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1

Structure of as-deposited and heat-treated iron-zinc coatings from chloride bath  

SciTech Connect

The iron content, phase constitution, and microstructure of electrodeposited iron-zinc alloy (EZA) coatings, deposited from chloride baths, is described for as-deposited and heat-treated conditions of coatings containing bulk iron contents of 6, 8, 10, and 13 w/o. The observed influence of current density upon iron content, which in turn influences the phase constitution and microstructure of the coatings, is reported. The microstructure, composed of non-equilibrium phases that have nanometer grain sizes, is illustrated and described with respect to iron content, crystallography, and morphology. As-deposited {eta} phase coatings undergo transformations through a sequence of metastable phases when heated. The sequence of phase transformations varies with iron content, but the mechanisms of phase transformation from the as-deposited eta phase to the metastable G phase was found to be similar in 6, 8, and 10 w/o Fe coatings. Microstructural, compositional, and crystallographic changes associated with this phase transformation are discussed.

Drewien, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goldstein, J.I.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

1993-09-01

2

Materials for Conoco zinc chloride hydrocracking process  

SciTech Connect

Use of zinc chloride to augment hydrogenation of coal and yield a high-octane gasoline product is the most significant feature of a coal liquefaction process being developed by Conoco Coal Development Company. The zinc chloride catalyst is regenerated in a fluidized sand bed, where the spent melt is mixed with air and hydrogen chloride at about 1000/sup 0/C. Recovery is completed at 370/sup 0/C in a condenser, where the zinc chloride is collected and the oxygen and sulfur are separated as H/sub 2/O and SO/sub 2/. The economic viability of the entire process is highly dependent on almost complete recovery of the zinc chloride. The severe environmental conditions of this recovery process cause unique materials problems. Although high-temperature oxidation and sulfidation are being studied in related programs, suitable materials to resist their combined effects along with those of chlorides have not yet been specifically addressed. Common engineering materials, such as the austenitic stainless steels and many nickel-base alloys, are unsuitable because of their inability to tolerate the elevated temperatures and sulfidation, respectively. The objectives of this task are to screen various metallic and ceramic materials for resistance to the zinc chloride recovery system environment and to determine the nature of the attack by exposing coupons to the simulated environment in the laboratory.

Baylor, V.B.; Keiser, J.R.; DeVan, J.H.

1980-01-01

3

Hydrocracking with molten zinc chloride catalyst containing 2-12% ferrous chloride  

DOEpatents

In a process for hydrocracking heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. by contacting the feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten zinc chloride catalyst and thereafter separating at least a major portion of the hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten zinc chloride catalyst, an improvement comprising: adjusting the FeCl.sub.2 content of the molten zinc chloride to from about 2 to about 12 mol percent based on the mixture of ferrous chloride and molten zinc chloride.

Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA); Bagshaw, Gary H. (Library, PA)

1981-01-01

4

40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory....

2010-07-01

5

Electrorefining zinc dross in ammoniacal ammonium chloride system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A zinc dross was cast into anodes and electrorefined in an ammoniacal ammonium chloride electrolyte (NH3–NH4Cl) to produce high purity zinc. The influence of several factors, such as zinc concentration, current density and temperature, on cathodic current efficiency and power consumption were investigated. The results indicated that increasing Zn concentration increased the current efficiency, but, very high Zn concentrations affected

Zheng Huajun; Gu Zhenghai; Zheng Yunpeng

2008-01-01

6

Dynamics of vitreous and molten zinc chloride  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of vitreous and molten zinc chloride have been studied with inelastic neutron scattering at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source. The results are analyzed in terms of the scattering function S(Q,E) and the effective vibrational density of states G(E). The vibrational spectra of both glass and liquid are dominated by broad features centered at 15 and 35 MeV which are identified with F{sub 2} modes of ZnCl{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} tetrahedra. The other two normal modes are not observed because of inadequate resolution and broadening and overlap resulting from coupling between tetrahedra. The behavior of ZnCl{sub 2} is contrasted with other tetrahedrally coordinated glasses that have been studied with the same technique. 15 refs,. 5 figs., 1 tab.

Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.L.; Susman, S.; Volin, K.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Wright, A.C. (Reading Univ. (United Kingdom). J.J. Thomson Physical Lab.)

1991-09-01

7

Interaction between nanoparticles generated by zinc chloride treatment and oxidative responses in rat liver.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction of zinc chloride (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [ip]) in rat liver in terms of the biosynthesis of nanoparticles. Zinc treatment increased zinc content in rat liver. Analysis of fluorescence revealed the presence of red fluorescence in the liver following zinc treatment. Interestingly, the co-exposure to zinc (3 mg/kg, ip) and selenium (0.20 mg/L, per os [by mouth]) led to a higher intensity of red fluorescence compared to zinc-treated rats. In addition, X-ray diffraction measurements carried out on liver fractions of zinc-treated rats point to the biosynthesis of zinc sulfide and/or selenide nanocomplexes at nearly 51.60 nm in size. Moreover, co-exposure led to nanocomplexes of about 72.60 nm in size. The interaction of zinc with other mineral elements (S, Se) generates several nanocomplexes, such as ZnS and/or ZnSe. The nanocomplex ZnX could interact directly with enzyme activity or indirectly by the disruption of mineral elements' bioavailability in cells. Subacute zinc or selenium treatment decreased malondialdehyde levels, indicating a drop in lipid peroxidation. In addition, antioxidant enzyme assays showed that treatment with zinc or co-treatment with zinc and selenium increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. Consequently, zinc complexation with sulfur and/or selenium at nanoscale level could enhance antioxidative responses, which is correlated to the ratio of number of ZnX nanoparticles (X=sulfur or X=selenium) to malondialdehyde level in rat liver. PMID:24403828

Azzouz, Inès; Trabelsi, Hamdi; Hanini, Amel; Ferchichi, Soumaya; Tebourbi, Olfa; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

2014-01-01

8

Interaction between nanoparticles generated by zinc chloride treatment and oxidative responses in rat liver  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction of zinc chloride (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [ip]) in rat liver in terms of the biosynthesis of nanoparticles. Zinc treatment increased zinc content in rat liver. Analysis of fluorescence revealed the presence of red fluorescence in the liver following zinc treatment. Interestingly, the co-exposure to zinc (3 mg/kg, ip) and selenium (0.20 mg/L, per os [by mouth]) led to a higher intensity of red fluorescence compared to zinc-treated rats. In addition, X-ray diffraction measurements carried out on liver fractions of zinc-treated rats point to the biosynthesis of zinc sulfide and/or selenide nanocomplexes at nearly 51.60 nm in size. Moreover, co-exposure led to nanocomplexes of about 72.60 nm in size. The interaction of zinc with other mineral elements (S, Se) generates several nanocomplexes, such as ZnS and/or ZnSe. The nanocomplex ZnX could interact directly with enzyme activity or indirectly by the disruption of mineral elements’ bioavailability in cells. Subacute zinc or selenium treatment decreased malondialdehyde levels, indicating a drop in lipid peroxidation. In addition, antioxidant enzyme assays showed that treatment with zinc or co-treatment with zinc and selenium increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. Consequently, zinc complexation with sulfur and/or selenium at nanoscale level could enhance antioxidative responses, which is correlated to the ratio of number of ZnX nanoparticles (X=sulfur or X=selenium) to malondialdehyde level in rat liver. PMID:24403828

Azzouz, Ines; Trabelsi, Hamdi; Hanini, Amel; Ferchichi, Soumaya; Tebourbi, Olfa; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

2014-01-01

9

Oral zinc aspartate treats experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.  

PubMed

The essential trace element zinc plays a critical role in the regulation of immune homeostasis. Zinc deficiency or excess can cause severe impairment of the immune response, which points to the importance of the physiological and dietary control of zinc levels for a functioning immune system. We previously reported that injection of zinc aspartate suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as effector T cell functions in vitro. Among the preferred characteristics of novel therapeutics for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as MS are oral availability and a tolerable effective dose to minimize side effects. In this study, we investigated whether oral administration of zinc aspartate, an approved drug to treat zinc deficiency in humans, is effective in controlling EAE at clinically approved doses. We show that oral administration of 6 µg/day [0.3 mg/kg body weight (BW)] or 12 µg/day [0.6 mg/kg BW] of zinc aspartate reduces clinical and histopathological signs during the relapsing remitting phase of the disease in SJL mice. The clinical effect in mice was accompanied by suppression of IFN-?, TNF-?, GM-CSF and IL-5 production in stimulated human T cells and mouse splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, a large array of proinflammatory cytokines was modulated by zinc aspartate exposure in vitro. These data suggest that administration of oral zinc aspartate may have beneficial effects on autoimmune diseases like MS. PMID:25146336

Schubert, Claudia; Guttek, Karina; Grüngreiff, Kurt; Thielitz, Anja; Bühling, Frank; Reinhold, Annegret; Brocke, Stefan; Reinhold, Dirk

2014-12-01

10

Modeling Zinc and Sodium Chloride Migration in Vadose Zone Soils Beneath Stormwater Infiltration Devices  

E-print Network

Modeling Zinc and Sodium Chloride Migration in Vadose Zone Soils Beneath Stormwater Infiltration influence on the movement of zinc, sodium, and chloride in the vadose zone beneath a typical infiltration, pathogens, heavy metals, solids, organic compounds, pesticides, chlorides), which have greatly contributed

Clark, Shirley E.

11

Laser action in praseodymium doped zinc chloride borophosphate glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to predict laser action in praseodymium doped zinc chloride borophosphate glasses with the help of laser parameters both absorption and fluorescence spectra have been studied. The glass specimens having composition in mol% B2O3(14.57)–P2O5(44.85)–Na2O(26.08)–ZnCl2(14.50)–Pr6O11(R) (R=0.0, 0.1 and 0.2 mol%) have been prepared by melt quenching technique. The spectra consist of seven absorption bands (400–2400 nm) and three fluorescence bands

Y. K. Sharma; S. P. Tandon; S. S. L. Surana

2000-01-01

12

Laser action in neodymium-doped zinc chloride borophosphate glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser action has been predicted in neodymium-doped zinc chloride borophosphate glasses with the help of laser parameters for the transitions 4F3\\/2?4I9\\/2, 4F3\\/2?4I11\\/2 and 4F3\\/2?4I13\\/2 in the near-IR region. Judd–Ofelt parameters have been used for the calculations of different laser parameters. Various energy interaction parameters like Slater–Condon, Landé, Racah and bonding parameters have also been calculated. A comparison with borophosphate glasses

S. S. L. Surana; Y. K. Sharma; S. P. Tandon

2001-01-01

13

Embryonal Carcinomas in Syrian Hamsters after Intratesticular Inoculation of Zinc Chloride during Seasonal Testicular Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Zinc chloride solution injected into the testes of 49 Syrian hamsters during the early spring months resulted in two embryonal carcinomas of the testis found at necropsy 10 weeks later. The zinc chloride injections were made during the period of rapid seasonal gonadal growth when spermatogonial division is activated and resulted in areas of coagulative necrosis occupying about 25%

John Guthrie; Olive A. Guthrie

14

Effect of zinc pretreatment on mercuric chloride-induced lipid peroxidation in the rat kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

EtlCct of Zinc Pretreatment on Mercuric Chloride-Induced Lipid Peroxidation in the Rat Kidney. FUI(INU, H., HIRAI, M., HSUEII, Y. M., AND YAMANE, Y. (1984). Toxicol. Appl. Phar- 1\\/1iIcoi 73, 395-40 I. The effect of zinc on mercuric chloride-induced lipid peroxidation in the rat kidney was investigated. The rats received zinc acetate (2.0 mmol\\/kg, po) for 2 days before being given

HIDEKI FUKINO; MASAMI HIRAI; Yu MEI HSUEH; Y ASUHIRO YAMANE

1984-01-01

15

Synthesis and characterization of zinc chloride containing poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel by gamma irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the characterization of zinc chloride incorporated into a poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) hydrogel prepared by gamma-ray irradiation was investigated. Zinc chloride powder with different concentrations was dissolved in the PAAc solution, and it was crosslinked with gamma-ray irradiation. The effects of various parameters such as zinc ion concentration and irradiation doses on characteristics of the hydrogel formed were investigated in detail for obtaining an antibacterial wound dressing. In addition, the gel content, pH-sensitive (pH 4 or 7) swelling ratio, and UV-vis absorption spectra of the zinc particles in the hydrogels were characterized. Moreover, antibacterial properties of these new materials against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains were observed on solid growth media. The antibacterial tests indicated that the zinc chloride containing PAAc hydrogels have good antibacterial activity.

Park, Jong-Seok; Kuang, Jia; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Lim, Youn-Mook; Jeong, Sung-In; Shin, Young-Min; Seob Khil, Myung; Nho, Young-Chang

2013-07-01

16

Evaluating the effects of zinc chloride as a preservative in cracked table olive packing.  

PubMed

This survey studies the influence of different zinc chloride concentrations (0.050, 0.075, and 0.100%, wt/vol) on the shelf life of "Aceituna Aloreña de Málaga" table olives. The Enterobacteriaceae population significantly (P ? 0.05) decreased in treatments containing 0.050 and 0.100% ZnCl(2), and those with 0.075% ZnCl(2) had also lower average counts than those observed under the usual packaging conditions (0.12% potassium sorbate). Lactic acid bacteria increased for treatments with 0.050 and 0.075% ZnCl(2), but in the presence of 0.100% they practically disappeared at the end of the shelf life period (?3 months). With respect to yeasts, populations of these microorganisms significantly decreased with the first two concentrations (0.050 and 0.075%) but showed a slight increase in the presence of 0.100% of ZnCl(2), although remaining markedly below populations observed with potassium sorbate packing. The use of this chloride salt also led to products with higher concentrations of sugars in brine because of its selective microbial inhibition. Finally, olives treated with 0.075% ZnCl(2) showed an improved sensory profile. PMID:22186060

Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Romero-Gil, V; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Garrido-Fernández, A

2011-12-01

17

Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil shale ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordanian oil shale ash was used as an adsorbent for the removal of copper and zinc from aqueous solution. This ash was treated with either hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric or phosphoric acids followed by washing and\\/or neutralization with sodium hydroxide in order to enhance its adsorption capacity. The sample that was treated with nitric acid showed the highest cation exchange capacity

Reyad Shawabkeh; Adnan Al-Harahsheh; Awni Al-Otoom

2004-01-01

18

A role for intracellular zinc in glioma alteration of neuronal chloride equilibrium  

PubMed Central

Glioma patients commonly suffer from epileptic seizures. However, the mechanisms of glioma-associated epilepsy are far to be completely understood. Using glioma-neurons co-cultures, we found that tumor cells are able to deeply influence neuronal chloride homeostasis, by depolarizing the reversal potential of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-evoked currents (EGABA). EGABA depolarizing shift is due to zinc-dependent reduction of neuronal KCC2 activity and requires glutamate release from glioma cells. Consistently, intracellular zinc loading rapidly depolarizes EGABA in mouse hippocampal neurons, through the Src/Trk pathway and this effect is promptly reverted upon zinc chelation. This study provides a possible molecular mechanism linking glioma invasion to excitation/inhibition imbalance and epileptic seizures, through the zinc–mediated disruption of neuronal chloride homeostasis. PMID:25356870

Di Angelantonio, S; Murana, E; Cocco, S; Scala, F; Bertollini, C; Molinari, M G; Lauro, C; Bregestovski, P; Limatola, C; Ragozzino, D

2014-01-01

19

Using a Vadose Zone Model to Predict the Migration Depth of Zinc and Sodium Chloride in Soils beneath Stormwater Infiltration Devices  

E-print Network

1 Using a Vadose Zone Model to Predict the Migration Depth of Zinc and Sodium Chloride in Soils. For this research, zinc and sodium chloride were chosen as the pollutants of interest because of their stormwater penetration depth of zinc and sodium chloride. High and low values for the factors were selected from

Clark, Shirley E.

20

Pair structure and interionic forces in molten zinc chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of glass-forming liquid ZnCl 2 as observed in diffraction experiments presents a number of distinctive features that computer simulation in standard ionic models seems unable to describe globally. We examine several qualitatively different models for 2:1 molten salts, solving them in the hypernetted chain approximation. These models are basically of the charged-hard-sphere type, supplemented by distance-dependent dielectric screening and by non-additivity of excluded volumes. In agreement with the simulation results, a local structure consisting of first-neighbour tetrahedral coordination for zinc ions inside a chlorine network is simply related to suitable values for the ionic radii. The nature of the zinc-zinc correlations is shown to reflect more directly the character of the bonding, which appears to involve microscopic distortions of the electronic shells of the ions and an appreciable angular dependence of the interionic forces. Qualitative features of effective pair potentials which would be consistent with the gross topology of ZnCl 2 in liquid and vitreous states are assessed from our analysis.

Ballone, P.; Pastore, G.; Thakur, J. S.; Tosi, M. P.

1986-12-01

21

Formation of porous silver by electrochemical alloying/dealloying in a water-insensitive zinc chloride-1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquid.  

PubMed

This paper describes the formation of a porous silver surface by a convenient two-step process involving electrochemical formation of a binary silver-zinc alloy film on a silver surface followed by electrochemical etching of the zinc from the alloy. Both the deposition and the dealloying steps were performed in a single bath of low-temperature zinc chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid at temperatures below 150 degrees C without using any other corrosive acids or bases. The effects of the deposited zinc quantity, deposition potential, current, and temperature on the structures and morphologies of the porous silver film were examined. In comparison with conventional molecular electrolyte solutions, ionic liquids provide a more versatile environment for fabricating porous metals. Because the zinc(II) species consumed during the deposition step was recovered during the dealloying step, the ionic liquid is reusable. PMID:16539450

Yeh, Fu-Hwa; Tai, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Fang; Sun, I-Wen

2006-03-23

22

Novel acidic ionic liquids mediated zinc chloride: Highly effective catalysts for the Beckmann rearrangement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mild, efficient, and eco-friendly procedure for Beckmann rearrangement was catalyzed by a series of novel Brønsted acidic ionic liquids (ILs) consisiting double –SO3H cations mediated zinc chloride (ILs–ZnCl2) catalytic system. High yields of amides were achieved by using 5mol.% of ILs–ZnCl2 catalysts. In addition, the catalyst system could be recycled and reused for three times.

Xiaofei Liu; Linfei Xiao; Hugjiltu Wu; Zhen Li; Jing Chen; Chungu Xia

2009-01-01

23

Free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes for the transference of zinc chloride from enthylene glycol to water solutions  

E-print Network

FREE ENERGY, ENTlDKPY, AND ENTROPY CHANGES FOR THE TRANCE OF ZINC CHLORIDE FROM ETHYLENE GLYCOL TO WATER SOLUTIONS A Thesis JOHN NICHOLAS'8 LOMONTE Submitted to the Graduate School of' the Agricultural and. Mechanical College of' Texas... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of' MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1960 Major Sub)cot: Chemistry FREE ENERGY, ENTHALPY, AND ENTROPY CHANGES FOR THE TRANSFERENCE OF ZINC CHLORIDE FROM ETHYLENE GLYCOL TO WATER SOLUTIONS A Thesis...

Lomonte, John Nicholas

2012-06-07

24

Extractive removal of zinc(II) from chloride liquors with phosphonium ionic liquids\\/toluene mixtures as novel extractants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride (Cyphos®IL 101) and bis(trifluoromethylsulphonyl)imide (Cyphos®IL 109) – phosphonium ionic liquids – were used as novel reagents mixed with toluene to extract zinc(II) from chloride media. Extraction of zinc(II) was very fast and efficient (EZn over 95%) for molar ratio of Cyphos®IL 101\\/Zn(II) more than 2. It was found that the presence of HCl in the feed enhanced Zn(II)

Magdalena Regel-Rosocka

2009-01-01

25

Direct electrodeposition of FeCoZn wire arrays from a zinc chloride-based ionic liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Zinc chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid enables facile template-free electrochemical fabrication of arrays of polycrystalline ternary FeCoZn nanowires with diameter of 100–200nm by controlling the deposition potential. The nanowire arrays were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy.

Jia-Ming Yang; Yi-Ting Hsieh; Ding-Xuan Zhuang; I-Wen Sun

2011-01-01

26

Effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and/or zinc chloride on biochemical parameters and mineral levels in rat liver and kidney.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the potential subacute toxicity of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) in Wistar rats in comparison with reference toxicant, zinc chloride (ZnCl2), of a non-nanoparticulate form. We therefore studied the relationships between zinc (Zn) accumulation, liver and kidney trace element levels, and plasmatic biochemical parameters. Rats in all groups were treated by intraperitoneal injection of ZnO NPs and/or ZnCl2 solution (25 mg/kg) every other day for 10 days. The contents of trace element in the liver and kidney were slightly modulated after ZnO NPs and/or ZnCl2 solution exposure. The same treatment increased the aspartate aminotransferase activity and uric acid concentration. However, ZnO NPs or ZnCl2 solution decreased the creatinine levels, whereas the combined intake of ZnO NPs and ZnCl2 decreased the glucose concentration. Interestingly, the analysis of the lyophilized powder of liver using the x-ray diffractometer showed the degradation of ZnO NPs in ZnO-treated group, instead there is a lack of NPs ZnO biosynthesis from the ZnCl2 solution injected in rats. These investigations suggest that combined injection of ZnO NPs and ZnCl2 solution has a possible toxic effect in rats. This effect could be related to Zn(2+) ion release and accumulation of this element in organs. Our findings provide crucial information that ZnO appeared to be absorbed in the organs in an ionic form rather than in a particulate form. PMID:24501101

Amara, S; Slama, I Ben; Mrad, I; Rihane, N; Khemissi, W; El Mir, L; Rhouma, K Ben; Abdelmelek, H; Sakly, M

2014-11-01

27

A Nonenzymatic Glucose Sensor Using Nanoporous Platinum Electrodes Prepared by Electrochemical Alloying\\/Dealloying in a Water-Insensitive Zinc Chloride1Ethyl3-Methylimidazolium Chloride Ionic Liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here a nonenzymatic sensor by using a nanoporous platinum electrode to detect glucose directly. The electrode was fabricated by electrochemical deposition and dissolution of PtZn alloy in zinc chloride-1-ethyl-3- methylimidazolium chloride (ZnCl2-EMIC) ionic liquid. Both SEM and electrochemical studies showed the evidences for the nanoporous characteristics of the as-prepared Pt electrodes. Amperometric measurements allow observation of the electrochemical

Chih-Hung Chou; Jyh-Cheng Chen; Chia-Cheng Tai; I-Wen Sun; Jyh-Myng Zena

2008-01-01

28

Crystal growth, structure and characterizations of a new semiorganic nonlinear optical material-{beta}-Alanine zinc chloride  

SciTech Connect

The title compound, {beta}-alanine zinc chloride-a new semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. Single crystals of {beta}-alanine zinc chloride have been subjected to X-ray diffraction analysis to determine the crystal structure. The powder X-ray diffractogram of the crystal has also been recorded. The amount of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen in the crystals was also estimated. Fourier Transform Infrared and Raman spectral measurements have been carried out on the grown crystals in order to identify the functional groups. The presence of hydrogen and carbon in the {beta}-alanine zinc chloride was confirmed by using proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analyses. The percentage of zinc in the crystal was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Optical behavior such as ultraviolet-vis-near infrared transmittance spectrum and second harmonic generation has been investigated. The mechanical strength and thermal behavior of the grown crystal have been analyzed.

Anbuchezhiyan, M. [Department of Physics, Valliammai Engineering College, S.R.M. Nagar, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India)] [Department of Physics, Valliammai Engineering College, S.R.M. Nagar, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India); Ponnusamy, S., E-mail: suruponnus@gmail.com [Centre for Material Science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Kanchipuram, Chennai 603203 (India); Muthamizhchelvan, C. [Centre for Material Science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Kanchipuram, Chennai 603203 (India)] [Centre for Material Science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Kanchipuram, Chennai 603203 (India); Sivakumar, K. [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)] [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

2010-08-15

29

Simulation of spray drying with reaction: Absorption of hydrogen sulfide in ammoniacal solution of zinc chloride  

SciTech Connect

Absorption of hydrogen sulfide gas in ammoniacal solution of zinc chloride is accompanied with an instantaneous chemical reaction forming zinc sulfide precipitates. Such reactions are most suited for operation of spray drying with reaction. A mathematical model for the system which incorporates chemical reaction, heat, mass and momentum transfer has been proposed. It is assumed that the gases and the spray is considered monodisperse for sake of simplicity. The differential equations derived for the model have been solved as an initial value problem using the Runge-Kutta method. The variations of temperature, humidity, droplet diameter, moisture content and concentrations of reactants are predicted along the length of the column and compared with experimental data.

Chander, H.; Ghosh, P.K. (National Physical Lab., New Delhi (India)); Baveja, K.K.; Dhingra, S.C. (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India))

1993-01-01

30

Modeling of copper(II) and zinc(II) extraction from chloride media with Kelex 100  

SciTech Connect

The extraction of copper(II) and zinc(II) from acidic chloride solutions with protonated Kelex 100 (HL) was studied and the extraction isotherms were determined for systems containing individual metal ions and their mixtures. A chemical model was proposed and verified. It considers the coextraction of the following species: MCl{sub 4}(H{sub 2}L){sub 2}, MCl{sub 4}(H{sub 2}L){sub 2}{center_dot}HCl, MCl{sub 3}(H{sub 2}L), ML{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}L{center_dot}HCl. Zinc(II) is extracted as the metal ion pairs, while copper(II) can be extracted as the metal ion pair and the chelate. The model can be used to predict the effect of experimental conditions on extraction and coextraction of the metal ions considered.

Bogacki, M.B.; Zhivkova, S.; Kyuchoukov, G.; Szymanowski, J.

2000-03-01

31

Effect of unburned carbon on lead, zinc, and copper recovery from molten fly ash by chloride-induced volatilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work focuses on investigation of the effective recovery of heavy metals from molten fly ash by applying chloride-induced\\u000a volatilization. In particular, the effect of unburned carbon on the chloride-induced volatilization of lead, zinc, and copper\\u000a from model and real molten fly ashes was investigated in the temperature range 873–1173 K under a N2 atmosphere. As a result, almost

Katsuya Nakayama; Kuchar Dalibor; Keisuke Sakai; Mitsuhiro Kubota; Hitoki Matsuda

2008-01-01

32

Immobilized ionic liquid\\/zinc chloride: Heterogeneous catalyst for synthesis of cyclic carbonates from carbon dioxide and epoxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical fixation of carbon dioxide with epoxides to form cyclic carbonates proceeds very effectively under mild conditions by using immobilized ionic liquid catalyst in conjunction with zinc chloride without any organic solvents. The reaction temperature, carbon dioxide pressure, effects of different metallic complexes and the amount of immobilized ionic liquid were investigated. The optimum reaction conditions were 110°C and 1.5MPa,

Lin-Fei Xiao; Fu-Wei Li; Jia-Jian Peng; Chun-Gu Xia

2006-01-01

33

Optimization of production conditions for activated carbons from Tamarind wood by zinc chloride using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-cost activated carbon was prepared from Tamarind wood an agricultural waste material, by chemical activation with zinc chloride. Activated carbon adsorption is an effective means for reducing organic chemicals, chlorine, heavy metals and unpleasant tastes and odours in effluent or colored substances from gas or liquid streams. Central composite design (CCD) was applied to study the influence of activation

J. N. Sahu; Jyotikusum Acharya; B. C. Meikap

2010-01-01

34

Combinative action of zinc chloride and triethanolamine on improving photosensitivity in red-sensitized dichromated gelatin for optical storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study to ascertain the combinative action of zinc chloride and triethanolamine (TEA) on improving photosensitivity of red-sensitized dichromated gelatin (RSDCG) has been carried out. Firstly, the exposure properties of home-made RSDCG were studied experimentally. Then, zinc chloride, a kind of Louis' acid, was added into the RSDCG to observe its catalytic effect on photo-cross-linking of gelatin molecules in RSDCG. After that, TEA, as a kind of external electron donor in RSDCG photo-chemical reaction, was introduced into RSDCG to make its photosensitivity higher in this study. Finally, the combinative effect of zinc chloride and TEA on the photosensitivity in RSDCG holograms was studied. The results show: (1) Zinc chloride and TEA have obvious combinative effect on improving the photosensitivity of RSDCG. (2) The curve of diffraction efficiency of RSDCG holographic transmission grating versus exposure energy is bell-shaped. (3) The maximum diffraction efficiency of the grating can reach as high as 83% corresponding to the exposure energy about 200 mJ/cm2.

Zhao, Feng; Frietman, Edward E. E.; Geng, Wanzhen

1998-11-01

35

Experimental study on the combinative action of zinc chloride and triethanolamine on improving photosensitivity in red-sensitized dichromated gelatin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study to ascertain the combinative action of zinc chloride and triethanolamine (TEA) on improving the photosensitivity of red-sensitized dichromated gelatin (RSDCG) has been carried out. Firstly, the exposure properties of home-made RSDCG holographic plates were studied experimentally. Then, zinc chloride was added into the red-sensitized dichromated gelatin to observe its catalytic effect on photo-cross-linking of gelatin molecules in RSDCG. After that, triethanolamine, as an external electron donor in the red-sensitized dichromated gelatin photo-chemical reaction, was introduced into the red-sensitized dichromated gelatin to make its photosensitivity higher in this study. Finally, the combinative effect of zinc chloride and triethanolamine on the photosensitivity in RSDCG holograms was studied. The results show that (1) zinc chloride and triethanolamine have an obvious combinative effect on improving the photosensitivity of the red-sensitized dichromated gelatin, (2) the curve of diffraction efficiency of holographic transmission grating recorded in the red-sensitized dichromated gelatin versus exposure energy is bell-shaped and the maximum diffraction efficiency of the grating can reach as high as 83% at an exposure energy of about 200 mJ/cm 2, (3) the refractive index modulation of the holograms can reach a value of 0.0153.

Zhao, Feng; Geng, Wanzheng; Jiang, Lingzhen; Li, Xiaou; Hong, Jing

1998-04-01

36

In vivo assessment of odour retention in an antimicrobial silver chloride-treated polyester textile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether polyester textiles treated with bioactive concentrations of an antimicrobial silver chloride (SC) compound were effective in reducing axillary odour and axillary bacterial populations before and after multiple washes. A polyester knit fabric was treated with two concentrations of a SC formulation (resulting in 30 and 60?ppm of silver) and evaluated at

Rachel H. McQueen; Monika Keelan; Yin Xu; Tannie Mah

2012-01-01

37

Fundamental studies on chlorine behavior as related to zinc electrowinning from aqueous chloride electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements were made on the transport and equilibrium properties of dissolved chlorine in aqueous HC1, HCl-ZnCl2, HCl-MgCl2, and water. These measurements included solubility, absorption rates during bubbling, stripping rates during nitrogen bubbling, and cathodic reduction rates. The solubility of chlorine was found to be affected by speciation into aqueous Cl2, HC1O, and C13 -. With increasing HCl concentration, the solubility of chlorine decreased to a minimum at 0.2 mol dm-3, followed by a slow and linear increase. Metal chloride salts depressed the chlorine solubility approximately in proportion to concentration. Mass transfer of aqueous chlorine was found to support a current of about 100 A m-2 from a chlorine-saturated ZnCl2-HCl solution under typical zinc electrowinning conditions. Comparisons with published zinc electrowinning papers indicate that air sparging would eliminate dissolved chlorine sufficiently to remove the need for diaphragm cell separation of dissolved chlorine, insofar as current inefficiencies due to cathodic chlorine reduction are concerned.

