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Sample records for zeus central tracking

  1. The design and performance of the ZEUS global tracking trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allfrey, P. D.; Bell, M. A.; Coppola, N.; Devenish, R.; Dhawan, S.; Dunne, W.; Ferrando, J.; Gladkov, D.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Hayes, M.; Jakob, H.-P.; Loizidies, J. H.; Pellegrino, A.; Polini, A.; Roberfroid, V.; Soares, M.; Straub, P. B.; Stifutkin, A.; Sutton, M. R.; Topp-Jrgenssen, S.; West, B. J.; Woolley, N. P.; Youngman, C.

    2007-10-01

    The Global Tracking Trigger (GTT) of the ZEUS experiment is described. The GTT is data driven at the ZEUS first level trigger rate of ?600 Hz and performs event-based track finding on data from the experiment's Central Tracking Detector (CTD), silicon Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) and Straw Tube Tracker (STT) forward detectors. The resulting track-based trigger quantities calculated (track multiplicity, vertices, vector meson masses, background event probabilities, etc.) are available within 9 ms and are used in the experiment's second level trigger to improve the selection of physics events. Detector information is pushed to the PC farm of the GTT using PowerPC VME board computers which are either embedded within the detector's frontend readout system (MVD) or are parasitically attached to them via multiple serial transputer links (CTD and STT). Data flow and control is performed via point-to-point Fast and Giga ethernet switched network connections using the TCP protocol. The principal design challenges were: integrating new and interfacing to existing frontend systems, providing a useful trigger result, satisfying the rate and latency requirements and not interfering with ongoing data taking during commissioning. These aims have been achieved. The GTT has been actively used in the ZEUS trigger since 2004 when an initial CTD-only algorithm was used; in 2005 this was upgraded to use MVD information which significantly improves track and primary vertex resolutions. Commissioning problems delayed the STT implementation and its use in the GTT has only been tested.

  2. The online central data acquisition system of ZEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Park, I.H. )

    1994-02-01

    The ZEUS central data acquisition system consists of several centralized tasks which supervise the data taking of the experiment and transfer the data to the IBM 9000/720. The control system ensures the sequencing of the various data taking cycles with 17 sub detector components contributing a total of about 250,000 electronic signals. The monitoring system performs monitoring of data taking as well as environmental monitoring with regard to the functioning of the entire detector. Data accepted by the Third Level Trigger is transmitted to archival storage on the IBM 9000/720 via 1.5 km long fiber optic link cable. A fraction of complete event records is also transferred to the VAX cluster for online histogramming and event display.

  3. Alignment of the ZEUS micro-vertex detector using cosmic tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Takanori

    2006-04-01

    ZEUS Micro-Vertex Detector (MVD) was installed in ZEUS after the HERA upgrade in 2000. MVD is a precise position detector consisting of 712 single-sided silicon strip detectors. The alignment of the barrel MVD has been performed in units of ladders using cosmic tracks. The procedure used is an iterative ?2 minimization, where ?2 is defined locally for each ladder. The procedure is numerically stable since it only requires an inversion of 30 66 matrices and reasonably fast in spite of the iterative approach.

  4. The ZEUS Microvertex Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, Maria Carmela

    A new silicon microvertex detector (MVD) will be installed in the ZEUS experiment during the 2000 HERA luminosity upgrade. Such a high precision detector will improve the global tracking system and allow to identity events with secondary vertices originating from the decays of long-lived states. It will be placed in the proximity to the beam pipe to surround the interaction region. The barrel part is a 60 cm long cylinder consisting of three double layers of single-sided silicon detectors, the forward part is made of four double shaped layers, called wheels, extending 42 cm along the beam. A test beam has been setup in order to characterize the performance of the detector modules and readout electronics (i.e. track position resolution, signal to noise ratio, detection efficiency). The detector layout and some selected test beam results are presented.

  5. Performance of the ZEUS Micro-Vertex Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, T.

    2006-12-01

    The ZEUS Micro-Vertex Detector (MVD) was installed in 2001 and the ZEUS experiment has started the HERA-II data taking since 2003. An integrated luminosity of 190 pb-1 has been recorded at HERA-II which already exceeds the total integrated luminosity at HERA-I. The operational experience with the MVD and the performance of the new ZEUS tracking system are presented.

  6. Report of the Central Tracking Group

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, D.G.; Hanson, G.G.

    1986-10-01

    Issues involved in building a realistic central tracking system for a general-purpose 4..pi.. detector for the SSC are addressed. Such a central tracking system must be capable of running at the full design luminosity of 10/sup 33/ cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/. Momentum measurement was required in a general-purpose 4..pi.. detector. Limitations on charged particle tracking detectors at the SSC imposed by rates and radiation damage are reviewed. Cell occupancy is the dominant constraint, which led us to the conclusion that only small cells, either wires or straw tubes, are suitable for a central tracking system at the SSC. Mechanical problems involved in building a central tracking system of either wires or straw tubes were studied, and our conclusion was that it is possible to build such a large central tracking system. Of course, a great deal of research and development is required. We also considered central tracking systems made of scintillating fibers or silicon microstrips, but our conclusion was that neither is a realistic candidate given the current state of technology. We began to work on computer simulation of a realistic central tracking system. Events from interesting physics processes at the SSC will be complex and will be further complicated by hits from out-of-time bunch crossings and multiple interactions within the same bunch crossing. Detailed computer simulations are needed to demonstrate that the pattern recognition and tracking problems can be solved.

  7. D0 central tracking chamber performance studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzuto, D.

    1991-12-01

    The performance of the completed DO central tracking chamber was studied using cosmic rays at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Also studied was a prototype tracking chamber identical in design to the completed DO tracking chamber. The prototype chamber was exposed to a collimated beam of 150 GeV pions at the Fermilab NWA test facility. Results indicate an R{Phi} tracking resolution compatible with the limitations imposed by physical considerations, excellent 2 track resolution, and a high track reconstruction efficiency along with a good rejection power against {gamma} {yields} e {sup +} e{sup {minus}} events.

  8. The ZEUS microvertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Tobias

    2005-09-01

    The ZEUS microvertex detector (MVD) was installed in 2001 and commissioned in 2002/03. Doses of up to 1.2 kGy were observed from synchrotron radiation and beam-gas interactions. Detector operation is stable. Hit efficiencies are around 98%. Alignment accuracies of around 40-60 ?m have been reached.

  9. The ZEUS microvertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlin, Roberto; ZEUS MVD Group

    2003-09-01

    The ZEUS silicon microstrip vertex detector was installed in 2001, during the shutdown for the HERA upgrade. In this report, we briefly summarize the structure of the MVD, and then present the first results on noise, efficiency and alignment. The detector has already integrated a non-negligible radiation dose; the effects and the prospect are discussed.

  10. Upgrade and Operation of the DZero Central Track Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Pangilinan, M.P.; Buehler, M.D.; /Virginia U.

    2007-04-01

    The D{O} experiment at the Fermilab p{bar p} Tevatron collider (Batavia, IL, USA) has undergone significant upgrades in anticipation of high luminosity running conditions. As part of the upgrade, the capabilities of the Central Track Trigger (CTT) to make trigger decisions based on hit patterns in the Central Fiber Tracker (CFT) have been much improved. We report on the implementation, commissioning and operation of the upgraded CTT system.

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE SECOND ZEUS CRITICAL EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    R. MOSTELLER; P. JAEGERS

    2001-01-01

    The Zeus experiments have been designed to test the adequacy of {sup 235}U cross sections in the intermediate energy range. The first Zeus experiment achieved initial criticality on April 26, 1999 with 10 HEU platters and 79 platters of graphite. The second experiment reached a critical condition on October 24, 2000, with 9 HEU platters and 54 platters of graphite. The first experiment, which has been described and analyzed previously, had a C/{sup 235}U ratio of approximately 52:1. The corresponding ratio for the second experiment was approximately 40:1. This summary describes the analysis of the second Zeus critical experiment.

  12. A central neural pathway controlling odor tracking in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Slater, Gemma; Levy, Peter; Chan, K L Andrew; Larsen, Camilla

    2015-02-01

    Chemotaxis is important for the survival of most animals. How the brain translates sensory input into motor output beyond higher olfactory processing centers is largely unknown. We describe a group of excitatory neurons, termed Odd neurons, which are important for Drosophila larval chemotaxis. Odd neurons receive synaptic input from projection neurons in the calyx of the mushroom body and project axons to the central brain. Functional imaging shows that some of the Odd neurons respond to odor. Larvae in which Odd neurons are silenced are less efficient at odor tracking than controls and sample the odor space more frequently. Larvae in which the excitability of Odd neurons is increased are better at odor intensity discrimination and odor tracking. Thus, the Odd neurons represent a distinct pathway that regulates the sensitivity of the olfactory system to odor concentrations, demonstrating that efficient chemotaxis depends on processing of odor strength downstream of higher olfactory centers. PMID:25653345

  13. A Central Neural Pathway Controlling Odor Tracking in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Gemma; Levy, Peter; Chan, K.L. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Chemotaxis is important for the survival of most animals. How the brain translates sensory input into motor output beyond higher olfactory processing centers is largely unknown. We describe a group of excitatory neurons, termed Odd neurons, which are important for Drosophila larval chemotaxis. Odd neurons receive synaptic input from projection neurons in the calyx of the mushroom body and project axons to the central brain. Functional imaging shows that some of the Odd neurons respond to odor. Larvae in which Odd neurons are silenced are less efficient at odor tracking than controls and sample the odor space more frequently. Larvae in which the excitability of Odd neurons is increased are better at odor intensity discrimination and odor tracking. Thus, the Odd neurons represent a distinct pathway that regulates the sensitivity of the olfactory system to odor concentrations, demonstrating that efficient chemotaxis depends on processing of odor strength downstream of higher olfactory centers. PMID:25653345

  14. Identifying and Tracking of Peripheral and Central Umbral Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Song; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Yunfei; Ji, Kaifan; Deng, Hui; Wang, Feng

    2015-04-01

    Umbral dots (UDs) are small isolated brightening observed in sunspot umbrae. They are usually classified into peripheral UDs (PUDs) and central UDs (CUDs) according to their positions inside an umbra. To accurately investigate the similarities and the distinctions between PUDs and CUDs and better understand their formation mechanisms, we propose a method for identifying and tracking PUDs and CUDs. Firstly, the umbra-penumbra boundary was detected based on morphological reconstruction. Secondly, the UDs were identified and tracked based on phase congruency. Finally, the UDs were classified into PUDs and CUDs with a new definition of the periphery and the center of an umbra. A data set obtained with the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope on 2 March 2007 was used to illustrate the procedures. The statistical properties of PUDs and CUDs, including equivalent diameters, ratio of the maximum intensity to the mean photosphere intensity, horizontal velocities, lifetimes, and trajectories were investigated to evaluate the performance of the method.

  15. ZEUS V3.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-08-15

    Zeus is a machine learning software tool for building featrue classifiers for time-series data. it uses a library of time-series processing operators, a set of operator combination and mutation rules, a hill-climbing selection algorithm, and a Fisher linear discriminant or support vector machine (SVM) to build feature classifiers that produce numerical descriptors from sequences of multi-dimensional time-series records. In-sample accuracy on a user-provided training set fuides the search for an optimal feature classifier. A grammarmore » is used to definie the set of feature classifier programs that can be generated. The grammar also enables the incorporation of domain expertise. The grammar syntax is designed to be hierarchical, intuitive, and easy to use.« less

  16. ZEUS V3.0

    SciTech Connect

    2005-08-15

    Zeus is a machine learning software tool for building featrue classifiers for time-series data. it uses a library of time-series processing operators, a set of operator combination and mutation rules, a hill-climbing selection algorithm, and a Fisher linear discriminant or support vector machine (SVM) to build feature classifiers that produce numerical descriptors from sequences of multi-dimensional time-series records. In-sample accuracy on a user-provided training set fuides the search for an optimal feature classifier. A grammar is used to definie the set of feature classifier programs that can be generated. The grammar also enables the incorporation of domain expertise. The grammar syntax is designed to be hierarchical, intuitive, and easy to use.

  17. Electromagnetically tracked placement of a peripherally inserted central catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacolick, Laura; Patel, Neilesh; Tang, Jonathan; Levy, Elliot; Cleary, Kevin R.

    2004-05-01

    This paper describes a computer program to utilize electromagnetic tracking guidance during insertion of peripherally inserted central catheters. Placement of a Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) line is a relatively simple, routine procedure in which a catheter is inserted into the veins of the lower arm and threaded up the arm to the vena cava to sit just above the heart. However, the procedure requires x-ray verification of the catheter position and is usually done under continuous fluoroscopic guidance. The computer program is designed to replace fluoroscopic guidance in this procedure and make PICC line placement a bedside procedure. This would greatly reduce the time and resources dedicated to this procedure. The physician first goes through a quick registration procedure to register the patient space with the computer screen coordinates. Once registration is completed, the program provides a continuous, real-time display of the position of the catheter tip overlaid on an x-ray image of the patient on an adjacent computer screen. Both the position and orientation of the catheter tip is shown. The display is very similar to that shown when using fluoroscopy.

  18. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Central limit theorem and deformed exponentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignat, C.; Plastino, A.

    2007-11-01

    The central limit theorem (CLT) can be ranked among the most important ones in probability theory and statistics and plays an essential role in several basic and applied disciplines, notably in statistical thermodynamics. We show that there exists a natural extension of the CLT from exponentials to so-called deformed exponentials (also denoted as q-Gaussians). Our proposal applies exactly in the usual conditions in which the classical CLT is used.

  19. Tracking Crustal Thickness Changes During Central Andean Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, N. W.; Karimi, B.; McQuarrie, N.; Ryan, J. C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.

    2013-12-01

    New broadband seismic data from Bolivia and Peru constrain the depth to Moho for the northern Altiplano (AP) and central Andean fold-thrust belt. Combined with improved kinematic constraints on deformation at the central Andean orocline, we are now able to compare the modern crustal distribution to that predicted by the central Andean displacement field. At the first order, the crust beneath the Eastern Cordillera (EC) in northern Bolivia is substantially thinner (~50 - 60km) than in southern Bolivia (≥70km) but shortening magnitudes are broadly similar across the orocline (North: 276 km, 300 km; Central: 313 km; South: 326 km). This may suggest that part of the lower crust in northern Bolivia has been either transferred along or across strike or has been removed via processes such as delamination. We evaluate these possibilities using a map-view reconstruction constrained by shortening estimates and paleomagnetic rotation data to forward-model predicted crustal thicknesses. Two end-member models were produced assuming 35 km and 40 km thick pre-Andean crust. We divide our analyses of crustal thickness into three sections (north, central, and south) for the AP, EC, Interandean (IA), and Subandean (SA) zones and took into account the effects of sedimentation and erosion. The predicted volume for each zone is then calculated based on the map-view extent of the section. Results are normalized to the modern crustal volume, calculated in each section's equivalent map-view area. Accounting for approximately 10 km of sedimentation and measured AP shortening, the predicted AP crustal volume is within 10% of the modern volume (predicted crustal thickness = 50-60km). The south EC predicted crustal volumes are initially insufficient (15-20 km thickness deficit). However, additional crustal thickening driven by later shortening in the IA and SA and subsequent under-thrusting of the Brazilian shield can account for a 60-80km EC thick crust (70 km modern thickness). The central section is similar, where the predicted EC volume is less than the modern volume but additional IA and SA shortening accounts for a 70-80km thick EC indicating <10km excess thickness. The northern section is significantly different; the predicted crustal volume for all three zones meets or exceeds the observed volumes. This is a function of the new seismic data that constrains the northern crust below the EC to be ~10-15 km thinner than to the south. The accumulation of excess volume during EC, IA, and SA shortening predicts a ~75-90km EC crust, exceeding modern EC thickness by ~15-30km. If the excess volume were uniformly distributed across the northern EC and AP, it would correspond to a modern thickness of ~65-75km, comparable to the seismically constrained crustal thicknesses in southern Bolivia and southern Peru. While it is possible that excess material may have migrated from northern EC in Bolivia to southern Peru, the highly localized region of thin EC crust imaged by broadband seismic data argues for a more localized removal mechanism than crustal flow. This implies that the northern central Andes may have experienced delamination of at least 10-20 km of lower crust from below the EC.

  20. An efficient central DOA tracking algorithm for multiple incoherently distributed sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassen, Sonia Ben; Samet, Abdelaziz

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we develop a new tracking method for the direction of arrival (DOA) parameters assuming multiple incoherently distributed (ID) sources. The new approach is based on a simple covariance fitting optimization technique exploiting the central and noncentral moments of the source angular power densities to estimate the central DOAs. The current estimates are treated as measurements provided to the Kalman filter that model the dynamic property of directional changes for the moving sources. Then, the covariance-fitting-based algorithm and the Kalman filtering theory are combined to formulate an adaptive tracking algorithm. Our algorithm is compared to the fast approximated power iteration-total least square-estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance technique (FAPI-TLS-ESPRIT) algorithm using the TLS-ESPRIT method and the subspace updating via FAPI-algorithm. It will be shown that the proposed algorithm offers an excellent DOA tracking performance and outperforms the FAPI-TLS-ESPRIT method especially at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values. Moreover, the performances of the two methods increase as the SNR values increase. This increase is more prominent with the FAPI-TLS-ESPRIT method. However, their performances degrade when the number of sources increases. It will be also proved that our method depends on the form of the angular distribution function when tracking the central DOAs. Finally, it will be shown that the more the sources are spaced, the more the proposed method can exactly track the DOAs.

  1. Calorimetry in ZEUS: Lessons for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Derrick, M.

    1988-01-01

    The storage ring facility HERA, under construction at the DESY Laboratory, will collide 30 GeV e/sup /minus// with 820 GeV protons when the machine is first turned on in 1990. Four interaction regions being provided. Subsequently either e/sup /minus// or e beams can be used and a facility for producing longitudinal polarization of the electrons at the interaction points will be provided. Both the center-of-mass energy ( s = 314 GeV) and the momentum transfer (Q/sub max/S /approximately/ 10V GeVS) are substantially higher than in any deep inelastic scattering studies to date. The HERA program will be the natural extension of both the neutrino and the muon scattering experiments done at CERN and Fermilab. With the design luminosity of 1.5 10T cm/sup /minus/2/ sec/sup /minus/1/ experiments with 200 pb/sup /minus/1/ of integrated luminosity will be possible. HERA will be the first electron-quark collider. The energy is substantially higher than LEP, and the events will be cleaner than those resulting from p/bar p/ collisions. It provides the third leg that will support the physics stool of the 1990s. In neutral current events, the z exchange graph is comparable in strength to the photon exchange and the charged current events will provide unique insights into the W coupling. There will be substantial rates of heavy quark production. Two detectors are under construction: H1 uses a large solenoid with a liquid argon calorimeter inside the coil, ZEUS uses a smaller magnet with uranium-scintillator calorimeters outside of the coil. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Dinosaur tracks from the Jurassic Shemshak Group in the Central Alborz Mountains (Northern Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbassi, Nasrollah; Madanipour, Saeed

    2014-04-01

    The Shemshak Group includes alternating layers of coal-bearing shale and siliciclastic sediments in the Baladeh area in the central Alborz Mountains of northern Iran. A diverse and abundant Jurassic dinosaur footprint assemblage is now recognized in the group, which is Toarcian to Bajocian in age in the northern Baladeh. This is the first report of a diverse dinosaur ichnoassemblage from Iran that includes the footprints of sauropods. These tracks can be assigned to three groups of trackmakers: theropods, ornithopods and sauropods. Those of theropods are typically tridactyl in shape, their trackways reflecting bipedal movement. Theropod footprints are very abundant in both northern and western Baladeh. The studied theropod tracks themselves are divided into three major dimensional groups. The medium sized footprints (footprint length, 11-15 cm) are abundant and have a stride length, digit and pace angles like the coelurosaurs footprints and trackway. Theropod footprints were identified as similar to Schizograllator otariensis, Talmontopus tersi and Wildeichnus isp. Ornithopod footprints are tridactyl with rounded and thick toes and belong to bipeds. Some didactyl imprints were also observed. Skin imprints were well preserved in these footprints. The ornithopod tracks resemble Jiayinosorupus johnsoni, as well as Velociraptorichnus sichuanensis for didactyl footprints. Sauropod footprints found in the western part of Baladeh are assigned here to Eosauropus isp., which are pentadactyl pes imprints of a quadruped. The assemblage from Iran resembles similar associations from eastern Asia.

  3. The Zeus Copper/Uranium Critical Experiment at NCERC

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Rene G.; Hayes, David K.; Bounds, John Alan; Jackman, Kevin R.; Goda, Joetta M.

    2012-06-15

    A critical experiment was performed to provide nuclear data in a non-thermal neutron spectrum and to reestablish experimental capability relevant to Stockpile Stewardship and Technical Nuclear Forensic programs. Irradiation foils were placed at specific locations in the Zeus all oralloy critical experiment to obtain fission ratios. These ratios were compared with others from other critical assemblies to assess the degree of softness in the neutron spectrum. This critical experiment was performed at the National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) in Nevada.

  4. A laparoscopic radical prostatectomy assisted by the "ZEUS" robotic system: an initial case report.

    PubMed

    Eto, Masatoshi; Yokomizo, Akira; Koga, Hirofumi; Tsunoda, Toshiyuki; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Hashizume, Makoto; Naito, Seiji

    2005-02-01

    A 68-year-old man with prostate cancer, T1cN0M0, was treated with laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) assisted by the ZEUS robotic system. The ZEUS system was utilized only for vesico-urethral anastomosis, one of the most difficult procedures to perform during LRP. We could complete the vesico-urethral anastomosis using the ZEUS system for 100 min without any intraoperative complications. The urethral catheter was removed 7 days after operation. To our knowledge, this is the initial case of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy using the ZEUS system. PMID:15852664

  5. Charm Production at Low Q2 With the ZEUS Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aghuzumtsyan, Gayane

    2005-10-06

    The production of D*(2010) mesons in deep inelastic scattering at low Q2 has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 81.9 pb-1. The D* mesons have been reconstructed from their decay into D0 and {pi}s with the decay D0 {yields} K-{pi}+ and corresponding antiparticle decay. Differential D* cross sections as functions of exchanged photon virtuality, Q2, inelasticity, y, transverse momentum of the D* meson, pT(D*), and pseudorapidity of the D* meson, {eta}(D*), have been measured, using the beam-pipe calorimeter of ZEUS. The kinematic region of the measurement is 0.05 < Q2 < 0.7 GeV2, 0.02 < y < 0.85, 1.5 < pT(D*) < 9.0 GeV and |{eta}(D*)| < 1.5. The measured differential cross sections are compared with the predictions of next-to-leading-order QCD.

  6. Multiple cooling episodes in the Central Tarim (Northwest China) revealed by apatite fission track analysis and vitrinite reflectance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jian; Qiu, Nansheng; Song, Xinying; Li, Huili

    2015-09-01

    Apatite fission track and vitrinite reflectance are integrated for the first time to study the cooling history in the Central Tarim, northwest China. The paleo-temperature profiles from vitrinite reflectance data of the Z1 and Z11 wells showed a linear relationship with depth, suggesting an approximately 24.8 °C/km paleo-geothermal gradient and 2700-3900 m of erosion during the Early Mesozoic. The measured apatite fission track ages from well Z2 in the Central Tarim range from 39 to 159 Ma and effectively record the Meso-Cenozoic cooling events that occurred in Central Tarim. Moreover, two cooling events at 190-140 Ma in the Early Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and 80-45 Ma in the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene revealed by measured AFT data and thermal modeling results are related to the collisions of the Qiangtang-Lhasa terranes and the Greater India Plate with the southern margin of the Eurasian Plate, respectively. This study provides new insights into the tectonic evolution of the Tarim Basin (and more broadly Central Asia) and for hydrocarbon generation and exploration in the Central Tarim.

  7. ZEUS: A Submillimeter Grating Spectrometer for Exploring Distant Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikola, Tomas; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steven; Stacey, Gordon J.; Benford, Dominic J.; Moseley, Samuel H., Jr.; Staguhn, Johannes G.

    2003-02-01

    The redshift (Z) and of Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS) is a long slit echelle grating spectrometer that we are constructing for use in the submillimeter (350μm, 450μm, and 610μm) windows on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). ZEUS has a resolving power of R≡λ/ΔΛ~1000, optimized for detecting broad, faint lines from extragalactic sources. The detector is a 16×32 pixel array of pop-up bolometers equipped with superconducting transition edge sensors linked into a SQUID multiplexed readout. This array should provide the requisite sensitivity at ~300mK, a temperature easily achieved using a two stage 3He refrigerator. ZEUS is optimized to quickly obtain spectra of point sources over very broad bands in the submillimeter windows. In the 350μm window, ZEUS will provide an instantaneous 27 resolution element spectrum, for each of 16 spatial elements on the sky. The roughly 10% bandwidth 350μm window can therefore be covered with just four settings of the grating. Each pixel is mapped into 5" on the sky (roughly 1•λ/D at 350 μm), so that the field of view is 5"×80". At 610μm, the slit is opened to 12" (2.4 pixels) resulting in a resolving power of around 500. ZEUS can quickly change wavelength or telluric window, adapting well to the demanding weather conditions in the short submillimeter windows. To minimize the effects of stray background radiation, two cold cut-on filters are used, together with 300mK band pass filters mounted on a filter wheel. This filter train fully sorts the echelle grating order, blocking unwanted radiation, but with high submillimeter band transmission. The expected point source sensitivities for 370μm, 444μm, and 610μm are 2.7×1017 W m-2Hz-1/2, 1.2×10-17 W m-2Hz-1/2, and 1.6×10-17W m-2Hz-1/2, respectively. Our primary scientific objectives are to (1) Investigate Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIGs) via their (CI) and mid-J CO line emission-what are the origins of their tremendous infrared (IR) luminosities? Why are some ULIGs weak in the 158 μm (CII) line? (2) Probe star formation in the early Universe using highly redshifted far-IR fine-structure line emission-especially that of the 158 μm (CII) line. How strong are starbursts in the early Universe? and (3) Provide redshifts for all 850 μm SCUBA sources, providing source distance, luminosity, and number counts as a function of z. What is the evolutionary history of starformation in the early Universe?

  8. The morphotectonic evolution of rift-margin mountains in central Kenya: Constraints from apatite fission-track thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, David A.; Gleadow, Andrew J. W.

    1992-09-01

    Passive margin mountains and rift flank uplifts are common features of extended continental areas. Apatite fission-track thermochronology of Proterozoic rocks from mountain ranges east of the Kenya Rift in central Kenya reveals episodes of rapid cooling and denudation, in Early Cretaceous (130-110 Ma), Late Cretaceous-Paleocene (70-60 Ma), and possibly Miocene ( ˜ 10 Ma) times. During the Early Cretaceous ˜ 1.2-2.0 km of denudation occurred in this area, and evidence for this is preserved in the Karisia Hills. The Late Cretaceous-Paleocene episode is well documented from escarpments along the western margin of the Anza Rift including the Mathews Range. Detailed fission-track age profiles up these escarpments indicate that 2.6-3.0 km of crust was denuded from this area in < 5 Ma. These periods of rapid denudation probably contributed to the deposition of thick sedimentary sequences in the adjacent Anza Rift. A third period of cooling during the Miocene is proposed on the basis of forward modeling of the apatite age and track length data from the Mathews Range samples. Denudation associated with Miocene cooling probably only amounted to ˜ 500 m in most areas. The timing of the three denudational episodes can be correlated with intracratonic deformational events elsewhere in Africa, as well as with periods of extension in the Lamu Embayment, Anza Rift and Kenya Rift. The variation of apatite fission-track age and track length with elevation in the mountain ranges also provides a basis for reconstructing preserved parts of pre-Early Cretaceous and pre-Late Cretaceous apatite partial annealing zones. Offsets of these partial annealing zones indicate that the basement mountain ranges in central Kenya developed as rift margin mountains adjacent to the Anza Rift. Early and Late Cretaceous extension in the Anza Rift caused normal faulting with displacements of ˜ 1 km and ˜ 3° of westward tilting of crustal blocks along its flanks.

  9. Cost analysis of two anaesthetic machines: "Primus®" and "Zeus®"

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Two anaesthetic machines, the "Primus®" and the "Zeus®" (Draeger AG, Lübeck, Germany), were subjected to a cost analysis by evaluating the various expenses that go into using each machine. Methods These expenses included the acquisition, maintenance, training and device-specific accessory costs. In addition, oxygen, medical air and volatile anaesthetic consumption were determined for each machine. Results Anaesthesia duration was 278 ± 140 and 208 ± 112 minutes in the Primus® and the Zeus®, respectively. The purchase cost was €3.28 and €4.58 per hour of operation in the Primus® and the Zeus®, respectively. The maintenance cost was €0.90 and €1.20 per hour of operation in the Primus® and the Zeus®, respectively. We found that the O2 cost was €0.015 ± 0.013 and €0.056 ± 0.121 per hour of operation in the Primus® and the Zeus®, respectively. The medical air cost was €0.005 ± 0.003 and €0.016 ± 0.027 per hour of operation in the Primus® and the Zeus®, respectively. The volatile anaesthetic cost was €2.40 ± 2.40 and €4.80 ± 4.80 per hour of operation in the Primus® and the Zeus®, respectively. Conclusion This study showed that the "Zeus®" generates a higher cost per hour of operation compared to the "Primus®". PMID:22216974

  10. Subsurface flows in the seasonally stratified central North Sea : analysis of drifter tracks through observations and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, C.; McCloghrie, P.; Fernand, L.; Brown, J.; Young, E. F.

    2003-04-01

    Holey-sock drifters have been tracked by ARGOS satellite in the Central North Sea during summer-stratified conditions of 1996, 1997, 1999, 2001 and 2002. Drogued at depths of 20-30m, they aim to capture the baroclinic jets set up by isolated cold pool bottom fronts. These cold pools of relict winter water remain through the summer in areas of low tidal energy and are effectively sealed off from overlying waters by a strong thermocline. Observational and modelling studies have identified such dynamics in the basins both north of the Dogger Bank - Fladen Grounds - and south - Oyster Grounds. The drifter tracks used in this study were interpolated and tidally filtered to produce regular time interval drifter positions. By correlation with wind data from the UK Meteorological Office Unified Model output, the locally wind-driven and baroclinic components of the drifters' flow were determined. Following assessments of (1) individual drifter tracks and (2) spatial/temporal segmentation of the collective drifter tracks, a regional and interannual understanding of the area has been built up. Additional observational data (including that gathered with high resolution towed undulating CTD's on a Scanfish) have been used to support and quantify the flows, as has a 3-D density-resolving model based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). The drifters have been simulated using a particle-tracking model run on POM's flow field output, simulating the paths of drifters at depth. Through running the two together in various modes, it has been possible to account for certain parts of the drifters' tracks. These results contribute to a previously coarser understanding of North Sea circulation and show the importance of seasonal structure there. They demonstrate that fast baroclinic jets have the potential to transport biological and contaminant matter (e.g., fish larvae/eggs; and nutrients/heavy metals) in different and more organised flow fields than those previously recognised. This understanding is essential to the monitoring and management of such a semi-enclosed and intensively used area as the North Sea.

  11. Evolution Of The Coastal Margin Of Central Peru Through Fission-Track and (U-Th/He) Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wipf, M.; Harrison, D.; Seward, D.; Schlunegger, F.

    2003-12-01

    The Coastal Batholith of Peru comprises granitoid bodies which range in age from 100-60 Ma and 50-20 Ma. It forms a well defined linear feature along the coastal margin. Low temperature geochronological methods such as fission-track and (U-Th)/He are best suited to reconstruct the later exhumation of the coastal margin. Factors such as variability in climate and in rock type are constrained reducing the number of parameters that might have an effect on erosion rates. The Coastal Batholith has been analyzed at several locations between Lima (Lat. 12° S) and Chala (Lat. 16° S) using fission-track (zircon and apatite) and (U-Th)/He dating methods. Modeling of the preliminary fission-track data set shows an almost identical thermal history for all locations North of San Juan (Lat. 15.30° S). Rapid exhumation in Late Eocene was followed by heating and renewed cooling during Oligocene time. The heating phase is interpreted as burial by Tertiary sediments, and the cooling, erosion of this sediment cover and the granite itself. An Early Miocene age (zircon fission-track age) of an ignimbrite stratigraphically just above the granites from the Nazca area (Lat. 15° S) shows that significant erosion of Eocene and Oligocene sediments had taken place in the coastal margin of central Peru, prior to the Early Miocene. Modeling further suggests that South of San Juan no significant amounts of sediment were deposited or eroded since the early Eocene. This southern region has been undergoing only simple long-term exhumation since as far back as Late Cretaceous. To explain these changes in age, which occur south of the leading edge of the subducting Nazca Ridge the geomorphology of the coastal area of central Peru was analyzed. Topographic cross sections perpendicular to the coast suggest an effect, caused by the collision with the ridge in the immediate on-land coastal areas. Over the area of the presently subducting ridge, a coast-parallel cross section shows an increase in altitude of approximately 500-1000 meters. No affect of the subducting Nazca Ridge is observable along the Western Cordillera further inland. The new fission-track ages can be interpreted in the terms of events that have affected the coastal region of Peru. These events disclosed through the apatite fission-track modeling are in agreement with those of Sebrier (1988), i.e. 45 to 40 Ma and 28-26 Ma. The zircon fission-track ages are thought to represent cooling ages of the Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene intrusions of the Coastal Batholith. This is the first time that such quantitative data has been available for this region. Remarkably, the region to the south of the ridge has been undergoing only long slow exhumation during the Late Cretaceous -Tertiary to Recent, uninterrupted by any events that have caused a reheating such as burial by sedimentation.

  12. Prototype VME data acquisition card for the ZEUS calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J.W.; Berg, J.S.; Schlereth, J.L.; Stanek, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a prototype data acquisition (DAQ) card for the ZEUS calorimeter. The card accepts two multiplexes analog data streams at a 1 MHz rate, and digitizes and stores the data for subsequent transfer through VME to a host computer. The data is buffered by a high-speed asynchronous FIFO following the A/D converters, and written into Data Memory on the card, either directly or after processing by an on-board digital signal processor (DSP). Each card has a 16-bit control-status register (CSR), the bits of which configure the hardware and define the hardware options. The 1/4 Mbyte of high speed CMOS static RAM appears either as a FIFO, or mapped memory depending upon a bit in the CSR. The card is designed to make use of the 32-bit data and address buses supported by VME, and accordingly can be most efficiently utilized in conjunction with a processor in the VME environment such as the 68020, which supports longword transfers in a 32-bit address space. The card is constructed on a ten layer printed circuit, with almost all components being surface-mount devices. All logic is implemented in PLD's. 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Jet Cross Sections in D* Photoproduction with ZEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Kohno, Takanori

    2005-10-06

    Charm photoproduction in D* photoproduction have been studied using 78.6 pb-1 of data collected by the ZEUS detector. The measurement of inclusive jet cross section with a D* in the final state was performed in the kinematic region, Q2 < 1 GeV, 130 < W < 280 GeV, p{sub T}{sup D{sup *}} > 3 GeV, |{eta}D*| < 1.5, E{sub T}{sup jet} > 6 GeV and -1.5 < {eta}jet < 2.4. Differential cross sections as a function of E{sub T}{sup jet} and {eta}jet were compared to the NLO QCD predictions. There is a general agreement with the NLO QCD preditions. In addition to above requirements, a dijet sub-sample having at least two jets with E{sub T}{sup jet} > 6 GeV and the leading jet with E{sub T}{sup jet} > 7 GeV was used to measure dijet correlations. Dijet correlations are compared to the NLO QCD predictions and leading-order (LO) Monte Carlo (MC) models with parton showers (PS). Dijet correlations are described well by the LO+PS models, while the NLO QCD prediction underestimates the measurement in the region where higher-order effects are expected to become significant.

  14. Jet Cross Sections in D* Photoproduction with ZEUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Takanori

    2005-10-01

    Charm photoproduction in D* photoproduction have been studied using 78.6 pb-1 of data collected by the ZEUS detector. The measurement of inclusive jet cross section with a D* in the final state was performed in the kinematic region, Q2 < 1 GeV, 130 < W < 280 GeV, pTD* > 3 GeV, |ηD*| < 1.5, ETjet > 6 GeV and -1.5 < ηjet < 2.4. Differential cross sections as a function of ETjet and ηjet were compared to the NLO QCD predictions. There is a general agreement with the NLO QCD preditions. In addition to above requirements, a dijet sub-sample having at least two jets with ETjet > 6 GeV and the leading jet with ETjet > 7 GeV was used to measure dijet correlations. Dijet correlations are compared to the NLO QCD predictions and leading-order (LO) Monte Carlo (MC) models with parton showers (PS). Dijet correlations are described well by the LO+PS models, while the NLO QCD prediction underestimates the measurement in the region where higher-order effects are expected to become significant.

  15. First level trigger processor for the ZEUS calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J.W.; Talaga, R.L.; Burr, G.W.; Laird, R.J. ); Smith, W.; Lackey, J. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of the first level trigger processor for the ZEUS calorimeter. This processor accepts data from the 13,000 photomultipliers of the calorimeter which is topologically divided into 16 regions, and after regional preprocessing, performs logical and numerical operations which cross regional boundaries. Because the crossing period at the HERA collider is 96 ns, it is necessary that first-level trigger decisions be made in pipelined hardware. One microsecond is allowed for the processor to perform the required logical and numerical operations, during which time the data from ten crossings would be resident in the processor while being clocked through the pipelined hardware. The circuitry is implemented in 100K ECL, Advanced CMOS discrete devices, and programmable gate arrays, and operates in a VME environment. All tables and registers are written/read from VME, and all diagnostic codes are executed from VME. Preprocessed data flows into the processor at a rate of 5.2GB/s, and processed data flows from the processor to the Global First-Level Trigger at a rate of 700MB/s. The system allows for subsets of the logic to be configured by software and for various important variables to be histogrammed as they flow through the processor. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  16. In Situ Assimilation Tracked By Trace Element Variation in Augite: Sausfjellet Pluton, North-Central Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, C. G.; Coint, N.; Yoshinobu, A. S.; Prestvik, T.; Barnes, M. A. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Sausfjellet pluton is a sub-circular, 445 Ma pluton in the Bindal Batholith. It was intruded into mid-crustal level (~700 MPa), high-grade rocks during Taconian assembly of the Helgeland Nappe Complex. Stage 1 of the pluton is massive pyroxene hornblende gabbro with poikilitic hornblende. Stage 2, the subject of this study, occupies the central and western parts of the pluton and is gradationally zoned from central, layered, xenolith-rich hornblende biotite two-pyroxene diorite + anorthosite, to western, massive, xenolith-poor hornblende biotite three-pyroxene quartz monzonite. Bulk-rock compositions are consistent with widespread accumulation of pyroxene + plagioclase. In order to separate effects of accumulation from assimilation, trace element zoning profiles in augite were used as a proxy for changes in melt composition. Augite is normally zoned, with incompatible elements increasing from cores to rims. However, trace element variation among samples plots as multiple trends that can be resolved into two broad groups that correspond to the central and western zones. Augite in the layered central zone has lower abundances of REE, Pb and Hf and higher abundances of Cr, V, Ni, Sr, and P compared to the western zone. The two trends intersect at low concentrations of incompatible elements such as Zr. Calculation of melts in equilibrium with augite, combined with AFC-type modeling, suggest that variation in augite Zr contents requires assimilation of Zr-rich rocks in all Stage 2 rocks. In the western zone, increases in Zr, Hf, REE and Pb suggest assimilation of Neoproterozoic gneisses that are host to the western zone; this conclusion is consistent with bulk-rock δ18O values. We conclude that assimilation of host rocks was widespread in this mid-crustal magma body, and that augite preserves a trace element record of differentiation (AFC) that is difficult to identify using bulk-rock compositions alone.

  17. Fast and slow radiation-driven wind solutions using ZEUS-3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, I.; Curé, M.; ud-Doula, A.; Santillán, A.

    2014-10-01

    Currently, the theory of radiation-driven winds of massive stars possess three known solutions for the velocity and density profiles of the stellar winds, namely: the fast, Ω -slow and δ -slow solutions. In order to confirm their stability we use a time-dependent numerical hydrodynamic code called ZEUS-3D, and then we compare their results with the stationary solutions from our numerical hydrodynamic code. ZEUS-3D needs an initial trial solution to start to integrate, for this we use the stationary solution (from our code) or a β-law for the velocity field. In both cases we obtain the same results. Fast and both slow stationary solutions are attained in ZEUS-3D and are all stable. Furthermore, there is a very good agreement with the velocity and density fields from ZEUS-3D and our code, having differences between the terminal velocities lower than 3%. In addition, we found that ZEUS-3D is very sensitive to the boundary conditions (base density and velocity profile), in some cases we obtain kinks in the velocity profiles, similar to the ones obtained by Madura et al. (2007) for stars with high rotation. Such kinks are most likely the result of the wind being mass overloaded, but further investigation is needed to understand its nature better. Currently, we are exploring the effects of small perturbation at the base of the wind in order to study possible transitions or oscillations between δ-slow and fast solutions.

  18. Relative potentials of concentrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.; Schwartz, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the relative economic potentials of concenrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications in the mid-1990's. Specific objectives of this study are to provide information on concentrator photovoltaic collector probabilistic price and efficiency levels to illustrate critical areas of R&D for concentrator cells and collectors, and to compare concentrator and flat-plate PV price and efficiency alternatives for several locations, based on their implied costs of energy. To deal with the uncertainties surrounding research and development activities in general, a probabilistic assessment of commercially achievable concentrator photovoltaic collector efficiencies and prices (at the factory loading dock) is performed. The results of this projection of concentrator photovoltaic technology are then compared with a previous flat-plate module price analysis (performed early in 1983). To focus this analysis on specific collector alternatives and their implied energy costs for different locations, similar two-axis tracking designs are assumed for both concentrator and flat-plate options.

  19. Beam tracking simulation in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggraita, Pramudita; Santosa, Budi; Taufik, Mulyani, Emy; Diah, Frida Iswinning

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the trajectories simulation of proton beam in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron, operating with negative proton beam (for easier beam extraction using a stripper foil), 40 kV peak accelerating dee voltage at fourth harmonic frequency of 77.88 MHz, and average magnetic field of 1.275 T. The central region covers fields of 240mm × 240mm × 30mm size at 1mm resolution. The calculation was also done at finer 0.25mm resolution covering fields of 30mm × 30mm × 4mm size to see the effects of 0.55mm horizontal width of the ion source window and the halted trajectories of positive proton beam. The simulations show up to 7 turns of orbital trajectories, reaching about 1 MeV of beam energy. The distribution of accelerating electric fields and magnetic fields inside the cyclotron were calculated in 3 dimension using Opera3D code and Tosca modules for static magnetic and electric fields. The trajectory simulation was carried out using Scilab 5.3.3 code.

  20. Tracking River Recharge in the Central Valley of California Using Chemical and Isotopic Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, J. E.; Hudson, B.; Evans, D.; Horner, T.; Leif, R.; Eaton, G. F.

    2003-12-01

    Recharge to alluvial aquifers along the major rivers of the Central Valley of California is influenced by human activity in adjacent urban areas and groundwater basins. Intense pumping of Central Valley aquifers may induce recharge, while slurry walls, emplaced for flood control in densely populated areas, are intended to protect levees by preventing shallow recharge. These large rivers carry distinct chemical and isotopic signatures that allow recent recharge to be traced in adjacent wells. In particular, stable isotopes of oxygen delineate areas where river water, carrying a depleted isotopic signature from Sierra Nevada precipitation (-11 to -15 per mil), is recharging groundwater aquifers where local precipitation is significantly heavier (-7 per mil). Trace anthropogenic compounds present in river water, such as MtBE (from precipitation and recreational boating on watershed reservoirs), are also useful for identifying areas where river water has recently infiltrated. Analysis of groundwater age, using the tritium-helium method allows estimation of the time since recharge, and evaluation of the effect of human activity on the natural groundwater recharge and flow patterns. Results from a detailed study along the American River in Sacramento, where a slurry wall is in place, show areas of recent recharge, as evidenced by relatively high MtBE concentrations (matching river concentrations) and young groundwater ages in shallow wells. In other wells, older ages and very low MtBE concentrations delineate areas where active recharge is not taking place. These results are interpreted in the context of basin-wide analyses for the Sacramento urban area, where most groundwater sampled from municipal wells is devoid of tritium, and therefore recharged more than about 50 years ago. These data are collected for the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program, sponsored by the CA State Water Resources Control Board. Oxygen isotopes indicate that American River water has recharged a large portion of this basin, with wells showing decreasing fractions of isotopically depleted water moving away from the river to the north. A similar pattern is observed in other areas of intense pumping in groundwater basins along the major rivers in the Central Valley. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-ENG-48.

  1. A Preliminary ZEUS Lightning Location Error Analysis Using a Modified Retrieval Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elander, Valjean; Koshak, William; Phanord, Dieudonne

    2004-01-01

    The ZEUS long-range VLF arrival time difference lightning detection network now covers both Europe and Africa, and there are plans for further expansion into the western hemisphere. In order to fully optimize and assess ZEUS lightning location retrieval errors and to determine the best placement of future receivers expected to be added to the network, a software package is being developed jointly between the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV). The software package, called the ZEUS Error Analysis for Lightning (ZEAL), will be used to obtain global scale lightning location retrieval error maps using both a Monte Carlo approach and chi-squared curvature matrix theory. At the core of ZEAL will be an implementation of an Iterative Oblate (IO) lightning location retrieval method recently developed at MSFC. The IO method will be appropriately modified to account for variable wave propagation speed, and the new retrieval results will be compared with the current ZEUS retrieval algorithm to assess potential improvements. In this preliminary ZEAL work effort, we defined 5000 source locations evenly distributed across the Earth. We then used the existing (as well as potential future ZEUS sites) to simulate arrival time data between source and ZEUS site. A total of 100 sources were considered at each of the 5000 locations, and timing errors were selected from a normal distribution having a mean of 0 seconds and a standard deviation of 20 microseconds. This simulated "noisy" dataset was analyzed using the IO algorithm to estimate source locations. The exact locations were compared with the retrieved locations, and the results are summarized via several color-coded "error maps."

  2. Thermal effects of Caledonian foreland basin formation, based on fission track analyses applied on basement rocks in central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huigen, Yvette; Andriessen, Paul

    Increasing evidence from fission track studies in Sweden indicate that large parts of the Fennoscandian Shield have been affected by a large-scale thermotectonic event in the Palaeozoic. In this study the results of 17 apatite fission track analyses from central Sweden are presented collected along three NW-SE transects trending from the Bothnian Sea to the Caledonides. On the Bothnian coast samples have been collected directly from the Sub-Cambrian Peneplain. The sedimentary cover protecting this surface until recently is responsible for the thermal increase detected through apatite fission track (FT) thermochronology. The apatite FT ages range between 516 ± 46 Ma (±1 σ) on the Bothnian coast around sea level to 191 ± 11 Ma in the Caledonides (∼500-1500 m.a.s.l.). The mean track lengths vary from 11.3 ± 2.2 μm (±1 σ) in the east to 14.2 ± 2.8 μm in the west, indicating a longer stay in the PAZ in the east, versus a continuous cooling pattern in the west. This pattern in combination with other geological constraints indicates that the crystalline basement rocks near the Caledonian deformation front in the west experienced higher temperatures after the formation of the Sub-Cambrian Peneplain followed by denudation, compared with the basement rocks in the east near the Bothnian coast. The apatite FT data near the Caledonian deformation front indicates prevailing temperatures of more than 110 ± 10 °C prior to the Mid Palaeozoic, causing a resetting of the apatite fission track clock. The temperatures were progressively lower away from the deformation front. Apatite fission track analysis of samples collected from the Sub-Cambrian Peneplain along the Bothnian coast indicate maximum temperatures of 90 ± 15 °C during Late Silurian-Early Devonian time. This heating event is argued to be the result of burial beneath a developing foreland basin in front of the Caledonian orogeny. Assuming a geothermal gradient of 20 °C/km, this temperature increase can be converted to a total burial of the samples. The resulting geometry of this basin can be described as an asymmetrical basin at least 3.5 km deep in the vicinity of the Caledonian deformation front decreasing to about 2.5 km on the Bothnian coast, continuing further onto Finland. The width of this basin was in thus in the order of 600 km. Whether this was formed completely synorogenic or partly synorogenic, broadening after cessation of the orogeny, could not be revealed. The Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic thermal evolution of this area is related to the extensional tectonics in the North Atlantic Domain.

  3. Observing Decadal Trends in Atmospheric Feedbacks and Climate Change with Zeus and CLARREO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revercomb, H. E.; Best, F. A.; Knuteson, R. O.; Tobin, D. C.; Taylor, J. K.; Gero, P.; Adler, D. P.; Pettersen, C.; Mulligan, M.; Tobin, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    New technologies for observing decadal trends in atmospheric feedbacks and climate change from space have been recently demonstrated via a NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) project of our group and the Anderson Group of Harvard University. Using these new technologies, a mission named Zeus has been proposed to the first NASA Earth Venture Instruments opportunity (EVI-1). Zeus would provide a low cost mechanism to initiate a new era in high spectral resolution IR climate Benchmark and Intercalibration observations, the basis for which has been established by definition of the CLARREO mission in the 2007 NRC "Decadal Survey" and by the Science Definition Team established by NASA LaRC to further the full blown CLARREO mission. Zeus EVI is a low-cost, low-risk, and high-value EVI mission that will deploy an Absolute Radiance Interferometer (ARI) instrument to measure absolute spectrally resolved infrared radiance over much of the Earth-emitted spectrum with ultra-high accuracy (<0.1 K 3-sigma brightness temperature). Zeus makes use of broad spectral coverage (3.7-50 microns) and high spectral resolution (<1 cm-1) to provide benchmark products for climate trending with much higher information content than traditional spectrally-integrated measurements. While ARI requirements for accuracy and spectral properties are demanding, the overall instrument is relatively simple and low-cost because of the limited requirements on spatial sampling (25-100 km nadir-only footprints spaced at < 250 km) and on noise performance (climate products are created by combining many samples). The orbit chosen for Zeus must provide coverage immune to time-of-day sampling errors. Because of its relatively high rate of precession, an attractive baseline option for Zeus EVI is the 51.6 degrees inclination orbit of the International Space Station (ISS). For Zeus deployment on the ISS, higher latitude climate benchmark information will be obtained from operational sounders intercalibrated by Zeus. A key aspect of the Zeus ARI instrument is the On-orbit Verification and Test System (OVTS) for verifying its accuracy by reference to International Standards (SI) and testing on orbit. The OVTS includes an On-orbit Absolute Radiance Standard (OARS), which is a high emissivity cavity blackbody that can be operated over a wide range of temperatures to verify ARI calibration. The OARS uses multiple small phase change cells to establish its fundamental temperature scale to better than 5 mK absolute and a broad-band heated-halo source for monitoring its cavity spectral emissivity throughout the mission. A Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) is also used by the OVTS to monitor the ARI instrument spectral lineshape and the emissivity of its calibration blackbody relative to that of the OARS. The ARI radiance measurements will also be tested for other systematic errors on orbit (non-linearity, polarization effects, and stray light). Through especially careful attention to accuracy, proven on orbit, Zeus EVI will provide the first irrefutable benchmark measurements of the Earth's emitted spectral radiance with accuracy exceeding 0.1 K 3 sigma. In addition, Zeus will serve as a reference standard for operational advanced sounders and will enable fundamental improvements in our capability to document climate trends and to forecast climate and weather.

