video sensors and the network topology. For the activity recognition problem, we derive a probabilistic consensus scheme that combines the similarity scores of neighboring cameras to come up with a probability for each action at the network level. Thorough experimental results are shown on real data along with a quantitative analysis. PMID:20550994

Song, Bi; Kamal, Ahmed T; Soto, Cristian; Ding, Chong; Farrell, Jay A; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K

2010-10-01

435

Martian Central Pit Craters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Impact craters containing central pits are rare on the terrestrial planets but common on icy bodies. Mars is the exception among the terrestrial planets, where central pits are seen on crater floors ( floor pits ) as well as on top of central peaks ( summit pits ). Wood et al. [1] proposed that degassing of subsurface volatiles during crater formation produced central pits. Croft [2] argued instead that central pits might form during the impact of volatile-rich comets. Although central pits are seen in impact craters on icy moons such as Ganymede, they do show some significant differences from their martian counterparts: (a) only floor pits are seen on Ganymede, and (b) central pits begin to occur at crater diameters where the peak ring interior morphology begins to appear in terrestrial planet craters [3]. A study of craters containing central pits was conducted by Barlow and Bradley [4] using Viking imagery. They found that 28% of craters displaying an interior morphology on Mars contain central pits. Diameters of craters containing central pits ranged from 16 to 64 km. Barlow and Bradley noted that summit pit craters tended to be smaller than craters containing floor pits. They also noted a correlation of central pit craters with the proposed rings of large impact basins. They argued that basin ring formation fractured the martian crust and allowed subsurface volatiles to concentrate in these locations. They favored the model that degassing of the substrate during crater formation was responsible for central pit formation due to the preferential location of central pit craters along these basin rings.

Hillman, E.; Barlow, N. G.

2005-01-01

436

Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism  

DOEpatents

This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion.

Johnson, Kenneth C. (201 W. California Ave., #401, Sunnyvale, CA 94086) [201 W. California Ave., #401, Sunnyvale, CA 94086

1990-01-01

437

Unified detection and tracking in retinal microsurgery.  

PubMed

Traditionally, tool tracking involves two subtasks: (i) detecting the tool in the initial image in which it appears, and (ii) predicting and refining the configuration of the detected tool in subsequent images. With retinal microsurgery in mind, we propose a unified tool detection and tracking framework, removing the need for two separate systems. The basis of our approach is to treat both detection and tracking as a sequential entropy minimization problem, where the goal is to determine the parameters describing a surgical tool in each frame. The resulting framework is capable of both detecting and tracking in situations where the tool enters and leaves the field of view regularly. We demonstrate the benefits of this method in the context of retinal tool tracking. Through extensive experimentation on a phantom eye, we show that this method provides efficient and robust tool tracking and detection. PMID:22003593

Sznitman, Raphael; Basu, Anasuya; Richa, Rogerio; Handa, Jim; Gehlbach, Peter; Taylor, Russell H; Jedynak, Bruno; Hager, Gregory D

2011-01-01

438

Efficient Object Tracking in WAAS Data Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wide area airborne surveillance (WAAS) systems are a new class of remote sensing imagers which have many military and civilian applications. These systems are characterized by long loiter times (extended imaging time over fixed target areas) and large footprint target areas. These characteristics complicate moving object detection and tracking due to the large image size and high number of moving objects. This thesis evaluates existing object detection and tracking algorithms with WAAS data and provides enhancements to the processing chain which decrease processing time and increase tracking accuracy. Decreases in processing time are needed to perform real-time or near real-time tracking either on the WAAS sensor platform or in ground station processing centers. Increased tracking accuracy benefits real-time users and forensic (off-line) users. The original contribution of this thesis increases tracking efficiency and accuracy by breaking a WAAS scene into hierarchical areas of interest (AOIs) and through the use of hyperspectral cueing.

Clarke, Trevor R. H.

439

High resolution 3D insider detection and tracking.  