Majima, Hiroshi; Awakura, Yasuhiro; Tsugui, Keisuke; Peters, Ernest

1990-04-01

38

Zinc contamination from brass upon heat treating a superconducting magnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical calculations predicted that zinc outgassing from brass spacers during a planned heat treatment would likely damage a lab-scale superconducting magnet. This specter was reinforced by a simulated heat treatment, the samples of which were analyzed by gravimetry, metallography, and microprobe chemical analysis. It was found that zinc escaping from the brass could diffuse 80 μm into copper electrical conductors

D. W. Stevens; W. V. Hassenzahl

1994-01-01

39

Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of zinc oxide particles starting from chloride precursor  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Schematic of the mechanism for ZnO nanoparticles obtained by the calcination. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocrystalline ZnO particles were successfully prepared by a microwave-assisted method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sponge-like morphology of ZnO change to a net-like structure after thermal treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PL spectra exhibited a nearband-edge emission at 393 nm. -- Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) was synthesized using a microwave assisted hydrothermal (MAH) process based on chloride/urea/water solution and under 800 W irradiation for 5 min. In the bath, Zn{sup 2+} ions reacted with the complex carbonate and hydroxide ions to form zinc carbonate hydroxide hydrate (Zn{sub 4}CO{sub 3}(OH){sub 6}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O), and the conversion from Zn{sub 4}CO{sub 3}(OH){sub 6}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O to ZnO was synchronously achieved by a MAH process. The as-prepared ZnO has a sponge-like morphology. However, the initial sponge-like morphology of ZnO could change to a net-like structure after thermal treatment, and compact nano-scale ZnO particles were finally obtained when the period of thermal treatment increased to 30 min. Pure ZnO nanoparticles was obtained from calcination of loose sponge-like ZnO particles at 500 Degree-Sign C. The analysis of optical properties of these ZnO nanoparticles showed that the intensity of 393 nm emission increased with the calcination temperature because the defects were reduced and the crystallinity was improved.

Tseng, Chun-Chieh [Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chou, Yu-Hsien [Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI-South Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan 709, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI-South Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan 709, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Chung-Ming [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, LungHwa University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan 306, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, LungHwa University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan 306, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Yih-Ming [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Ta-His, Tao-Yuan 335, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Ta-His, Tao-Yuan 335, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ger, Ming-Der, E-mail: mingderger@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Ta-His, Tao-Yuan 335, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Ta-His, Tao-Yuan 335, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shu, Youn-Yuen, E-mail: shuyy@nknucc.nknu.edu.tw [Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan, ROC (China)

2012-01-15

40

Effect of Fluid Flow on Zinc Electrodeposits from Acid Chloride Electrolytes. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zinc was deposited potentiostatically from acid chloride baths. Once bath chemistry and electrochemistry were controlled, the study was focused on convective mass transfer at horizontal electrodes and its effect on cell performance. A laser schlieren imaging technique allowed in situ observations of flow patterns and their correlation with current transients. Convection was turbulent and mass transfer as a function of Rayleigh number was well correlated by: Sh = 0.14 R to the 1/3 power. Similarly, convection initiation time was correlated by DT/d squared = 38 Ra to the -2/3 power. Time scale of fluctuations was about half the initiation time. Taking the boundary layer thickness as a characteristic length, a critical Rayleigh number for the onset of convection was deduced: Ra sub CR = 5000. Placing the anode on the top of the cathode completely changed the flow pattern but kept the I-t curves identical whereas the use of a cathode grid doubled the limiting current. A well defined plateau in the current voltage curves suggested that hydrogen evolution has been successfully inhibited. Finally, long time deposition showed that convection at horizontal electrodes increased the induction time for dentrite growth by at least a factor of 2 with respect to a vertical wire.

Abdelmassir, A. A.

1982-01-01

41

Direct effect of chlorine dioxide, zinc chloride and chlorhexidine solution on the gaseous volatile sulfur compounds.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. This study focused on the ability of aqueous anti-volatile-sulfur-compound (VSC) solutions to eliminate gaseous VSCs by direct contact in a sealed space to describe possible mode of action of anti-VSC agents. Materials and methods. Twenty milliliters of each experimental solution, 0.16% sodium chlorite, 0.25% zinc chloride, 0.1% chlorhexidine and distilled water, was injected into a Teflon bag containing mixed VSCs, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide and mixed vigorously for 30 s. The VSC concentration was measured by gas chromatography before, immediately after, 30 min and 60 min after mixing. Results. The sodium chlorite solution reduced the VSC concentration remarkably. After mixing, nearly all VSCs were eliminated immediately and no VSCs were detected at 30 and 60 min post-mixing. However, in the other solutions, the VSC concentration decreased by ?30% immediately after mixing and there was no further decrease. Conclusion. The results suggest that sodium chlorite solution has the effect of eliminating gaseous VSCs directly. This must be because it can release chlorine dioxide gas which can react directly with gaseous VSCs. In the case of other solutions that have been proved to be effective to reduce halitosis clinically, it can be proposed that their anti-VSC effect is less likely due to the direct chemical elimination of gaseous VSCs in the mouth. PMID:24512204

Kim, Ju-Sik; Park, Ji-Woon; Kim, Dae-Jung; Kim, Young-Ku; Lee, Jeong-Yun

2014-11-01

42

Total zinc in zinc battery plates by EDTA titration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc battery plate electrodes are analyzed for zinc oxide, zinc chloride, zinc fluoride, zinc carbonate, zinc oxychloride, total zinc, zinc as the metal, and trace metals. A variety of methods are used to determine each of these components. The amount of zinc in each of the zinc compounds is determined by multiplying the percent of the compound by the ratio

Vernon L. Hammersley; Naval Surface

1995-01-01

43

Hydrometallurgical recovery of zinc and lead from electric arc furnace dust using mononitrilotriacetate anion and hexahydrated ferric chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to study the feasibility at laboratory-scale of a new hydrometallurgical process for treating electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD). The proposed process is intended to extract zinc and lead from EAFD without destroying the iron oxides matrix. So, this material can be recycled by the steel industry. Independently of the origin of the samples, major

Nathalie Leclerc; Eric Meux; Jean-Marie Lecuire

2002-01-01

44

Lewis acidity dependency of the electrochemical window of zinc chloride–1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative ion fast atom bombardment mass spectra (FAB-MS) recorded for ZnCl2–1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (ZnCl2–EMIC) ionic liquids with various compositions indicate that various Lewis acidic chlorozincate clusters (ZnCl3?, Zn2Cl5? and Zn3Cl7?) are present in ZnCl2–EMIC ionic liquids depending on the percentage of ZnCl2 used in preparing the ionic liquids; higher ZnCl2 percentage favors the larger clusters. Cyclic voltammetry reveals that the potential

Shu-I Hsiu; Jing-Fang Huang; I-Wen Sun; Cheng-Hui Yuan; Jantaie Shiea

2002-01-01

45

Dominant lethal test in female mice treated with methyl mercury chloride.  

PubMed

Female BALB/c mice were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of 0, 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5 mg methyl mercury chloride per kg body weight and subjected to the dominant lethal assay at 6 different time intervals between exposure and mating. Cyclophosphamide (210 mg/kg body weight) was used as a positive control. The main observation appeared to be a statistically highly significant increase in especially pre- and early post-implantation foetal losses. This was most evident when all data (the 6 consecutive weeks of mating) were pooled. PMID:6717479

Verschaeve, L; Léonard, A

1984-05-01

46

Structural characterization of zinc(II) chloride in aqueous solution and in the protic ionic liquid ethyl ammonium nitrate by x-ray absorption spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the species and structures existing in a series of ZnCl2-H2O-NaCl solutions with different chloride\\/zinc ratios and in a solution of ZnCl2 in the protic ionic liquid ethyl ammonium nitrate (EAN). The average coordination numbers and distances of zinc species were determined from the analysis of the EXAFS data.

Paola D'Angelo; Andrea Zitolo; Francesca Ceccacci; Ruggero Caminiti; Giuliana Aquilanti

2011-01-01

47

Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems. Phase 2, Process optimization: Volume 3, Effect/fate of chlorides in the zinc titanate hot-gas desulfurization process  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to support Texaco`s effort to develop the zinc titanate hot-gas desulfurization process for gases produced from their oxygen-blown coal gasifier by answering two key questions that had remained unanswered to date. These questions were: Will chloride in the coal gas affect the performance of the sorbent? Where would the chloride end up following sulfidation and regeneration? Previously, Research Triangle Institute (RTI) completed a bench-scale test series, under a subcontract to Texaco, Inc., for their contract with the US Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC), in which zinc titanate was shown to be a highly promising sorbent for desulfurizing the Texaco O{sub 2}-blown simulated coal gas. The next step was to evaluate the effect of coal gas contaminants, particularly chloride, on the sorbent. No tests have been carried out in the past that evaluate the effect of chloride on zinc titanate. If ZnO in the sorbent reacts with the chloride, zinc chloride may form which may evaporate causing accelerated zinc loss. Zinc chloride may revert back to the oxide during oxidative regeneration. This may be enhanced in the presence of steam. This report provides results of a three-test series which was designed to give some definitive answers about the fate of chloride in the hot-gas desulfurization process and the effect of chloride on the performance of zinc titanate.

Gangwal, S.K.; Paar, T.M.; McMichael, W.J.

1991-09-01

48

Synthesis of cadmium and zinc semiconductor compounds from an ionic liquid containing choline chloride and urea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea (commercially known as Reline) has been used as a medium from which CdS, CdSe, and ZnS thin films have been electrodeposited for the first time. Reline is a conductive room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) with a wide electrochemical window, which is suitable for use as a medium for electrodeposition. The voltammetric behaviour

Phillip J. Dale; Anura P. Samantilleke; Dilip D. Shivagan; Laurence M. Peter

2007-01-01

49

Ferric sulphate\\/chloride leaching of zinc and minor elements from a sphalerite concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric leaching of a sphalerite concentrate in sulphate and chloride media was performed and the effect of several variables, such as solid\\/liquid ratio and oxidant (Fe(III)) concentration were investigated. The behaviour of minor elements, such as Cu, In, As, Sb, Bi, Sn and Pb, was also studied under different conditions. The results showed that using a solid\\/liquid ratio of 5%

Sílvia M. C. Santos; Remígio M. Machado; M. Joana N. Correia; M. Teresa A. Reis; M. Rosinda C. Ismael; Jorge M. R. Carvalho

2010-01-01

50

Structural characterization of zinc(II) chloride in aqueous solution and in the protic ionic liquid ethyl ammonium nitrate by x-ray absorption spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the species and structures existing in a series of ZnCl2-H2O-NaCl solutions with different chloride/zinc ratios and in a solution of ZnCl2 in the protic ionic liquid ethyl ammonium nitrate (EAN). The average coordination numbers and distances of zinc species were determined from the analysis of the EXAFS data. In aqueous solution the number of chloride ions tightly bounded to Zn2+ is significantly related to the chloride/zinc ratio, and no inner complex formation between Zn2+ and Cl- ions has been detected for low ZnCl2 concentration (0.1 and 0.2 M). Conversely, in the same concentration range (0.13 M) the ZnCl2 species do not dissociate in EAN and the Zn2+ first coordination shell has two chloride ions and is completed by two oxygen atoms of the nitrate anion. The results of this investigation show that notwithstanding the existence of similar characteristics between EAN and water, the solvation properties of the two solvents are markedly different.

D'Angelo, Paola; Zitolo, Andrea; Ceccacci, Francesca; Caminiti, Ruggero; Aquilanti, Giuliana

2011-10-01

51

Structural characterization of zinc(II) chloride in aqueous solution and in the protic ionic liquid ethyl ammonium nitrate by x-ray absorption spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the species and structures existing in a series of ZnCl(2)-H(2)O-NaCl solutions with different chloride/zinc ratios and in a solution of ZnCl(2) in the protic ionic liquid ethyl ammonium nitrate (EAN). The average coordination numbers and distances of zinc species were determined from the analysis of the EXAFS data. In aqueous solution the number of chloride ions tightly bounded to Zn(2+) is significantly related to the chloride/zinc ratio, and no inner complex formation between Zn(2+) and Cl(-) ions has been detected for low ZnCl(2) concentration (0.1 and 0.2 M). Conversely, in the same concentration range (0.13 M) the ZnCl(2) species do not dissociate in EAN and the Zn(2+) first coordination shell has two chloride ions and is completed by two oxygen atoms of the nitrate anion. The results of this investigation show that notwithstanding the existence of similar characteristics between EAN and water, the solvation properties of the two solvents are markedly different. PMID:22029326

D'Angelo, Paola; Zitolo, Andrea; Ceccacci, Francesca; Caminiti, Ruggero; Aquilanti, Giuliana

2011-10-21

52

Radium-223 chloride: Extending life in prostate cancer patients by treating bone metastases.  

PubMed

The treatment scope for patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is rapidly expanding. On May 15, 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved radium-223 chloride ((223)RaCl2) for the treatment of mCRPC patients whose metastases are limited to the bones. Radium-223 is an ?-emitting alkaline earth metal ion, which, similar to calcium ions, accumulates in the bone. In a phase III study (ALSYMPCA), mCRPC patients with bone metastases received best standard-of-care treatment with placebo or (223)RaCl2. At a prespecified interim analysis, the primary endpoint of median overall survival was significantly extended by 3.6 months in patients treated with radium-223 compared with placebo (P < 0.001). The radioisotope was well tolerated and gave limited bone marrow suppression. (223)RaCl2 is the first bone-targeting antitumor therapy that received FDA approval based on a significant extended median overall survival. Further studies are required to optimize its dosing and to confirm its efficacy and safety in cancer patients. PMID:24052017

Wissing, Michel D; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B; van der Pluijm, Gabri; Gelderblom, Hans

2013-11-01

53

Influence of zinc chloride addition on the chemical structure of bio-oil obtained during co-pyrolysis of wood\\/synthetic polymer blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical structure of liquid products of the pinewood sawdust (W) co-pyrolysis with polystyrene (PS) and polypropylene (PP) with and without the zinc chloride as an additive was investigated. The pyrolysis process was carried out at 450°C with the heating rate of 5°C\\/min. The yield of liquid products of pyrolysis was in the range of 37–91wt% and their form was

Piotr Rutkowski

2009-01-01

54

Thermal stability of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) compounds stabilized with pre-heated mixtures of calcium and\\/or zinc stearates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processing and post-processing thermal stability of poly(vinyl chloride) compounds, plasticized with di(ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), using several ratios of calcium\\/zinc stearates are reported here. Two series of compounds were prepared, varying the DEHP or ESO concentrations. The compounds were prepared as follows: (1) preheating stearates, (2) dry-blending the compound components, (3) pelletizing the dry-blend and

Luis J. González-Ortiz; Martín Arellano; Carlos F. Jasso; Eduardo Mendizábal; M. Judith Sánchez-Peña

2005-01-01

55

Experimental study on the combinative action of zinc chloride and triethanolamine on improving photosensitivity in red-sensitized dichromated gelatin 1 This is supported by Heilongjiang Natural Science Foundation of China. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study to ascertain the combinative action of zinc chloride and triethanolamine (TEA) on improving the photosensitivity of red-sensitized dichromated gelatin (RSDCG) has been carried out. Firstly, the exposure properties of home-made RSDCG holographic plates were studied experimentally. Then, zinc chloride was added into the red-sensitized dichromated gelatin to observe its catalytic effect on photo-cross-linking of gelatin molecules in

Feng Zhao; Wanzheng Geng; Lingzhen Jiang; Xiaou Li; Jing Hong

1998-01-01

56

Zinc  

MedlinePLUS

... condition in which the blood cannot carry enough oxygen. Some signs of copper deficiency have also occurred ... acetate lozenge, providing 9-24 mg elemental zinc, dissolved in the mouth every two hours while awake ...

57

Preparation of activated carbon from dried pods of Prosopis cineraria with zinc chloride activation for the removal of phenol.  

PubMed

Utilization of agrowaste materials for the production of activated carbon, as an excellent adsorbent with large surface area, is well established industrially, for dephenolation of wastewater. In the present work, dried pods of Prosopis cineraria-a novel and low-cost agrowaste material-were used to prepare activated carbons by zinc chloride activation. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to study the effects of various physicochemical parameters such as initial phenol concentration, adsorbent dose, initial solution pH, and temperature. Pseudo-first-order second-order and diffusion kinetic models were used to identify the possible mechanisms of such adsorption process. The Langmuir and Freundlich equations were used to analyze the adsorption equilibrium. Maximum removal efficiency of 86 % was obtained with 25 mg L(-1) of initial phenol concentration. The favorable pH for maximum phenol adsorption was 4.0. Freundlich equation represented the adsorption equilibrium data more ideally than the Langmuir. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained was 78.32 mg g(-1) at a temperature of 30 °C and 25 mg L(-1) initial phenol concentration. The adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. The pseudo-second-order model, an indication of chemisorption mechanism, fitted the experimental data better than the pseudo-first-order Lagergren model. Regeneration of spent activated carbon was carried out using Pseudomonas putida MTCC 2252 as the phenol-degrading microorganism. Maximum regeneration up to 57.5 % was recorded, when loaded phenol concentration was 25 mg L(-1). The data obtained in this study would be useful in designing and fabricating an efficient treatment plant for phenol-rich effluents. PMID:23212266

Nath, Kaushik; Panchani, Suresh; Bhakhar, M S; Chatrola, Sandip

2013-06-01

58

Role of corticosterone in cleft palate formation in methylmercuric chloride-treated mice  

SciTech Connect

The effect of simultaneous administration of sodium selenite and methylmercuric chloride on plasma corticosterone, and the effect of adrenalectomy and methylmercuric chloride treatment on the incidence of fetal cleft palate in mice were examined. After 6 consecutive days of treatment, methylmercury (as methylmercuric chloride) at 5 mg/kg per day increased plasma corticosterone to approximately twice the concentration observed in the controls. When administered together, selenium (as sodium selenite) at 0.125 to 0.5 mg/kg per day did not affect the increase of plasma corticosterone induced by methylmercuric chloride. Selenite by itself (0.125 to 0.5 mg selenium/kg per day) resulted in an increase of approximately 50% over the controls. Sham opration or adrenalectomy of mice on Day 7 of pregnancy did not result in a significant incidence of cleft palate in the fetuses. However, the administration of methylmercury (5 mg/kg per day) on Days 11, 12, and 13 of gestation to the operated mothers resulted in cleft palate in approximately 30% of the fetuses, regardless of the type of operation. The significance of these findings is discussed.

Chan, K.K.S.; Lee, M.

1981-04-01

59

Coagulation removal of melanoidins from biologically treated molasses wastewater using ferric chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pigments (melanoidins) in molasses wastewater are refractory to conventional biological treatment. Ferric chloride was used as coagulant to remove color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from molasses effluent. Using jar test procedure, main operating conditions such as pH and coagulant dosage were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, up to 86% and 96% of COD and color removal efficiencies were

Zhen Liang; Yanxin Wang; Yu Zhou; Hui Liu

2009-01-01

60

Zinc recovery by ultrasound acid leaching of double kiln treated electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to convert 70,000 tons a year of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust into an environmentally safe or recyclable product has encouraged studies to reclaim zinc from this waste material. Successful characterization of a double-kiln calcine, produced from EAF dust, has shown that the calcine pellets consisted mainly of zinc oxide plates with some iron oxide particles. Preliminary leaching

Barrera Godinez

1989-01-01

61

Comparative toxicity of a zinc salt, zinc powder and zinc oxide to Eisenia fetida, Enchytraeus albidus and Folsomia candida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pore water zinc concentration and the calcium chloride extracted zinc fraction are higher in the soils spiked with a zinc salt (ZnCl2) compared to soils spiked with zinc oxide or zinc powder. Based on total zinc concentrations in the soil, the acute toxicity of zinc salt to the compost worm Eisenia fetida, the potworm Enchytraeus albidus and the springtail

Koen Lock; Colin R. Janssen

2003-01-01

62

Lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxygenic enzymes in vitro in mercuric chloride treated human erythrocytes  

SciTech Connect

Mercury can exist in the environment as metal, as monovalent and divalent salts and as organomercurials, the most important of which is methyl mercury. There are reports which suggest that heavy metals like mercury, lead and cadmium have prooxidant catalytic activity and can initiate lipid peroxidation by generating free radicals and thereby interfering with the antioxidant system of the cell. Higher concentrations of mercury have been used earlier to assess the extent of lipid peroxidation in bovine erythrocytes. However, the interaction between mercury and the red blood cell is not properly understood. Therefore, in the present study the in vitro toxicity by lower concentrations of mercuric chloride on human erthrocytes in relation to their effect on lipid peroxidation and some enzymes which have a protective role in such a condition are reported.

Bansal, A.K. (G.G.S. Medical Coll., Faridkot (India)); Bhatnagar, D.; Bhardwaj, R. (D.A. Univ., Indore (India))

1992-01-01

63

Agronomic differences in growth and yield between BT and conventional cotton treated with mepiquat chloride  

E-print Network

the different MC rates. The control plants were the tallest, followed by plants treated with the 15.3, 30.6, 45.9, and 61.2 g a.i. ha?¹ rates, respectively. No significant differences in the growth rate and height were detected between the Bt...

Underbrink, Shelley Marie

2012-06-07

64

Comparison of rolled and heat treated SS304 in chloride solution using electrochemical and XPS techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

SS304 in the rolled condition (66% cold work) and in the heat treated condition (solution quenched from 1100 °C) was assessed for its electrochemical behavior in de-aerated 3.5% NaCl by potentiodynamic polarization and AC impedance techniques. Surface analysis of films formed on the two materials in air and in solution was done using XPS. Open circuit potential (OCP) and pitting

S. V. Phadnis; A. K. Satpati; K. P. Muthe; J. C. Vyas; R. I. Sundaresan

2003-01-01

65

The descrease of the in vitro proliferative response of zinc-treated stressed mice's thymic lymphocytes.  

PubMed

Prolonged stimulation of newborn mice by intraperitoneal injections with inactivated staphylococci induces a chronic neonatal inflammatory reaction and an associated oxidative-stress response. The chronically stimulated animals exhibit anorexy. show a reduction in their body weight and undergo a depression in both antibody synthesis andin vitro proliferativc response of Con A-stimulated splenic T-lymphocytes. These stressed animals also develop adrenal hyperplasia, hypozincamia and thymic hypoplasia. Despite this stress-mediated thymic involution, Con-A stimulated T-lymphocytes from thymus displayed increased theirin vitro proliferative response. Results of the present work show that intramuscular injections of zinc acetate in stressed mice, one single dose (5 microg) every other day for two weeks, reduce both the zinc concentration in the thymus gland and thein vitro proliferative response of their Con A-stimulated T-lymphocytes. The results suggest that prophylactic administration of zinc can have benefical consequences on the immunity of chronically stressed mice. PMID:18597150

García-Tamayo, F; Malpica López, N; Aguirre, M; Terrazas-Valdés, L I

1999-01-01

66

Evaluation of Novel Design Strategies for Developing Zinc Finger Nucleases Tools for Treating Human Diseases  

PubMed Central

Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) are associated with cell death and apoptosis by binding at countless undesired locations. This cytotoxicity is associated with the binding ability of engineered zinc finger domains to bind dissimilar DNA sequences with high affinity. In general, binding preferences of transcription factors are associated with significant degenerated diversity and complexity which convolutes the design and engineering of precise DNA binding domains. Evolutionary success of natural zinc finger proteins, however, evinces that nature created specific evolutionary traits and strategies, such as modularity and rank-specific recognition to cope with binding complexity that are critical for creating clinical viable tools to precisely modify the human genome. Our findings indicate preservation of general modularity and significant alteration of the rank-specific binding preferences of the three-finger binding domain of transcription factor SP1 when exchanging amino acids in the 2nd finger. PMID:24808958

Bach, Christian; Sherman, William; Pallis, Jani; Bajwa, Hassan

2014-01-01

67

Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Interferences commonly encountered in the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc at crustal abundance levels are effectively eliminated using a rapid, sensitive, organic extraction technique. A potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid digestion solubilizes the metals not tightly bound in the silicate lattice of rocks, soils, and stream sediments. The six metals are selectively extracted into a 10% Aliquat 336-MIBK organic phase in the presence of ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. Metals in the organic extract are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to the 0.02-ppm level for silver, cadmium, copper, and zinc and to the 0.2-ppm level for bismuth and lead with a maximum relative standard deviation of 18.8% for known reference samples. An additional hydrofluoric acid digestion may be used to determine metals substituted in the silicate lattice.

Viets, J. G.

1978-01-01

68

Enantiopure N,N,O-scorpionate zinc amide and chloride complexes as efficient initiators for the heteroselective ROP of cyclic esters.  

PubMed

The reaction of bpzbeH, bpzteH (racemic mixture) or (R,R)-bpzmmH (enantiopure) with the amide complexes Zn{N(SiMe3)2}2 or Zn{N(SiHMe2)2}2 in 1?:?1 molar ratio in toluene afforded the mononuclear amide zinc complexes [Zn(NR2)(?(3)-NNO)] () [?(3)-NNO = bpzbe, R = SiMe3, SiHMe2; bpzte, R = SiMe3, SiHMe2; (R,R)-bpzmm, SiMe3, SiHMe2]. These complexes were employed in a protonolysis reaction with HCl-Et2O in 2?:?1 molar ratio to yield the dinuclear amide/chloride zinc complexes [Zn(?(2)-NN-?-O)2{ZnCl(NR2)}] () [?(2)-NN-?-O = bpzbe, R = SiMe3, SiHMe2; bpzte, R = SiMe3, SiHMe2; (R,R)-bpzmm, SiMe3, SiHMe2]. The mononuclear complexes and and dinuclear complexes and are the first enantiopure-scorpionate zinc amide complexes to be synthesized. The single-crystal X-ray structure analysis of derivatives and confirmed a monomeric 4-coordinative structure in which the heteroscorpionate ligands are in a ?(3) coordination mode, while had a dimeric molecular disposition with two ?-bridging alkoxides of the heteroscorpionate ligands between the two six- and four-coordinate Zn(ii) centers. Interestingly, the chiral amide-containing zinc complexes and can act as single-component initiators for the ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone and lactides under mild conditions, affording, in a few hours, medium/low molecular weight polymers with low polydispersity indices. MALDI-ToF mass spectra confirmed that the initiation occurred through a nucleophilic attack by the amide on the lactide monomer, and inspection of the kinetic parameters showed that propagations present the usual pseudo-first order dependence on monomer and catalyst concentrations. In addition, microstructural analysis of poly(rac-lactide)s revealed that the myrtenal substituent on the alkoxide fragment has a significant influence on the degree of stereoselectivity, producing enriched-heterotactic PLAs with a Ps value of up to 0.79 under mild conditions. PMID:25307529

Honrado, Manuel; Otero, Antonio; Fernández-Baeza, Juan; Sánchez-Barba, Luis F; Garcés, Andrés; Lara-Sánchez, Agustín; Rodríguez, Ana M

2014-10-28

69

Decolourization of anaerobically digested and polyaluminium chloride treated distillery spentwash in a fungal stirred tank aerobic reactor.  

PubMed

Decolourization of anaerobically digested and polyaluminium chloride treated distillery spentwash was studied in a fungal stirred tank aerobic reactor without dilution of wastewater. Aspergillus niger isolate IITB-V8 was used as the fungal inoculum. The main objectives of the study were to optimize the stirrer speed for achieving maximum decolourization and to determine the kinetic parameters. A mathematical model was developed to describe the batch culture kinetics. Volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k (L) a) was obtained using dynamic method. The maximum specific growth rate and growth yield of fungus were determined using Logistic equation and using Luedeking-Piret equation. 150 rpm was found to be optimum stirrer speed for overall decolourization of 87%. At the optimum stirrer speed, volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k (L) a) was 0.4957 min(-1) and the maximum specific growth rate of fungus was 0.224 h(-1). The values of yield coefficient (Y ( x/s)) and maintenance coefficient (m (s)) were found to be 0.48 g cells (g substrate)(-1) and 0.015 g substrate (g cells)(-1) h(-1). PMID:21380734

Singh, S S; Dikshit, A K

2011-11-01

70

Quantitative determination of benzalkonium chloride in treated wood by solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.  

PubMed

Ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ) compound wood preservative is comprised of copper and quaternary ammonium compounds with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) as the active ingredient. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (LC-UV) was developed for quantitative determination of BAC in treated wood. Five species of wood were used, Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis), Yezo spruce (Picea jezoensis), Sakhalin fir (Abies sachalinensis), and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla). BAC used in the present study was composed of 66% C12, 33% C14 and less than 1% C16. BAC was added to each wood species (500 mg) then extracted with HCl-ethanol (20 ml) and quantitatively determined with LC-UV (262 nm). Wood extractives from the heartwood of each species, except western hemlock, interfered with quantitative determination of BAC, but SPE with an Oasis MCX cartridge was effective in preventing this. Using the present methods, BAC homologue peaks were clearly confirmed without interference. Recoveries from wood ranged from 92 to 101% and the limit of quantitation was approximately 240 microg/g wood for the C12 and C14 homologues. PMID:16275285

Miyauchi, Teruhisa; Mori, Mitsunori; Ito, Katsuhiko

2005-11-18

71

An experimental study of zinc chloride speciation from 300 to 600 ??C and 0.5 to 2.0 kbar in buffered hydrothermal solutions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The solubility of sphalerite (ZnS) was measured in KCl-HCl-H2O solutions at 300-600??C and 0.5-2.0 kbar. The silicate assemblage K-feldspar-muscovite (or andalusite)-quartz was used to buffer the solution to acid conditions, resulting in the total solubility reaction 2K+ + KAl2AlSi3O10(OH)2 + 6SiO2 + ZnS + nCl- = ZnCln(2-n) + 3KAlSi3O8 + H2S. (muscovite) (quartz) (sphalerite) (K-feldspar) A computer retrieval technique was used to derive average chloride ligand numbers for chlorozinc species at 0.25-2.0 molal total chloride. This technique mathematically solves for the average ligand number using a series of pertinent chemical relations at P and T. Mono- and di-chlorozinc species were found to predominate throughout the pressure-temperature-composition range investigated. The logarithms of the first and second dissociation constants for ZnCl20 were evaluated over the P-T range; for example, at 1 kbar, the values -0.41 and -1.42 were computed for the logarithm of the first dissociation constant, while -7.62 and -10.57 were computed for the logarithm of the second dissociation constant, for 400 and 500??C, respectively. Results are compared to past studies conducted at subcritical conditions and differ in that we find no evidence for more highly coordinated chloro-zinc species except possibly for ZnCl3- at 600??C, 1 and 2 kbar. Our results are consistent with electrostatic theory, which favors lower charged to neutral molecules in low dielectric-constant media. ?? 1994.