  4. Using atmospheric chemistry and storm tracks to explain nitrate stable isotope variations in precipitation at a site in central Pennsylvania, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable isotopes of NO3- (delta15N-NO3- and delta18O-NO3-) were monitored in precipitation at a central Pennsylvania site during six storm events in 2005 to determine whether information on atmospheric oxidants (e.g. O3, NO2, and NOx), and storm-tracks were capable of explaining observed seasonal and...

  5. A Response to Zeus Leonardo's "Critical Empiricism: Reading Data with Social Theory"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    In this article the author briefly brings up two related conceptual and political areas that Zeus Leonardo and the author might want to discuss further. These concern the status of the language of "resistance" and "agency," terms that play a large part in Leonardo's essay and that are now among the pantheon of accepted political and analytic

  6. Studies of hadron-electron separators for the ZEUS barrel calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Ambats, I.; Bortz, D.; Connolly, A.

    1995-05-25

    Two possible upgrades, a shower maximum detector and a presampler, designed to improve the low energy electron/hadron separation capabilities of the ZEUS barrel calorimeter are described and test-beam results are reported. The presampler can also be used to correct for energy loss of particles traversing the dead material in front of the calorimeter.

  7. Measurement of HIGH-x Neutral Current Cross Sections with the ZEUS Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, A.

    2007-01-01

    A new method is employed to measure the neutral current cross section up to Bjorken-x values equal to one with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 82 pb-1. Cross sections have been extracted for Q2 > 500 GeV2 and are compared to Standard Model predictions using different parton density functions.

  8. A Response to Zeus Leonardo's "Critical Empiricism: Reading Data with Social Theory"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    In this article the author briefly brings up two related conceptual and political areas that Zeus Leonardo and the author might want to discuss further. These concern the status of the language of "resistance" and "agency," terms that play a large part in Leonardo's essay and that are now among the pantheon of accepted political and analytic…

  9. Flood-tracking chart for the Withlacoochee and Little River Basins in south-central Georgia and northern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; McCallum, Brian E.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with other Federal, State, and local agencies, operates a flood-monitoring system in the Withlacoochee and Little River Basins. This system is a network of automated river stage stations (ten are shown on page 2 of this publication) that transmit stage data through satellite telemetry to the USGS in Atlanta, Georgia and the National Weather Service (NWS) in Peachtree City, Georgia. During floods, the public and emergency response agencies use this information to make decisions about road closures, evacuations, and other public safety issues. This Withlacoochee and Little River Basins flood-tracking chart can be used by local citizens and emergency response personnel to record the latest river stage and predicted flood-crest information along the Withlacoochee River, Little River, and Okapilco Creek in south-central Georgia and northern Florida. By comparing the current stage (water-surface level above a datum) and predicted flood crest to the recorded peak stages of previous floods, emergency response personnel and residents can make informed decisions concerning the threat to life and property.

  10. Episodic exhumation of the Greater Himalayan Sequence since the Miocene constrained by fission track thermochronology in Nyalam, central Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, An; Garver, John I.; Wang, Guocan; Smith, Jacqueline A.; Zhang, Kexin

    2010-12-01

    The Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS), which makes up the core of the Himalayan orogen, has an uppermost tectonic contact defined by the South Tibetan Detachment System (STDS) and a lower tectonic contact defined by the Main Central Thrust (MCT). The GHS occurs as one of the most important tectostratigraphic units for deciphering processes related to tectonic and climatic exhumation across the orogen. Zircon and apatite fission track (ZFT, AFT) dating were carried out along a transect in Nyalam, central Himalaya in southern Tibet to constrain cooling driven by orogenic process since the middle Miocene. The hanging wall of the STDS yields an essentially unreset Jurassic ZFT age in the Jurassic strata. However, below the STDS within the GHS there is a clear and distinct thermal signal of cooling related to exhumation. In the footwall and within the GHS, the rocks have ZFT ages of middle Miocene to Pliocene, and AFT ages of late Miocene to Quaternary that get younger downward and away from the STDS. In combination with thermal structure modeling, a two-part episodic model, which is widely compatible with existing thermochronological data, is proposed for cooling and exhumation of the GHS since the middle Miocene: [1] middle Miocene; and [2] Pliocene to Quaternary (Recent). The middle Miocene cooling is suggested to have resulted from a rapid tectonic unroofing by down-to-the-north slip on the STDS. The tectonic exhumation was also recorded by several other thermochronological systems (e.g. biotite 40Ar/ 39Ar) with concordant middle Miocene cooling ages in different structural positions across the GHS. Post middle Miocene ZFT and AFT cooling ages in the lower part of the GHS suggest accelerated cooling by climate-enhanced erosional exhumation, which was initiated in the late Miocene to Pliocene and was dramatic in the Quaternary to Recent. Thermochronological data and modeling further imply that the present Himalayan topographic front may have been shaped essentially by surface erosion since the late Miocene, when the Himalayan divide might have been some 20-30 km to the south of its present position. However, these data do not preclude the possibility that the intense erosional exhumation may have triggered rock uplift to approach and/or maintain a steady topography in the GHS.

  11. Using Satellite Tracking to Optimize Protection of Long-Lived Marine Species: Olive Ridley Sea Turtle Conservation in Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Sara M.; Breed, Greg A.; Nickel, Barry A.; Makanga-Bahouna, Junior; Pemo-Makaya, Edgard; Parnell, Richard J.; Formia, Angela; Ngouessono, Solange; Godley, Brendan J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Witt, Matthew J.; Coyne, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Tractable conservation measures for long-lived species require the intersection between protection of biologically relevant life history stages and a socioeconomically feasible setting. To protect breeding adults, we require knowledge of animal movements, how movement relates to political boundaries, and our confidence in spatial analyses of movement. We used satellite tracking and a switching state-space model to determine the internesting movements of olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) (n = 18) in Central Africa during two breeding seasons (2007-08, 2008-09). These movements were analyzed in relation to current park boundaries and a proposed transboundary park between Gabon and the Republic of Congo, both created to reduce unintentional bycatch of sea turtles in marine fisheries. We additionally determined confidence intervals surrounding home range calculations. Turtles remained largely within a 30 km radius from the original nesting site before departing for distant foraging grounds. Only 44.6 percent of high-density areas were found within the current park but the proposed transboundary park would incorporate 97.6 percent of high-density areas. Though tagged individuals originated in Gabon, turtles were found in Congolese waters during greater than half of the internesting period (53.7 percent), highlighting the need for international cooperation and offering scientific support for a proposed transboundary park. This is the first comprehensive study on the internesting movements of solitary nesting olive ridley sea turtles, and it suggests the opportunity for tractable conservation measures for female nesting olive ridleys at this and other solitary nesting sites around the world. We draw from our results a framework for cost-effective protection of long-lived species using satellite telemetry as a primary tool. PMID:21589942

  12. Using satellite tracking to optimize protection of long-lived marine species: olive ridley sea turtle conservation in Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Sara M; Breed, Greg A; Nickel, Barry A; Makanga-Bahouna, Junior; Pemo-Makaya, Edgard; Parnell, Richard J; Formia, Angela; Ngouessono, Solange; Godley, Brendan J; Costa, Daniel P; Witt, Matthew J; Coyne, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Tractable conservation measures for long-lived species require the intersection between protection of biologically relevant life history stages and a socioeconomically feasible setting. To protect breeding adults, we require knowledge of animal movements, how movement relates to political boundaries, and our confidence in spatial analyses of movement. We used satellite tracking and a switching state-space model to determine the internesting movements of olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) (n = 18) in Central Africa during two breeding seasons (2007-08, 2008-09). These movements were analyzed in relation to current park boundaries and a proposed transboundary park between Gabon and the Republic of Congo, both created to reduce unintentional bycatch of sea turtles in marine fisheries. We additionally determined confidence intervals surrounding home range calculations. Turtles remained largely within a 30 km radius from the original nesting site before departing for distant foraging grounds. Only 44.6 percent of high-density areas were found within the current park but the proposed transboundary park would incorporate 97.6 percent of high-density areas. Though tagged individuals originated in Gabon, turtles were found in Congolese waters during greater than half of the internesting period (53.7 percent), highlighting the need for international cooperation and offering scientific support for a proposed transboundary park. This is the first comprehensive study on the internesting movements of solitary nesting olive ridley sea turtles, and it suggests the opportunity for tractable conservation measures for female nesting olive ridleys at this and other solitary nesting sites around the world. We draw from our results a framework for cost-effective protection of long-lived species using satellite telemetry as a primary tool. PMID:21589942

  13. Can we Detect Recent Activation of the Main Central Thrust Zone from Apatite Fission Track Data and Numerical Modelling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, X.; van der Beek, P.; Braun, J.; Mugnier, J.; Muceku, B.

    2007-12-01

    We study the recent dynamics of the Himalayan orogen in central Nepal with the specific goal of quantifying the onset of activity and the deformation history recorded by the different major thrusts. Here, we focus on the possible reactivation of the footwall of the MCT, which is marked by a strong topographic transition in the Nepal Himalaya. This transition is too sharp to be interpreted as a simple consequence of erosion and tectonic mechanisms, such as out of sequence thrusting (Hodges et al., 2004) or underplating over a major crustal ramp (Bollinger et al., 2006) have been suggested. We report 14 new apatite fission-track (AFT) ages collected along a north - south transect from Langtang in the High Himalaya to the Terai Plain. AFT ages are consistently young (< 3 My) all along the N-S transect in the MCT zone and older (4 to 6 My) in the southern part of the Lesser Himalaya. The topographic transition does not correspond to a sharp AFT age transition. We perform numerical thermal-kinematic modelling, using a modified version of the PECUBE code (e.g. Braun, 2002), to quantify the respective roles of underplating and out-of-sequence thrusting in the shortening of this part of the Himalayan range. In these initial models, we assume steady state between tectonic accretion and surface erosion. The current dataset cannot discriminate the two models: although out-of-sequence thrusting and reactivation of the MCT shear zone are consistent with the data, they do not require such a mechanism. The presence of a crustal ramp below the topographic transition exerts the primary control on age patterns. Therefore, the question of possible out-of-sequence reactivation appears secondary in face of the current data set.

  14. [CII] At 1 < z < 2: Observing Star Formation in the Early Universe with Zeus (1 and 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Nikola, T.; Oberst, T.; Parshley, S.; Stacey, G.; Benford, D.; staguhn, J.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of the [CII] 158 micron fine structure line from six submillimeter galaxies with redshifts between 1.12 and 1.73. This more than doubles the total number of [CII] 158 micron detections reported from high redshift sources. These observations were made with the Redshift(z) and Early Universe Spectrometer(ZEUS) at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory on Mauna Kea, Hawaii between December 2006 and March 2009. ZEUS is a background limited submm echelle grating spectrometer (Hailey-Dunsheath 2009). Currently we are constructing ZEUS-2. This new instrument will utilize the same grating but will feature a two dimensional transition-edge sensed bolometer array with SQUID multiplexing readout system enabling simultaneous background limited observations in the 200, 340,450 and 650 micron telluric windows. ZEUS-2 will allow for long slit imaging spectroscopy in nearby galaxies and a [CII] survey from z 0.25 to 2.5.

  15. Beam test of silicon strip sensors for the ZEUS micro vertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Borsato, E.; Burgard, C.; Carli, T.; Carlin, R.; Casaro, M.; Chiochia, V.; Dal Corso, F.; Dannheim, D.; Garfagnini, A.; Kappes, A.; Klanner, R.; Koffeman, E.; Koppitz, B.; Kötz, U.; Maddox, E.; Milite, M.; Moritz, M.; Ng, J. S. T.; Petrucci, M. C.; Redondo, I.; Rautenberg, J.; Tiecke, H.; Turcato, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Weber, A.

    2003-04-01

    For the HERA upgrade, the ZEUS experiment has designed and installed a high precision Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) using single sided μ-strip sensors with capacitive charge division. The sensors have a readout pitch of 120 μm, with five intermediate strips ( 20 μm strip pitch). An extensive test program has been carried out at the DESY-II testbeam facility. In this paper we describe the setup developed to test the ZEUS MVD sensors and the results obtained on both irradiated and non-irradiated single sided μ-strip detectors with rectangular and trapezoidal geometries. The performances of the sensors coupled to the readout electronics (HELIX chip, version 2.2) have been studied in detail, achieving a good description by a Monte Carlo simulation. Measurements of the position resolution as a function of the angle of incidence are presented, focusing in particular on the comparison between standard and newly developed reconstruction algorithms.

  16. Fission track analysis of apatites from São Francisco craton and Mesozoic alcaline-carbonatite complexes from central and southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, G.; Born, H.; Hadler, J. C. N.; Iunes, P. J.; Kawashita, K.; Machado, D. L.; Oliveira, E. P.; Paulo, S. R.; Tello, C. A. S.

    1997-07-01

    Thermal histories on seven Brazilian apatites were obtained by fission track analysis using Monte Carlo simulations. The apatites were collected from two distinct geotectonic provinces. One group, originated from São Francisco craton, represents a typical cratonic domain with Proterozoic and Eopaleozoic rocks and yielded Permo-Triassic ages (counted since the instant when temperature was low enough so that the damage produced by fission tracks in apatite started to be preserved). The common thermal history accepted by all samples of this group is a linear cooling from ~90 to ~25 °C for the last 240 Ma, in agreement with present day thermal gradient and denudation rates. The other group, from Mesozoic alkaline-carbonatite complexes, in central and southeastern Brazil, yielded Cretaceous ages, close to those of the intrusions. For the samples of central Brazil, fission track analysis suggests a slow cooling from ~95 ° to ~85 °C between 90 and 60 Ma ago, followed by a faster cooling from ~85 ° to ~27 °C for the last 60 Ma. Otherwise, two trends exist for the samples of southeastern Brazil. The primary one is an increase in temperature from ~75 ° to ~95 °C, which occurred between 140 and 60 Ma ago. In this period, there is also another trend: a cooling from ~100 ° to ~80 °C. However, both trends are followed by a common thermal history during the last 60 Ma: a cooling from approximately ~80 ° to ~25 °C.

  17. Track Analysis of the North, Central, and South American Species of the Epicauta maculata Group (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Campos-Soldini, M P; García, M S; Safenraiter, M E

    2015-08-01

    We undertook a panbiogeographic analysis of 23 species of the Epicauta maculata group of America-Epicauta abeona Pinto, Epicauta adspersa (Klug), Epicauta andersoni Werner, Epicauta atomaria (Germar), Epicauta apache Pinto, Epicauta cavernosa (Courbon), Epicauta dilatipennis Pic, Epicauta fulvicornis (Burmeister), Epicauta horni Champion, Epicauta jeffersi Pinto, Epicauta koheleri Denier, Epicauta lizeri Denier, E. maculata (Say), Epicauta magnomaculata Martin, Epicauta minutepunctata Borchmann, Epicauta nigropunctata (Blanchard), Epicauta normalis Werner, Epicauta ocellata (Dugès), Epicauta pardalis LeConte, picauta phoenix Werner, Epicauta pluvialis Borchmann, Epicauta proscripta Werner, Epicauta rubella Denier, and Epicauta ventralis Werner-with the purpose of analyzing the distributional data for taxa, to establish patterns of distribution of an ancestral biota and areas where these groups have interacted. Based on the overlap of 20 individual tracks, four generalized tracks constituted by different numbers of species were identified; two of them are located in the Nearctic region and the Mexican transition zone (tracks "A" and "B"), and the other two are distributed in the Neotropical region and the South America transition zone ("C", "D"). Six nodes were recognized: Two of them are included in the Nearctic Region, node 'I' located in northern USA and node 'II' located in southwestern USA, both at the intersection of the tracks "A" and "B". The other four are included in the Neotropical Region at the intersection of the tracks "C" and "D": Node 'III' is located in Chaco province; node 'IV' is located in Parana Forest province; node 'V' is located in the northwest of Argentina in Puna province, and node 'VI' is located in Monte province. PMID:26174956

  18. The effect of tracking network configuration on Global Positioning System (GPS) baseline estimates for the CASA (Central and South America) Uno experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, S.K.; Dixon, T.H. ); Freymueller, J.T. )

    1990-04-01

    Geodetic monitoring of subduction of the Nazca and Cocos plates is a goal of the CASA (Central and South America) Global Positioning System (GPS) experiments, and requires measurement of intersite distances (baselines) in excess of 500 km. The major error source in these measurements is the uncertainty in the position of the GPS satellites at the time of observation. A key aspect of the first CASA experiment, CASA Uno, was the initiation of a global network of tracking stations minimize these errors. The authors studied the effect of using various subsets of this global tracking network on long (>100 km) baseline estimates in the CASA region. Best results were obtained with a global tracking network consisting of three U.S. fiducial stations, two sites in the southwest pacific and two sites in Europe. Relative to smaller subsets, this global network improved baseline repeatability, resolution of carrier phase cycle ambiguities, and formal errors of the orbit estimates. Describing baseline repeatability for horizontal components as {sigma}=(a{sup 2} + b{sup 2}L{sup 2}){sup 1/2} where L is baseline length, the authors obtained a = 4 and 9 mm and b = 2.8{times}10{sup {minus}8} and 2.3{times}10{sup {minus}8} for north and east components, respectively, on CASA baselines up to 1,000 km in length with this global network.

  19. Measurement of exclusive dijet production in diffractive DIS with the ZEUS detector at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Gach, Grzegorz

    2015-04-10

    The exclusive production of dijets in diffractive deep inelastic lepton–proton scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA with an integrated luminosity of 372 pb{sup −1}. Jets have been reconstructed in the photon–Pomeron rest frame using the exclusive k{sub T} algorithm. The shape of the differential cross-section as a function of the angle between the plane spanned by the incoming and scattered lepton momenta and the plane spanned by the virtual photon and jets momenta is presented. The shape is determined by the jet production mechanism and provides information about the Pomeron structure.

  20. Central aortic blood pressure from ultrasound wall-tracking of the carotid artery in children: comparison with invasive measurements and radial tonometry.

    PubMed

    Milne, Laura; Keehn, Louise; Guilcher, Antoine; Reidy, John F; Karunanithy, Narayan; Rosenthal, Eric; Qureshi, Shakeel; Chowienczyk, Phil J; Sinha, Manish D

    2015-05-01

    Differences between central aortic root (c) and peripheral (p) systolic blood pressure (SBP) may be particularly marked in children, but noninvasive methods for assessing cSBP in children have not been validated. We compared estimates of cSBP obtained from radiofrequency ultrasound wall tracking of the carotid artery (ART.LAB system) with that measured directly by a catheter in the aortic root at the time of arterial cannulation. Carotid waveforms were calibrated from invasive measurements of mean and diastolic pressures. In 9 children aged 10.5 5.0 years (mean SD), cSBP obtained from carotid wall tracking was highly correlated with invasive measures of cSBP (r=0.99) with mean ( SD) difference 3.9 2.5 mm?Hg. Second, we compared values of cSBP obtained from the carotid with those obtained using noninvasive applanation tonometry at the radial artery and a radial-to-aortic transfer function (SphygmoCor). Both carotid and radial tonometric measurements were calibrated from the same peripheral mean and diastolic measurements of blood pressure obtained by sphygmomanometry. In 84 children aged 13.2 3.2 years, there was excellent agreement between the 2 methods (r=0.95; P<0.001) with mean difference 0.71 3.7 mm?Hg (95% confidence interval =-1.53 to 1.01). This invasive validation study confirms that cSBP as estimated by carotid wall tracking provides an acceptable measurement of true cSBP when calibration is from true mean and diastolic pressures. Close agreement of cSBP obtained by carotid wall tracking and radial tonometry suggests that these provide similar results when calibrated from the same peripheral blood pressure measurements. PMID:25824246

  1. Apatite fission track evidence for Miocene extensional faulting east-central Nevada, northern Basin and Range province

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.L.; Dumitru, T.A. . Geology Dept.); Gans, P.B. . Geological Sciences Dept.); Brown, R.W. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    Apatite fission track ages indicates that a large component of motion along many of the present range-bounding faults occurred in the Early to Middle Miocene, tilting and uplifting rocks through the apatite annealing zone (120--60 C) between 18--13 Ma (n = 20, Deep Creeks), 18--15 Ma (northern Snake Range, n = 20), 25--17 Ma (n = 7, southern Snake Range), 24--15 Ma (Egan Range, n = 6), 23--18 Ma (Kern Mts., n = 2) and 28--16 ma (Schell Creek Range, n = 2). Long track length distributions indicate rapid cooling through the 120--60 C interval followed by residence at low, near surface temperatures. The data set also indicates that the combined Deep Creek-Kern Mountains-northern and southern Snake Range constitutes a single coherent footwall crustal block beneath a > 150 km-long system of east-dipping Miocene faults which includes at least the eastern portions of faults that have been mapped as the Snake Range decollement (NSRD). Conglomerates deposited in hanging wall basins along this fault system contain metamorphic and granitic boulders whose FT ages are coeval with footwall unroofing. The deposits themselves are now known to be younger than previously reported (Oligocene) as ages from boulders are Miocene. The thick (> 2 km) sequences of synorogenic conglomerate indicates rapid unroofing; large slide blocks attest to generation of steep, fault-controlled topography. Faults that cut this sequence are now known to be younger than 15 Ma. Thus, protracted extensional faulting affected the region, beginning in the Early Oligocene and continuing to the Recent, but a significant part of this extension, including a large component of the slip on the NSRD, was accomplished in the Early to Middle Miocene. Data from this region is compatible with a growing base of apatite fission track data from elsewhere in the northern Basin and Range, which, together with geologic relationships, suggest an important episode of Miocene extension and Basin and Range development.

  2. Charm at HERA I and HERA II with the Zeus experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizides, John Harry

    Inclusive jet cross sections in photoproduction for events containing a D* meson have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 78.6 pb_1. The events were required to have a virtuality of the incoming photon, Q2, of less than 1 GeV2, and a photon-proton centre-of-mass energy in the range 130 < Wlp < 280 GeV. The measurements are compared with next-to-leading-order (NLO) QCD calculations. Good agreement is found with the NLO calculations over most of the measured kinematic region. Requiring a second jet in the event allowed a more detailed comparison with QCD calculations. The measured dijet cross sections are also compared to Monte Carlo (MC) predictions which incorporate leading-order matrix elements, followed by parton showers and hadronisation. The NLO QCD predictions are in general agreement with the data although differences have been isolated to regions where extra parton radiation is present. The MC models give a better description of the shape of the measured cross sections. This thesis ends with a look at the first HERA II data. The decay of D mesons were studied and for the first time the newly installed micro vertex detector (MVD) was used to tag charm mesons using secondary vertices arising from the decay of (c * D or b * c * D). This shows that the MVD will be a powerful tool in the future analyses of heavy quark production at ZEUS.

  3. Probing Star Formation in the Early Universe with Far-IR Spectroscopy using ZEUS-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwas, Amit; Ferkinhoff, Carl; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen; Schoenwald, Justin Paul; Stacey, Gordon J.; Higdon, James L.; Higdon, Sarah; Brisbin, Drew; Verma, Aprajita; Riechers, Dominik A.; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steve; Menten, Karl; Güsten, Rolf; Weiss, Axel; Irwin, Kent; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Niemack, Michael D.; Halpern, Mark; Amiri, Mandana; Hasselfield, Matthew; Wiebe, Donald V.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Tucker, Carole E.

    2015-01-01

    ZEUS-2 is a long slit, direct detection, grating spectrometer for submillimeter wavelengths between 200-850 μm. At present, ZEUS-2 employs a single TES bolometer array that addresses only the 350 and 450 μm windows. Here we report the first science obtained with this array on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope, and our progress towards implementing a second TES array that will open up the 200, 230, 640, 850 μm windows for direct detection spectroscopy on APEX.Our investigations focus on detecting faint and broad far-infrared (FIR) fine structure lines of ionized carbon [CII] at 158 μm, nitrogen [NII] at 122 and 205 μm and doubly ionized oxygen [OIII] at 52 and 88 μm from distant galaxies as the lines are redshifted into the submm telluric windows. We are primarily interested in the redshift 1 to 4 interval which encompasses the epoch of maximum star formation rate per unit co-moving volume in the Universe. These far infrared lines are important gas coolants, and powerful probes of the physical conditions of the interstellar medium and the starlight that heats the gas. Here we report detections of the [CII] and [OIII] 88 μm lines from sources at redshift 1.8 to 4.3, and show how the lines can be used to trace both the spatial extent of the star formation and the hardness of the ambient radiation fields.

  4. Three-dimensional simulations of solar granulation and blast wave using ZEUS-MP code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurzaman, M. Z.; Herdiwijaya, D.

    2015-09-01

    Sun is nearest and the only star that can be observed in full disk mode. Meanwhile other stars simply can be observed as dot and cannot be seen in full disk like the Sun. Due to this condition, detail events in the Sun can possibly observable. For example, flare, prominence, granulation and other features can be seen easily compared to other stars. In other word the observational data can be obtained easily. And for better understanding, computational simulation is needed too. In this paper we use ZEUS-MP, a numerical code for the simulation of fluid dynamical flows in astrophysics, to study granulation and blast wave in the Sun. ZEUS-MP allows users to use hydrodynamic (HD) or magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations singly or in concert, in one, two, or three space dimensions. For granulation case, we assume that there is no influence from magnetic field. So, it's enough to just use HD simulations. Physical parameters were analyzed for this case is velocity and density. The result shows that velocity as time function indicated more complex pattern than density. For blast wave case, we use it to study one of the Sun energetic event namely Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). In this case, we cannot ignore influence from magnetic field. So we use MHD simulations. Physical parameters were analyzed for this case is velocity and energy. The result shows more complex pattern for both parameters. It is shown too as if they have opposite pattern. When energy is high, velocity is not too fast, conversely.

  5. Rapid Linguistic Ambiguity Resolution in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Eye Tracking Evidence for the Limits of Weak Central Coherence.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Noemi; Snedeker, Jesse; Rabagliati, Hugh

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have often been reported to have difficulty integrating information into its broader context, which has motivated the Weak Central Coherence theory of ASD. In the linguistic domain, evidence for this difficulty comes from reports of impaired use of linguistic context to resolve ambiguous words. However, recent work has suggested that impaired use of linguistic context may not be characteristic of ASD, and is instead better explained by co-occurring language impairments. Here, we provide a strong test of these claims, using the visual world eye tracking paradigm to examine the online mechanisms by which children with autism resolve linguistic ambiguity. To address concerns about both language impairments and compensatory strategies, we used a sample whose verbal skills were strong and whose average age (7; 6) was lower than previous work on lexical ambiguity resolution in ASD. Participants (40 with autism and 40 controls) heard sentences with ambiguous words in contexts that either strongly supported one reading or were consistent with both (John fed/saw the bat). We measured activation of the unintended meaning through implicit semantic priming of an associate (looks to a depicted baseball glove). Contrary to the predictions of weak central coherence, children with ASD, like controls, quickly used context to resolve ambiguity, selecting appropriate meanings within a second. We discuss how these results constrain the generality of weak central coherence. Autism Res 2015, 8: 717-726. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25820816

  6. Tracking potential source areas of Central European loess: examples from Tokaj (HU), Nussloch (D) and Grub (AT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, Ann-Kathrin; Qi, Yue; Siebel, Wolfgang; Wu, Jiade; Zöller, Ludwig

    2015-11-01

    There are several competing hypotheses for the origin of loess in Europe but quantitative evidence is still rare. Here, Sr-Nd isotopic and bulk elemental composition of loess from Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3 from three study regions in Central Europe - Nussloch (Germany), Grub (Austria) and Tokaj (Hungary) - are analyzed. This study aims at examining differences and similarities of loess deposits throughout Europe, correlating loess with potential source rocks from major mountain ranges and comparing loess with floodplain sediments from main rivers as integrated samples of the drainage areas. The results show that European loess deposits are largely uniform and that sediment sources have been rather stable in the Southern and Eastern parts of Central Europe and more variable in West Central Europe. However, the methods used are not sufficient to unequivocally confirm and reject potential sediment sources but, in combination, help to identify the most likely sediment origins. While a direct correlation of loess and potential source rocks is dif- ficult, the comparison with floodplain sediments is most promising and confirms previous hypotheses. Loess from Tokaj and Grub is most likely a mix of material transported by the Danube River and sediments from the surrounding mountains. Rhine River sediments are probably the main source of loess at Nussloch.

  7. Relative potentials of concentrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications. Issue study

    SciTech Connect

    Borden, C.S.; Schwartz, D.L.

    1984-12-31

    The purpose of this study is to assess the relative economic potentials of concentrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications in the mid-1990's. Specific objectives of this study are to provide information on concentrator photovoltaic collector probabilistic price and efficiency levels to illustrate critical areas of R and D for concentrator cells and collectors, and to compare concentrator and flat-plate PV price and efficiency alternatives for several locations, based on their implied costs of energy. To deal with the uncertainties surrounding research and development activities in general, a probabilistic assessment of commercially achievable concentrator photovoltaic collector efficiencies and prices (at the factory loading dock) is performed. The results of this projection of concentrator photovoltaic technology are then compared with a previous flat-plate module price analysis (performed early in 1983). To focus this analysis on specific collector alternatives and their implied energy costs for different locations, similar two-axis tracking designs are assumed for both concentrator and flat-plate options. The results of this study provide the first comprehensive assessment of PV concentrator collector manufacturing costs in combination with those of flat-plate modules, both projected to their commercial potentials in the mid-1990's.

  8. Erosion, transport and deposition along the South-Central Chilean margin: the detrital apatite fission track perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heberer, B.; Behrmann, J. H.; Rahn, M.

    2009-04-01

    Detrital fission track analysis has become a powerful tool for the study of sediment provenance and exhumation of orogens. Many studies focus on zones of continental collision with no or little volcanic activity, but there are less examples from active arc-trench systems. This type of orogen has a strong magmatic signature, and upper plate tectonothermal histories that are distinct from collisional mountain belts. Uplift and denudation histories are different, and may comprise long periods of relative upper plate stability, which can be identified by thermochronological methods. In this study, we apply apatite fission track (AFT) single-grain age dating and sediment provenance analysis to modern and Pleistocene turbiditic sediments from the Chilean trench system (trench fans, trench fill, continental slope) complemented by a study of modern sediment samples from large Chilean rivers. The study area covers a ca. 1200 km long north to south transect (29°S to 47°S) encompassing areas of strongly variable characteristics, such as large latitudinal gradients in climate and terrigenous sediment input into the trench. This approach allows us (1) to trace sediment pathways on- and offshore focusing on all parts of the system, i.e. the bedrock sequences of the source, the fluvial transport system, and finally the sink within the trench, (2) to label those units that are under- and overrepresented, respectively, in the sink, making use of drainage system modeling and comparisons of grain age distributions to the cooling age pattern of the bedrocks of the feeder area, and (3) to test thermochronological concepts, such as a negligible transport time within the lag-time concept. We find that AFT dating and sediment analysis point to opposing major sediment sources in the Chilean margin: Whereas sediment petrography mirrors the evacuation of large volumes of volcanic detritus, reflecting the high rate of erosion of volcanic edifices, no such young volcanic signal is seen in the detrital AFT signature. Plutonic units are identified as the main, often unique sources for shedding apatite into the sedimentary system. This finding has important implications for studies on stratigraphically older sequences, where the feeder area has long been eroded, and where the youngest age population is often interpreted as an indicator for active volcanism. The most obvious feature observed within the detrital age population pattern along strike of the Chilean margin is an increasing contribution of sediment from the Andean Range to the south. This is explained by first-order controlling parameters such as lithology, increasing rainfall to the south, as well as ongoing uplift of the Coastal Cordillera. This recent mode of uplift, however, is not reflected in the actual (mainly Cretaceous) age of the population, which dominates the grain-age distributions in the northern half of the study area. This indicates a long-term relative tectonic stability of the forearc, corroborating that subduction erosion rather than tectonic erosion is the prevailing tectonic mode of this long-lived segment of the South American continental margin. For the southernmost study area in the Patagonian Andes, it can be shown, that the sediment is derived from only small portions of the drainage along the main divide. This points to focused and rapid glacial erosion along the highest elevations. The results show, that in addition to the actual FT age, a second signal of short-term tectonic and erosional processes is preserved within the grain-age patterns.

  9. Data quality management system (DQMS) for BAC detector in the ZEUS experiment at the HERA accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luszczak, Zbigniew; Jezynski, Tomasz; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Kuthan, Marcin; Bigos, Grzegorz; Gierej, Artur

    2003-10-01

    The paper presents functional structure of database system of data measurement quality for BAC detector in ZEUS experiment. The system collects diagnostic and experimental data. Diagnostic data are: work parameters of the detector and electronics/photonics, tests of electronic/photonic blocks. These data are archived for certain period of time. The quality of current data collection process is estimated using these archived data. The result of such estimation is generated in a form of status map of the detector. Such maps, describing status of the hardware, are fundamental for elementary particle analysis by the calorimeter. The DAQ system, collecting data to the database, estimates data quality on-line during transmission and writing. This mechanism of fast on-line data quality management leads to early discoveries of detector work irregularities and faults.

  10. Irradiation Test of the ZEUS Vertex Detector Frontend Chips, the HELIX128-3.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velthuis, J. J.

    2002-11-01

    During the 2000/2001 HERA shutdown a silicon strip vertex detector (MVD) was installed in the ZEUS experiment. The frontend chip, Helix128-3.0, fabricated in the radiation tolerant 0.8 ?m CMOS technology by AMS, will be exposed to an estimated dose of 20 krad/year. The chips have been irradiated up to an integrated dose of 500 krad using a 60Co source. In a testbeam the effect of the radiation on the S/N and on the position resolution have been investigated. The tests show that the S/N-ratio drops from 22 to 12 after 500 krad. When the operation point of the chip is changed a S/N-ratio of 18 corresponding to a position resolution of 9.7 ?m can still be achieved even after 500 krad.

  11. The optical, mechanical, and thermal design and performance of the 2nd generation redshift (z) and early universe spectrometer, ZEUS-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshley, Stephen C.; Ferkinhoff, Carl; Nikola, Thomas; Stacey, Gordon J.; Ade, Peter A.; Tucker, Carole E.

    2012-09-01

    We have built a new long-slit grating spectrometer (ZEUS-2) for observations in the submillimeter wavelength regime (200-650 μm). ZEUS-2 is optimized for observations of redshifted far-infrared spectral lines from galaxies in the early Universe. The spectrometer employs three transition-edge sensed bolometer arrays, allowing for simultaneous observations of multiple lines in several telluric windows. Here we will discuss the optical, mechanical, and thermal requirements of ZEUS-2 and their subsequent design and performance. The entire instrument is cooled using a pulse tube cryocooler and an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. The cryogen-free approach enables remote control of the cooling system and allows for deployment of ZEUS-2 to telescope sites where access is limited. The compact and lightweight design is also within the size and weight constraints of several submm telescopes, making ZEUS-2 deployable at a variety of sites. ZEUS-2 completed a successful engineering run at the CSO on Mauna Kea in May 2012, and we plan to have our science-grade array system deployed on the APEX telescope in Chile for a science run in the fall of 2012.

  12. Tracking sediment through the Holocene: Determining anthropogenic contributions to a sediment-rich agricultural system, north-central USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gran, Karen; Belmont, Patrick; Finnegan, Noah

    2013-04-01

    Management and restoration of sediment-impaired streams requires quantification of sediment sources and pathways of transport. Addressing the role of humans in altering the magnitude and sources of sediment supplied to a catchment is notoriously challenging. Here, we explore how humans have amplified erosion in geomorphically-sensitive portions of the predominantly-agricultural Minnesota River basin in north-central USA. In the Minnesota River basin, the primary sources of sediment are classified generally as upland agricultural field vs. near-channel sources, with near-channel sources including stream banks, bluffs, and ravines. Using aerial lidar data, repeat terrestrial lidar scans of bluffs, ravine monitoring, historic air photo analyses, and sediment fingerprinting, we have developed a sediment budget to determine the relative importance of each source in a tributary to the Minnesota River, the Le Sueur River. We then investigate how these sources have changed through time, from changes evident over the past few decades to changes associated with valley evolution over the past 13,400 years. The Minnesota River valley was carved ~13,400 years ago through catastrophic drainage of glacial Lake Agassiz. As the Minnesota River valley incised, knickpoints have migrated upstream into tributaries, carving out deep valleys where the most actively eroding near-channel sediment sources occur. The modern sediment budget, closed for the time period 2000 to 2010, shows that the majority of the fine sediment load in the Le Sueur River comes from bluffs and other near-channel sources in the deeply-incised knick zone. Numerical modeling of valley evolution constrained by mapped and dated strath terraces cut into the glacial till presents an opportunity to compare the modern sediment budget to that of the river prior to anthropogenic modification. This comparison reveals a natural background or "pre-agriculture" rate of erosion from near-channel sources to be 3-5 times lower than modern near-channel erosion rates. Notably, depositional records from a naturally-dammed lake downstream on the upper Mississippi River show a more dramatic 10-fold increase in deposition rates from pre-agricultural times to the present. Sediment fingerprinting shows that pre-agriculture sediment loads were dominated by near-channel sediment sources. As deposition rates rose in the late 1800s and early 1900s, the sources shifted increasingly to agricultural soil erosion. In the past few decades, deposition rates have remained high, but sediment fingerprinting indicates yet another significant shift back to near-channel sources. On-going changes in basin hydrology, from both installation of agricultural drainage systems and on-going climate change have put more water in the rivers, increasing rates of near-channel bank and bluff erosion. This most recent shift in sediment sources has significant implications for turbidity management in the Minnesota River basin.

  13. Phanerozoic upper crustal tectono-thermal development of basement rocks from central Madagascar: An integrated fission-track and structural study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmel, B.; Jacobs, J.; Kastowski, M.; Graser, G.

    2006-01-01

    An integrated study of fission-track (FT) dating and structural geology revealed a complex tectono-thermal history preserved in basement rocks of central Madagascar since the amalgamation of Gondwana at the end of the Cambrian. A detailed study of five domains argues for several cooling steps with associated brittle deformations during the separation of Madagascar. Titanite and apatite FT ages range between 483 Ma and 266 Ma and between 460 Ma and 79 Ma, respectively. The titanite FT data indicate that the final cooling after the latest metamorphic overprint was terminated at c. 500 Ma (FC1). A 150 Myr phase of minor cooling (SC2), possibly related to a phase of tectonic quiescence and isostatic compensation, followed episode FC1. Between the Carboniferous and Early Jurassic, when an intracontinental rift developed between East Africa and Madagascar, complex brittle deformation effected the western margin of Madagascar and led to differential cooling of small basement blocks (FC3-FC5). During this period, ductile structural trends were reactivated at the western basement margin and in the centre of the island. A Late Cretaceous thermal event (T1) affected apatite FT data of samples from western-central and the eastern margin of Madagascar. These ages are related to the Madagascar-India/Seychelles break-up, whereby the thermal penetration along the eastern coast was restricted to the west by the Angavo shear zone (AGSZ). The Cretaceous evolution of the eastern margin was associated with minor erosion and was triggered by vertical displacements along brittle structures.

  14. Measurements of deep inelastic scattering at high (x,Q{sup 2}) with the ZEUS detector at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Derrick, Malcolm

    1998-05-29

    In this talk I report on the latest results of the ZEUS collaboration concerning the cross sections in both charged current and neutral current channels at high (x,Q{sup 2}), together with the comparison with expectations. The data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 33.5 pb{sup -1}. The results are those given at the 1997 Lepton-Photon Conference and update the earlier publication.

  15. Plio-Pleistocene exhumation of the Main Central Trust footwall based on new apatite fission track data (NW-Himalaya/India).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiede, R. C.; Bookhagen, B.; Sobel, E.; Strecker, M. R.; Grasemann, B.; Janda, C.

    2002-12-01

    The cause of Plio-Pleistocene apatite fission track (AFT) cooling ages in the footwall of the Miocene Main Central Trust (MCT) remains controversial. The Sutlej River (N32/E78) in the northwestern Indian Himalaya is part of one of the three largest drainages traversing the Himalaya. It has incised a deep gorge exposing the crystalline core of the orogen in a natural cross-section, which contains two extruded metamorphic crustal wedges: The High Himalayan Crystalline Sequence (HHCS) and the Lesser Himalayan Crystalline Sequence (LHCS). The HHCS was tectonically extruded between Early and Middle Miocene time by combined thrusting along the Main Central Thrust (MCT) with coeval extension along the Southern Tibetan Detachment System (STDS). The LHCS forms the footwall of the MCT and has been cooling very rapidly since the Late Miocene, as a consequence of the still ongoing extrusion. This process is controlled by thrusting along the Munsiari Thrust in the footwall and extension in the MCT hanging wall. Active tectonics is further indicated by seismicity, knickpoints in the river profile and hydrothermal circulation, probably linked to elevated near-surface geothermal gradients in the LHCS. New AFT cooling ages obtained from sub-vertical transects starting in the LHCS and crossing the Miocene MCT and STDS (perpendicular to the Sutlej-Valley) indicate fast Plio-Pleistocene cooling and exhumation of the LHCS and the lower parts of the HHCS. Along the Sutlej River, the LHCS and the lower part of the HHCS are characterized by very young ages between 1.5 +/- 0.4 and <1 +/- 0.4 (2? ) Ma at elevations of 1500-2000m asl. The AFT ages increase systematically with increasing age-elevation; the trend does not vary when crossing the MCT and STDS mylonitic zones, respectively. At elevations between 4400 to 4600 m asl the ages are between 2.8 +/- 0.6 and 3.7 +/- 1.2 (2? ). A mean Pliocene to Pleistocene exhumation rate in the central part of LHCS is estimated to be 1.3 +/- 0.7 mm/a and to be 1.0 +/- 0.4 mm/a of the lower part of the HHCS. Due to the inferred high exhumation rates topographic effects can be neglected. The AFT cooling ages across the MCT and the STDS indicate neither Quaternary thrusting along the MCT nor normal faulting along the STDS in the region of the Sutlej River.

  16. Tracking dynamic team activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tambe, M.

    1996-12-31

    AI researchers are striving to build complex multi-agent worlds with intended applications ranging from the RoboCup robotic soccer tournaments, to interactive virtual theatre, to large-scale real-world battlefield simulations. Agent tracking - monitoring other agent`s actions and inferring their higher-level goals and intentions - is a central requirement in such worlds. While previous work has mostly focused on tracking individual agents, this paper goes beyond by focusing on agent teams. Team tracking poses the challenge of tracking a team`s joint goals and plans. Dynamic, real-time environments add to the challenge, as ambiguities have to be resolved in real-time. The central hypothesis underlying the present work is that an explicit team-oriented perspective enables effective team tracking. This hypothesis is instantiated using the model tracing technology employed in tracking individual agents. Thus, to track team activities, team models are put to service. Team models are a concrete application of the joint intentions framework and enable an agent to track team activities, regardless of the agent`s being a collaborative participant or a non-participant in the team. To facilitate real-time ambiguity resolution with team models: (i) aspects of tracking are cast as constraint satisfaction problems to exploit constraint propagation techniques; and (ii) a cost minimality criterion is applied to constrain tracking search. Empirical results from two separate tasks in real-world, dynamic environments one collaborative and one competitive - are provided.

  17. Design and tests of the silicon sensors for the ZEUS micro vertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannheim, D.; Ktz, U.; Coldewey, C.; Fretwurst, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Klanner, R.; Martens, J.; Koffeman, E.; Tiecke, H.; Carlin, R.

    2003-06-01

    To fully exploit the HERA-II upgrade, the ZEUS experiment has installed a Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) using n-type, single-sided, silicon ?-strip sensors with capacitive charge division. The sensors have a readout pitch of 120 ?m, with five intermediate strips ( 20 ?m strip pitch). The designs of the silicon sensors and of the test structures used to verify the technological parameters, are presented. Results on the electrical measurements are discussed. A total of 1123 sensors with three different geometries have been produced by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. Irradiation tests with reactor neutrons and 60Co photons have been performed for a small sample of sensors. The results on neutron irradiation (with a fluence of 110 13 1 MeV equivalent neutrons/cm 2) are well described by empirical formulae for bulk damage. The 60Co photons (with doses up to 2.9 kGy) show the presence of generation currents in the SiO 2-Si interface, a large shift of the flatband voltage and a decrease of the hole mobility.

  18. Numerical simulations of anisotropic plasmas using a modified ZEUS-MP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, Benjamin; Tangri, Varun; Sarkar, Aveek; Perez, Jean; Sharma, Prateek

    2012-10-01

    Three dimensional linear and nonlinear simulations of collisionless one-fluid plasmas with pressure anisotropy are presented using the Chew- Goldberger-Low (CGL-MHD) and double-isothermal models. For this purpose, the code ZEUS-MP [J. C. Hayes et. al. The APJ Supplement Series 165 (2006) 188.] has been modified. Major modifications include a changed method of characteristics, new compressive and non-compressive forces, and a ``hard wall'' limit on pressure anisotropy that is intended to mimic the effects of plasma micro-instabilities that limit the temperature anisotropy. For purposes of validation, more than 100 test simulations of linear waves (Alfven, slow and fast), instabilities (firehose and mirror) and nonlinear vortices (Orszag-Tang) are presented for a number of initial conditions and parameters. Finally, this model is used to investigate the way that Alfven-wave turbulence leads to a spreading of the temperature-anisotropy probability distribution in the solar wind. Analysis is completed with a detailed analysis of the fluctuation data.

  19. Rheomorphic ignimbrites of the Rogerson Formation, central Snake River plain, USA: record of mid-Miocene rhyolitic explosive eruptions and associated crustal subsidence along the Yellowstone hotspot track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knott, Thomas R.; Reichow, Marc K.; Branney, Michael J.; Finn, David R.; Coe, Robert S.; Storey, Michael; Bonnichsen, Bill

    2016-04-01

    Rogerson Graben, USA, is critically placed at the intersection between the Yellowstone hotspot track and the southern projection of the west Snake River rift. Eleven rhyolitic members of the re-defined, ≥420-m-thick, Rogerson Formation record voluminous high-temperature explosive eruptions, emplacing extensive ashfall and rheomorphic ignimbrite sheets. Yet, each member has subtly distinct field, chemical and palaeomagnetic characteristics. New regional correlations reveal that the Brown's View ignimbrite covers ≥3300 km2, and the Wooden Shoe ignimbrite covers ≥4400 km2 and extends into Nevada. Between 11.9 and ˜8 Ma, the average frequency of large explosive eruptions in this region was 1 per 354 ky, about twice that at Yellowstone. The chemistry and mineralogy of the early rhyolites show increasing maturity with time possibly by progressive fractional crystallisation. This was followed by a trend towards less-evolved rhyolites that may record melting and hybridisation of a mid-crustal source region. Contemporaneous magmatism-induced crustal subsidence of the central Snake River Basin is recorded by successive ignimbrites offlapping and thinning up the N-facing limb of a regional basin-margin monocline, which developed between 10.59 and 8 Ma. The syn-volcanic basin topography contrasted significantly with the present-day elevated Yellowstone hotspot plateau. Concurrent basin-and-range extension produced the N-trending Rogerson Graben: early uplift of the Shoshone Hills (≥10.34 Ma) was followed by initiation of the Shoshone Fault and an E-sloping half-graben (˜10.3-10.1 Ma). The graben asymmetry then reversed with initiation of the Brown's Bench Fault (≥8 Ma), which remained intermittently active until the Pliocene.

  20. OCULUS Sea Track Fusion Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotou, Stylianos C.; Rizogiannis, Constantinos; Katsoulis, Stavros; Lampropoulos, Vassilis; Kanellopoulos, Sotirios; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-06-01

    Oculus Sea is a complete solution regarding maritime surveillance and communications at Local as well as Central Command and Control level. It includes a robust and independent track fusion service whose main functions include: 1) Interaction with the User to suggest the fusion of two or more tracks, confirm Track ID and Vessel Metadata creation for the fused track, and suggest de-association of two tracks 2) Fusion of same vessel tracks arriving simultaneously from multiple radar sensors featuring track Association, track Fusion of associated tracks to produce a more accurate track, and Multiple tracking filters and fusion algorithms 3) Unique Track ID Generator for each fused track 4) Track Dissemination Service. Oculus Sea Track Fusion Service adopts a system architecture where each sensor is associated with a Kalman estimator/tracker that obtains an estimate of the state vector and its respective error covariance matrix. Finally, at the fusion center, association and track state estimation fusion are carried out. The expected benefits of this system include multi-sensor information fusion, enhanced spatial resolution, and improved target detection.

  1. The Zeus Mission Study — An application of automated collaborative design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyotte, Romain; Love, Stanley G.; Peterson, Craig E.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of the Zeus Mission Study was threefold. As an element of a graduate course in spacecraft system engineering, its purpose was primarily educational — to allow the students to apply their knowledge in a real mission study. The second purpose was to investigate the feasibility of applying advanced technology (the power antenna and solar electric propulsion concepts) to a challenging mission. Finally, the study allowed evaluation of the benefits of using quality-oriented techniques (Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Taguchi Methods) for a mission study. To encourage innovation, several constraints were placed on the study from the onset. While the primary goal was to place at least one lander on Europa, the additional constraint of no nuclear power sources posed an additional challenge, particularly when coupled with the mass constraints imposed by using a Delta II class launch vehicle. In spite of these limitations, the team was able to develop a mission and spacecraft design capable of carrying three simple, lightweight, yet capable landers. The science return will more than adequately meet the science goals established QFD was used to determine the optimal choice of instrumentation. The lander design was selected from several competing lander concepts, including rovers. The carrier design was largely dictated by the needs of the propulsion system required to support the mission, although the development of a Project Trades Model (PTM) in software allowed for rapid recalculation of key system parameters as changes were made. Finally, Taguchi Methods (Design of Experiments) were used in conjunction with the PTM allowing for some limited optimization of design features.