SciTech Connect

Vulnerability analysis studies show that one of the worst threats against a facility is that of an active insider during an emergency evacuation. When a criticality or other emergency alarm occurs, employees immediately proceed along evacuation routes to designated areas. Procedures are then implemented to account for all material, classified parts, etc. The 3-Dimensional Video Motion Detection (3DVMD) technology could be used to detect and track possible insider activities during alarm situations, as just described, as well as during normal operating conditions. The 3DVMD technology uses multiple cameras to create 3-dimensional detection volumes or zones. Movement throughout detection zones is tracked and high-level information, such as the number of people and their direction of motion, is extracted. In the described alarm scenario, deviances of evacuation procedures taken by an individual could be immediately detected and relayed to a central alarm station. The insider could be tracked and any protected items removed from the area could be flagged. The 3DVMD technology could also be used to monitor such items as machines that are used to build classified parts. During an alarm, detections could be made if items were removed from the machine. Overall, the use of 3DVMD technology during emergency evacuations would help to prevent the loss of classified items and would speed recovery from emergency situations. Further security could also be added by analyzing tracked behavior (motion) as it corresponds to predicted behavior, e.g., behavior corresponding with the execution of required procedures. This information would be valuable for detecting a possible insider not only during emergency situations, but also during times of normal operation.

Nelson, Cynthia Lee

2003-09-01

440

Temporal volume flow: an approach to tracking failure recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simultaneous use of pre-segmented CT colonoscopy images and optical colonoscopy images during routine endoscopic procedures provides useful clinical information to the gastroenterologist. Blurry images in the video stream can cause the tracking system to fail during the procedure, due to the endoscope touching the colon wall or a polyp. The ability to recover from such failures is necessary to continually track images, and goes towards building a robust tracking system. Identifying similar images before and after the blurry sequence is central to this task. In this work, we propose a Temporal Volume Flow(TVF) based approach to search for a similar image pair before and after blurry sequences in the optical colonoscopy video. TVF employs nonlinear intensity and gradient constancy models, as well as a discontinuity-preserving smoothness constraint to formulate an energy function; minimizing this function between two temporal volumes before and after the blurry sequence results in an estimate of TVF. A voting approach is then used to determine an image pair with the maximum number of point correspondences. Region flow algorithm10 is applied to the selected image pair to determine camera motion parameters. We applied our algorithm to three optical colonoscopy sequences. The first sequence had 235 images in the ascending colon, and 12 blurry images. The image pair selected by TVF decreases the rotation error of the tracking results using the region flow algorithm. Similar results were observed in the second patient in the descending colon, containing 535 images and 24 blurry images. The third sequence contained 580 images in the descending colon and 172 blurry images. Region flow method failed in this case due to improper image pair selection; using TVF to determine the image pair allowed the system to successfully recover from the blurry sequence.

Liu, Jianfei; Subramanian, Kalpathi R.; Yoo, Terry S.

2011-03-01

441

Automatic tracking sensor camera system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a sensor camera system for automatically tracking and determining the positions of subjects moving in three-dimensions. The system is intended to operate even within areas as large as soccer fields. The system measures the 3D coordinates of the object while driving the pan and tilt movements of camera heads, and the degree of zoom of the lenses. Its principal feature is that it automatically zooms in as the object moves farther away and out as the object moves closer. This maintains the area of the object as a fixed position of the image. This feature makes stable detection by the image processing possible. We are planning to use the system to detect the position of a soccer ball during a soccer game. In this paper, we describe the configuration of the developing automatic tracking sensor camera system. We then give an analysis of the movements of the ball within images of games, the results of experiments on method of image processing used to detect the ball, and the results of other experiments to verify the accuracy of an experimental system. These results show that the system is sufficiently accurate in terms of obtaining positions in three-dimensions.

Tsuda, Takao; Kato, Daiichiro; Ishikawa, Akio; Inoue, Seiki

2001-04-01

442

Multibeam optical apparatus and method for tracking control for an optical disk having a set of tracks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multitrack optical disk has two or more circular or spiral tracks, which are recorded or played back in simultaneous sets for high data rates. Tracking is accomplished by sets of first and second tracking pads, which lie partially on and partially off the track paths. The amount of inter-track space required to accommodate the track pads is reduced by placing the overlap of the tracking pads in the same inter-track space, and by tracking any additional simultaneous tracks in excess of two by mechanical coupling with the first two.