Cygan, G.L.; Hemley, J.J.; d'Angelo, W. M.

1994-01-01

72

Zinc and copper distribution in swine wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

Swine wastewater contain high levels of metals, such as copper and zinc, which can cause a negative impact on the environment. Anaerobic digestion is a process commonly used to remove carbon, and can act on metal availability (e.g., solubility or oxidation state). The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of anaerobic digestion on total Zn and Cu contents, and their chemical fractioning due to the biodegradation of the effluent over different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The sequential extraction protocol proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR), plus two additional fractions, was the method chosen for this study of Cu and Zn distribution evaluation in swine wastewater. The Zn and Cu concentrations in raw swine manure were 63.58 ± 27.72 mg L(-1) and 8.98 ± 3.99 mg L(-1), respectively. The metal retention capacity of the bioreactor decreased when the HRT was reduced from 17.86 d to 5.32 d. Anaerobic digestion had a direct influence on zinc and copper distribution when raw manure (RM) and digested manure (DM) were compared. The reducible fraction showed a reduction of between 3.17% and 7.84% for Zn and between 2.52% and 11.92% for Cu when DM was compared with RM. However, the metal concentration increased in the oxidizable fraction of DM, viz. from 3.01% to 10.64% for Zn and from 4.49% to 16.71% for Cu, thus demonstrating the effect of anaerobic conditions on metal availability. PMID:24794386

Cestonaro do Amaral, André; Kunz, Airton; Radis Steinmetz, Ricardo Luís; Justi, Karin Cristiane

2014-08-01

73

Total zinc in zinc battery plates by EDTA titration  

SciTech Connect

At present, zinc battery plate electrodes are analyzed for zinc oxide, zinc chloride, zinc fluoride, zinc carbonate, zinc oxychloride, total zinc, zinc as the metal, and trace metals. A variety of methods are used to determine each of these components. The amount of zinc in each of the zinc compounds is determined by multiplying the percent of the compound by the ratio of the molecular weights of zinc to the zinc compound. This percent zinc is subtracted from percent total zinc and the operation is performed for every zinc compound determined. The remaining zinc value after these subtractions represents zinc as the metal. Zinc metal is the charged state on the anode. Percent total zinc is required in all these calculations. The importance of these components cannot be overemphasized. The presence, or absence, of certain components in the zinc electrode can influence its behavior in a zinc-silver oxide primary battery. Passivation layers, tendency to dendritic growth, corrosion rates, voltage rise times, current density, porosity, surface area, electrochemical capacity, and other considerations make it imperative that the chemical composition of the zinc electrode be known. The focus of this project was to evaluate the present method for total zinc and to develop a better method.

Hammersley, V.L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane, IN (United States)

1995-07-01

74

Coplanar amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor with He plasma treated heavily doped layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report thermally stable coplanar amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with heavily doped n+ a-IGZO source/drain regions. Doping is through He plasma treatment in which the resistivity of the a-IGZO decreases from 2.98 ? cm to 2.79 × 10-3 ? cm after treatment, and then it increases to 7.92 × 10-2 ? cm after annealing at 300 °C. From the analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the concentration of oxygen vacancies in He plasma treated n+a-IGZO does not change much after thermal annealing at 300 °C, indicating thermally stable n+ a-IGZO, even for TFTs with channel length L = 4 ?m. Field-effect mobility of the coplanar a-IGZO TFTs with He plasma treatment changes from 10.7 to 9.2 cm2/V s after annealing at 300 °C, but the performance of the a-IGZO TFT with Ar or H2 plasma treatment degrades significantly after 300 °C annealing.

Jeong, Ho-young; Lee, Bok-young; Lee, Young-jang; Lee, Jung-il; Yang, Myoung-su; Kang, In-byeong; Mativenga, Mallory; Jang, Jin

2014-01-01

75

Performance traits and immune response of broiler chicks treated with zinc and ascorbic acid supplementation during cyclic heat stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of zinc (Zn) and ascorbic acid (AA) in heat-stressed broilers. A total of 160-day-old broiler chicks of approximately the same weight and appearance were divided into four treatment groups (control, T1, T2, and T3). Control group was fed a standard diet without any supplementation. T1 was supplemented with Zn at the rate of 60 mg/kg of feed, T2 was supplemented with 300 mg/kg of feed AA, and T3 was supplemented with combination of Zn and AA. From week 3 to 5, heat stress environment was provided at the rate of 12 h at 25 °C, 3 h at 25 to 34 °C, 6 h at 34 °C, and 3 h at 34 to 25 °C daily. The results revealed that feed intake, body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and weight of thymus, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius improved significantly (P < 0.05) in T3 compared to the other treatments. Antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bursal disease (IBD), and infectious bronchitis (IB) increased significantly (P < 0.05) in T2 and T3 groups. However, total leucocytes count, lymphocytes, and monocytes increased (P < 0.05) in all treated groups compared to control. The results indicated that the supplementation of Zn or AA alone or in combination improved the performance and immune status of broilers reared under heat stress.

Chand, Naila; Naz, Shabana; Khan, Ajab; Khan, Sarzamin; Khan, Rifat Ullah

2014-03-01

76

Performance traits and immune response of broiler chicks treated with zinc and ascorbic acid supplementation during cyclic heat stress.  

PubMed

This research was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of zinc (Zn) and ascorbic acid (AA) in heat-stressed broilers. A total of 160-day-old broiler chicks of approximately the same weight and appearance were divided into four treatment groups (control, T1, T2, and T3). Control group was fed a standard diet without any supplementation. T1 was supplemented with Zn at the rate of 60 mg/kg of feed, T2 was supplemented with 300 mg/kg of feed AA, and T3 was supplemented with combination of Zn and AA. From week 3 to 5, heat stress environment was provided at the rate of 12 h at 25 °C, 3 h at 25 to 34 °C, 6 h at 34 °C, and 3 h at 34 to 25 °C daily. The results revealed that feed intake, body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and weight of thymus, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius improved significantly (P?treated groups compared to control. The results indicated that the supplementation of Zn or AA alone or in combination improved the performance and immune status of broilers reared under heat stress. PMID:24676574

Chand, Naila; Naz, Shabana; Khan, Ajab; Khan, Sarzamin; Khan, Rifat Ullah

2014-12-01

77

The effects of dimercaptosuccinic acid on the excretion and distribution of mercury in rats and mice treated with mercuric chloride and methylmercury chloride.  

PubMed Central

1 All five rats in a group survived if dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a water soluble derivative of 2,3-dimercaptopropanol (BAL), was given in doses of 10-40 mg/kg intraperitoneally 30 min, 4 and 24 h after administration of 2.4 mg/kg Hg as HgCl2, whereas three out of a group of five died if DMSA was not given. DMSA 20 mg/kg increased urinary excretion and decreased the body burden significantly more than 10 mg/kg DMSA, but further doubling of the dose had only marginal effects. 2 DMSA was able to reduce body burden and increase urinary excretion of Hg when intraperitoneal treatment started eight days after the subcutaneous administration of HgCl2. 3 DMSA was effective in decreasing body burden and the brain concentration of Hg in rats dosed orally with methylmercury (MeHgCl) when intraperitoneal treatment started with 40 mg/kg DMSA 24 h after Hg. Increase in the urinary excretion of mercury was responsible for the decrease in body burden. 4 DMSA was effective when given in the drinking water of rats or mice both against inorganic Hg and MeHgCl. In mice treated intraperitoneally with MeHgCl, DMSA 19.5 mug/ml in the drinking water caused a significant decrease in the body burden and increase in the excretion of Hg. 5 DMSA was about four times more efficient than D-penicillamine in decreasing the body burden of Hg. As their toxicity is in the same range, the higher efficiency of DMSA offers a larger margin of safety for the mobilization of Hg. PMID:1260228

Magos, L

1976-01-01

78

[Application of a paste composed of sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and hydrogen peroxide in treating of active periodontal pockets].  

PubMed

Close relationship existing between dentobacterial plaque and chronic inflammatory periodontal disease, as well as effectiveness of conservative treatments used to eliminate chronic gingivitis, is wordly known. However, several years ago, chronic destructive periodontal disease was only solved by surgical techniques, most of them bloody and of doubtful solution for some periodontal problems; for such reasons, a study was carried out in order to learn about the role played by a medicament formed with sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and hydrogen peroxide, deeply applied as a paste into active periodontal pockets, after an exquisite open radicular planing. Results obtained point out that the use of this procedure effective in the therapy of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. PMID:2856151

Martínez Silveira, G; Suárez Fagundo, E; Ortega Delgado, L

1988-01-01

79

Strontium-89 Chloride  

MedlinePLUS

Your doctor has ordered the drug strontium-89 chloride to help treat your illness. The drug is given by injection into a vein or a catheter that ... Strontium-89 chloride is in a class of drugs known as radioisotopes. It delivers radiation to cancer ...

80

Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a zinc or titanium promoted palladium-zirconium catalyst  

DOEpatents

A process and system (18) for reducing NO.sub.x in a gas using hydrogen as a reducing agent is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream (29) with a catalyst system (38) comprising sulfated zirconia washcoat particles (41), palladium, a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a promoter (45) comprising at least one of titanium, zinc, or a mixture thereof. The presence of zinc or titanium increases the resistance of the catalyst system to a sulfur and water-containing gas stream.

Sobolevskiy, Anatoly (Orlando, FL); Rossin, Joseph A. (Columbus, OH); Knapke, Michael J. (Columbus, OH)

2011-08-02

81

Development of a combined pyro- and hydro-metallurgical route to treat spent zinc-carbon batteries.  

PubMed

The potential of solvent extraction using Cynanex272 for the recovery of zinc from spent zinc carbon batteries after a prior leaching in hydrochloric acid has been investigated. The elemental analysis of the spent material was carried out by ICP-MS. The major metallic elements are: ZnO (41.30%), Fe(2)O(3) (4.38%), MnO(2) (2.69%), Al(2)O(3) (1.01%), CaO (0.36%) and PbO (0.11%). The quantitative leaching by hydrochloric acid showed that the dissolution rates are significantly influenced by temperature and concentration of the acid solutions. The experimental data for the dissolution rates have been analyzed and were found to follow the shrinking core model for mixed control reaction with surface chemical reaction as the rate-determining step. About 90.3% dissolution was achieved with 4M HCl solution at 80 degrees C with 0.050-0.063 mm particle size within 120 min at 360 rpm. Activation energy value of 22.78 kJ/mol and a reaction order of 0.74 with respect to H(+) ion concentration were obtained for the dissolution process. An extraction yield of 94.23% zinc by 0.032M Cyanex272 in kerosene was obtained from initial 10 g/L spent battery leach liquor at 25+/-2 degrees C and at optimal stirring time of 25 min. Iron has been effectively separated by precipitation prior to extraction using ammoniacal solution at pH 3.5, while lead and other trace elements were firstly separated from Zn and Fe by cementation prior to iron removal and zinc extraction. Finally, the stripping study showed that 0.1M HCl led to the stripping of about 95% of zinc from the organic phase. PMID:19596514

Baba, A A; Adekola, A F; Bale, R B

2009-11-15

82

Efficacy of oral potassium chloride administration in treating lactating dairy cows with experimentally induced hypokalemia, hypochloremia, and alkalemia.  

PubMed

Hypokalemia occurs commonly in lactating dairy cows. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) whether a 24-h oral KCl dose of 0.4 g/kg of body weight (BW) was effective and safe in hypokalemic cattle; (2) whether potassium was best administered as 2 large doses or multiple smaller doses over a 24-h period; and (3) the effect of oral KCl administration on plasma Mg concentration and urine Mg excretion in fasted lactating dairy cattle. Plasma K and Cl concentrations were decreased, and blood pH increased, in 15 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows by administering 2 intramuscular (i.m.) 10-mg injections of isoflupredone acetate 24h apart followed by 2 i.m. injections of furosemide (1mg/kg of BW) 8h apart and by decreasing feed intake. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups with 5 cows/group: untreated control (group C); oral administration of KCl at 0.05 g/kg of BW 8 times at 3-h intervals (group K3); and oral administration of KCl at 0.2g/kg of BW twice at 12-h intervals (group K12). A 24-h KCl dose rate of 0.4 g/kg of BW increased plasma and milk K concentration and plasma Cl concentration, and corrected the metabolic alkalosis and alkalemia, with no clinically significant difference between 2 large doses (group K12) or multiple small doses (group K3) of KCl over 24 h. Oral KCl administration decreased peripheral fat mobilization in cattle with experimentally induced hypokalemia, as measured by changes in plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration, and slightly augmented the fasting-induced decrease in plasma Mg concentration. Our findings support recommendations for a 24-h oral KCl dose of 0.4 g/kg of BW for treating moderately hypokalemic cattle. Additional Mg may need to be administered to inappetant lactating dairy cattle being treated with oral KCl to minimize K-induced decreases in magnesium absorption. PMID:24377802

Constable, P D; Hiew, M W H; Tinkler, S; Townsend, J

2014-03-01

83

Cesium Chloride  

MedlinePLUS

... tachycardia after alternative treatment with cesium chloride for brain cancer. Mayo Clin Proc . 2004:79(8);1065-1069. ... Zero efficacy with cesium chloride self-treatment for brain cancer. Mayo Clin Proc. 2004;79:1588. Sartori HE. ...

84

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOEpatents

An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

Ross, Jr., Philip N. (Kensington, CA)

1989-01-01

85

Realization of write-once-read-many-times memory device with O2 plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide thin film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices based on O2 plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films has been demonstrated. The device has a simple Al/IGZO/Al structure. The device has a normally OFF state with a very high resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2 V is ˜109 ? for a device with the radius of 50 ?m) as a result of the O2 plasma treatment on the IGZO thin films. The device could be switched to an ON state with a low resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2 V is ˜103 ? for the radius of 50 ?m) by applying a voltage pulse (e.g., 10 V/1 ?s). The WORM device has good data-retention and reading-endurance capabilities.

Liu, P.; Chen, T. P.; Li, X. D.; Liu, Z.; Wong, J. I.; Liu, Y.; Leong, K. C.

2014-01-01

86

Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts  

PubMed Central

To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L?1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the cell walls; thus, the electrolyte is leaked from cells. PMID:24572014

2014-01-01

87

Congenital chloride diarrhea misdiagnosed as pseudo-Bartter syndrome  

PubMed Central

Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease which is characterized by intractable diarrhea of infancy, failure to thrive, high fecal chloride, hypochloremia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia and metabolic alkalosis. In this case report, we present the first female and the second official case of CCD in Iran. A 15-month-old girl referred to our hospital due to failure to thrive and poor feeding. She had normal kidneys, liver and spleen. Treating her with Shohl's solution, thiazide and zinc sulfate did not result in weight gain. Consequently, pseudo-Bartter syndrome was suspected, she was treated with intravenous (IV) therapy to which she responded dramatically. In addition, hypokalemia resolved quickly. Since this does not usually happen in patients with the pseudo-Bartter syndrome, stool tests were performed. Abnormal level of chloride in stool suggested CCD and she was thus treated with IV fluid replacement, Total parentral nutrition and high dose of oral omeprazole (3 mg/kg/day). She gained 1 kg of weight and is doing fine until present. CCD is a rare hereditary cause of intractable diarrhea of infancy. It should be considered in infants with unknown severe electrolyte disturbances. PMID:24381629

Saneian, Hossein; Bahraminia, Emad

2013-01-01

88

Congenital chloride diarrhea misdiagnosed as pseudo-Bartter syndrome.  

PubMed

Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease which is characterized by intractable diarrhea of infancy, failure to thrive, high fecal chloride, hypochloremia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia and metabolic alkalosis. In this case report, we present the first female and the second official case of CCD in Iran. A 15-month-old girl referred to our hospital due to failure to thrive and poor feeding. She had normal kidneys, liver and spleen. Treating her with Shohl's solution, thiazide and zinc sulfate did not result in weight gain. Consequently, pseudo-Bartter syndrome was suspected, she was treated with intravenous (IV) therapy to which she responded dramatically. In addition, hypokalemia resolved quickly. Since this does not usually happen in patients with the pseudo-Bartter syndrome, stool tests were performed. Abnormal level of chloride in stool suggested CCD and she was thus treated with IV fluid replacement, Total parentral nutrition and high dose of oral omeprazole (3 mg/kg/day). She gained 1 kg of weight and is doing fine until present. CCD is a rare hereditary cause of intractable diarrhea of infancy. It should be considered in infants with unknown severe electrolyte disturbances. PMID:24381629

Saneian, Hossein; Bahraminia, Emad

2013-09-01

89

Effect of mercuric chloride and methylmercury chloride exposure on tissue concentrations of six essential minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few data on the effects of mercury exposure on tissue concentrations of essential minerals. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to mercuric chloride and methylmercury chloride administered via the drinking water. Subsequently, the kidneys, spleen, liver, and brain were analyzed for mercury, calcium, copper, magnesium, manganese, iron, and zinc by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Significant differences from controls were found

J. D. Bogden; F. W. Kemp; R. A. Troiano; B. S. Jortner; C. Timpone; D. Giuliani

1980-01-01

90

Zinc and autophagy.  

PubMed

Autophagy is a highly conserved degradative process through which cells overcome stressful conditions. Inasmuch as faulty autophagy has been associated with aging, neuronal degeneration disorders, diabetes, and fatty liver, autophagy is regarded as a potential therapeutic target. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning the role of zinc in the regulation of autophagy, the role of autophagy in zinc metabolism, and the potential role of autophagy as a mediator of the protective effects of zinc. Data from in vitro studies consistently support the notion that zinc is critical for early and late autophagy. Studies have shown inhibition of early and late autophagy in cells cultured in medium treated with zinc chelators. Conversely, excess zinc added to the medium has shown to potentiate the stimulation of autophagy by tamoxifen, H2O2, ethanol and dopamine. The potential role of autophagy in zinc homeostasis has just begun to be investigated. Increasing evidence indicates that autophagy dysregulation causes significant changes in cellular zinc homeostasis. Autophagy may mediate the protective effect of zinc against lipid accumulation, apoptosis and inflammation by promoting degradation of lipid droplets, inflammasomes, p62/SQSTM1 and damaged mitochondria. Studies with humans and animal models are necessary to determine whether autophagy is influenced by zinc intake. PMID:25012760

Liuzzi, Juan P; Guo, Liang; Yoo, Changwon; Stewart, Tiffanie S

2014-12-01

91

Accumulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HSP32) in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells treated with sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride or proteasomal inhibitors.  

PubMed

The present study examined the effect of sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride, heat shock and the proteasomal inhibitors MG132, withaferin A and celastrol on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; also known as HSP32) accumulation in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells. Immunoblot analysis revealed that HO-1 accumulation was not induced by heat shock but was enhanced by sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Immunocytochemistry revealed that these metals induced HO-1 accumulation in a granular pattern primarily in the cytoplasm. Additionally, in 20% of the cells arsenite induced the formation of large HO-1-containing perinuclear structures. In cells recovering from sodium arsenite or cadmium chloride treatment, HO-1 accumulation initially increased to a maximum at 12h followed by a 50% reduction at 48 h. This initial increase in HO-1 levels was likely the result of new synthesis as it was inhibited by cycloheximide. Interestingly, treatment of cells with a mild heat shock enhanced HO-1 accumulation induced by low concentrations of sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride. Finally, we determined that HO-1 accumulation was induced in A6 cells by the proteasomal inhibitors, MG132, withaferin A and celastrol. An examination of heavy metal and proteasomal inhibitor-induced HO-1 accumulation in amphibians is of importance given the presence of toxic heavy metals in aquatic habitats. PMID:25064141

Music, Ena; Khan, Saad; Khamis, Imran; Heikkila, John J

2014-11-01

92

Zinc Information  

MedlinePLUS

... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Zinc Information Time To Talk About Natural Products for ... Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) ( NEI ) Can Zinc Be Harmful? ( ODS ) Zinc: Quick Facts ( ODS ) Share/ ...

93

Method of preparing zinc orthotitanate pigment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zinc orthotitanate suitable for use as a pigment for spacecraft thermal control coatings is prepared by heating a slightly zinc deficient reaction mixture of precipitated oxalates of zinc and titanium. The reaction mixture can be formed by coprecipitation of zinc and titanium oxalates from chloride solution or by mixing separately precipitated oxalates. The mixture is first heated to 400 to 600 C to remove volatiles and is then rapidly heated at 900 to 1200 C. Zinc orthotitanate produced by this method exhibits the very fine particle size needed for thermal control coatings as well as stability in a space environment.

Gates, D. W.; Harada, Y.; Logan, W. R.; Gilligan, J. E. (inventors)

1977-01-01

94

Photocolorimetric method for determining the zinc concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Another standardized method of determining zinc according to GOST-13538-68 is based on the complexometric titration of the metal chloride compounds, obtained by the decomposition of the products being studied with hydrochloric acid, This method for determining zinc is associated with the use of a complicated, glass apparatus for the decomposition of the sample product and with a number of laborious

I. M. Shentov; Z. M. Temirgalieva; T. M. Larionova

1970-01-01

95

Comparative tolerance of Pinus radiata and microbial activity to copper and zinc in a soil treated with metal-amended biosolids.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of elevated concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in a soil treated with biosolids previously spiked with these metals on Pinus radiata during a 312-day glasshouse pot trial. The total soil metal concentrations in the treatments were 16, 48, 146 and 232 mg Cu/kg or 36, 141, 430 and 668 mg Zn/kg. Increased total soil Cu concentration increased the soil solution Cu concentration (0.03-0.54 mg/L) but had no effect on leaf and root dry matter production. Increased total soil Zn concentration also increased the soil solution Zn concentration (0.9-362 mg/L). Decreased leaf and root dry matter were recorded above the total soil Zn concentration of 141 mg/kg (soil solution Zn concentration, >4.4 mg/L). A lower percentage of Cu in the soil soluble?+?exchangeable fraction (5-12 %) and lower Cu(2+) concentration in soil solution (0.001-0.06 ?M) relative to Zn (soil soluble?+?exchangeable fraction, 12-66 %; soil solution Zn(2+) concentration, 4.5-4,419 ?M) indicated lower bioavailability of Cu. Soil dehydrogenase activity decreased with every successive level of Cu and Zn applied, but the reduction was higher for Zn than for Cu addition. Dehydrogenase activity was reduced by 40 % (EC40) at the total solution-phase and solid-phase soluble?+?exchangeable Cu concentrations of 0.5 mg/L and 14.5 mg/kg, respectively. For Zn the corresponding EC50 were 9 mg/L and 55 mg/kg, respectively. Based on our findings, we propose that current New Zealand soil guidelines values for Cu and Zn (100 mg/kg for Cu; 300 mg/kg for Zn) should be revised downwards based on apparent toxicity to soil biological activity (Cu and Zn) and radiata pine (Zn only) at the threshold concentration. PMID:24217968

Jeyakumar, Paramsothy; Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Anderson, Christopher W N; Sivakumaran, Sivalingam; McLaren, Ronald G

2014-03-01

96

Removal of chloride from electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust with high chloride content increases the threat of dioxin emissions and the high chloride content reduces the value of recycled zinc oxide produced by EAF dust recycling plants. This study conducts a number of laboratory experiments to determine the technical feasibility of a new dechlorination method. These methods consist of a series of roasting processes

Wei-Sheng Chen; Yun-Hwei Shen; Min-Shing Tsai; Fang-Chih Chang

2011-01-01

97

Preparation and Purification of Zinc Sulphinate Reagents for Organic Synthesis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The present protocol details the synthesis of zinc bis(alkanesulphinate)s that can be used as general reagents for the formation of radical species. The zinc sulphinates described herein have been generated from the corresponding sulphonyl chlorides by treatment with zinc dust. The products may be used crude, or a simple purification procedure may be performed to minimize incorporation of water and zinc chloride. Elemental analysis has been conducted in order to confirm the purity of the zinc sulphinate reagents; reactions with caffeine have also been carried out to verify the reactivity of each batch that has been synthesized. Although the synthesis of the zinc sulphinate salts generally proceeds within 3 h, workup can take up to 24 h and purification can take up to 3 h. Following the steps in this protocol would enable the user to generate a small toolkit of zinc sulphinate reagents over the course of one week. PMID:23640168

O'Hara, Fionn; Baxter, Ryan D.; O'Brien, Alexander G.; Collins, Michael R.; Dixon, Janice A.; Fujiwara, Yuta; Ishihara, Yoshihiro; Baran, Phil S.

2014-01-01

98

Changes in cellular contents of monovalent cations, chloride and water in hyposmotically swollen control and N-ethylmaleimide-treated low K sheep erythrocytes  

SciTech Connect

Low K (LK) sheep red blood cells (SRBC) respond to hyposmotic swelling or treatment with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) with an increased K:Cl cotransport. Little is known about Cl and water fluxes accompanying K. Thus, the authors measured cellular K, Na, Cl and water (CW) per kilogram dry cell solids (DCS) in control and NEM-pretreated LK SRBC hyposmotically swollen and maintained at 37C for up to 7 hrs in hyposmotic NaCl or NaNO{sub 3} as incubation beyond 7 hrs increased Na content in both. Thus, swollen LK SRBC lose both K and Cl in equal amounts. K loss in NO{sub 3} was much reduced. In NEM-treated, swollen cells, K and Cl losses were stimulated 3- and 2-fold, respectively, suggesting that NEM stimulated K:Cl cotransport in addition to swelling. However, the effect of NEM on Cl was less than on K transport. The tonicity of fluid leaving swollen cells was close to isotonic while that from NEM-treated cells was hyperosmotic, relative to the external solutions. Hence, it is possible to measure net K and Cl movements in LK SRBC in the absence of anion exchange inhibitors.

Bryant, R.; Delpire, E.; Lauf, P.K. (Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States))

1991-03-11

99

Zinc absorption by young adults from supplemental zinc citrate is comparable with that from zinc gluconate and higher than from zinc oxide.  

PubMed

The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with (67)Zn and (70)Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6-71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6-71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9-57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P < 0.01). Three participants had little or no absorption from zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627. PMID:24259556

Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnic, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F

2014-02-01

100

Atmospheric corrosion and chloride deposition on metal surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric corrosion and chloride deposition on metal surfaces was studied at an unpolluted coastal (marine) site, an unpolluted rural inland site, and a polluted urban site. Chloride deposition by both wet (precipitation) and dry deposition processes over a multi-year period was measured using ion chromatography analysis of incident precipitation and precipitation runoff from the surface of metal samples. Chloride deposition was measured on zinc, copper, lead, mild steel, and non-reactive blank panels, as well as two panels coated with thermal-sprayed zinc alloys. Chloride deposition measured by runoff chemistry was compared with chloride deposition measurements made by the ASTM wet candle technique. Corrosion mass loss as a function of distance from the ocean is presented for copper and mild steel in bold exposures on the west coast.

Matthes, Steven A.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.

2004-01-01

101

Equilibrium thermodynamics of nonstoichiometry in ZnO and aluminium doping of ZnO using aluminium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical assessment of nonstoichiometry that can occur in zinc oxide at various temperatures and oxygen pressures has been made using the concepts of equilibrium thermodynamics. The feasibility of producing transparent conducting films of aluminium-doped zinc oxide by spray pyrolysis of organo-zinc salt solution containing aluminium chloride is also discussed.

A. Paul; H. N. Acharya

1992-01-01

102

Silver catalyzed zinc Barbier reaction of benzylic halides in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzylic chlorides react in aqueous dibasic potassium phosphate under silver catalysis with aromatic aldehydes in the presence of zinc dust to give 1,2-diaryl alcohols in moderate to good yields. Dimerization to bibenzyls and reduction of the halide are important side reactions. A wide range of substituted aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes and of substituted benzylic chlorides can be used. Aliphatic aldehydes

Lothar W. Bieber; Elisabeth C. Storch; Ivani Malvestiti; Margarete F. da Silva

1998-01-01

103

Zinc Tolerance and Zinc Removal Ability of Living and Dried Biomass of Desmodesmus communis.  

PubMed

Effects of zinc on growth, cell morphology, oxidative stress, and zinc removal ability of the common phytoplankton species Desmodesmus communis were investigated at a concentration range of 0.25-160 mg L(-1) zinc. Cell densities and chlorophyll content decreased in treated cultures, changes in coenobia morphology and elevated lipid peroxidation levels appeared above 2.5 mg L(-1) zinc. The most effective zinc removal was observed at 5 mg L(-1) zinc concentration, while maximal amount of removed zinc appeared in 15 mg L(-1) zinc treated culture. Removed zinc is mainly bound on the cell surface. Dead biomass adsorbed more zinc than living biomass relative to unit of dry mass, but living biomass was more effective, relative to initial zinc content. This study comprehensively examines the zinc tolerance and removal ability of D. communis and demonstrates, in comparison with published literature, that these characteristics of different isolates of the same species can vary within a wide range. PMID:25193446

Novák, Zoltán; Jánószky, Mihály; B-Béres, Viktória; Nagy, Sándor Alex; Bácsi, István

2014-12-01

104

Kinetics of the reduction of the zinc oxide in zinc ferrite with iron  

SciTech Connect

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust, which can be considered as a by-product of the steel recycling process, contains significant quantities of recoverable zinc and iron, as well as hazardous elements such as cadmium, lead and chromium, which can be leached by ground water. The zinc in the EAF dust is found almost entirely in the form of either zinc oxide or zinc ferrite, the latter accounting for 20 to 50 percent of the total zinc. It is important that an efficient process be developed which renders the dust inert, while reclaiming the valuable metals to off-set processing costs. During the conventional carbothermic reduction processes, iron is formed, and this iron can participate in the reduction of the zinc oxide in zinc ferrite. In the present work, the reduction of the zinc oxide in zinc ferrite by iron according to the following reaction: ZnO{sup {sm_bullet}}Fe{sub 2}O{sub (s.s.)} + 2 Fe{sub (s)} = Zn{sub (g)} + 4 FeO{sub (s)} was studied in an argon atmosphere using a thermogravimetric technique. First, a thermodynamic analysis was performed using the F*A*C*T computational system. Then, the effects of briquette aspect ratio (l/d), temperature, zinc ferrite particle size, amount of iron added, as well as additions such as lime, sodium chloride, and calcium fluoride were investigated.

Donald, J.R.; Pickles, C.A. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

1995-12-31

105

Spectrophotometric studies and applications for the determination of Ni²+ in zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte.  