  2. Measurement of elastic J/psi meson production with the ZEUS detector at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Song Ming

    1998-11-01

    The reaction γ*p/to J//psi p has been studied in ep interactions using the ZEUS detector at HERA. The cross section for elastic J//psi, production has been measured as functions of the photon virtuality Q2/ (Q2 ~< 40 GeV2), and the photon-proton center of mass energy Wγ*p (30 ~< Wγ*p ~< 150 GeV). In photoproduction (Q2 ~< 1 GeV2, and median Q2~ 5 × 10-5/ GeV2), the cross section σγ*p/to J//psi p is observed to rise much steeper with Wγ*p than the elastic photoproduction of light vector mesons (ρ0, /omega, /phi). The differential cross section d/sigma/d/vert t/vert, where t is the square of the four-momentum exchanged at the proton vertex, exhibits a behavior ~e-bt/| t|/ bt is observed to be smaller than in light vector meson production. In the elastic production of J//psi at high Q2 (2 < Q2 < 40/ GeV2), the cross section σγ*p/to J//psi p seems to show a similar dependence on Wγ*p as in the photoproduction. The differential cross section d/sigma/d/vert t/vert also exhibits an exponential fall-off with a slope compatible with that in photoproduction. The decay angular distributions, analysed for both photoproduction and production at high Q2, are found to be consistent with s-channel helicity conservation.

  3. Comparison of particle-tracking and lumped-parameter models for determining groundwater age distributions and nitrate in water-supply wells, Central Valley, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurgens, B. C.; Bohlke, J. K.; Kauffman, L. J.; Belitz, K.

    2013-12-01

    Age distributions for 30 production wells (mostly public-supply) were determined using two methods: 1) calibration of age tracer data with lumped parameter models (LPMs) and 2) by advective particle tracking (PT) simulations using MODPATH and a regional steady-state groundwater flow model. The LPMs were calibrated with measurements of 3H, 3He(trit), and 14C by minimizing the Chi-square test statistic using a non-linear solver. A partial exponential model (PEM) was the primary LPM used in this study and a combination of two PEMs were used in cases where binary age mixtures were identified. The PEM is a reformulated version of the exponential model that is parameterized to simulate the age distribution in a well that is screened over any finite interval within the aquifer. The regional numerical model was calibrated to water-levels and gradients, and simulated PT age tracer concentrations were calibrated to the MODPATH porosity value. Age distributions were then used to predict nitrate concentrations in wells using agricultural application rates of nitrate in the central eastside of the San Joaquin Valley, California. Both methods showed that wells in the study area captured groundwater with a broad range of ages, spanning decades to millennia. Age distributions from the LPMs predicted age tracer and nitrate concentrations more accurately than the regional PT simulation; whereas PT simulations incorporating more detailed information about water-levels and hydraulic gradients near wells also provided good fits. 14C concentrations were not simulated well by the regional steady-state model, especially for wells with a significant fraction of old groundwater, because the model simulates the current, perturbed system and does not simulate recharge rates and velocities of the predevelopment system. Results from the LPMs yielded an average recharge rate of 0.55 m/yr, which was similar to the average recharge rate of 0.54 m/yr determined from a water budget analysis for the regional groundwater flow model. The LPMs also indicated that groundwater less than 50 years old comprised about 40% of the aquifer and had reached an average depth of about 52 meters below the water table as of 2006. This study shows that regional groundwater flow models and LPMs are capable of providing reasonable estimates of the age distribution and predictions of non-point source contaminant trends in wells, although regional numerical models in this study area might yield better results when constructed with a predevelopment condition and calibrated using age tracer information. In addition, the partial exponential model (PEM) can be a useful age distribution model for public-supply wells in unconsolidated aquifers, and it can be parameterized directly with well construction data.

  4. Track-to-track association in decentralized tracking systems with feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmberg, Anders; Karlsson, Mathias

    2000-07-01

    In air combat, information advantage over the opponent is vital for the success of the operation. For that reason, modern fighter aircraft have extensive sensor suites to track other objects. In order to form a unified picture of the vicinity; all sensor information is fused. Since system modularity and high computational performance are key issues in the application, a decentralized tracking approach, where the information from the decentralized trackers is fused in a central node, is preferable. Furthermore, in order to improve the sensor tracking performance, it is often desired to feed back information to the sensors from the central node. In this paper, track-to-track association in such a decentralized tracking system with feedback is addressed. The central fusion node has to associate the sensor tracks to each other to be able to fuse them. In a system without feedback, the track-to-track association algorithm bases its conclusions on the assumption that the estimation errors of the tracks from different local trackers are not correlated. However, when information is fed back to the local trackers, this assumption is not valid, since the sensor tracks then consist of common information. System configurations that deal with this problem are proposed and tested in a fighter aircraft application. One approach is to extract the uncorrelated information from the sensor data and use that in the association process. Another approach is to keep parallel trackers in the sensors that only contain the local sensor information. Both approaches produce sensor tracks that contain the same information as the sensor tracks in a system without feedback. Also, a track-to-track association algorithm that recursively uses information from multiple time steps is proposed. The use of multiple time step data separates it from conventional track-to-track association algorithms that mostly use only current information. The result is an algorithm that improves the performance and gives a more stable solution.

  5. Apatite fission-track thermochronological constraints on the pattern of late Mesozoic-Cenozoic uplift and exhumation of the Qinling Orogen, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hong; Hu, Jianmin; Wu, Guoli; Shi, Wei; Geng, Yingying; Qu, Hongjie

    2015-12-01

    The Qinling Orogen of central China was formed by intracontinental collision between the North and South China Blocks. The orogen comprises several micro-blocks bounded by sutures and faults, and has undergone long-term intracontinental deformation since the Late Triassic. The micro-blocks include the southern margin of the North China Block (S-NCB), the Northern Qinling Belt (NQB), the Southern Qinling Belt (SQB), and the northern margin of the South China Block (N-SCB). Under a uniform tectonic setting in late Mesozoic-Cenozoic, these micro-blocks have been subjected to a range of deformation styles, as demonstrated by their structural deformation, history of magmatism, and the development of sedimentary basins. To investigate the differences among the micro-blocks and to quantify their uplift and exhumation, we obtained 45 rock samples from eight Mesozoic granites in these micro-blocks, and conducted apatite fission-track (AFT) thermochronological modeling. The results reveal that the Qinling Orogen underwent four distinct stages of rapid cooling histories during the late Mesozoic-Cenozoic, and showed variation in uplift and exhumation whereby the intracontinental deformation started in the south (the N-SCB) and propagated to the north (S-NCB). In the first stage, during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous (ca. 160-120 Ma), rock cooling occurred mainly in the N-SCB, attributed to the clockwise rotation and northward subduction of the South China Block beneath the Qinling Orogen. In the second stage, compression- and extension-related uplift was initiated during the late Early Cretaceous-early Late Cretaceous (ca. 120-90 Ma) in the SQB, consistent with the southward subduction of the North China Block and broadly extensional deformation in the eastern China continent. In the third stage, a gentle regional-scale cooling event that occurred during the latest Cretaceous-Paleocene (ca. 90-50 Ma) started in the NQB and became widespread in the Qinling Orogen. This regional-scale uplift and exhumation event was probably a response to the opposite polarity subduction beneath the Qinling Orogen combined with the effects of subduction of the Pacific Plate from the southeast. The fourth stage (Eocene-Oligocene, ca. 50-20 Ma) was marked by another phase of rapid cooling in the S-NCB, the NQB, and the NW-SQB, and is interpreted as being cause by the eastward tectonic escape of Tibetan Plateau related to India-Asia collision. Furthermore, the record of variable timings and rates of cooling of these micro-blocks, together with regional structural analysis, indicates that the late Mesozoic-Cenozoic intracontinental deformation in the Qinling Orogen was characterized by a spatiotemporally variable and propagating-style uplift and exhumation of the micro-blocks, and the predominant deformation was through displacement across various boundary sutures and faults.

  6. Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic thermotectonic evolution of the central Brooks Range and adjacent North Slope foreland basin, Alaska: Including fission track results from the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Sullivan, P. B.; Murphy, J.M.; Blythe, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Apatite fission track data are used to evaluate the thermal and tectonic history of the central Brooks Range and the North Slope foreland basin in northern Alaska along the northern leg of the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT). Fission track analyses of the detrital apatite grains in most sedimentary units resolve the timing of structures and denudation within the Brooks Range, ranging in scale from the entire mountain range to relatively small-scale folds and faults. Interpretation of the results indicates that rocks exposed within the central Brooks Range cooled rapidly from paleotemperatures 110?? to 50??C during discrete episodes at ???100??5 Ma, ???60??4 Ma, and ???24??3 Ma, probably in response to kilometer-scale denudation. North of the mountain front, rocks in the southern half of the foreland basin were exposed to maximum paleotemperatures 110??C in the Late Cretaceous to early Paleocene as a result of burial by Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. Rapid cooling from these elevated paleotemperatures also occurred due to distinct episodes of kilometer-scale denudation at ???60??4 Ma, 46??3 Ma, 35??2 Ma, and ???24??3 Ma. Combined, the apatite analyses indicate that rocks exposed along the TACT line through the central Brooks Range and foreland basin experienced episodic rapid cooling throughout the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic in response to at least three distinct kilometer-scale denudation events. Future models explaining orogenic events in northern Alaska must consider these new constraints from fission track thermochronology. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Student Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    This report explains how student tracking systems work and why they are important. It is designed for British funding bodies, further education (FE) colleges, college staff, and software developers to introduce and support systems of student tracking. Chapter 1 provides background information on tracking and the FE sector. Chapter 2 discusses the

  8. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Metal vapour causes a central minimum in arc temperature in gas-metal arc welding through increased radiative emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnick, M.; Füssel, U.; Hertel, M.; Spille-Kohoff, A.; Murphy, A. B.

    2010-01-01

    A computational model of the argon arc plasma in gas-metal arc welding (GMAW) that includes the influence of metal vapour from the electrode is presented. The occurrence of a central minimum in the radial distributions of temperature and current density is demonstrated. This is in agreement with some recent measurements of arc temperatures in GMAW, but contradicts other measurements and also the predictions of previous models, which do not take metal vapour into account. It is shown that the central minimum is a consequence of the strong radiative emission from the metal vapour. Other effects of the metal vapour, such as the flux of relatively cold vapour from the electrode and the increased electrical conductivity, are found to be less significant. The different effects of metal vapour in gas-tungsten arc welding and GMAW are explained.

  9. Tandem tracking

    Biologist Sabrina Davenport tandem tracks the Lower Missouri River during high water on June 2, 2011.  Two boats (note boat out window) tracking in tandem can detect fish effectively across a wider river and can turn to search behind wing dikes and sandbars where sturgeon can hide during h...

  10. Archaeological elements of Mt. Lykaion Sanctuary of Zeus (southern Peloponnesus) in relation to tectonics and structural geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, G. H.

    2008-07-01

    The Sanctuary of Zeus is the focus of the Mt. Lykaion Excavation/Survey (University of Pennsylvania, University of Arizona, and 39th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities). It was described by Pausanias as a sacred place of pan-Hellenic significance, with stadium and hippodrome in which athletic games were held, a sanctuary of Pan, and a formidable temenos and altar of Lykaion Zeus. In picturing human activity on this mountain during ancient times, it is not adequate to treat the mountain as if it were simply a tall, symmetrical, and handy edifice within which rock contents are irrelevant, for the geology within Mt. Lykaion significantly influenced what was built on it, and where! There are contemporary reminders of the 'power' of the site, including the devastating April, 1965, Megalopolis earthquake, the epicenter of which was merely 4 km away. In fact, there are active normal faults within the sanctuary. However the primary geoarchitecture is that of the Pindos fold and thrust belt, fashioned largely in Cretaceous through Eocene. Mt. Lykaion's dome-like summit is a thrust klippe separated from underlying nappes by a major thrust fault (Lykaion thrust), the subhorizontal trace of which encircles the mountain creating a subtle bench in the landscape coinciding closely with archaeological and natural elements important to the sanctuary (e.g., stoa, seatwall, fountains, trails). Late Jurassic through Eocene 'Pindos Group' formations are stacked and repeated by the thrusting. Inter-relationships between bedrock, structure, and archaeology are revealed in a 'geoarchaeological column,' which displays positioning of elements in relation to the thrust, and orientations of rock formations in relation to flat patches in otherwise steep, rocky country, which became sites suitable for placement of hippodrome, baths, temenos, horse pasturing areas, etc. Worked limestone blocks are locally derived and can be matched with formations. The compelling high elevation of the ash altar is testimony to residual crustal buoyancy achieved through 'Pindos' crustal shortening, and the steep processional ascent to the altar speaks to regional active normal faulting and rapid erosion.

  11. Rover tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Tracks made by the Sojourner rover are visible in this image, taken by one of the cameras aboard Sojourner on Sol 3. The tracks represent the rover maneuvering towards the rock dubbed 'Barnacle Bill.' The rover, having exited the lander via the rear ramp, first traveled towards the right portion of the image, and then moved forward towards the left where Barnacle Bill sits. The fact that the rover was making defined tracks indicates that the soil is made up of particles on a micron scale.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. Apatite fission-track evidence for regional exhumation in the subtropical Eocene, block faulting, and localized fluid flow in east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Bacon, Charles R.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Day, Warren C.

    2016-01-01

    The origin and antiquity of the subdued topography of the Yukon–Tanana Upland (YTU), the physiographic province between the Denali and Tintina faults, are unresolved questions in the geologic history of interior Alaska and adjacent Yukon. We present apatite fission-track (AFT) results for 33 samples from the 2300 km2 western Fortymile district in the YTU in Alaska and propose an exhumation model that is consistent with preservation of volcanic rocks in valleys that requires base level stability of several drainages since latest Cretaceous–Paleocene time. AFT thermochronology indicates widespread cooling below ∼110 °C at ∼56–47 Ma (early Eocene) and ∼44–36 Ma (middle Eocene). Samples with ∼33–27, ∼19, and ∼10 Ma AFT ages, obtained near a major northeast-trending fault zone, apparently reflect hydrothermal fluid flow. Uplift and erosion following ∼107 Ma magmatism exposed plutonic rocks to different extents in various crustal blocks by latest Cretaceous time. We interpret the Eocene AFT ages to suggest that higher elevations were eroded during the Paleogene subtropical climate of the subarctic, while base level remained essentially stable. Tertiary basins outboard of the YTU contain sediment that may account for the required >2 km of removed overburden that was not carried to the sea by the ancestral Yukon River system. We consider a climate driven explanation for the Eocene AFT ages to be most consistent with geologic constraints in concert with block faulting related to translation on the Denali and Tintina faults resulting from oblique subduction along the southern margin of Alaska.

  13. Has the substructure of quarks and leptons been found also by the H1 and ZEUS detectors at DESY HERA?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akama, Keiichi; Katsuura, Kazuo; Terazawa, Hidezumi

    1997-09-01

    The significant excess of events recently found by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations at DESY HERA in the deep-inelastic e+p scattering for high momentum-transfers squared Q2>15 000 GeV2 over the expectation of the standard model can be explained by either one of the following possible consequences of the substructure of quarks and leptons: (1) production of leptoquarks (Φ), (2) exchange of an excited Z boson (Z'), (3) intrinsic form factors of quarks (or leptons), (4) intrinsic anomalous magnetic moments of quarks, (5) production of excited quarks (q*), or (6) that of excited positrons (e*+). The masses of these new particles are estimated to be mΦ≅280-440 GeV, mZ'≅200-250 GeV, mq*≅120-140 GeV, and me*≅300-370 GeV, although possibilities (2) and (5) are excluded by the currently available experimental constraints.

  14. U-Pb zircon and biostratigraphic data of high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphic rocks of the Talea Ori: tracking the Paleotethys suture in central Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulauf, G.; Dörr, W.; Krahl, J.; Lahaye, Y.; Chatzaras, V.; Xypolias, P.

    2016-03-01

    Inherited deformation microfabrics of detrital quartz grains and U-Pb (Laser ablation (LA)-ICPMS and ID TIMS) ages of detrital zircons separated from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.l. of the Talea Ori, central Crete, suggest strikingly different source rocks. Albite gneiss of the lower Rogdia Beds includes Cambrian and Neoproterozoic rounded zircons with main U-Pb age peaks at 628 and 988 Ma. These and minor Paleoproterozoic and Archean peaks, together with the lack of Variscan-aged and Mesoproterozoic zircons, are similar to the age spectra obtained from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.str. of the Peloponnesus and eastern Crete and from the Taurides. All of these zircons should be derived from the northeastern passive margin of Gondwana (Cimmeria). Metatuffites of the uppermost Rogdia Beds and metasandstone of Bali beach, on the other hand, include euhedral detrital zircons displaying a Variscan U-Pb age spectra at ca. 300 Ma with concordia ages at 291 ± 3, 300 ± 1 Ma (Rogdia) and 286 ± 3, 300 ± 3, 313 ± 2 Ma (Bali). Both types of metasediments and their zircons are similar to those of the pre-Alpine basement and overlying Tyros Beds of eastern Crete, revealing a provenance at the southern active margin of Laurasia. Thus, in central Crete the Paleotethys suture should be situated inside the Rogdia Beds. Magmatic zircons separated from a rhyolite boulder of the lower Achlada Beds yielded a concordant U-Pb zircon age at 242 ± 2 Ma placing a maximum age for the deposition of the (meta)conglomerate from which the boulder was collected. This age is compatible with an Olenekian-early Anisian age of the underlying Vasilikon marble suggested by new findings of the foraminifera Meandrospira aff. pusilla. Both the Achlada Beds and the Vasilikon marble can be attributed to the lower Tyros Beds of eastern Crete. The Alpine deformation led to a pervasive mylonitic foliation, which is affecting most of the studied rocks. This foliation results from D2 top-to-the-north shearing, which post-dates the growth of blue amphiboles (crossite).

  15. The AMY inner tracking chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frautschi, M.; Johnson, D. R.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Trahern, C. G.; Maeshima, K.; Malchow, R. L.; Sparks, K.; Williams, M. C. S.

    1991-09-01

    We have constructed and operated a pressurized "tube-style" charged particle tracking detector, the inner tracking chamber, for the AMY experiment at the TRISTAN e +e - storage ring. The AMY inner tracking chamber consists of a four layer, 144 cell per layer "tube-style" drift chamber system. It occupies the region between the beam pipe and the AMY central drift chamber. An overall spatial resolution of 80 ?m per layer has been obtained during the first two years of operation using argon-ethane gas at 1.45 bar for Bhabha scattering events. This article describes the design, construction, and operation of the device.

  16. Tracks Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarnati, James T.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a contemporary adaptation of the "Footprint Puzzle," whigh was first developed in the 1960s for the Earth Science Curriculum Project. Students sequentially look at three frames of track drawings. For each frame, students first list observations and then make inferences about the observations. (PR)

  17. Tracking Curlews

    Curlews migrate long distances each year. Captured birds are quickly removed from mist nets and transported to the care of a veterinarian, who performs the implant surgeries to outfit the bird with a tracking device. In June 2007, USGS scientists tagged 13 curlews with satellite transmitters at thei...

  18. Doppler tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christopher Jacob

    This study addresses the development of a methodology using the Doppler Effect for high-resolution, short-range tracking of small projectiles and vehicles. Minimal impact on the design of the moving object is achieved by incorporating only a transmitter in it and using ground stations for all other components. This is particularly useful for tracking objects such as sports balls that have configurations and materials that are not conducive to housing onboard instrumentation. The methodology developed here uses four or more receivers to monitor a constant frequency signal emitted by the object. Efficient and accurate schemes for filtering the raw signals, determining the instantaneous frequencies, time synching the frequencies from each receiver, smoothing the synced frequencies, determining the relative velocity and radius of the object and solving the nonlinear system of equations for object position in three dimensions as a function of time are developed and described here.

  19. 4. DETAIL OF EAST SIDE, SHOWING TRACK SUPERVISOR'S OFFICE PROJECTION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF EAST SIDE, SHOWING TRACK SUPERVISOR'S OFFICE PROJECTION. VIEW TO WEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Illinois Central Railroad Passenger Depot, Iowa & Jones Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  20. Boulder Track

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-408, 1 July 2003

    If a boulder rolls down a slope on an uninhabited planet, does it make a sound? While we do not know the sound made by a boulder rolling down a slope in the martian region of Gordii Dorsum, we do know that it made an impression. This full-resolution Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a series of depressions made on a dust-mantled slope as a boulder rolled down it, sometime in the recent past. The boulder track is located just right of center in this picture. The boulder sits at the end of the track. This picture was acquired in May 2003; it is located near 11.2oN, 147.8oW. North is toward the lower left, sunlight illuminates the scene from the right. The picture covers an area only 810 meters (about 886 yards) across.

  1. Central Peak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The crater in this VIS image is a beautiful example of a central peak crater. Note also the slumped interior crater walls and the well defined lobes of the ejecta blanket. This crater is located in the Isidis basin.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 12.6, Longitude 83.8 East (276.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. 8. Launch closure, closure track apron, tracks and track beam, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Launch closure, closure track apron, tracks and track beam, view towards west - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility D-6, 4 miles north of Badlands National Park Headquarters, 4.5 miles east of Jackson County line on county road, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  3. On the Right Track.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Ed

    1983-01-01

    Suggests thinking of "tracks" as clues and using them as the focus of outdoor activities in the urban environment. Provides 24 examples of possible track activities, including: seeds on the ground (track of a nearby tree), litter (track of a litterbug), and peeling paint (track of weathering forces). (JN)

  4. Electronystagmographic findings in central nervous system disease.

    PubMed

    Spector, M

    1975-01-01

    A helpful central sign on electronystagmography with eyes closed is hyper-excitability on a caloric test. Another sign is consistent nystagmus in the presence of normal calorics. With eyes open, calibration overshoot, gaze nystagmus, pendulum tracking, failure of tracking a pendulum were by far the most common central abnormality in the experience of the author. PMID:1079442

  5. Tracking filter algorithm for automatic video tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEver, Mark A.; Kimbrell, James E.

    2006-05-01

    In addition to servo control and power amplification, motion control systems for optical tracking pedestals feature capabilities such as electro-optical tracking using an integrated Automatic Video Tracker (AVT) card. An electro-optical system tracking loop is comprised of sensors mounted on a pointing pedestal, an AVT that detects a target in the sensor imagery, and a tracking filter algorithm that commands the pedestal to follow the target. The tracking filter algorithm receives the target boresight error from the AVT and calculates motion demands for the pedestal servo controller. This paper presents a tracking algorithm based on target state estimation using a Kalman filter. The servo demands are based on calculating the Kalman filter state estimate from absolute line-of-sight angles to the target. Simulations are used to compare its performance to tracking loops without tracking filters, and to other tracking filter algorithms, such as rate feedback loops closed around boresight error. Issues such as data latency and sensor alignment error are discussed.

  6. To Track or Not to Track?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Background: This paper was written for a graduate level action research course at Muskingum University, located in New Concord, OH. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine which method of instruction best serves ALL high school students. Is it more advantageous to track ("ability group") students or not to track students in high…

  7. Solar tracking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hammons, Burrell E.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar tracking device which tracks the position of the sun using paired, partially-shaded photocells. Auxiliary photocells are used for initial acquisition of the sun and for the suppression of false tracking when the sun is obscured by clouds.

  8. Solar tracking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hammons, B.E.

    The invention relates to a solar tracking device which tracks the position of the sun using paired, partially-shaded photocells. Auxilliary photocells are used for initial acquisition of the sun and for the suppression of false tracking when the sun is obscured by clouds.

  9. Photographing Track Meets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Argues that the sport of track and field, because of the sport itself and its relatively easy access to photographers, is an obvious target for cameras. Discusses rules of the track that photographers must follow; picking a location; and equipment. Discusses shooting four specific track and field events and offers behind the scenes photos. (SR)

  10. Track and Field Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Discusses planning and design tips that help ensure track and field facilities are successful and well-suited to both school and community use. Examines approaches to determining the best track surface and ways to maximize track and field flexibility with limited space. (GR)

  11. 27. INTERIOR VIEW OF DRAWTENDER'S SHACK LOOKING AT MAIN TRACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. INTERIOR VIEW OF DRAWTENDER'S SHACK LOOKING AT MAIN TRACK AND SIGNAL CONTROL LEVERS AND INDICATOR LIGHTS - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  12. Track and Field Dynamics. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecker, Tom

    Track and field coaching is considered an art embodying three sciences--physiology, psychology, and dynamics. It is the area of dynamics, the branch of physics that deals with the action of force on bodies, that is central to this book. Although the book does not cover the entire realm of dynamics, the laws and principles that relate directly to…

  13. Assessment & Commitment Tracking System (ACTS)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-12-20

    The ACTS computer code provides a centralized tool for planning and scheduling assessments, tracking and managing actions associated with assessments or that result from an event or condition, and "mining" data for reporting and analyzing information for improving performance. The ACTS application is designed to work with the MS SQL database management system. All database interfaces are written in SQL. The following software is used to develop and support the ACTS application: Cold Fusion HTMLmore » JavaScript Quest TOAD Microsoft Visual Source Safe (VSS) HTML Mailer for sending email Microsoft SQL Microsoft Internet Information Server« less

  14. Assessment & Commitment Tracking System (ACTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, Robert A.; Childs, Teresa A.; Miller, Michael A.; Sellars, Kevin J.

    2004-12-20

    The ACTS computer code provides a centralized tool for planning and scheduling assessments, tracking and managing actions associated with assessments or that result from an event or condition, and "mining" data for reporting and analyzing information for improving performance. The ACTS application is designed to work with the MS SQL database management system. All database interfaces are written in SQL. The following software is used to develop and support the ACTS application: Cold Fusion HTML JavaScript Quest TOAD Microsoft Visual Source Safe (VSS) HTML Mailer for sending email Microsoft SQL Microsoft Internet Information Server

  15. Feasibility of Tracking Musical Form as a Cognitive Listening Objective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Alan

    1973-01-01

    The central purposes of this study were to discover whether musically unsophisticated seventh grade pupils could be taught to keep track of the unfolding forms of unfamiliar minuets and movements in sonata-allegro form, and the extent to which successful tracking is related to the observation of briefer musical elements. (Author)

  16. Track reconstruction with MIMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billard, J.; Mayet, F.; Santos, D.

    2012-02-01

    Directional detection of Dark Matter is a promising search strategy. However, to perform such kind of detection, the recoiling tracks have to be accurately reconstructed: direction, sense and position in the detector volume. In order to optimize the track reconstruction and to fully exploit the data from the MIMAC detector, we developed a likelihood method dedicated to the track reconstruction. This likelihood approach requires a full simulation of track measurements with MIMAC in order to compare real tracks to simulated ones. Finally, we found that the MIMAC detector should have the required performance to perform a competitive directional detection of Dark Matter.

  17. The minitrack tracking function description, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, T. S., Jr.; Mango, S. A.; Roettcher, C. A.; Watters, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The treatment of tracking data by the Minitrack system is described from the transmission of the nominal 136-MHz radio beacon energy from a satellite and the reception of this signal by the interferometer network through the ultimate derivation of the direction cosines (the angular coordinates of the vector from the tracking station to the spacecraft) as a function of time. Descriptions of some of the lesser-known functions operating on the system, such as the computer preprocessing program, are included. A large part of the report is devoted to the preprocessor, which provides for the data compression, smoothing, calibration correction, and ambiguity resolution of the raw interferometer phase tracking measurements teletyped from each of the worldwide Minitrack tracking stations to the central computer facility at Goddard Space Flight Center. An extensive bibliography of Minitrack hardware and theory is presented.

  18. Object tracking with stereo vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Eric

    1994-01-01

    A real-time active stereo vision system incorporating gaze control and task directed vision is described. Emphasis is placed on object tracking and object size and shape determination. Techniques include motion-centroid tracking, depth tracking, and contour tracking.

  19. Vehicle track loading simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalupa, Milan; Severa, Libor; Vlach, Radek

    2011-12-01

    The paper describes possible design of the vehicle track computational model and basic testing procedure of the track dynamic loading simulation. The proposed approach leads to an improvement of track vehicle course stability. The computational model is built for MSC. ADAMS, AVT computational simulating system. Model, which is intended for MSC computational system, is built from two basic parts. The first one is represented by geometrical part, while the second one by contact computational part of the model. The aim of the simulating calculation consist in determination of change influence of specific vehicle track constructive parameters on changes of examined qualities of the vehicle track link and changes of track vehicle course stability. The work quantifies the influence of changes of track preloading values on the demanded torque changes of driving sprocket. Further research possibilities and potential are also presented.

  20. Mechanical design and finite element analysis of the SDC central calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarino, V.; Hill, N. F.; Nasiatka, J.; Hoecker, D. A.; Hordubay, T. D.; Scherbarth, D. W.; Swensrud, R. L.

    1992-03-01

    When designing scintillating calorimeters for the study of particle interactions resulting from colliding beams, a primary goal is to instrument 100 percent of the available solid angle. In pursuit of this goal the challenge for mechanical designers is to minimize the amount of structural mass and still maintain acceptable engineering standards in the design. Argonne National Laboratory's involvement in the design of a central calorimeter for the SSC started in 1989. Our first proposal was to design a depleted uranium scintillator calorimeter similar to the ZEUS detector presently installed at the HERA electron-proton collider in Hamburg, Germany. Argonne was involved at the time in final assembly of modules for ZEUS that were designed and constructed at ANL. Due to the cost of using depleted uranium, lead was chosen as the absorber material. In collaboration with the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a program was launched to optimize the use of lead or lead alloys in the construction of the calorimeter. A cast lead design for the calorimeter evolved from this effort. Subsequent to this design, further pressure to reduce costs have now dictated a design which contains lead only in the electromagnetic sections of the calorimeter. The finite element analysis we will present here was done using lead for the HAD1 section of the barrel.

  1. Mechanical design and finite element analysis of the SDC central calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Guarino, V.; Hill, N.F.; Nasiatka, J. . High Energy Physics Div.); Hoecker, D.A.; Hordubay, T.D. Scherbarth, D.W.; Swensrud, R.L. . Science and Technology Center)

    1992-01-01

    When designing scintillating calorimeters for the study of particle interactions resulting from colliding beams, a primary goal is to instrument 100% of the available solid angle. In pursuit of this goal the challenge for mechanical designers is to minimize the amount of structural mass and still maintain acceptable engineering standards in the design. Argonne National Laboratory, High Energy Physics involvement in the design of a central calorimeter for the SSC started in 1989. Our first proposal was to design a depleted uranium scintillator calorimeter similar to the ZEUS detector presently installed at the HERA electron-proton collider in Hamburg, Germany. Argonne was involved at the time in final assembly of modules for ZEUS that had been designed and constructed at ANL. Due to the cost of using depleted uranium, lead was chosen as the absorber material. In collaboration with Westinghouse Science and Technology Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania was embarked on a program to optimize the use of lead or lead alloys in the construction of the calorimeter. A cast lead design for the calorimeter evolved from this effort. Subsequent to this design, further pressure to reduce costs have now dictated a design which contains lead only in the electromagnetic sections of the calorimeter. The finite element analysis we will present here was done using lead for the HAD1 section of the barrel.

  2. Combination of measurements of inclusive deep inelastic {e^{± }p} scattering cross sections and QCD analysis of HERA data. H1 and ZEUS Collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Andreev, V.; Antonelli, S.; Antunović, B.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt Dubak, A.; Behrens, U.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Bertolin, A.; Bloch, I.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Boudry, V.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Brock, I.; Brook, N. H.; Brugnera, R.; Bruni, A.; Buniatyan, A.; Bussey, P. J.; Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Caldwell, A.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Capua, M.; Catterall, C. D.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Contreras, J. G.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Dementiev, R. K.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dolinska, G.; Dusini, S.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Figiel, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Foster, B.; Gabathuler, E.; Gach, G.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Gayler, J.; Geiser, A.; Ghazaryan, S.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L. K.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grebenyuk, J.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregor, I.; Grindhammer, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Guzik, M.; Gwenlan, C.; Haidt, D.; Hain, W.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henkenjohann, P.; Hladkỳ, J.; Hochman, D.; Hoffmann, D.; Hori, R.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ishitsuka, M.; Iudin, A.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Januschek, F.; Jomhari, N. Z.; Jung, H.; Kadenko, I.; Kananov, S.; Kapichine, M.; Karshon, U.; Katzy, J.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Kiesling, C.; Kisielewska, D.; Klanner, R.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kostka, P.; Kotański, A.; Kötz, U.; Kovalchuk, N.; Kowalski, H.; Kretzschmar, J.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, K.; Krupa, B.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levonian, S.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Lipka, K.; Lisovyi, M.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Löhr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Makarenko, I.; Malinovski, E.; Malka, J.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Morozov, A.; Muhammad Nasir, N.; Müller, K.; Myronenko, V.; Nagano, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nobe, T.; Notz, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, R. J.; Olsson, J. E.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Paul, E.; Perez, E.; Perlański, W.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Pokorny, B.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Polifka, R.; Przybycień, M.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roloff, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Rubinsky, I.; Rusakov, S.; Ruspa, M.; Šálek, D.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitt, S.; Schneekloth, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Sefkow, F.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shevchenko, R.; Shkola, O.; Shushkevich, S.; Shyrma, Yu.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Słomiński, W.; Solano, A.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Stanco, L.; Steder, M.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stella, B.; Stern, A.; Stopa, P.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tassi, E.; Thompson, P. D.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomaszewska, J.; Traynor, D.; Trofymov, A.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turkot, O.; Turnau, J.; Tymieniecka, T.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Wegener, D.; Wichmann, K.; Wing, M.; Wolf, G.; Wünsch, E.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Žáček, J.; Zakharchuk, N.; Żarnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zhang, Z.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Žlebčík, R.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; Zotkin, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    A combination is presented of all inclusive deep inelastic cross sections previously published by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations at HERA for neutral and charged current e^{± }p scattering for zero beam polarisation. The data were taken at proton beam energies of 920, 820, 575 and 460 GeV and an electron beam energy of 27.5 GeV. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of about 1 fb^{-1} and span six orders of magnitude in negative four-momentum-transfer squared, Q^2, and Bjorken x. The correlations of the systematic uncertainties were evaluated and taken into account for the combination. The combined cross sections were input to QCD analyses at leading order, next-to-leading order and at next-to-next-to-leading order, providing a new set of parton distribution functions, called HERAPDF2.0. In addition to the experimental uncertainties, model and parameterisation uncertainties were assessed for these parton distribution functions. Variants of HERAPDF2.0 with an alternative gluon parameterisation, HERAPDF2.0AG, and using fixed-flavour-number schemes, HERAPDF2.0FF, are presented. The analysis was extended by including HERA data on charm and jet production, resulting in the variant HERAPDF2.0Jets. The inclusion of jet-production cross sections made a simultaneous determination of these parton distributions and the strong coupling constant possible, resulting in α _s(M_Z^2)=0.1183 ± 0.0009 (exp) ± 0.0005(model/parameterisation) ± 0.0012(hadronisation) ^{+0.0037}_{-0.0030}(scale). An extraction of xF_3^{γ Z} and results on electroweak unification and scaling violations are also presented.

  3. Image-Based and Range-Based 3d Modelling of Archaeological Cultural Heritage: the Telamon of the Temple of Olympian ZEUS in Agrigento (italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Brutto, M.; Spera, M. G.

    2011-09-01

    The Temple of Olympian Zeus in Agrigento (Italy) was one of the largest temple and at the same time one of the most original of all the Greek architecture. We don't know exactly how it was because the temple is now almost completely destroyed but it is very well-known for the presence of the Telamons. The Telamons were giant statues (about 8 meters high) probably located outside the temple to fill the interval between the columns. In accordance with the theory most accredited by archaeologists the Telamons were a decorative element and also a support for the structure. However, this hypothesis has never been scientifically proven. One Telamon has been reassembled and is shown at the Archaeological Museum of Agrigento. In 2009 a group of researchers at the University of Palermo has begun a study to test the hypothesis that the Telamons support the weight of the upper part of the temple. The study consists of a 3D survey of the Telamon, to reconstruct a detailed 3D digital model, and of a structural analysis with the Finite Element Method (FEM) to test the possibility that the Telamon could to support the weight of the upper portion of the temple. In this work the authors describe the 3D survey of Telamon carry out with Range-Based Modelling (RBM) and Image-Based Modeling (IBM). The RBM was performed with a TOF laser scanner while the IBM with the ZScan system of Menci Software and Image Master of Topcon. Several tests were conducted to analyze the accuracy of the different 3D models and to evaluate the difference between laser scanning and photogrammetric data. Moreover, an appropriate data reduction to generate a 3D model suitable for FEM analysis was tested.

  4. Tracking in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Mackinnon, Alexander C; Sinard, John H

    2013-12-01

    Bar code-based tracking solutions, long present in clinical pathology laboratories, have recently made an appearance in anatomic pathology (AP) laboratories. Tracking of AP "assets" (specimens, blocks, slides) can enhance laboratory efficiency, promote patient safety, and improve patient care. Routing of excess clinical material into research laboratories and biorepositories are other avenues that can benefit from tracking of AP assets. Implementing tracking is not as simple as installing software and turning it on. Not all tracking solutions are alike. Careful analysis of laboratory workflow is needed before implementing tracking to assure that this solution will meet the needs of the laboratory. Such analysis will likely uncover practices that may need to be modified before a tracking system can be deployed. Costs that go beyond simply that of purchasing software will be incurred and need to be considered in the budgeting process. Finally, people, not technology, are the key to assuring quality. Tracking will require significant changes in workflow and an overall change in the culture of the laboratory. Preparation, training, buy-in, and accountability of the people involved are crucial to the success of this process. This article reviews the benefits, available technology, underlying principles, and implementation of tracking solutions for the AP and research laboratory. PMID:23634908

  5. Charged Particle Tracking and Vertex Detection Group summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.; Meyer, D.

    1984-09-01

    Charged particle tracking is essential in order to investigate the new physics expected at the SSC. The Tracking Group studied radiation damage and rate limitations to tracking devices, vertex detectors, and central tracking. The Group concluded that silicon strips and large wire tracking chambers with small cells can probably survive at the design luminosity of 10/sup 33/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/; however, the presently designed electronics for silicon strip vertex detectors can withstand a luminosity of only 10/sup 31/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/. Wire chambers at a radius of less than about 25 cm can withstand a luminosity of less than or equal to 10/sup 32/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/ only. Actual tracking and pattern recognition in central tracking chambers at a luminosity of 10/sup 33/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/ will be very difficult because of multiple interactions within the resolving time of the chambers; detailed simulations are needed in order to decide whether tracking is indeed possible at this luminosity. Scintillating glass fibers are an interesting possibility both for vertex detectors and for central trackers, but much research and development is still needed both on the fibers themselves and on the readout.

  6. Can Tracking Improve Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duflo, Esther; Dupas, Pascaline; Kremer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tracking students into different classrooms according to their prior academic performance is controversial among both scholars and policymakers. If teachers find it easier to teach a homogeneous group of students, tracking could enhance school effectiveness and raise test scores of both low- and high-ability students. If students benefit from…

  7. Large scale tracking algorithms.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  8. 2 Tracks for Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The academic work force has been transformed over the past several decades, less by design than out of expediency. In 1969, professors who were either tenured or tenure-track made up 78 percent of the faculty. Those working part time made up only 18.5 percent. By 2009, those proportions had almost flipped, with tenured and tenure-track making up…

  9. Incentives from Curriculum Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koerselman, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I…

  10. Incentives from Curriculum Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koerselman, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I

  11. TMDL TRACKING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The TMDL Tracking System database contains information on the waters listed under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act and to track those listed waters through TMDL development. The purpose of the database is to allow EPA, the States/Territories/Tribes, ...

  12. UWB Tracking Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Julia; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dusl, John; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    An Ultra-Wideband (UWB) two-cluster Angle of Arrival (AOA) tracking prototype system is currently being developed and tested at NASA Johnson Space Center for space exploration applications. This talk discusses the software development efforts for this UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system. The role the software plays in this system is to take waveform data from two UWB radio receivers as an input, feed this input into an AOA tracking algorithm, and generate the target position as an output. The architecture of the software (Input/Output Interface and Algorithm Core) will be introduced in this talk. The development of this software has three phases. In Phase I, the software is mostly Matlab driven and calls C++ socket functions to provide the communication links to the radios. This is beneficial in the early stage when it is necessary to frequently test changes in the algorithm. Phase II of the development is to have the software mostly C++ driven and call a Matlab function for the AOA tracking algorithm. This is beneficial in order to send the tracking results to other systems and also to improve the tracking update rate of the system. The third phase is part of future work and is to have the software completely C++ driven with a graphics user interface. This software design enables the fine resolution tracking of the UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system.

  13. 2 Tracks for Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The academic work force has been transformed over the past several decades, less by design than out of expediency. In 1969, professors who were either tenured or tenure-track made up 78 percent of the faculty. Those working part time made up only 18.5 percent. By 2009, those proportions had almost flipped, with tenured and tenure-track making up

  14. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parametersmore » of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.« less

  15. Interferometric tracking system for the tracking and data relay satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effland, John E.; Knight, Curtis A.; Webber, John C.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents construction and testing of the Interferometric Tracking System project developed under the NASA SBIR contract NAS5-30313. Manuals describing the software and hardware, respectively entitled: 'Field Station Guide to Operations' and 'Field Station Hardware Manual' are included as part of this final report. The objective of this contract was to design, build, and operate a system of three ground stations using Very Long Baseline Interferometry techniques to measure the TDRS orbit. The ground stations receive signals from normal satellite traffic, store these signals in co-located computers, and transmit the information via phone lines to a central processing site which correlates the signals to determine relative time delays. Measurements from another satellite besides TDRS are used to determine clock offsets. A series of such measurements will ultimately be employed to derive the orbital parameters, yielding positions accurate to within 50 meters or possibly better.

  16. Sun tracking solar energy collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, G. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A parabolic reflector is supported so that it can track the sun. The support for this reflector comprises an azimuth frame supported on two wheels and a central pivotal point which are positioned in a substantially triangular configuration. On top of the azimuth frame, there is provided an elevation frame. The reflector rides on wheels captured within curved rails. The wheels of the azimuth frame are driven by an azimuth actuator. The reflector structure is counterbalanced about its elevation axis by a pendulum cable system which is driven by a motor. At the focal point of the parabolic reflector, a heat engine or receiver is mounted independently on the reflector. Suitable means are provided for moving the reflector about its two axes.

  17. Enhanced optical tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSheery, Tracy

    2008-04-01

    Enhanced tracking is accomplished by increasing the resolution, frame rate and processing capabilities in tracking dynamic regions of interest for vision applications. In many proven algorithms, the ability to distinguish an object and track it is dependent on the system performance in more than one attribute. We have conducted studies on proven techniques such as Active Appearance Models, Principle Component Analysis and Eigen tracking. All perform better as the camera resolution increases, and camera frame rate increases. Additional opportunities have been observed by combining these techniques, taking advantage of Multicore CPUs, and GPU graphic card processing. Results from an 8 Megapixel commercial sensor combined with a Field Programmable Gate array are presented, and algorithm performance compared with down scaled images of the same scenes, and simulated typical 30 hertz frame rates verses the 120 hertz to 300 hertz typical of this smart camera.

  18. Maximum power tracking

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, G.

    1983-03-01

    By definition, a maximum power tracking device causes the photovoltaic array to operate on the locus of maximum power points within a specified accuracy. There are limitations to the application of maximum power tracking. A prerequisite is that the load be capable of absorbing all of the power availble at all times. Battery chargers, electrical heaters, water pumps, and most significantly, returning power to the utility grid, are prime examples of applications that are adaptable to maximum power tracking. Maximum power tracking is available to either dc or ac loads. An inverter equipped with a means of changing input voltage by controlling its input impedance can deliver maximum power to ac loads. The inverter can be fixed or variable frequency and fixed or variable voltage, but must be compatible with the ac load. The discussion includes applications, techniques, and cost factors.

  19. Energy Tracking Software Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Davis; Nathan Bird; Rebecca Birx; Hal Knowles

    2011-04-04

    Acceleration has created an interactive energy tracking and visualization platform that supports decreasing electric, water, and gas usage. Homeowners have access to tools that allow them to gauge their use and track progress toward a smaller energy footprint. Real estate agents have access to consumption data, allowing for sharing a comparison with potential home buyers. Home builders have the opportunity to compare their neighborhood's energy efficiency with competitors. Home energy raters have a tool for gauging the progress of their clients after efficiency changes. And, social groups are able to help encourage members to reduce their energy bills and help their environment. EnergyIT.com is the business umbrella for all energy tracking solutions and is designed to provide information about our energy tracking software and promote sales. CompareAndConserve.com (Gainesville-Green.com) helps homeowners conserve energy through education and competition. ToolsForTenants.com helps renters factor energy usage into their housing decisions.

  20. Scientists Track Polar Bears

    Scientists track Polar bears with by attaching GPS equipped collars to a sample population.  These collars transmit data that help develop maps like this one that shows a swim of nearly 220 miles long....

  1. Tracking Sea Otters

    USGS sea otter researcher Tim Tinker drives the boat on an expedition to track and observe sea otters in Monterey Bay, California. USGS scientists study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from near extinction....

  2. Scintillating fiber tracking techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ruchti, R.

    1986-02-01

    The current status of the field of scintillating fiber detection and tracking is briefly reviewed, and avenues for further work are suggested. Attention is given to the core material, cladding material, and extra-mural absorber to be used in the scintillating fibers, as well as to the properties of attenuation length, radiation resistance, and fiber profile. Some examples are given of successful recording of tracks and interactions. Current developments are mentioned in relation to plastic and glass fibers and liquid capillaries. (LEW)

  3. MATERIAL TRACKING USING LANMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, F.

    2010-06-07

    LANMAS is a transaction-based nuclear material accountability software product developed to replace outdated and legacy accountability systems throughout the DOE. The core underlying purpose of LANMAS is to track nuclear materials inventory and report transactions (movement, mixing, splitting, decay, etc.) to the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). While LANMAS performs those functions well, there are many additional functions provided by the software product. As a material is received onto a site or created at a site, its entire lifecycle can be tracked in LANMAS complete to its termination of safeguards. There are separate functions to track material movements between and within material balance areas (MBAs). The level of detail for movements within a MBA is configurable by each site and can be as high as a site designation or as detailed as building/room/rack/row/position. Functionality exists to track the processing of materials, either as individual items or by modeling a bulk process as an individual item to track inputs and outputs from the process. In cases where sites have specialized needs, the system is designed to be flexible so that site specific functionality can be integrated into the product. This paper will demonstrate how the software can be used to input material into an account and track it to its termination of safeguards.

  4. 9. SLED TRACK. Looking east northeast from sled track terminus ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SLED TRACK. Looking east northeast from sled track terminus at west end of 20,000-foot track. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. Tropical cyclones in ERA-40: A detection and tracking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleppek, S.; Muccione, V.; Raible, C. C.; Bresch, D. N.; Koellner-Heck, P.; Stocker, T. F.

    2008-05-01

    A tracking method for tropical cyclones (TCs) is presented and their characteristics for data sets with a lower horizontal resolution, e.g., the ERA-40 Reanalysis data set from 1958 to 2001 are explored. The tracking method uses sea level pressure, relative vorticity and wind speed at 850 hPa, and vertical wind shear. The method, assessed in the Atlantic basin, identifies a realistic number of TCs. However, the ERA-40 TCs compared with best track data from the U.S. National Hurricane Center are too weak to reach hurricane character, i.e., the tracked TCs do not show hurricanes of category three to five. Another caveat is that the life cycle of central pressure values is often not realistically reproduced by ERA-40 TCs. To correct the life cycle of the central pressure, a two-step statistical downscaling approach is applied to the ERA-40 TCs which strongly improves the finding of major hurricanes.

  6. Open charm photoproduction at Zeus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nylander, Paul Andrew

    1999-11-01

    The inclusive production of charm quarks in positron- proton collisions at center of mass energy 300 GeV is measured near zero photon virtuality. Open charm events have been identified through the decay chain D*(2010) --> D0πs with the subsequent decay of D 0 --> Kπ. Production is expected to be dominated by the leading order boson - gluon fusion process, although higher orders cannot be neglected. This is examined by comparing observed cross sections with next-to-leading order QCD predictions in the ``massive'' and ``massless'' charm limits as a function of reconstructed D* transverse momentum, pseudo rapidity, and photon - proton center of mass energy. The measured total cross section in the restricted kinematic range of Pt(D*) >3.0 GeV, |h(D*) |<1.5, and 130 < Wγp < 280 GeV is s=9.7+/-0.6+0.7-0.9 nb. A clear disagreement with the phenomenological predictions, inconsistent with experimental or theoretical errors, is seen in the differential cross sections, most notably in the angular distribution.

  7. A novel method for retinal vessel tracking using particle filters.

    PubMed

    Nayebifar, B; Abrishami Moghaddam, H

    2013-06-01

    Extraction of a proper map from the vessel paths in the retinal images is a prerequisite for many applications such as identification. In this paper, we present a new approach based on particle filtering to determine and locally track the vessel paths in retina. Particle filter needs to use an acceptable probability density function (PDF) describing the blood vessels which must be provided by the retinal image. For this purpose, the product of the green and blue channels of the RGB retinal images is considered and after a median filtering stage, it is used as a PDF for tracking procedure. Then a stage of optic disc localization is performed to localize the starting points around the optic disc. With a proper set of starting points, the iterative tracking procedure initiates. First, a uniform propagation of the particles on an annular ring around each point (including starting points or ones determined as central points in the previous iteration) is performed. The particle weights are evaluated and accordingly, each particle is decided to be inside or outside the vessel. The subsequent stage is to analyze the hypothetical vectors between a central point and each of the inside vessel particles to find ones located inside vessel. Afterwards, the particles are clustered using quality threshold clustering method. Finally, each cluster introduces a central point for pursuing the tracking procedure in the next iteration. The tracking proceeds towards a bifurcation or the end of the vessels. We introduced two criteria: automatic/manually tracked ratio (AMTR) and false/manually tracked ratio (FMTR) for evaluating the tracking results. Apart from the labeling accuracy, the average values of AMTR and FMTR were 0.7746 and 0.2091, respectively. The proposed method successfully deals with the bifurcations with robustness against noise and tracks the thin vessels. PMID:23434235

  8. Fast-track school construction

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, B.M. Jr.