Reno, Charles W. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

443

Multi-object tracking of human spermatozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a system for tracking of human spermatozoa in phase-contrast microscopy image sequences. One of the main aims of a computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) system is to automatically assess sperm quality based on spermatozoa motility variables. In our case, the problem of assessing sperm quality is cast as a multi-object tracking problem, where the objects being tracked are the

Lauge Sørensen; Jakob Østergaard; Peter Johansen; Marleen de Bruijne

2008-01-01

444

Computer modeling of tank track elastomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer models of the T142, T156 and the British Chieftain tank tracks have been studied as part of a program to examine the tank-track-pad failure problem. The modeling is based on the finite element method with two different models being used to evaluate the thermal and mechanical response of the tracks. Modeling has enabled us to evaluate the influence of

D. R. Lesuer; A. Goldberg; J. Patt

1985-01-01

445

Parameter Sensitivity Visualization for DTI Fiber Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Fiber tracking of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data offers a unique,insight into the three-dimensional organisation,of white matter structures in the living brain. However, fiber tracking algorithms require a number of user-defined input parameters that strongly affect the output results. Usually the fiber tracking parameters,are set once and are then re-used for several patient datasets. However, the stability of the chosen

Ralph Brecheisen; Anna Vilanova; Bram Platel; Bart M. Ter Haar Romeny

2009-01-01

446

Intermittency in Human Manual Tracking Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We confirm Craik's (1947) observation that the human manually tracking a visual target behaves like an intermittent servo-controller. Such tracking responses are indicative of “sampled” negative-feedback control but could be the result of other, continuous, mechanisms. Tracking performance therefore was recorded in a task in which visual feedback of the position of the hand-held joystick could be eliminated. Depriving the

R. Christopher Miall; D. J. Weir; J. F. Stein

1993-01-01

447

Control flow obfuscation with information flow tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent micro-architectural research has proposed various schemes to enhance processors with additional tags to track various proper- ties of a program. Such a technique, which is usually referred to as information flow tracking, has been widely applied to secure soft- ware execution (e.g., taint tracking), protect software privacy and improve performance (e.g., control speculation). In this paper, we propose a

Haibo Chen; Liwei Yuan; Xi Wu; Binyu Zang; Bo Huang; Pen-Chung Yew

2009-01-01

448

Improved particle filter for object tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robust real-time tracking of non-rigid objects is a challenging task. Color is a powerful feature for tracking deformable objects in image sequences with complex backgrounds. Color distribution is applied, as it is robust to partial occlusion, is rotation and scale invariant and computationally efficient. Particle filter has been proven very successful for non-linear and non-Gaussian estimation tracking problems. The article

Tao Zhang; Shu-min Fei

2011-01-01

449

Pedestrian detection and tracking with night vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for pedestrian detection and tracking using a single night-vision video camera installed on the vehicle. To deal with the nonrigid nature of human appearance on the road, a two-step detection\\/tracking method is proposed. The detection phase is performed by a support vector machine (SVM) with size-normalized pedestrian candidates and the tracking phase is a combination

Fengliang Xu; Xia Liu; Kikuo Fujimura

2005-01-01

450

Complete Solution of Sun Tracking for Heliostat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general solution of sun tracking for an arbitrarily oriented heliostat towards an arbitrarily located target on the earth is published. With the most general form of solar tracking formulae, it is seen that the used azimuth-elevation, spinning-elevation tracking formulae etc. are the special cases of it. The possibilities of utilizing the general solution and its significance in solar energy engineering are discussed.

Chen, Ying-Tian; Lim, Boon-Han; Lim, Chern-Sing

2006-01-01

451

NA35 TPC track variance analysis  

SciTech Connect

We report here results of a variation analysis of NA35 TPC track data for sulfur-nucleus collisions at the CE SPS at 200 GeV/A. This analysis and comparison with simulations optimization of NA35 Data reduction methods and serves as a source information for ongoing TPC design and construction. The NA35 represent the major source of information on particle tracking limitation the high track density environment anticipated with lead and gold beam RHIC and the SPS.

Trainor, T.A.