PubMed

The absorption properties of zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte were studied by visible spectrophotometer. The results show that the relationship between the absorbance of the zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte and Ni(2+) concentration in the electrolyte obeys Beer's law at 660 nm. In addition, other components except Ni(2+) in the zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte such as zinc chloride, ammonium chloride, potassium chloride and boric acid have no obvious effect on the absorbance of zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte. Based on these properties, a new method is developed to determine Ni(2+) concentration in zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte. Comparing with other methods, this method is simple, direct and accurate. Moreover, the whole testing process does not consume any reagent and dilution, and after testing, the electrolyte samples can be reused without any pollution to the environment. PMID:22591796

Qiao, Xiaoping; Li, Helin; Zhao, Wenzhen; Li, Dejun

2012-09-01

106

Spectrophotometric studies and applications for the determination of Ni2+ in zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absorption properties of zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte were studied by visible spectrophotometer. The results show that the relationship between the absorbance of the zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte and Ni2+ concentration in the electrolyte obeys Beer's law at 660 nm. In addition, other components except Ni2+ in the zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte such as zinc chloride, ammonium chloride, potassium chloride and boric acid have no obvious effect on the absorbance of zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte. Based on these properties, a new method is developed to determine Ni2+ concentration in zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte. Comparing with other methods, this method is simple, direct and accurate. Moreover, the whole testing process does not consume any reagent and dilution, and after testing, the electrolyte samples can be reused without any pollution to the environment.

Qiao, Xiaoping; Li, Helin; Zhao, Wenzhen; Li, Dejun

107

Effect of anions on selective solubilization of zinc and copper in bacterial leaching of sulfide ores.  

PubMed

Bacterial leaching of sulfide ores using Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, Thiobacillus thiooxidans, or a combination of the two was studied at various concentrations of specific anions. Selective zinc and copper solubilization was obtained by inhibiting iron oxidation without affecting sulfur/sulfide oxidation. Phosphate reduced iron solubilization from a pyrite (FeS(2))-sphalerite (ZnS) mixture without significantly affecting zinc solubilization. Copper leaching from a chalcopyrite (CuFeS(2))-sphalerite mixture was stimulated by phosphate, whereas chloride accelerated zinc extraction. In a complex sulfide ore containing pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite, both phosphate and chloride reduced iron solubilization and increased copper extraction, whereas only chloride stimulated zinc extraction. Maximum leaching obtained was 100% zinc and 50% copper. Time-course studies of copper and zinc solubilization suggest the possibility of selective metal recovery following treatment with specific anions. PMID:10861398

Harahuc, L; Lizama, H M; Suzuki, I

2000-07-20

108

Mercuric chloride poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are ... mercury poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric chloride. This is for information only and not for ...

109

Resistance to Zinc and Cadmium in Staphylococcus aureus of Human and Animal Origin.  

PubMed

Objective.?Studies conducted in Europe have observed resistance to trace metals such as zinc chloride and copper sulfate in livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of zinc and cadmium resistance in S. aureus isolated in the United States. Design.?Cross-sectional study of convenience sample of S. aureus isolates. Participants.?Three hundred forty-nine S. aureus isolates, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) obtained from human, swine, and retail meat were included in the sample set. Methods.?Polymerase chain reaction was used to test for the presence of genes for zinc and cadmium resistance (czrC), methicillin resistance (mecA), and staphylococcal complement inhibitor (scn). Antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was tested using the broth microdilution method. Data were analyzed using the multivariable logistic regression method. Results.?Twenty-nine percent (102/349) of S. aureus isolates were czrC positive. MRSA isolates were more likely to be czrC positive compared to MSSA (MRSA czrC positive: 12/61, 19.6%; MSSA czrC positive: 12/183, 6.6%). After adjustment for oxacillin and clindamycin susceptibility in analysis, multidrug-resistant S. aureus was observed to have low odds of being czrC positive (P = .03). The odds of being czrC positive were observed to be significantly high in tetracycline-resistant S. aureus isolated from noninfection samples (P = .009) and swine (P < .0001). Conclusions.?Resistance to zinc and cadmium was observed to be associated with MRSA, a finding consistently observed in European studies. Prolonged exposure to zinc in livestock feeds and fertilizers could propagate resistance to the metal ion, thereby hindering use of zinc-based topical agents in treating S. aureus infections. PMID:25222896

Nair, Rajeshwari; Thapaliya, Dipendra; Su, Yutao; Smith, Tara C

2014-10-01

110

Zinc modulates aluminium-induced oxidative stress and cellular injury in rat brain.  

PubMed

Dysregulation of metal homeostasis has been perceived as one of the key factors in the progression of neurodegeneration. Aluminium (Al) has been considered as a major risk factor, which is linked to several neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer's disease, whereas zinc (Zn) has been reported as a vital dietary element, which regulates a number of physiological processes in central nervous system. The present study was conducted to explore the protective potential of zinc, if any, in ameliorating neurotoxicity induced by aluminium. Male Sprague Dawley rats received either aluminium chloride (AlCl3) orally (100 mg kg(-1) b.wt. per day), zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) at a dose level of 227 mg L(-1) in drinking water or combined treatment of aluminium and zinc for 8 weeks. Aluminium treatment significantly elevated the levels of lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species as well as the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase, which however were decreased following Zn co-treatment of Al-treated rats. In contrast, Al treatment decreased the activities of glutathione-S-transferase as well as the levels of reduced glutathione, oxidised glutathione and total glutathione, but co-administration of Zn to Al-treated animals increased these levels. Furthermore, Al treatment caused a significant increase in the levels of Fe and Mn as well as of Al but decreased the Zn and metallothionein levels. In the Zn-supplemented animals, the levels of Al, Fe, Mn were found to be significantly decreased, whereas the levels of metallothionein as well as Zn were increased. Moreover, histopathological alterations such as vacuolization and loss of Purkinje cells were also evident following Al treatment, which showed improvement upon Zn supplementation. Therefore, zinc has the potential to alleviate aluminium-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:25141099

Singla, Neha; Dhawan, D K

2014-10-01

111

Measurements of corrosion at defects in painted zinc and zinc alloy coated steels using current density mapping  

SciTech Connect

Current density mapping was used to locate and monitor the early stages of corrosion at defects on painted surfaces in solution. Principles of the technique and methods of analysis were reviewed, and the effects of different scribing techniques were investigated. Results for painted zinc and aluminum-zinc alloy coated steel surfaces showed corrosion occurred initially at localized sites on the exposed zinc in both dilute chloride and sulfate solutions and when zinc was galvanically coupled to or isolated from steel. Current density mapping was shown to locate corrosion-susceptible defects on painted roll-formed materials that were not readily discernible optically.

Isaacs, H.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Aldykiewicz, A.J. Jr. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Thierry, D. [Swedish Corrosion Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Simpson, T.C. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States). Homer Research Labs.

1996-03-01

112

Influence of drug and light dose in determining PDT efficacy in human pancreatic cancer cells treated with zinc tetrasulfonated phthalocyanines (ZnTSPc)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has the potential to be applied as an adjuvant treatment modality in advanced cancer cases and recently its role in the management of pancreatic cancer, has been evaluated. Nevertheless PDT remains an experimental therapy and one of the main reasons is its complexity, as far as it relies on the combined action of the photosensitizing drug and light source. In this study was evaluated the effect of various photosensitizer and photoirradiation doses, in the lethality of MIA PaCa cell line by using ZnPcS4 as photosensitizer and a novel diode laser system as illumination source. No lethality was observed when only laser light or only photosensitizer was applied to cells. Cells treated with various concentrations of ZnTSPc and a light dose of 9 J/cm2 indicated more than 70% lethality, 24 hrs after irradiation and with a light dose of 6 J/cm2 presented almost 90% lethality, 72 hours after irradiation. The results show that low light and photosensitizer (drug) doses are enough to obtain lethality of more than 90% of MIA PaCa cells.

Halkiotis, Konstantinos N.; Uzunoglou, Nikolaos K.; Loukas, Spyros; Pantelias, Gabriel E.; Trafalis, D.; Yova, Dido M.

1997-12-01

113

Nanocrystalline copper doped zinc oxide produced from copper doped zinc hydroxide nitrate as a layered precursor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undoped and copper doped nanostructured zinc oxides were synthesized by using a series of synthetic layered material, undoped and copper doped zinc hydroxide nitrates at various molar percentages of copper (2–10) within the layers as precursors. The layered materials were heat-treated at 500°C to produce zinc oxide nanostructures with crystallite sizes in the range of 23–35nm. Optical studies of the

Mohammad Yeganeh Ghotbi; Narjes Bagheri; S. K. Sadrnezhaad

114

Effect of chloride ion concentration on the galvanic corrosion of ? phase brass by eccrine sweat.  

PubMed

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurement of the relative concentration of sodium, chloride, calcium, and potassium ions in eccrine sweat deposits from 40 donors revealed positive correlations between chloride and sodium (? = 0.684, p < 0.01) and chloride and calcium ions (? = 0.91, p < 0.01). Correlations between ion concentration and the corrosion of ? phase brass by the donated sweat were investigated by visual grading of the degree of corrosion, by measuring the copper/zinc ratio using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and from a measurement of the potential difference between corroded and uncorroded brass when a large potential was applied to the uncorroded brass. An increasing copper/zinc ratio (indicative of dezincification) was found to correlate positively to both chloride ion concentration and visual grading of corrosion, while visual grading gave correlations with potential difference measurements that were indicative of the preferential surface oxidation of zinc rather than copper. PMID:22329398

Meekins, Andrew; Bond, John W; Chaloner, Penelope

2012-07-01

115

Atmospheric Corrosion and Precipitation Runoff From Zinc and Zinc Alloys Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The long-term atmospheric corrosion performance of rolled zinc and three thermal-sprayed (TS) zinc materials (Zn, Zn-15Al, and Al-12Zn-0.2In) was characterized by measuring corrosion product concentrations in precipitation runoff at coastal marine and inland sites. Corrosion rates and average zinc concentrations in the runoff were greater at the site having higher annual rainfall. Higher chloride concentrations did not seem to affect either the corrosion rates or the zinc concentrations in the runoff at the coastal site compared to those of the inland site. Zinc runoff concentrations were higher for TS Zn than rolled zinc due to the greater surface area of the thermal-sprayed surface. Average cumulative zinc runoff losses for the two sites were: 64 {micro}mol Zn/L for TS Zn, 37 {micro}mol Zn/L for rolled Zn, 24 {micro}mol Zn/L for TS Zn-15Al, and 1.8 {micro}mol Zn/L for TS Al-12Zn-0.2In. Cumulative zinc runoff losses were directly related both to the precipitation rate and to the availability of Zn in metal surfaces, a consequence of surface roughness and surface chemistry properties of the metal.

Matthes, S.A.; Cramer, S.D.; Bullard, S.J.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Holcomb, G.R.

2003-03-16

116

A Chemical Stain for Identifying Arsenic-Treated Wood  

E-print Network

.0 kg/m3 CCA-Treated Wood Figure II.7 Picture of Stannous Chloride Stain (left) and Diluted Stannous Chloride Stain (right) Figure II.8 Picture of PAN Indicator and Diluted Stannous Chloride Stain on New Untreated, Borate, ACQ, CBA, and 4.0 kg/m3 CCA-Treated Wood Figure II.9 Picture of Wipe Samples from

Florida, University of

117

Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel RING zinc-finger protein gene up-regulated under in vitro salt stress in cassava.  

PubMed

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the world's most important food crops. It is cultivated mainly in developing countries of tropics, since its root is a major source of calories for low-income people due to its high productivity and resistance to many abiotic and biotic factors. A previous study has identified a partial cDNA sequence coding for a putative RING zinc finger in cassava storage root. The RING zinc finger protein is a specialized type of zinc finger protein found in many organisms. Here, we isolated the full-length cDNA sequence coding for M. esculenta RZF (MeRZF) protein by a combination of 5' and 3' RACE assays. BLAST analysis showed that its deduced amino acid sequence has a high level of similarity to plant proteins of RZF family. MeRZF protein contains a signature sequence motif for a RING zinc finger at its C-terminal region. In addition, this protein showed a histidine residue at the fifth coordination site, likely belonging to the RING-H2 subgroup, as confirmed by our phylogenetic analysis. There is also a transmembrane domain in its N-terminal region. Finally, semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays showed that MeRZF expression is increased in detached leaves treated with sodium chloride. Here, we report the first evidence of a RING zinc finger gene of cassava showing potential role in response to salt stress. PMID:22307786

dos Reis, Sávio Pinho; Tavares, Liliane de Souza Conceição; Costa, Carinne de Nazaré Monteiro; Brígida, Aílton Borges Santa; de Souza, Cláudia Regina Batista

2012-06-01

118

Bacitracin zinc overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... Small amounts of bacitracin zinc are dissolved in petroleum jelly to create antibiotic ointments. Bacitracin zinc overdose ... 1-800-222-1222. See also: Bacitracin overdose Petroleum jelly overdose Zinc oxide overdose

119

Preparation and properties of transparent conducting zinc oxide and aluminium-doped zinc oxide films prepared by evaporating method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undoped and aluminium-doped zinc oxide films have been prepared by thermal evaporation of zinc acetate [Zn(CH3COO)2 2H2O] and aluminium chloride [AlCl3] onto a heated glass substrate. The structural and optoelectrical properties of the films have been studied. The effects of heat treatment for the as-deposited films in air and vaccum are investigated. Highly transparent films with conductivity as low as

Jin Ma; Feng Ji; Hong-lei Ma; Shu-ying Li

2000-01-01

120

The influence of phosphorus, zinc and manganese on absorption and translocation of iron in watercress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absorption and translocation of iron by intact watercress plants (Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L) Hayek) was studied in short period uptake experiments utilising 59Fe labelled ferric chloride. Total translocation of iron was inhibited by increasing levels of phosphorus, zinc and manganese in the nutrient medium; the elevated phosphorus and zinc concentrations enhanced iron absorption into roots, but increased retention of absorbed iron

I. P. Cumbus; D. J. Hornsey; L. W. Robinson

1977-01-01

121

Selective removal of zinc(II) from spent pickling solutions in the presence of iron ions with phosphonium ionic liquid Cyphos IL 101  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride (Cyphos IL 101) – a phosphonium ionic liquid – was used as a novel reagent mixed with toluene to extract selectively zinc(II) from chloride media in the presence of iron(II). The extraction of individual metal ions with Cyphos IL 101 increases in the following order: iron(II)<zinc(II)Zinc(II) extraction is preferred over iron(II) when both are present in the

Magdalena Regel-Rosocka; Maciej Wisniewski

2011-01-01

122

Chemical enhancement of metallized zinc anode performance  

SciTech Connect

Galvanic current delivered to reinforced concrete by a metallized zinc anode was studied relative to the humidity of its environment and periodic direct wetting. Current decreased quickly at low humidity to values unlikely to meet accepted cathodic protection criteria, but could be easily restored by direct wetting of the anode. Thirteen chemicals were screened for their ability to enhance galvanic current. Such chemicals, when applied to the exterior surface of the anode, are easily transported by capillary action to the anode-concrete interface where they serve to maintain the interface conductive and the zinc electrochemically active. The most effective chemicals were potassium and lithium bromide, acetate, chloride and nitrate, which increased galvanic current by a factor of 2--15, depending on relative humidity and chloride contamination of the concrete. This new technique is expected to greatly expand the number of concrete structures which can be protected by simple galvanic cathodic protection, The use of lithium-based chemicals together with metallized zinc anode is also proposed for mitigation of existing problems due to ASR. In this case, lithium which prevents or inhibits expansion due to ASR can be readily injected into the concrete. A new process, electrochemical maintenance of concrete (EMC), is also proposed to benefit reinforced concrete structures suffering from chloride-induced corrosion.

Bennett, J. [J.E. Bennett Consultants, Inc., Chardon, OH (United States)

1998-12-31

123

Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for missile applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative performance study has been conducted for silver-zinc, thionyl chloride, and thermal batteries designed for such missile applications as ICBM guidance system power supplies. Attention is given to each of the three candidates' conformity to requirements concerning mechanical configuration, electrochemical design, electrolyte reservoir, external case, and gas generator. The silver-zinc and Li-SOCl2 candidates employ similar cell configurations and yield comparable performance. The thermal battery is found to be incapable of meeting battery case temperature-related requirements.

Planchat, J. P.; Descroix, J. P.; Sarre, G.

124

Production of zinc pellets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or

1996-01-01

125

Zinc, infections and immunosenescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infections may cause mortality in old age due to damaged immune responses. As zinc is required as a catalyst, structural (zinc fingers) and regulatory ion, it is involved in many biological functions, including immune responses. Low zinc ion bioavailability and impaired cell-mediated immunity are common in ageing and may be restored by physiological supplementation with zinc for 1–2 months, impacting

Eugenio Mocchegiani; Robertina Giacconi; Mario Muzzioli; Catia Cipriano

2001-01-01

126

Zinc and zinc transporters in prostate carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

The healthy human prostate accumulates the highest level of zinc of any soft tissue in the body. This unique property is retained in BPH, but is lost in prostatic malignancy, which implicates changes in zinc and its transporters in carcinogenesis. Indeed, zinc concentrations diminish early in the course of prostate carcinogenesis, preceding histopathological changes, and continue to decline during progression toward castration-resistant disease. Numerous studies suggest that increased zinc intake might protect against progression of prostatic malignancy. Despite increased dietary intake, zinc accumulation might be limited by the diminished expression of zinc uptake transporters, resulting in decreased intratumoural zinc levels. This finding can explain the conflicting results of various epidemiological studies evaluating the role of zinc supplementation on primary and secondary prostate cancer prevention. Overall, more research into the mechanisms of zinc homeostasis are needed to fully understand its impact on prostate carcinogenesis. Only then can the potential of zinc and zinc transport proteins be harnessed in the diagnosis and treatment of men with prostate cancer. PMID:23478540

Kolenko, Vladimir; Teper, Ervin; Kutikov, Alexander; Uzzo, Robert

2013-01-01

127

Production of zinc pellets  

DOEpatents

Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

1996-01-01

128

Production of zinc pellets  

DOEpatents

Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

Cooper, J.F.

1996-11-26

129

Using Zinc to Reduce Cadmium in Durum Grain Joyce Eckhoff  

E-print Network

characteristics, such as pH and chloride content affect Cd uptake (Eriksson et al. 1990). In a greenhouse study. Fertilizer Facts: Applied Zn did not affect yield or agronomic characters of the durum. Zinc applied and rain water were collected throughout the growing season and tested for Cd, pH, and Zn. Soil was sampled

Lawrence, Rick L.

130

The practical realisation of zinc–iron CMA coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study of the production opportunities for composition modulated alloy electrodeposits by pulsed current techniques with Zinc-Iron alloys is reported. It is shown that by using a chloride solution, with the additional capability of variable agitation rates, a full range of alloy compositions is possible with nanometre layering attainable using single or double bath methods. Furthermore, by the use

J. D Jensen; D. R Gabe; G. D Wilcox

1998-01-01

131

Oxidative leaching of an offgrade\\/complex copper concentrate in chloride lixiviants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies have been conducted on chloride leaching as a possible route for the simultaneous recovery of copper, zinc,\\u000a and lead from an off grade and complex chalcopyrite concentrate (from Sikkim, India) associated with appreciable amounts of\\u000a sphalerite, galena, and pyrite. The effects of temperature, concentration, and quantity of ferric chloride, stirring speed,\\u000a and leaching time on metal dissolution have

N. V. Ngoc; M. Shamsuddin; P. M. Prasad

1990-01-01

132

Removal of chloride from electric arc furnace dust.  

PubMed

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust with high chloride content increases the threat of dioxin emissions and the high chloride content reduces the value of recycled zinc oxide produced by EAF dust recycling plants. This study conducts a number of laboratory experiments to determine the technical feasibility of a new dechlorination method. These methods consist of a series of roasting processes and water washing processes. In the roasting process, EAF dust was heated in a tube furnace to evaluate the parameters of atmospheric conditions, roasting temperature, and roasting time. Results indicate that sulfation roasting is more efficient in reducing chloride content than other roasting processes. The water washing process can totally remove water-soluble chloride at a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10. However, the remaining water-insoluble substance is difficult to dechlorinate. For example, lead chloride forms a hydroxyl-halide (PbOHCl) and lead chloride carbonate (Pb(2)CO(3)Cl(2)) agglutinative matrix that is hard to wash away. PMID:21531506

Chen, Wei-Sheng; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Chang, Fang-Chih

2011-06-15

133

The germination and development of seedlings from seeds treated with growth regulators: (2-chloroethyl) trimethylammonium chloride, succinic acid 2,2 dimethylhydrazide and 2,3-dihydro-5-6-diphenyl-1,4 oxathiin  

E-print Network

, Chlormequat and UBI-P293 at 2500 ppm and 5000 ppm for 2, 8 and 12 hours, They were then germinated and grown under two different light intensities 3000 fc. and 1000 fc. The experiment was designed to deter- mine the effect of treating seeds with growth... and one control group. Each of the three groups were treated with a different growth retarding com- pound. Within each treatment, SADH& Chlormequat and UBI- P293 were applied to an equal number of seeds using 2500 ppm and 5000 ppm of the appropriate...

Kamp, Marihelen

2012-06-07

134

A Novel Low-Cost Sodium-Zinc Chloride Battery  

SciTech Connect

The sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) battery has been considered as one of the most attractive energy storage systems for stationary and transportation applications. Even though Na-NiCl2 battery has been widely investigated, there is still a need to develop a more economical system to make this technology more attractive for commercialization. In the present work, a novel low-cost Na-ZnCl2 battery with a thin planar ??-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE) was proposed, and its electrochemical reactions and battery performance were investigated. Compared to the Na-NiCl2 chemistry, the ZnCl2-based chemistry was more complicated, in which multiple electrochemical reactions including liquid-phase formation occurred at temperatures above 253°C. During the first stage of charge, NaCl reacted with Zn to form Na in the anode and Na2ZnCl4 in the cathode. Once all the residual NaCl was consumed, further charging led to the formation of a NaCl-ZnCl2 liquid phase. At the end of charge, the liquid phase reacted with Zn to produce solid ZnCl2. To identify the effects of liquid-phase formation on electrochemical performance, button cells were assembled and tested at 280°C and 240°C. At 280°C where the liquid phase formed during cycling, cells revealed quite stable cyclability. On the other hand, more rapid increase in polarization was observed at 240°C where only solid-state electrochemical reactions occurred. SEM analysis indicated that the stable performance at 280°C was due to the suppressed growth of Zn and NaCl particles, which were generated from the liquid phase during discharge of each cycle.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

2013-02-28

135

Improved rigid ion model of molten zinc chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new rigid ion model for the simulation of molten ZnCl 2. A molecular dynamics simulation of this model under a constant pressure of 1 atm and a constant temperature of 1200 K resulted in a successful description of the short-range order in the liquid state. The resulting short range structure is presented with respect to the coordination of the Zn 2+ ions and the Zn-Cl-Zn bond angle. Improvements offered by this model over the currently existing ionic potentials are discussed with particular regard to the Zn-Zn correlation.

Kumta, P. N.; Deymier, P. A.; Risbud, S. H.

1988-10-01

136

Zinc might protect oxidative changes in the retina and pancreas at the early stage of diabetic rats  

SciTech Connect

It is well documented that oxidative stress is a basic mechanism behind the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The current study was undertaken to elucidate the possible role of zinc as an antioxidant and a biological membrane stabilizer in the protection against (DR). Male Wistar rats weighing 250 {+-} 50 g were made diabetic by injection with a single ip dose of alloxan (100 mg/kg). Another group of rats was simultaneously treated with alloxan (100 mg/kg) and a single ip dose of zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}) (5 mg/kg). Blood and tissue samples were collected at 24, 48, and 72 h post-treatment in both groups. Diabetic state was confirmed by the determination of plasma glucose levels (significantly elevated at any time of the experiment when compared with controls receiving vehicle). Plasma insulin was significantly increased 24 h after treatment in both alloxan and alloxan plus ZnCl{sub 2}-treated groups, and then decreased markedly 48 and 72 h post treatment in both groups. Alloxan treatment depleted both retinal and liver glutathione contents. The decrease in retinal and liver GSH in alloxan-treated rats was accompanied with a sustained increase in their thiobarbituric acid (TBA) content. Simultaneous treatment of rats with alloxan and ZnCl{sub 2} blunted the sustained increment in plasma glucose induced by alloxan. The combined administration of alloxan and zinc reversed the depleting effect on retinal and hepatic GSH in alloxan-treated rats and reduced the elevations in TBA content of both retinas and livers. At variance with many other antioxidants the current results clearly indicate the beneficial effects of Zn in both controlling hyperglycemia and the protection of the retina against oxidative stress in diabetes which may help set a new direction toward the development of effective treatments of DR.

Moustafa, Sohair A. [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt)]. E-mail: Sohabdulla@hotmail.com

2004-12-01

137

EAF dust as an electrolytic zinc resource  

SciTech Connect

Two viable options are presently available to the electrolytic zinc producer to supplement the zinc production capability significantly by using electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) or leady ZnO products derived from EAFD: Integrated processing of the materials using the Modified Zincex Process and commingling the zinc sulfate solution from that process with the neutral solution from the calcine leaching circuit; Installing a completely separate circuit for treating the material using technologies such as the Modified Zincex or Esinex Processes. EAFD and halogen-bearing EAFD derived products are a zinc resource which is virtually untapped by new or existing electrolytic zinc producers and which offers them, with the advent of new technologies able to deal with halides, the opportunity to maintain or increase their zinc production from a relatively cheap, if not ``free``, and already mined zinc source. Such an approach would also provide the EAFD producer an alternative, perhaps lower cost, outlet for their material to the currently rather closely held EAFD processing industry.

Zunkel, A.D. [A.D. Zunkel Consultants Inc., Vancouver, WA (United States)

1995-12-31

138

Chloride removal from vitrification offgas  

SciTech Connect

This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

Slaathaug, E.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-06-01

139

Molecular Structure of Barium Chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Barium Chloride was the byproduct of the discovery of radium by Madame Curie. When refining radium, the final separation resulted in barium chloride and radium chloride. Electrophoresis of barium chloride produces small-scale amounts of barium atom. This can be used for obtaining barium for commercial uses. Applications of barium chloride include stimulating the heart and other muscles for medicinal purposes, and also for softening water. Other uses of barium chloride include the manufacturing of barium salts, as pesticide, pigments, boiler detergent, in purifying sugar, as mordant in dyeing and printing textiles, and in the manufacture of caustic soda, polymers, and stabilizers.

2002-08-15

140

Anthraquinone repellent to reduce take of non-target birds from zinc phosphide rodenticide applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated anthraquinone as an avian repellent to reduce take of non-target birds from zinc phosphide rodenticide applications. We observed zero mortalities and no overt signs of zinc phosphide toxicosis among 20 Canada geese (Branta canadensis), 24 horned larks (Eremophila alpestris), and 47 ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) offered baits treated with 1% or 2% anthraquinone and 2% zinc phosphide (target

Scott J. Werner; Shelagh K. Tupper; Susan E. Pettit; James C. Carlson; George M. Linz

141

Zinc and gastrointestinal disease  

PubMed Central

This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases.

Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

2014-01-01

142

Zinc and gastrointestinal disease.  

PubMed

This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

2014-11-15

143

Investigation of factors influencing chloride extraction efficiency during electrochemical chloride extraction from reinforcing concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) is an accelerated bridge restoration method similar to cathodic protection, but operates at higher current densities and utilizes a temporary installation. Both techniques prolong the life of a bridge by reducing the corrosion rate of the reinforcing bar when properly applied. ECE achieves this by moving chlorides away from the reinforcement and out of the concrete while simultaneously increasing the alkalinity of the electrolyte near the reinforcing steel. Despite the proven success, significant use of ECE has not resulted in part due to an incomplete understanding in the following areas: (1) An estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment when the treated member is again subjected to chlorides; (2) The cause of the decrease in current flow and, therefore, chloride removal rate during treatment; (3) Influence of water-to-cement (w/c) ratio and cover depth on the time required for treatment. This dissertation covers the research that is connected to the last two areas listed above. To begin examining these issues, plain carbon steel reinforcing bars (rebar) were embedded in portland cement concrete slabs of varying water-to-cement (w/c) ratios and cover depths, and then exposed to chlorides. A fraction of these slabs had sodium chloride added as an admixture, with all of the slabs subjected to cyclical ponding with a saturated solution of sodium chloride. ECE was then used to remove the chlorides from these slabs while making electrical measurements in the different layers between the rebar (cathode) and the titanium mat (anode) to follow the progress of the ECE process. During this study, it was revealed that the resistance of the outer concrete surface layer increases during ECE, inevitably restricting current flow, while the resistance of the underlying concrete decreases or remains constant. During ECE treatment, a white residue formed on the surface of the concrete. Analyses of the residue revealed that it contains calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, and other yet unidentified minor components when calcium hydroxide was used as the electrolyte. The surface film can be completely removed mechanically or to some extent inhibited chemically, with both of these processes resulting in an increase in the efficiency of the electrochemical chloride extraction process. In addition, an obvious relationship between the cover depth, water-to-cement ratio, and chloride extraction efficiency does not exist, however, cover depth does influence the current density. The final phase of this study will be presented in a VTRC/FHWA final report. This report will include the results that are presented in this dissertation, in addition to the results from the ongoing research. It will also include an estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment.

Sharp, Stephen R.

144

Hydrometallurgical extraction of zinc from zinc ferrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of steel in electric arc furnaces (EAF) generates a by-product called EAF dusts. Due to the presence of significant amounts of leachable compounds of zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel, EAF dusts are classified as hazardous wastes. The quantity of EAF dust generated per year around the world represents a possible recovery of about 900 t of zinc.

Nathalie Leclerc; Eric Meux; Jean-Marie Lecuire

2003-01-01

145

Zinc in human milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc concentration in breast milk varies within and between mothers. Neither environmental (zinc intake — either in natural food or supplemented, nutrient interaction, cigarette smoking, and oral contraceptives) nor constitutional (premature delivery, number of children, teen age pregnancy, undernutrition, infection, and diabetes) variables consistently affected zinc concentration or its rate of decrease in breast milk. Stage of lactation is the

Jose G. Dorea

2000-01-01

146

Zinc in diet  

MedlinePLUS

... of a chicken has more zinc than the light meat. Other good sources of zinc are nuts, whole grains, legumes, and yeast. Fruits and vegetables are not good sources, because the zinc in plant proteins is not as available for use by ...

147

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: POLYVINYL CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes data on air emissions from the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry. PVC is manufactured by 20 companies at 35 plants. Each plant uses one or more of four possible polymerization processes: (1) suspension polymerization, (2) emulsion polymerization, (3) bulk p...