    1997-07-01

    Engineers must provide the best mechanical systems that budget and construction time allow. This school construction project not only successfully balanced these concerns but also addressed indoor air quality issues. The 175,000 sq.ft. Westfield Community School in Community Unit School District 300, Kane County, Ill., was built following a fast-track schedule. Construction began in January 1994 and was completed in August 1996. The building steel and the site utilities were bid and under construction approximately two months before the mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and fire protection work. Westfield Community School houses kindergarten through eighth grade classes. It is an elementary school and middle school that share the same offices, cafeteria, library, multipurpose room, and building services. Three alternatives for the mechanical systems were examined in the initial phase of design for cost and operating characteristics. These were: a central boiler and chiller plant with variable air volume (VAV) distribution and perimeter baseboard radiation; a central boiler and chiller plant with four-pipe distribution supplying hot and chilled water to four-pipe classroom unit ventilators; and a packaged VAV rooftop HVAC unit with gas heating and electric cooling.

  9. Robust superpixel tracking.

    PubMed

    Fan Yang; Huchuan Lu; Ming-Hsuan Yang

    2014-04-01

    While numerous algorithms have been proposed for object tracking with demonstrated success, it remains a challenging problem for a tracker to handle large appearance change due to factors such as scale, motion, shape deformation, and occlusion. One of the main reasons is the lack of effective image representation schemes to account for appearance variation. Most of the trackers use high-level appearance structure or low-level cues for representing and matching target objects. In this paper, we propose a tracking method from the perspective of midlevel vision with structural information captured in superpixels. We present a discriminative appearance model based on superpixels, thereby facilitating a tracker to distinguish the target and the background with midlevel cues. The tracking task is then formulated by computing a target-background confidence map, and obtaining the best candidate by maximum a posterior estimate. Experimental results demonstrate that our tracker is able to handle heavy occlusion and recover from drifts. In conjunction with online update, the proposed algorithm is shown to perform favorably against existing methods for object tracking. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm facilitates foreground and background segmentation during tracking. PMID:24808336

  10. Controlled Document Tracking Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-08-24

    MANTRACK is an automated, controlled document tracking system which does the following and reduces staff time required to perform these tasks: generates transmittal letters/receipts for every controlled copy issued (merged from a current distribution list), tracks the return of transmittal receipts, facilitates the check-in of the large number of transmittal receipts returned (using a barcode reader), generates a reminder list which prompts the cyclic review and evaluation of existing documents, generates overdue reminders for themore » return of past-due transmittal receipts, tracks the number of Procedure Change Directives (PCD) currently in effect for each procedure, generates and maintains current distribution lists for each document, generates a current table of contents when updates to the document (usually a procedure manual) are made.« less

  11. Advances in Tracking Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Frank; Kaminski, Jochen

    2011-11-01

    Tracking detectors are of vital importance for most experiments in high-energy and nuclear physics. They are used to determine the charge, momentum, and energy of traversing particles and to allow quark-flavor identification through the reconstruction of secondary vertices. Gaseous and semiconductor detectors are the two main types of tracking detectors; other, more exotic ones are fiber or transition radiation tracking devices. These detectors originated with cloud and bubble chambers in the 1950s and wire chambers in the 1970s, which dominated the field until the 1980s, when silicon sensors were developed. Today, silicon strip and pixel sensors, time-projection chambers, gas electron multipliers, and micromegas define the field. More advanced detector types are described in this review, with an emphasis on application examples and future plans.

  12. Tracks to therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of the structure of particle tracks have led to models of track effects based on radial dose and radiobiological target theory that have been very successful in describing and predicting track effects in physical, chemical, and biological systems. For describing mammalian cellular inactivation two inactivation modes are required, called gamma-kill and ion-kill, the first due to synergistic effects of delta rays from adjacent ion paths thus resembling the effects from gamma rays, and the second to the effects of single ion transits through a cell nucleus. The ion-kill effect is more severe, where the fraction of cells experiencing ion kill is responsible for a decrease in the oxygen enhancement ratio, and an increase in relative biological effectiveness, but these are accompanied by loss of repair, hence to a reduction in the efficiency of fractionation in high LET therapy, as shown by our calculations for radiobiological effects in the "spread out Bragg Peak".

  13. Track recording plastic compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarle, Gregory (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Improved nuclear track recording plastic compositions are provided which exhibit greatly decreased surface roughness when etched to produce visible tracks of energetic nuclear particles which have passed into and/or through said plastic. The improved compositions incorporate a small quantity of a phthalic acid ester into the major plastic component which is derived from the polymerization of monomeric di-ethylene glycol bis allyl carbonate. Di-substituted phthalic acid esters are preferred as the added component, with the further perference that the ester substituent has a chain length of 2 or more carbon atoms. The inclusion of the phthalic acid ester to an extent of from about 1-2% by weight of the plastic compositions is sufficient to drastically reduce the surface roughness ordinarily produced when the track recording plastic is contacted by etchants.

  14. Fast Compressive Tracking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaihua; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    2014-10-01

    It is a challenging task to develop effective and efficient appearance models for robust object tracking due to factors such as pose variation, illumination change, occlusion, and motion blur. Existing online tracking algorithms often update models with samples from observations in recent frames. Despite much success has been demonstrated, numerous issues remain to be addressed. First, while these adaptive appearance models are data-dependent, there does not exist sufficient amount of data for online algorithms to learn at the outset. Second, online tracking algorithms often encounter the drift problems. As a result of self-taught learning, misaligned samples are likely to be added and degrade the appearance models. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective and efficient tracking algorithm with an appearance model based on features extracted from a multiscale image feature space with data-independent basis. The proposed appearance model employs non-adaptive random projections that preserve the structure of the image feature space of objects. A very sparse measurement matrix is constructed to efficiently extract the features for the appearance model. We compress sample images of the foreground target and the background using the same sparse measurement matrix. The tracking task is formulated as a binary classification via a naive Bayes classifier with online update in the compressed domain. A coarse-to-fine search strategy is adopted to further reduce the computational complexity in the detection procedure. The proposed compressive tracking algorithm runs in real-time and performs favorably against state-of-the-art methods on challenging sequences in terms of efficiency, accuracy and robustness. PMID:26352631

  15. Automatic crack propagation tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shephard, M. S.; Weidner, T. J.; Yehia, N. A. B.; Burd, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    A finite element based approach to fully automatic crack propagation tracking is presented. The procedure presented combines fully automatic mesh generation with linear fracture mechanics techniques in a geometrically based finite element code capable of automatically tracking cracks in two-dimensional domains. The automatic mesh generator employs the modified-quadtree technique. Crack propagation increment and direction are predicted using a modified maximum dilatational strain energy density criterion employing the numerical results obtained by meshes of quadratic displacement and singular crack tip finite elements. Example problems are included to demonstrate the procedure.

  16. CTS. Commitment Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Stucki, F.K.

    1992-06-01

    CTS is a micro based prototype of the data elements, screens, and information processing rules that apply to the Commitment and Non-compliance Tracking Program. The system is focused on the non-compliance or commitment. When some group is out of compliance they need a way of tracking that occurrence. The system must be able to CRUD (Create, Retrieve, Update, Delete) instances of the non-compliance Event. Additionally, the system must provide data integrity. This is done through a set up of tables and data validation.

  17. Computationally efficient Bayesian tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aughenbaugh, Jason; La Cour, Brian

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the progress we have achieved in developing a computationally efficient, grid-based Bayesian fusion tracking system. In our approach, the probability surface is represented by a collection of multidimensional polynomials, each computed adaptively on a grid of cells representing state space. Time evolution is performed using a hybrid particle/grid approach and knowledge of the grid structure, while sensor updates use a measurement-based sampling method with a Delaunay triangulation. We present an application of this system to the problem of tracking a submarine target using a field of active and passive sonar buoys.

  18. Interferometric star tracking.

    PubMed

    Decou, A B

    1974-02-01

    A new star-tracking technique based on interferometry is described and analyzed in detail. A heuristic comparison is made with traditional star-tracking methods that demonstrates several advantages in the interferometric approach for very high accuracy systems. A detailed error analysis is performed on several versions of the system that use all solid-state detection. One such system is shown to have a potential accuracy of +/-0.01 sec of arc using a small optical system and state-of-the-art components. Applications of the new system in large orbiting astronomical observatories and deep space laser communications systems are also discussed. PMID:20125995

  19. Cell tracking using nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Dennis E; Yang, Meiheng; Weinberg, James S; Reinhardt, Christopher P; Groman, Ernest V

    2008-09-01

    Tracking cells in regenerative medicine is becoming increasingly important for basic cell therapy science, for cell delivery optimization and for accurate biodistribution studies. This report describes nanoparticles that utilize stable-isotope metal labels for multiple detection technologies in preclinical studies. Cells labeled with nanoparticles can be imaged by electron microscopy, fluorescence, and magnetic resonance. The nanoparticle-labeled cells can be quantified by neutron activation, thereby allowing, with the use of standard curves, the determination of the number of labeled cells in tissue samples from in vivo sources. This report describes the characteristics of these nanoparticles and methods for using these nanoparticles to label and track cells. PMID:20559922

  20. Spirit Leaves Telling Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Scientists have found clues about the nature of martian soil through analyzing wheel marks from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit in this image. The image was taken by Spirit's rear hazard-identification camera just after the rover drove approximately 1 meter (3 feet) northwest off the Columbia Memorial Station (lander platform) early Thursday morning. That the wheel tracks are shallow indicates the soil has plenty of strength to support the moving rover. The well-defined track characteristics suggest the presence of very fine particles in the martian soil (along with larger particles). Scientists also think the soil may have some cohesive properties.

  1. Simple front tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Glimm, J.; Grove, J.W.; Li, X.; Zhao, N.

    1999-04-01

    A new and simplified front tracking algorithm has been developed as an aspect of the extension of this algorithm to three dimensions. Here the authors emphasize two main results: (1) a simplified description of the microtopology of the interface, based on interface crossings with cell block edges, and (2) an improved algorithm for the interaction of a tracked contact discontinuity with an untracked shock wave. For the latter question, they focus on the post interaction jump at the contact, which is a purely 1D issue. Comparisons to other methods, including the level set method, are included.

  2. TRACKING Trounces Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an adaptation of an article from School Board News, January 6, 2004 edition. The article describes the effort of de-tracking students of varying ability levels, made by officials of South Side High School, in Rockville Centre, New York, and Noble High School, in North Berwick, Maine. Officials from both schools say that the…

  3. Tracking Weather Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helen E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of weather satellites in providing an exciting, cohesive framework for students learning Earth and space science and in providing a hands-on approach to technology in the classroom. Discusses the history of weather satellites and classroom satellite tracking. (JRH)

  4. Albatross Satellite Tracking Study

    2007 Research crew for the short-tailed albatross satellite tracking study conducted on Torishima Island, Japan. Front row (left to right): Noboru Nakamura, Hayao Murakami, Paul Sievert, Yuki Watanabe, Fumio Sato. Back row: Miwa Tsuchiya, Robert Suryan. All of the Japanese researchers are from the Y...

  5. Tracking Politics with POWER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  6. Manure Tracking Book

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document provides an example of the ‘Manure Tracking Book’ that was used by the fifty-four Wisconsin dairy farmers who participated in the “On Farmers’ Ground” nutrient management research project. This Book was used to systematically tract how, when and where farmers spread manure, and factors...

  7. Tracking Polar Bears

    Movements of 9 satellite-collared adult female polar bears were tracked in February, 2010 by satellite telemetry. Bears were collared in 2007, 2008, and 2009 on the spring-time sea ice of the southern Beaufort Sea or on the autumn pack ice in 2009. Polar bear satellite telemetry data are shown with ...

  8. GPS Tracks Ground Deformation

    USGS Field Engineer Ben Pauk records site and equipment information for the Global Positioning System (GPS) installed at the North Rim station in the Newberry National Volcanic Monument. The GPS records the precise position of the station, including latitude, longitude and elevation. Tracking subtle...

  9. Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 8 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 50.0 S and 17.7 W displays dust devil tracks on the surface. Most of the lighter portions of the image likely have a thin veneer of dust settled on the surface. As a dust devil passes over the surface, it acts as a vacuum and picks up the dust, leaving the darker substrate exposed. In this image there is a general trend of many of the tracks running from east to west or west to east, indicating the general wind direction. There is often no general trend present in dust devil tracks seen in other images. The track patterns are quite ephemeral and can completely change or even disappear over the course of a few months. Dust devils are one of the mechanisms that Mars uses to constantly pump dust into the ubiquitously dusty atmosphere. This atmospheric dust is one of the main driving forces of the present Martian climate. The Story Vrrrrooooooooom. Think of a tornado, the cartoon Tasmanian devil, or any number of vacuum commercials that powerfully suck up swirls of dust and dirt. That's pretty much what it's like on the surface of Mars a lot of the time. Whirlpools of wind called

  10. Tracking falling objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Moving lens follows movement of object accelerated by gravity. Lenses and mirrors maintain constant magnification regardless of distance between moving optical carriage mechanism and fixed telescope. Device tracks objects up to 2 cm in diameter over vertical distance of 2 m.

  11. Tracking Politics with POWER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data

  12. General defocusing particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Barnkob, Rune; Kähler, Christian J; Rossi, Massimiliano

    2015-09-01

    A General Defocusing Particle Tracking (GDPT) method is proposed for tracking the three-dimensional motion of particles in Lab-on-a-chip systems based on a set of calibration images and the normalized cross-correlation function. In comparison with other single-camera defocusing particle-tracking techniques, GDPT possesses a series of key advantages: it is applicable to particle images of arbitrary shapes, it is intuitive and easy to use, it can be used without advanced knowledge of optics and velocimetry theory, it is robust against outliers and overlapping particle images, and it requires only equipment which is standard in microfluidic laboratories. We demonstrate the method by tracking the three-dimensional motion of 2 μm spherical particles in a microfluidic channel using three different optical arrangements. The position of the particles was measured with an estimated uncertainty of 0.1 μm in the in-plane direction and 2 μm in the depth direction for a measurement volume of 1510 × 1270 × 160 μm(3). A ready-to-use GUI implementation of the method can be acquired on . PMID:26201498

  13. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-01-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the "Next Generation Science Standards," the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they "track" the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of…

  14. Spiral track oven

    SciTech Connect

    Drobilisch, Sandor

    1998-12-20

    Final report on development of a continuously operating oven system in which the parts are progressing automatically on a spiral track for in-line service installation for the production of electronic and/or other components to be heat cured or dried.

  15. Asset tracking systems.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Asset tracking systems are used in healthcare to find objects--medical devices and other hospital equipment--and to record the physical location of those objects over time. Interest in asset tracking is growing daily, but the technology is still evolving, and so far very few systems have been implemented in hospitals. This situation is likely to change over the next few years, at which point many hospitals will be faced with choosing a system. We evaluated four asset tracking systems from four suppliers: Agility Healthcare Solutions, Ekahau, Radianse, and Versus Technology. We judged the systems' performance for two "levels" of asset tracking. The first level is basic locating--simply determining where in the facility an item can be found. This may be done because the equipment needs routine inspection and preventive maintenance or because it is required for recall purposes; or the equipment may be needed, often urgently, for clinical use. The second level, which is much more involved, is inventory optimization and workflow improvement. This entails analyzing asset utilization based on historical location data to improve the use, distribution, and processing of equipment. None of the evaluated products is ideal for all uses--each has strengths and weaknesses. In many cases, hospitals will have to select a product based on their specific needs. For example, they may need to choose between a supplier whose system is easy to install and a supplier whose tags have a long battery operating life. PMID:17278873

  16. Tracking Self into Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piersol, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to figure out what it means to educate "ecologically," I decided to track down some of the stories that I was living, telling and making as an educator. I ended up lost in the house of environmental education, stuck within the rooms of ecological science and political advocacy. Outside on the lawn sat the story of place based…

  17. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-01-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the "Next Generation Science Standards," the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they "track" the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of

  18. TRACKING Trounces Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an adaptation of an article from School Board News, January 6, 2004 edition. The article describes the effort of de-tracking students of varying ability levels, made by officials of South Side High School, in Rockville Centre, New York, and Noble High School, in North Berwick, Maine. Officials from both schools say that the

  19. Tracking Speech Sound Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a procedure to aid in the clinical appraisal of child speech. The approach, based on the work by Dinnsen, Chin, Elbert, and Powell (1990; Some constraints on functionally disordered phonologies: Phonetic inventories and phonotactics. "Journal of Speech and Hearing Research", 33, 28-37), uses a railway idiom to track gains in…

  20. Tracking Virtual Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Leland S.; Beutter, Brent R.; Lorenceau, Jean D.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Current models of smooth pursuit eye movements assume that it is largely driven by retinal image motion. We tested this hypothesis by measuring pursuit of elliptical motion (3.2s, 0.9 Hz, 1.4 deg x 1.6 deg, 4 randomly interleaved phases) of either a small spot ("real" motion) or of a line-figure diamond viewed through apertures such that only the motion of four isolated oblique line segments was visible ("virtual" motion). Each segment moved sinusoidally along a linear trajectory yet subjects perceived a diamond moving along an elliptical path behind the aperture. We found, as expected, that real motion produced accurate tracking (N = 2) with mean gain (over horizontal and vertical) of 0.9, mean phase of -6 deg (lag), mean relative phase (H vs V) of 90 +/- 8 deg (RMS error). Virtual motion behind an X-shaped aperture (N= 4 with one naive) yielded a mean gain of 0.7, mean phase of -11 deg, mean relative phase of 87 +/- 15 deg. We also measured pursuit with the X-shaped aperture using a higher segment luminance which prevents the segments from being grouped into a coherently moving diamond while keeping the motion otherwise identical. In this incoherent case, the same four subjects no longer showed consistent elliptical tracking (RMS error in relative phase rose to 60 deg) suggesting that perceptual coherence is critical. Furthermore, to rule out tracking of the centroid, we also used vertical apertures so that all segment motion was vertical (N = 3). This stimulus still produced elliptical tracking (mean relative phase of 84 +/- 19 deg), albeit with a lower gain (0.6). These data show that humans can track moving objects reasonably accurately even when the trajectory can only be derived by spatial integration of motion signals. Models that merely seek to minimize retinal or local stimulus motion cannot explain these results.

  1. Displacement thresholds in central and peripheral vision during tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of stimulus duration and angular velocity on a subject's judgment of displacement threshold are examined. Twenty-six male subjects between 17-45 years with uncorrected 20:20 distance acuity and normal color perception and stereopsis studied a series of forced choice, paired comparison trials in which a long, thin, collimated horizontally oriented line moved downward through 12 angles ranging from 0.6-60 arcmin and judged which stimulus moved in each pair. The displacements were produced by 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 sec stimulus duration and 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 deg/sec angular rates. Stimulus velocity, stimulus duration, mean threshold displacement, and mean confidence results are analyzed. It is observed that displacement judgment accuracy is increased with increasing stimulus duration. The data are compared with the results of Johnson and Leibowitz (1976) and Johnson and Scobey (1982), and good correlation with the Johnson and Leibowitz data is detected. The data reveal that threshold is based on a constant stimulus velocity over this range of durations and velocities. The data are applicable to the study of the final approach to landing of medium and large commercial jet aircraft.

  2. 31. "FIGURE 310, TRACK LAYOUT (EDWARDS)". Test track footing and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. "FIGURE 3-10, TRACK LAYOUT (EDWARDS)". Test track footing and rail head cross sections. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Tenure Track Investigator Committee (TTIC)

    Cancer.gov

    Courses and Mentorship Courses for Tenure-Track Investigators There are several courses that are tailored specifically for NIH tenure-track investigators, and these courses have been generally well received by your peers. The course shown below is sponsor

  4. Tenure Track Investigator Committee (TTIC)

    Cancer.gov

    TTI Retreats The CCR Tenure Track Investigator Committee sponsors scientific retreat for all tenure-track investigators. Information on the 2016 Retreat will be posted once available. Retreat Archives To view the agendas, presentations, and other material

  5. Space Telescope moving target tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strikwerda, T. E.; Strohbehn, K.; Fowler, K. R.; Skillman, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper formulates a Space Telescope (ST) moving target tracking algorithm and evaluates a practical implementation. The algorithm is shown to be satisfactory for tracking such moving objects as the moons of Mars.

  6. Perceptual style and tracking performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atchley, Paul

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between perceptual style and tracking of a target was examined. Four pilots were given the Embedded Figures Test to assess their degrees of field dependence or independence. Then they flew in a helicopter simulator and attempted to track an airborne target. A high negative correlation was found between perceptual style and tracking performance. Field-independent subjects were able to track the target for longer periods than field-dependent subjects.

  7. Track Initiation for Electro-Optical Tracking of Space Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z. W.; Wang, X.

    2016-03-01

    Aimed at the track initiation for the electro-optical tracking of space objects, and based on modified Hough transformation, a track initiation algorithm without prior information is proposed to realize the fully robotic identification and tracking of moving objects. The method is valid for the tracking of multi-target as well as with a non-continuous sequence. Simulation shows that the method is effective and applicable for operational usage, and is especially good for the search and discovery of new objects.

  8. Satellite (IRLS) tracking of elk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechner, H. K.

    1972-01-01

    The practicability of tracking free roaming animals in natural environments by satellite systems is reported. Satellite systems combine continuous tracking with simultaneous monitoring of physiological and environmental parameters through a combination of radio tracking and biotelemetric ground systems that lead to a better understanding of animal behavior and migration patterns.

  9. Dinosaur Tracks and Traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, David D.; Lockley, Martin G.

    1991-02-01

    The study of fossilized dinosaur remains, vertebrate paleontology is a well established discipline, but the discovery and rediscovery of numerous and varied dinosaur footprints and nest sites has spurred a renaissance in the associated field of ichnological research. Dinosaur Tracks and Traces is the first book ever to be devoted to this subject, and it represents the work of seventy noted dinosaur ichnologists. Contributors address the history of science and the relevance of dinosaur ichnology to the interpretation of dinosaur behaviour, paleoecology, paleoenvironments, and evolution. Several new preservation, conservation, and documentation techniques are also presented. The book is richly illustrated and is intended for students and professionals in the areas of paleontology, vertebrate zoology, geology, and paleoenvironmental analysis. The historical aspects of the book and the many site descriptions also make Dinosaur Tracks and Traces appealing to amateur fossil collectors and dinosaur enthusiasts.

  10. Motion Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Integrated Sensors, Inc. (ISI), under NASA contract, developed a sensor system for controlling robot vehicles. This technology would enable a robot supply vehicle to automatically dock with Earth-orbiting satellites or the International Space Station. During the docking phase the ISI-developed sensor must sense the satellite's relative motion, then spin so the robot vehicle can adjust its motion to align with the satellite and slowly close until docking is completed. ISI used the sensing/tracking technology as the basis of its OPAD system, which simultaneously tracks an object's movement in six degrees of freedom. Applications include human limb motion analysis, assembly line position analysis and auto crash dummy motion analysis. The NASA technology is also the basis for Motion Analysis Workstation software, a package to simplify the video motion analysis process.

  11. On particle track detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Gruhn, T. A.; Andrus, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    Aqueous sodium hydroxide is widely used to develop charged particle tracks in polycarbonate film, particularly Lexan. The chemical nature of the etching process for this system has been determined. A method employing ultra-violet absorbance was developed for monitoring the concentration of the etch products in solution. Using this method it was possible to study the formation of the etching solution saturated in etch products. It was found that the system super-saturates to a significant extent before precipitation occurs. It was also learned that the system approaches its equilibrium state rather slowly. It is felt that both these phenomena may be due to the presence of surfactant in the solution. In light of these findings, suggestions are given regarding the preparation and maintenance of the saturated etch solution. Two additional research projects, involving automated techniques for particle track analysis and particle identification using AgCl crystals, are briefly summarized.

  12. Longwall shearer tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulsen, P. D. (Inventor); Stein, R. J.; Pease, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    A tracking system for measuring and recording the movements of a longwall shearer vehicle includes an optical tracking assembly carried at one end of a desired vehicle path and a retroreflector assembly carried by the vehicle. Continuous horizontal and vertical light beams are alternately transmitted by means of a rotating Dove prism to the reflector assembly. A vertically reciprocating reflector interrupts the continuous light beams and converts these to discrete horizontal and vertical light beam images transmitted at spaced intervals along the path. A second rotating Dove prism rotates the vertical images to convert them to a second series of horizontal images while the first mentioned horizontal images are left unrotated and horizontal. The images are recorded on a film.

  13. Tracking Online Trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Man; Edgar-Nevill, Denis; Wang, Yongquan; Xu, Rongsheng

    Traceability is a key to the investigation of the internet criminal and a cornerstone of internet research. It is impossible to prevent all internet misuse but may be possible to identify and trace the users, and then take appropriate action. This paper presents the value of traceability within the email/-newsposting utilities, the technologies being using to hide identities, the difficulties in locating the traceable data and the challenges in tracking online trails.

  14. PARTICLE BEAM TRACKING CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, O.A.

    1959-05-01

    >A particle-beam tracking and correcting circuit is described. Beam induction electrodes are placed on either side of the beam, and potentials induced by the beam are compared in a voltage comparator or discriminator. This comparison produces an error signal which modifies the fm curve at the voltage applied to the drift tube, thereby returning the orbit to the preferred position. The arrangement serves also to synchronize accelerating frequency and magnetic field growth. (T.R.H.)

  15. NEKF IMM tracking algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Mark W.; Stubberud, Allen R.

    2004-01-01

    Highly maneuvering threats are a major concern for the Navy and the DoD and the technology discussed in this paper is intended to help address this issue. A neural extended Kalman filter algorithm has been embedded in an interacting multiple model architecture for target tracking. The neural extended Kalman filter algorithm is used to improve motion model prediction during maneuvers. With a better target motion mode, noise reduction can be achieved through a maneuver. Unlike the interacting multiple model architecture which uses a high process noise model to hold a target through a maneuver with poor velocity and acceleration estimates, a neural extended Kalman filter is used to predict corrections to the velocity and acceleration states of a target through a maneuver. The neural extended Kalman filter estimates the weights of a neural network, which in turn are used to modify the state estimate predictions of the filter as measurements are processed. The neural network training is performed on-line as data is processed. In this paper, the simulation results of a tracking problem using a neural extended Kalman filter embedded in an interacting multiple model tracking architecture are shown. Preliminary results on the 2nd Benchmark Problem are also given.

  16. NEKF IMM tracking algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Mark W.; Stubberud, Allen R.

    2003-12-01

    Highly maneuvering threats are a major concern for the Navy and the DoD and the technology discussed in this paper is intended to help address this issue. A neural extended Kalman filter algorithm has been embedded in an interacting multiple model architecture for target tracking. The neural extended Kalman filter algorithm is used to improve motion model prediction during maneuvers. With a better target motion mode, noise reduction can be achieved through a maneuver. Unlike the interacting multiple model architecture which uses a high process noise model to hold a target through a maneuver with poor velocity and acceleration estimates, a neural extended Kalman filter is used to predict corrections to the velocity and acceleration states of a target through a maneuver. The neural extended Kalman filter estimates the weights of a neural network, which in turn are used to modify the state estimate predictions of the filter as measurements are processed. The neural network training is performed on-line as data is processed. In this paper, the simulation results of a tracking problem using a neural extended Kalman filter embedded in an interacting multiple model tracking architecture are shown. Preliminary results on the 2nd Benchmark Problem are also given.

  17. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-02-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the Next Generation Science Standards, the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they track the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of interest in complex physical processes. As part of tracking energy transfers among objects, learners should (i) distinguish energy from matter, including recognizing that energy flow does not uniformly align with the movement of matter, and should (ii) identify specific mechanisms by which energy is transferred among objects, such as mechanical work and thermal conduction. As part of tracking energy transformations within objects, learners should (iii) associate specific forms with specific models and indicators (e.g., kinetic energy with speed and/or coordinated motion of molecules, thermal energy with random molecular motion and/or temperature) and (iv) identify specific mechanisms by which energy is converted from one form to another, such as incandescence and metabolism. Eventually, we may hope for learners to be able to optimize systems to maximize some energy transfers and transformations and minimize others, subject to constraints based in both imputed mechanism (e.g., objects must have motion energy in order for gravitational energy to change) and the second law of thermodynamics (e.g., heating is irreversible). We hypothesize that a subsequent goal of energy learning—innovating to meet socially relevant needs—depends crucially on the extent to which these goals have been met.

  18. Fast Track Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Fast Track Study supports the efforts of a Special Study Group (SSG) made up of members of the Advanced Project Management Class number 23 (APM-23) that met at the Wallops Island Management Education Center from April 28 - May 8, 1996. Members of the Class expressed interest to Mr. Vem Weyers in having an input to the NASA Policy Document (NPD) 7120.4, that will replace NASA Management Institute (NMI) 7120.4, and the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. The APM-23 SSG was tasked with assisting in development of NASA policy on managing Fast Track Projects, defined as small projects under $150 million and completed within three years. 'Me approach of the APM-23 SSG was to gather data on successful projects working in a 'Better, Faster, Cheaper' environment, within and outside of NASA and develop the Fast Track Project section of the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. Fourteen interviews and four other data gathering efforts were conducted by the SSG, and 16 were conducted by Strategic Resources, Inc. (SRI), including five interviews at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and one at the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The interviews were compiled and analyzed for techniques and approaches commonly used to meet severe cost and schedule constraints.

  19. Eye-Tracking Data

    PubMed Central

    Galesic, Mirta; Tourangeau, Roger; Couper, Mick P.; Conrad, Frederick G.

    2008-01-01

    Survey researchers since Cannell have worried that respondents may take various shortcuts to reduce the effort needed to complete a survey. The evidence for such shortcuts is often indirect. For instance, preferences for earlier versus later response options have been interpreted as evidence that respondents do not read beyond the first few options. This is really only a hypothesis, however, that is not supported by direct evidence regarding the allocation of respondent attention. In the current study, we used a new method to more directly observe what respondents do and do not look at by recording their eye movements while they answered questions in a Web survey. The eye-tracking data indicate that respondents do in fact spend more time looking at the first few options in a list of response options than those at the end of the list; this helps explain their tendency to select the options presented first regardless of their content. In addition, the eye-tracking data reveal that respondents are reluctant to invest effort in reading definitions of survey concepts that are only a mouse click away or paying attention to initially hidden response options. It is clear from the eye-tracking data that some respondents are more prone to these and other cognitive shortcuts than others, providing relatively direct evidence for what had been suspected based on more conventional measures. PMID:21253437

  20. 7. 'Tunnel No 14, Concrete Lining,' Southern Pacific Standard SingleTrack ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. 'Tunnel No 14, Concrete Lining,' Southern Pacific Standard Single-Track Tunnel, ca. 1909. Under current numbering, this is now Tunnel 29 (HAER No. CA-205). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  1. Fuzzy Logic Particle Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A new all-electronic Particle Image Velocimetry technique that can efficiently map high speed gas flows has been developed in-house at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical technique for measuring the instantaneous two component velocity field across a planar region of a seeded flow field. A pulsed laser light sheet is used to illuminate the seed particles entrained in the flow field at two instances in time. One or more charged coupled device (CCD) cameras can be used to record the instantaneous positions of particles. Using the time between light sheet pulses and determining either the individual particle displacements or the average displacement of particles over a small subregion of the recorded image enables the calculation of the fluid velocity. Fuzzy logic minimizes the required operator intervention in identifying particles and computing velocity. Using two cameras that have the same view of the illumination plane yields two single exposure image frames. Two competing techniques that yield unambiguous velocity vector direction information have been widely used for reducing the single-exposure, multiple image frame data: (1) cross-correlation and (2) particle tracking. Correlation techniques yield averaged velocity estimates over subregions of the flow, whereas particle tracking techniques give individual particle velocity estimates. For the correlation technique, the correlation peak corresponding to the average displacement of particles across the subregion must be identified. Noise on the images and particle dropout result in misidentification of the true correlation peak. The subsequent velocity vector maps contain spurious vectors where the displacement peaks have been improperly identified. Typically these spurious vectors are replaced by a weighted average of the neighboring vectors, thereby decreasing the independence of the measurements. In this work, fuzzy logic techniques are used to determine the true correlation displacement peak even when it is not the maximum peak, hence maximizing the information recovery from the correlation operation, maintaining the number of independent measurements, and minimizing the number of spurious velocity vectors. Correlation peaks are correctly identified in both high and low seed density cases. The correlation velocity vector map can then be used as a guide for the particle-tracking operation. Again fuzzy logic techniques are used, this time to identify the correct particle image pairings between exposures to determine particle displacements, and thus the velocity. Combining these two techniques makes use of the higher spatial resolution available from the particle tracking. Particle tracking alone may not be possible in the high seed density images typically required for achieving good results from the correlation technique. This two-staged velocimetric technique can measure particle velocities with high spatial resolution over a broad range of seeding densities.

  2. Heterogeneous Multiple Sensors Joint Tracking of Maneuvering Target in Clutter.

    PubMed

    Wu, Panlong; Li, Xingxiu; Kong, Jianshou; Liu, Jiale

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problem of tracking maneuvering airborne targets in the presence of clutter, an improved interacting multiple model probability data association algorithm (IMMPDA-MDCM) using radar/IR sensors fusion is proposed. Under the architecture of the proposed algorithm, the radar/IR centralized fusion tracking scheme of IMMPDA-MDCM is designed to guarantee the observability of the target state. The interacting multiple model (IMM) deals with the model switching. The modified debiased converted measurement (MDCM) filter accounts for non-linearity in the dynamic system models, and reduces the effect of measurement noise on the covariance effectively. The probability data association (PDA) handles data association and measurement uncertainties in clutter. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can improve the tracking precision for maneuvering target in clutters, and has higher tracking precision than the traditional IMMPDA based on EKF and IMMPDA based on DCM algorithm. PMID:26193279

  3. Heterogeneous Multiple Sensors Joint Tracking of Maneuvering Target in Clutter

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Panlong; Li, Xingxiu; Kong, Jianshou; Liu, Jiale

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problem of tracking maneuvering airborne targets in the presence of clutter, an improved interacting multiple model probability data association algorithm (IMMPDA-MDCM) using radar/IR sensors fusion is proposed. Under the architecture of the proposed algorithm, the radar/IR centralized fusion tracking scheme of IMMPDA-MDCM is designed to guarantee the observability of the target state. The interacting multiple model (IMM) deals with the model switching. The modified debiased converted measurement (MDCM) filter accounts for non-linearity in the dynamic system models, and reduces the effect of measurement noise on the covariance effectively. The probability data association (PDA) handles data association and measurement uncertainties in clutter. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can improve the tracking precision for maneuvering target in clutters, and has higher tracking precision than the traditional IMMPDA based on EKF and IMMPDA based on DCM algorithm. PMID:26193279

  4. Tracking Southern Hemisphere extratropical cyclones using different algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilinina, Natalia; Rudeva, Irina; Gulev, Sergey; Simmonds, Ian; Keay, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    We attempt to estimate strengths and weaknesses of the two cyclone tracking algorithms - of the University of Melbourne (UM) and of IORAS (SAIL). The UM scheme is using geostrophic vorticity for tracking cyclones and SAIL tracking is based on sea level pressure. Furthermore, there are many other conceptual differences in the algorithm performance. The SAIL scheme was applied to the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis output for the Southern Hemisphere (1948-2009), the period of intercomparison with the results based on UM scheme was 1990-1999. During time period 1990-1999 the UM scheme identifies 45% more cyclones than the SAIL scheme. The UM tracking output consists of all cyclones which are found by the SAIL scheme and also many short-living vortices, which do not have their imprints in the pressure fields. Many of these vortices are not characterized by the minimum central pressure and the closed isobar - the two major characteristics of cyclone - and require the extension of cyclone definition to be considered as cyclones. Spatial distribution of cyclone counts over Southern Hemisphere clearly shows the two main storm tracks: the Southern (close to the Antarctic) represented by deep and moderate cyclones with minimum central pressure typically lower than 965 hPa and the Northern track primarily associated with the shallow cyclones (central pressure is typically higher than 980hPa). Using the time series of the number of cyclones derived from the SAIL tracking we estimated linear trends in the cyclones counts. The number of deep cyclones (<960 hPa) growths during 1948-2009 by 0,8 cyclones per year, while the number of shallow cyclones (>980 hPa) decreases by 1,3 cyclones per year. Changes in a number of deep cyclones are significantly correlated with the Southern Oscillation Index (e.g. 0,57 in the autumn).

  5. Combined 40Ar/39Ar and Fission-Track study of the Freetown Layered Igneous Complex, Freetown, Sierra Leone, West Africa: Implications for the Initial Break-up of Pangea to form the Central Atlantic Ocean and Insight into the Post-rift Evolution of the Sie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrie, Ibrahim; Wijbrans, Jan; Andriessen, Paul; Beunk, Frank; Strasser-King, Victor; Fode, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Sierra Leone lies within the south-western part of the West African Craton and comprises two major Archaean structural divisions: a low-grade granite-greenstone terrane characterised by N-S striking structures and a NW-SE striking highly metamorphosed belt of strained rocks that form the coastal margin of the craton. Intruded into the belt is the Freetown Layered Igneous Complex (FLIC), a tholeiitic magamtic body emplaced prior to or during the break-up of Pangea to form the Central Atlantic Ocean and, forming today the high ground of the coastal outline of Sierra Leone which is one of the most distinctive features on the West African coast. The break-up of Pangaea to form the Central Atlantic and its passive margins began in the Early Jurassic. Geo-tectonically, the break-up was particularly characterised by the formation of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), covering once-contiguous parts of North America, Europe, Africa and South America. The FLIC forming part of the heart of CAMP is the largest single layered igneous intrusive yet known on either side of the Central Atlantic, measuring on surface, 65 x 14 x 7 km. Geophysical investigations indicate that the intrusion extends offshore to a depth of about 20 km. Geologically the Complex is a rhythmically layered elongated ultramafic-mafic lopolith divisible into 4 major zones each comprising repeated sequences of troctolitic, gabbroic and anorthositic rocks. An idealised unit of layering is from base upwards: dunite, troctolite, olivine-gabbro, leuco-gabbro, gabbro-norite and anorthosite cumulates. 40Ar-39Ar age spectra and 40Ar/36Ar versus 39Ar/36Ar isochron plots obtained by stepwise-heating experiments on plagioclases, biotites and amphiboles from troctolites, olivine-gabbros, gabbro-norites and anorthosites of the four zones yield plateau and isochron ages that seem to depict the cooling history of the Complex after emplacement. The biotites and some of the plagioclases and amphiboles give very good plateaus that range from 196.3 ± 3 Ma to 232.1 ± 9 Ma with the best-fit isochron plots showing a range from 193.3± 10 Ma to 234.1 ± 11 Ma. Because these dates represent cooling ages, we interpret them as representing a minimum intrusion-age of the Complex implying that its true emplacement age might be somewhat older than 230 Ma. Given that most established CAMP ages revolve around 200 Ma or younger, we hypothesise that FLIC represents a hitherto unknown pre-CAMP magmatic event that might have thermally triggered the initial break-up of Pangaea to form the Central Atlantic. This view is consistent with field-observations that the Complex is cross-cut by predominantly coast-parallel mafic dykes attributed to the CAMP dyke-swarm. To ascertain the hypothesis, we are currently carrying out U-Pb zircon dating to establish, precisely, the true emplacement age of the Complex. The Fission-track ages vary from 91.7 ± 7 Ma to 114.6 ± 9 Ma. This age range shows that after emplacement and crystallisation, the FLIC underwent an extremely slow cooling for a long period of time. This in turn implies that after the break-up of Pangea to form, in part, the Sierra Leone margin, a late and slow uplift (Erosion/denudation) that took place during the Cretaceous was a very important geological process that characterised the post-rift evolution of the margin. References: Barrie, I.J., P.A.M. Andriessen, F.F. Beunk, J.R. Wijbrans, V.E.H. Strasser-King, D.V.A.Fode. (2006). Tectonothermal Evolution of the Sierra Leone Passive Continental Margin, West Africa: Constraints from Thermochronology. Geochemica et Cosmochemica Acta 70 (18): A36- A36 Suppl. S Aug-Sep 2006. Marzoli, A., P.R. Renne, E.M. Piccirillo, M. Ernesto, G. Bellieni, A De Min. (1999). Extensive 200-Million-Year-Old Continental Flood Basalts of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. Science284: 616-618. McHone, J.G. (2000). Non-plume magmatism and rifting during the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. Tectonophysics, 316: 287-296. Umeji, A.C. (1983). Geochemistry and Mineralogy of the Freetown Layered Basic Igneous Complex of Sierra Leone. Chemical Geology, 39: 17-38. Wells, M.K. (1962). Structure and Petrology of the Freetown Layered Basic Complex of Sierra Leone. Overseas Geol. Mineral. Res. Bull. Suppl., 4, 115 pp. Williams, H.R. (1986). The Archaean Kaila Group of Western Sierra Leone: Geology and Relations with adjacent Granite-Greenstone Terrane. Precambrian Research, 38: 201-213.

  6. Thermal Tracking of Sports Players

    PubMed Central

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline multi-target tracking algorithm. Experiments are performed on a manually annotated 2-minutes video sequence of a real soccer game. The Kalman filter shows a very promising result on this rather challenging sequence with a tracking accuracy above 70% and is superior compared with the offline tracking approach. Furthermore, the combined detection and tracking algorithm runs in real time at 33 fps, even with large image sizes of 1920 × 480 pixels. PMID:25076219

  7. Laser-Based Pedestrian Tracking in Outdoor Environments by Multiple Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Masataka; Kakimuma, Kei; Hashimoto, Masafumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an outdoors laser-based pedestrian tracking system using a group of mobile robots located near each other. Each robot detects pedestrians from its own laser scan image using an occupancy-grid-based method, and the robot tracks the detected pedestrians via Kalman filtering and global-nearest-neighbor (GNN)-based data association. The tracking data is broadcast to multiple robots through intercommunication and is combined using the covariance intersection (CI) method. For pedestrian tracking, each robot identifies its own posture using real-time-kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS) and laser scan matching. Using our cooperative tracking method, all the robots share the tracking data with each other; hence, individual robots can always recognize pedestrians that are invisible to any other robot. The simulation and experimental results show that cooperating tracking provides the tracking performance better than conventional individual tracking does. Our tracking system functions in a decentralized manner without any central server, and therefore, this provides a degree of scalability and robustness that cannot be achieved by conventional centralized architectures. PMID:23202171

  8. 49 CFR 213.63 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Track surface. 213.63 Section 213.63..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.63 Track surface. Each owner of the track to which this part applies shall maintain the surface of its track within the limits prescribed...

  9. 49 CFR 213.63 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Track surface. 213.63 Section 213.63..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.63 Track surface. Each owner of the track to which this part applies shall maintain the surface of its track within the limits prescribed...

  10. Hierarchical fringe tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Romain G.; Elhalkouj, Thami; Boskri, Abdelkarim; Folcher, Jean-Pierre; Lagarde, Stéphane; Bresson, Yves; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Lazrek, Mohamed; Rakshit, Suvendu

    2014-07-01

    The limiting magnitude is a key issue for optical interferometry. Pairwise fringe trackers based on the integrated optics concepts used for example in GRAVITY seem limited to about K=10.5 with the 8m Unit Telescopes of the VLTI, and there is a general "common sense" statement that the efficiency of fringe tracking, and hence the sensitivity of optical interferometry, must decrease as the number of apertures increases, at least in the near infrared where we are still limited by detector readout noise. Here we present a Hierarchical Fringe Tracking (HFT) concept with sensitivity at least equal to this of a two apertures fringe trackers. HFT is based of the combination of the apertures in pairs, then in pairs of pairs then in pairs of groups… The key HFT module is a device that behaves like a spatial filter for two telescopes (2TSF) and transmits all or most of the flux of a cophased pair in a single mode beam. We give an example of such an achromatic 2TSF, based on very broadband dispersed fringes analyzed by grids, and show that it allows piston measures from very broadband fringes with only 3 to 5 pixels per fringe tracker. We show the results of numerical simulation indicating that our device is a good achromatic spatial filter and allowing a first evaluation of its coupling efficiency, which is similar to this of a single mode fiber on a single aperture. Our very preliminary results indicate that HFT has a good chance to be a serious candidate for the most sensitive fringe tracking with the VLTI and also interferometers with much larger number of apertures. On the VLTI the first rough estimate of the magnitude gain with regard to the GRAVITY internal FT is between 2.5 and 3.5 magnitudes in K, with a decisive impact on the VLTI science program for AGNs, Young stars and planet forming disks.

  11. Satellite Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Researchers at the Center for Aerospace Sciences of the University of North Dakota (UND), Grand Forks, used three NASA Computer programs (SANDTRACKS, ODG, NORAD) to develop a Satellite Tracking System for real time utilization of TIROS weather/environment satellite information. SANDTRACKS computes the satellite's position relative to the Earth. ODG allows plotting a view of Earth as seen by the satellite. NORAD computes sight direction, visibility times and maximum elevation angle during each orbit. With the system, UND's Earth System Science Institute will be able to routinely monitor agricultural and environmental conditions of the Northern Plains.

  12. Tracking the GLOMR satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss, Keith W.; Oneil, Jason C.

    1987-01-01

    The task of day-to-day low orbiting satellite tracking utilizing the NAVSPASUR orbital elements is discussed and methods for improving pass time predictions are presented. Estimates are needed for preprogramming of satellite-initiated communications scheduling which requires an accuracy of approximately 30 seconds. This can be achieved by removing the variance associated with the NAVSPASUR D sub 2 (decay) term. Finally, the shock evidenced in GLOMR's orbit on February 7, 1986 is documented and attributed to a severe solar storm with immediately enhanced drag. GLOMR's life expectancy in orbit is now estimated to have dropped approximately 17% by the end of orbit in early February, 1987.

  13. Tracking disease outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Scientists have come one step closer to tracking outbreaks of bartonellosis, a potentially fatal vector-borne disease. Outbreaks of the disease, which was once thought to be found primarily in the high Andes Mountains of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia, may be related to El Ni˜no events, according to researchers with NASA and the U.S. military.In findings reported on 17 January, climatology and disease prevention researchers said a study conducted in two regions in Peru points to a strong potential link between the 1997-1998 El Niño and an increase in sand flies, which are thought to be the disease host carriers.

  14. Tracking with the LHCb spectrometer: Detector performance and track reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuning, N.; LHCb Collaboration

    2007-10-01

    The LHCb experiment aims to measure CP violation and rare B-decays. For this, a tracking system is constructed consisting of a silicon micro-strip vertex locator close to the interaction point, and tracking detectors around a dipole magnet. The resulting tracking performance is estimated from simulation to yield 95% efficiency. The momentum and impact parameter resolutions vary between 0.35% and 0.5%, and 20 and 160 μm, respectively.

  15. Putting Off-Track Youths Back on Track to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Adria; Allen, Lili

    2011-01-01

    Back on Track, developed by Jobs for the Future, is a design for schools to not only re-engage off-track and out-of-school youths to graduate from high school, but also to put them on a clear, supported path to a college education. Two schools that have combined Back on Track with the early college model, in which students can earn both a high…

  16. Putting Off-Track Youths Back on Track to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Adria; Allen, Lili

    2011-01-01

    Back on Track, developed by Jobs for the Future, is a design for schools to not only re-engage off-track and out-of-school youths to graduate from high school, but also to put them on a clear, supported path to a college education. Two schools that have combined Back on Track with the early college model, in which students can earn both a high

  17. Missile tracking and range safety: Tracking Interferometer Pathfinder System (TIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowgiallo, David J.; Rauen, Stephen; Peters, Wendy M.; Polisensky, Emil J.

    2013-05-01

    The tracking of missiles at close range proximity has been an ongoing challenge for many launch environments. The ability to provide accurate missile trajectory information is imperative for range safety and early termination of flight. In an effort to provide a potential solution to tracking issues that have plagued many traditional techniques, the Tracking Interferometer Pathfinder System (TIPS) was developed at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. The paper herein describes the design, field test, and results of an interferometer deployed for missile tracking.

  18. Poor man"s missile tracking technology: thermal IR detection and tracking of bats in flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, Riley E.; Sabol, Bruce M.; Sherman, Alison

    2005-05-01

    Thermal infrared target detection and tracking has challenging and useful applications outside of military scenarios. A digital image processing technique is described for the detection and tracking of free flying bats. Uncalibrated video-rate thermal imagery from a stationary FPA micro-bolometric IR imager is captured on 8-bit digital media. Sequential frames are differenced to remove stationary clutter, and thresholded to select pixels outside of the central distribution of differenced pixel values (both positive and negative). Moving objects then appear as pairs of pixel clusters of differing contrast polarity. For the typical case of a warm bat against a cool background, a pixel cluster exceeding the positive threshold indicates a target location in the current frame and corresponding pixel cluster below the negative threshold indicates the target"s location in the previous frame. These location pairs define a motion vector that is updated every frame. Using the updated motion vector, the next position of the bat is predicted. If a similar-sized pixel cluster of the correct polarity is found at this predicted location, within a selectable error tolerance, then a track is established. This process is iterated frame-by-frame generating an output file of individual bat tracks. This process is described in detail and data are presented from an imaging survey of a bat emergence containing several thousand bats.

  19. Cassini Archive Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, Diane; Sayfi, Elias; Tinio, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    The Cassini Archive Tracking System (CATS) is a computer program that enables tracking of scientific data transfers from originators to the Planetary Data System (PDS) archives. Without CATS, there is no systematic means of locating products in the archive process or ensuring their completeness. By keeping a database of transfer communications and status, CATS enables the Cassini Project and the PDS to efficiently and accurately report on archive status. More importantly, problem areas are easily identified through customized reports that can be generated on the fly from any Web-enabled computer. A Web-browser interface and clearly defined authorization scheme provide safe distributed access to the system, where users can perform functions such as create customized reports, record a transfer, and respond to a transfer. CATS ensures that Cassini provides complete science archives to the PDS on schedule and that those archives are available to the science community by the PDS. The three-tier architecture is loosely coupled and designed for simple adaptation to multimission use. Written in the Java programming language, it is portable and can be run on any Java-enabled Web server.