1993-10-01

452

Robust feature-based object tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object tracking is an important component of many computer vision systems. It is widely used in video surveillance, robotics, 3D image reconstruction, medical imaging, and human computer interface. In this paper, we focus on unsupervised object tracking, i.e., without prior knowledge about the object to be tracked. To address this problem, we take a feature-based approach, i.e., using feature points

Bing Han; William Roberts; Dapeng Wu; Jian Li

2007-01-01

453

OBJECT TRACKING BASED ON MULTISCALE MORPHOLOGICAL TEMPLATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel template representation that can be used in template-based object tracking methods. More specically , the Multiscale Morphological Template is introduced and incorpo- rated in a template-based object tracking algorithm. The proposed template can be updated over time to cope with changing environ- ment\\/object conditions. The algorithm is applied to face tracking in scenes with complex

G. N. Stamou; N. Nikolaidis; I. Pitas

454

Solar central receiver heliostat reflector assembly  

DOEpatents

A heliostat reflector assembly for a solar central receiver system comprises a light-weight, readily assemblable frame which supports a sheet of stretchable reflective material and includes mechanism for selectively applying tension to and positioning the sheet to stretch it to optical flatness. The frame is mounted on and supported by a pipe pedestal assembly that, in turn, is installed in the ground. The frame is controllably driven in a predetermined way by a light-weight drive system so as to be angularly adjustable in both elevation and azimuth to track the sun and efficiently continuously reflect the sun's rays to a focal zone, i.e. central receiver, which forms part of a solar energy utilization system, such as a solar energy fueled electrical power generation system. The frame may include a built-in system for testing for optical flatness of the reflector. The preferable geometric configuration of the reflector is octagonal; however, it may be other shapes, such as hexagonal, pentagonal or square. Several different embodiments of means for tensioning and positioning the reflector to achieve optical flatness are disclosed. The reflector assembly is based on the stretch frame concept which provides an extremely light-weight, simple, low-cost reflector assembly that may be driven for positioning and tracking by a light-weight, inexpensive drive system.

Horton, Richard H. (Schenectady, NY); Zdeb, John J. (Clifton Park, NY)

1980-01-01

455

A Method for Generating Synthetic Air Tracks  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method for creating synthetic air tracks without the aide of a sophisticated simulator. The proposed method creates a position and velocity function for an aircraft given its starting location and speed, altitude, and heading on each leg of its height. An optimization procedure is used to fit the position and velocity functions to the supplied data. Several examples of tracks produced by the method are shown in the paper. The synthetic tracks that are produced by this method can be used to facilitate testing of command and control systems and to enhance any simulation that requires air tracks that satisfy specific constraints on time, speed, and position.

Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Jarboe, Stephanie [Arizona Center for Integrative Modeling and Simulation; Dale, Fulton [Joint Interoperability Test Command; Zeigler, Bernard P [ORNL

2008-01-01

456

Eigenspace-based tracking for feature points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feature point tracking deals with image streams that change over time. Most existing feature point tracking algorithms only consider two adjacent frames at a time, and forget the feature information of previous frames. In this paper, we present a new eigenspace-based tracking method that learns an eigenspace representation of training features online, and finds the target feature point with Gauss-Newton style search method. A coarse-to-fine processing strategy is introduced to handle large affine transformations. Several simulations and experiments on real images indicate the effectiveness of the proposed feature tracking algorithm under the conditions of large pose changes and temporary occlusions.

Peng, Chen; Chen, Qian; Qian, Wei-xian

2014-05-01

457

Automated tracking of yeast cell lineages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a cell progeny tracking method that sequentially employs image alignment, chamber cropping, cell segmentation, per-cell feature measurement, and progeny (lineage) tracking modules. It enables biologists to keep track of phenotypic patterns not only over time but also over multiple generations. Yeast cells encapsulated in chambers of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device were imaged over time to monitor changes in fluorescence levels. We implemented our method in an automated cell image analysis tool, CellProfiler, and performed initial testing. Once refined and validated, the approach could be adapted/used in other cell segmentation and progeny tracking experiments.

Kim, Kyungnam; Rowat, Amy C.; Carpenter, Anne E.

2010-08-01

458

Attentional costs in multiple-object tracking  

PubMed Central

Attentional demands of multiple-object tracking were demonstrated using a dual-task paradigm. Participants were asked to make speeded responses based on the pitch of a tone, while at the same time tracking four of eight identical dots. Tracking difficulty was manipulated either concurrent with or after the tone task. If increasing tracking difficulty increases attentional demands, its effect should be larger when it occurs concurrent with the tone. In Experiment 1, tracking difficulty was manipulated by having all dots briefly attract one another on some trials, causing a transient increase in dot proximity and speed. Results showed that increasing proximity and speed had a significantly larger effect when it occurred at the same time as the tone task. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that manipulating either proximity or speed independently was sufficient to produce this pattern of results. Experiment 4 manipulated object contrast, which affected tracking performance equally whether it occurred concurrent with or after the tone task. Overall, results support the view that the moment-to-moment tracking of multiple objects demands attention. Understanding what factors increase the attentional demands of tracking may help to explain why tracking is sometimes successful and at other times fails.