148

Moxifloxacinium chloride monohydrate  

PubMed Central

The title compound {systematic name: 7-[(1S,6S)-8-aza-2-azonia­bicyclo­[4.3.0]non-8-yl]-1-cyclo­propyl-6-fluoro-8-meth­oxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydro­quinoline-3-carb­oxy­lic acid chloride monohydrate}, C21H25FN3O4 +·Cl?·H2O, crystallizes with two moxi­floxa­cinium cations, two chloride ions and two uncoordinated water mol­ecules in the unit cell. The crystal structure has a pseudo-inversion center except for the chloride ions. In both moxi­floxa­cinium cations, the quinoline rings are approximately planar, the maximum atomic deviations being 0.107?(3) and 0.118?(3)?Å. The piperidine rings adopt a chair conformation while the pyrrolidine rings display a half-chair conformation. In the crystal, the carboxyl groups, the protonated piperidyl groups, the uncoordinated water mol­ecule and chloride anions participate in O—H?O, O—H?Cl and N—H?Cl hydrogen bonding; weak inter­molecular C—H?O and C—H?Cl hydrogen bonding is also present in the crystal structure. PMID:22058817

Qian, Jing-Jing; Gu, Jian-Ming; Shen, Jin; Hu, Xiu-Rong; Wu, Su-Xiang

2011-01-01

149

PHOTOOXIDATION OF ALLYL CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The photooxidation of allyl chloride was studied by irradiation either in 100-L Teflon bags or in a 22.7-cu m Teflon smog chamber in the presence of added NOx. In the absence of added hydrocarbons, the reaction involves a Cl atom chain, which leads to a highly reactive system. A ...

150

Determination of chloride in geological samples by ion chromatography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of silicate rocks are prepared by sodium carbonate fusion and then treated by ion chromatography. The method was tested for geological standards with chloride concentration between 0.003 and 3%. Observed chloride concentrations comparedd favorably with literature values. The relative standard deviation and detection limit for the method were 8% and 7 ppm, respectively. Up to 30 determination per 24-hour period were possible. ?? 1983.

Wilson, S. A.; Gent, C. A.

1983-01-01

151

Chloride ATPase Pumps in Epithelia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Five widely documented mechanisms for chloride transport across biological membranes are known: anion-coupled antiport, Na+ and H(+)-coupled symport, Cl? channels and an electrochemical coupling process. These transport processes for chloride are either secondarily active or\\u000a are driven by the electrochemical gradient for chloride. Until recently, the evidence in favour of a primary active transport\\u000a mechanism for chloride has been inconclusive

George A. Gerencser

152

Nephrocalcinosis in chloride depleted rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructural features of the nephrocalcinosis associated with chloride depletion in the rat are described. The extent of calcification appeared to depend on the degree of chloride restriction. Within 3 days of chloride deprivation electron-dense granules were deposited on the brush border of proximal tubules in a concentric manner. Coalescence of satellite deposits formed large, lobulated liths with laminations, which

K. Sarkar; G. Tolnai; D. Z. Levine

1973-01-01

153

Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

154

Characterization of Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Aged in a Bromine Containing Electrolyte.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is being considered for use as a flow frame material in a developmental zinc/bromine battery. The choice of PVC was based on its low cost and the ease with which it can be molded into complex parts. The electrolyte used in this ...

C. Arnold, A. Leo, M. Tarjani

1988-01-01

155

Optimal dose of zinc supplementation for preventing aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in rats  

PubMed Central

Zinc supplementation can help maintain learning and memory function in rodents. In this study, we hypothesized that zinc supplementation could antagonize the neurotoxicity induced by aluminum in rats. Animals were fed a diet containing different doses of zinc (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) for 9 weeks, and orally administered aluminum chloride (300 mg/kg daily) from the third week for 7 consecutive weeks. Open-field behavioral test results showed that the number of rearings in the group given the 100 mg/kg zinc supplement was significantly increased compared with the group given the 50 mg/kg zinc supplement. Malondialdehyde content in the cerebrum was significantly decreased, while dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels were increased in the groups given the diet supplemented with 100 and 200 mg/kg zinc, compared with the group given the diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg zinc. The acetylcholinesterase activity in the cerebrum was significantly decreased in the group given the 100 mg/kg zinc supplement. Hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed evident pathological damage in the hippocampus of rats in the group given the diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg zinc, but the damage was attenuated in the groups given the diet supplemented with 100 and 200 mg/kg zinc. Our findings suggest that zinc is a potential neuroprotective agent against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in rats, and the optimal dosages are 100 and 200 mg/kg.

Lu, Hao; Hu, Jianyang; Li, Jing; Pang, Wei; Hu, Yandan; Yang, Hongpeng; Li, Wenjie; Huang, Chengyu; Zhang, Mingman; Jiang, Yugang

2013-01-01

156

Effects of the administration of cadmium and zinc on the concentration of zinc in the thymus of rats.  

PubMed

The zinc content of thymus glands of male Wistar rats has been determined during five weeks of treatment with ZnCl2 and CdCl2, and compared with a group of control rats. Thymus gland extracts were chromatographed on columns of Sephadex G-75 and the zinc content of the one hundred fractions obtained were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The rats treated with ZnCl2 showed an increase in the thymus concentration of zinc bound to high and low molecular weight proteins. The rats treated with CdCl2 showed an increase in zinc concentration, as opposed to the control group, during the first three weeks of treatment, and thereafter show a toxic effect of cadmium on the gland, with ulterior regression of the latter, and a decrease in the concentration of zinc. PMID:2484574

Huerta, P; Galan, P; Alcala, A J; Ribas, B; Teijon, J M

1988-12-01

157

Chloride and Salinity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-07-15

158

Zinc oxide as an economical and efficient catalyst for the one-pot preparation of ?-acetamido ketones via a four-component condensation reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, efficient, one-pot, four-component condensation of benzaldehyde derivatives, acetophenone derivatives, acetyl chloride and acetonitrile in the presence of zinc oxide as catalyst is described for the synthesis of ?-acetamido ketones.

Malek Taher Maghsoodlou; Asadollah Hassankhani; Hamid Reza Shaterian; Sayyed Mostafa Habibi-Khorasani; Elaheh Mosaddegh

2007-01-01

159

Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOEpatents

The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1988-06-21

160

Precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts  

SciTech Connect

Precipitation of actinides, lanthanides, and fission products as nitrides from molten chloride melts is being investigated for use as a final cleanup step in treating radioactive salt wastes generated by electrometallurgical processing of spent nuclear fuel. The radioactive components (eg, fission products) need to be removed to reduce the volume of high-level waste that requires disposal. To extract the fission products from the salt, a nitride precipitation process is being developed. The salt waste is first contacted with a molten metal; after equilibrium is reached, a nitride is added to the metal phase. The insoluble nitrides can be recovered and converted to a borosilicate glass after air oxidation. For a bench-scale experimental setup, a crucible was designed to contact the salt and metal phases. Solubility tests were performed with candidate nitrides and metal nitrides for which there are no solubility data. Experiments were performed to assess feasibility of precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts.

Slater, S.A.; Miller, W.E.; Willit, J.L.

1996-12-31

161

Synthetic silver oxide and mercury-free zinc electrodes for silver-zinc reserve batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reserve activated silver oxide-zinc cells were constructed with synthetic silver oxide (Ag 2O) electrodes with Pb-treated zinc electrodes produced by a non-electrolytic process. The cells were tested before and after thermally accelerated aging. At discharge rates up to 80 mA cm -2, the discharge was limited by the Ag 2O electrode, with a coulombic efficiency between 89-99%. At higher rates, the cells are apparently zinc-limited. Test cells were artificially aged at 90°C for 19 h and discharged at 21°C at 80 mA cm -2. No capacity loss was measured, but a delayed activation rise time was noted (192 ms fresh vs. 567 ms aged). The delay is thought to be caused by zinc passivation due to the outgassing of cell materials.

Smith, David F.; Gucinski, James A.

162

Is Zinc a Neuromodulator?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This review, with 3 figures and 57 references, describes the evidence that the cation Zn2+ acts as a modulator of synaptic activity. Beginning with a discussion of the criteria that zinc would have to meet in order to be classified as a neuromodulator and the use of chelators for intercepting zinc in the synaptic cleft, the authors then consider different models for zinc’s action at synapses, ranging from free diffusion of zinc to bound zinc in the extracellular space and a possible action within synaptic vesicles. The article wraps up with suggested experimental approaches that may help resolve the questions surrounding the role of zinc in the central nervous system.

Alan R. Kay (University of Iowa;Department of Biology REV); Katalin Toth (University of Iowa;Department of Biology REV)

2008-05-13

163

Zinc homeostasis and functions of zinc in the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brain barrier system, i.e., the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers, is important for zinc homeostasis in the brain. Zinc is supplied to the brain via both barriers. A large portion of zinc serves as zinc metalloproteins in neurons and glial cells. Approximately 10% of the total zinc in the brain, probably ionic zinc, exists in the synaptic vesicles, and

Atsushi Takeda

2001-01-01

164

Zinc: An Essential Micronutrient  

PubMed Central

Zinc is an essential micronutrient for human metabolism that catalyzes more than 100 enzymes, facilitates protein folding, and helps regulate gene expression. Patients with malnutrition, alcoholism, inflammatory bowel disease, and malabsorption syndromes are at an increased risk of zinc deficiency. Symptoms of zinc deficiency are nonspecific, including growth retardation, diarrhea, alopecia, glossitis, nail dystrophy, decreased immunity, and hypogonadism in males. In developing countries, zinc supplementation may be effective for the prevention of upper respiratory infection and diarrhea, and as an adjunct treatment for diarrhea in malnourished children. Zinc in combination with antioxidants may be modestly effective in slowing the progression of intermediate and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Zinc is an effective treatment for Wilson disease. Current data do not support zinc supplementation as effective for upper respiratory infection, wound healing, or human immunodeficiency virus. Zinc is well tolerated at recommended dosages. Adverse effects of long-term high-dose zinc use include suppressed immunity, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, anemia, copper deficiency, and possible genitourinary complications. PMID:20141096

SAPER, ROBERT B.; RASH, REBECCA

2009-01-01

165

Study on properties of ionic liquid based on ZnCl 2 with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ionic liquid (IL) BMIZnCl3 has been synthesized by directly mixing zinc chloride (ZnCl2) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIC) with molar ratio 1\\/1 under a dry argon atmosphere. The density and surface tension of the IL in temperature range from 313.2K to 343.2K were determined. The value of thermal expansion coefficient and surface entropy were estimated by extrapolation. In terms of

Qing-Guo Zhang; Ying Wei

2008-01-01

166

A sensitive fluorescence technique using dansyl chloride to assess hair damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and sensitive procedure amenable to visual or spectrofluorometric quantitation has been developed to detect certain types of hair damage. We have found that hair treated with the fluorescent dye 1-dimeth- ylamino-naphthalene-5-sulfonyl chloride (dansyl chloride) acquires fluorescence under ultraviolet light. The fluorescence intensity is a function of the amount of dansyl chloride binding to the hair and can be

SUKHVINDER S. SANDHU; CLARENCE R. ROBBINS

1989-01-01

167

Molecular Structure of Ferric chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ferric chloride is a corrosive chemical, thus, it is used to deodorize sewage and industrial waste by partially reducing to ferrous chloride. It is also employed as an engraving reagent on metal surfaces. Other applications include its use as a flocculating agent in water treatment. Ferric chloride is a hazardous chemical that irritates the skin and eyes and is toxic if ingested, however it can be used as a reagent in pharmaceutical preparations.

2002-08-27

168

Pitting corrosion of passivated zinc monocrystals  

SciTech Connect

The pitting and polarization characteristics of low-index surfaces of zinc monocrystals were studied in weakly alkaline (pH 9.2) solutions containing 0.1 M sodium chloride, using single-cycle potentiodynamic polarization tests and a scan rate of 0.5 mV/s. Tests were conducted in the presence and absence of a bicarbonate/carbonate buffer. Electrode surface orientations and crystallographic directions lying in these surfaces were determined using X-ray techniques. The surfaces were close to the (0001), (10{bar 1}0), and (11{bar 2}0) planes. Pit morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Passivity was observed only in the buffered solution, and pitting of the passivated surface occurred near {minus}0.85 V{sub SCE}. The (0001) basal plane appeared to have a slightly better pitting resistance and a lower passive current density than the other orientations. Basal plane surfaces prepared by cleavage exhibited superior resistance to anodic dissolution in the unbuffered solution. Crystallographic pitting geometries observed on passivated crystals were attributed to the enhanced resistance of the (0001) plane to active dissolution. Events leading to pit initiation were reviewed in terms of localized changes in solution chemistry that resulted in a decreased pH and formation of soluble zinc chloride ion complexes (ZnCl{sub x}{sup [2{minus}x]+}).

Guo, R.; Weinberg, F.; Tromans, D. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Metals and Materials Engineering

1995-05-01

169

Zinc Selective Ionophores for Potentiometric and Optical Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iminodiacetamide derivatives were synthesized and studied as ionophores in plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membranes with potentiometric and optical transduction. The N-benzyl and N-phenyl derivatives proved to have a distinct zinc selectivity preferring Zn over Ca, Na by factors of 6×10 and 3×10. respectively. All ionophores exhibit a serious proton interference (log K Zn , H - 6) which suggests that all

Ernö Lindner; Mária Horváth; Klára Tóth; Ernö Pungor; István Bitter; Béla Ágai; László Töke

1992-01-01

170

Paper-based, printed zinc–air battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flexible battery is printed on paper by screen-printing a zinc\\/carbon\\/polymer composite anode on one side of the sheet, polymerising a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) cathode on the other side of the sheet, and applying a lithium chloride electrolyte between the two electrodes. The PEDOT cathode is prepared by inkjet printing a pattern of iron(III)p-toluenesulfonate as a solution in butan-1-ol onto paper,

M. Hilder; B. Winther-Jensen; N. B. Clark

2009-01-01

171

Comparing polyaluminum chloride and ferric chloride for antimony removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimony has been one of the contaminants required to be regulated, however, only limited information has been collected to date regarding antimony removal by polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride (FC). Accordingly, the possible use of coagulation by PACl or FC for antimony removal was investigated. Jar tests were used to determine the effects of solution pH, coagulant dosage, and

Meea Kang; Tasuku Kamei; Yasumoto Magara

2003-01-01

172

Surface scanning techniques to locate and study defects in painted zinc and zinc alloy coated steels  

SciTech Connect

Current density and impedance mapping measurements have been used to locate and monitor corrosion and defects on painted surfaces in solution. Measurements are reported for painted zinc and aluminum-zinc alloy coated steel surfaces. When scratched, current density mapping showed corrosion of the metal coating started at localized sites in both dilute chloride and sulfate solutions. Different scribing techniques were tested exposing only the metal coating and both the coating and the underlying steel. Effect of roll forming was investigated. Current density mapping located corrosion susceptible defects on painted roll formed materials that were not readily discernible optically. Scanning ac mapping showed that artificially formed defects were readily observed. Local impedance variations with frequency were measured for simulated defects and defect free areas of painted surfaces. Variations in paint thickness and the presence of defects were detected using the ac techniques.

Isaacs, H.S.; Aldykiewicz, A.J. Jr. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Thierry, D. [Swedish Corrosion Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Simpson, T.C. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States). Homer Research Labs.

1995-02-01

173

Zinc and immune function  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well recognized that zinc is an essential trace element, influencing growth and affecting the development and integrity of the immune system. Research has begun to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying the action of zinc on the immune function. It is clear that this trace element has a broad impact on key immunity mediators, such as enzymes, thymic peptides

M Dardenne

2002-01-01

174

Dilute Solution Properties of Poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) in Aqueous Sodium Chloride Solutions  

E-print Network

Dilute Solution Properties of Poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) in Aqueous Sodium Chloride fractions in sodium chloride solutions by viscosity, size-exclusionchromatography, and light(dimethyldial1ylammonium chloride) (PDMDAAC)were prepared by preparative size-exclusion chromatography

Dubin, Paul D.

175

Molecular Structure of Picryl chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Picryl chloride is ranked as one of the 100 most commonly found explosive and shock sensitive materials. It is made by reacting 2,4,6 trinitrophenol with thionyl chloride. This highly reactive compound is known to be hazardous and toxic, and to cause liver injury in mice. It is often used as a sensitization agent in mice when their cells undergo hypersensitivity studies.

2002-09-20

176

Control of Zinc Transfer between Thionein, Metallothionein, and Zinc Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallothionein (MT), despite its high metal binding constant (KZn = 3.2 × 1013 M-1 at pH 7.4), can transfer zinc to the apoforms of zinc enzymes that have inherently lower stability constants. To gain insight into this paradox, we have studied zinc transfer between zinc enzymes and MT. Zinc can be transferred in both directions--i.e., from the enzymes to thionein

Claus Jacob; Wolfgang Maret; Bert L. Vallee

1998-01-01

177

Chronic but not acute antidepresant treatment alters serum zinc/copper ratio under pathological/zinc-deficient conditions in mice.  

PubMed

Depression is the leading psychiatric disorder with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinical studies report lower serum zinc in depressed patients, suggesting a strong link between zinc and mood disorders. Also copper as an antagonistic element to zinc seems to play a role in depression, where elevated concentration is observed. In the present study we investigated serum copper and zinc concentration after acute or chronic antidepressant (AD) treatment under pathological/zinc-deficient conditions. Zinc deficiency in mice was induced by a special diet administered for 6 weeks (zinc adequate diet - ZnA, contains 33.5 mgZn/kg; zinc deficient diet - ZnD, contains 0.2 mgZn/kg). Animals received acute or chronically saline (control), imipramine, escitalopram, reboxetine or bupropion. To evaluate changes in serum copper and zinc concentrations the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was performed. In ZnD animals serum zinc level was reduced after acute ADs treatment (similarly to vehicle treatment), however, as demonstrated in the previous study after chronic ADs administration no differences between both ZnA and ZnD groups were observed. Acute ADs in ZnD animals caused different changes in serum copper concentration with no changes after chronic ADs treatment. The calculated serum Zn/Cu ratio is reduced in ZnD animals (compared to ZnA subjects) treated with saline (acutely or chronically) and in animals treated acutely with ADs. However, chronic treatment with ADs normalized (by escitalopram, reboxetine or bupropion) or increased (by imipramine) this Zn/Cu ratio. Observed in this study normalization of serum Zn/Cu ratio in depression-like conditions by chronic (but not acute) antidepressants suggest that this ratio may be consider as a marker of depression or treatment efficacy. PMID:25371526

Mlyniec, K; Ostachowicz, B; Krakowska, A; Reczynski, W; Opoka, W; Nowak, G

2014-10-01

178

The secondary alkaline zinc electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The worldwide studies conducted between 1975 and 1990 with the aim of improving cell lifetimes of secondary alkaline zinc electrodes are overviewed. Attention is given the design features and characteristics of various secondary alkaline zinc cells, including four types of zinc/nickel oxide cell designs (vented static-electrolyte, sealed static-electrolyte, vibrating-electrode, and flowing-electrolyte); two types of zinc/air cells (mechanically rechargeable consolidated-electrode and mechanically rechargeable particulate-electrode); zinc/silver oxide battery; zinc/manganese dioxide cell; and zinc/ferric cyanide battery. Particular consideration is given to recent research in the fields of cell thermodynamics, zinc electrodeposition, zinc electrodissolution, zinc corrosion, electrolyte properties, mathematical and phenomenological models, osmotic pumping, nonuniform current distribution, and cell cycle-life perforamnce.

McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

1991-02-01

179

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings  

DOEpatents

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

1997-01-01

180

Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for high rate extended mission applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effort has been made to develop technology for lithium-thionyl chloride batteries whose emission times will extend beyond 20 min and whose power levels will be in excess of 1800 W, using the requirements for an existing silver-zinc battery's electrical requirements as a baseline. The target design encompasses separate 31- and 76-V sections; the design goal was the reduction of battery weight to 50 percent that of the present silver/zinc cell. A cell has been achieved whose mission can be conducted without container heat losses.

Peabody, Mark; Brown, Robert A.

181

Sodium selenite and vitamin E in preventing mercuric chloride induced renal toxicity in rats.  

PubMed

This study aims to investigate improving effects of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E on mercuric chloride-induced kidney impairments in rats. Wistar male rats were exposed either to sodium selenite (0.25mg/kgday), vitamin E (100mg/kgday), sodium selenite+vitamin E, mercuric chloride (1mg/kgday), sodium selenite+mercuric chloride, vitamin E+mercuric chloride and sodium selenite+vitamin E+mercuric chloride for 4weeks. Mercuric chloride exposure resulted in an increase in the uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and a decrease in the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Histopathological changes were detected in kidney tissues in mercuric chloride-treated groups. A significant decrease in the uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and MDA levels and a significant increase in the SOD, CAT and GPx activities were observed in the supplementation of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E to mercuric chloride-treated groups. Conclusively, sodium selenite, vitamin E and vitamin E+sodium selenite significantly reduce mercuric chloride induced nephrotoxicity in rats, but not protect completely. PMID:24857817

Aslanturk, Ayse; Uzunhisarcikli, Meltem; Kalender, Suna; Demir, Filiz

2014-08-01

182

Clioquinol Synergistically Augments Rescue by Zinc Supplementation in a Mouse Model of Acrodermatitis Enteropathica  

PubMed Central

Background Zinc deficiency due to poor nutrition or genetic mutations in zinc transporters is a global health problem and approaches to providing effective dietary zinc supplementation while avoiding potential toxic side effects are needed. Methods/Principal Findings Conditional knockout of the intestinal zinc transporter Zip4 (Slc39a4) in mice creates a model of the lethal human genetic disease acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE). This knockout leads to acute zinc deficiency resulting in rapid weight loss, disrupted intestine integrity and eventually lethality, and therefore provides a model system in which to examine novel approaches to zinc supplementation. We examined the efficacy of dietary clioquinol (CQ), a well characterized zinc chelator/ionophore, in rescuing the Zip4intest KO phenotype. By 8 days after initiation of the knockout neither dietary CQ nor zinc supplementation in the drinking water was found to be effective at improving this phenotype. In contrast, dietary CQ in conjunction with zinc supplementation was highly effective. Dietary CQ with zinc supplementation rapidly restored intestine stem cell division and differentiation of secretory and the absorptive cells. These changes were accompanied by rapid growth and dramatically increased longevity in the majority of mice, as well as the apparent restoration of the homeostasis of several essential metals in the liver. Conclusions These studies suggest that oral CQ (or other 8-hydroxyquinolines) coupled with zinc supplementation could provide a facile approach toward treating zinc deficiency in humans by stimulating stem cell proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:24015258

Geiser, Jim; De Lisle, Robert C.; Finkelstein, David; Adlard, Paul A.; Bush, Ashley I.; Andrews, Glen K.

2013-01-01

183

Inhibitory zinc sites in enzymes.  

PubMed

Several pathways increase the concentrations of cellular free zinc(II) ions. Such fluctuations suggest that zinc(II) ions are signalling ions used for the regulation of proteins. One function is the inhibition of enzymes. It is quite common that enzymes bind zinc(II) ions with micro- or nanomolar affinities in their active sites that contain catalytic dyads or triads with a combination of glutamate (aspartate), histidine and cysteine residues, which are all typical zinc-binding ligands. However, for such binding to be physiologically significant, the binding constants must be compatible with the cellular availability of zinc(II) ions. The affinity of inhibitory zinc(II) ions for receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase ? is particularly high (K i = 21 pM, pH 7.4), indicating that some enzymes bind zinc almost as strongly as zinc metalloenzymes. The competitive pattern of zinc inhibition for this phosphatase implicates its active site cysteine and nearby residues in the coordination of zinc. Quantitative biophysical data on both affinities of proteins for zinc and cellular zinc(II) ion concentrations provide the basis for examining the physiological significance of inhibitory zinc-binding sites in proteins and the role of zinc(II) ions in cellular signalling. Regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions add a significant level of complexity to biological control of metabolism and signal transduction and embody a new paradigm for the role of transition metal ions in cell biology. PMID:23456096

Maret, Wolfgang

2013-04-01

184

Use of SVET and SECM to study the galvanic corrosion of an iron–zinc cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work makes use of the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) and the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) to investigate microscopic aspects of the electrochemical reactions that occur in an iron–zinc galvanic couple immersed in aqueous sodium chloride solution. Detection of the corrosion processes was made by sensing the phenomena occurring in solution. The SVET provided information on the distribution of

A. M. Simões; A. C. Bastos; M. G. Ferreira; Y. González-García; S. González; R. M. Souto

2007-01-01

185

Performance of zinc phosphate coatings obtained by cathodic electrochemical treatment in accelerated corrosion tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of zinc phosphate coating by cathodic electrochemical treatment and evaluation of its corrosion resistance is addressed. The corrosion behaviour of cathodically phosphated mild steel substrate in 3.5% sodium chloride solution exhibits the stability of these coatings, which lasts for a week's time with no red rust formation. Salt spray test convincingly proves the white rust formation in the

S. Jegannathan; T. S. N. Sankara Narayanan; K. Ravichandran; S. Rajeswari

2005-01-01

186

46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.  

...percent by volume, the ventilation system must be run until the concentration drops below 1 percent by volume. (3) Thermocouples must be installed approximately 6 inches below the surface of the zinc material or in the space immediately above the...

2014-10-01

187

46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...percent by volume, the ventilation system must be run until the concentration drops below 1 percent by volume. (3) Thermocouples must be installed approximately 6 inches below the surface of the zinc material or in the space immediately above the...

2013-10-01

188

46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...percent by volume, the ventilation system must be run until the concentration drops below 1 percent by volume. (3) Thermocouples must be installed approximately 6 inches below the surface of the zinc material or in the space immediately above the...

2012-10-01

189

Molecular aspects of human cellular zinc homeostasis: redox control of zinc potentials and zinc signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc(II) ions are essential for all forms of life. In humans, they have catalytic and structural functions in an estimated\\u000a 3,000 zinc proteins. In addition, they interact with proteins transiently when they regulate proteins or when proteins regulate\\u000a cellular zinc re-distribution. As yet, these types of zinc proteins have been explored poorly. Therefore the number of zinc\\/protein\\u000a interactions is potentially

Wolfgang Maret

2009-01-01

190

Silver-zinc batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until about a decade ago, only lead-acid storage batteries were utilized as a reserve source of dc power for aircraft applications. However, technological advances in the alkaline family of batteries have introduced new electrochemical systems having significant advantages over the lead-acid battery. One of these electrochemical systems is the silver-zinc battery. The silver-zinc battery derives its name from its active

R. Coss; J. Denson

1965-01-01

191

Zinc wired rebar  

SciTech Connect

A novel method for corrosion protection of rebar in concrete is reported wherein it is galvanically protected by attaching a zinc wire along its length. The self-corrosion and galvanic-corrosion loss of the zinc wire is dependent on the water/cement ratio, the size of the cathode, and the concrete cover thickness. The wire acts as a sacrificial anode when the rebar embedded in concrete is exposed to corrosive environments.

Zhang, X.G.; Hwang, J. [COMINCO Product Technology Centre, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

1997-02-01

192

Calcium phosphate stabilization of fly ash with chloride extraction.  

PubMed

Municipal solid waste incinerator by products include fly ash and air pollution control residues. In order to transform these incinerator wastes into reusable mineral species, soluble alkali chlorides must be separated and toxic trace elements must be stabilized in insoluble form. We show that alkali chlorides can be extracted efficiently in an aqueous extraction step combining a calcium phosphate gel precipitation. In such a process, sodium and potassium chlorides are obtained free from calcium salts, and the trace metal ions are immobilized in the calcium phosphate matrix. Moderate calcination of the chemically treated fly ash leads to the formation of cristalline hydroxylapatite. Fly ash spiked with copper ions and treated by this process shows improved stability of metal ions. Leaching tests with water or EDTA reveal a significant drop in metal ion dissolution. Hydroxylapatite may trap toxic metals and also prevent their evaporation during thermal treatments. Incinerator fly ash together with air pollution control residues, treated by the combined chloride extraction and hydroxylapatite formation process may be considered safe to use as a mineral filler in value added products such as road base or cement blocks. PMID:12003153

Nzihou, Ange; Sharrock, Patrick

2002-01-01

193

Zinc pyrithione impairs zinc homeostasis and upregulates stress response gene expression in reconstructed human epidermis.  

PubMed

Zinc ion homeostasis plays an important role in human cutaneous biology where it is involved in epidermal differentiation and barrier function, inflammatory and antimicrobial regulation, and wound healing. Zinc-based compounds designed for topical delivery therefore represent an important class of cutaneous therapeutics. Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) is an FDA-approved microbicidal agent used worldwide in over-the-counter topical antimicrobials, and has also been examined as an investigational therapeutic targeting psoriasis and UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia. Recently, we have demonstrated that cultured primary human skin keratinocytes display an exquisite sensitivity to nanomolar ZnPT concentrations causing induction of heat shock response gene expression and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-dependent cell death (Cell Stress Chaperones 15:309-322, 2010). Here we demonstrate that ZnPT causes rapid accumulation of intracellular zinc in primary keratinocytes as observed by quantitative fluorescence microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and that PARP activation, energy crisis, and genomic impairment are all antagonized by zinc chelation. In epidermal reconstructs (EpiDerm™) exposed to topical ZnPT (0.1-2% in Vanicream™), ICP-MS demonstrated rapid zinc accumulation, and expression array analysis demonstrated upregulation of stress response genes encoding metallothionein-2A (MT2A), heat shock proteins (HSPA6, HSPA1A, HSPB5, HSPA1L, DNAJA1, HSPH1, HSPD1, HSPE1), antioxidants (SOD2, GSTM3, HMOX1), and the cell cycle inhibitor p21 (CDKN1A). IHC analysis of ZnPT-treated EpiDerm™ confirmed upregulation of Hsp70 and TUNEL-positivity. Taken together our data demonstrate that ZnPT impairs zinc ion homeostasis and upregulates stress response gene expression in primary keratinocytes and reconstructed human epidermis, activities that may underlie therapeutic and toxicological effects of this topical drug. PMID:21424779

Lamore, Sarah D; Wondrak, Georg T

2011-10-01

194

Chelators for investigating zinc metalloneurochemistry.  