  20. Chemical cloud tracking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grim, Larry B.; Gruber, Thomas C., Jr.; Marshall, Martin; Rowland, Brad

    2002-02-01

    This paper describes the Chemical Cloud Tracking System (CCTS) which has been installed at Dugway Proving Ground. The CCTS allows mapping of chemical clouds in real time from a safe standoff distance. The instruments used are passive standoff chemical agent detectors (FTIRs). Each instrument individually can only measure the total of all the chemical in its line-of-site; the distance to the cloud is unknown. By merging data from multiple vantage points (either one instrument moving past the cloud or two or more instruments spaced so as to view the cloud from different directions) a map of the cloud locations can be generated using tomography. To improve the sensitivity and accuracy of the cloud map, chemical point sensors can be added to the sensor array being used. The equipment required for the CCTS is commercially available. Also, the data fusion techniques (tomography) have been demonstrated previously in the medical field. The Chemical Cloud Tracking System can monitor the movement of many chemical clouds of either military or industrial origin. Since the technique is standoff, the personnel are not exposed to toxic hazards while they follow the cloud. Also, the equipment works on-the-move which allows rapid response to emergency situations (plant explosions, tanker car accidents, chemical terrorism, etc.).

  1. NORAD satellite tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Joseph J. F.

    1987-01-01

    NORAD routinely tracks about 6000 orbiting objects. During the last 30 days of orbital time, prior to reentry, special perturbations are used in the orbital update procedure. Besides routine orbit determination, NORAD does special tasks such as predicting satellite orbit conjunctions within 20 km, ephimerides of weather satellites, satellite decay predictions and other studies. Since their mission is operational, they do not store the data from their analyses. The ballistic coefficient is not known for most of the orbiting objects. If a ballistic coefficient were derived that was consistent with one density model, it might give erroneous results if used with a different density model. Given the ballistic coefficient, density values could, in principle, be obtained from their tracking data. The densities would represent an integrated mean over the orbital path near perigee. They would be model dependent and would not necessarily represent the real density. In summary, the primary need is for reliable forecasts of solar flux (F10.7) and geomagnetic activity (Ap) in the 1 to 4 week time scale. Forecasts over longer time spans would also be useful for special projects.

  2. Automated call tracking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, C.

    1993-03-01

    User Services groups are on the front line with user support. We are the first to hear about problems. The speed, accuracy, and intelligence with which we respond determines the user`s perception of our effectiveness and our commitment to quality and service. To keep pace with the complex changes at our sites, we must have tools to help build a knowledge base of solutions, a history base of our users, and a record of every problem encountered. Recently, I completed a survey of twenty sites similar to the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC). This informal survey reveals that 27% of the sites use a paper system to log calls, 60% employ homegrown automated call tracking systems, and 13% use a vendor-supplied system. Fifty-four percent of those using homegrown systems are exploring the merits of switching to a vendor-supplied system. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines for evaluating a call tracking system. In addition, insights are provided to assist User Services groups in selecting a system that fits their needs.

  3. Integrated Management Tracking System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-03-30

    The Integrated Management Tracking System (IMTS) is a "Web Enabled" Client/Server Business application that provides for the Identification and Resolution of commitments, situations, events and problems. The IMTS engine is written with Microsoft Active Server Pages (ASP) for IIS4. The system provides for reporting, entering, editing, closing and administration over a Intranet, Extranet or Internet. This Application facilitates: Electronic assignment, acceptance and tracking to completion. Email notifications of assigned action. Establishment of Due Dates. Electronicmore » search and retrieval based on keywords in combination with user specified database parameters (Document Type, Date Ranges, etc.). Coded for Trending and Reporting. User selected reports. Various levels of access for reports and administration. The "Server" side of this application consists of a Microsoft Access database running on a NT Server with Internet Information Server (IIS). As the "Client" side of the application runs on any Web browser, this solution is a cost effective, user friendly application that lends itself to organizations not physically colocated in one location providing information immediately available to everyone at once.« less

  4. Integrated Management Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Terrance

    2000-03-30

    The Integrated Management Tracking System (IMTS) is a "Web Enabled" Client/Server Business application that provides for the Identification and Resolution of commitments, situations, events and problems. The IMTS engine is written with Microsoft Active Server Pages (ASP) for IIS4. The system provides for reporting, entering, editing, closing and administration over a Intranet, Extranet or Internet. This Application facilitates: Electronic assignment, acceptance and tracking to completion. Email notifications of assigned action. Establishment of Due Dates. Electronic search and retrieval based on keywords in combination with user specified database parameters (Document Type, Date Ranges, etc.). Coded for Trending and Reporting. User selected reports. Various levels of access for reports and administration. The "Server" side of this application consists of a Microsoft Access database running on a NT Server with Internet Information Server (IIS). As the "Client" side of the application runs on any Web browser, this solution is a cost effective, user friendly application that lends itself to organizations not physically colocated in one location providing information immediately available to everyone at once.

  5. Hybrid Computed Order Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossley, K. M.; McKendrick, R. J.; Harris, C. J.; Mercer, C.

    1999-07-01

    Vibration analysis is an integral part of modern condition monitoring and fault diagnosis systems for rotating machinery. Orders (cycles per revolution) are used as a frequency base for this analysis, thus making speed-related vibrations easier to detect. Fundamental to the performance of such systems is the accuracy and reliability of the required synchronously sampled vibration data. In this paper, the accuracy of three different synchronous sampling schemes are studied: a traditional hardware solution, computed order tracking and a hybrid of the two. Run-ups and run-downs are of particular interest in condition monitoring systems as they highlight many shaft defects. Also, because of the sometimes rapid shaft speed changes, this is just where the traditional approaches to producing synchronous sampling are prone to producing erroneous results. The three methods are assessed on data produced from a simulation of the rundown of a gas turbine shaft, typical to those found in the power industry. The use of this simulation allows the true accuracy of the techniques to be accessed, and inadequacies of traditional methods are clearly highlighted. The different sampling schemes rely on various interpolation algorithms. The accuracy and reliability of these algorithms is fundamental to the performance of the different sampling schemes, and hence a survey of the state-of-the-art interpolation algorithms is presented. This ensures that the most appropriate algorithms are identified, and as a result the novel computed order tracking technique introduced in this paper is shown to produce superior results.

  6. 1. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Co., Central ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Co., Central Furnace Works -- Sketch of Plant Showing Tracks & Buildings, 1913, Revised 3/10/31.' Drawing courtesy United States Steel Corporation, Lorain, Ohio. Credit Berni Rich, Score Photographs, August 1979, for photos 1 through 4 and 7 through 11. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. REC Tracking Systems Design Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith Wingate

    2004-02-03

    OAK-B135 The Design Guide is presented in three parts. Section II describes the need for REC tracking, the two principal tracking methods available, and, in simple terms, the operation of certificate-based systems. Section III presents the major issues in the design of certificate-based tracking systems and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of alternative solutions. Finally, Section IV offers design principles or recommendations for most of these issues.

  8. Central hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vishal; Lee, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Central hypothyroidism is defined as hypothyroidism due to insufficient stimulation by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) of an otherwise normal thyroid gland. It has an estimated prevalence of approximately 1 in 80,000 to 1 in 120,000. It can be secondary hypothyroidism (pituitary) or tertiary hypothyroidism (hypothalamus) in origin. In children, it is usually caused by craniopharyngiomas or previous cranial irradiation for brain tumors or hematological malignancies. In adults, it is usually due to pituitary macroadenomas, pituitary surgeries or post-irradiation. Fatigue and peripheral edema are the most specific clinical features. Diagnosis is established by the presence of normal to low-normal TSH on the background of low-normal thyroid hormones, confirmed by the thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test. Therapy includes use of levothyroxine titrated to improvement in symptomology and keeping free T4 in the upper limit of normal reference range. PMID:21966662

  9. WE-D-BRF-01: FEATURED PRESENTATION - Investigating Particle Track Structures Using Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors and Monte Carlo Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dowdell, S; Paganetti, H; Schuemann, J; Greilich, S; Zimmerman, F; Evans, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To report on the efforts funded by the AAPM seed funding grant to develop the basis for fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD) based radiobiological experiments in combination with dedicated Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) on the nanometer scale. Methods: Two confocal microscopes were utilized in this study. Two FNTD samples were used to find the optimal microscope settings, one FNTD irradiated with 11.1 MeV/u Gold ions and one irradiated with 428.77 MeV/u Carbon ions. The first sample provided a brightly luminescent central track while the latter is used to test the capabilities to observe secondary electrons. MCS were performed using TOPAS beta9 version, layered on top of Geant4.9.6p02. Two sets of simulations were performed, one with the Geant4-DNA physics list and approximating the FNTDs by water, a second set using the Penelope physics list in a water-approximated FNTD and a aluminum-oxide FNTD. Results: Within the first half of the funding period, we have successfully established readout capabilities of FNTDs at our institute. Due to technical limitations, our microscope setup is significantly different from the approach implemented at the DKFZ, Germany. However, we can clearly reconstruct Carbon tracks in 3D with electron track resolution of 200 nm. A second microscope with superior readout capabilities will be tested in the second half of the funding period, we expect an improvement in signal to background ratio with the same the resolution.We have successfully simulated tracks in FNTDs. The more accurate Geant4-DNA track simulations can be used to reconstruct the track energy from the size and brightness of the observed tracks. Conclusion: We have achieved the goals set in the seed funding proposal: the setup of FNTD readout and simulation capabilities. We will work on improving the readout resolution to validate our MCS track structures down to the nanometer scales.

  10. Solar Array Tracking Control

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-06-22

    SolarTrak used in conjunction with various versions of 68HC11-based SolarTrack hardware boards provides control system for one or two axis solar tracking arrays. Sun position is computed from stored position data and time from an on-board clock/calendar chip. Position feedback can be by one or two offset motor turn counter square wave signals per axis, or by a position potentiometer. A limit of 256 counts resolution is imposed by the on-board analog to digital (A/D)more » convertor. Control is provided for one or two motors. Numerous options are provided to customize the controller for specific applications. Some options are imposed at compile time, some are setable during operation. Software and hardware board designs are provided for Control Board and separate User Interface Board that accesses and displays variables from Control Board. Controller can be used with range of sensor options ranging from a single turn count sensor per motor to systems using dual turn-count sensors, limit sensors, and a zero reference sensor. Dual axis trackers oriented azimuth elevation, east west, north south, or polar declination can be controlled. Misalignments from these orientations can also be accommodated. The software performs a coordinate transformation using six parameters to compute sun position in misaligned coordinates of the tracker. Parameters account for tilt of tracker in two directions, rotation about each axis, and gear ration errors in each axis. The software can even measure and compute these prameters during an initial setup period if current from a sun position sensor or output from photovoltaic array is available as an anlog voltage to the control board''s A/D port. Wind or emergency stow to aj present position is available triggered by digital or analog signals. Night stow is also available. Tracking dead band is adjustable from narrow to wide. Numerous features of the hardware and software conserve energy for use with battery powered systems.« less

  11. Silicon vertex tracker: a fast precise tracking trigger for CDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashmanskas, W.; Bardi, A.; Bari, M.; Belforte, S.; Berryhill, J.; Bogdan, M.; Cerri, A.; Clark, A. G.; Chlanchidze, G.; Condorelli, R.; Culbertson, R.; Dell'Orso, M.; Donati, S.; Frisch, H. J.; Galeotti, S.; Giannetti, P.; Glagolev, V.; Leger, A.; Meschi, E.; Morsani, F.; Nakaya, T.; Punzi, G.; Ristori, L.; Sanders, H.; Semenov, A.; Signorelli, G.; Shochet, M.; Speer, T.; Spinella, F.; Wilson, P.; Wu, Xin; Zanetti, A. M.

    2000-06-01

    The Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT), currently being built for the CDF II experiment, is a hardware device that reconstructs 2-D tracks online using measurements from the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVXII) and the Central Outer Tracker (COT). The precise measurement of the impact parameter of the SVT tracks will allow, for the first time in a hadron collider environment, to trigger on events containing B hadrons that are very important for many studies, such as CP violation in the b sector and searching for new heavy particles decaying to b b¯ . In this report we describe the overall architecture, algorithms and the hardware implementation of the SVT.

  12. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over timemore » can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.« less

  13. Faculty achievement tracking tool.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Sarah; Reifschneider, Ellen; Burruss, Nancy

    2009-03-01

    Faculty development and scholarship is an expectation of nurse educators. Accrediting institutions, such as the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, and the Higher Learning Commission, all have criteria regarding faculty achievement. A faculty achievement tracking tool (FATT) was developed to facilitate documentation of accreditation criteria attainment. Based on criteria from accrediting organizations, the roles that are addressed include scholarship, service, and practice. Definitions and benchmarks for the faculty as an aggregate are included. Undergoing reviews from different accrediting organizations, the FATT has been used once for accreditation of the undergraduate program and once for accreditation of the graduate program. The FATT is easy to use and has become an excellent adjunct for the preparation for accreditation reports. In addition, the FATT may be used for yearly evaluations, advancement, and merit. PMID:19297967

  14. Tracking harmonic notch filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emo, Frederick L.

    1990-07-01

    Disclosed in this patent is an electronic filter for automatically tracking and removing harmonically related interfering electrical signals such as power line interference harmonics without attenuating other signals of interest even though the signals are frequency stable and/or near the interference signal frequencies. The filter comprises a very narrow band electronic commutated capacitor-bank comb-notch filter driven by a counter/decoder circuit which is in turn driven by a phase locked loop. The filter also comprises two narrow band analog filters tuned to the two lowest harmonics of the interfering signal and drives the comb-notch at unit multiples of the fundamental of the interference frequency. This action is continuous such that center frequencies of the notches are automatically adjusted to compensate for small variations in the interference frequency.

  15. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, Jr., James S.

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over time can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.

  16. Recognition of ships for long-term tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; Bouma, Henri; Veerman, Henny E. T.; Benoist, Koen W.; den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Schwering, Piet B. W.

    2014-06-01

    Long-term tracking is important for maritime situational awareness to identify currently observed ships as earlier encounters. In cases of, for example, piracy and smuggling, past location and behavior analysis are useful to determine whether a ship is of interest. Furthermore, it is beneficial to make this assessment with sensors (such as cameras) at a distance, to avoid costs of bringing an own asset closer to the ship for verification. The emphasis of the research presented in this paper, is on the use of several feature extraction and matching methods for recognizing ships from electro-optical imagery within different categories of vessels. We compared central moments, SIFT with localization and SIFT with Fisher Vectors. From the evaluation on imagery of ships, an indication of discriminative power is obtained between and within different categories of ships. This is used to assess the usefulness in persistent tracking, from short intervals (track improvement) to larger intervals (re-identifying ships). The result of this assessment on real data is used in a simulation environment to determine how track continuity is improved. The simulations showed that even limited recognition will improve tracking, connecting both tracks at short intervals as well as over several days.

  17. Robust, Distributed Target Tracking Using Sensor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neema, Kartavya

    Distributed target tracking using sensor networks is crucial for supporting a variety of applications such as battlefield monitoring, weather monitoring, and air traffic management. This dissertation presents a problem formulation and solution approach for distributed target tracking, comprising of sensor fusion and sensor target allocation problems, in the presence of faults in the sensor measurements. There are times when an architecture with central node is preferred but other times when distributed is necessary, we seek a distributed case that can approach the attractive features of centralized case. Therefore, we propose that the underlying two-fold goals of the distributed target tracking problem is to: (1) reach a consensus in the allocation decisions across the sensor network, and (2) achieve a consensus in the state estimates across all the sensors in the network. These goals ensure that each sensor node has the same information across the sensor network, and any node can behave as a central node. In the process of achieving our goals, we develop two new algorithms, one for distributed sensor-target allocation and another for distributed sensor fusion. The Dual Phase Consensus Algorithm (DPCA) for distributed sensor target allocation is a real time algorithm that works in two phases. The first phase of DPCA is similar to distributed sequential greedy search that combines the benefits of greedy and consensus algorithms to reach a feasible solution. The second phase iteratively improves the allocation eventually leading toward a global optimum. DPCA converges to a feasible solution at the order of number of sensors, and thus can be useful for implementation in real time systems. For distributed sensor fusion, we extend the state-of-art distributed Kalman filtering technique called Generalized Kalman Consensus Filter (GKCF), and make it robust against faults present in the sensor measurements. We particularly focus on two types of faults: (1) outliers in the sensor measurements, and (2) unknown change in covariance of the sensor measurements. A combination of analytical and hardware redundancy techniques are used to detect and mitigate the effects of faults. Analytical redundancy is based on generating residues (difference between measured and estimated output) that are sensitive to the presence of particular type of faults, whereas hardware redundancy detects faults by the comparison of the same measurement via two different hardwares (sensors for our case). Using these two techniques, a new algorithm called Robust Generalized Kalman Filter (RGKCF) is developed that achieves a consensus in the state estimates across the sensor network in the presence of faults. Finally, we propose a combination of two algorithms, DPCA and RGKCF, to solve the problem of robust, distributed target tracking. RGKCF helps the sensor to move toward a consensus in the state estimates in the presence of faults in the sensor measurements, and DPCA achieves a consensus in the allocation decisions. Using simulation results, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach to satisfy our two-fold goals, and also compare it with a centralized approach. We further show that the distributed approach is sensitive to network topology and suggest network diameter as a measure to provide guideline to architect a sensor network for diverse distributed target tracking applications.

  18. Tenure Track Investigator Committee (TTIC)

    Cancer.gov

    Tenure Track Investigator Index Click here to view the Tenure-Track Investigator (TTI) Index  page. If your name is not listed on this index; please contact Ave Cline so that she can set up a Web site for you. Updating Your Web siteYour NIH login will all

  19. Learning to track multiple targets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Tao, Dacheng; Song, Mingli; Zhang, Luming; Bu, Jiajun; Chen, Chun

    2015-05-01

    Monocular multiple-object tracking is a fundamental yet under-addressed computer vision problem. In this paper, we propose a novel learning framework for tracking multiple objects by detection. First, instead of heuristically defining a tracking algorithm, we learn that a discriminative structure prediction model from labeled video data captures the interdependence of multiple influence factors. Given the joint targets state from the last time step and the observation at the current frame, the joint targets state at the current time step can then be inferred by maximizing the joint probability score. Second, our detection results benefit from tracking cues. The traditional detection algorithms need a nonmaximal suppression postprocessing to select a subset from the total detection responses as the final output and a large number of selection mistakes are induced, especially under a congested circumstance. Our method integrates both detection and tracking cues. This integration helps to decrease the postprocessing mistake risk and to improve performance in tracking. Finally, we formulate the entire model training into a convex optimization problem and estimate its parameters using the cutting plane optimization. Experiments show that our method performs effectively in a large variety of scenarios, including pedestrian tracking in crowd scenes and vehicle tracking in congested traffic. PMID:25051561

  20. Tenure Track Investigator Committee (TTIC)

    Cancer.gov

    Welcome to the Tenure Track Investigator (TTI) Community! The NCI Tenure-Track Investigator Committee (TTIC) is a peer-support organization for all NCI TTIs. Our goal is to help you build a strong research program and successfully navigate the tenure proc

  1. Tenure Track Investigator Committee (TTIC)

    Cancer.gov

    To ensure that you receive all e-mail messages that are important to CCR tenure-track investigator as well as messages that are sent out to all CCR principal investigators, you must first be added to 2 CCR listservs: CCR Tenure-Track Investigator listserv

  2. Retention Tracking Using Institutional Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillibridge, Fred

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents a sophisticated approach for tracking student cohorts from entry through departure within an institution. It describes how a researcher can create a student tracking model to perform longitudinal research on student cohorts. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.)

  3. Space tracking in the Army

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Johnson

    1992-03-01

    The Tracking, Command, Control, and Communications (TRACC3) system, which is developed to evaluate the tracking approach to managing the flow of logistics on a global scale, is described. TRACC3 is an autonomous system that transmits its location periodically through INMARSAT. The TRACC3 system consists of three interrelated segments: the space and ground segments, and the monitor station.

  4. Airborne ballistic camera tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redish, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    An operational airborne ballistic camera tracking system was tested for operational and data reduction feasibility. The acquisition and data processing requirements of the system are discussed. Suggestions for future improvements are also noted. A description of the data reduction mathematics is outlined. Results from a successful reentry test mission are tabulated. The test mission indicated that airborne ballistic camera tracking systems are feasible.

  5. Making Sense of Dinosaur Tracks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Ann Haley; McDowell, Brian

    2012-01-01

    What do paleontologists, dinosaur tracks, and the nature of science have in common? They're combined here in an inquiry activity where students use methods of observation and inference to devise evidence-based explanations for the data they collect about dinosaur tracks, much like the methods used by paleontologists. Students then debate the…

  6. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  7. Multiple vehicle detection and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betke, Margrit; Haritaoglu, Ismail; Davis, Larry S.

    1997-02-01

    A hard real time vision system has been developed that recognizes and tracks multiple cars from video sequences taken from a car driving on highways and country roads. Recognition is accomplished by combining the analysis of single image frames with the analysis of the motion information provided by multiple consecutive image frames. In single image frames, cars are recognized by matching deformable gray-scale templates, by detecting image features, such as corners, and by evaluating how these features relate to each other. Cars are also recognized by tracking motion parameters that are typical for cars. The vision system utilizes the hard real-time operating system Maruti which guarantees that the timing constraints on the various vision processes are satisfied. The dynamic creation and termination of tracking processes optimizes the amount of computational resources spent and allows fast detection and tracking of multiple cars. Experimental results demonstrate robust, real-time recognition and tracking over thousands of image frames.

  8. A Laser Scanning Tracking Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gaoyue; Hu, Baoli; Wang, Jiangping

    1988-04-01

    In this paper, a new tracking approach, a laser scanning tracking method (LSTM) is proposed. The LSTM has been designed to track a cylindrical retroreflective target mounted on the object, which makes plane motion. The retroreflector pasted by scotchlite reflective sheeting (mad. in 3M ,0.) i s located by scanning a laser beam in holizontal. When the retroreflector is struck, its position that is azimuth is read by microcomputer and the aiming device is servocontrolled by microcomputer according to this azimuth immediately. This is a step-by-step tracking method. The time of servo-reponse is less than one millisecona in actual tests. The angular accuracy is less than 0.5 milliradian. The track angular velocity is greater than one radian/second.

  9. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  10. Constant magnification optical tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, R. E. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A constant magnification optical tracking system for continuously tracking of a moving object is described. In the tracking system, a traveling objective lens maintains a fixed relationship with an object to be optically tracked. The objective lens was chosen to provide a collimated light beam oriented in the direction of travel of the moving object. A reflective surface is attached to the traveling objective lens for reflecting an image of the moving object. The object to be tracked is a free-falling object which is located at the focal point of the objective lens for at least a portion of its free-fall path. A motor and control means is provided for mantaining the traveling objective lens in a fixed relationship relative to the free-falling object, thereby keeping the free-falling object at the focal point and centered on the axis of the traveling objective lens throughout its entire free-fall path.

  11. Use of EEG to track visual attention in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Robert Alan

    This thesis investigates the use of EEG to track the spatial locus of covert, visual attention. Three experiments are described that were to detect the position of visual attention as it was deployed towards targets as they appeared. The first experiment uses flickering fields placed in the periphery of the visual field to induce SSVEPs, to be used to track the position of attention which varies horizontally between them. The flickers failed to produce significant SSVEP activity. However attention locus could still able to be tracked by endogenous lateralizations of 12Hz and 18Hz activity. A second experiment was then designed to track attention locus as it varied either horizontally or vertically using only endogenous EEG activity in the alpha (10Hz), low-beta (18Hz), high-beta (24Hz) and gamma (36Hz) bands. Tracking proved successful in all but a small number of subjects. Horizontally varying attention was associated with lateralizations of the alpha band and low-beta band, while vertically varying attention was associated with varying alpha band and low-beta band activity in the occipito-parietal junction over the central sulcus. A third experiment was then performed to track attention locus as it varied in two dimensions. Using a combination of the features found to be informative in the second experiment, tracking proved successful in up to nine bins of two-dimensional visual space. Tracking in either the horizontal or vertical dimension was also successful when attention varied in two dimensions. The success of this method shows that EEG can be used to passively detect the spatial position of attention, at varying degrees of position, as a person attends to objects they see.

  12. Teacher's Guide for Tracks. Elementary Science Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, David; And Others

    This teacher's guide suggests activities that provide opportunities for students in grades 4-6 to study animal tracks. Methods are explained for using sets of 52 Track Cards which show life-size drawings of tracks made by 14 animals; sets of 10 large Mystery Track Cards with life-size drawings of the prints of large mammals; and a Track Picture…

  13. 49 CFR 213.331 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Track surface. 213.331 Section 213.331... Track surface. (a) For a single deviation in track surface, each owner of the track to which this subpart applies shall maintain the surface of its track within the limits prescribed in the...

  14. 49 CFR 213.331 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Track surface. 213.331 Section 213.331... Track surface. (a) For a single deviation in track surface, each owner of the track to which this subpart applies shall maintain the surface of its track within the limits prescribed in the...

  15. 77 FR 33560 - Woodland Rail, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Line of Maine Central Railroad Co.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Woodland Rail, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Line of Maine... Line) from Maine Central Railroad Co. The Line is approximately 11.83 track miles in length, with approximately 6.75 track miles located in Maine, and approximately 5.08 track miles located in New...

  16. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors--I: Track Characteristics and Formation Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lal, Nand

    1991-01-01

    Heavily ionizing charged particles produce radiation damage tracks in a wide variety of insulating materials. The experimental properties of these tracks and track recorders are described. The mechanisms by which the tracks are produced are discussed. (Author/KR)

  17. Tracking Earthquake Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    In assessing their risk to society, earthquakes are best characterized as cascades that can propagate from the natural environment into the socio-economic (built) environment. Strong earthquakes rarely occur as isolated events; they usually cluster in foreshock-mainshock-aftershock sequences, seismic swarms, and extended sequences of large earthquakes that propagate along major fault systems. These cascades are regulated by stress-mediated interactions among faults driven by tectonic loading. Within these cascades, each large event can itself cause a chain reaction in which the primary effects of faulting and ground shaking induce secondary effects, including tsunami, landslides, liquefaction, and set off destructive processes within the built environment, such as fires and radiation leakage from nuclear plants. Recent earthquakes have demonstrated how the socio-economic effects of large earthquakes can reverberate for many years. To reduce earthquake risk and improve the resiliency of communities to earthquake damage, society depends on five geotechnologies for tracking earthquake cascades: long-term probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), short-term (operational) earthquake forecasting, earthquake early warning, tsunami warning, and the rapid production of post-event information for response and recovery (see figure). In this presentation, I describe how recent advances in earthquake system science are leading to improvements in this geotechnology pipeline. In particular, I will highlight the role of earthquake simulations in predicting strong ground motions and their secondary effects before and during earthquake cascades

  18. Fluorescent image tracking velocimeter

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    A multiple-exposure fluorescent image tracking velocimeter (FITV) detects and measures the motion (trajectory, direction and velocity) of small particles close to light scattering surfaces. The small particles may follow the motion of a carrier medium such as a liquid, gas or multi-phase mixture, allowing the motion of the carrier medium to be observed, measured and recorded. The main components of the FITV include: (1) fluorescent particles; (2) a pulsed fluorescent excitation laser source; (3) an imaging camera; and (4) an image analyzer. FITV uses fluorescing particles excited by visible laser light to enhance particle image detectability near light scattering surfaces. The excitation laser light is filtered out before reaching the imaging camera allowing the fluoresced wavelengths emitted by the particles to be detected and recorded by the camera. FITV employs multiple exposures of a single camera image by pulsing the excitation laser light for producing a series of images of each particle along its trajectory. The time-lapsed image may be used to determine trajectory and velocity and the exposures may be coded to derive directional information.

  19. Integrated receiver for NASA tracking and data relay satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bricker, P.; Luecke, J.; Herr, D.

    1990-01-01

    The tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS) provides a flexible communications system for low-earth-orbit spacecraft and a source of tracking data to permit the location of the many orbital platforms to be accessed. Central to the TDRSS ground terminal is the integrated receiver which provides data demodulation, decoding, and deinterleaving over the range of 100 sps to 12 Msps, and all the tracking services in a single high-performance design. The requirements and design of the integrated receiver (IR), as well as an unbalanced quadriphase shift keying (UQPSK) receiver/demodulator under development for use in the TDRSS are discussed. The top level architecture of the IR is presented, and the implementation of the primary functions in the receiver is described. A single IR replaces the 12 different chassis currently required to support a single S-band single-access service. This approach has proven to be successful.

  20. A new technique for determining charge and momentum of electrons and positrons using calorimetry and silicon tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Q.; Bodek, A. |

    1996-12-01

    We describe the application of a new methods for the determination of charge and track parameters for electrons and positrons in both central (pseudo-rapidity 0 < |{eta}| < 1.2) and forward (pseudo- rapidity 1.2 < |{eta}| < 2.3) regions at CDF. The method uses the shower centroid position in the calorimeter in combination with a track in the inner silicon vertex detector. The use of the central tracking chamber is not required. A comparison of the shower centroid in the calorimeter, with the extrapolated silicon vertex detector track determines the electron sign. This technique has been used to measure the W asymmetry in CDF in regions beyond the pseudo-rapidity coverage of the central tracking chamber. Application to other Physics analyses in current collider experiments at the Tevatron and in future high luminosity experiments at the LHC are discussed. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Patrol car and agent tracking/suspect tagging and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Steven C.

    1997-01-01

    Emerging technologies in the field of law enforcement are providing today's law enforcement personnel with the advantage of an innovative and faster means of providing safety and service to the public. The use of open such technology, the Automatic Vehicle Locator (AVL) tracking device, is fast becoming a commonplace and cost-effective solution for agencies to efficiently command and control their 'officer' assets. Through the use of AVL's global positioning satellite-based system, the response time of law enforcement is greatly enhanced by permitting a dispatcher to visually identify and assign the officer closest to the location of an accident or incident. The system is effective in reducing delays due to highway blockages, improving the level of protection to the motoring public, and promoting the flow of traffic on busy freeways. Likewise, an officer or agent in distress can be assured that a dispatcher will be constantly aware of his or her location in the field. In the 1990's the demands on law enforcement agencies have grown tremendously. this is due primarily to population increases, limited funding or resources, and increases in drug, property and violent crimes. Frequently, the automobile is used for escape after the commission of these crimes. This often results in high speed pursuits involving law enforcement agencies. In California, by statute, the California Highway Patrol is the central repository for data regarding all pursuits involving state and local law enforcement agencies. Statistics show that more than 10 percent of pursuits result in injuries to the violator and/or innocent bystanders. Most pursuits last less than 10 minutes, and the AVL system provides a tremendous advantage to law enforcement's ability to immediately deploy and direct units into pursuits for rapid closure of the incident. AVL systems not only reduce the risk of personal injury by minimizing public exposure to the unsafe incident, but also enhance officer safety during the high speed chase by pinpointing officer deployment. Officer safety is a primary concern for all law enforcement agencies, nationwide. In addition to the aforementioned benefits of AVL, this system ensures that dispatchers are continually aware of an officer's location. This is a critical feature for an officer who is unable to verbally provide his/her location over the radio due to adversarial or injury circumstances. AVL technology is neither rate nor risky, and it is fast becoming an accepted and cost-effective solution in law enforcement agencies, large and small. The challenge to industry is not merely the development of new AVL technology, but also the ease in which it will integrate with existing law enforcement systems.

  2. 49 CFR 213.359 - Track stiffness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicle/track interaction safety limits and geometry requirements of this subpart. (b) Track shall have... shall return following maximum load to a configuration in compliance with the vehicle/track...

  3. 49 CFR 213.359 - Track stiffness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vehicle/track interaction safety limits and geometry requirements of this subpart. (b) Track shall have... shall return following maximum load to a configuration in compliance with the vehicle/track...

  4. Neural network tracking and extension of positive tracking periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanan, Jay C.; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Moreels, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Feature detectors have been considered for the role of supplying additional information to a neural network tracker. The feature detector focuses on areas of the image with significant information. Basically, if a picture says a thousand words, the feature detectors are looking for the key phrases (keypoints). These keypoints are rotationally invariant and may be matched across frames. Application of these advanced feature detectors to the neural network tracking system at JPL has promising potential. As part of an ongoing program, an advanced feature detector was tested for augmentation of a neural network based tracker. The advance feature detector extended tracking periods in test sequences including aircraft tracking, rover tracking, and simulated Martian landing. Future directions of research are also discussed.

  5. Communications and tracking technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on communications and tracking technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. The objective is to develop devices, components, and analytical methods to enhance and enable technology to meet space station evolutionary requirements for multiple access (proximity) communications, space-to-ground communications, and tracking as it pertains to rendezvous and docking as well as potential orbital debris warning systems. Topics covered include: optical communications and tracking; monolithic microwave integrated circuit systems; traveling wave tube technology; advanced modulation and coding; and advanced automation.

  6. Storm Tracks Across Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, Mathieu; Son, Seok-Woo; Gyakum, John; Kevin, Grise

    2013-04-01

    The global storm tracks patterns across the Northern Hemisphere are well documented, but their regional impact on populations has yet to be characterized, as very few studies took a local perspective on storm tracks. In this study, a Lagrangian tracking algorithm is applied to the 850 hPa relative vorticity field to characterize extratropical storm tracks that pass through major cities in Canada. Storm tracks are first classified in reference to the metropolitan cities that they impact, such as Toronto, Montreal, Halifax and St-John's. They are then subjected to several analyses, including but not limited to the identification of main development regions, typical tracks, mean growth rate, intensity and typical regions of decay. We found that the preferential development regions are the lee of the Rockies, the Great Lakes and the Western Atlantic. The collection of storm tracks across each city is composed of storms developing not from a single development region, but from several. Results show that the storm track variability at a city is dominated by the storm track variability of its predominant development region. Among others, we found that the ensembles of storms crossing East coast cities (Halifax, St-John's) are dominated by Atlantic storms that are most frequent during the winter. Storms passing through Montreal and Toronto travel primarily from the Great Lakes and the mid-latitude Rockies. In eastern Canada, storms from the southernmost part of the Rockies are much less frequent, but this development region is the main source of extreme storms, and is thus important in terms of impacts on metropolitan areas. The relationship between storm tracks and modes of atmospheric variability are also examined with an emphasis on the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Northern Annular Mode (NAM). We found that teleconnection shifts storm tracks differently in different development regions. The anomalous storm track densities are presented, as well as their direct impact on specific metropolitan areas. Results show that the combination of these shifts impact cities differently according to their geographic location.

  7. High resolution track etch autoradiography

    DOEpatents

    Solares, G.; Zamenhof, R.G.

    1994-12-27

    A detector assembly is disclosed for use in obtaining alpha-track autoradiographs, the detector assembly including a substantially boron-free substrate; a detector layer deposited on the substantially boron-free substrate, the detector layer being capable of recording alpha particle tracks and exhibiting evidence of the alpha tracks in response to being exposed to an etchant, the detector layer being less than about 2 microns thick; and a protective layer deposited on the detector layer, the protective layer being resistant to the etchant and having a thickness of about 0.5 to 1 microns. 13 figures.

  8. High-dynamic GPS tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, S.; Statman, J. I.

    1988-01-01

    The results of comparing four different frequency estimation schemes in the presence of high dynamics and low carrier-to-noise ratios are given. The comparison is based on measured data from a hardware demonstration. The tested algorithms include a digital phase-locked loop, a cross-product automatic frequency tracking loop, and extended Kalman filter, and finally, a fast Fourier transformation-aided cross-product frequency tracking loop. The tracking algorithms are compared on their frequency error performance and their ability to maintain lock during severe maneuvers at various carrier-to-noise ratios. The measured results are shown to agree with simulation results carried out and reported previously.

  9. Sun Tracking Systems: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Yen; Chou, Po-Cheng; Chiang, Che-Ming; Lin, Chiu-Feng

    2009-01-01

    The output power produced by high-concentration solar thermal and photovoltaic systems is directly related to the amount of solar energy acquired by the system, and it is therefore necessary to track the sun's position with a high degree of accuracy. Many systems have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 20 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the sun tracking system field and then describes some of the more significant proposals for closed-loop and open-loop types of sun tracking systems. PMID:22412341

  10. High resolution track etch autoradiography

    DOEpatents

    Solares, Guido; Zamenhof, Robert G.

    1994-01-01

    A detector assembly for use in obtaining alpha-track autoradiographs, the detector assembly including a substantially boron-free substrate; a detector layer deposited on the substantially boron-free substrate, the detector layer being capable of recording alpha particle tracks and exhibiting evidence of the alpha tracks in response to being exposed to an etchant, the detector layer being less than about 2 microns thick; and a protective layer deposited on the detector layer, the protective layer being resistant to the etchant and having a thickness of about 0.5 to 1 microns.

  11. Visual object recognition and tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chu-Yin (Inventor); English, James D. (Inventor); Tardella, Neil M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    This invention describes a method for identifying and tracking an object from two-dimensional data pictorially representing said object by an object-tracking system through processing said two-dimensional data using at least one tracker-identifier belonging to the object-tracking system for providing an output signal containing: a) a type of the object, and/or b) a position or an orientation of the object in three-dimensions, and/or c) an articulation or a shape change of said object in said three dimensions.

  12. Tracking a person over time is tracking what?

    PubMed

    Brook, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    Tracking persons, that is, determining that a person now is or is not a specific earlier person, is extremely common and widespread in our way of life and extremely important. If so, figuring out what we are tracking, what it is to persist as a person over a period of time, is also important. Trying to figure this out will be the main focus of this chapter. PMID:25164580

  13. Environmental exposure tracking sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havens, Teresa; Everhart, Joel; McFerran, Jace

    2009-03-01

    Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) has developed environmental exposure tracking (EET) sensors using shape memory polymer (SMP) to monitor the degradation of perishable items, such as munitions, medicines or foods, by measuring the cumulative exposure to temperature and moisture. SMPs are polymers whose qualities have been altered to give them dynamic shape "memory" properties. Under thermal or moisture stimuli, SMP exhibits a radical change from a rigid thermoset to a highly flexible, elastic state. The dynamic response of the SMP can be tailored to match the degradation profile of the perishable item. SMP-based EET sensors require no digital memory or internal power supply and provide the capability of inexpensive, long-term life cycle monitoring thermal and moisture exposure over time. In a Phase I and II SBIR effort with the Navy, CRG demonstrated the feasibility of SMP-based EET sensor with two material systems. These material systems required different activation stimuli, heat or water vapor pressure. CRG developed the ability to tailor these materials to customize the dynamic response to match various degradation profiles of munitions. CRG optimized and characterized the SMP formulations and sensor design configuration to develop a suite of data from which any degradation profile can be met. CRG's EET sensors are capable of monitoring temperatures from -30 °C to 260 °C. The prototypes monitor cumulative thermal exposure and provide real-time information in a visually readable or a remotely interrogated version. CRG is currently scaling up the manufacture of the sensors for munitions reliability applications with the Navy.

  14. 2. West portal of Tunnel 27, contextual view from track ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. West portal of Tunnel 27, contextual view from track level east of Tunnel 26 (HAER CA-202), 210mm lens. Note solar panel providing signal power, evidence of continuing updating of technology by the railroad. Single-light searchlight-type signal was typical system-wide on the Southern Pacific prior to the 1980s merger with the Denver & Rio Grande Western. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 27, Milepost 133.9, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  15. A Comparative Study of Foreign Language Anxiety and Motivation of Academic- and Vocational-Track High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hui-ju; Chen, Chien-wei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate EFL learner language anxiety and learning motivation of high school students. Subjects included 155 students from the same private senior high school in central Taiwan, 60 in academic track and 95 in vocational track. The majority of the participants started taking English lessons either before entering elementary…

  16. Tenure Track Investigator Committee (TTIC)

    Cancer.gov

    Purpose Chalk Talks are modeled after typical faculty lunches in university departments. These are monthly meetings where tenure track investigators discuss their project ideas and get suggestions and feedback from each other in an informal and confidenti

  17. Map projections for satellite tracking.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    New map projections to be used for plotting successive satellite groundtracks show these tracks as straight lines. The map may be made conformal along any 2 parallels of latitude between the limits of latitude reached by the groundtrack, or the 'tracking limits'. If these parallels are equidistant from the Equator, they may both be made true to scale, and a cylindrical projection results. If these parallels are not equidistant from the Equator, only one may be made true to scale, and a conic projection results. The groundtracks generally have sharp breaks at either tracking limit. If the tracking limit is one of the parallels at which the map is conformal, there is no break in the groundtrack, and the conic projection may approach (but cannot become) an azimuthal projection.-Author

  18. Tenure Track Investigator Committee (TTIC)

    Cancer.gov

    In 2005 a survey was sent to all CCR tenure track investigators. Click here to view the survey results. Based on the responses, three areas of major concern were identified: Information Resources Mentoring Strategies to address these problems were drafted

  19. Model-assisted object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldershoff, Frank; Gevers, Theo; Prins, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Many current video analysis systems fail to fully acknowledge the process that resulted in the acquisition of the video data, i.e. they don't view the complete multimedia system that encompasses the several physical processes that lead to the captured video data. This multimedia system includes the physical process that created the appearance of the captured objects, the capturing of the data by the sensor (camera), and a model of the domain the video data belongs to. By modelling this complete multimedia system, a much more robust and theoretically sound approach to video analysis can be taken. In this paper we will describe such a system for the detection, recognition and tracking of objects in video's. We will introduce an extension of the mean shift tracking process, based on a detailed model of the video capturing process. This system is used for two applications in the soccer video domain: Billboard recognition and tracking and player tracking.

  20. Model-assisted object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldershoff, Frank; Gevers, Theo; Prins, Philip

    2004-12-01

    Many current video analysis systems fail to fully acknowledge the process that resulted in the acquisition of the video data, i.e. they don't view the complete multimedia system that encompasses the several physical processes that lead to the captured video data. This multimedia system includes the physical process that created the appearance of the captured objects, the capturing of the data by the sensor (camera), and a model of the domain the video data belongs to. By modelling this complete multimedia system, a much more robust and theoretically sound approach to video analysis can be taken. In this paper we will describe such a system for the detection, recognition and tracking of objects in video's. We will introduce an extension of the mean shift tracking process, based on a detailed model of the video capturing process. This system is used for two applications in the soccer video domain: Billboard recognition and tracking and player tracking.

  1. The Physics of Fast Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Toys can provide motivational contexts for learning and teaching about physics. A cheap car track provides an almost frictionless environment from which a quantitative study of conservation of energy and circular motion can be made.

  2. FFTF Asbestos Location Tracking Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.A.

    1994-09-15

    An Asbestos Location Tracking Program was prepared to list, locate, and determine Asbestos content and to provide baseline {open_quotes}good faith{close_quotes} for yearly condition inspections for the FFTF Plant and buildings and grounds.

  3. Automatic electronic fish tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, P. W.; Hoffman, E.; Merriner, J. V.; Richards, C. E.; Lovelady, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A newly developed electronic fish tracking system to automatically monitor the movements and migratory habits of fish is reported. The system is aimed particularly at studies of effects on fish life of industrial facilities which use rivers or lakes to dump their effluents. Location of fish is acquired by means of acoustic links from the fish to underwater Listening Stations, and by radio links which relay tracking information to a shore-based Data Base. Fish over 4 inches long may be tracked over a 5 x 5 mile area. The electronic fish tracking system provides the marine scientist with electronics which permit studies that were not practical in the past and which are cost-effective compared to manual methods.

  4. Kalman Orbit Optimized Loop Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Lawrence E.; Meehan, Thomas K.

    2011-01-01

    Under certain conditions of low signal power and/or high noise, there is insufficient signal to noise ratio (SNR) to close tracking loops with individual signals on orbiting Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In addition, the processing power available from flight computers is not great enough to implement a conventional ultra-tight coupling tracking loop. This work provides a method to track GNSS signals at very low SNR without the penalty of requiring very high processor throughput to calculate the loop parameters. The Kalman Orbit-Optimized Loop (KOOL) tracking approach constitutes a filter with a dynamic model and using the aggregate of information from all tracked GNSS signals to close the tracking loop for each signal. For applications where there is not a good dynamic model, such as very low orbits where atmospheric drag models may not be adequate to achieve the required accuracy, aiding from an IMU (inertial measurement unit) or other sensor will be added. The KOOL approach is based on research JPL has done to allow signal recovery from weak and scintillating signals observed during the use of GPS signals for limb sounding of the Earth s atmosphere. That approach uses the onboard PVT (position, velocity, time) solution to generate predictions for the range, range rate, and acceleration of the low-SNR signal. The low- SNR signal data are captured by a directed open loop. KOOL builds on the previous open loop tracking by including feedback and observable generation from the weak-signal channels so that the MSR receiver will continue to track and provide PVT, range, and Doppler data, even when all channels have low SNR.

  5. Silicon Tracking Upgrade at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, M.C.; CDF Collaboration

    1998-04-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is scheduled to begin recording data from Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron in early 2000. The silicon tracking upgrade constitutes both the upgrade to the CDF silicon vertex detector (SVX II) and the new Intermediate Silicon Layers (ISL) located at radii just beyond the SVX II. Here we review the design and prototyping of all aspects of these detectors including mechanical design, data acquisition, and a trigger based on silicon tracking.

  6. Precision laser automatic tracking system.

    PubMed

    Lucy, R F; Peters, C J; McGann, E J; Lang, K T

    1966-04-01

    A precision laser tracker has been constructed and tested that is capable of tracking a low-acceleration target to an accuracy of about 25 microrad root mean square. In tracking high-acceleration targets, the error is directly proportional to the angular acceleration. For an angular acceleration of 0.6 rad/sec(2), the measured tracking error was about 0.1 mrad. The basic components in this tracker, similar in configuration to a heliostat, are a laser and an image dissector, which are mounted on a stationary frame, and a servocontrolled tracking mirror. The daytime sensitivity of this system is approximately 3 x 10(-10) W/m(2); the ultimate nighttime sensitivity is approximately 3 x 10(-14) W/m(2). Experimental tests were performed to evaluate both dynamic characteristics of this system and the system sensitivity. Dynamic performance of the system was obtained, using a small rocket covered with retroreflective material launched at an acceleration of about 13 g at a point 204 m from the tracker. The daytime sensitivity of the system was checked, using an efficient retroreflector mounted on a light aircraft. This aircraft was tracked out to a maximum range of 15 km, which checked the daytime sensitivity of the system measured by other means. The system also has been used to track passively stars and the Echo I satellite. Also, the system tracked passively a +7.5 magnitude star, and the signal-to-noise ratio in this experiment indicates that it should be possible to track a + 12.5 magnitude star. PMID:20048888

  7. Tracking subsystem test requirements survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, D. H.; Tatosian, C. G.; Bynum, M. C.; Zook, A. W.

    1975-01-01

    A survey of the test and checkout requirements of the tracking portion of the communications and tracking subsystem was performed to evaluate adequacy of planned tests and test requirement documents. Emphasis is placed on identifying test completeness, duplications, and omissions. Items that may save time, aid in testing, and present a more complete integrated test program are also noted. The results of this survey are summarized.

  8. De-centralized and centralized control for realistic EMS Maglev systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moawad, Mohamed M. Aly M.

    A comparative study of de-centralized and centralized controllers when used with real EMS Maglev Systems is introduced. This comparison is divided into two parts. Part I is concerned with numerical simulation and experimental testing on a two ton six-magnet EMS Maglev vehicle. Levitation and lateral control with these controllers individually and when including flux feedback control in combination with these controllers to enhance stability are introduced. The centralized controller is better than the de-centralized one when the system is exposed to a lateral disturbing force such as wind gusts. The flux feedback control when combined with de-centralized or centralized controllers does improve the stability and is more resistant and robust with respect to the air gap variations. Part II is concerned with the study of Maglev vehicle-girder dynamic interaction system and the comparison between these two controllers on this typical system based on performance and ride quality achieved. Numerical simulations of the ODU EMS Maglev vehicle interacting with girder are conducted with these two different controllers. The de-centralized and centralized control for EMS Maglev systems that interact with a flexible girder provides similar ride quality. Centralized control with flux feedback could be the best controller for the ODU Maglev system when operating on girder. The centralized control will guarantee the suppression of the undesired lateral displacements; hence it will provide smoother ride quality. Flux feedback will suppress air gap variations due to the track discontinuities.

  9. Fast-Tracking Colostomy Closures.

    PubMed

    Nanavati, Aditya J; Prabhakar, Subramaniam

    2015-12-01

    There have been very few studies on applying fast-track principles to colostomy closures. We believe that outcome may be significantly improved with multimodal interventions in the peri-operative care of patients undergoing this procedure. A retrospective study was carried out comparing patients who had undergone colostomy closures by the fast-track and traditional care protocols at our centre. We intended to analyse peri-operative period and recovery in colostomy closures to confirm that fast-track surgery principles improved outcomes. Twenty-six patients in the fast-track arm and 24 patients in the traditional care arm had undergone colostomy closures. Both groups were comparable in terms of their baseline parameters. Patients in the fast-track group were ambulatory and accepted oral feeding earlier. There was a significant reduction in the duration of stay (4.73 ± 1.43 days vs. 7.21 ± 1.38 days, p = 0.0000). We did not observe a rise in complications or 30-day re-admissions. Fast-track surgery can safely be applied to colostomy closures. It shows earlier ambulation and reduction in length of hospital stay. PMID:27011527

  10. Analysis of railway track vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, K.; Yamada, M.

    1989-04-01

    Analytical formulae are developed for estimating the amplitudes of the vibrations generated in railway tracks by wheels and rail discontinuities or by unevennesses on their surfaces. Rails are assumed to be supported elastically on concrete sleepers by resilient rail-pads inserted between them. The elasticities and the masses of track materials and those of the roadbed are also taken into consideration. It is shown that after an impulse is applied to the track, not only is a vibration with a comparatively low natural frequency generated, but also traveling waves with higher frequencies, and the latter propagate lengthwise along the track or downwards into the roadbed. With the assumption that the power spectral density of the unevennesses on the rail surface is in proportion to the third power of the wavelength, or to (wavenumber) -3, the amplitudes of the vibrations in railway tracks supported by rail-pads and roadbeds with various magnitudes of elastic constants are analyzed and the values for each one-third octave band are estimated. The velocity of the vibration takes on a maximum value for the band with a center frequency of 63 Hz, which corresponds to the resonant frequency of the system composed of the wheel and the track. As the frequency increases beyond this value, the velocity of the vibration takes on a second maximum value at a frequency of about 1000 Hz. These estimates are compared with the data obtained from field measurements and reasonably good correlations are found between them.

  11. Central Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Central Pain Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Central Pain Syndrome? Central pain syndrome is a neurological condition ...

  12. Central sleep apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... central sleep apnea. A condition called Cheyne-Stokes respiration can mimic central sleep apnea. This involves breathing ... Complications may result from the underlying disease causing the central sleep apnea.

  13. The extended tracking network and indications of baseline precision and accuracy in the North Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Kellogg, James N.