Tombu, Michael; Seiffert, Adriane E.

2008-01-01

459

Object detection and tracking under planar constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic object detection and tracking has been widely applied in the video surveillance systems for homeland security and data fusion in the remote sensing and airborne imagery. The typical applications include human motion analysis, vehicle detection, and architectural building detection. Here we conduct object detection and tracking under planar constraints for interesting objects. Planar surface abounds in man-made environment. It provides much useful information for image understanding and then can be adopted to improve the performance of object detection and tracking. The experiments on real data show that object detection and tracking could be successfully implemented by incorporating planar information of interesting objects.

He, Qiang; Chu, Chee-Hung Henry; Camargo, Aldo

2013-05-01

460

The impact of anthropogenic climate change on North Atlantic tropical cyclone tracks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the change in tropical cyclone (TC) tracks that result from projected changes in the large-scale steering flow and genesis location due to increasing greenhouse gases. Tracks are first simulated using a Beta and Advection Model (BAM) and NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis winds for all TCs that formed in the North Atlantic main development region (MDR) for the period 1950-2010. Changes in genesis location and large-scale steering flow are then estimated from an ensemble mean of 17 CMIP3 models for the A1b emissions scenario. The BAM simulations are then repeated with these changes to estimate how the TC tracks would respond to increased greenhouse gases. As the climate warms, the models project a weakening of the subtropical easterlies as well as an eastward shift in genesis location. This results in a statistically significant decrease in straight-moving (westward) storm tracks of ~5.5% and an increase in recurving (open ocean) tracks of ~5.5%. These track changes decrease TC counts over the Southern Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean by 1-1.5 per decade and increase TC counts over the central Atlantic by 1-1.5 per decade. Changes in the large-scale steering flow account for a vast majority of the projected changes in TC trajectories.

Soden, B. J.; Colbert, A. J.

2013-05-01

461

Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) tracking and orbit determination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis results were derived using the Goddard Trajectory Determination System to determine the orbit of TDRS-East. A batch weighted least-squares algorithm is used to fit the Bilateration Ranging Transponder system tracking measurements. Six state parameters (position and velocity components) and the solar radiation pressure coefficient are estimated. The solutions are obtained by fitting the data over 34 hr arcs that overlap by 10 hr. Ephemerides are generated over the 34 hr arcs and then compared over the overlapping regions. The position differences indicate the consistency of the solutions and give a measure of their accuracy. The effect of the modeling of perturbative forces (solar radiation pressure, nonspherical geopotential field) on these results are studied. Error analysis is performed using the ORAN program to estimate the effect of force-model errors and measurement-related errors on the TDRS-East ephemeris.

Teles, J.; Samii, M.; Nakai, Y.

1986-01-01

462

Elastic tracking versus neural network tracking for very high multiplicity problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new Elastic Tracking (ET) algorithm is proposed for finding tracks in very high multiplicity and noisy environments. It is based on a dynamical reinterpretation and generalization of the Radon transform and is related to elastic net algorithms for geome...

M. Harlander M. Gyulassy

1991-01-01

463

Real Time Eye Tracking and Hand Tracking Using Regular Video Cameras for Human Computer Interaction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Final Technical Report discusses the accomplishments of a research effort to develop a system for real time eye tracking and hand pointing tracking using regular cameras for human computer interaction. Several novel algorithms for eye detection and e...