PubMed

The physiology and pathology of mobile zinc signaling has become an important topic in metalloneurochemistry. To study the action of mobile zinc effectively, specialized tools are required that probe the temporal and positional changes of zinc ions within live tissue and cells. In the present article we describe the design and implementation of selective zinc chelators as antagonists to interrogate the function of mobile zinc, with an emphasis on the pools of vesicular zinc in the terminals of hippocampal mossy fiber buttons. PMID:23478014

Radford, Robert J; Lippard, Stephen J

2013-04-01

195

EFFECT OF REDUCED SEED AND APPLIED ZINC ON ZINC EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT GENOTYPES UNDER ZINC DEFICIENCY IN NUTRIENT SOLUTION CULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving zinc efficiency of cereals especially wheat under zinc deficiency is a priority area of research to determine and manipulate the plant factors that govern zinc uptake and utilization. Experiments conducted to ascertain variability and also the contribution of seed zinc (complete seed and half seed) to zinc efficiency in diverse wheat genotypes raised on zinc sufficient and deficient nutrient

Bhupinder Singh; B. K. Singh

2011-01-01

196

Effect of Electric Arc Welding Parameters on Corrosion Behaviour of Austenitic Stainless Steel in Chloride Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of welding parameters (power input, weld geometry, welding speed, and post-weld heat treatment) on the corrosion behaviour of austenitic stainless steel in chloride medium was investigated in this work. Electrode potential measurement coupled with zinc rod reference electrode was used to evaluate the corrosion behaviour of the samples. It was found that the 3.6kW power input produces the

Ayo Samuel Afolabi

197

ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ONE STYLE OF DENVER AGITATOR IN LOWER RIGHT CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

198

Zinc protects against shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli by acting on host tissues as well as on bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Zinc supplements can treat or prevent enteric infections and diarrheal disease. Many articles on zinc in bacteria, however, highlight the essential nature of this metal for bacterial growth and virulence, suggesting that zinc should make infections worse, not better. To address this paradox, we tested whether zinc might have protective effects on intestinal epithelium as well as on the pathogen. Results Using polarized monolayers of T84 cells we found that zinc protected against damage induced by hydrogen peroxide, as measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance. Zinc also reduced peroxide-induced translocation of Shiga toxin (Stx) across T84 monolayers from the apical to basolateral side. Zinc was superior to other divalent metals to (iron, manganese, and nickel) in protecting against peroxide-induced epithelial damage, while copper also showed a protective effect. The SOS bacterial stress response pathway is a powerful regulator of Stx production in STEC. We examined whether zinc’s known inhibitory effects on Stx might be mediated by blocking the SOS response. Zinc reduced expression of recA, a reliable marker of the SOS. Zinc was more potent and more efficacious than other metals tested in inhibiting recA expression induced by hydrogen peroxide, xanthine oxidase, or the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. The close correlation between zinc’s effects on recA/SOS and on Stx suggested that inhibition of the SOS response is one mechanism by which zinc protects against STEC infection. Conclusions Zinc’s ability to protect against enteric bacterial pathogens may be the result of its combined effects on host tissues as well as inhibition of virulence in some pathogens. Research focused solely on the effects of zinc on pathogenic microbes may give an incomplete picture by failing to account for protective effects of zinc on host epithelia. PMID:24903402

2014-01-01

199

CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING  

SciTech Connect

Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

2007-11-30

200

Characterization of poly(vinyl chloride) aged in a bromine containing electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is being considered for use as a flow frame material in a developmental zinc/bromine battery. The choice of PVC was based on its low cost and the ease with which it can be molded into complex parts. The electrolyte used in this battery is a highly corrosive mixture of bromine, zinc bromide, zinc chloride, potassium bromide, potassium chloride and a quaternary amine salt. The quaternary salt serves to reduce the concentration of free bromine in the electrolyte by virtue of its complexing capability. It is well known that aqueous bromine is capable of oxidizing organic compounds. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of a bromine electrolyte on two PVC formulations, PVC-1 and PVC-4. PVC-1 is the designation given to one of B.F. Goodrich's commercial formulations and is the present baseline material for the flow frame. PVC-4 is an experimental B.F. Goodrich formulation that was developed especially for battery applications. We sought answers to such questions as (1) does oxidation and/or bromination take place. (2) does bromine penetrate into the sample and, if so, how far. (3) how are the mechanical and morphological properties affected. and (4) are there differences in stability between PVC-1 and PVC-4. To accelerate the aging processes we aged the PVC samples at an elevated temperature in an electrolyte which did not contain any complexing agent. 5 refs., 6 figs.

Arnold, C. Jr.; Leo, A.; Tarjani, M.

1988-01-01

201

Comparison of zinc complexation properties of dissolved natural organic matter from different surface waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zinc binding characteristics of natural organic matter (NOM) from several representative surface waters were studied and compared. NOM samples were concentrated by reverse osmosis. The samples were treated in the laboratory to remove trace metals. Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was used to study zinc complexing properties of those NOM samples at fixed pH, ionic strength, and dissolved

Tao Cheng; Herbert E. Allen

2006-01-01

202

Assessment of haematotoxic potential of mercuric chloride in rat.  

PubMed

The blood is an important liquid connective tissue flow in body and performs the role of distribution of oxygen to various tissues, taken out carbon dioxide and maintains the health status of an organism. Any change in the blood components can cause adverse effects on the body. The effect of mercuric chloride has been evaluated on blood in albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). The albino rats were treated with mercuric chloride 0.926 mg kg(-1) body wt. for acute (1 day) and 0.044 mg kg(-1) body wt. for sub-acute (7, 14 and 21 day) sets after calculating LD50 (9.26 mg kg(-1) body wt.). Major changes have been observed in the form of enhanced clotting time (CT) and bleeding time (BT) due to toxic effect of mercuric chloride on haemopoietic system along with decrease in the total erythrocyte count (TEC) and haemoglobin concentration (Hb. conc.). The changes in erythrocyte count and haemoglobin concentration have been correlated with cytotoxic effect of mercuric chloride on erythropoiesis. However, the intoxication of mercuric chloride on total leukocyte count (TLC) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) has been observed to be significantly increased after acute and sub-acute treatments due to leucocytosis and rouleux formation. Moreover the present observations highlight dose dependent toxicity. PMID:20143731

Mahour, Kanhiya; Saxena, Prabhu N

2009-09-01

203

Imaging mobile zinc in biology  

E-print Network

Trafficking and regulation of mobile zinc pools influence cellular functions and pathological conditions in multiple organs, including brain, pancreas, and prostate. The quest for a dynamic description of zinc distribution ...

Tomat, Elisa

204

Electrodeposition of PtZn in a Lewis acidic ZnCl 2–1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrodeposition of PtZn from a Lewis acidic 40–60mol% zinc chloride–1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid containing PtCl2 was investigated at polycrystalline tungsten substrates at 90°C. Cyclic voltammetric data indicates that Pt(II) was reduced at a potential slightly more positive than Zn(II) was. The Pt–Zn electrodeposits exhibited multiple anodic stripping waves. The Zn-dominant deposits were stripped at a potential less positive than

Jing-Fang Huang; I-Wen Sun

2004-01-01

205

Organically pillared layered zinc hydroxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two organically pillared layered zinc hydroxides [Zn2(OH)2(ndc)], CPO-6, and [Zn3(OH)4(bpdc)], CPO-7, were obtained in hydrothermal reactions between 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (ndc) and zinc nitrate (CPO-6) and 4,4?biphenyldicarboxylate (bpdc) and zinc nitrate (CPO-7), respectively. In CPO-6, the tetrahedral zinc atoms are connected by two ?2-OH groups and two carboxylate oxygen atoms, forming infinite layers extending parallel to the bc-plane. These layers

Kjell Ove Kongshaug; Helmer Fjellvåg

2004-01-01

206

Zinc titanate sorbents  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 .mu., and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 .mu.. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

Gupta, Raghubir P. (Durham, NC); Gangwal, Santosh K. (Durham, NC); Jain, Suresh C. (Germantown, MD)

1998-01-01

207

Zinc titanate sorbents  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750 to about 950 C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 microns, and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 micron. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

1998-02-03

208

Zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

The zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte is unusual in that supersaturated zincate solutions can form during discharge and spongy or mossy zinc deposits can form on charge at low overvoltages. The effect of additives on regular pasted ZnO electrodes and calcium zincate electrodes is discussed. The paper also reports on in situ x-ray absorption (XAS) results on mossy zinc deposits.

McBreen, J.

1995-12-31

209

Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

Du Fresne, E. R.

1984-01-01

210

Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide  

DOEpatents

A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

Barnett, Allen M. (Newark, DE); Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE); Masi, James V. (Wilbraham, MA); Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Hall, Robert B. (Newark, DE)

1984-01-01

211

Zinc Phosphide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Zinc phosphide has been used widely as a rodenticide. Upon ingestion, it gets converted to phosphine gas in the body, which is subsequently absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach and the intestines and gets captured by the liver and the lungs. Phosphine gas produces various metabolic and nonmetabolic toxic effects. Clinical symptoms are circulatory collapse, hypotension, shock symptoms, myocarditis, pericarditis, acute pulmonary edema, and congestive heart failure. In this case presentation, we aim to present the intensive care process and treatment resistance of a patient who ingested zinc phosphide for suicide purposes. PMID:25101186

Dogan, Erdal; Guzel, Abdulmenap; Ciftci, Taner; Aycan, Ilker; Cetin, Bedri; Kavak, Gonul Olmez

2014-01-01

212

Observations of interstellar zinc  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of interstellar zinc toward 10 stars are examined. It is found that zinc is at most only slightly depleted in the interstellar medium; its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. The local interstellar medium has abundances that apparently are homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc, and this result is important for understanding the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood. The intrinsic errors in detecting weak interstellar lines are analyzed and suggestions are made as to how this error limit may be lowered to 5 mA per target observation.

Jura, M.; York, D.

1981-01-01

213

Alcoholism Causes Alveolar Macrophage Zinc Deficiency and Immune Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Alcohol use disorders cause oxidative stress in the lower airways and increase susceptibility to pneumonia and lung injury. Currently, no therapeutic options exist to mitigate the pulmonary consequences of alcoholism. Objectives: We recently determined in an animal model that alcohol ingestion impairs pulmonary zinc metabolism and causes alveolar macrophage immune dysfunction. The objective of this research is to determine the effects of alcoholism on zinc bioavailability and alveolar macrophage function in human subjects. Methods: We recruited otherwise healthy alcoholics (n = 17) and matched control subjects (n = 17) who underwent bronchoscopy for isolation of alveolar macrophages, which were analyzed for intracellular zinc, phagocytic function, and surface expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony–stimulating factor receptor; all three of these indices are decreased in experimental models. Measurements and Main Results: Alcoholic subjects had normal serum zinc, but significantly decreased alveolar macrophage intracellular zinc levels (adjusted means [SE], 718 [41] vs. 948 [25] RFU/cell; P < 0.0001); bacterial phagocytosis (adjusted means [SE], 1,027 [48] vs. 1,509 [76] RFU/cell; P < 0.0001); and expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony–stimulating factor receptor ? subunit (adjusted means [SE], 1,471 [42] vs. 2,114 [35] RFU/cell; P < 0.0001]. Treating alveolar macrophages with zinc acetate and glutathione in vitro increased intracellular zinc levels and improved their phagocytic function. Conclusions: These novel clinical findings provide evidence that alcohol abuse is associated with significant zinc deficiency and immune dysfunction within the alveolar space and suggest that dietary supplementation with zinc and glutathione precursors could enhance airway innate immunity and decrease the risk for pneumonia or lung injury in these vulnerable individuals. PMID:23805851

Yeligar, Samantha M.; Elon, Lisa; Brown, Lou Ann; Guidot, David M.

2013-01-01

214

A new approach to the determination of the cathodic protection period in zinc-rich paints  

SciTech Connect

The present study examined the behavior of zinc-rich paints (ZRP) based on an epoxy binder in 3% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. The study focused on the effect of some design parameters often considered in paint formulation. The paint thickness, the zinc particle grain size, and the zinc particle distribution in the paint were studied. The study was based mainly on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). EIS results were interpreted using a model involving the contact impedance between zinc particles. The contact impedance and electrolyte resistance throughout the coating defined the protective action of ZRP. Based on these two concepts, a practical approach to evaluate ZRP performance was given. This approach, called total film resistance (TFR), can be used for optimization criteria in paint formulation.

Abreu, C.M.; Izquierdo, M.; Merino, P.; Novoa, X.R.; Perez, C.

1999-12-01

215

Insulin Production Hampered by Intermittent Hypoxia via Impaired Zinc Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Without zinc, pancreatic beta cells cannot either assemble insulin molecules or precipitate insulin crystals; thus, a lack of zinc concentration in the beta cells would result in a decreased insulin production. ZIP8 is one of the zinc uptake transporters involved in zinc influx into the cytosol of beta cells. Thus, if ZIP8 is down-regulated, a decreased insulin production would result. We assumed that intermittent hypoxic exposure to the beta cells may result in a decreased production of insulin due to a lack of zinc. To test this hypothesis we harvested pancreatic islets from the rats conditioned under intermittent hypoxia (IH) (fluctuating between 20.5% and 10% every 4 min for 1 h) and compared the results with those from control animals and islets. We also compared their insulin and glucose homeostasis using glucose tolerance tests (GTT) after 3 weeks. GTT results show a significant delay (P<0.05) in recovery of the blood glucose level in IH treated pups. ZIP8 expression in the beta cell membrane was down-regulated. The zinc concentration in the cell as well as insulin production was significantly decreased in the islets harvested from IH animals. However, mRNA for insulin and C-peptide/insulin protein levels in the total cell lysates remained the same as those of controls. When we treated the beta cells using siRNA mediated ZIP8, we observed the commensurate results from the IH-treated islets. We conclude that a transient IH exposure could knockdown ZIP8 transporters at mRNA as well as protein levels in the beta cells, which would decrease the level of blood insulin. However, the transcriptional activity of insulin remains the same. We conclude that the precipitation process of insulin crystal may be disturbed by a lack of zinc in the cytosol that is modulated by mainly ZIP8 after IH exposure. PMID:24587273

Pae, Eung-Kwon; Kim, Gyuyoup

2014-01-01

216

Metal chloride precursor synthesization of Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cell materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films with kesterite structures were prepared by directly sol-gel synthesizing spin-coated precursors on soda-lime-glass (SLG) substrates. The CZTS precursors were prepared by using solutions of copper (II) chloride, zinc (II) chloride, tin (IV) chloride, and thiourea. The ratio of SnCl4 in the precursors was found to play a critical role in the synthesization of CZTS. CZTS phases of SnS and SnS2 were observed in the synthesized films as prepared using precursors with a close to stoichiometric ratio of CuCl2:ZnCl2:SnCl4:CH4N2S = 4:1:1:8, where SnCl4 was 1 mol/l. The amounts of the educed SnS and SnS2 phases observed in the SEM images could be readily reduced by decreasing the volume of SnCl4 in the mixed solution. With decreasing amount of SnCl4 from 1 mol/l, the as prepared CZTS reveals a significant improvement in its crystalline properties. In this work, CZTS with an average absorption coefficient and an optical energy gap of over 104 cm-1 and ~1.5 eV, respectively, was obtained using precursors of copper (II) chloride, zinc (II) chloride, tin (IV) chloride, and thiourea mixed in a ratio of 2:1:0.25:8, and it had good crystallinity revealing a Cu-poor composition.

Yeh, Min Yen; Huang, Yu-Fong; Huang, Cheng-Liang; Yang, Chyi-Da; Wuu, Dong-Sing; Lei, Po-Hsun

2014-07-01

217

Evidence for intestinal chloride secretion.  

PubMed

Intestinal fluid secretion is pivotal in the creation of an ideal environment for effective enzymatic digestion, nutrient absorption and stool movement. Since fluid cannot be actively secreted into the gut, this process is dependent on an osmotic gradient, which is mainly created by chloride transport by the enterocyte. A pathological dysbalance between fluid secretion and absorption leads to obstruction or potentially fatal diarrhoea. This article reviews the widely accepted model of intestinal chloride secretion with an emphasis on the molecular players involved in this tightly regulated process. PMID:20233891

Murek, Michael; Kopic, Sascha; Geibel, John

2010-04-01

218

Preparation and coagulation efficiency of polyaluminium ferric silicate chloride composite coagulant from wastewater of high-purity graphite production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was to produce a polyaluminium ferric silicate chloride (PAFSiC) coagulant from acidic and alkaline wastewater of purifying graphite by roasting, and subsequently to evaluate coagulation efficiency of the reagent by treating surface water from the Yellow River as well as municipal wastewater in comparison with the conventional coagulant polyaluminium chloride (PAC). The PAFSiC coagulant

Xiaoxia Niu; Xili Li; Jihong Zhao; Yigang Ren; Yanqin Yang

2011-01-01

219

Psychological stress induced hippocampus zinc dyshomeostasis and depression-like behavior in rats.  

PubMed

There are strong evidences showed that psychological stress (PS) could result in depression. Recently, many attentions were paid to the roles of corticosterone (CORT) and zinc dyshomeostasis in the development of depression. In this study, we investigated the zinc level in rat hippocampus after exposure to PS and accompanied behavior change. Male SD rats were randomly divided into the control and PS groups. Each group had two subgroups: 7-d group and 14-d group. A communication box was used to produce the PS model in rats. Compared to control group, the PS-treated group showed decreased total zinc levels and increased free zinc levels observed by TSQ staining in hippocampus. Meanwhile, there were significant decreases in mRNA expressions of zinc transporters including ZnT1, ZnT3 and ZIP1 and metallothionein (MT) contents in hippocampus. Moreover, the increased immobility time in forced swim test (FST), lower movement time and total movement distance and longer immobile time in spontaneous activity test were demonstrated in rats after PS exposure. These results suggested that the depression-like behavior in PS-treated rats might be correlated with zinc dyshomeostasis including decreased zinc contents and increased free zinc in hippocampus which was related to changes in zinc transporters and MT expressions. PMID:25092572

Dou, Xiao; Tian, Xue; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Huang, Junlong; Shen, Zhilei; Li, Hongxia; Wang, Xiaoli; Mo, Fengfeng; Wang, Wanyin; Wang, Shi; Shen, Hui

2014-10-15

220

Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst  

DOEpatents

A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

1984-01-01

221

46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...e)(5) of this section, the cargo hatches of holds containing zinc material must remain sealed to prevent the entry of seawater. (5) If the concentration of hydrogen is near 4.1 percent by volume and increasing, despite ventilation, or the...

2011-10-01

222

Creep Resistant Zinc Alloy  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the development of Hot Chamber Die Castable Zinc Alloys with High Creep Strengths. This project commenced in 2000, with the primary objective of developing a hot chamber zinc die-casting alloy, capable of satisfactory service at 140 C. The core objectives of the development program were to: (1) fill in missing alloy data areas and develop a more complete empirical model of the influence of alloy composition on creep strength and other selected properties, and (2) based on the results from this model, examine promising alloy composition areas, for further development and for meeting the property combination targets, with the view to designing an optimized alloy composition. The target properties identified by ILZRO for an improved creep resistant zinc die-casting alloy were identified as follows: (1) temperature capability of 1470 C; (2) creep stress of 31 MPa (4500 psi); (3) exposure time of 1000 hours; and (4) maximum creep elongation under these conditions of 1%. The project was broadly divided into three tasks: (1) Task 1--General and Modeling, covering Experimental design of a first batch of alloys, alloy preparation and characterization. (2) Task 2--Refinement and Optimization, covering Experimental design of a second batch of alloys. (3) Task 3--Creep Testing and Technology transfer, covering the finalization of testing and the transfer of technology to the Zinc industry should have at least one improved alloy result from this work.

Frank E. Goodwin

2002-12-31

223

Doped zinc oxide microspheres  

DOEpatents

A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01

224

Doped zinc oxide microspheres  

DOEpatents

A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

1993-12-14

225

Zinc bioavailability in the chick  

SciTech Connect

Methods for assessing zinc bioavailability were evaluated in the chick. A low-zinc chick diet was developed using rehydrated, spray-dried egg white autoclaved at 121 C for 30 min as the primary protein source. The relative bioavailability of zinc from soy flour and beef was determined by whole-body retention of extrinsic /sup 65/Zn, and in slope ratio assays for growth rate and tissue zinc. Compared to zinc carbonate added to an egg white-based diet, all methods gave similar estimates of approximately 100% zinc bioavailability for beef but estimates for soy flour varied widely. The slope ratio assay for growth rate gave the best estimate of zinc bioavailability for soy flour. True absorption, as measured by percent isotope retention from extrinsically labeled soy flour, was 47%.

Hempe, J.M.

1987-01-01

226

Synaptic released zinc promotes tau hyperphosphorylation by inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A).  

PubMed

Hyperphosphorylated tau is the major component of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer disease (AD), and the tangle distribution largely overlaps with zinc-containing glutamatergic neurons, suggesting that zinc released in synaptic terminals may play a role in tau phosphorylation. To explore this possibility, we treated cultured hippocampal slices or primary neurons with glutamate or Bic/4-AP to increase the synaptic activity with or without pretreatment of zinc chelators, and then detected the phosphorylation levels of tau. We found that glutamate or Bic/4-AP treatment caused tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple AD-related sites, including Ser-396, Ser-404, Thr-231, and Thr-205, while application of intracellular or extracellular zinc chelators, or blockade of zinc release by extracellular calcium omission almost abolished the synaptic activity-associated tau hyperphosphorylation. The zinc release and translocation of excitatory synapses in the hippocampus were detected, and zinc-induced tau hyperphosphorylation was also observed in cultured brain slices incubated with exogenously supplemented zinc. Tau hyperphosphorylation induced by synaptic activity was strongly associated with inactivation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and this inactivation can be reversed by pretreatment of zinc chelator. Together, these results suggest that synaptically released zinc promotes tau hyperphosphorylation through PP2A inhibition. PMID:22334661

Sun, Xu-Ying; Wei, Yu-Ping; Xiong, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Chuan; Xie, Ao-Ji; Wang, Xiu-Lian; Yang, Yang; Wang, Qun; Lu, You-Ming; Liu, Rong; Wang, Jian-Zhi

2012-03-30

227

Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc absorption, turnover and distribution in rats fed diet marginal and adequate in zinc  

SciTech Connect

Ethambutol, (CH/sub 3/CH/sub 2/-CH(CH/sub 2/OH)-NH-CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/ (EMB), is an oral antituberculous agent that is administered therapeutically over extended time periods. It has chelating properties and may affect mineral metabolism. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats received 0, 400 or 600 mg EMB per kilogram body weight daily by gavage for 30 d. They were fed a casein-based diet with either adequate (49 ppm) or marginal (11 ppm) zinc. Both adequate-Zn (AZn) and marginal-Zn (MZn) rats receiving EMB showed alopecia and dose-dependent reductions in feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency. None of these changes was seen in rats fed the MZn diet without EMB. Serum and tissue zinc levels were similar in rats not receiving EMB, regardless of the dietary zinc level. Serum zinc was consistently lower in AZn and MZn rats receiving EMB than in rats without EMB. Apparent zinc absorption, measured by /sup 65/Zn balance, was higher in AZn rats receiving EMB than in AZn rats without EMB. Thus, changes in absorption could not account for lower serum zinc levels in EMB-treated rats. However, /sup 65/Zn turnover was also higher in EMB groups. This suggests that EMB may have increased urinary zinc losses resulting in reduced circulating zinc and a consequent increase in zinc absorption.

King, A.B.; Schwartz, R.

1987-04-01

228

Protecting aluminum in atmosphere through galvanic coupling to zinc  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical polarization data for the individual thin film electrodes Al and Zn as well as in galvanic couple connecting the two together have been generated using atmospheric corrosion sensors developed recently. Thin films of these metals were subjected to cyclic fog testing and to continuous immersion in selected electrolytes corresponding to atmospheric condensates and were tested also in actual atmospheric exposure under bold (totally open and subject to direct hit by rain and sun light) and sheltered (not hit by rain and sun light) conditions. Results generally indicate that zinc corrodes by very large amount tending to protect aluminum in the process. Aluminum corrodes by the least and remains passivated under test conditions involving only plain water. In the presence of chloride ion, pitting is activated, though zinc provides initial protection and tends to stabilize passivation. Under open bold conditions, zinc electrode experiences the largest corrosion current densities and passivates itself and Al remains also in the passive state. The potentials of both electrodes converge to nearly the same value around +100 mV measured against an open silver film. Under the sheltered locations, both the corrosion potentials and current densities oscillate, possibly due to repeated tendencies of passivation and depassivation and attainment of a totally protected state for Al may require secondary protection measures along with the use of zinc.

Raman, A.; Huang, X.; Diwan, R.

1999-07-01

229

Chloride thresholds in marine concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports results from an ongoing study of the performance of fly ash concrete in marine exposure. Reinforced concrete specimens exposed to tidal conditions were retrieved at ages ranging from 1 to 4 years. Steel reinforcement mass losses are compared with chloride contents at the location of the bar for concrete specimens of various strength grades and with a

Michael Thomas

1996-01-01

230

Zinc supplement on tissue arsenic concentration in rats.  

PubMed

To examine the effect of zinc in the removal of accumulated arsenic from different tissues (liver, kidneys, spleen and lungs), rats were initially allowed to drink high concentration (400 microg/kg/day) of arsenic for two months followed by a period of cessation (one month). Administration of zinc (2 mg/kg/day) during the third month in arsenic-treated and non-treated groups were compared. In arsenic-treated rats, the mean (+/- SD) amounts of total arsenic in liver, kidneys, spleen and lungs were 12.3 +/- 0.7, 20.5 +/- 1.0, 31.4 +/- 1.0 and 25.6 +/- 1.1 microg/g of tissues respectively. Administration of zinc to arsenic-treated rats reduced the arsenic concentrations of those tissues to 7.8, 10.7, 23.0 and 14.0 microg/g of tissues. This in vivo study suggests that zinc removes the accumulated arsenic from different tissues significantly (p < 0.001). PMID:17867273

Kamaluddin, M; Misbahuddin, M

2006-12-01

231

Zinc selective ionophores for potentiometric and optical sensors  

SciTech Connect

Iminodiacetamide derivatives were synthesized and studied as ionophores in plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membranes with potentiometric and optical transduction. The N-benzyl and N-phenyl derivatives proved to have a distinct zinc selectivity preferring Zn{sup 2+} over Ca{sup 2+}, Na{sup +} by factors of 6x10{sup 5} and 3x10{sup 4}, respectively. All ionophores exhibit a serious proton interference (log K{sup pot}{sub Zn{sup ++}}, {sub H{sup +}} {approximately} 6) which suggests that all application of this type of ionophores based sensors are limited to hydrogen ion buffer solution at pH {>=} 6.

Lindner, E.; Horvath, M.; Toth, K.; Pungor, E.; Bitter, I.; Agai, B.; Toeke, L. (Technical Univ. of Budapest (Hungary))

1992-03-01

232

Palladium-Catalyzed ?-Arylation of Zinc Enolates of Esters: Reaction Conditions and Substrate Scope  

PubMed Central

The intermolecular ?-arylation of esters by palladium-catalyzed coupling of aryl bromides with zinc enolates of esters is reported. Reactions of three different types of zinc enolates have been developed. ?-Arylation of esters occurs in high yields with isolated Reformatsky reagents, with Reformatsky reagents generated from ?-bromo esters and activated zinc, and with zinc enolates generated by quenching lithium enolates of esters with zinc chloride. The use of zinc enolates, instead of alkali metal enolates, greatly expands the scope of the arylation of esters. The reactions occur at room temperature or at 70 °C with bromoarenes containing cyano, nitro, ester, keto, fluoro, enolizable hydrogen, hydroxyl or amino functionality and with bromopyridines. The scope of esters encompasses acyclic acetates, propionates, and isobutyrates, ?-alkoxyesters, and lactones. The arylation of zinc enolates of esters was conducted with catalysts bearing the hindered pentaphenylferrocenyl di-tert-butylphosphine (Q-phos) or the highly reactive dimeric Pd(I) complex {[P(t-Bu)3]PdBr}2. PMID:23931445

Hama, Takuo; Ge, Shaozhong; Hartwig, John F.

2013-01-01

233

Palladium-catalyzed ?-arylation of zinc enolates of esters: reaction conditions and substrate scope.  

PubMed

The intermolecular ?-arylation of esters by palladium-catalyzed coupling of aryl bromides with zinc enolates of esters is reported. Reactions of three different types of zinc enolates have been developed. ?-Arylation of esters occurs in high yields with isolated Reformatsky reagents, with Reformatsky reagents generated from ?-bromo esters and activated zinc, and with zinc enolates generated by quenching alkali metal enolates of esters with zinc chloride. The use of zinc enolates, instead of alkali metal enolates, greatly expands the scope of the arylation of esters. The reactions occur at room temperature or at 70 °C with bromoarenes containing cyano, nitro, ester, keto, fluoro, enolizable hydrogen, hydroxyl, or amino functionality and with bromopyridines. The scope of esters encompasses acyclic acetates, propionates, and isobutyrates, ?-alkoxyesters, and lactones. The arylation of zinc enolates of esters was conducted with catalysts bearing the hindered pentaphenylferrocenyl di-tert-butylphosphine (Q-phos) or the highly reactive dimeric Pd(I) complex {[P(t-Bu)3]PdBr}2. PMID:23931445

Hama, Takuo; Ge, Shaozhong; Hartwig, John F

2013-09-01

234

Extracellular chelation of zinc does not affect hippocampal excitability and seizure-induced cell death in rats.  

PubMed

In the nervous system, zinc can influence synaptic responses and at extreme concentrations contributes to epileptic and ischaemic neuronal injury. Zinc can originate from synaptic vesicles, the extracellular space and from intracellular stores. In this study, we aimed to determine which of these zinc pools is responsible for the increased hippocampal excitability observed in zinc-depleted animals or following zinc chelation. Also, we investigated the source of intracellularly accumulating zinc in vulnerable neurons. Our data show that membrane-permeable and membrane-impermeable zinc chelators had little or no effect on seizure activity in the CA3 region. Furthermore, extracellular zinc chelation could not prevent the accumulation of lethal concentrations of zinc in dying neurons following epileptic seizures. At the electron microscopic level, zinc staining significantly increased at the presynaptic membrane of mossy fibre terminals in kainic acid-treated animals. These data indicate that intracellular but not extracellular zinc chelators could influence neuronal excitability and seizure-induced zinc accumulation observed in the cytosol of vulnerable neurons. PMID:17095563

Lavoie, Nathalie; Peralta, Modesto R; Chiasson, Marilou; Lafortune, Kathleen; Pellegrini, Luca; Seress, László; Tóth, Katalin

2007-01-01

235

21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.  

...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt...Ammonium chloride is crystallized from the solution. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981),...

2014-04-01

236

29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...following hazards are to be addressed: Cancer; central nervous system effects; liver... DANGER VINYL CHLORIDE MAY CAUSE CANCER AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (ii... DANGER VINYL CHLORIDE MAY CAUSE CANCER WEAR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION AND...

2012-07-01

237

29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.  

...following hazards are to be addressed: Cancer; central nervous system effects; liver... DANGER VINYL CHLORIDE MAY CAUSE CANCER AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (ii... DANGER VINYL CHLORIDE MAY CAUSE CANCER WEAR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION AND...

2014-07-01

238

29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...following hazards are to be addressed: Cancer; central nervous system effects; liver... DANGER VINYL CHLORIDE MAY CAUSE CANCER AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (ii... DANGER VINYL CHLORIDE MAY CAUSE CANCER WEAR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION AND...

2013-07-01

239

21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron...Reg. No. 10025-77-1) is readily formed when ferric chloride is exposed to moisture...Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this...

2013-04-01

240

21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron...Reg. No. 10025-77-1) is readily formed when ferric chloride is exposed to moisture...Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this...