    1990-01-01

    The CASA Uno Global Positioning System (GPS) experiment (January-February 1988) included an extended tracking network which covered three continents in addition to the network of scientific interest in Central and South America. The repeatability of long baselines (400-1000 km) in South America is improved by up to a factor of two in the horizontal vector baseline components by using tracking stations in the Pacific and Europe to supplement stations in North America. In every case but one, the differences between the mean solutions obtained using different tracking networks was equal to or smaller than day-to-day rms repeatabilities for the same baselines. The mean solutions obtained by using tracking stations in North America and the Pacific agreed at the 2-3 millimeter level with those using tracking stations in North America and Europe. The agreement of the extended tracking network solutions suggests that a broad distribution of tracking stations provides better geometric constraints on the satellite orbits and that solutions are not sensitive to changes in tracking network configuration when an extended network is use. A comparison of the results from the North Andes and a baseline in North America suggests that the use of a geometrically strong extended tracking network is most important when the network of interest is far from North America.

  14. 49 CFR 213.323 - Track gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Track gage. 213.323 Section 213.323 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.323 Track gage....

  15. 49 CFR 213.323 - Track gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Track gage. 213.323 Section 213.323 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.323 Track gage....

  16. 49 CFR 212.203 - Track inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR part 213), to make reports of those inspections, and to recommend the institution of enforcement...: (i) Track maintenance standards accepted in the industry; and (ii) The Track Safety Standards (49 CFR... specific qualifications: (1) A comprehensive knowledge of track nomenclature, track inspection...

  17. 49 CFR 212.203 - Track inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 213), to make reports of those inspections, and to recommend the institution of enforcement...: (i) Track maintenance standards accepted in the industry; and (ii) The Track Safety Standards (49 CFR... specific qualifications: (1) A comprehensive knowledge of track nomenclature, track inspection...

  18. 49 CFR 212.203 - Track inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR part 213), to make reports of those inspections, and to recommend the institution of enforcement...: (i) Track maintenance standards accepted in the industry; and (ii) The Track Safety Standards (49 CFR... specific qualifications: (1) A comprehensive knowledge of track nomenclature, track inspection...

  19. 49 CFR 212.203 - Track inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR part 213), to make reports of those inspections, and to recommend the institution of enforcement...: (i) Track maintenance standards accepted in the industry; and (ii) The Track Safety Standards (49 CFR... specific qualifications: (1) A comprehensive knowledge of track nomenclature, track inspection...

  20. 3. 'C.P. Reconstruction Rocklin to Colfax, Standard Double Track Tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. 'C.P. Reconstruction Rocklin to Colfax, Standard Double Track Tunnel Portal Stones, Wings Parallel to Center Line, Ring Stones,' Southern Pacific Standard Double-Track Tunnel, ca. 1909. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 18 (HAER No. CA-197), Tunnel 34 (HAER No. CA-206), and Tunnel 1 (HAER No. CA-207). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  1. Teaching braille line tracking using stimulus fading.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, Mindy C; Tiger, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    Line tracking is a prerequisite skill for braille literacy that involves moving one's finger horizontally across a line of braille text and identifying when a line ends so the reader may reset his or her finger on the subsequent line. Current procedures for teaching line tracking are incomplete, because they focus on tracking lines with only small gaps between characters. The current study extended previous line-tracking instruction using stimulus fading to teach tracking across larger gaps. After instruction, all participants showed improvement in line tracking, and 2 of 3 participants met mastery criteria for tracking across extended spaces. PMID:24829087

  2. A composite tracking sensor with high accuracy and large dynamic range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoyu; Wei, Kai; Zheng, Wenjia; Rao, Changhui

    2014-07-01

    A composite tracking sensor, in which a reflect mirror with a central hole is inserted in the imaging systems so that the reflective beam beyond the hole is directed to the large dynamic range detector and the beam passing the hole is reimaged by a lens to enter the high sensitivity detector, can be used for tip-tilt detecting with high accuracy and large dynamic range simultaneously. A composite tracking sensor prototype based on the multi-anode photo-multiplier tubes (MAPMT) is developed for 1.8 meter astronomical telescope in the Gaomeigu astronomical observation station. In this paper, the principle of the composite tracking sensor is introduced. The prototype is described in detailed and the experimental results are presented. The results show that this composite tracking sensor can reach the tracking accuracy of 0.2 μrad and higher within the dynamic range of 870 μrad.

  3. Feature Tracking Using Reeb Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Gunther H.; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.; Pascucci, Valerio

    2010-08-02

    Tracking features and exploring their temporal dynamics can aid scientists in identifying interesting time intervals in a simulation and serve as basis for performing quantitative analyses of temporal phenomena. In this paper, we develop a novel approach for tracking subsets of isosurfaces, such as burning regions in simulated flames, which are defined as areas of high fuel consumption on a temperature isosurface. Tracking such regions as they merge and split over time can provide important insights into the impact of turbulence on the combustion process. However, the convoluted nature of the temperature isosurface and its rapid movement make this analysis particularly challenging. Our approach tracks burning regions by extracting a temperature isovolume from the four-dimensional space-time temperature field. It then obtains isosurfaces for the original simulation time steps and labels individual connected 'burning' regions based on the local fuel consumption value. Based on this information, a boundary surface between burning and non-burning regions is constructed. The Reeb graph of this boundary surface is the tracking graph for burning regions.

  4. Track structure in biological models.

    PubMed

    Curtis, S B

    1986-01-01

    High-energy heavy ions in the galactic cosmic radiation (HZE particles) may pose a special risk during long term manned space flights outside the sheltering confines of the earth's geomagnetic field. These particles are highly ionizing, and they and their nuclear secondaries can penetrate many centimeters of body tissue. The three dimensional patterns of ionizations they create as they lose energy are referred to as their track structure. Several models of biological action on mammalian cells attempt to treat track structure or related quantities in their formulation. The methods by which they do this are reviewed. The proximity function is introduced in connection with the theory of Dual Radiation Action (DRA). The ion-gamma kill (IGK) model introduces the radial energy-density distribution, which is a smooth function characterizing both the magnitude and extension of a charged particle track. The lethal, potentially lethal (LPL) model introduces lambda, the mean distance between relevant ion clusters or biochemical species along the track. Since very localized energy depositions (within approximately 10 nm) are emphasized, the proximity function as defined in the DRA model is not of utility in characterizing track structure in the LPL formulation. PMID:11537218

  5. Storm tracks near marginal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambaum, Maarten; Novak, Lenka

    2015-04-01

    The variance of atmospheric storm tracks is characterised by intermittent bursts of activity interspersed with relatively quiescent periods. Most of the poleward heat transport by storm tracks is due to a limited number of strong heat flux events, which occur in a quasi-periodic fashion. This behaviour is in contradiction with the usual conceptual model of the storm tracks, which relies on high growth rate background flows which then spawn weather systems that grow in an exponential or non-normal fashion. Here we present a different conceptual model of the atmospheric storm tracks which is built on the observation that, when including diabatic and other dissipative effects, the storm track region is in fact most of the time marginally stable. The ensuing model is a nonlinear oscillator, very similar to Volterra-Lotka predator-prey models. We demonstrate the extensions of this model to a stochastically driven nonlinear oscillator. The model produces quasi-periodic behaviour dominated by intermittent heat flux events. Perhaps most surprisingly, we will show strong evidence from re-analysis data for our conceptual model: the re-analysis data produces a phase-space plot that is very similar indeed to the phase-space plot for our nonlinear oscillator model.

  6. Drift and proportional tracking chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Jaros, J.A.

    1980-11-01

    Many techniques have been exploited in constructing tracking chambers, particle detectors which measure the trajectories and momenta of charged particles. The particular features of high-energy interactions - charged particle multiplicities, angular correlations and complex vertex topologies, to name a few - and the experimental environment of the accelerator - event rates, background rates, and so on - accent the importance of certain detector characteristics. In high energy e/sup +/e/sup -/, anti pp and pp interactions the final states are dominated by closely collimated jets of high multiplicity, requiring good track-pair resolution in the tracking chamber. High energy particles deflect very little in limited magnetic field volumes, necessitating good spatial resolution for accurate momentum measurements. The colliding beam technique generally requires a device easily adapted to full solid-angle coverage, and the high event rates expected in some of these machines put a premium on good time resolution. Finally, the production and subsequent decays of the tau, charmed and beautiful mesons will provide multiple vertex topologies. To reconstruct these vertices reliably will require considerable improvements in spatial resolution and track-pair resolution. This lecture considers the proportional counter and its descendant, the drift chamber, as tracking chambers. Its goal is to review the physics of this device in order to understand its performance limitations and promises.

  7. The inclusion of higher degree and order gravity terms in the design of a repeat ground track orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Mean Orbit Elements can be chosen such that a desired ground track repeat criteria is obtained when propagating with the secular effects of a central body gravity field. If the proper initial conditions are chosen that correspond to these Mean Elements, the orbit can also be propagated with the full gravity field and form another ground track repeat pattern. Further, if the effects of other perturbative forces are compensated for, such that the ground track remains near this pattern, the central body effects can again be considered repetitive. The process of arriving at these conclusions, along with the supporting numerical simulations, are presented.

  8. Analysis of the Influence of Cracked Sleepers under Static Loading on Ballasted Railway Tracks

    PubMed Central

    Montalbán Domingo, Laura; Zamorano Martín, Clara; Palenzuela Avilés, Cristina; Real Herráiz, Julia I.

    2014-01-01

    The principal causes of cracking in prestressed concrete sleepers are the dynamic loads induced by track irregularities and imperfections in the wheel-rail contact and the in-phase and out-of-phase track resonances. The most affected points are the mid-span and rail-seat sections of the sleepers. Central and rail-seat crack detection require visual inspections, as legislation establishes, and involve sleepers' renewal even though European Normative considers that thicknesses up to 0.5 mm do not imply an inadequate behaviour of the sleepers. For a better understanding of the phenomenon, the finite element method constitutes a useful tool to assess the effects of cracking from the point of view of structural behaviour in railway track structures. This paper intends to study how the cracks at central or rail-seat section in prestressed concrete sleepers influence the track behaviour under static loading. The track model considers three different sleeper models: uncracked, cracked at central section, and cracked at rail-seat section. These models were calibrated and validated using the frequencies of vibration of the first three bending modes obtained from an experimental modal analysis. The results show the insignificant influence of the central cracks and the notable effects of the rail-seat cracks regarding deflections and stresses. PMID:25530998

  9. Analysis of the influence of cracked sleepers under static loading on ballasted railway tracks.

    PubMed

    Montalbán Domingo, Laura; Zamorano Martín, Clara; Palenzuela Avilés, Cristina; Real Herráiz, Julia I

    2014-01-01

    The principal causes of cracking in prestressed concrete sleepers are the dynamic loads induced by track irregularities and imperfections in the wheel-rail contact and the in-phase and out-of-phase track resonances. The most affected points are the mid-span and rail-seat sections of the sleepers. Central and rail-seat crack detection require visual inspections, as legislation establishes, and involve sleepers' renewal even though European Normative considers that thicknesses up to 0.5 mm do not imply an inadequate behaviour of the sleepers. For a better understanding of the phenomenon, the finite element method constitutes a useful tool to assess the effects of cracking from the point of view of structural behaviour in railway track structures. This paper intends to study how the cracks at central or rail-seat section in prestressed concrete sleepers influence the track behaviour under static loading. The track model considers three different sleeper models: uncracked, cracked at central section, and cracked at rail-seat section. These models were calibrated and validated using the frequencies of vibration of the first three bending modes obtained from an experimental modal analysis. The results show the insignificant influence of the central cracks and the notable effects of the rail-seat cracks regarding deflections and stresses. PMID:25530998

  10. Automatic heliostat track alignment method

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes a heliostat alignment method consisting of a number of steps. The first step consists of commanding a sunbeam centroid to a target location to establish a reference position. The next step searches for the actual sunbeam centroid position and determines the sunbeam centroid position error. These actions are followed by the analysis of the sunbeam centroid position error, correlating the sunbeam position error to errors in a heliostat reference system, and changing the heliostat reference system to correct for track misalignment in order to establish a revised heliostat reference system. The final step is changing the track alignment based on the revised heliostat reference system to a new position to correct the track misalignment.

  11. MANTRACK. Controlled Document Tracking Software

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, R.E.; Haas, R.

    1992-06-01

    MANTRACK is an automated, controlled document tracking system which does the following and reduces staff time required to perform these tasks: generates transmittal letters/receipts for every controlled copy issued (merged from a current distribution list), tracks the return of transmittal receipts, facilitates the check-in of the large number of transmittal receipts returned (using a barcode reader), generates a reminder list which prompts the cyclic review and evaluation of existing documents, generates overdue reminders for the return of past-due transmittal receipts, tracks the number of Procedure Change Directives (PCD) currently in effect for each procedure, generates and maintains current distribution lists for each document, generates a current table of contents when updates to the document (usually a procedure manual) are made.

  12. The MAJORANA Parts Tracking Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, J.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J. Diaz; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, L.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O`Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Petersburg, R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, A. W. P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Soin, A.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2015-04-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is an ultra-low background physics experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The MAJORANA Parts Tracking Database is used to record the history of components used in the construction of the DEMONSTRATOR. The tracking implementation takes a novel approach based on the schema-free database technology CouchDB. Transportation, storage, and processes undergone by parts such as machining or cleaning are linked to part records. Tracking parts provide a great logistics benefit and an important quality assurance reference during construction. In addition, the location history of parts provides an estimate of their exposure to cosmic radiation. A web application for data entry and a radiation exposure calculator have been developed as tools for achieving the extreme radio-purity required for this rare decay search.

  13. AHF Booster Tracking with SIMPSONS.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D. E.; Neri, F.

    2002-01-01

    The booster lattice for the Advanced Hydrotest Facility at Los Alamos was tracked in 3-D with the program SIMPSONS, using the full, symplectic lattice from TEAPOT, using the full set of magnet and misalignment errors, as well as full space-charge effects. The only corrections included were a rough closed-orbit correction and chromaticity correction. The lattice was tracked for an entire booster cycle, from multi-turn injection through acceleration to the top energy of 4 GeV, approximately 99,000 turns. An initial injection intensity of 4x1Ol2, injected in 25 turns, resulted in a final intensity of 3 . 2 {approx} 1 0a' {approx}t 4 GeV. Results of the tracking, including emittance growth, particle loss, and particle tune distributions are presented.

  14. Cell crawling on filamentous tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Jorge; Schwarz, Jennifer; Das, Moumita

    2014-03-01

    Recent experiments suggest that the migration of some cells in three dimensions has strong resemblance to one-dimensional migration. Motivated by this observation, we simulate a one-dimensional model cell made of beads and springs that moves on a tense semiflexible filamentous track. Physical parameters, such as the spring constants and friction coefficients, are calculated using effective theories. We investigate the mechanical feedback between the model cell and this track, as mediated by the active myosin-driven contractility and the catch/slip bond behavior of the focal adhesions, as the model cell crawls. We then compare our calculations of cell speed and the amount of deformation in the track with experiments.

  15. Fuzzy logic particle tracking velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1993-01-01

    Fuzzy logic has proven to be a simple and robust method for process control. Instead of requiring a complex model of the system, a user defined rule base is used to control the process. In this paper the principles of fuzzy logic control are applied to Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). Two frames of digitally recorded, single exposure particle imagery are used as input. The fuzzy processor uses the local particle displacement information to determine the correct particle tracks. Fuzzy PTV is an improvement over traditional PTV techniques which typically require a sequence (greater than 2) of image frames for accurately tracking particles. The fuzzy processor executes in software on a PC without the use of specialized array or fuzzy logic processors. A pair of sample input images with roughly 300 particle images each, results in more than 200 velocity vectors in under 8 seconds of processing time.

  16. Aircraft recognition and tracking device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filis, Dimitrios P.; Renios, Christos I.

    2011-11-01

    The technology of aircraft recognition and tracking has various applications in all areas of air navigation, be they civil or military, spanning from air traffic control and regulation at civilian airports to anti-aircraft weapon handling and guidance for military purposes.1, 18 The system presented in this thesis is an alternative implementation of identifying and tracking flying objects, which benefits from the optical spectrum by using an optical camera built into a servo motor (pan-tilt unit). More specifically, through the purpose-developed software, when a target (aircraft) enters the field of view of the camera18, it is both detected and identified.5, 22 Then the servo motor, being provided with data on target position and velocity, tracks the aircraft while it is in constant communication with the camera (Fig. 1). All the features are so designed as to operate under real time conditions.

  17. Rotationally Invariant Holographic Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, James L.; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Gheen, Gregory; Johnston, Alan R.; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1989-06-01

    A multi-channel holographic correlator has been constructed which can identify and track objects of a given shape across the input field independent of their in-plane rotation. This system, derived from the classic Vander Lugt correlator, incorporates a hololens to store an array of matched spatial filters (MSFs) on thermoplastic film. Each member of the MSF array is generated from a different incrementally rotated version of the training object. Rotational invariant tracking is achieved through superposition of the corresponding array of the correlations in the output plane. Real time tracking is accomplished by utilizing a liquid crystal light valve (LCLV) illuminated with a CRT to process video input signals. The system can be programmed to recognize different objects by recording the MSF array on re-usable thermoplastic film. Discussion of the system architecture and laboratory results are presented.

  18. Magnetic Launch Assist Experimental Track

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this photograph, a futuristic spacecraft model sits atop a carrier on the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) System, experimental track at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide, and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  19. Tracking animals to their death.

    PubMed

    Hays, Graeme C

    2014-01-01

    Migration may be a high-risk period. In a study involving three species of raptor migrating from Europe to Sub-Saharan Africa, Klaassen et al. (2014) satellite-tracked 51 out of 69 birds to their deaths and showed that rate of mortality during migration was 6x that during stationary phases when birds were on their winter and summer grounds. Travel across the Sahara was particularly risky. Satellite tracking has also been used to infer mortality in other taxa (e.g. sea turtles) and may allow high-risk hotspots to be identified for wide-ranging species. PMID:24192383

  20. Solid state nuclear track detection

    SciTech Connect

    Durrani, S.A.; Bull, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book is a basic work on the technique variously known as 'nuclear track analysis', 'track-etch technique', or 'solid state nuclear tract detection'. This has greatly expanded in range, scope and depth since the early 1960's, soon after its discovery, until there is hardly a field now in which it has not found an actual or potential use. Such applications range from archaeology, geology, space physics, medicine and biology to reactor physics and nuclear physics-to name but a few.

  1. Practical issues in target tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Ruixin

    This dissertation is on three topics in target tracking: the effect of radar/sonar waveforms on tracking performance, a modified probabilistic data association filter (PDAF) based on a Bayes detector and sufficient conditions for the matrix Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) scaling due to measurements of uncertain origin. In the first part (chapter 2), the effect of radar/sonar waveforms on tracking performance is investigated. The traditional approach for tracking system design is to treat the detection and tracking subsystems as independent units. However, the two subsystems can be designed jointly to obtain better tracking performance. Different waveforms, sidelobe-reduction techniques and measurement-extraction schemes are explored from the detection-tracking system point of view via the hybrid conditional averaging (HYCA) technique. The second part (chapter 3) is on a modified PDAF based on a Bayes detector. Existing detection systems generally operate using a fixed threshold, optimized to the Neyman-Pearson criterion. An alternative is Bayes detection, in which the threshold varies according to the ratio of prior probabilities. In a recursive target tracker such as the PDAF such priors are available in the form of a predicted location and associated covariance. A new PDAF with a Bayes detector is developed. The third part (chapter 4) deals with the matrix CRLB scaling due to measurements of uncertain origin. In many target tracking situations measurements are of uncertain origin. That is, at each scan a number of measurements are obtained, and it is not known which, if any, of these is target-originated. In several earlier papers the surprising observation was made that the CRLB for the estimation of a fixed parameter vector that characterizes the target motion, for the special case of measurements in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise, is simply a multiple of that for the case with no uncertainty. This is particularly useful as it allows comparison in terms of a scalar. This result is explored to determine how wide the class of such problems is. It includes many non-Gaussian situations.

  2. Binocular eye tracking with the Tracking Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, S B; Sheehy, C K; Roorda, A

    2016-01-01

    The development of high magnification retinal imaging has brought with it the ability to track eye motion with a precision of less than an arc minute. Previously these systems have provided only monocular records. Here we describe a modification to the Tracking Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (Sheehy et al., 2012) that splits the optical path in a way that slows the left and right retinas to be scanned almost simultaneously by a single system. A mirror placed at a retinal conjugate point redirects half of each horizontal scan line to the fellow eye. The collected video is a split image with left and right retinas appearing side by side in each frame. Analysis of the retinal motion in the recorded video provides an eye movement trace with very high temporal and spatial resolution. Results are presented from scans of subjects with normal ocular motility that fixated steadily on a green laser dot. The retinas were scanned at 4° eccentricity with a 2° square field. Eye position was extracted offline from recorded videos with an FFT based image analysis program written in Matlab. The noise level of the tracking was estimated to range from 0.25 to 0.5arcmin SD for three subjects. In the binocular recordings, the left eye/right eye difference was 1-2arcmin SD for vertical motion and 10-15arcmin SD for horizontal motion, in agreement with published values from other tracking techniques. PMID:25676884

  3. Tracking errors in 2D multiple particle tracking microrheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, Anne; Oelschlaeger, Claude; Willenbacher, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Tracking errors due to particles moving in and out of the focal plane are a fundamental problem of multiple particle tracking microrheology. Here, we present a new approach to treat these errors so that a statistically significant number of particle trajectories with reasonable length are received, which is important for an unbiased analysis of multiple particle tracking data from inhomogeneous fluids. Starting from Crocker and Griers tracking algorithm, we identify particle displacements between subsequent images as artificial jumps; if this displacement deviates more than four standard deviations from the mean value, trajectories are terminated at such positions. In a further processing step, trajectories separated by a time gap ? {?\\text{max}} are merged based on an adaptive search radius criterion accounting for individual particle mobility. For a series of Newtonian fluids covering the viscosity range 6-1300?mPa s, this approach yields the correct viscosity but also results in a viscosity-independent number of trajectories equal to the average number of particles in an image with a minimum length covering at least two orders of magnitude in time. This allows for an unbiased characterization of heterogeneous fluids. For a Carbopol ETD 2050 solution we recover the expected broad variation of particle mobility. Consistent with the widely accepted structural model of highly swollen microgel particles suspended in a polymer solution, we find about 2/3 of the tracers are elastically trapped.

  4. USA Track & Field Coaching Manual. USA Track & Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Track and Field, Inc., Indianapolis, IN.

    This book presents comprehensive, ready-to-apply information from 33 world-class coaches and experts about major track and field events for high school and college coaches. The volume features proven predictive testing procedures; detailed event-specific technique instruction; carefully crafted training programs; and preparation and performance

  5. USA Track & Field Coaching Manual. USA Track & Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Track and Field, Inc., Indianapolis, IN.

    This book presents comprehensive, ready-to-apply information from 33 world-class coaches and experts about major track and field events for high school and college coaches. The volume features proven predictive testing procedures; detailed event-specific technique instruction; carefully crafted training programs; and preparation and performance…

  6. Tenure Track Investigator Committee (TTIC)

    Cancer.gov

    Your TTI representatives are a team of volunteers who try to identify and help address the specific needs of the tenure track investigators, and serve as a voice between the TTI community (or an individual investigator) and the NCI administration. New mem

  7. Tenure Track Investigator Committee (TTIC)

    Cancer.gov

    CCR Senior Staff, in consultation with the CCR Advisory Board, have endorsed the following processes for advancement along the tenure track. Beverly Mock of the CCR Office of Scientific Programs (OSP) is the designated Ombudsperson for TTIs and is in char

  8. Caribou Tracks Along Alaska's Coast

    This photograph shows caribou tracks on ice-wedge polygons near Garry Creek in Alaska. Coastal erosion along the Arctic coast is chronic, widespread and potentially accelerating, posing threats to infrastructure important for defense and energy purposes, natural shoreline habitats and nearby Native ...

  9. Towards Better Student Tracking Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Development Agency, London (England).

    The Further Education (FE) sector in the United Kingdom has devoted time, energy, and resources in recent years to the development and improvement of information systems known as management-information systems. This report presents the findings of a research project on the use of management-information systems in student tracking. The project was…

  10. Tracking Institutional Leavers: An Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DesJardins, Stephen L.; Pontiff, Harry

    1999-01-01

    This study attempted to track students (n=2,077) who entered the University of Minnesota (Twin Cities campus) in 1986 but had not completed a degree at that institution within eight years of matriculation. The study utilized the Minnesota Higher Education Services Office's statewide database which allowed researchers to determine if, when, and…

  11. Space Object Tracking (SPOT) facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivitz, Robert; Kendrick, Richard; Mason, James; Bold, Matthew; Kubo, Tracy; Bock, Kevin; Tyler, David

    2014-07-01

    Lockheed Martin has built a Space Object Tracking (SPOT) facility at our Santa Cruz test site in Northern California. SPOT consists of three 1 meter optical telescopes controlled by a common site management system to individually or cooperatively task each system to observe orbital debris and earth orbiting satellites. The telescopes are mounted in Az/El fork mounts capable of rapid repointing and arc-sec class open loop tracking. Each telescope is installed in a separate clam shell dome and has aft mounted benches to facilitate installing various instrument suites. The telescope domes are mounted on movable rail carts that can be positioned arbitrarily along tracks to provide variable baselines for sparse aperture imaging. The individual telescopes achieved first light in June 2012 and have been used since to observe satellites and orbital debris. Typical observations consist of direct photometric imaging at visible and near infrared wavelengths, and also include spectroscopic and hypertemporal measurements. Rayleigh beacon adaptive optical systems for atmospheric aberration correction and high rate J-Band trackers for each telescope will be added in 2015. Coherent combinations of the three telescopes as an interferometric imaging array using actively stabilized free space variable delay optical paths and fringe tracking sensors is also planned. The first narrow band (I band) interferometric fringes will be formed in the summer of 2014, with wide band (R, I, H) interferometric imaging occurring by early 2015.

  12. The GEM Silicon Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, G.B.

    1993-09-01

    The GEM Collaboration has produced a baseline design for the GEM detector. The baseline design of the GEM Silicon Tracking System (STS) is discussed in this article. Mechanical and electrical engineering progress on the GEM STS is described. Results from simulations of detector performance and the implications on engineering issues are described.

  13. Program Tracks Cost Of Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, Lemuel E., III

    1993-01-01

    Travel Forecaster is menu-driven, easy-to-use computer program that plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost of business-related travel of division or branch of organization and compiles information into data base to aid travel planner. Ability of program to handle multiple trip entries makes it valuable time-saving device.

  14. Haptic Tracking Permits Bimanual Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Dawson, Amanda A.; Challis, John H.

    2006-01-01

    This study shows that in a novel task--bimanual haptic tracking--neurologically normal human adults can move their 2 hands independently for extended periods of time with little or no training. Participants lightly touched buttons whose positions were moved either quasi-randomly in the horizontal plane by 1 or 2 human drivers (Experiment 1), in…

  15. Etching fission tracks in zircons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naeser, C.W.

    1969-01-01

    A new technique has been developed whereby fission tracks can be etched in zircon with a solution of sodium hydroxide at 220??C. Etching time varied between 15 minutes and 5 hours. Colored zircon required less etching time than the colorless varieties.

  16. Fast-Track Teacher Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Franklin Dean

    2001-01-01

    Schools need a Renaissance human-resources director to implement strategic staffing and fast-track teacher-recruitment plans. The HR director must attend to customer satisfaction, candidate supply, web-based recruitment possibilities, stabilization of newly hired staff, retention of veteran staff, utilization of retired employees, and latest…

  17. Tracking and Reconstructing the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henley, Benjamin; Gergis, Joelle; Karoly, David

    2015-04-01

    A new index is developed for the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation, termed the IPO Tripole Index (TPI). The IPO is associated with a distinct 'tripole' pattern of sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA), with three large centres of action and variations on decadal timescales, evident in the second principal component (PC) of low-pass filtered global SST. The new index is based on the difference between the SSTA averaged over the central equatorial Pacific and the average of the SSTA in the Northwest and Southwest Pacific. The TPI is an easily calculated, non-PC based index for tracking decadal SST variability associated with the IPO. The TPI time series bears a close resemblance to previously published PC-based indices and has the advantages of being simpler to compute and more consistent with methods used to track the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), such as the Niño 3.4 and Trans Niño Indices. The TPI also provides a simple metric, with physical units of °C, for evaluating decadal and interdecadal variability of SST fields in a straightforward manner, and can be used to evaluate the skill of dynamical decadal prediction systems. Composites of SST and mean sea level pressure anomalies reveal that the IPO has maintained a broadly stable structure across the seven most recent positive and negative epochs that occurred during 1870-2013. The TPI is shown to be a robust and stable representation of the IPO phenomenon in instrumental records, with relatively more variance in decadal than shorter timescales compared to Niño 3.4, due to the explicit inclusion of off-equatorial SST variability associated with the IPO. This presentation will also report on progress towards developing a new multi-proxy reconstruction of the IPO over the last several centuries, along with an assessment of the TPI in climate models.

  18. Back on Track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-06-01

    An artificial, laser-fed star now shines regularly over the sky of Paranal, home of ESO's Very Large Telescope, one of the world's most advanced large ground-based telescopes. This system provides assistance for the adaptive optics instruments on the VLT and so allows astronomers to obtain images free from the blurring effect of the atmosphere, regardless of the brightness and the location on the sky of the observed target. Now that it is routinely offered by the observatory, the skies seem much sharper to astronomers. In order to counteract the blurring effect of Earth's atmosphere, astronomers use the adaptive optics technique. This requires, however, a nearby reference star that has to be relatively bright, thereby limiting the area of the sky that can be surveyed. To surmount this limitation, astronomers now use at Paranal a powerful laser that creates an artificial star, where and when they need it. Two of the Adaptive Optics (AO) science instruments at the Paranal observatory, NACO and SINFONI, have been upgraded to work with the recently installed Laser Guide Star (LGS; see ESO 07/06) and have delivered their first scientific results. This achievement opens astronomers' access to a wealth of new targets to be studied under the sharp eyes of AO. "These unique results underline the advantage of using a Laser Guide Star with Adaptive Optics instruments, since they could not be obtained with Natural Guide Stars," says Norbert Hubin, head of the Adaptive Optics group at ESO. "This is also a crucial milestone towards the multi-laser systems ESO is designing for the VLT and the future E-ELT" (see e.g. ESO 19/07). ESO PR Photo 27a/07 ESO PR Photo 27a/07 An Ultra Luminous Merger (NACO-LGS/VLT) The Laser Guide Star System installed at Paranal uses the PARSEC dye laser developed by MPE-Garching and MPIA-Heidelberg, while the launch telescope and the laser laboratory was developed by ESO. "It is great to see the whole system working so well together," emphasises Richard Davies, project manager of the PARSEC laser. "To test the laser guide star adaptive optics system to its limits, and even beyond, we observed a number of galaxies, ranging from a close neighbour to one that is seen when the universe was very young," explains Markus Kasper, the NACO Instrument Scientist at ESO. The first objects that were observed are interacting galaxies. The images obtained reveal exquisite details, and have a resolution comparable to that of the Hubble Space Telescope. In one case, it was possible to derive for the first time the motion of the stars in two merging galaxies, showing that there are two counter-rotating discs of stars. "The enhanced resolution that laser guide star adaptive optics provides is certain to bring important new discoveries in this exciting area," says Davies ESO PR Photo 27c/07 ESO PR Photo 27c/07 Merging System Arp 220 (SINFONI-LGS/VLT) The astronomers then turned the laser to a galaxy called K20-ID5 which is at a redshift of 2.2 - we are seeing this galaxy when the universe was less than 1/3 of its current age. The image obtained with NACO shows that the stars are concentrated in a much more compact region than the gas. "These observations are both remarkable and exciting," declares Kasper. "They are the first time that it has been possible to trace in such detail the distributions of both the stars and the gas at an epoch where we are witnessing the formation of galaxies similar to our own Milky Way." At the opposite extreme, much nearer to home, LGS-AO observations were made of the active galaxy NGC 4945. The new LGS observations with NACO resolved the central parts into a multitude of individual stars. "It is in galaxies such as these where we can really quantify the star formation history in the vicinity of the nucleus, that we can start to piece together the puzzle of how gas is accreted onto the supermassive black hole, and understand how and when these black holes light up so brightly," says Davies. ESO PR Photo 27e/07 ESO PR Photo 27e/07 Active Galaxy NGC 4945 (NACO-LGS/VLT) Still closer to home, the LGS system can also be applied to solar system objects, such as asteroids or satellites, but also to the study of particular regions of spatially extended bodies like the polar regions of giant planets, where aurora activity is concentrated. During their science verification, the scientists turned the SINFONI instrument with the LGS to a Trans-Neptunian Object, 2003 EL 61. The high image contrast and sensitivity obtained with the use of the LGS mode permit the detection of the two faint satellites known to orbit the TNO. "From such observations one can study the chemical composition of the surface material of the TNO and its satellites (mainly crystalline water ice), estimate their surface properties and constrain their internal structure," explains Christophe Dumas, from ESO. The VLT Laser Guide System is the result of a collaborative work by a team of scientists and engineers from ESO and the Max Planck Institutes for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching and for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany. NACO was built by a Consortium of French and German institutes and ESO. SINFONI was built by a Consortium of German and Dutch Institutes and ESO. More Information Normally, the achievable image sharpness of a ground-based telescope is limited by the effect of atmospheric turbulence. This drawback can be surmounted with adaptive optics, allowing the telescope to produce images that are as sharp as if taken from space. This means that finer details in astronomical objects can be studied, and also that fainter objects can be observed. In order to work, adaptive optics needs a nearby reference star that has to be relatively bright, thereby limiting the area of the sky that can be surveyed to a few percent only. To overcome this limitation, astronomers use a powerful laser that creates an artificial star, where and when they need it. The laser beam takes advantage of the layer of sodium atoms that is present in Earth's atmosphere at an altitude of 90 kilometres. Shining at a well-defined wavelength the laser makes it glow. The laser is launched from Yepun, the fourth 8.2-m Unit Telescope of the Very Large Telescope, producing an artificial star. Despite this star being about 20 times fainter than the faintest star that can be seen with the unaided eye, it is bright enough for the adaptive optics to measure and correct the atmosphere's blurring effect. Compared to a normal star, this artificial star has some differing properties that the associated Laser Guide Star (LGS) Adaptive Optics (AO) system has to be able to cope with. A press release, in English and German, is also available from the Max-Planck Institute.

  19. Robotic vehicle with multiple tracked mobility platforms

    DOEpatents

    Salton, Jonathan R.; Buttz, James H.; Garretson, Justin; Hayward, David R.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Deuel, Jr., Jamieson K.

    2012-07-24

    A robotic vehicle having two or more tracked mobility platforms that are mechanically linked together with a two-dimensional coupling, thereby forming a composite vehicle of increased mobility. The robotic vehicle is operative in hazardous environments and can be capable of semi-submersible operation. The robotic vehicle is capable of remote controlled operation via radio frequency and/or fiber optic communication link to a remote operator control unit. The tracks have a plurality of track-edge scallop cut-outs that allow the tracks to easily grab onto and roll across railroad tracks, especially when crossing the railroad tracks at an oblique angle.

  20. Track reconstruction by GPU in 3D particle tracking detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozza, Cristiano; De Sio, Chiara; Kose, Umut; Stellacci, Simona Maria

    2015-09-01

    3D detectors for high-energy physics have always needed large computing power. Its availability has sometimes determined the statistics and performance of experiments. The increasing specific computing power of GPUs in recent years offers new opportunities for this field of application that should not be missed. The paper shows a novel algorithm that supports, as a by-product of speed, wider angular acceptance with respect to established techniques based on CPUs. While the algorithm has been developed in the environment of nuclear emulsions, it has been conceived from the very beginning as a tool for general tracking in 3D detectors. The overall logic can apply to many operational contexts in which tracking occurs in high combinatorial background. The performances of the algorithm are evaluated from different points of view, describing the details of the computing technique that are common to tracking problems and discussing measurements and data from a test-beam exposure. Computing speed has been evaluated on a broad variety of hardware, investigating an approximated scaling formula.

  1. Particle tracking and mean residence time in barchan dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Deguo; Narteau, Clement; Rozier, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    We analyze sediment particles motions in steady-state barchan dunes by tracking individual cells of a 3-D cellular automaton dune model. The overall sediment flux may be decomposed into advective and dispersive fluxes to estimate the relative contribution of the underlying physical processes to the barchan dune shape. The net lateral sediment transport from the center to the horns indicates that dispersion on the stoss slope is more efficient than avalanches on the lee slope. The combined effect of these two antagonistic dispersive processes restricts the lateral mixing of sediment particles in the central region of barchan dunes. Then, for different flow strength and dune size, we find that the mean residence time of sediment particles in barchan dunes is equal to the surface of the central longitudinal dune slices divided by the input sand flux. We infer that this central slice contains most of the relevant information about barchan dune morphodynamics. Finally, we initiate a discussion about sediment transport and memory in presence of bedforms using the advantages of the particle tracking technique.

  2. A New Perspective on Southern Hemisphere Storm Tracks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskins, B. J.; Hodges, K. I.

    2005-10-01

    A detailed view of Southern Hemisphere storm tracks is obtained based on the application of filtered variance and modern feature-tracking techniques to a wide range of 45-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40) data. It has been checked that the conclusions drawn in this study are valid even if data from only the satellite era are used. The emphasis of the paper is on the winter season, but results for the four seasons are also discussed. Both upper- and lower-tropospheric fields are used. The tracking analysis focuses on systems that last longer than 2 days and are mobile (move more than 1000 km). Many of the results support previous ideas about the storm tracks, but some new insights are also obtained. In the summer there is a rather circular, strong, deep high-latitude storm track. In winter the high-latitude storm track is more asymmetric with a spiral from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans in toward Antarctica and a subtropical jet related lower-latitude storm track over the Pacific, again tending to spiral poleward. At all times of the year, maximum storm activity in the higher-latitude storm track is in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions. In the winter upper troposphere, the relative importance of, and interplay between, the subtropical and subpolar storm tracks is discussed. The genesis, lysis, and growth rate of lower-tropospheric winter cyclones together lead to a vivid picture of their behavior that is summarized as a set of overlapping plates, each composed of cyclone life cycles. Systems in each plate appear to feed the genesis in the next plate through downstream development in the upper-troposphere spiral storm track. In the lee of the Andes in South America, there is cyclogenesis associated with the subtropical jet and also, poleward of this, cyclogenesis largely associated with system decay on the upslope and regeneration on the downslope. The genesis and lysis of cyclones and anticyclones have a definite spatial relationship with each other and with the Andes. At 500 hPa, their relative longitudinal positions are consistent with vortex-stretching ideas for simple flow over a large-scale mountain. Cyclonic systems near Antarctica have generally spiraled in from lower latitudes. However, cyclogenesis associated with mobile cyclones occurs around the Antarctic coast with an interesting genesis maximum over the sea ice near 150E. The South Pacific storm track emerges clearly from the tracking as a coherent deep feature spiraling from Australia to southern South America. A feature of the summer season is the genesis of eastward-moving cyclonic systems near the tropic of Capricorn off Brazil, in the central Pacific and, to a lesser extent, off Madagascar, followed by movement along the southwest flanks of the subtropical anticyclones and contribution to the convergence zone cloud bands seen in these regions.

  3. Electromagnetic servoing-a new tracking paradigm.

    PubMed

    Reichl, Tobias; Gardiazabal, José; Navab, Nassir

    2013-08-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking is highly relevant for many computer assisted interventions. This is in particular due to the fact that the scientific community has not yet developed a general solution for tracking of flexible instruments within the human body. Electromagnetic tracking solutions are highly attractive for minimally invasive procedures, since they do not require line of sight. However, a major problem with EM tracking solutions is that they do not provide uniform accuracy throughout the tracking volume and the desired, highest accuracy is often only achieved close to the center of tracking volume. In this paper, we present a solution to the tracking problem, by mounting an EM field generator onto a robot arm. Proposing a new tracking paradigm, we take advantage of the electromagnetic tracking to detect the sensor within a specific sub-volume, with known and optimal accuracy. We then use the more accurate and robust robot positioning for obtaining uniform accuracy throughout the tracking volume. Such an EM servoing methodology guarantees optimal and uniform accuracy, by allowing us to always keep the tracked sensor close to the center of the tracking volume. In this paper, both dynamic accuracy and accuracy distribution within the tracking volume are evaluated using optical tracking as ground truth. In repeated evaluations, the proposed method was able to reduce the overall error from 6.64±7.86 mm to a significantly improved accuracy of 3.83±6.43 mm. In addition, the combined system provides a larger tracking volume, which is only limited by the reach of the robot and not the much smaller tracking volume defined by the magnetic field generator. PMID:23911947

  4. More Durable Tracks for Heavy Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Tie bars instead of threaded fasteners make track throwing less likely. Proposed undercarriage for tank or bulldozer has flanged edges to prevent rocks and other road debris from getting caught in track drive and damaging or casting off track. Improved track has no threaded fasteners to be loosened by road shock and vibration. Continuous chain of floating guide bars articulated at web junctions. Pins replace bolted connections. Guide bars and flanges on vehicle keep out stones.

  5. Drift chamber tracking with neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.S.; Denby, B.; Haggerty, H.

    1992-10-01

    We discuss drift chamber tracking with a commercial log VLSI neural network chip. Voltages proportional to the drift times in a 4-layer drift chamber were presented to the Intel ETANN chip. The network was trained to provide the intercept and slope of straight tracks traversing the chamber. The outputs were recorded and later compared off line to conventional track fits. Two types of network architectures were studied. Applications of neural network tracking to high energy physics detector triggers is discussed.

  6. Central venous catheters - ports

    MedlinePlus

    Central venous catheter - subcutaneous; Port-a-Cath; InfusaPort; PasPort; Subclavian port; Medi - port; Central venous line - port ... catheter is attached to a device called a port that will be under your skin. The port ...

  7. Central Neuropathic Pain Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Watson, James C; Sandroni, Paola

    2016-03-01

    Chronic pain is common in patients with neurologic complications of a central nervous system insult such as stroke. The pain is most commonly musculoskeletal or related to obligatory overuse of neurologically unaffected limbs. However, neuropathic pain can result directly from the central nervous system injury. Impaired sensory discrimination can make it challenging to differentiate central neuropathic pain from other pain types or spasticity. Central neuropathic pain may also begin months to years after the injury, further obscuring recognition of its association with a past neurologic injury. This review focuses on unique clinical features that help distinguish central neuropathic pain. The most common clinical central pain syndromes-central poststroke pain, multiple sclerosis-related pain, and spinal cord injury-related pain-are reviewed in detail. Recent progress in understanding of the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain is reviewed, and pharmacological, surgical, and neuromodulatory treatments of this notoriously difficult to treat pain syndrome are discussed. PMID:26944242

  8. Calculations in Support of JAEA ZEUS Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    James, Michael R.

    2015-05-21

    A comparison of Los Alamos National Laboratory’s model for measuring Pb void reactivity with the JAEA. Comparison: •Stacking of HEU/Pbslightly off based on different “unit stack”composition.•LANL model has no “top plate”•LANL model does not have•Small difference in Pb/Al plates: 1.212 (JAEA) cm vs 1.2cm (LANL).•Material uncertainties•Composition of Pb is the largest uncertainty. Other issues could be in composition of upper reflector, lower reflector and corner and side reflectors

  9. Teaching Braille Line Tracking Using Stimulus Fading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Line tracking is a prerequisite skill for braille literacy that involves moving one's finger horizontally across a line of braille text and identifying when a line ends so the reader may reset his or her finger on the subsequent line. Current procedures for teaching line tracking are incomplete, because they focus on tracking lines with only

  10. 49 CFR 236.726 - Circuit, track.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Circuit, track. 236.726 Section 236.726 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, track. An electrical circuit of which the rails of the track form a part....

  11. 49 CFR 236.726 - Circuit, track.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Circuit, track. 236.726 Section 236.726 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, track. An electrical circuit of which the rails of the track form a part....

  12. 49 CFR 236.726 - Circuit, track.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, track. 236.726 Section 236.726 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, track. An electrical circuit of which the rails of the track form a part....

  13. 49 CFR 236.726 - Circuit, track.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Circuit, track. 236.726 Section 236.726 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, track. An electrical circuit of which the rails of the track form a part....

  14. Track Picture Book. Elementary Science Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, David; And Others

    This picture book was designed to be used with an Elementary Science Study unit that provides opportunities for students in grades 4-6 to study animal tracks. Shown within this book are numerous examples of tracks, including those of tires, human beings, animal tracks, and others in various media, such as snow, sand, mud, dust, and cement. (CS)

  15. Office of Space Tracking and Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A brief overview of the Office of Space Tracking and Data Systems support functions is given along with a description of the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network and the Deep Space Network. Preparations for upcoming missions, wideband communications, and Tracking and Data Relay Satellite Systems are discussed.

  16. Teaching Braille Line Tracking Using Stimulus Fading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Line tracking is a prerequisite skill for braille literacy that involves moving one's finger horizontally across a line of braille text and identifying when a line ends so the reader may reset his or her finger on the subsequent line. Current procedures for teaching line tracking are incomplete, because they focus on tracking lines with only…

  17. Attentional Costs in Multiple-Object Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombu, Michael; Seiffert, Adriane E.

    2008-01-01

    Attentional demands of multiple-object tracking were demonstrated using a dual-task paradigm. Participants were asked to make speeded responses based on the pitch of a tone, while at the same time tracking four of eight identical dots. Tracking difficulty was manipulated either concurrent with or after the tone task. If increasing tracking…

  18. The Contours of Tracking in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sean

    2007-01-01

    In this analysis of North Carolina high schools the author examines school tracking policies using an amended version of Sorensen's (1970) conceptualization of the organizational dimensions of tracking. Data from curriculum guides in a stratified sample of 92 high schools reveal both consistency and variation in how tracking is implemented at the…

  19. Advances in Eye Tracking in Infancy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, McMurray and Aslin edited for "Infancy" a special section on eye tracking. The articles in that special issue revealed the enormous promise of automatic eye tracking with young infants and demonstrated that eye-tracking procedures can provide significant insight into the emergence of cognitive, social, and emotional processing in infancy.

  20. 21 CFR 1271.290 - Tracking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... must establish and maintain a system of HCT/P tracking that enables the tracking of all HCT/Ps from: (i... disposition of each of your HCT/Ps, to enable tracking from the donor to the consignee or final...

  1. SPINK, A Thin Elements Spin Tracking Code

    SciTech Connect

    Luccio, Alfredo U.

    2009-08-04

    Spink is a spin tracking code for spin polarized particles. The code tracks both trajectories in 3D and spin. It works using thick element modeling from MAD and thin element modeling based on the BMT equation to track spin. The code is written in Fortran and typically runs on a Linux platform, either sequentially or MPI-parallel.

  2. 49 CFR 236.726 - Circuit, track.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Circuit, track. 236.726 Section 236.726 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, track. An electrical circuit of which the rails of the track form a part....

  3. Detection and frequency tracking of chirping signals

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, G.R.; Stearns, S.D.

    1990-08-01

    This paper discusses several methods to detect the presence of and track the frequency of a chirping signal in broadband noise. The dynamic behavior of each of the methods is described and tracking error bounds are investigated in terms of the chirp rate. Frequency tracking and behavior in the presence of varying levels of noise are illustrated in examples. 11 refs., 29 figs.

  4. Making Conductive Polymers By Arc Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daech, Alfred F.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental technique for fabrication of electrically conductive polymeric filaments based on arc tracking, in which electrical arc creates conductive carbon track in material that initially was insulator. Electrically conductive polymeric structures made by arc tracking aligned along wire on which formed. Alignment particularly suited to high conductivity and desirable in materials intended for testing as candidate superconductors.

  5. Behaviour of dogs during olfactory tracking.

    PubMed

    Thesen, A; Steen, J B; Døving, K B

    1993-07-01

    The ability to detect the direction of a track is of vital importance to animals of prey and is retained in many modern breeds of dogs. To study this ability, four trained German shepherd tracking dogs, equipped with head microphones to transmit sniffing activity, were video-monitored after being brought at right angles to a track where the position of each footprint was known. Three phases could be recognized in the dogs' behaviour: (1) an initial searching phase, during which the dog tried to find the track, (2) a deciding phase, during which it tried to determine the direction of the track and (3) a tracking phase, in which it followed the track. During ten tests on 20-min-old tracks on grass, and ten tests on 3-min-old tracks on concrete, the dogs always followed the track in the correct direction (i.e. in the direction the track was leading). During the deciding phase the dogs moved at half the speed and their periods of sniffing lasted three times as long as during the other two phases. The deciding phase lasted 3-5 s, while the dogs sniffed at 2-5 footprints. The dogs' ability to determine track direction in this time must rely on accurate methods of sampling air and a remarkable sensitivity for certain substances. PMID:8371085

  6. Advances in Eye Tracking in Infancy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, McMurray and Aslin edited for "Infancy" a special section on eye tracking. The articles in that special issue revealed the enormous promise of automatic eye tracking with young infants and demonstrated that eye-tracking procedures can provide significant insight into the emergence of cognitive, social, and emotional processing in infancy.…

  7. Improvement of overlapping nuclear track densitometry.

    PubMed

    Ghergherehchi, M; Kim, S Y; Afarideh, H; Kim, Y S; Chai, J S

    2015-03-01

    Detection of tracks produced by α particles, protons or nuclear fission fragments in plastic detectors, viz., solid-state nuclear track detectors, constitutes a very important tool in various areas. It is not easy for humans to count CR-39 nuclear tracks manually, especially when the track density is very high. An automated computer program called KTTMS2, written in C++ and running with a user friendly interface, has been developed for recognition and parametric measurements of etched tracks in images captured from the surface of solid-state nuclear track detectors. Well-known edge detection methods were applied to estimate the precision and accuracy of nuclear track densitometry using the CR-39 detector. Among the various routine edge detection methods, the Canny method was chosen because it was the most accurate technique. Because accuracy becomes more important as the track density increases, this allows more overlapping tracks to be detected. KTTMS2 (the proposed system) has an efficiency of 95% and can identify the noise as a background track (5%). Experimental results showed that the error percentage was reduced from 7.63% to 3.23% for high-density tracks when the count was adjusted by the estimated overlapping tracks. PMID:25581623

  8. Doppler tracking of planetary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    This article concerns the measurement of Doppler shift on microwave links that connect planetary spacecraft with the Deep Space Network. Such measurements are made by tracking the Doppler effect with phase-locked loop receivers. A description of equipment and techniques as well as a summary of the appropriate mathematical models are given. The two-way Doppler shift is measured by transmitting a highly-stable microwave (uplink) carrier from a ground station, having the spacecraft coherently transpond this carrier, and using a phase-locked loop receiver at the ground station to track the returned (downlink) carrier. The largest sources of measurement error are usually plasma noise and thermal noise. The plasma noise, which may originate in the ionosphere or the solar corona, is discussed; and a technique to partially calibrate its effect, involving the use of two simultaneous downlink carriers that are coherently related, is described. Range measurements employing Doppler rate-aiding are also described.