L. Yin

2011-01-01

464

A Super-Element of Track-Wheel-Terrain Interaction for Dynamic Simulation of Tracked Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A track-wheel-terrain interaction model is presented in this paper, which can be used as a “force” super-element in a multibody dynamics code for dynamic simulation of tracked vehicles. This model employs a nonlinear finite element representation for the track segment that is in contact with the terrain and roadwheels, which can be used to simulate two different track systems, namely

Zheng-Dong Ma; N. C. Perkins

2006-01-01

465

Development of a high-speed, half-tracked truck with metal-coreless rubber track  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high speed half-tracked truck using a new type of metal-coreless rubber track for traveling and load-carrying both on- and off-road was developed. In this application a conventional embedded-metal rubber track was examined in a first step, and was found to be unsuitable because of its chain-type structure. Then a new type of positive drive metal-coreless rubber track with endless

E. Teramoto; F. Yabe; K. Fukushima; H. Narahara; Y. Kiyono; S. Togasi; M. Kadono; N. Nishimura; T. Muramatsu

1996-01-01

466

People Tracking with UWB Radar Using a Multiple-Hypothesis Tracking of Clusters (MHTC) Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method to track multiple moving humans using Ultra-Wideband (UWB) radar. UWB radar can complement other\\u000a human tracking technologies, as it works well in poor visibility conditions. Our tracking approach is based on a point process\\u000a interpretation of the multi-path UWB radar scattering model for moving humans. Based on this model, we present a multiple\\u000a hypothesis tracking

SangHyun Chang; Rangoli Sharan; Michael T. Wolf; Naoki Mitsumoto; Joel W. Burdick

2010-01-01

467

A Probabilistic Cell Tracking Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research described below was carried out during the EU-Project Lolight - development of a low cost, novel and accurate lightning mapping and thunderstorm (supercell) tracking system. The Project aims to develop a small-scale tracking method to determine and nowcast characteristic trajectories and velocities of convective cells and cell complexes. The results of the algorithm will provide a higher accuracy than current locating systems distributed on a coarse scale. Input data for the developed algorithm are two temporally separated lightning density fields. Additionally a Monte Carlo method minimizing a cost function is utilizied which leads to a probabilistic forecast for the movement of thunderstorm cells. In the first step the correlation coefficients between the first and the second density field are computed. Hence, the first field is shifted by all shifting vectors which are physically allowed. The maximum length of each vector is determined by the maximum possible speed of thunderstorm cells and the difference in time for both density fields. To eliminate ambiguities in determination of directions and velocities, the so called Random Walker of the Monte Carlo process is used. Using this method a grid point is selected at random. Moreover, one vector out of all predefined shifting vectors is suggested - also at random but with a probability that is related to the correlation coefficient. If this exchange of shifting vectors reduces the cost function, the new direction and velocity are accepted. Otherwise it is discarded. This process is repeated until the change of cost functions falls below a defined threshold. The Monte Carlo run gives information about the percentage of accepted shifting vectors for all grid points. In the course of the forecast, amplifications of cell density are permitted. For this purpose, intensity changes between the investigated areas of both density fields are taken into account. Knowing the direction and speed of thunderstorm cells is important for nowcasting. Therefore, the presented method is based on IC discharges which account for most lightning discharges and occur minutes before the first CG discharge. The cell tracking algorithm will be used as part of the integrated LoLight system. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme managed by REA-Research Executive Agency http://ec.europa.eu/research/rea ([FP7/2007-2013] [FP7/2007-2011]) under grant agreement n° [262200].

Steinacker, Reinhold; Mayer, Dieter; Leiding, Tina; Lexer, Annemarie; Umdasch, Sarah

2013-04-01

468

Miocene unroofing of the Canyon Range during extension along the Sevier Desert Detachment, west central Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apatite fission track results from Neoproterozoic and Lower Cambrian quartzites collected from the Canyon Range in west central Utah reveal a significant early to middle Miocene cooling event (~19-15 Ma). Preextensional temperatures estimated from multicompositional apatite fission track data suggest ~4.5 to >5.6 km of unroofing during the early to middle Miocene, assuming a geothermal gradient of ~25°C\\/km. The spatial

Daniel F. Stockli; Jonathan K. Linn; J. Douglas Walker; Trevor A. Dumitru

2001-01-01

469

Maximum Efficiency Trajectories of a TwoAxis Sun Tracking System Determined Considering Tracking System Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the two-axis sun tracking sys- tem for a photovoltaic system. The trajectories of the sun tracking system are determined in an optimization procedure. The opti- mization goal is maximization of an electric energy production in the photovoltaic system considering the tracking system consump- tion. Determination of the tilt angle and azimuth angle trajectories is described as

Sebastijan Seme; Gorazd Štumberger; Jože Vorši?