2012-04-01

241

21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron...Reg. No. 10025-77-1) is readily formed when ferric chloride is exposed to moisture...Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this...

2011-04-01

242

Treating Meningitis  

MedlinePLUS

... ways to treat bacterial meningitis. 1 They compared steroids (dexamethasone) with placebo. The doctors gave medication (or ... al. compared antibiotics by themselves with antibiotics plus steroids. Dr. Fritz and colleagues compared the mortality (deaths) ...

243

Zinc transporter 3 immunohistochemical tracing of sprouting mossy fibres.  

PubMed

Zinc transporter 3 (ZNT3) has been shown to transport zinc ions from the cytosol into presynaptic vesicles in the mammalian brain. Several studies have stated that the zinc ion containing synaptic vesicles of zinc-enriched neurons (ZEN) are loaded with ZNT3 proteins in their membranes. This fact makes it possible to trace sprouting mossy fibres in the temporal lobe epileptic hippocampus. In the present study, we examined the expression and distribution patterns of ZNT3 protein and chelatable zinc ions in the mouse hippocampus after pilocarpine treatment. Our results demonstrate that both ZNT3 immunostaining and autometallography reveal identical patterns of sprouting mossy fibres in the inner molecular layer in the mouse hippocampus. Using ZNT3 immuno-electron microscopic analysis we confirmed the presence of ectopic mossy fibre terminals in the inner molecular layer and found additionally by immuno-blotting a significant increase of ZNT3 in the pilocarpine-treated mouse hippocampi compared to age-matched controls. The increase of ZNT3 after pilocarpine treatment was time-dependent. The results support the notion that ZNT3 immunohistochemistry provides an excellent tool for tracing sprouting of ZEN terminals. The progressive increase of ZNT3 immunostaining in the temporal lobe epileptic hippocampus may relate to the increased levels of vesicular zinc ions during seizure. PMID:18406010

Chi, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Xin; Cai, Ji-Qun; Stoltenberg, Meredin; Danscher, Gorm; Wang, Zhan-You

2008-06-01

244

Synthesis and Anticancer Properties of Water-Soluble Zinc Ionophores  

PubMed Central

Several water-solubilized versions of the zinc ionophore 1-hydroxypyridine-2-thione (ZnHPT), synthesized as part of the present study, have been found both to increase the intracellular concentrations of free zinc and to produce an antiproliferative activity in exponential phase A549 human lung cancer cultures. Gene expression profiles of A549 cultures treated with one of these water-soluble zinc ionophores, PCI-5002, reveal the activation of stress response pathways under the control of metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1), hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1 (HIF-1), and heat shock transcription factors. Additional oxidative stress response and apoptotic pathways were activated in cultures grown in zinc-supplemented media. We also show that these water-soluble zinc ionophores can be given to mice at 100 ?mol/kg (300 ?mol/m2) with no observable toxicity and inhibit the growth of A549 lung and PC3 prostate cancer cells grown in xenograft models. Gene expression profiles of tumor specimens harvested from mice 4 h after treatment confirmed the in vivo activation of MTF-1–responsive genes. Overall, we propose that water-solubilized zinc ionophores represent a potential new class of anticancer agents. PMID:18593933

Magda, Darren; Lecane, Philip; Wang, Zhong; Hu, Weilin; Thiemann, Patricia; Ma, Xuan; Dranchak, Patricia K.; Wang, Xiaoming; Lynch, Vincent; Wei, Wenhao; Csokai, Viktor; Hacia, Joseph G.; Sessler, Jonathan L.

2010-01-01

245

Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride  

DOEpatents

Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

Spormann, Alfred M. (Stanford, CA); Muller, Jochen A. (Baltimore, MD); Rosner, Bettina M. (Berlin, DE); Von Abendroth, Gregory (Nannhein, DE); Meshulam-Simon, Galit (Los Altos, CA); McCarty, Perry L (Stanford, CA)

2011-11-22

246

Zinc homeostasis and neurodegenerative disorders  

PubMed Central

Zinc is an essential trace element, whose importance to the function of the central nervous system (CNS) is increasingly being appreciated. Alterations in zinc dyshomeostasis has been suggested as a key factor in the development of several neuropsychiatric disorders. In the CNS, zinc occurs in two forms: the first being tightly bound to proteins and, secondly, the free, cytoplasmic, or extracellular form found in presynaptic vesicles. Under normal conditions, zinc released from the synaptic vesicles modulates both ionotropic and metabotropic post-synaptic receptors. While under clinical conditions such as traumatic brain injury, stroke or epilepsy, the excess influx of zinc into neurons has been found to result in neurotoxicity and damage to postsynaptic neurons. On the other hand, a growing body of evidence suggests that a deficiency, rather than an excess, of zinc leads to an increased risk for the development of neurological disorders. Indeed, zinc deficiency has been shown to affect neurogenesis and increase neuronal apoptosis, which can lead to learning and memory deficits. Altered zinc homeostasis is also suggested as a risk factor for depression, Alzheimer's disease (AD), aging, and other neurodegenerative disorders. Under normal CNS physiology, homeostatic controls are put in place to avoid the accumulation of excess zinc or its deficiency. This cellular zinc homeostasis results from the actions of a coordinated regulation effected by different proteins involved in the uptake, excretion and intracellular storage/trafficking of zinc. These proteins include membranous transporters (ZnT and Zip) and metallothioneins (MT) which control intracellular zinc levels. Interestingly, alterations in ZnT and MT have been recently reported in both aging and AD. This paper provides an overview of both clinical and experimental evidence that implicates a dysfunction in zinc homeostasis in the pathophysiology of depression, AD, and aging. PMID:23882214

Szewczyk, Bernadeta

2013-01-01

247

Zinc homeostasis and neurodegenerative disorders.  

PubMed

Zinc is an essential trace element, whose importance to the function of the central nervous system (CNS) is increasingly being appreciated. Alterations in zinc dyshomeostasis has been suggested as a key factor in the development of several neuropsychiatric disorders. In the CNS, zinc occurs in two forms: the first being tightly bound to proteins and, secondly, the free, cytoplasmic, or extracellular form found in presynaptic vesicles. Under normal conditions, zinc released from the synaptic vesicles modulates both ionotropic and metabotropic post-synaptic receptors. While under clinical conditions such as traumatic brain injury, stroke or epilepsy, the excess influx of zinc into neurons has been found to result in neurotoxicity and damage to postsynaptic neurons. On the other hand, a growing body of evidence suggests that a deficiency, rather than an excess, of zinc leads to an increased risk for the development of neurological disorders. Indeed, zinc deficiency has been shown to affect neurogenesis and increase neuronal apoptosis, which can lead to learning and memory deficits. Altered zinc homeostasis is also suggested as a risk factor for depression, Alzheimer's disease (AD), aging, and other neurodegenerative disorders. Under normal CNS physiology, homeostatic controls are put in place to avoid the accumulation of excess zinc or its deficiency. This cellular zinc homeostasis results from the actions of a coordinated regulation effected by different proteins involved in the uptake, excretion and intracellular storage/trafficking of zinc. These proteins include membranous transporters (ZnT and Zip) and metallothioneins (MT) which control intracellular zinc levels. Interestingly, alterations in ZnT and MT have been recently reported in both aging and AD. This paper provides an overview of both clinical and experimental evidence that implicates a dysfunction in zinc homeostasis in the pathophysiology of depression, AD, and aging. PMID:23882214

Szewczyk, Bernadeta

2013-01-01

248

21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13 . 6H2 0, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1)...

2010-04-01

249

21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.  

...from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13. 6H2 0, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1)...

2014-04-01

250

Vinyl Chloride Loss during Laboratory Holding Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because vinyl chloride is a potent human carcinogen, it is important that analytical results from groundwater samples accurately reflect levels of exposure to groundwater users. This study investigated the current allowable holding time of 14 days to determine if vinyl chloride is lost from samples during this time. Samples containing an initial concentration of 2 ?g\\/liter of vinyl chloride showed

Richard Soule; Daniel Symonik; David Jones; Doug Turgeon; Betsy Gerbec

1996-01-01

251

The third-order elastic constants of potassium chloride, sodium chloride and lithium fluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete set of third-order elastic constants of potassium chloride, sodium chloride and lithium fluoride have been measured at room temperature under conditions which eliminate the possibility that plastic deformation occurred during the experiments. A partial check on these values, provided by the pressure derivatives of the elastic constants, shows satisfactory agreement with experiment for potassium chloride and sodium chloride

J. R. Drabble; R. E. B. Strathen

1967-01-01

252

Electronic structure of spinel oxides: zinc aluminate and zinc gallate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electronic structure of zinc aluminate (ZnAl2O4) and that of zinc gallate (ZnGa2O4) were studied by the self-consistent tight-binding linearized muffin-tin orbital method with the atomic sphere approximation. The calculated results predict these zinc-based spinel oxides to be direct-gap materials. The direct gap at icons\\/Journals\\/Common\\/Gamma\\

Suresh K. Sampath; D. G. Kanhere; Ravindra Pandey

1999-01-01

253

Zinc chelation reduces hippocampal neurogenesis after pilocarpine-induced seizure.  

PubMed

Several studies have shown that epileptic seizures increase hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult. However, the mechanism underlying increased neurogenesis after seizures remains largely unknown. Neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus in the adult brain, although an understanding of why it actively occurs in this region has remained elusive. A high level of vesicular zinc is localized in the presynaptic terminals of the SGZ. Previously, we demonstrated that a possible correlation may exist between synaptic zinc localization and high rates of neurogenesis in this area after hypoglycemia. Using a lithium-pilocarpine model, we tested our hypothesis that zinc plays a key role in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure. Then, we injected the zinc chelator, clioquinol (CQ, 30 mg/kg), into the intraperitoneal space to reduce brain zinc availability. Neuronal death was detected with Fluoro Jade-B and NeuN staining to determine whether CQ has neuroprotective effects after seizure. The total number of degenerating and live neurons was similar in vehicle and in CQ treated rats at 1 week after seizure. Neurogenesis was evaluated using BrdU, Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining 1 week after seizure. The number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cell was increased after seizure. However, the number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cells was significantly decreased by CQ treatment. Intracellular zinc chelator, N,N,N0,N-Tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), also reduced seizure-induced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The present study shows that zinc chelation does not prevent neurodegeneration but does reduce seizure-induced progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Therefore, this study suggests that zinc has an essential role for modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure. PMID:23119054

Kim, Jin Hee; Jang, Bong Geom; Choi, Bo Young; Kwon, Lyo Min; Sohn, Min; Song, Hong Ki; Suh, Sang Won

2012-01-01

254

Ion exchange in a zeolite-molten chloride system  

SciTech Connect

Electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel results in a secondary waste stream of radioactive fission products dissolved in chloride salt. Disposal plans include a waste form that can incorporate chloride forms featuring one or more zeolites consolidated with sintered glass. A candidate method for incorporating fission products in the zeolites is passing the contaminated salt over a zeolite column for ion exchange. To date, the molten chloride ion-exchange properties of four zeolites have been investigated for this process: zeolite A, IE95{reg_sign}, clinoptilolite, and mordenite. Of these, zeolite A has been the most promising. Treating zeolite 4A, the sodium form of zeolite A , with the solvent salt for the waste stream-lithium-potassium chloride of eutectic melting composition, is expected to provide a material with favorable ion-exchange properties for the treatment of the waste salt. The authors constructed a pilot-plant system for the ion-exchange column. Initial results indicate that there is a direct relationship between the two operating variable of interest, temperature, and initial sodium concentration. Also, the mass ratio has been about 3--5 to bring the sodium concentration of the effluent below 1 mol%.

Woodman, R.H.; Pereira, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

1997-07-01

255

New uses for calcium chloride solution as a mounting medium.  

PubMed

Fresh cross sections of stems (Psilotum nudum, Coleus blumei, and Pelargonium peltatum) and roots (Setcreasea purpurea) 120 microns thick were fixed in FPA50 (formalin: propionic acid: 50% ethanol, 5:5:90, v/v) for 24 hr and stored in 70% ethanol. The sections were transferred to water and then to 1% phloroglucin in 20% calcium chloride solution plus either hydrochloric, nitric, or lactic acid in the following ratios of phloroglucin-CaCl2 solution:acid: 25:4, 20:2, or 15:5. The sections were mounted on slides either in one of the three mixtures or in fresh 20% calcium chloride solution. A rapid reaction of the acid-phloroglucin with lignin produced a deep red color in tracheary elements and an orange-red color in sclerenchyma. Fixed and stored leaf pieces from Nymphaea odorata were autoclaved in lactic acid, washed in two changes of 95% ethanol, transferred to water, and treated with the three acid-phloroglucin-calcium chloride mixtures. The abundant astrosclereids stained an orange-red color similar to that of sclerenchyma in the sections. In addition, a new method is reported for specifically staining lignified tissues. When sections or leaf pieces are stained in aqueous 0.05% toluidine blue O, then placed in 20% calcium chloride solution, all tissues destain except those with lignified or partially lignified cell walls. Thus, toluidine blue O applied as described becomes a reliable specific test for lignin comparable to the acid-phloroglucin test. PMID:1377501

Herr, J M

1992-01-01

256

Observations of interstellar zinc  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IUE observations toward 10 stars have shown that zinc is not depleted in the interstellar medium by more than a factor of two, suggesting that its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. A result pertinent to the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood is that the local interstellar medium has abundances that appear to be homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc.

York, D. G.; Jura, M.

1982-01-01

257

Effects of silicon content on the mechanical and tribological properties of monotectoid-based zinc–aluminium–silicon alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, one binary zinc–aluminium and eight ternary zinc–aluminium–silicon alloys were produced by permanent mould casting. Friction and wear properties of the alloys were investigated in both as-cast and heat-treated conditions using a block-on-ring machine and the results were related to their microstructure and mechanical properties.It was observed that the microstructure of the zinc–aluminium–silicon alloys consisted of aluminium-rich ?,

Temel Sava?kan; Alev Ayd?ner

2004-01-01

258

LABORATORY DECAY RESISTANCE OF PRESERVATIVE-TREATED RED ALDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alder represents an abundant but underutilized resource that has little natural resistance to decay. Treated alder might be used for stakes, posts, or other nonstructural applications. The performance of alder treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA), copper 8 quinolinolate, zinc naphthenate (ZN), or thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB) was assessed in soil block tests. CCA provided the best protection, and ZN and TCMTB

M. E. Mitchof; J. J. Morrell

259

The Spectrum of Gold Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectrum of gold chloride vapor excited by streaming active nitrogen was photographed. It was found to consist of 43 bands comprising, for each isotope of AuCl, two intermingled systems in the green region. All the bands are shaded toward the red. No other bands were found between lambdalambda7000-2000. The band heads of each system were measured, and equations are

W. F. Ferguson

1928-01-01

260

A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

Shah, Pinakin M.

1993-03-01

261

Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 ?? 1010 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park. ?? 1985.

Norton, D.R.; Friedman, I.

1985-01-01

262

Chloroquine Is a Zinc Ionophore  

PubMed Central

Chloroquine is an established antimalarial agent that has been recently tested in clinical trials for its anticancer activity. The favorable effect of chloroquine appears to be due to its ability to sensitize cancerous cells to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and induce apoptosis. The present study investigated the interaction of zinc ions with chloroquine in a human ovarian cancer cell line (A2780). Chloroquine enhanced zinc uptake by A2780 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as assayed using a fluorescent zinc probe. This enhancement was attenuated by TPEN, a high affinity metal-binding compound, indicating the specificity of the zinc uptake. Furthermore, addition of copper or iron ions had no effect on chloroquine-induced zinc uptake. Fluorescent microscopic examination of intracellular zinc distribution demonstrated that free zinc ions are more concentrated in the lysosomes after addition of chloroquine, which is consistent with previous reports showing that chloroquine inhibits lysosome function. The combination of chloroquine with zinc enhanced chloroquine's cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in A2780 cells. Thus chloroquine is a zinc ionophore, a property that may contribute to chloroquine's anticancer activity. PMID:25271834

Xue, Jing; Moyer, Amanda; Peng, Bing; Wu, Jinchang; Hannafon, Bethany N.; Ding, Wei-Qun

2014-01-01

263

[[Hair zinc levels in children].  

PubMed

Study with the objective to assess the capillary zinc concentrations in children, considering differences according to sex, age, growth, and socioeconomic status and hair characteristics. A random sample comprised of 282 children. Capillary zinc concentrations were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry technique. The capillary level of zinc less than 70 ?g/g was considered as deficient. Reference curves of the World Health Organization were used to rate children with height deficit. Domiciliary characteristics and benefit of government assistance were considered as socioeconomic condition. Color, type and size were considered as characteristics of hair. Zinc deficiency was observed in 9.1% of 276 children studied, with mean of 306.06 ?g/g ± 245.13. Lower capillary zinc concentrations were found in children whose households had fewer rooms, fewer individuals and were rented. Children 37-72 months showed higher zinc concentrations than children aged 6-12 and 13-3 6 months. Capillary zinc concentrations showed no statistical difference according to sex and growth, unlike that found for some hair characteristics that showed variations. Zinc deficiency is a health problem in the population studied with more vulnerability in children of lower age; socioeconomic conditions and hair characteristics can affect the capillary zinc concentration. PMID:25362824

Figueroa Pedraza, Dixis

2013-09-01

264

Treating Sludges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are some of the ways to handle municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge presented at the 1978 American Chemical Society meeting. Suggestions include removing toxic materials, recovering metals, and disposing treated sewage sludge onto farm land. Arguments for and against land use are also given. (MA)

Josephson, Julian

1978-01-01

265

Influence of Al, In, Cu, Fe and Sn dopants in the microstructure of zinc oxide thin films obtained by spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spray pyrolytic system was used to obtain ZnO:X films doped with different elements, X=Al, In, Cu, Fe and Sn. A 0.1 M solution of zinc acetate in a mixture of ethanol and deionised water, in a volume proportion of 3:1, was employed. Dopant sources were aluminium chloride, indium acetate, copper acetate, iron chloride and tin tetrachloride. The atomic percentage

J. Morales; W. Estrada L; E. Andrade; M. Miki-Yoshida

2000-01-01

266

A chromatographic analysis of capsid protein isolated from alfalfa mosaic virus: zinc binding and proteolysis cause distinct charge heterogeneity.  

PubMed

The capsid protein (CP) of alfalfa mosaic virus (AIMV) is required for viral replication when susceptible plants are inoculated with purified viral genomic RNA. The discovery of AIMV CP in the zinc activated RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex prompted our further investigation of AIMV virions and the potential involvement of AIMV CP in metal binding. AIMV CP, isolated from nucleoprotein components, fractionated into four distinct ionic species when purified by cation exchange fast protein liquid chromatography. The CP existed as zinc complexed homodimers, metal-free homodimers, and two forms of proteolyzed heterodimers, as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, gel filtration chromatography, amino-terminal sequencing, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Although the relative amounts of proteolyzed heterodimers varied, the ratio of zinc complexed homodimers to metal-free homodimers (1:10) was constant between virus and protein isolations for the strains 425 and WISC14. Purified metal-free and zinc-complexed homodimers could be interconverted in vitro by incubation with zinc chloride or with the metal chelator, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (NaDDC). The potential role of zinc in AIMV nucleoprotein structure and infectivity was investigated by treatment of the virions with NaDDC. Electron microscopy and sucrose density gradient studies failed to detect any gross structural changes for zinc depleted virus; however, a decrease in infectivity was observed with local lesion leaf assays, suggesting a functional role for zinc in viral replication. PMID:7941357

Sehnke, P C; Johnson, J E

1994-11-01

267

The Effect of Zinc Supplementation of Lactating Rats on Short-Term and Long-Term Memory of Their Male Offspring  

PubMed Central

Background: In this study the effect of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) administration on the short-term and long-term memory of rats were assessed. Methods: We enrolled six groups of adult female and control group of eight Wistar rats in each group. One group was control group with free access to food and water, and five groups drunk zinc chloride in different doses (20, 30, 50, 70 and 100 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for two weeks during lactation .One month after birth, a shuttle box used to short- term and long-term memory and the latency in entering the dark chamber as well. Results: This experiment showed that maternal 70 mg/kg dietary zinc during lactation influenced the working memory of rats’ offspring in all groups. Rats received 100 mg/kg/day zinc during lactation so they had significant impairment in working memory (short-term) of their offspring (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in reference (long-term) memory of all groups. Conclusion: Drug consumption below70 mg/kg/day zinc chloride during lactation had no effect. While enhanced 100 mg/ kg/ day zinc in lactating rats could cause short-term memory impairment. PMID:24688973

Karami, Mohammad; EhsaniVostacolaee, Simin; Moazedi, Ali Ahmad; Nosrati, Anahita

2013-01-01

268

Uptake and partitioning of zinc in Lemnaceae.  

PubMed

Macrophytes provide food and shelter for aquatic invertebrates and fish, while also acting as reservoirs for nutrients and trace elements. Zinc accumulation has been reported for various Lemnaceae species. However, comparative accumulation across species and the link between zinc accumulation and toxicity are poorly understood. Morphological distribution and cellular storage, in either bound or soluble form, are important for zinc tolerance. This study shows differences in the uptake and accumulation of zinc by three duckweed species. Landoltia punctata and Lemna minor generally accumulated more zinc than Lemna gibba. L. minor, but not L. gibba or L. punctata, accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in roots compared to fronds when exposed to high levels of zinc. The proportion of zinc stored in the bound form relative to the soluble-form was higher in L. minor. L. punctata accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in fronds compared to roots and increased the proportion of zinc it stored in the soluble form, when exposed to high zinc levels. L. gibba is the only species that significantly accumulated zinc at low concentrations, and was zinc-sensitive. Overall, internal zinc concentrations showed no consistent correlation with toxic effect. We conclude that relationships between zinc toxicity and uptake and accumulation are species specific reflecting, among others, zinc distribution and storage. Differences in zinc distribution and storage are also likely to have implications for zinc bioavailability and trophic mobility. PMID:21755349

Lahive, Elma; O'Callaghan, Michael J A; Jansen, Marcel A K; O'Halloran, John

2011-11-01

269

TNF-? gene expression is increased following zinc supplementation in type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Chronic low-grade inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) can elicit changes in whole-body zinc metabolism. The interaction among the expression of inflammatory cytokines, zinc transporter and metallothionein (MT) genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in type 2 DM remains unclear. In a 12-week randomized controlled trial, the effects of zinc (40 mg/day) supplementation on the gene expression of cytokines, zinc transporters and MT in women with type 2 DM were examined. In the zinc-supplemented group, gene expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? tended to be upregulated by 27 ± 10 % at week 12 compared to baseline (P = 0.053). TNF-? fold change in the zinc-treated group was higher than in those without zinc supplementation (P < 0.05). No significant changes were observed in the expression or fold change of interleukin (IL)-1? or IL-6. Numerous bivariate relationships were observed between the fold changes of cytokines and zinc transporters, including ZnT7 with IL-1? (P < 0.01), IL-6 (P < 0.01) and TNF-? (P < 0.01). In multiple regression analysis, IL-1? expression was predicted by the expression of all zinc transporters and MT measured at baseline (r (2) = 0.495, P < 0.05) and at week 12 (r (2) = 0.532, P < 0.03). The current study presents preliminary evidence that zinc supplementation increases cytokine gene expression in type 2 DM. The relationships found among zinc transporters, MT and cytokines suggest close  interactions between zinc homeostasis and inflammation. PMID:25403095

Chu, Anna; Foster, Meika; Hancock, Dale; Bell-Anderson, Kim; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

2015-01-01

270

Effects of annealing on properties of ZnO thin films prepared by electrochemical deposition in chloride medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of cost-effective and low-temperature synthesis techniques for the growth of high-quality zinc oxide thin films is paramount for fabrication of ZnO-based optoelectronic devices, especially ultraviolet (UV)-light-emitting diodes, lasers and detectors. We demonstrate that the properties, especially UV emission, observed at room temperature, of electrodeposited ZnO thin films from chloride medium (at 70°C) on fluor-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates

O. Lupan; T. Pauporté; L. Chow; B. Viana; F. Pellé; L. K. Ono; B. Roldan Cuenya; H. Heinrich

2010-01-01

271

Comparison of inactivation and unfolding of green crab ( Scylla serrata ) alkaline phosphatase during denaturation by guanidinium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green crab (Scylla serrata) alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1) is a metalloenzyme, each active site in which contains a tight cluster of two zinc ions and one magnesium ion. Unfolding and inactivation of the enzyme during denaturation in guanidinium chloride (GuHCl) solutions of different concentrations have been compared. The kinetic theory of the substrate reaction during irreversible inhibition of enzyme activity

Qing-Xi Chen; Wei Zhang; Wen-Zu Zheng; Zhe Zhang; Si-Xu Yan; Tong Zhang; Hai-Meng Zholl

1996-01-01

272

Sol gel dip coated Aluminium doped zinc oxide films and their properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

ZnO films were deposited on cleaned glass substrates from AR grade zinc chloride, acrylamide, bisacrylamide and ammonium persulphate. X-ray diffraction studies indicated the major diffraction peaks decreased with increasing the Al concentration. For doping with aluminium, 0.01M of AlCl3 was introduced in the deposition mixture. The band gap varies from 3.16 eV to 3.20 eV with increase of Al doping.

A. Kalaivanan; S. Perumal; K. Sivaramamoorthy; K. R. Murali

2011-01-01

273

Electrical and gas sensing properties of self-aligned copper-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical and gas sensing properties of nanocrystalline ZnO:Cu, having Cu Xwt% (X=0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) in ZnO, in the form of pellet were investigated. Copper chloride and zinc acetate were used as precursors along with oxalic acid as a precipitating reagent in methanol. Material characterization was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron

Yogesh S. Sonawane; K. G. Kanade; B. B. Kale; R. C. Aiyer

2008-01-01

274

Lactating and nonlactating rats differ to renal toxicity induced by mercuric chloride: the preventive effect of zinc chloride.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effects of HgCl2 on renal parameters in nonlactating and lactating rats and their pups, as well as the preventive role of ZnCl2 . Rats received 27 mg kg(-1) ZnCl2 for five consecutive days and 5 mg kg(-1) HgCl2 for five subsequent days (s.c.). A decrease in ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (?-ALA-D) activity in the blood and an increase in urine protein content in renal weight as well as in blood and urine Hg levels were observed in lactating and nonlactating rats from Sal-Hg and Zn-Hg groups. ZnCl2 prevented partially the ?-ALA-D inhibition and the proteinuria in nonlactating rats. Renal Hg levels were increased in all HgCl2 groups, and the ZnCl2 exposure potentiated this effect in lactating rats. Nonlactating rats exposed to HgCl2 exhibited an increase in plasma urea and creatinine levels, ?-ALA-D activity inhibition and histopathological alterations (necrosis, atrophic tubules and collagen deposition) in the kidneys. ZnCl2 exposure prevented the biochemical alterations. Hg-exposed pups showed lower body and renal weight and an increase in the renal Hg levels. In conclusion, mercury-induced nephrotoxicity differs considerably between lactating and nonlactating rats. Moreover, prior exposure with ZnCl2 may provide protection to individuals who get exposed to mercury occupationally or accidentally. PMID:24619859

Favero, Alexandre M; Oliveira, Cláudia S; Franciscato, Carina; Oliveira, Vitor A; Pereira, Juliana S F; Bertoncheli, Claudia M; da Luz, Sônia C A; Dressler, Valderi L; Flores, Erico M M; Pereira, Maria E

2014-07-01

275

Alkanolamine treating  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the chemistry, engineering and operational aspects of the primary and secondary amines utilized in syngas purification are explored. The gas treating chemistry is followed by the analysis of reactivity of chemicals involved with H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ which constitute main impurities in gas streams. Other topics discussed include - capacity versus corrosivity; heat of reaction; reboiler duty, metallurgy; chemical degradation of amines; solvent purification; hydrocarbon solubility; mercaptane removed; freezing point of amine solutions. 27 refs.

Butwell, K.F.; Kubek, D.J.; Sigmund, P.W.

1982-03-01

276

Hepatoprotective effect of manganese chloride against CCl4-induced liver injury in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of manganese chloride against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in rats. Manganese chloride (0.001, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 g/kg bw) was administered intragastrically for 28 consecutive days to male CCl4-treated rats. The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Histopathological changes in the liver of different groups were also studied. Administration of CCl4 increased the serum ALT, AST, ALP and GGT but decreased SOD levels in rats. Treatment with manganese chloride significantly attenuated these changes to nearly normal levels. The animals treated with manganese chloride have shown decreased necrotic zones and hepatocellular degeneration when compared to the liver exposed to CCl4 intoxication alone. Thus, the histopathological studies also supported the protective effect of manganese chloride. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that manganese chloride exerts hepatoprotection via promoting antioxidative properties against CCl4-induced oxidative liver damage. PMID:24037643

Eidi, Akram; Mortazavi, Pejman; Behzadi, Khodabakhsh; Rohani, Ali Haeri; Safi, Shahabeddin

2013-11-01

277

Zinc deficiency regulates hippocampal gene expression and impairs neuronal differentiation  

PubMed Central

Objectives Proliferating adult stem cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus have the capacity not only to divide, but also to differentiate into neurons and integrate into the hippocampal circuitry. The present study identifies several hippocampal genes putatively regulated by zinc and tests the hypothesis that zinc deficiency impairs neuronal stem cell differentiation. Methods Genes that regulate neurogenic processes were identified using microarray analysis of hippocampal mRNA isolated from adult rats fed zinc-adequate or zinc-deficient (ZD) diets. We directly tested our hypothesis with cultured human neuronal precursor cells (NT2), stimulated to differentiate into post-mitotic neurons by retinoic acid (RA), along with immunocytochemistry and western analysis. Results Microarray analysis revealed the regulation of genes involved in cellular proliferation. This analysis also identified a number of genes known to be involved in neuronal differentiation, including the nuclear RA receptor, retinoid X receptor (RXR), doublecortin, and a transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) binding protein (P < 0.05). Zinc deficiency significantly reduced RA-induced expression of the neuronal marker proteins doublecortin and ?-tubulin type III (TuJ1) to 40% of control levels (P < 0.01). This impairment of differentiation may be partially mediated by alterations in TGF-? signaling. The TGF-? type II receptor, responsible for binding TGF-? during neuronal differentiation, was increased 14-fold in NT2 cells treated with RA (P < 0.001). However, this increase was decreased by 60% in ZD RA-treated cells (P < 0.001). Discussion This research identifies target genes that are involved in governing neurogenesis under ZD conditions and suggests an important role for TGF-? and the trace metal zinc in regulating neuronal differentiation. PMID:23582512

Gower-Winter, Shannon D.; Corniola, Rikki S.; Morgan, Thomas J.; Levenson, Cathy W.

2012-01-01

278

Stress responses of human dermal fibroblasts exposed to zinc pyrithione.  