  9. Satellite tracking of threatened species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, M.; Lunsford, A.; Ellis, D.; Robinson, J.; Coronado, P.; Campbell, W.

    1998-01-01

    In 1990, a joint effort of two U.S. federal agencies, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, began. We initially joined forces in a project that used satellite telemetry to discover the winter home of a tiny dwindling population of Siberian Cranes. Since then several projects have emerged, and a web site was created to follow some of these activities. This web site is called the Satellite Tracking of Threatened Species and its location is http://sdcd.gsfc.nasa.gov/ISTO/satellite_tracking. It describes the overall program, and links you to three subsections that describe the projects in more detail: Satellite Direct Readout, Birdtracks, and Birdworld.

  10. Acoustic tracking of migrating salmon.

    PubMed

    Kupilik, Matthew J; Petersen, Todd

    2014-10-01

    Annual salmon migrations vary significantly in annual return numbers from year to year. In order to determine when a species' sustainable return size has been met, a method for counting and sizing the spawning animals is required. This project implements a probability hypothesis density tracker on data from a dual frequency identification sonar to automate the process of counting and sizing the fish crossing an insonified area. Data processing on the sonar data creates intensity images from which possible fish locations can be extracted using image processing. These locations become the input to the tracker. The probability hypothesis density tracker then solves the multiple target tracking problem and creates fish tracks from which length information is calculated using image segmentation. The algorithm is tested on data from the 2010 salmon run on the Kenai river in Alaska and compares favorably with statistical models from sub-sampling and manual measurements. PMID:25324076

  11. Tracking Electromagnetic Energy With SQUIDs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is a gadget used to measure extremely weak signals, specifically magnetic flux. It can detect subtle changes in energy, up to 100 billion times weaker than the electromagnetic energy required to move a compass needle. SQUIDs are used for a variety of testing procedures where extreme sensitivity is required and where the test instrument need not come into direct contact with the test subject. NASA uses SQUIDs for remote, noncontact sensing in a variety of venues, including monitoring the Earth s magnetic field and tracking brain activity of pilots. Scientists at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center have been making extensive use of this technology, from astrophysical research, to tracking the navigational paths of bees in flight to determine if they are using internal compasses. These very sensitive measurement devices have a wide variety of uses within NASA and even more uses within the commercial realm.

  12. Tracking with the mind's eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, R. J.; Stone, L. S.

    1999-01-01

    The two components of voluntary tracking eye-movements in primates, pursuit and saccades, are generally viewed as relatively independent oculomotor subsystems that move the eyes in different ways using independent visual information. Although saccades have long been known to be guided by visual processes related to perception and cognition, only recently have psychophysical and physiological studies provided compelling evidence that pursuit is also guided by such higher-order visual processes, rather than by the raw retinal stimulus. Pursuit and saccades also do not appear to be entirely independent anatomical systems, but involve overlapping neural mechanisms that might be important for coordinating these two types of eye movement during the tracking of a selected visual object. Given that the recovery of objects from real-world images is inherently ambiguous, guiding both pursuit and saccades with perception could represent an explicit strategy for ensuring that these two motor actions are driven by a single visual interpretation.

  13. The MAJORANA Parts Tracking Database

    SciTech Connect

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Combs, Dustin C.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, Reyco; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Diaz Leon, J.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Petersburg, R.; Phillips II, D. G.; Poon, Alan; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Snyder, N.; Soin, Aleksandr; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Tedeschi, D.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2015-04-11

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is an ultra-low background physics experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The MAJORANA Parts Tracking Database is used to record the history of components used in the construction of the DEMONSTRATOR. Transportation, storage, and processes undergone by parts such as machining or cleaning are linked to part records. Tracking parts provides a great logistics benefit and an important quality assurance reference during construction. In addition, the location history of parts provides an estimate of their exposure to cosmic radiation. A web application for data entry and a radiation exposure calculator have been developed as tools for achieving the extreme radiopurity required for this rare decay search.

  14. Single nanoparticle tracking spectroscopic microscope

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Haw; Cang, Hu; Xu, Cangshan; Wong, Chung M.

    2011-07-19

    A system that can maintain and track the position of a single nanoparticle in three dimensions for a prolonged period has been disclosed. The system allows for continuously imaging the particle to observe any interactions it may have. The system also enables the acquisition of real-time sequential spectroscopic information from the particle. The apparatus holds great promise in performing single molecule spectroscopy and imaging on a non-stationary target.

  15. Fast track to 340B.

    PubMed

    Gricius, Robert F; Wong, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals that are newly qualified for the 340B Drug Pricing Program may have an opportunity for fast-track approval to participate in the program. Three steps are required to seize this opportunity: Use data analytics to assess current and future percentages of Medicaid utilization and eligibility for federal SSI cash benefits. Determine the feasibility of early cost report filing. Prepare appropriate documentation and undertake the initial enrollment process. PMID:26863836

  16. Infrared tag and track technique

    DOEpatents

    Partin, Judy K.; Stone, Mark L.; Slater, John; Davidson, James R.

    2007-12-04

    A method of covertly tagging an object for later tracking includes providing a material capable of at least one of being applied to the object and being included in the object, which material includes deuterium; and performing at least one of applying the material to the object and including the material in the object in a manner in which in the appearance of the object is not changed, to the naked eye.

  17. Hollow fission fragment tracks in fluorapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weixing

    Spontaneous fission of uranium in minerals creates a damaged "track" along the trajectory of the fission fragments. Fission tracks in fluorapatite, enlarged by chemical etching, are widely used in geologic age-dating and the reconstruction of the thermal history of Earth's crust. However, despite this wide spread application, there have been no systematic studies of the internal structure of unetched fission tracks or the atomic-scale process of track annealing. In this research, fission tracks in fluorapatite are demonstrated to be nano-channels instead of amorphous cores as had been assumed. The formation of hollow tracks is ascribed to the highly ionizing energy deposition of fission fragments inducing radiolytic decomposition of fluorapatite accompanied by the loss of volatile elements. The mechanism for thermal annealing of hollow tracks in fluorapatite is shown to be entirely different from that of amorphous tracks in zircon. The discontinuity of fission tracks, in addition to the shrinkage, prevents chemicals from entering into the hollow tracks for further etching, and then significantly reduces the etched length. The shrinkage of hollow fission tracks results from thermo-emission of vacancies or gaseous species from the cavities to surrounding solids instead of atomic-scale recovery of the amorphous core. The high diffusivity of atoms on the surface of hollow tracks causes the discontinuity of tracks either by Rayleigh instability, by Brownian motion, or by preferential motion of track segments. The preferential motion of atoms along c-axis causes more rapid annealing of fission tracks perpendicular to the c-axis. Under the electron beam, the hollow tracks segment into droplets and the track segments randomly move at room temperature or preferentially move along c-axis at high temperatures. The radiolytic annealing results from beam-enhanced diffusion, which is similar to thermally enhanced diffusion. The similarity in the morphology of fission tracks and electron beam-induced bubbles and their preferential elongation along c-axis at high temperatures further confirm that the tracks are actually hollow channels. The radius profile of fission track along its trajectory has been calculated. These data will be critical to developing an atomic-scale model of track fading as it applied to geologic age-dating.

  18. Centrality of Cognitive Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, William A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Develops measures of individual differences in attribute centrality, investigates convergent validity, and explores differences in central and noncentral attribute functions within same person. University students in three countries completed questionnaires. Four relative centrality measures correlated with information required to make decisions…

  19. Automated Tracking of Drosophila Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Rubén; Macía-Vázquez, Germán; Zalama, Eduardo; Gómez-García-Bermejo, Jaime; Perán, José-Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila Melanogaster has become a model organism in the study of neurobiology and behavior patterns. The analysis of the way the fly moves and its behavior is of great scientific interest for research on aspects such as drug tolerance, aggression or ageing in humans. In this article, a procedure for detecting, identifying and tracking numerous specimens of Drosophila by means of computer vision-based sensing systems is presented. This procedure allows dynamic information about each specimen to be collected at each moment, and then for its behavior to be quantitatively characterized. The proposed algorithm operates in three main steps: a pre-processing step, a detection and segmentation step, and tracking shape. The pre-processing and segmentation steps allow some limits of the image acquisition system and some visual artifacts (such as shadows and reflections) to be dealt with. The improvements introduced in the tracking step allow the problems corresponding to identity loss and swaps, caused by the interaction between individual flies, to be solved efficiently. Thus, a robust method that compares favorably to other existing methods is obtained. PMID:26258779

  20. Automated Tracking of Drosophila Specimens.

    PubMed

    Chao, Rubén; Macía-Vázquez, Germán; Zalama, Eduardo; Gómez-García-Bermejo, Jaime; Perán, José-Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila Melanogaster has become a model organism in the study of neurobiology and behavior patterns. The analysis of the way the fly moves and its behavior is of great scientific interest for research on aspects such as drug tolerance, aggression or ageing in humans. In this article, a procedure for detecting, identifying and tracking numerous specimens of Drosophila by means of computer vision-based sensing systems is presented. This procedure allows dynamic information about each specimen to be collected at each moment, and then for its behavior to be quantitatively characterized. The proposed algorithm operates in three main steps: a pre-processing step, a detection and segmentation step, and tracking shape. The pre-processing and segmentation steps allow some limits of the image acquisition system and some visual artifacts (such as shadows and reflections) to be dealt with. The improvements introduced in the tracking step allow the problems corresponding to identity loss and swaps, caused by the interaction between individual flies, to be solved efficiently. Thus, a robust method that compares favorably to other existing methods is obtained. PMID:26258779

  1. Fast Track Randomized Controlled Trial to Prevent Externalizing Psychiatric Disorders: Findings from Grades 3 to 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study tests the efficacy of the Fast Track Program in preventing antisocial behavior and psychiatric disorders among groups varying in initial risk. Method: Schools within four sites (Durham, NC; Nashville, TN; Seattle, WA; and rural central Pennsylvania) were selected as high-risk institutions based on neighborhood crime and…

  2. 6. 'Tunnel No. 6, Concrete Lining,' Southern Pacific Standard SingleTrack ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. 'Tunnel No. 6, Concrete Lining,' Southern Pacific Standard Single-Track Tunnel, ca. 1909. Compare to photos in documentation set for Tunnel 27 (HAER No. CA-203). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  3. Tracking down hyper-boosted top quarks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Maltoni, Fabio; Selvaggi, Michele

    2015-06-05

    The identification of hadronically decaying heavy states, such as vector bosons, the Higgs, or the top quark, produced with large transverse boosts has been and will continue to be a central focus of the jet physics program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At a future hadron collider working at an order-of-magnitude larger energy than the LHC, these heavy states would be easily produced with transverse boosts of several TeV. At these energies, their decay products will be separated by angular scales comparable to individual calorimeter cells, making the current jet substructure identification techniques for hadronic decay modes not directlymore » employable. In addition, at the high energy and luminosity projected at a future hadron collider, there will be numerous sources for contamination including initial- and final-state radiation, underlying event, or pile-up which must be mitigated. We propose a simple strategy to tag such "hyper-boosted" objects that defines jets with radii that scale inversely proportional to their transverse boost and combines the standard calorimetric information with charged track-based observables. By means of a fast detector simulation, we apply it to top quark identification and demonstrate that our method efficiently discriminates hadronically decaying top quarks from light QCD jets up to transverse boosts of 20 TeV. Lastly, our results open the way to tagging heavy objects with energies in the multi-TeV range at present and future hadron colliders.« less

  4. Tracking down hyper-boosted top quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Maltoni, Fabio; Selvaggi, Michele

    2015-06-05

    The identification of hadronically decaying heavy states, such as vector bosons, the Higgs, or the top quark, produced with large transverse boosts has been and will continue to be a central focus of the jet physics program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At a future hadron collider working at an order-of-magnitude larger energy than the LHC, these heavy states would be easily produced with transverse boosts of several TeV. At these energies, their decay products will be separated by angular scales comparable to individual calorimeter cells, making the current jet substructure identification techniques for hadronic decay modes not directly employable. In addition, at the high energy and luminosity projected at a future hadron collider, there will be numerous sources for contamination including initial- and final-state radiation, underlying event, or pile-up which must be mitigated. We propose a simple strategy to tag such "hyper-boosted" objects that defines jets with radii that scale inversely proportional to their transverse boost and combines the standard calorimetric information with charged track-based observables. By means of a fast detector simulation, we apply it to top quark identification and demonstrate that our method efficiently discriminates hadronically decaying top quarks from light QCD jets up to transverse boosts of 20 TeV. Lastly, our results open the way to tagging heavy objects with energies in the multi-TeV range at present and future hadron colliders.

  5. Nanoparticles and clinically applicable cell tracking.

    PubMed

    Bernsen, Monique R; Guenoun, Jamal; van Tiel, Sandra T; Krestin, Gabriel P

    2015-10-01

    In vivo cell tracking has emerged as a much sought after tool for design and monitoring of cell-based treatment strategies. Various techniques are available for pre-clinical animal studies, from which much has been learned and still can be learned. However, there is also a need for clinically translatable techniques. Central to in vivo cell imaging is labelling of cells with agents that can give rise to signals in vivo, that can be detected and measured non-invasively. The current imaging technology of choice for clinical translation is MRI in combination with labelling of cells with magnetic agents. The main challenge encountered during the cell labelling procedure is to efficiently incorporate the label into the cell, such that the labelled cells can be imaged at high sensitivity for prolonged periods of time, without the labelling process affecting the functionality of the cells. In this respect, nanoparticles offer attractive features since their structure and chemical properties can be modified to facilitate cellular incorporation and because they can carry a high payload of the relevant label into cells. While these technologies have already been applied in clinical trials and have increased the understanding of cell-based therapy mechanism, many challenges are still faced. PMID:26248872

  6. Tracking down hyper-boosted top quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Maltoni, Fabio; Selvaggi, Michele

    2015-06-01

    The identification of hadronically decaying heavy states, such as vector bosons, the Higgs, or the top quark, produced with large transverse boosts has been and will continue to be a central focus of the jet physics program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At a future hadron collider working at an order-of-magnitude larger energy than the LHC, these heavy states would be easily produced with transverse boosts of several TeV. At these energies, their decay products will be separated by angular scales comparable to individual calorimeter cells, making the current jet substructure identification techniques for hadronic decay modes not directly employable. In addition, at the high energy and luminosity projected at a future hadron collider, there will be numerous sources for contamination including initial- and final-state radiation, underlying event, or pile-up which must be mitigated. We propose a simple strategy to tag such "hyper-boosted" objects that defines jets with radii that scale inversely proportional to their transverse boost and combines the standard calorimetric information with charged track-based observables. By means of a fast detector simulation, we apply it to top quark identification and demonstrate that our method efficiently discriminates hadronically decaying top quarks from light QCD jets up to transverse boosts of 20 TeV. Our results open the way to tagging heavy objects with energies in the multi-TeV range at present and future hadron colliders.

  7. The design of the AMY central drift chamber and performance in a 3 T magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, K.; Zheng, H. W.; Back, C.; Blanis, D.; Eno, S.; Haelen, T.; Ho, Y. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Mori, T.; Olsen, S. L.; Shaw, N. M.; Thorndike, E. H.; Edwards, J.; Rosenfeld, C.; Higashi, Y.; Kobayashi, Y.

    1992-12-01

    The AMY detector requires a central tracking device that performs well in a 3 T magnetic field and is transparent to X-rays with energy of order 10 keV. The AMY central drift chamber, which fulfills these objectives, incorporates a high density of cells and low-Z structural materials. The design, construction, calibration, and performance of this chamber are discussed.

  8. Subnanoradian, Groundbased Tracking of Spaceborne Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treuhaft, R. N.

    1993-01-01

    Over the next few decades groundbased tracking of lasers on planetary spacecraft will supplement or replace tracking of radio transponders. This paper describes research on two candidate technologies for groundbased, angular, laser tracking: the infrared interferometer and the optical filled-aperture telescope. The motivation for infrared and optical tracking will be followed by a description of the current (10-50 nanoradian) and future (subnanororadian) stellar tracking demonstrations with the University of California-Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer (ISI) and the University of California-San Diego Optical Ronchi Telescope.

  9. Application of the Strong Tracking UKF in the Maneuvering Target Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caifa, GUO; Zhengxu, DAI; Lei, YANG; Xuliang, WANG

    2016-02-01

    Maneuvering target tracking is one of the key technologies in the space tracking system. The strong tracking unscented Kalman filter is presented for the data processing which uses a fading factor in the state estimation. Using the current statistical model, the strong tracking UKF is tested with the real data obtained in a mission measured by the space tracking ship. Simulation results show the good performance of the proposed method.

  10. Design of a photovoltaic central power station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    Photovoltaic central power station designs have been developed for both high-efficiency flat-panel arrays and two-axis tracking concentrator arrays. Both designs are based on a site adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The plants are 100 MW each, made of 5 MW subfields. The site specific designs allow detailed cost estimate for site preparation, installation, and engineering. These designs are summarized and cost estimates analyzed. Provided also are recommendations for future work to reduce system cost for each plant design.

  11. Manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Niehorster, Diederick C.; Siu, Wilfred W. F.; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit eye movements only when tracking a self-driven or a predictable moving target. Here, we used a control-theoretic approach to examine whether concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit of an unpredictable moving target. In the eye-hand tracking condition, participants used their eyes to track a Gaussian target that moved randomly along a horizontal axis. In the meantime, they used their dominant hand to move a mouse to control the horizontal movement of a Gaussian cursor to vertically align it with the target. In the eye-alone tracking condition, the target and cursor positions recorded in the eye-hand tracking condition were replayed, and participants only performed eye tracking of the target. Catch-up saccades were identified and removed from the recorded eye movements, allowing for a frequency-response analysis of the smooth pursuit response to unpredictable target motion. We found that the overall smooth pursuit gain was higher and the number of catch-up saccades made was less when eye tracking was accompanied by manual tracking than when not. We conclude that concurrent manual tracking enhances smooth pursuit. This enhancement is a fundamental property of eye-hand coordination that occurs regardless of the predictability of the target motion. PMID:26605840

  12. Porous fission fragment tracks in fluorapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Li Weixing; Ewing, Rodney C.; Wang Lumin; Sun Kai; Lang, Maik; Trautmann, Christina

    2010-10-01

    Fission tracks caused by the spontaneous fission of {sup 238}U in minerals, as revealed by chemical etching, are extensively used to determine the age and thermal history of Earth's crust. Details of the structure and annealing of tracks at the atomic scale have remained elusive, as the original track is destroyed during chemical etching. By combining transmission electron microscopy with in situ heating, we demonstrate that fission tracks in fluorapatite are actually porous tubes, instead of having an amorphous core, as generally assumed. Direct observation shows thermally induced track fragmentation in fluoapatite, in clear contrast to the amorphous tracks in zircon, which gradually ''fade'' without fragmentation. Rayleigh instability and the thermal emission of vacancies control the annealing of porous fission tracks in fluorapatite.

  13. The coordinate systems used in visual tracking

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Piers D. L.; Pinto, Yair; Horowitz, Todd S.

    2010-01-01

    Tracking moving objects is a fundamental attentional operation. Here we ask which coordinate system is used to track objects: retinal (retinotopic), scene-centered (allocentric), or both? Observers tracked three of six disks that were confined to move within an imaginary square. By moving either the imaginary square (and thus the disks contained within), the fixation cross, or both, we could dramatically increase the disks' speeds in one coordinate system while leaving them unchanged in the other, so as to impair tracking in only one coordinate system at a time. Hindering tracking in either coordinate system reduced tracking ability by an equal amount, suggesting that observers are compelled to use both coordinate systems and cannot choose to track only in the unimpaired coordinate system. PMID:20887744

  14. Improved Method for Point-Based Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Danilchenko, Andrei; Wiles, Andrew D.; Balachandran, Ramya; Fitzpatrick, J. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Image-guided surgery systems have a wide range of applications where the level of accuracy required for each application varies from millimeters to low sub-millimeter range. In systems that use optical tracking, it is typical to use point-based registration without any weighting schemes to determine the pose of the tracked tool with very good accuracy. However, recent advancements in methods to estimate the measurement uncertainty for each tracked marker and the development of an anisotropically weighted point-based registration algorithm have allowed for the optical tracking accuracy to be improved. In this article, we demonstrate a new tracking method that improves the tracking accuracy by 20 – 45% over the traditional tracking methodology. PMID:20879448

  15. Computer program TRACK_VISION for simulating optical appearance of etched tracks in CR-39 nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikezic, D.; Yu, K. N.

    2008-04-01

    A computer program called TRACK_VISION for determining the optical appearances of tracks in nuclear track materials resulted from light-ion irradiation and subsequent chemical etching was described. A previously published software, TRACK_TEST, was the starting point for the present software TRACK_VISION, which contained TRACK_TEST as its subset. The programming steps were outlined. Descriptions of the program were given, including the built-in V functions for the commonly employed nuclear track material commercially known as CR-39 (polyallyldiglycol carbonate) irradiated by alpha particles. Program summaryProgram title: TRACK_VISION Catalogue identifier: AEAF_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAF_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4084 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 71 117 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90 Computer: Pentium PC Operating system: Windows 95+ RAM: 256 MB Classification: 17.5, 18 External routines: The entire code must be linked with the MSFLIB library. MSFLib is a collection of C and C++ modules which provides a general framework for processing IBM's AFP datastream. MSFLIB is specific to Visual Fortran (Digital, Compaq or Intel flavors). Nature of problem: Nuclear track detectors are commonly used for radon measurements through studying the tracks generated by the incident alpha particles. Optical microscopes are often used for this purpose but the process is relatively tedious and time consuming. Several automatic and semi-automatic systems have been developed in order to facilitate determination of track densities. In all these automatic systems, the optical appearance of the tracks is important. However, not much has been done so far to obtaining the optical appearances of etched tracks. Solution method: A computer program is prepared to study the optical characteristics of tracks in the CR-39 nuclear track detector using the ray tracing method. Based on geometrical optics, light propagation through the tracks is simulated and the brightness of all grid elements in the track wall is calculated. Additional comments: The program distribution file contains an executable which enables the program to be run on a Windows machine. The source code is also provided, but in order to build an executable the MSFLIB must be available. Running time: Running time depends mainly on the resolution (number of grid elements in the track wall) required by the user. Running time is normally less than 1 min.

  16. Martian Central Pit Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillman, E.; Barlow, N. G.

    2005-01-01

    Impact craters containing central pits are rare on the terrestrial planets but common on icy bodies. Mars is the exception among the terrestrial planets, where central pits are seen on crater floors ( floor pits ) as well as on top of central peaks ( summit pits ). Wood et al. [1] proposed that degassing of subsurface volatiles during crater formation produced central pits. Croft [2] argued instead that central pits might form during the impact of volatile-rich comets. Although central pits are seen in impact craters on icy moons such as Ganymede, they do show some significant differences from their martian counterparts: (a) only floor pits are seen on Ganymede, and (b) central pits begin to occur at crater diameters where the peak ring interior morphology begins to appear in terrestrial planet craters [3]. A study of craters containing central pits was conducted by Barlow and Bradley [4] using Viking imagery. They found that 28% of craters displaying an interior morphology on Mars contain central pits. Diameters of craters containing central pits ranged from 16 to 64 km. Barlow and Bradley noted that summit pit craters tended to be smaller than craters containing floor pits. They also noted a correlation of central pit craters with the proposed rings of large impact basins. They argued that basin ring formation fractured the martian crust and allowed subsurface volatiles to concentrate in these locations. They favored the model that degassing of the substrate during crater formation was responsible for central pit formation due to the preferential location of central pit craters along these basin rings.

  17. Sensor-based animal tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Andrew

    The advent of Global Positioning System (GPS) technologies has provided wildlife researchers with new insights into the movement and habitat utilization patterns of wildlife species by being able to provide vast quantities of detailed location data. However, current wildlife tracking techniques have numerous limitations, as GPS locations can be biased to an unknown extent because animals move through habitats that are often denied GPS signals. This can result in some habitat types being under sampled or not sampled at all. Additionally, researchers using GPS tracking systems cannot understand what behaviour an animal is exhibiting at each GPS position without either relying on extensive field data or statistical techniques that may infer behaviour. Overall these issues, and others, limit the knowledge that can be derived from the data currently being collected by GPS collars alone. To address these limitations, a dead reckoning solution (called the NavAid) has been developed to augment GPS tracking collars, which enables both the acquisition of continuous movement trajectories for animals under study, and the collection of digital images on a user-defined schedule along travel routes. Analysis of an animal's velocity allows one to identify different types of movement behaviours that can be associated with foraging, searching for food, and locomotion between patches. In addition, the ability to capture continuous paths allows researchers to identify habitat that is important to a species, and habitat that is not---something that is not possible when relying solely on GPS. This new system weighs approximately 220 g and can be deployed on most conventional collar systems for a wide range of species. This thesis presents the research and development of this new system over the past four years, along with preliminary findings from field work carried out on grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the foothills of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Analysis of tracking data suggests that animals select different types of habitat for different purposes, that foraging occurs at movement rates of less than 52m/minute, searching for food between movement rates of 52 m/minute and 223 m/minute and locomotion, or active walking between foraging sites at movement rates greater than 223 m/minute.

  18. Progress in satellite tracking cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Smith, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Fuller, M.R.; Landfried, S.E.; Higuchi, H.; Vermillion, C.H.

    1992-01-01

    We review the history of tracking cranes with satellite telemetry and identify some of the difficulties in designing satellite transmitters and harnesses for cranes. Miniaturization of these transmitters and a plethora of harnessing experiments since 1989 allow us to recommend limited application of this technology to all species of cranes. We are still uncertain, however, if cranes harnessed with satellite telemetry devices are able to reproduce after migration. Because of this uncertainty, we urge caution in the use of this technology, especially with breeding adults in severely endangered populations. This manuscript also describes continuing research needs.

  19. Tracking system for solar collectors

    DOEpatents

    Butler, B.

    1980-10-01

    A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

  20. Tracking system for solar collectors

    DOEpatents

    Butler, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

  1. Particle displacement tracking for PIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1990-01-01

    A new Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) data acquisition and analysis system, which is an order of magnitude faster than any previously proposed system has been constructed and tested. The new Particle Displacement Tracing (PDT) system is an all electronic technique employing a video camera and a large memory buffer frame-grabber board. Using a simple encoding scheme, a time sequence of single exposure images are time coded into a single image and then processed to track particle displacements and determine velocity vectors. Application of the PDT technique to a counter-rotating vortex flow produced over 1100 velocity vectors in 110 seconds when processed on an 80386 PC.

  2. Particle Tracking of Fluorescent Microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Zofia; Mueller, Joachim; Berk, Serkan

    2010-10-01

    In this research, the diffusion coefficients of the fluorescent microspheres and the relation of those coefficients to particle radius were investigated. An additional focus was to see how well the measured radius of the microspheres compared to the radius as reported by the manufacturer and to measure the distribution of radii in a sample. This study further developed the critical process of ensuring particle movement within the sample volume and made preliminary sample measurements.The methods developed for tracking microspheres will later be used to determine the radii of virus like particles (VLPs), which are a non-infectious model system of the HIV virus. Results from our measurements will be reported.

  3. Multiple lesion track structure model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.

    1992-01-01

    A multilesion cell kinetic model is derived, and radiation kinetic coefficients are related to the Katz track structure model. The repair-related coefficients are determined from the delayed plating experiments of Yang et al. for the C3H10T1/2 cell system. The model agrees well with the x ray and heavy ion experiments of Yang et al. for the immediate plating, delaying plating, and fractionated exposure protocols employed by Yang. A study is made of the effects of target fragments in energetic proton exposures and of the repair-deficient target-fragment-induced lesions.

  4. NASA tracking ship navigation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenna, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    The ship position and attitude measurement system that was installed aboard the tracking ship Vanguard is described. An overview of the entire system is given along with a description of how precise time and frequency is utilized. The instrumentation is broken down into its basic components. Particular emphasis is given to the inertial navigation system. Each navigation system used, a mariner star tracker, navigation satellite system, Loran C and OMEGA in conjunction with the inertial system is described. The accuracy of each system is compared along with their limitations.

  5. Robotic Target-Tracking Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shawaga, Lawrence M.

    1989-01-01

    Position and orientation of target measured in six degrees of freedom. Robotic vision subsystem measures relative position and orientation of specially designed target. Uses standard image-processing algorithms implemented directly in circuitry instead of computer programs. This feature makes it possible to extract complete sets of target-tracking data from successive image frames at rate of 30 frames per second. Five bright circles of target positioned in such way that video images of them processed into data on position and orientation of target relative to camera. Subsystem useful in industrial assembly operation requiring automatic joining of parts initially oriented and moving randomly.

  6. Design of photovoltaic central power station concentrator array

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using tracking concentrators has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes an advanced Martin Marietta two-axis tracking fresnel lens concentrator. The concentrators are arrayed in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic plant output is connected to the existing 115 kV switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  7. Visual tracking for mobile robot pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witus, Gary; Karlsen, Robert; Overholt, James; Gerhart, Grant

    2005-10-01

    This research is part of a broader effort to develop a supervisory control system for small robot navigation. Previous research and development focused on a "one-touch, point-and-go" navigation control system using visual homing. In the current research, we have begun to investigate visual tracking methods to extend supervisory control to tasks involving tracking and pursuit of a moving object. Ground-to-ground tracking of arbitrary targets in natural and damaged environments is challenging. Automatic tracking is expected to fail due to line-of-sight obstruction, lighting gradients, rapid changes in perspective and orientation, etc. In supervisory control, the automatic tracker needs able to alert the operator when it is at risk of losing track or when it may have already lost track, and do so with a low false alarm rate. The focus of the current research is on detecting tracking failure during pursuit. We are attempting to develop approaches to detecting failure that can integrate different low-level tracking algorithms. In this paper, we demonstrate stereo vision methods for pursuit tracking and examine several indicators of track loss in field experiments with a variety of moving targets in natural environment.

  8. Segmentation of Tracking Sequences Using Dynamically Updated Adaptive Learning

    PubMed Central

    Michailovich, Oleg; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2009-01-01

    The problem of segmentation of tracking sequences is of central importance in a multitude of applications. In the current paper, a different approach to the problem is discussed. Specifically, the proposed segmentation algorithm is implemented in conjunction with estimation of the dynamic parameters of moving objects represented by the tracking sequence. While the information on objects’ motion allows one to transfer some valuable segmentation priors along the tracking sequence, the segmentation allows substantially reducing the complexity of motion estimation, thereby facilitating the computation. Thus, in the proposed methodology, the processes of segmentation and motion estimation work simultaneously, in a sort of “collaborative” manner. The Bayesian estimation framework is used here to perform the segmentation, while Kalman filtering is used to estimate the motion and to convey useful segmentation information along the image sequence. The proposed method is demonstrated on a number of both computed-simulated and real-life examples, and the obtained results indicate its advantages over some alternative approaches. PMID:19004712

  9. Tracking Sensor Developments For Optical Intersatellite Links - An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purll, David J.; Mathur, Rajul P.

    1990-04-01

    Optical communication between satellites in orbit requires highly accurate tracking of an incoming laser beam, to allow the generation of necessary control signals for the pointing mechanisms. For the SILEX system planned by ESA the tracking sensor is required to determine the position of the centre of the focused laser spot with a la noise error within 0.1,um on the CCD detector (equivalent to a mispointing of 0.07μrad), for the nominal bandwidth of 8kHz and the minimum optical power of 110pw. This implies the determination of the centre position to small sub-pixel accuracies, achieved via mathematical interpolation from the fractions of the optical signal falling in the centre 4 pixels. This paper updates a previous paper'. It discusses the development of the tracking sensor breadboards by BAe and Sira. The detector unit, which uses the new 14x14 pixel CCD developed by Thomson-CSF, provides for fine adjustments of the CCD position. It also houses the electronics for CCD output buffering and amplification. The electronics unit carries out the processing of the video signal, to determine the coarse position of the spot over the 14x14 pixel area, and a very accurate position over the central 2x2 pixel area via an algorithm executed in a microprocessor. The paper presents some performance results including new results from the second breadboard, and routes to the design of flight sensors.

  10. ORTHO- ELIMINATION OF TRACKING SYSTEM CLOCK ERRORS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    ORTHO is part of the Global Positioning System (GPS) being developed by the U.S. Air Force, a navigational system that will use 18 NAVSTAR satellites to broadcast navigation messages and achieve worldwide coverage. The normal positioning technique uses one receiver which receives signals from at least four GPS satellites. For higher accuracy work it is often necessary to use a differential technique in which more than one receiver is used. The geodetic measurement has all receivers on the ground and allows the determination of the relative locations of the ground sites. The main application of the ORTHO program is in the elimination of clock errors in a GPS based tracking system. The measured distance (pseudo-range) from a GPS receiver contains errors due to differences in the receiver and satellite clocks. The conventional way of eliminating clock errors is to difference pseudo-ranges between different GPS satellites and receivers. The Householder transformation used in this program performs a function similar to the conventional single differencing or double differencing. This method avoids the problem of redundancy and correlation encountered in a differencing scheme. It is able to keep all information contained in the measurements within the scope of a least square estimation. For multiple transmitter and receiver GPS tracking network, this method is in general more accurate than the differencing technique. This program assumes that the non-clock measurement partial derivatives for the particular application are computed earlier by another program. With the partial derivatives and information to identify the transmitters and receivers as the input, the program performs the Householder transformation on the partial derivatives. The transformed partials are output by the program and may be used as an input to the filter program in the subsequent estimation process. Clock partial derivatives are generated internally and are not part of the input to the program. ORTHO is written completely in FORTRAN 77 on the DEC VAX operating under VMS 4.5 and requires 805K of central memory. LINPACK, a public domain subroutine package distributed by Argonne National Laboratory and IMSL subroutine library, is required. ORTHO was released in 1988.

  11. Central line complications

    PubMed Central

    Kornbau, Craig; Lee, Kathryn C; Hughes, Gwendolyn D; Firstenberg, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Central venous access is a common procedure performed in many clinical settings for a variety of indications. Central lines are not without risk, and there are a multitude of complications that are associated with their placement. Complications can present in an immediate or delayed fashion and vary based on type of central venous access. Significant morbidity and mortality can result from complications related to central venous access. These complications can cause a significant healthcare burden in cost, hospital days, and patient quality of life. Advances in imaging, access technique, and medical devices have reduced and altered the types of complications encountered in clinical practice; but most complications still center around vascular injury, infection, and misplacement. Recognition and management of central line complications is important when caring for patients with vascular access, but prevention is the ultimate goal. This article discusses common and rare complications associated with central venous access, as well as techniques to recognize, manage, and prevent complications. PMID:26557487

  12. Implementation and experimental results of 4D tumor tracking using robotic couch

    SciTech Connect

    Buzurovic, I.; Yu, Y.; Werner-Wasik, M.; Biswas, T.; Anne, P. R.; Dicker, A. P.; Podder, T. K.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: This study presents the implementation and experimental results of a novel technique for 4D tumor tracking using a commercially available and commonly used treatment couch and evaluates the tumor tracking accuracy in clinical settings. Methods: Commercially available couch is capable of positioning the patient accurately; however, currently there is no provision for compensating physiological movement using the treatment couch in real-time. In this paper, a real-time couch tracking control technique is presented together with experimental results in tumor motion compensation in four dimensions (superior-inferior, lateral, anterior-posterior, and time). To implement real-time couch motion for tracking, a novel control system for the treatment couch was developed. The primary functional requirements for this novel technique were: (a) the treatment couch should maintain all previous/normal features for patient setup and positioning, (b) the new control system should be used as a parallel system when tumor tracking would be deployed, and (c) tracking could be performed in a single direction and/or concurrently in all three directions of the couch motion (longitudinal, lateral, and vertical). To the authors' best knowledge, the implementation of such technique to a regular treatment couch for tumor tracking has not been reported so far. To evaluate the performance of the tracking couch, we investigated the mechanical characteristics of the system such as system positioning resolution, repeatability, accuracy, and tracking performance. Performance of the tracking system was evaluated using dosimetric test as an endpoint. To investigate the accuracy of real-time tracking in the clinical setting, the existing clinical treatment couch was replaced with our experimental couch and the linear accelerator was used to deliver 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans with and without tracking. The results of radiation dose distribution from these two sets of experiments were compared and presented here. Results: The mechanical accuracies were 0.12, 0.14, and 0.18 mm in X, Y, and Z directions. The repeatability of the desired motion was within {+-}0.2 mm. The differences of central axis dose between the 3D-CRT stationary plan and two tracking plans with different motion trajectories were 0.21% and 1.19%. The absolute dose differences of both 3D tracking plans comparing to the stationary plan were 1.09% and 1.20%. Comparing the stationary IMRT plan with the tracking IMRT plan, it was observed that the central axis dose difference was -0.87% and the absolute difference of both IMRT plans was 0.55%. Conclusions: The experimental results revealed that the treatment couch could be successfully used for real-time tumor tracking with a high level of accuracy. It was demonstrated that 4D tumor tracking was feasible using existing couch with implementation of appropriate tracking methodology and with modifications in the control system.

  13. Tracking and Sense of Futility: The Impact of Between-School Tracking versus Within-School Tracking in Secondary Education in Flanders (Belgium)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Houtte, Mieke; Stevens, Peter A. J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been established since the 1960s that tracking yields negative consequences for students in lower tracks. As this research has been carried out mainly in the USA and UK, the effects of tracking have been demonstrated in systems of within-school tracking mostly. However, in many European countries--such as Belgium (Flanders)--tracking is…

  14. Launch vehicle tracking enhancement through Global Positioning System Metric Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. C.; Li, Hanchu; Gray, T.; Doran, A.

    United Launch Alliance (ULA) initiated operational flights of both the Atlas V and Delta IV launch vehicle families in 2002. The Atlas V and Delta IV launch vehicles were developed jointly with the US Air Force (USAF) as part of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) program. Both Launch Vehicle (LV) families have provided 100% mission success since their respective inaugural launches and demonstrated launch capability from both Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) on the Western Test Range and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) on the Eastern Test Range. However, the current EELV fleet communications, tracking, & control architecture & technology, which date back to the origins of the space launch business, require support by a large and high cost ground footprint. The USAF has embarked on an initiative known as Future Flight Safety System (FFSS) that will significantly reduce Test Range Operations and Maintenance (O& M) cost by closing facilities and decommissioning ground assets. In support of the FFSS, a Global Positioning System Metric Tracking (GPS MT) System based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite constellation has been developed for EELV which will allow both Ranges to divest some of their radar assets. The Air Force, ULA and Space Vector have flown the first 2 Atlas Certification vehicles demonstrating the successful operation of the GPS MT System. The first Atlas V certification flight was completed in February 2012 from CCAFS, the second Atlas V certification flight from VAFB was completed in September 2012 and the third certification flight on a Delta IV was completed October 2012 from CCAFS. The GPS MT System will provide precise LV position, velocity and timing information that can replace ground radar tracking resource functionality. The GPS MT system will provide an independent position/velocity S-Band telemetry downlink to support the current man-in-the-loop ground-based commanded destruct of an anomalous flight- The system utilizes a 50 channel digital receiver capable of navigating in high dynamic environments and high altitudes fed by antennas mounted diametrically opposed on the second stage airframe skin. To enhance cost effectiveness, the GPS MT System design implemented existing commercial parts and common environmental and interface requirements for both EELVs. The EELV GPS MT System design is complete, successfully qualified and has demonstrated that the system performs as simulated. This paper summarizes the current development status, system cost comparison, and performance capabilities of the EELV GPS MT System.

  15. Satellite Tracking Astrometric Network (STAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchiato, Alberto; Gai, Mario

    2015-08-01

    The possibility of precise orbit tracking and determination of different types of satellites has been explored for at least some 25 years (Arimoto et al., 1990). Proposals in this sense made use mainly of astrometric observations, but multiple tracking techniques combining transfer and laser ranging was also suggested (Guo et al., 2009; Montojo et al., 2011), with different requirements and performances ranging from $\\sim100$~m to tenths of meters.In this work we explore the possible improvements and a novel implementation of a technique relying on large angle, high precision astrometry from ground for the determination of satellite orbits. The concept is based on combined observation of geostationary satellites and other near-Earth space objects from two or more telescopes, applying the triangulation principle over widely separated regions of the sky. An accuracy of a few $10^{-2}$~m can be attained with 1-meter-class telescopes and a field of vied of some arcminutes.We discuss the feasibility of the technique, some of the implementation aspects, and the limitations imposed by atmospheric turbulence. The potential benefits for satellite orbit control and navigation systems are presented, depending on the number and position of the contributing telescopes.We also discuss the possibility that, by reversing the roles of stars and satellites, the same kind of observations can be used for verification and maintenance of astrometric catalogs.

  16. Subaru FATS (fault tracking system)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winegar, Tom W.; Noumaru, Junichi

    2000-07-01

    The Subaru Telescope requires a fault tracking system to record the problems and questions that staff experience during their work, and the solutions provided by technical experts to these problems and questions. The system records each fault and routes it to a pre-selected 'solution-provider' for each type of fault. The solution provider analyzes the fault and writes a solution that is routed back to the fault reporter and recorded in a 'knowledge-base' for future reference. The specifications of our fault tracking system were unique. (1) Dual language capacity -- Our staff speak both English and Japanese. Our contractors speak Japanese. (2) Heterogeneous computers -- Our computer workstations are a mixture of SPARCstations, Macintosh and Windows computers. (3) Integration with prime contractors -- Mitsubishi and Fujitsu are primary contractors in the construction of the telescope. In many cases, our 'experts' are our contractors. (4) Operator scheduling -- Our operators spend 50% of their work-month operating the telescope, the other 50% is spent working day shift at the base facility in Hilo, or day shift at the summit. We plan for 8 operators, with a frequent rotation. We need to keep all operators informed on the current status of all faults, no matter the operator's location.

  17. Tracking and activity recognition through consensus in distributed camera networks.

    PubMed

    Song, Bi; Kamal, Ahmed T; Soto, Cristian; Ding, Chong; Farrell, Jay A; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K

    2010-10-01

    Camera networks are being deployed for various applications like security and surveillance, disaster response and environmental modeling. However, there is little automated processing of the data. Moreover, most methods for multicamera analysis are centralized schemes that require the data to be present at a central server. In many applications, this is prohibitively expensive, both technically and economically. In this paper, we investigate distributed scene analysis algorithms by leveraging upon concepts of consensus that have been studied in the context of multiagent systems, but have had little applications in video analysis. Each camera estimates certain parameters based upon its own sensed data which is then shared locally with the neighboring cameras in an iterative fashion, and a final estimate is arrived at in the network using consensus algorithms. We specifically focus on two basic problems-tracking and activity recognition. For multitarget tracking in a distributed camera network, we show how the Kalman-Consensus algorithm can be adapted to take into account the directional nature of video sensors and the network topology. For the activity recognition problem, we derive a probabilistic consensus scheme that combines the similarity scores of neighboring cameras to come up with a probability for each action at the network level. Thorough experimental results are shown on real data along with a quantitative analysis. PMID:20550994

  18. Fluoroscopic tracking of multiple implanted fiducial markers using multiple object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaoli; Sharp, Greg C.; Jiang, Steve B.

    2007-07-01

    When treating mobile tumors using techniques such as beam gating or beam tracking, precise localization of tumor position is required, which is often realized by fluoroscopically tracking implanted fiducial markers. Multiple markers placed inside or near a tumor are often preferred to a single marker for the sake of accuracy. In this work, we propose a marker tracking system that can track multiple markers simultaneously, without confusing them, and that is also robust enough to continue tracking even when the markers are moving behind bony anatomy. The integrated radiotherapy imaging system (IRIS), developed at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), was used to take fluoroscopy videos for marker tracking. The tracking system integrates marker detection with a multiple object tracking process, inspired by the multiple hypothesis marker tracking (MHT) process. It also utilizes breathing pattern information to help tracking. Four criteria are used to identify tracking failure, and when tracking failure occurs, the system can immediately inform the user. (In the clinical environment, the system would immediately disable the treatment beam.) In this paper, two liver patients with implanted fiducial markers were studied, and the studies were performed retrospectively to assess the effectiveness of the new tracking system. For both patients, LAT and AP fluoroscopic videos were studied. In order to better test the proposed tracking system, artificial markers were added around the real markers to disturb the tracking of the real markers. The performance of the proposed system was compared to that of a conventional tracking system (one that did not use multiple object tracking). The performance of the new system was also investigated with and without consideration of the breathing pattern information. We found that the conventional tracking system can easily miss tracking markers in the presence of artificial markers, and it cannot detect the tracking failures. On the other hand, our proposed system can track markers well and can also successfully detect tracking failures. Failure rate was calculated on a per-frame-per-marker basis for the proposed tracking system. When the system considered breathing pattern information, it had a 0% failure rate 75% of the time and 0.4% failure rate 25% of the time. However, when the system did not consider breathing patterns, it had a much higher failure rate, in the range of 1.2%-12%. Both examples of the proposed system yielded low e95 (the maximum marker tracking error at 95% confidence level)—less than 1.5 mm.

  19. Markerless tumor tracking using short kilovoltage imaging arcs for lung image-guided radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Chun-Chien; Keall, Paul J; Kuncic, Zdenka; Huang, Chen-Yu; Feain, Ilana

    2015-12-21

    The ability to monitor tumor motion without implanted markers is clinically advantageous for lung image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Existing markerless tracking methods often suffer from overlapping structures and low visibility of tumors on kV projection images. We introduce the short arc tumor tracking (SATT) method to overcome these issues. The proposed method utilizes multiple kV projection images selected from a nine-degree imaging arc to improve tumor localization, and respiratory-correlated 4D cone-beam CT (CBCT) prior knowledge to minimize the effects of overlapping anatomies. The 3D tumor position is solved as an optimization problem with prior knowledge incorporated via regularization. We retrospectively validated SATT on 11 clinical scans from four patients with central tumors. These patients represent challenging scenarios for markerless tumor tracking due to the inferior adjacent contrast. The 3D trajectories of implanted fiducial markers were used as the ground truth for tracking accuracy evaluation. In all cases, the tumors were successfully tracked at all gantry angles. Compared to standard pre-treatment CBCT guidance alone, trajectory errors were significantly smaller with tracking in all cases, and the improvements were the most prominent in the superior-inferior direction. The mean 3D tracking error ranged from 2.2-9.9 mm, which was 0.4-2.6 mm smaller compared to pre-treatment CBCT. In conclusion, we were able to directly track tumors with inferior visibility on kV projection images using SATT. Tumor localization accuracies are significantly better with tracking compared to the current standard of care of lung IGRT. Future work involves the prospective evaluation and clinical implementation of SATT. PMID:26583772

  20. Markerless tumor tracking using short kilovoltage imaging arcs for lung image-guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shieh, Chun-Chien; Keall, Paul J.; Kuncic, Zdenka; Huang, Chen-Yu; Feain, Ilana

    2015-12-01

    The ability to monitor tumor motion without implanted markers is clinically advantageous for lung image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Existing markerless tracking methods often suffer from overlapping structures and low visibility of tumors on kV projection images. We introduce the short arc tumor tracking (SATT) method to overcome these issues. The proposed method utilizes multiple kV projection images selected from a nine-degree imaging arc to improve tumor localization, and respiratory-correlated 4D cone-beam CT (CBCT) prior knowledge to minimize the effects of overlapping anatomies. The 3D tumor position is solved as an optimization problem with prior knowledge incorporated via regularization. We retrospectively validated SATT on 11 clinical scans from four patients with central tumors. These patients represent challenging scenarios for markerless tumor tracking due to the inferior adjacent contrast. The 3D trajectories of implanted fiducial markers were used as the ground truth for tracking accuracy evaluation. In all cases, the tumors were successfully tracked at all gantry angles. Compared to standard pre-treatment CBCT guidance alone, trajectory errors were significantly smaller with tracking in all cases, and the improvements were the most prominent in the superior-inferior direction. The mean 3D tracking error ranged from 2.2-9.9 mm, which was 0.4-2.6 mm smaller compared to pre-treatment CBCT. In conclusion, we were able to directly track tumors with inferior visibility on kV projection images using SATT. Tumor localization accuracies are significantly better with tracking compared to the current standard of care of lung IGRT. Future work involves the prospective evaluation and clinical implementation of SATT.

  1. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, K.C.

    1992-12-08

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion. 16 figs.

  2. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    1992-01-01

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion.

  3. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion.

  4. An intelligent multi-target tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyerdahl, E.

    1987-07-01

    An implementation of a general tracking system, integrating the target acquisition and tracking subsystems, was developed. It is based on image analysis and extensive use of models. The system permits improvements compared to in-service trackers in the sense that it enables multi-target tracking, automatic acquisition also during tracking and tracking through obscurations. The system is an implementation of a general tracking system. This system produces alternative estimates of a target and projects the corresponding objects into the image plane. To do this estimates of the projecting function are used. The different projections are synthesized through a thresholding process. The implemented system uses parallel Kalman filters to produce the object estimates and estimates the sensor position through a model of sensor dynamics and measurements of sensor angle velocity. Results, produced by the implemented system from IR imagery of a moving target in field are presented.

  5. A Reliability-Based Track Fusion Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Pan, Liqiang; Jin, Shuilin; Liu, Haibo; Yin, Guisheng

    2015-01-01

    The common track fusion algorithms in multi-sensor systems have some defects, such as serious imbalances between accuracy and computational cost, the same treatment of all the sensor information regardless of their quality, high fusion errors at inflection points. To address these defects, a track fusion algorithm based on the reliability (TFR) is presented in multi-sensor and multi-target environments. To improve the information quality, outliers in the local tracks are eliminated at first. Then the reliability of local tracks is calculated, and the local tracks with high reliability are chosen for the state estimation fusion. In contrast to the existing methods, TFR reduces high fusion errors at the inflection points of system tracks, and obtains a high accuracy with less computational cost. Simulation results verify the effectiveness and the superiority of the algorithm in dense sensor environments. PMID:25950174

  6. Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) tracking and orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teles, J.; Samii, M.; Nakai, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis results were derived using the Goddard Trajectory Determination System to determine the orbit of TDRS-East. A batch weighted least-squares algorithm is used to fit the Bilateration Ranging Transponder system tracking measurements. Six state parameters (position and velocity components) and the solar radiation pressure coefficient are estimated. The solutions are obtained by fitting the data over 34 hr arcs that overlap by 10 hr. Ephemerides are generated over the 34 hr arcs and then compared over the overlapping regions. The position differences indicate the consistency of the solutions and give a measure of their accuracy. The effect of the modeling of perturbative forces (solar radiation pressure, nonspherical geopotential field) on these results are studied. Error analysis is performed using the ORAN program to estimate the effect of force-model errors and measurement-related errors on the TDRS-East ephemeris.