2011-01-01

470

The Six Track Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge?Two double track spans ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

The Six Track Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge?Two double track spans closed. One double-track span open. Photocopy of plate xvi in Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge Company, Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridges. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

471

On the Wrong Track: How Tracking Is Associated with Dropping out of High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic tracking has been shown to limit the quality of student instructional opportunities, decrease students' perceptions of their abilities, and negatively influence student achievement. These factors associated with academic tracking also may influence students in lower tracks to learn less and ultimately to drop out of high school. Few…

Werblow, Jacob; Urick, Angela; Duesbery, Luke

2013-01-01

472

Association of over-the-horizon radar tracks with tracks from microwave radar and other sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jindalee Operational Radar Network (JORN) consists of a network of overlapping skywave over-the-horizon radars (OTHR) which will provide surveillance of the air space and ocean off the northern coast of Australia. An OTHR can yield multiple tracks from a single target as a result of the complex structure of the ionosphere which varies spatially and temporally. Overlapping OTHRs, microwave radars and other sensors can simultaneously form tracks on the same targets. Consequently there is a heavy burden on operators to associate and combine those tracks which are derived from the same target. The broad objective of this work is to perform the fusion of OTHR tracks with tracks from other sources such as microwave radars and targets reporting Global Positioning System (GPS) data. An efficient algorithm has been developed which can incorporate advice about the propagation paths through the ionosphere and produce a list of associations of OTHR tracks and non-OTHR tracks. This algorithm is a generalization of a previously developed algorithm for associating tracks from multiple OTHRs. It can operate in real-time and allows for the possibility of refining the ionospheric advice system based on ground registered tracks. A brief description of the association algorithm is reported with discussions on the method of determining the closeness of tracks, the management of uncertainty in the track state, and the selection of associated tracks.

White, Kruger A.; dall, Ian W.; Shellshear, Andrew J.

1996-06-01

473

Multiple target tracking and multiple frequency line tracking using hidden Markov models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors consider the application of hidden Markov models (HMMs) to the problem of multitarget tracking-specifically, to the problem of tracking multiple frequency lines. The idea of a mixed track is introduced, a multitrack Viterbi algorithm is described and a detailed analysis of the underlying Markov model is presented. Simulations show that in some cases, it is possible to avoid

Xianya Xie; Robin J. Evans

1991-01-01

474

High efficiency and wideband envelope tracking power amplifier with sweet spot tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the implementation of a high efficiency and wideband envelope tracking power amplifier with sweet spot tracking. By modulating supply voltage of power amplifier (PA), efficiency can be increased significantly. And linearity is improved by envelope shaping and sweet spot tracking. The supply modulator has a combined structure of a switching amplifier and a linear amplifier to achieve

Dongsu Kim; Jinsung Choi; Daehyun Kang; Bumman Kim

2010-01-01

475

Video-Based People Tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vision-based human pose tracking promises to be a key enabling technology for myriad applications, including the analysis of human activities for perceptive environments and novel man-machine interfaces. While progress toward that goal has been exciting, and limited applications have been demonstrated, the recovery of human pose from video in unconstrained settings remains challenging. One of the key challenges stems from the complexity of the human kinematic structure itself. The sheer number and variety of joints in the human body (the nature of which is an active area of biomechanics research) entails the estimation of many parameters. The estimation problem is also challenging because muscles and other body tissues obscure the skeletal structure, making it impossible to directly observe the pose of the skeleton.

Brubaker, Marcus A.; Sigal, Leonid; Fleet, David J.

476

Markov Tracking for Agent Coordination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) axe an attractive representation for representing agent behavior, since they capture uncertainty in both the agent's state and its actions. However, finding an optimal policy for POMDPs in general is computationally difficult. In this paper we present Markov Tracking, a restricted problem of coordinating actions with an agent or process represented as a POMDP Because the actions coordinate with the agent rather than influence its behavior, the optimal solution to this problem can be computed locally and quickly. We also demonstrate the use of the technique on sequential POMDPs, which can be used to model a behavior that follows a linear, acyclic trajectory through a series of states. By imposing a "windowing" restriction that restricts the number of possible alternatives considered at any moment to a fixed size, a coordinating action can be calculated in constant time, making this amenable to coordination with complex agents.

Washington, Richard; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01