  7. Complete Solution of Sun Tracking for Heliostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Tian; Lim, Boon-Han; Lim, Chern-Sing

    2006-01-01

    A general solution of sun tracking for an arbitrarily oriented heliostat towards an arbitrarily located target on the earth is published. With the most general form of solar tracking formulae, it is seen that the used azimuth-elevation, spinning-elevation tracking formulae etc. are the special cases of it. The possibilities of utilizing the general solution and its significance in solar energy engineering are discussed.

  8. Decontamination and Decommisioning Equipment Tracking System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-08-26

    DDETS is Relational Data Base Management System (RDBMS) which incorporates 1-D (code 39) and 2-D (PDF417) bar codes into its equipment tracking capabilities. DDETS is compatible with the Reportable Excess Automated Property System (REAPS), and has add, edit, delete and query capabilities for tracking equipment being decontaminated and decommissioned. In addition, bar code technology is utilized in the inventory tracking and shipping of equipment.

  9. Visual Learning in Multiple-Object Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Makovski, Tal; Vázquez, Gustavo A.; Jiang, Yuhong V.

    2008-01-01

    Background Tracking moving objects in space is important for the maintenance of spatiotemporal continuity in everyday visual tasks. In the laboratory, this ability is tested using the Multiple Object Tracking (MOT) task, where participants track a subset of moving objects with attention over an extended period of time. The ability to track multiple objects with attention is severely limited. Recent research has shown that this ability may improve with extensive practice (e.g., from action videogame playing). However, whether tracking also improves in a short training session with repeated trajectories has rarely been investigated. In this study we examine the role of visual learning in multiple-object tracking and characterize how varieties of attention interact with visual learning. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants first conducted attentive tracking on trials with repeated motion trajectories for a short session. In a transfer phase we used the same motion trajectories but changed the role of tracking targets and nontargets. We found that compared with novel trials, tracking was enhanced only when the target subset was the same as that used during training. Learning did not transfer when the previously trained targets and nontargets switched roles or mixed up. However, learning was not specific to the trained temporal order as it transferred to trials where the motion was played backwards. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that a demanding task of tracking multiple objects can benefit from learning of repeated motion trajectories. Such learning potentially facilitates tracking in natural vision, although learning is largely confined to the trajectories of attended objects. Furthermore, we showed that learning in attentive tracking relies on relational coding of all target trajectories. Surprisingly, learning was not specific to the trained temporal context, probably because observers have learned motion paths of each trajectory independently of the exact temporal order. PMID:18493599

  10. Building the RHIC tracking lattice model

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.; Tepikian, S.

    2010-01-27

    In this note we outline the procedure to build a realistic lattice model for the RHIC beam-beam tracking simulation. We will install multipole field errors in the arc main dipoles, arc main quadrupols and interaction region magnets (DX, D0, and triplets) and introduce a residual closed orbit, tune ripples, and physical apertures in the tracking lattice model. Nonlinearities such as local IR multipoles, second order chromaticies and third order resonance driving terms are also corrected before tracking.

  11. Solar central receiver heliostat reflector assembly

    DOEpatents

    Horton, Richard H.; Zdeb, John J.

    1980-01-01

    A heliostat reflector assembly for a solar central receiver system comprises a light-weight, readily assemblable frame which supports a sheet of stretchable reflective material and includes mechanism for selectively applying tension to and positioning the sheet to stretch it to optical flatness. The frame is mounted on and supported by a pipe pedestal assembly that, in turn, is installed in the ground. The frame is controllably driven in a predetermined way by a light-weight drive system so as to be angularly adjustable in both elevation and azimuth to track the sun and efficiently continuously reflect the sun's rays to a focal zone, i.e. central receiver, which forms part of a solar energy utilization system, such as a solar energy fueled electrical power generation system. The frame may include a built-in system for testing for optical flatness of the reflector. The preferable geometric configuration of the reflector is octagonal; however, it may be other shapes, such as hexagonal, pentagonal or square. Several different embodiments of means for tensioning and positioning the reflector to achieve optical flatness are disclosed. The reflector assembly is based on the stretch frame concept which provides an extremely light-weight, simple, low-cost reflector assembly that may be driven for positioning and tracking by a light-weight, inexpensive drive system.

  12. Effects of tracking error on lesion formation in high intensity focused ultrasound liver tumor tracking treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chieh-Fang, Cheng; Win-Li, Lin; Yung-Yaw, Chen

    2011-09-01

    High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) liver tumor tracking treatments is a highly potential area of research. In order to develop a safe and effective HIFU liver tumor tracking treatment system, it is necessary to understand how tracking error affects lesion formation. In this paper, the relationship between the tracking error of the tracking mechanism and lesion formation is investigated through simulations and phantom experiments. Simulation and experimental results both show the lesion width first increases with increasing standard deviation of tracking error smaller than 1 mm, then decreases with increasing standard deviation of tracking error larger than 1 mm. On the other hand, the lesion length decreases with increasing standard deviation of the tracking error in all ranges. However, the lesion size still first increases with the tracking error standard deviation within 1 mm, then decreases when standard deviation of tracking lager than 1 mm. In another words, the lesion size is affected by the standard deviation of the tracking error as expected. Moreover, there exists an optimal lesion size around the standard deviation of 1 mm in our study. By taking the standard deviation of the tracking error into consideration, this study suggests that it is possible to develop a proper treatment plan without perfect tracking of the liver tumor.

  13. High resolution 3D insider detection and tracking.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Cynthia Lee

    2003-09-01

    Vulnerability analysis studies show that one of the worst threats against a facility is that of an active insider during an emergency evacuation. When a criticality or other emergency alarm occurs, employees immediately proceed along evacuation routes to designated areas. Procedures are then implemented to account for all material, classified parts, etc. The 3-Dimensional Video Motion Detection (3DVMD) technology could be used to detect and track possible insider activities during alarm situations, as just described, as well as during normal operating conditions. The 3DVMD technology uses multiple cameras to create 3-dimensional detection volumes or zones. Movement throughout detection zones is tracked and high-level information, such as the number of people and their direction of motion, is extracted. In the described alarm scenario, deviances of evacuation procedures taken by an individual could be immediately detected and relayed to a central alarm station. The insider could be tracked and any protected items removed from the area could be flagged. The 3DVMD technology could also be used to monitor such items as machines that are used to build classified parts. During an alarm, detections could be made if items were removed from the machine. Overall, the use of 3DVMD technology during emergency evacuations would help to prevent the loss of classified items and would speed recovery from emergency situations. Further security could also be added by analyzing tracked behavior (motion) as it corresponds to predicted behavior, e.g., behavior corresponding with the execution of required procedures. This information would be valuable for detecting a possible insider not only during emergency situations, but also during times of normal operation.

  14. Automated tracking of yeast cell lineages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyungnam; Rowat, Amy C.; Carpenter, Anne E.

    2010-08-01

    We propose a cell progeny tracking method that sequentially employs image alignment, chamber cropping, cell segmentation, per-cell feature measurement, and progeny (lineage) tracking modules. It enables biologists to keep track of phenotypic patterns not only over time but also over multiple generations. Yeast cells encapsulated in chambers of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device were imaged over time to monitor changes in fluorescence levels. We implemented our method in an automated cell image analysis tool, CellProfiler, and performed initial testing. Once refined and validated, the approach could be adapted/used in other cell segmentation and progeny tracking experiments.

  15. Discovery of nuclear tracks in interplanetary dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, J. P.; Brownlee, D. E.; Fraundorf, P.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear tracks have been identified in interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) collected from the stratosphere. The presence of tracks unambiguously confirms the extraterrestrial nature of IDP's, and the high track densities (10 to the 10th to 10 to the 11th per square centimeter) suggest an exposure age of approximately 10,000 years within the inner solar system. Tracks also provide an upper temperature limit for the heating of IDP's during atmospheric entry, thereby making it possible to distinguish between pristine and thermally modified micrometeorites.

  16. Federated filter for multiplatform track fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Neal A.

    1999-10-01

    The federated filter is a near globally optimal distributed estimation method based on rigorous information-sharing principles. It is applied here to multi-perform target tracking systems where platform-level target tracks are fused across platforms into global tracks. Global track accuracy is enhanced by the geometric diversity of measurements from different platforms, in addition to the greater number of measurements. On each platform, the federated filter employs dual platform-level filters (PFs) for each track. The primary PFs are locally optimal, and contain all the information gathered from the platform track sensors. The secondary PFs are identical except that they contain only the incremental track information gained since the last fusion cycle. On each platform, global track solutions are near globally optimal because they receive only new tracklet information from the onboard and off-board PFs, and don to re-use old platform-level information. Logistically, platforms can operate autonomously with no need for synchronized operations or master/slave designations; the architecture is completely symmetric. Platforms can enter or leave the group with no changes in other global trackers. Communications bandwidth is minimal because global tracks need not be shared. The paper describes the theoretical basis of the federated fusing filter, the related data association functions, and preliminary simulation results.

  17. Space Object Tracking Method with Snake Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z. W.; Wang, X.

    2015-05-01

    Aimed at the unstable tracking problem of low-orbit variable and bright space objects, an active contour model is accepted, and a refined GVF-Snake algorithm is proposed to realize the real-time searching of the real contour of objects on CCD image in this paper. Combined with the Kalman filter for prediction, a new adaptive tracking approach is proposed for space objects. Experiments show that the method can overcome the tracking difficulty brought by a fixed window, and improve the tracking robustness.

  18. Tracking targets using matched field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Peter K.; Bishop, Judith; Giannopoulos, Evangelos

    2004-01-01

    The target tracking literature has traditionally been most interested in the "hit" model for the observations process, and the community has developed many techniques for data association. On the other hand, matched field processing (MFP) research has focused on signal processing with the main emphasis on target detection and localization. Treatments of combined tracking/MFP systems are not common, but most concentrate on signal processing, with the idea that a "track" is really a sequence or track-segment of detections that make sense from dynamics considerations. Thus, here we explore the MFP tracking problem, with the key that we attempt to use traditional target-tracking algorithms. In particular, we use an IMMPDAF-AI (interacting multiple-model probabilistic data association filter with amplitude information). It is shown that the use of such an advanced tracking algorithm - plus a number of MFP-specific refinements - produces tracking performance that is far superior to that obtained for a more traditional tracking (a strongest-neighbor Kalman filter), with the added advantage of a significantly reduced numerical load as measured in terms of the number of MFP replicas to be computed.

  19. Tracking targets using matched field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Peter K.; Bishop, Judith; Giannopoulos, Evangelos

    2003-12-01

    The target tracking literature has traditionally been most interested in the "hit" model for the observations process, and the community has developed many techniques for data association. On the other hand, matched field processing (MFP) research has focused on signal processing with the main emphasis on target detection and localization. Treatments of combined tracking/MFP systems are not common, but most concentrate on signal processing, with the idea that a "track" is really a sequence or track-segment of detections that make sense from dynamics considerations. Thus, here we explore the MFP tracking problem, with the key that we attempt to use traditional target-tracking algorithms. In particular, we use an IMMPDAF-AI (interacting multiple-model probabilistic data association filter with amplitude information). It is shown that the use of such an advanced tracking algorithm plus a number of MFP-specific refinements produces tracking performance that is far superior to that obtained for a more traditional tracking (a strongest-neighbor Kalman filter), with the added advantage of a significantly reduced numerical load as measured in terms of the number of MFP replicas to be computed.

  20. A Method for Generating Synthetic Air Tracks

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James J; Jarboe, Stephanie; Dale, Fulton; Zeigler, Bernard P

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a method for creating synthetic air tracks without the aide of a sophisticated simulator. The proposed method creates a position and velocity function for an aircraft given its starting location and speed, altitude, and heading on each leg of its height. An optimization procedure is used to fit the position and velocity functions to the supplied data. Several examples of tracks produced by the method are shown in the paper. The synthetic tracks that are produced by this method can be used to facilitate testing of command and control systems and to enhance any simulation that requires air tracks that satisfy specific constraints on time, speed, and position.

  1. Advanced tracking systems design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potash, R.; Floyd, L.; Jacobsen, A.; Cunningham, K.; Kapoor, A.; Kwadrat, C.; Radel, J.; Mccarthy, J.

    1989-01-01

    The results of an assessment of several types of high-accuracy tracking systems proposed to track the spacecraft in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (ATDRSS) are summarized. Tracking systems based on the use of interferometry and ranging are investigated. For each system, the top-level system design and operations concept are provided. A comparative system assessment is presented in terms of orbit determination performance, ATDRSS impacts, life-cycle cost, and technological risk.

  2. Tracking Steady Light Sources Amid Luminous Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissh, Frank; Fowski, Walter; Miklus, Kenneth; Abreu, Rene; Bolin, Kenneth; Flynn, David

    1994-01-01

    The Transient Event Rejection for Acquisition and Tracking (TERAT) algorithm governs operation of image-data-acquisition and -processing system. TERAT processes digitized image data to acquire (that is, identify) candidate steady source of light, validate candidate source, and track validated source, all in presence of real or apparent luminous transients represented in image data. Source of light tracked could be star or distant luminous beacon. Transients caused by impacts of ionizing radiation on imaging array of photodetectors or by unsteady light sources not meant to be tracked. TERAT functions with limited data-processing resources. TERAT algorithm currently operational on NASA's TOPEX mission.

  3. A comparative evaluation of visual tracking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatt, Adam; Wong, Sebastien; Kearney, David; Watts, Edward

    2009-05-01

    This paper provides comparative evaluations of two visual object tracking algorithms - the Shape Estimating Filter (SEF), a homogeneous extension of the basic correlation tracker; and its multi-object counterpart the Competitive Attentional Correlation Tracker using Shape (CACTuS). The CACTuS is evaluated comparatively against its predecessor to show direct improvement in tracking effectiveness. Our approach will involve an evaluation framework consisting of a range of modern, peer reviewed tracking performance metrics, allowing for a detailed multi-faceted analysis of tracking results. As such we provide an overview of current performance evaluation methods, including techniques for multi-object tracker evaluation.

  4. Eigenspace-based tracking for feature points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chen; Chen, Qian; Qian, Wei-xian

    2014-05-01

    Feature point tracking deals with image streams that change over time. Most existing feature point tracking algorithms only consider two adjacent frames at a time, and forget the feature information of previous frames. In this paper, we present a new eigenspace-based tracking method that learns an eigenspace representation of training features online, and finds the target feature point with Gauss-Newton style search method. A coarse-to-fine processing strategy is introduced to handle large affine transformations. Several simulations and experiments on real images indicate the effectiveness of the proposed feature tracking algorithm under the conditions of large pose changes and temporary occlusions.

  5. Modular Track System For Positioning Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Conceptual system for positioning mobile robotic manipulators on large main structure includes modular tracks and ancillary structures assembled easily along with main structure. System, called "tracked robotic location system" (TROLS), originally intended for application to platforms in outer space, but TROLS concept might also prove useful on Earth; for example, to position robots in factories and warehouses. T-cross-section rail keeps mobile robot on track. Bar codes mark locations along track. Each robot equipped with bar-code-recognizing circuitry so it quickly finds way to assigned location.

  6. Random grid fern for visual tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fei; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Jin; Li, YunSong

    2014-05-01

    Visual tracking is one of the significant research directions in computer vision. Although standard random ferns tracking method obtains a good performance for the random spatial arrangement of binary tests, the effect of the locality of image on ferns description ability are ignored and prevent them to describe the object more accurately and robustly. This paper proposes a novel spatial arrangement of binary tests to divide the bounding box into grids in order to keep more details of the image for visual tracking. Experimental results show that this method can improve tracking accuracy effectively.

  7. Solar energy tracking structure incorporating wind spoilers

    SciTech Connect

    Frohardt, M.W.; Hartz, K.H.; Hardee, P.C.

    1989-12-19

    This patent describes a solar energy tracking assembly. The assembly producing reduced torque loading forces due to wind on the rotating portion of the tracking assembly. The solar energy tracking assembly comprised of: a fixed position base having one end securely fixed to the ground and having the second end supporting the remaining tracking assembly components; solar energy collecting means comprising a moving structure frame and at least one solar collecting element attached thereto means for rotating the solar energy collecting means in relation to the sun in order that the solar energy collecting means maintain the proper attitude for collection of incident solar energy; and a wind spoiler assembly.

  8. A Probabilistic Cell Tracking Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinacker, Reinhold; Mayer, Dieter; Leiding, Tina; Lexer, Annemarie; Umdasch, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    The research described below was carried out during the EU-Project Lolight - development of a low cost, novel and accurate lightning mapping and thunderstorm (supercell) tracking system. The Project aims to develop a small-scale tracking method to determine and nowcast characteristic trajectories and velocities of convective cells and cell complexes. The results of the algorithm will provide a higher accuracy than current locating systems distributed on a coarse scale. Input data for the developed algorithm are two temporally separated lightning density fields. Additionally a Monte Carlo method minimizing a cost function is utilizied which leads to a probabilistic forecast for the movement of thunderstorm cells. In the first step the correlation coefficients between the first and the second density field are computed. Hence, the first field is shifted by all shifting vectors which are physically allowed. The maximum length of each vector is determined by the maximum possible speed of thunderstorm cells and the difference in time for both density fields. To eliminate ambiguities in determination of directions and velocities, the so called Random Walker of the Monte Carlo process is used. Using this method a grid point is selected at random. Moreover, one vector out of all predefined shifting vectors is suggested - also at random but with a probability that is related to the correlation coefficient. If this exchange of shifting vectors reduces the cost function, the new direction and velocity are accepted. Otherwise it is discarded. This process is repeated until the change of cost functions falls below a defined threshold. The Monte Carlo run gives information about the percentage of accepted shifting vectors for all grid points. In the course of the forecast, amplifications of cell density are permitted. For this purpose, intensity changes between the investigated areas of both density fields are taken into account. Knowing the direction and speed of thunderstorm cells is important for nowcasting. Therefore, the presented method is based on IC discharges which account for most lightning discharges and occur minutes before the first CG discharge. The cell tracking algorithm will be used as part of the integrated LoLight system. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme managed by REA-Research Executive Agency http://ec.europa.eu/research/rea ([FP7/2007-2013] [FP7/2007-2011]) under grant agreement n° [262200].

  9. Multibeam optical apparatus and method for tracking control for an optical disk having a set of tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reno, Charles W. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A multitrack optical disk has two or more circular or spiral tracks, which are recorded or played back in simultaneous sets for high data rates. Tracking is accomplished by sets of first and second tracking pads, which lie partially on and partially off the track paths. The amount of inter-track space required to accommodate the track pads is reduced by placing the overlap of the tracking pads in the same inter-track space, and by tracking any additional simultaneous tracks in excess of two by mechanical coupling with the first two.

  10. Tracking Ability Evaluation and Calculation of Shipborne Tracking Radar for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yuanxin; Cong, Bo

    2016-02-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamic lag and tracking ability of shipborne tracking radar for space applications. A novel calculation formula of azimuth accuracy is proposed which is more reasonable compared with conventional methods.

  11. Sampling strong tracking nonlinear unscented Kalman filter and its application in eye tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zu-Tao; Zhang, Jia-Shu

    2010-10-01

    The unscented Kalman filter is a developed well-known method for nonlinear motion estimation and tracking. However, the standard unscented Kalman filter has the inherent drawbacks, such as numerical instability and much more time spent on calculation in practical applications. In this paper, we present a novel sampling strong tracking nonlinear unscented Kalman filter, aiming to overcome the difficulty in nonlinear eye tracking. In the above proposed filter, the simplified unscented transform sampling strategy with n + 2 sigma points leads to the computational efficiency, and suboptimal fading factor of strong tracking filtering is introduced to improve robustness and accuracy of eye tracking. Compared with the related unscented Kalman filter for eye tracking, the proposed filter has potential advantages in robustness, convergence speed, and tracking accuracy. The final experimental results show the validity of our method for eye tracking under realistic conditions.

  12. The effect of tracking network configuration on GPS baseline estimates for the CASA Uno experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, S. Kornreich; Dixon, T. H.; Freymueller, J. T.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the tracking network on long (greater than 100 km) GPS baseline estimates was estimated using various subsets of the global tracking network initiated by the first Central and South America (CASA Uno) experiment. It was found that best results could be obtained with a global tacking network consisting of three U.S. stations, two sites in the southwestern Pacific, and two sites in Europe. In comparison with smaller subsets, this global network improved the baseline repeatability, the resolution of carrier phase cycle ambiguities, and formal errors of the orbit estimates.

  13. Earth-Image Tracking in the IR for Deep Space Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Chen, Yinging; Lee, Shinhak; Ortiz, Gerard G.

    2005-01-01

    Sub-microradian level laser beam pointing to an Earth-based receiver is required for deep space optical communications. This requires a beacon emanated from Earth towards the spacecraft. The beacon could be a laser or reflected sunlight from Earth. Earth image tracking in the visible is hampered by significant albedo variations and/or crescent Earth image yielding large central errors. Here, we report results of Earth-image tracking in the infrared (8 to 13 micron) region of the spectrum with the aim of substantially alleviating the two challenges mentioned earlier.

  14. Video-Based People Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, Marcus A.; Sigal, Leonid; Fleet, David J.

    Vision-based human pose tracking promises to be a key enabling technology for myriad applications, including the analysis of human activities for perceptive environments and novel man-machine interfaces. While progress toward that goal has been exciting, and limited applications have been demonstrated, the recovery of human pose from video in unconstrained settings remains challenging. One of the key challenges stems from the complexity of the human kinematic structure itself. The sheer number and variety of joints in the human body (the nature of which is an active area of biomechanics research) entails the estimation of many parameters. The estimation problem is also challenging because muscles and other body tissues obscure the skeletal structure, making it impossible to directly observe the pose of the skeleton.

  15. Satellite animal tracking feasibility studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechner, H. K.

    1975-01-01

    A study was initiated in Tsavo National Park to determine movements and home ranges of individual elephants and their relations to overall distribution patterns and environmental factors such as rainfall. Methods used were radio tracking and observations of visually identifiable individuals. Aerial counts provided data on overall distribution. Two bulls and two cows were radio-tagged in Tsavo West and two bulls and four cows in Tsavo East, providing home range and movement data. The movements of individuals were useful in interpreting relatively major shifts in elephant distribution. Results point to the following preliminary conclusions: (1) elephants in the Tsavo area undertook long distance movements in fairly direct response to localized rainfall; (2) a subdivision of the overall population into locally distinct units may exist during the dry season but did not occur after significant rainfall; and (3) food appears to be the primary factor governing movements and distribution of elephants in the area.

  16. Markov Tracking for Agent Coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Richard; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) axe an attractive representation for representing agent behavior, since they capture uncertainty in both the agent's state and its actions. However, finding an optimal policy for POMDPs in general is computationally difficult. In this paper we present Markov Tracking, a restricted problem of coordinating actions with an agent or process represented as a POMDP Because the actions coordinate with the agent rather than influence its behavior, the optimal solution to this problem can be computed locally and quickly. We also demonstrate the use of the technique on sequential POMDPs, which can be used to model a behavior that follows a linear, acyclic trajectory through a series of states. By imposing a "windowing" restriction that restricts the number of possible alternatives considered at any moment to a fixed size, a coordinating action can be calculated in constant time, making this amenable to coordination with complex agents.

  17. Fast track management and control

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, M.D.O.

    1996-12-31

    This paper, one of a group of papers describing the development of BP`s West of Shetland Foinaven field will set-out the challenges experienced in managing a fast-track project from system design through to offshore installation. ABB Seatec Limited (formerly GEC Marconi Oil and Gas) were commissioned to provide a Multiplexed Electro-Hydraulic Subsea Control System designed for deepwater and for installation/retrieval in a hostile environment. The paper will address the projects critical phase, the project controls implemented, the practical working methods used within a Subsea Alliance and those involved in Client Interaction, Concurrent Engineering, Team Coaching, Internal Procedures and Interface Management in order to meet the exacting schedule for First Oil deliveries. The Project is currently proceeding on routine production deliveries to complete the field development requirements.

  18. Infrared-based object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervais, Jon; Youngblood, Austin; Delashmit, Walter H.

    2009-05-01

    Often it is necessary to track moving objects on horizontal paths. Human error and the associated cost and dangers of using humans lead to a requirement to automate this task. The system presented here was designed, built and tested. The system uses an IR beacon and a microcontroller receiver/controller module. The design consists of a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based IR transmitter and a microcontroller based IR receiver/controller. The design consisted of two main parts, the transmitter (beacon) and the receiver/controller module. The receiver was implemented with a FPGA so that the characteristics of the beacon signal could be adjusted more quickly and with greater precision. The controller module was integrated with the receivers and detailed system integration tests were performed. Measurements were collected, recorded and analyzed.

  19. The Track Imaging Cerenkov Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wissel, S. A.; Byrum, K.; Cunningham, J. D.; Drake, G.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Kieda, D.; Kovacs, E.; Macgill, S.; Nodulman, L.; Swordy, S. P.; Wagner, R.; Wakely, S. P.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a dedicated cosmic-ray telescope that explores a new method for detecting Cerenkov radiation from high-energy primary cosmic rays and the large particle air shower they induce upon entering the atmosphere. Using a camera comprising 16 multi-anode photomultiplier tubes for a total of 256 pixels, the Track Imaging Cerenkov Experiment (TrICE) resolves substructures in particle air showers with 0.086deg resolution. Cerenkov radiation is imaged using a novel two-part optical system in which a Fresnel lens provides a wide-field optical trigger and a mirror system collects delayed light with four times the magnification. TrICE records well-resolved cosmic-ray air showers at rates ranging between 0.01-0.1 Hz.

  20. The Track Imaging Cerenkov Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wissel, S. A.; Byrum, K.; Cunningham, J. D.; Drake, G.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Kieda, D.; Kovacs, E.; Magill, S.; Nodulman, L.; Swordy, S. P.; Wagner, R.; Wakely, S. P.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a. dedicated cosmic-ray telescope that explores a new method for detecting Cerenkov radiation from high-energy primary cosmic rays and the large particle air shower they induce upon entering the atmosphere. Using a camera comprising 16 multi-anode photomultiplier tubes for a total of 256 pixels, the Track Imaging Cerenkov Experiment (TrICE) resolves substructures in particle air showers with 0,086 deg resolution. Cerenkov radiation is imaged using a novel two-part optical system in which a Fresnel lens provides a wide-field optical trigger and a mirror system collects delayed light with four times the magnification. TrICE records well-resolved cosmic-ray air showers at rates ranging between 0.01-0.1 Hz.

  1. Position and orientation tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Burks, Barry L.; DePiero, Fred W.; Armstrong, Gary A.; Jansen, John F.; Muller, Richard C.; Gee, Timothy F.

    1998-01-01

    A position and orientation tracking system presents a laser scanning appaus having two measurement pods, a control station, and a detector array. The measurement pods can be mounted in the dome of a radioactive waste storage silo. Each measurement pod includes dual orthogonal laser scanner subsystems. The first laser scanner subsystem is oriented to emit a first line laser in the pan direction. The second laser scanner is oriented to emit a second line laser in the tilt direction. Both emitted line lasers scan planes across the radioactive waste surface to encounter the detector array mounted on a target robotic vehicle. The angles of incidence of the planes with the detector array are recorded by the control station. Combining measurements describing each of the four planes provides data for a closed form solution of the algebraic transform describing the position and orientation of the target robotic vehicle.

  2. Position and orientation tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Muller, R.C.; Gee, T.F.

    1998-05-05

    A position and orientation tracking system presents a laser scanning apparatus having two measurement pods, a control station, and a detector array. The measurement pods can be mounted in the dome of a radioactive waste storage silo. Each measurement pod includes dual orthogonal laser scanner subsystems. The first laser scanner subsystem is oriented to emit a first line laser in the pan direction. The second laser scanner is oriented to emit a second line laser in the tilt direction. Both emitted line lasers scan planes across the radioactive waste surface to encounter the detector array mounted on a target robotic vehicle. The angles of incidence of the planes with the detector array are recorded by the control station. Combining measurements describing each of the four planes provides data for a closed form solution of the algebraic transform describing the position and orientation of the target robotic vehicle. 14 figs.

  3. GPU COMPUTING FOR PARTICLE TRACKING

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Hiroshi; Song, Kai; Muriki, Krishna; Sun, Changchun; James, Susan; Qin, Yong

    2011-03-25

    This is a feasibility study of using a modern Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to parallelize the accelerator particle tracking code. To demonstrate the massive parallelization features provided by GPU computing, a simplified TracyGPU program is developed for dynamic aperture calculation. Performances, issues, and challenges from introducing GPU are also discussed. General purpose Computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) bring massive parallel computing capabilities to numerical calculation. However, the unique architecture of GPU requires a comprehensive understanding of the hardware and programming model to be able to well optimize existing applications. In the field of accelerator physics, the dynamic aperture calculation of a storage ring, which is often the most time consuming part of the accelerator modeling and simulation, can benefit from GPU due to its embarrassingly parallel feature, which fits well with the GPU programming model. In this paper, we use the Tesla C2050 GPU which consists of 14 multi-processois (MP) with 32 cores on each MP, therefore a total of 448 cores, to host thousands ot threads dynamically. Thread is a logical execution unit of the program on GPU. In the GPU programming model, threads are grouped into a collection of blocks Within each block, multiple threads share the same code, and up to 48 KB of shared memory. Multiple thread blocks form a grid, which is executed as a GPU kernel. A simplified code that is a subset of Tracy++ [2] is developed to demonstrate the possibility of using GPU to speed up the dynamic aperture calculation by having each thread track a particle.

  4. Looking at the center of the targets helps multiple object tracking

    PubMed Central

    Fehd, Hilda M.; Seiffert, Adriane E.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to move our gaze to locations of interest facilitates interactions in everyday life. Where do participants direct gaze when multiple locations are of interest simultaneously? We previously demonstrated that, when tracking several moving targets amidst distractors in a multiple object tracking (MOT) task, participants primarily looked at a central point in between the targets (H. M. Fehd & A. E. Seiffert, 2008). This strategy of center-looking is in contrast to a target-looking strategy where participants would saccade from target to target. Here we investigated what factors influence the use of center-looking as well as its effectiveness. By decreasing object speed, we determined that center-looking is not a result of avoiding costly eye movements during tracking. Decreasing object size showed that peripheral visibility is necessary for tracking, but that center-looking continues up to the limits of peripheral visibility. Further analysis revealed that participants often engaged in both target-looking and center-looking by switching gaze from the center to targets and back again. Directly comparing participants’ performance when they either did or did not include center-looking along with target-looking revealed that center-looking facilitates tracking performance. These results suggest that there is value in looking at the center that relates directly to the process of tracking multiple objects. PMID:20465338

  5. Limited Conditions of Operations Tracking Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-12-17

    The Lco tracking program is a computer based solution for tracking time limited action items for Limited Conditions of Operation (LCO) for nuclear and industrial processes. This use is not limited to any process except those not requiring specific action steps and times. The visual and audible assistance the LCO Tracking Program provides significantly reduces the chance of missing crucial actions required for safe operation of any facility in time of limited operations. The LCOmore » Tracking Program maintains all applicable action steps and times for each limited condition for the facility in its data base. The LCO Tracking Program is used to enter that condition by number, and the data base provides the applicble action steps and starts tracking their times based on the time the LCO was entered. The LCO display graphically displays, by colored bar charts, the time expired/time remaining of each specific action item. At 60% time expired, the bar chart turns yellow to caution personnel and then turns red at 90% time expired. Then an audible alarm is sounded at 95% as a warning, to finish or accomplish the required actions to satisfy the requirements. These warning and alarm limits are modifiable by the user and can be set at different values for each action. The display file is dynamic in function, checking every minute, and responds in real time to changes to the LCO Tracking Form file, providing the visual and audible warnings as to the status of the action steps chosen for display. The LCO Tracking Program efficiently tracks action times in minutes or days, up to 2 years. All current LCO''s are easily documentated using the LCO Tracking Form file with ease of printing and disposition. The Lco Tracking Program is designed as a user friendly program with navigational buttons to simplify use.« less

  6. 76 FR 59050 - Changes To Implement the Prioritized Examination Track (Track I) of the Enhanced Examination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... at 76 FR 18399-18407 on April 4, 2011, is withdrawn effective September 23, 2011. Applicability Date... offices (3-Track). See Enhanced Examination Timing Control Initiative; Notice of Public Meeting, 75 FR... Examination Track (Track I) of the Enhanced Examination Timing Control Procedures, 76 FR 6369 (Feb. 4,...

  7. MetroTrack: Predictive Tracking of Mobile Events Using Mobile Phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Gahng-Seop; Musolesi, Mirco; Lu, Hong; Olfati-Saber, Reza; Campbell, Andrew T.

    We propose to use mobile phones carried by people in their everyday lives as mobile sensors to track mobile events. We argue that sensor-enabled mobile phones are best suited to deliver sensing services (e.g., tracking in urban areas) than more traditional solutions, such as static sensor networks, which are limited in scale, performance, and cost. There are a number of challenges in developing a mobile event tracking system using mobile phones. First, mobile sensors need to be tasked before sensing can begin, and only those mobile sensors near the target event should be tasked for the system to scale effectively. Second, there is no guarantee of a sufficient density of mobile sensors around any given event of interest because the mobility of people is uncontrolled. This results in time-varying sensor coverage and disruptive tracking of events, i.e., targets will be lost and must be efficiently recovered. To address these challenges, we propose MetroTrack, a mobile-event tracking system based on off-the-shelf mobile phones. MetroTrack is capable of tracking mobile targets through collaboration among local sensing devices that track and predict the future location of a target using a distributed Kalman-Consensus filtering algorithm. We present a proof-of-concept implementation of MetroTrack using Nokia N80 and N95 phones. Large scale simulation results indicate that MetroTrack prolongs the tracking duration in the presence of varying mobile sensor density.

  8. 49 CFR 218.27 - Workers on track other than main track.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Blue Signal Protection of Workers 218... on track other than main track (a) A blue signal must be displayed at or near each manually operated... blue signal protection as provided for in this section is on a track equipped with one or...

  9. The administration of the NASA space tracking system and the NASA space tracking system in Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollander, N.

    1973-01-01

    The international activities of the NASA space program were studied with emphasis on the development and maintenance of tracking stations in Australia. The history and administration of the tracking organization and the manning policies for the stations are discussed, and factors affecting station operation are appraised. A field study of the Australian tracking network is included.

  10. The Six Track Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge?Two double track spans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    The Six Track Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge?Two double track spans closed. One double-track span open. Photocopy of plate xvi in Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge Company, Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridges. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. On the Wrong Track: How Tracking Is Associated with Dropping out of High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werblow, Jacob; Urick, Angela; Duesbery, Luke

    2013-01-01

    Academic tracking has been shown to limit the quality of student instructional opportunities, decrease students' perceptions of their abilities, and negatively influence student achievement. These factors associated with academic tracking also may influence students in lower tracks to learn less and ultimately to drop out of high school. Few…

  12. Keeping on Track: Performance Profiles of Low Performers in Academic Educational Tracks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Helen C.; van Wesel, Floryt; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Jolles, Jelle

    2015-01-01

    In countries with high differentiation between academic and vocational education, an individual's future prospects are strongly determined by the educational track to which he or she is assigned. This large-scale, cross-sectional study focuses on low-performing students in academic tracks who face being moved to a vocational track. If more is…

  13. ASNT central certification program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spring, Robert W.; Snell, John R., Jr.

    1997-04-01

    The American Society of Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) has recently established a new central certification program. This program will allow individuals who meet the requirements to receive a 'portable' certificate. Augmenting the existing employer-based certification, this program will have significant impact on industries that may ultimately require nondestructive testing (NDT) personnel to have central certification. This paper explains show ASNT has structured central certification and when and how it will effect thermal/infrared thermography (T/IRT) personnel. The paper also discusses the industry specific certification process.

  14. Optimization of the LHCb track reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storaci, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    The LHCb track reconstruction uses sophisticated pattern recognition algorithms to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles. Their main feature is the use of a Hough- transform like approach to connect track segments from different sub-detectors, allowing for having no tracking stations in the magnet of LHCb. While yielding a high efficiency, the track reconstruction is a major contributor to the overall timing budget of the software trigger of LHCb, and will continue to be so in the light of the higher track multiplicity expected from Run II of the LHC. In view of this fact, key parts of the pattern recognition have been revised and redesigned. In this document the main features which were studied are presented. A staged approach strategy for the track reconstruction in the software trigger was investigated: it allows unifying complementary sets of tracks coming from the different stages of the high level trigger, resulting in a more flexible trigger strategy and a better overlap between online and offline reconstructed tracks. Furthermore the use of parallelism was investigated, using SIMD instructions for time-critical parts of the software.

  15. Minitrack tracking function description, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, T. S.; Mango, S. A.; Roettcher, C. A.; Watters, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The minitrack tracking function is described and specific operations are identified. The subjects discussed are: (1) preprocessor listing, (2) minitrack hardware, (3) system calibration, (4) quadratic listing, and (5) quadratic flow diagram. Detailed information is provided on the construction of the tracking system and its operation. The calibration procedures are supported by mathematical models to show the application of the computer programs.

  16. 30 CFR 57.12042 - Track bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Track bonding. 57.12042 Section 57.12042 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12042 Track bonding. Both...

  17. High Priority Infant Tracking Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biro, Patricia J.; And Others

    The study compared the effectiveness of the Washington State High Priority Infant Tracking Project in maintaining high risk infants in continuing health care, determining health and developmental outcomes, and surveying the use of community resources with other state tracking projects. The project identifies infants during the first 30 days of…

  18. Galilean Tracks in the Physics Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellman, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Variations of Galileo's famous track experiments in acceleration are commonly performed in high school and college. The purpose of this article is to present a sequence of three low-tech basic kinematics experiments using Galilean tracks that can be set up extremely quickly and yet generally yield excellent results. A low-cost construction method…

  19. Technology survey on video face tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tong; Gomes, Herman Martins

    2014-03-01

    With the pervasiveness of monitoring cameras installed in public areas, schools, hospitals, work places and homes, video analytics technologies for interpreting these video contents are becoming increasingly relevant to people's lives. Among such technologies, human face detection and tracking (and face identification in many cases) are particularly useful in various application scenarios. While plenty of research has been conducted on face tracking and many promising approaches have been proposed, there are still significant challenges in recognizing and tracking people in videos with uncontrolled capturing conditions, largely due to pose and illumination variations, as well as occlusions and cluttered background. It is especially complex to track and identify multiple people simultaneously in real time due to the large amount of computation involved. In this paper, we present a survey on literature and software that are published or developed during recent years on the face tracking topic. The survey covers the following topics: 1) mainstream and state-of-the-art face tracking methods, including features used to model the targets and metrics used for tracking; 2) face identification and face clustering from face sequences; and 3) software packages or demonstrations that are available for algorithm development or trial. A number of publically available databases for face tracking are also introduced.

  20. Galilean Tracks in the Physics Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellman, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Variations of Galileo's famous track experiments in acceleration are commonly performed in high school and college. The purpose of this article is to present a sequence of three low-tech basic kinematics experiments using Galilean tracks that can be set up extremely quickly and yet generally yield excellent results. A low-cost construction method

  1. Solar tracking control system Sun Chaser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

    1978-01-01

    The solar tracking control system, Sun Chaser, a method of tracking the Sun in all types of weather conditions is described. The Sun Chaser follows the Sun from east to west in clear or cloudy weather, and resets itself to the east position after sundown in readiness for the next sunrise.

  2. Track Reconstruction for the NIFFTE TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sarvagya

    2008-10-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) has funded the construction of a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) to be used for precision fission cross-section measurements through the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI). This poster shall illustrate the status of algorithms intended for intelligent track finding and track fitting using raw data obtained TPC simulations. The track fitting effort in this experiment has borrowed a number of ideas from high-energy physics along with other pattern recognition techniques not previously affiliated with experimental physics. Two track-finding techniques have been investigated. The Hough Transform is a brute force attempt at finding tracks. The second paradigm for track reconstruction, Binary Space Partitioning (BSP) was found to be less computationally expensive than the Hough Transform. BSP has been borrowed from the field of computer animation and rendering. To determine track fit parameters, an iterative Kalman Filter has been implemented that allows multiple scattering and energy losses to be taken into account to obtain unbiased errors. Fitted tracks obtained from the Kalman Filter were used to generate the best kinematic fit on the vertex.

  3. Track Reconstruction for the NIFFTE TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sarvagya

    2008-10-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) has funded the construction of a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) to be used for precision fission cross-section measurements through the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI). This poster shall illustrate the status of algorithms intended for intelligent track finding and track fitting using raw data obtained TPC simulations will be presented. The track fitting effort in this experiment has borrowed a number of ideas from high-energy physics along with other pattern recognition techniques not previously affiliated with experimental physics. Two track-finding techniques have been investigated. The Hough Transform is a brute force attempt at finding tracks. The second paradigm for track reconstruction, Binary Space Partitioning (BSP), was found to be less computationally expensive. BSP however had to be used in conjunction with a multilayer perceptron to rejoin tracks that were overly partitioned. To determine track fit parameters, an iterative Kalman Filter has been implemented that allows multiple scattering and energy losses to be taken into account to obtain unbiased errors.

  4. Track and Field Omnibook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, J. Kenneth

    This track and field text is a second edition of the 1971 Track and Field Omnibook, a synthesis of the author's forty-five years experience as a participant in and coach of the sport. Divided into two sections, the text deals with both the event-specific techniques of coaching and the overall development of the coaching role. Part one, "The Human…

  5. Tracking stem cells in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Chemaly, Elie R; Yoneyama, Ryuichi; Frangioni, John V; Hajjar, Roger J

    2005-11-01

    Stem cells are a promising approach to cardiovascular therapeutics. Animal experiments have assessed the fate of injected stem cells through ex vivo methods on sacrificed animals. Approaches are needed for in vivo tracking of stem cells. Various imaging techniques and contrast agents for stem cell tracking will be reviewed. PMID:16297767

  6. Measuring Tracking Accuracy of CCD Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, R. H.; Dennison, E. W.

    1985-01-01

    Tracking accuracy and resolution of charge-coupled device (CCD) imaging arrays measured by instrument originally developed for measuring performance of star-tracking telescope. Operates by projecting one or more artifical star images on surface of CCD array, moving stars in controlled patterns, and comparing star locations computed from CCD outputs with those calculated from step coordinates of micropositioner.

  7. Along-Track Reef Imaging System (ATRIS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John; Zawada, Dave

    2006-01-01

    "Along-Track Reef Imaging System (ATRIS)" describes the U.S. Geological Survey's Along-Track Reef Imaging System, a boat-based sensor package for rapidly mapping shallow water benthic environments. ATRIS acquires high resolution, color digital images that are accurately geo-located in real-time.

  8. 30 CFR 57.12042 - Track bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Track bonding. 57.12042 Section 57.12042 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... and Underground § 57.12042 Track bonding. Both rails shall be bonded or welded at every joint...

  9. 30 CFR 57.12042 - Track bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Track bonding. 57.12042 Section 57.12042 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... and Underground § 57.12042 Track bonding. Both rails shall be bonded or welded at every joint...

  10. Lip segmentation and tracking for facial palsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, MinJae; Seo, JongMo; Park, KwangSuk

    2006-02-01

    We developed the asymmetry analyzing system for facial palsy patient's rehabilitation progress study. Using PC standard imaging device, captured 640*480 RGB image is converted into HSV space. A Lip-shape mask is extracted by thresholding. By taking 5 regions consisted in one region on lip and four regions on face skin, reasonable thresholds are determined by Fuzzy C-Means clustering. The extreme points on the lip shape mask are extracted to get the seeds for tracking. Segmented seed points are tracking by Iterative Lucas-Kanade tracking method in pyramids at 30 fps and recording simultaneously. To reduce the disk writing load on computer, we use asynchronous mode file writing, which is going to transfer to and review by clinician. Tracking shows quite reliable results, but sometimes the tracked points are following along the lip line because of the similar contrasts. Therefore, the first strategy to improve the reliability of tracking is using the high contrast points, such as left and right maximal point of lip shape. The second is clustering some points near the maximal points and eliminating outlying tracking points. The third is rechecking the lip shape using lip segmentation when the operator confirms that subject's maximal lip moving. Left and right tracking points are compared in forms of trajectory plot.

  11. The TREC Interactive Track: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Over, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the study of interactive information retrieval (IR) at the Text Retrieval Conferences (TREC) focuses on summaries of the Interactive Track at each conference. Describes evolution of the track, which has changed from comparing human-machine systems with fully automatic systems to comparing interactive systems that focus on the search

  12. Staying on Track with TB Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    Staying on TB Track with Medicine TUBERCULOSIS What’s Inside: Read this brochure to learn about TB and what you can do to get ... TB disease 16 Section 4 PAGE Staying on track with your medicine plan 2 Your questions answered ...

  13. UWB Tracking Algorithms: AOA and TDOA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun David; Arndt, D.; Ngo, P.; Gross, J.; Refford, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-Wideband (UWB) tracking prototype systems are currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center for various applications on space exploration. For long range applications, a two-cluster Angle of Arrival (AOA) tracking method is employed for implementation of the tracking system; for close-in applications, a Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) positioning methodology is exploited. Both AOA and TDOA are chosen to utilize the achievable fine time resolution of UWB signals. This talk presents a brief introduction to AOA and TDOA methodologies. The theoretical analysis of these two algorithms reveal the affecting parameters impact on the tracking resolution. For the AOA algorithm, simulations show that a tracking resolution less than 0.5% of the range can be achieved with the current achievable time resolution of UWB signals. For the TDOA algorithm used in close-in applications, simulations show that the (sub-inch) high tracking resolution is achieved with a chosen tracking baseline configuration. The analytical and simulated results provide insightful guidance for the UWB tracking system design.

  14. Precision CW laser automatic tracking system investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, K. T.; Lucy, R. F.; Mcgann, E. J.; Peters, C. J.

    1966-01-01

    Precision laser tracker capable of tracking a low acceleration target to an accuracy of about 20 microradians rms is being constructed and tested. This laser tracking has the advantage of discriminating against other optical sources and the capability of simultaneously measuring range.

  15. Tracking radar studies of bird migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.; Teal, J. M.; Kanwisher, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The application of tracking radar for determining the flight paths of migratory birds is discussed. The effects produced by various meteorological parameters are described. Samples of radar scope presentations obtained during tracking studies are presented. The characteristics of the radars and their limitations are examined.

  16. Partnership Attitude Tracking Study, Teens 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The Partnership Attitude Tracking Study (PATS) is Partnership for a Drug Free America's (PDFA) unique contribution to the field of substance abuse prevention. An annual study that tracks the attitudes consumers have about illegal drugs, this research examines what PDFA's target audiences think and feel about various drugs. After a decade of rising…

  17. Will Tracking Reform Promote Social Equity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Detracking proponents should carefully examine research suggesting that tracking reform has potential dangers. One study shows that high- and average-track students of all racial and economic backgrounds lose out under heterogenous grouping. Detracked classrooms may encourage "bright flight" and erode low achievers' self-confidence. (MLH)

  18. Multiple-object tracking while driving: the multiple-vehicle tracking task.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Martin J; Trick, Lana M

    2014-11-01

    Many contend that driving an automobile involves multiple-object tracking. At this point, no one has tested this idea, and it is unclear how multiple-object tracking would coordinate with the other activities involved in driving. To address some of the initial and most basic questions about multiple-object tracking while driving, we modified the tracking task for use in a driving simulator, creating the multiple-vehicle tracking task. In Experiment 1, we employed a dual-task methodology to determine whether there was interference between tracking and driving. Findings suggest that although it is possible to track multiple vehicles while driving, driving reduces tracking performance, and tracking compromises headway and lane position maintenance while driving. Modified change-detection paradigms were used to assess whether there were change localization advantages for tracked targets in multiple-vehicle tracking. When changes occurred during a blanking interval, drivers were more accurate (Experiment 2a) and ~250 ms faster (Experiment 2b) at locating the vehicle that changed when it was a target rather than a distractor in tracking. In a more realistic driving task where drivers had to brake in response to the sudden onset of brake lights in one of the lead vehicles, drivers were more accurate at localizing the vehicle that braked if it was a tracking target, although there was no advantage in terms of braking response time. Overall, results suggest that multiple-object tracking is possible while driving and perhaps even advantageous in some situations, but further research is required to determine whether multiple-object tracking is actually used in day-to-day driving. PMID:24946866

  19. OmniSense: visually enhanced tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Russell; Porter, Richard

    2002-08-01

    Remote, automated, day/night detection, classification, and tracking of personnel and vehicles is vital to a wide variety of security, law enforcement, and military applications. A practical system must consider cost, power, size, and operational limitations. Video tracking offers the ultimate in definitive identification and tracking capabilities, but also maximizes cost and power consumption. 360 degree views from a single infrared camera maximize the ability to monitor and track targets in a wide area. Other technologies using acoustic, seismic, and magnetic sensing can be used to extend the range or resolution of the system as well as preserving power by performing initial detection of targets to trigger video sensors. A variety of detection, fusion, and tracking algorithms can be applied to monitor targets around these sensors and across a wide area using multiple sensors.

  20. Vibration characteristics of floating slab track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chen-Ming; Huang, Cheng-Hao; Chen, Yi-Yi

    2008-11-01

    Coupled equilibrium equations of suspended wheels and floating slab track system were solved with the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method to obtain the deflections, vibration velocities, and wheel-rail contact forces. The program was validated through several aspects. Cases with various vehicle speed, slab mass, and stiffness of slab bearing were analyzed to reveal the effects of slab bearing on track responses. The correlation between wheel-rail resonance and train speed was also discussed. It was found that rail deflections increase significantly as train speed increases. Although large slab mass may lower tuning frequency, it could also result in higher wheel-rail contact force and rail deflections. The floating slab track is effective in isolating loading above 10 Hz, which might present in some railway sections with irregularities. Adopting floating slab track for vibration control for environment along the railway may cause concerns about ride quality and track damages.