PubMed

Zinc pyrithione is used as a topical agent in a range of medicinal and cosmetic applications. Despite its extensive use and reported beneficial effects in treatment of various dermal problems, its potential toxicity towards skin cells remains relatively underexplored. In this work we investigated effects of nM zinc pyrithione on cell stress response pathways of primary human skin fibroblasts during 24h of exposure. We demonstrate that zinc pyrithione-induced cytotoxity in dermal fibroblasts is dose-dependent and it associates with increased intracellular zinc concentrations and activated stress response pathways including p53 and stress kinase p38. Higher zinc pyrithione concentrations (500nM and above) stimulate oxidative stress and moderate DNA damage which occur in the presence of activated p38 kinase. Cells further upregulate the expression of p53 which increases its transcriptional activity while mitogenic signaling exemplified by mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) expression is suppressed and these steps lead to mitochondrial, caspase-dependent apoptosis. Conversely, lower zinc concentrations (125nM) fail to induce oxidative stress and significant DNA damage; however, treated cells still activate p38 and upregulate the expression and transcriptional activity of p53 and its target gene p21 as well as the expression of p16 in the presence of active mTOR pathway and a changed DNA methylation pattern. The end result is premature senescence phenotype. Specific pharmacological inhibitors as well as gene knockdown technology prove that an interaction between p38, p53 and mTOR might be responsible for these observed endpoints. Taken together, exposure of dermal fibroblasts to varying concentrations of zinc pyrithione may result in either cell death-apoptosis or cellular premature senescence which attests to the ability of this compound to affect this type of cells in an in vitro model system. PMID:21557991

Rudolf, Emil; Cervinka, Miroslav

2011-07-28

279

An XAFS Study of Niobium chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride  

SciTech Connect

Niobium chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Although anhydrous Nb2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic melt than in the acidic melt, the EXAFS data shows that the coordination shell around the niobium does not change in the different ionic liquids. Both the acidic and basic melts show a coordination of five chlorides in the first shell. This indicates that in this series of ionic liquids, the Nb2Cl10 breaks up into two NbCl5 entities in both the acidic and the basic melts.

D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

2011-12-31

280

A zinc paste primary battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that zinc/air batteries could, in principle, be used to power electric vehicles. One concept for enhancing the practical performance of this battery system involves the separation of energy density factors from power density factors. This concept can be implemented by employing the active negative plate material in the form of a zinc slurry, which is circulated from a reservoir through the negative electrode compartment. An extension of this fuel cell-battery concept is related to the utilization of the active material as a pumpable paste rather than as a slurry. The present investigation is concerned with preliminary experiments on formulating and characterizing pumpable zinc/zinc oxide pastes in the context of a primary zinc/oxygen battery. A 'paste' is defined as a thick viscous mass of solid, uniformly and semipermanently dispersed in a liquid phase. Attention is given to the physical basis for predicting which solid/liquid mixtures will provide pumpable pastes.

Jasinski, R.; McCarron, R.; Brilmyer, G.

1983-03-01

281

Zinc deficiency and child development.  

PubMed

Zinc is a trace metal that is present in the brain and contributes to its structure and function. Limited evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that zinc deficiency may lead to delays in cognitive development. Although the mechanisms linking zinc deficiency with cognitive development are unclear, it appears that zinc deficiency may lead to deficits in children's neuropsychologic functioning, activity, or motor development, and thus interfere with cognitive performance. In this article a model is presented that incorporates the influence of social context and the caregiving environment and suggests that the relation between zinc deficiency and cognitive development may vary by age in children and may be mediated by neuropsychologic functioning, activity, and motor development. Suggestions for further research are provided. PMID:9701161

Black, M M

1998-08-01

282

Zinc concentrations during mice gestation.  

PubMed

Severe maternal zinc deficiency has a devastating effect on pregnancy outcome. Studies of humans and experimental animals show that maternal zinc deficiency can cause infertility, prolonged labor, intrauterine growth retardation, teratogenesis, severe immunological deficiencies, or fetal death. The additional need for zinc during pregnancy can be met by an increase in zinc intake. An increase in zinc supplements, when excessive, can cause a decrease in copper. Therefore, it is important to determine the zinc and copper concentrations in embryonic tissue in experimental models and their relationship with embryo number and viability. BALB/c mice were divided into groups according to zinc oral supplementation and gestational age. Phagocytosis was assessed in peritoneal macrophages from dams. The zinc and copper concentrations were obtained by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Zn and Cu data concentrations in all the analyzed samples were above the detection limits. No spectral interferences were found in both elements. Zinc concentrations show a tendency to increase in embryos (14 gestational days and 21 gestational days) supplemented with zinc. Copper concentrations showed a noticeable tendency to diminish (36% and 27%, respectively) in the same period. In contrast, in placenta Zn values were increased by 30% and Cu values were decreased by 26%. We suggest a pivotal role of the placenta metabolism with its homeostatic mechanisms, in these findings. An important increment appeared in the +Zn embryo number (40%) relative to control (-Zn) embryos at 21 d gestational age. Embryo mortality was at 6% in +Zn embryos and at 20% in -Zn embryos. We consider these findings, both in the number and in the viability of +Zn embryos, outstanding. PMID:16034165

Lastra, Ma Dolores; Saldívar, Liliana; Martínez, Kristel; Munguía, Nadia; Márquez, Ciro; Aguilar, Ana Esther

2005-01-01

283

Oral zinc reduces amyloid burden in Tg2576 mice  

PubMed Central

The aggregation of amyloid beta in Alzheimer’s disease can be affected by free transition metals such as copper and zinc in the brain. Addition of copper and zinc with amyloid acts to increase aggregation and copper additionally promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species. We propose that reduction of brain copper by blocking uptake of copper from the diet is a viable strategy to regulate the formation of insoluble amyloid beta in the brain of Tg2576 mice. Mice were treated with regimens of zinc acetate, which acts with metallothionein to block copper uptake in the gut, at various times along their lifespan to model prevention and treatment paradigms. We found that the mice tolerated zinc acetate well over the six month course of study. While we did not observe significant changes in cognition and behavior, there was a reduction in insoluble amyloid beta in the brain. This observation coincided with a reduction in brain copper and interestingly no change in brain zinc. Our findings show that blocking copper uptake from the diet can redistribute copper from the brain and reduce amyloid beta aggregation. PMID:24595193

Harris, Christopher J.; Voss, Kellen; Murchison, Charles; Ralle, Martina; Frahler, Kate; Carter, Raina; Rhoads, Alison; Lind, Betty; Robinson, Emily; Quinn, Joseph F.

2014-01-01

284

Oral zinc reduces amyloid burden in Tg2576 mice.  

PubMed

The aggregation of amyloid-? in Alzheimer's disease can be affected by free transition metals such as copper and zinc in the brain. Addition of copper and zinc with amyloid acts to increase aggregation and copper additionally promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species. We propose that reduction of brain copper by blocking uptake of copper from the diet is a viable strategy to regulate the formation of insoluble amyloid-? in the brain of Tg2576 mice. Mice were treated with regimens of zinc acetate, which acts with metallothionein to block copper uptake in the gut, at various times along their lifespan to model prevention and treatment paradigms. We found that the mice tolerated zinc acetate well over the six month course of study. While we did not observe significant changes in cognition and behavior, there was a reduction in insoluble amyloid-? in the brain. This observation coincided with a reduction in brain copper and interestingly no change in brain zinc. Our findings show that blocking copper uptake from the diet can redistribute copper from the brain and reduce amyloid-? aggregation. PMID:24595193

Harris, Christopher J; Voss, Kellen; Murchison, Charles; Ralle, Martina; Frahler, Kate; Carter, Raina; Rhoads, Allison; Lind, Betty; Robinson, Emily; Quinn, Joseph F

2014-01-01

285

Lithium chloride protects retinal neurocytes from nutrient deprivation by promoting DNA non-homologous end-joining  

SciTech Connect

Lithium chloride is a therapeutic agent for treatment of bipolar affective disorders. Increasing numbers of studies have indicated that lithium has neuroprotective effects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of lithium have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate whether lithium chloride produces neuroprotective function by improving DNA repair pathway in retinal neurocyte. In vitro, the primary cultured retinal neurocytes (85.7% are MAP-2 positive cells) were treated with lithium chloride, then cultured with serum-free media to simulate the nutrient deprived state resulting from ischemic insult. The neurite outgrowth of the cultured cells increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner when exposed to different levels of lithium chloride. Genomic DNA electrophoresis demonstrated greater DNA integrity of retinal neurocytes when treated with lithium chloride as compared to the control. Moreover, mRNA and protein levels of Ligase IV (involved in DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway) in retinal neurocytes increased with lithium chloride. The end joining activity assay was performed to determine the role of lithium on NHEJ in the presence of extract from retinal neurocytes. The rejoining levels in retinal neurocytes treated with lithium were significantly increased as compared to the control. Furthermore, XRCC4, the Ligase IV partner, and the transcriptional factor, CREB and CTCF, were up-regulated in retinal cells after treating with 1.0 mM lithium chloride. Therefore, our data suggest that lithium chloride protects the retinal neural cells from nutrient deprivation in vitro, which may be similar to the mechanism of cell death in glaucoma. The improvement in DNA repair pathway involving in Ligase IV might have an important role in lithium neuroprotection. This study provides new insights into the neural protective mechanisms of lithium chloride.

Zhuang Jing; Li Fan; Liu Xuan; Liu Zhiping; Lin Jianxian [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Ge Yihong [Department of Stomatology, the Southern Medical University (China); Kaminski, Joseph M. [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation, University of South Alabama (United States); Summers, James Bradley [Department of Radiology, University of South Alabama (United States); Wang Zhichong [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Ge Jian [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)], E-mail: gejian@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Yu Keming [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)], E-mail: yukeming@mail.sysu.edu.cn

2009-03-13

286

Electronic structure of spinel oxides: zinc aluminate and zinc gallate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic structure of zinc aluminate (ZnAl2O4) and that of zinc gallate (ZnGa2O4) were studied by the self-consistent tight-binding linearized muffin-tin orbital method with the atomic sphere approximation. The calculated results predict these zinc-based spinel oxides to be direct-gap materials. The direct gap at icons/Journals/Common/Gamma" ALT="Gamma" ALIGN="TOP"/> is found to be 4.11 eV for ZnAl2O4 and 2.79 eV for ZnGa2O4. With reference to the calculated band gap of 5.36 eV for MgAl2O4, the systematic decrease in the gap is attributed to the presence of 3d orbitals of Zn and Ga and the associated p-d hybridization in the upper valence band of zinc aluminate and gallate. Comparison of the contour maps of the electron localization function of ZnAl2O4 and ZnGa2O4 with that of MgAl2O4 clearly shows the bonding to be less ionic in the zinc-based spinel oxides. Finally, the calculations yield a smaller electron effective mass for zinc gallate as compared to that for zinc aluminate, suggesting a higher mobility of electrons in gallate.

Sampath, Suresh K.; Kanhere, D. G.; Pandey, Ravindra

1999-05-01

287

Low-chlorides mud limits disposal costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low chloride potassium\\/polymer mud has been used to drill water sensitive shales. The fluid contained 3,000 ppm K\\/sup +\\/, and only 300 ppm or less chlorides. The pH was kept below 10.5. The system consisted of an organic potassium source and a high molecular weight polymer. Upon completion, the pit contained only 278 ppm chlorides. Disposal costs were greatly

1986-01-01

288

Metal chloride cathode for a battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of fabricating a rechargeable battery is disclosed which includes a positive electrode which contains a chloride of a selected metal when the electrode is in its active state. The improvement comprises fabricating the positive electrode by: providing a porous matrix composed of a metal; providing a solution of the chloride of the selected metal; and impregnating the matrix with the chloride from the solution.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Bankston, C. Perry (inventor)

1991-01-01

289

Corrosion behavior of rapidly solidified magnesium-aluminium-zinc alloys  

SciTech Connect

Rapidly solidified magnesium alloys with 8 at%, 15 at%, and 20 at% Al and 1 at% and 3 at% Zn were fabricated by centrifugal atomization followed by hot extrusion. Microstructure of the alloys was composed of a fine-grain magnesium matrix (0.5 {micro}m) with {beta}-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} precipitates. Electrochemical and weight-loss tests were performed in borate and ASTM D 1384 solution (chloride, carbonate, and sulfate). In both media, corrosion current f the alloys decreased with increases in aluminum or zinc content. In borate solution, a passivating plateau was observed from the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) to E{sub corr} + 1,200 mV. Current density decreased with aluminum and zinc concentrations. Electrochemical behavior of the synthesized matrix and precipitates was characterized. Zinc increased E{sub corr} of the two phases, with a corresponding decrease of corrosion current. The same trend was noticed for aluminum but with a less dramatic effect. The corrosion mechanism was suggested result from galvanic coupling of the matrix and the second phase. The galvanic corrosion, however, was reduced strongly by passivation of the matrix as a result of the surrounding precipitates. The positive influence of rapid solidification (corrosion rate decreased 1 order of magnitude) was the creation of a fine, highly homogeneous microstructure through this fabrication process.

Daloz, D.; Michot, G. [Ecole des Mines, Nancy (France). Lab. de Metallurgie Physique et Science des Materiaux; Steinmetz, P. [Faculte des Sciences, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France). Lab. de Chimie du Solide Mineral

1997-12-01

290

Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar  

SciTech Connect

In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature). The measurements are modelled on Fick's law modified by a term for chloride binding. Inclusion of chloride binding significantly improves the profile shape of the modelled ingress profiles. The presence of fine aggregate and formation of interfacial transition zones at paste-aggregate boundaries does not significantly affect diffusion rates.

Jensen, O.M.; Hansen, P.F.; Coats, A.M.; Glasser, F.P.

1999-09-01

291

Fabrication Of Metal Chloride Cathodes By Sintering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transition-metal chloride cathodes for use in high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries prepared by sintering transition-metal powders mixed with sodium chloride. Need for difficult and dangerous chlorination process eliminated. Proportions of transition metal and sodium chloride in mixture adjusted to suit specific requirements. Cathodes integral to sodium/metal-chloride batteries, which have advantages over sodium/sulfur batteries including energy densities, increased safety, reduced material and thermal-management problems, and ease of operation and assembly. Being evaluated for supplying electrical power during peak demand and electric vehicles.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Di Stefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

1992-01-01

292

Enrofloxacin hydro­chloride dihydrate  

PubMed Central

The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H23FN3O3 +·Cl?·2H2O [systematic name: 4-(3-carb­oxy-1-cyclo­propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-di­hydro­quin­o­lin-7-yl)-1-ethyl­piperazin-1-ium chloride dihydrate], consists of two independent monocations of the protonated enrofloxacin, two chloride anions and four water mol­ecules. In the cations, the piperazinium rings adopt chair conformations and the dihedral angles between the cyclo­propyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring system are 56.55?(2) and 51.11?(2)°. An intra­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bond is observed in each cation. In the crystal, the components are connected via O—H?Cl, N—H?Cl and O—H?O hydrogen bonds, and a ?–? inter­action between the benzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.6726?(13)?Å], resulting in a three-dimensional array. PMID:24826167

Miranda-Calderón, Jorge E.; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Sumano, Héctor

2014-01-01

293

Potentiometric titration of chloride in plant tissue extracts using the chloride ion electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of the chloride specific ion electrode to determine chloride in plants was evaluted. Direct potentiometric determination of chloride by the electrode resulted in unreproducible and extremely high chloride values. However, use of this electrode to indicate the end point in titration of the tissue?extract mixture with AgNO3 gave results nearly identical to those obtained by the Mohr procedure. The

R. L. LaCroix; D. R. Keeney; L. M. Walsh

1970-01-01

294

Clioquinol induces autophagy in cultured astrocytes and neurons by acting as a zinc ionophore.  

PubMed

Recent studies have demonstrated that clioquinol, an antibiotic with an anti-amyloid effect, acts as a zinc ionophore under physiological conditions. Because increases in labile zinc may induce autophagy, we examined whether clioquinol induces autophagy in cultured astrocytes in a zinc-dependent manner. Within 1h of exposure to 0.1-10 ?M clioquinol, the levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II, a marker of autophagy, began to increase in astrocytes. Confocal live-cell imaging of GFP-LC3-transfected astrocytes showed the formation of LC3(+) autophagic vacuoles (AVs), providing a further indication that clioquinol induced autophagy. Addition of 3-methyladenine or small-interfering RNA against autophagy-related gene 6 (ATG6/Beclin-1) blocked clioquinol-induced increases in LC3-II. FluoZin-3 fluorescence microscopy showed that, like the zinc ionophore pyrithione, clioquinol increased intracellular zinc levels in the cytosol and AVs in an extracellular zinc-dependent manner. Zinc chelation with N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN) reduced, and addition of zinc increased the levels of LC3-II and LC3(+) puncta, indicating that zinc influx plays a key role therein. Moreover, astrocytes and SH-SY5Y cells expressing mutant huntingtin (mHttQ74) accumulated less aggregates when treated with clioquinol, and this effect was reversed by TPEN. These results indicate that clioquinol-induced autophagy is likely to be physiologically functional. The present study demonstrates that clioquinol induces autophagy in a zinc-dependent manner and contributes to clearance of aggregated proteins in astrocytes and neurons. Hence, in addition to its metal-chelating effect in and around amyloid beta (A?) plaques, clioquinol may contribute to the reduction of A? loads by activating autophagy by increasing or normalizing intracellular zinc levels in brain cells. PMID:21220021

Park, Mi-Ha; Lee, Sook-Jeong; Byun, Hyae-Ran; Kim, Yunha; Oh, Young J; Koh, Jae-Young; Hwang, Jung Jin

2011-06-01

295

Effect of Supplementation with Zinc and Other Micronutrients on Malaria in Tanzanian Children: A Randomised Trial  

PubMed Central

Background It is uncertain to what extent oral supplementation with zinc can reduce episodes of malaria in endemic areas. Protection may depend on other nutrients. We measured the effect of supplementation with zinc and other nutrients on malaria rates. Methods and Findings In a 2×2 factorial trial, 612 rural Tanzanian children aged 6–60 months in an area with intense malaria transmission and with height-for-age z-score??1.5 SD were randomized to receive daily oral supplementation with either zinc alone (10 mg), multi-nutrients without zinc, multi-nutrients with zinc, or placebo. Intervention group was indicated by colour code, but neither participants, researchers, nor field staff knew who received what intervention. Those with Plasmodium infection at baseline were treated with artemether-lumefantrine. The primary outcome, an episode of malaria, was assessed among children reported sick at a primary care clinic, and pre-defined as current Plasmodium infection with an inflammatory response, shown by axillary temperature ?37.5°C or whole blood C-reactive protein concentration ?8 mg/L. Nutritional indicators were assessed at baseline and at 251 days (median; 95% reference range: 191–296 days). In the primary intention-to-treat analysis, we adjusted for pre-specified baseline factors, using Cox regression models that accounted for multiple episodes per child. 592 children completed the study. The primary analysis included 1,572 malaria episodes during 526 child-years of observation (median follow-up: 331 days). Malaria incidence in groups receiving zinc, multi-nutrients without zinc, multi-nutrients with zinc and placebo was 2.89/child-year, 2.95/child-year, 3.26/child-year, and 2.87/child-year, respectively. There was no evidence that multi-nutrients influenced the effect of zinc (or vice versa). Neither zinc nor multi-nutrients influenced malaria rates (marginal analysis; adjusted HR, 95% CI: 1.04, 0.93–1.18 and 1.10, 0.97–1.24 respectively). The prevalence of zinc deficiency (plasma zinc concentration <9.9 µmol/L) was high at baseline (67% overall; 60% in those without inflammation) and strongly reduced by zinc supplementation. Conclusions We found no evidence from this trial that zinc supplementation protected against malaria. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00623857 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. PMID:22131908

Veenemans, Jacobien; Milligan, Paul; Prentice, Andrew M.; Schouten, Laura R. A.; Inja, Nienke; van der Heijden, Aafke C.; de Boer, Linsey C. C.; Jansen, Esther J. S.; Koopmans, Anna E.; Enthoven, Wendy T. M.; Kraaijenhagen, Rob J.; Demir, Ayse Y.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Mbugi, Erasto V.; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Verhoef, Hans

2011-01-01

296

Effect of Zinc Phosphide Rodenticide on Prairie Dog Colony Expansion as Determined From Aerial Photography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial photography (1:16,000) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc phosphide in reducing area expansion of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies over a 5-year period in western South Dakota. Untreated prairie dog colonies increased 65 % in area, compared to a 1% increase on treated colonies (P = 0.11). Zinc phosphide, applied at 3-year intervals, was effective in

DANIEL W. URESK; GREG L. SCHENBECK

297

Zinc protection of HepG2 cells from sporidesmin toxicity does not require de novo gene transcription.  

PubMed

Sporidesmin is an epidithiodioxopiperazine mycotoxin secreted by the saprophytic fungus Pithomyces chartarum. Ingestion of sporidesmin by ruminants grazing on the saprophyte infested pasture causes severe liver and bile duct damage leading to secondary photosensitisation. Zinc supplementation is used as an effective prophylaxis against sporidesmin toxicity in ruminants, however, the mechanism by which zinc protects is unknown. This study used the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, as a model to examine the mechanism of zinc protection against sporidesmin toxicity. Treatment of cells with various concentrations of sporidesmin (0-10 microg/ml) resulted in a sigmoidal dose response curve with an LC50 of 5 microg/ml. Cells were protected from sporidesmin toxicity by pre-treatment for 2h or 16 h with zinc sulphate in a concentration dependent manner, with significant protection at 50 microM zinc and maximal protection at 200 microM zinc. To determine whether zinc protection required de novo gene transcription, cells were treated with the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D for one hour prior to and throughout the zinc pre-treatment. The presence of actinomycin D did not significantly reduce the zinc protection against sporidesmin cytotoxicity (80% protection without actinomycin D versus 71% protection with actinomycin D). Therefore, de novo gene transcription does not play a major role in the mechanism of zinc protection against sporidesmin toxicity in HepG2 cells. PMID:16005584

Duncan, Elizabeth J; Thompson, Mary P; Phua, Sin H

2005-11-15

298

Intracellular zinc stores protect the intestinal epithelium from Ochratoxin A toxicity.  

PubMed

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a harmful mycotoxin frequently contaminating foods, feeds and beverages. OTA was reported to be nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, hepatotoxic and a potential carcinogen, with yet poorly characterized mechanisms. Although intestinal cells are relatively resistant to high concentrations of OTA, interaction with other dietary factors or specific nutritional conditions may increase OTA toxicity to the intestinal mucosa. The role of intracellular zinc stores in protecting the integrity of intestinal mucosa has been investigated in human Caco-2/TC7 cells challenged with OTA. Zinc depletion of cells incubated with TPEN, a specific zinc chelator, caused an increase of tight junction permeability in OTA treated cells, accompanied by increased apoptosis. These effects were fully reverted by zinc supplementation during TPEN treatment, showing a specific role for this micronutrient in enterocyte defence mechanisms from OTA toxicity. A complex perturbation of zinc homeostasis was also demonstrated by analyzing the expression of genes coding for proteins involved in cellular zinc. In particular, zinc-dependent up-regulation of the metallothionein gene MT2A upon OTA treatment may indicate that the mycotoxin acts through generation of redox imbalance and that zinc deprivation reduces the intracellular defence mechanisms against noxious insults. PMID:19720134

Ranaldi, G; Caprini, V; Sambuy, Y; Perozzi, G; Murgia, C

2009-12-01

299

Trace elements in foods of children from Cameroon: a focus on zinc and phytate content.  

PubMed

In developing countries, complementary foods are based on local cereal porridges. These foods are poor in trace elements, with a high risk of inducing micronutrient deficiencies-the primary cause of mortality in children under the age of five. Inappropriate feeding of complementary foods is the major factor creating malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies in Cameroon children, as well as in other developing countries. This study determined the zinc and phytate content of 30 complementary foods that were based on maize or Irish potatoes. The foods were blended or treated by dehusking, fermentation and germination. Zinc was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and phytates by high pressure-liquid chromatography; then phytates/zinc molar ratios were calculated. Concentrations (mg/100g dry matter) ranged, respectively, from 0.20 to 2.58 (0.12 ± 0.67) for zinc and from 0.00 to 6.04 (1.87 ± 1.7) for phytates. The phytate/zinc ratio varied from 0.00 to 51.62 (11.12 ± 11.53). It appears that germination and fermentation reduced the level of phytates: however, zinc levels in the samples did not change significantly. The traditional, local complementary foods were not only poor in zinc, but contained very high levels of phytates. These phytates have the potential to considerately reduce the acid extraction of zinc, and could impair its bioavailability. PMID:22673825

Kana Sop, M Modestine; Gouado, Inocent; Mananga, Marlyne-Josephine; Djeukeu Asongni, William; Amvam Zollo, Paul Henri; Oberleas, Donald; Tetanye, Ekoe

2012-06-01

300

Importance of the structural zinc atom for the stability of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase.  

PubMed Central

Yeast alcohol dehydrogenase is a tetrameric enzyme containing zinc. Initially we confirmed the presence of two zinc atoms per subunit. Incubation of the enzyme with increasing concentrations of dithiothreitol, a method for partial chelation, allowed first the reduction of four disulphide bridges per enzyme, but eventually was sufficient to chelate the structural zinc atom without having any effect on the zinc located in the active site. The enzyme activity was not affected but the enzyme became very sensitive to heat denaturation. Chelation by EDTA was also performed. Given its location at an external position in the globular protein, protected in each subunit by one disulphide bridge, the results establish that the second zinc atom present on each enzymic subunit plays a prominent conformational role, probably by stabilizing the tertiary structure of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase. Recovery experiments were performed by incubation of the native enzyme, or the dithiothreitol-treated enzyme, with a small amount of Zn2+. A stabilization effect was found when the structural zinc was re-incorporated after its removal by dithiothreitol. In all cases a large increase in activity was also observed, which was much greater than that expected based on the amount of re-incorporated zinc atom, suggesting the re-activation of some inactive commercial enzyme which had lost some of its original catalytic zinc atoms. PMID:1445195

Magonet, E; Hayen, P; Delforge, D; Delaive, E; Remacle, J

1992-01-01

301

Chloride Analysis of RFSA Second Campaign Dissolver Solution  

SciTech Connect

The dissolver solution from the second RFSA campaign was analyzed for chloride using the recently-developed turbidimetric method. Prior to chloride removal in head end, the solution contained 1625 ppm chloride. After chloride removal with Hg(I) and prior to feeding to solvent extraction, the solution contained only 75 ppm chloride. This report discusses those analysis results.

Holcomb, H.P.

2001-05-17

302

Effect of Cadmium Chloride on Metallothionein Levels in Carp  

PubMed Central

Due to anthropogenic activities, heavy metals still represent a threat for various trophic levels. If aquatic animals are exposed to heavy metals, we can obviously observe considerable toxicity. It is well known that organisms treated with heavy metals synthesize low molecular mass compounds rich in cysteine. In this work the effects of cadmium chloride (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mg/L) on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was investigated. We determined cadmium content in tissue of muscle, liver and kidney by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization and content of metallothionein (MT) in the same tissues by the Brdicka reaction. Electrochemical methods can be considered as suitable and sensitive tools for MT determination in carp tissues. Results of our study showed a gradually enhancing of cadmium content in muscle with time and dose of cadmium chloride in water. MT levels in liver reached both high levels (above 130 ng/g) in fish exposed to 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/L and low level (to 50 ng/g) in fish exposed to 10 and 12.5 mg/L of cadmium chloride. This finding confirms that the synthesis of metallothioneins and binding capacity of these proteins is restricted. PMID:22408554

Kovarova, Jana; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech; Harustiakova, Danka; Celechovska, Olga; Svobodova, Zdenka

2009-01-01

303

Efficacy of Cetylpyridinium Chloride against Listeria monocytogenes and Its Influence on Color and Texture of Cooked Roast Beef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sliced (cut) and exterior (intact) surfaces of restructured cooked roast beef were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes, treated with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC; immersion in 500 ml of 1% solution for 1 min), individually vacuum packaged, and stored for 42 days at 0 or 48C. Noninoculated samples were similarly treated, packaged, and stored to determine effects on quality (color and firmness) and

M. SINGH; H. THIPPAREDDI; R. K. PHEBUS; J. L. MARSDEN; T. J. HERALD; A. L. NUTSCH

304

Serum thymulin in human zinc deficiency.  

PubMed Central

The activity of thymulin (a thymic hormone) is dependent on the presence of zinc in the molecule. We assayed serum thymulin activity in three models of mildly zinc-deficient (ZD) human subjects before and after zinc supplementation: (a) two human volunteers in whom a specific and mild zinc deficiency was induced by dietary means; (b) six mildly ZD adult sickle cell anemia (SCA) subjects; and (c) six mildly ZD adult non-SCA subjects. Their plasma zinc levels were normal and they showed no overt clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency. The diagnosis of mild zinc deficiency was based on the assay of zinc in lymphocytes, granulocytes, and platelets. Serum thymulin activity was decreased as a result of mild zinc deficiency and was corrected by in vivo and in vitro zinc supplementation, suggesting that this parameter was a sensitive indicator of zinc deficiency in humans. An increase in T101-, sIg-cells, decrease in T4+/T8+ ratio, and decreased IL 2 activity were observed in the experimental human model during the zinc depletion phase, all of which were corrected after repletion with zinc. Similar changes in lymphocyte subpopulation, correctable with zinc supplementation, were also observed in mildly ZD SCA subjects. Inasmuch as thymulin is known to induce intra- and extrathymic T cell differentiation, our studies provide a possible mechanism for the role of zinc on T cell functions. Images PMID:3262625

Prasad, A S; Meftah, S; Abdallah, J; Kaplan, J; Brewer, G J; Bach, J F; Dardenne, M

1988-01-01

305

Processing of mercurous chloride in reduced gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a joint experiment between the Northrop-Grumman Science and Technology Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville, Consortium for Materials Development in Space, single crystals of mercurous chloride were grown in the Space Experiment Facility (SEF) transparent furnace that was flown on Spacehab 4 in May 1996. Mercurous chloride is an acousto-optical material with an unusually low acoustic velocity

C. Watson; N. B. Singh; A. Thomas; A. E. Nelson; T. O. Rolin; J. Griffin; G. Haulenbeek; N. Daniel; J. Seaquist; C. Cacioppo; J. Weber; Maria I. Zugrav; R. J. Naumann

1996-01-01

306

STUDIES OF POINT DEFECTS IN SILVER CHLORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were made on excess point defects introduced into single ; crystals of silver chloride by pulsed elastic extension or by rapid cooling from ; high temperature. Point defects are created by plastic deformation much less ; efficiently in silver chloride than in other substances that have been studied. ; Interstitial silver ions so produced have a lifetime of the

Howard Layer; Lawrence Slifkin

1962-01-01

307

Tri-benzyl-ammonium chloride.  

PubMed

Single crystals of the title salt, C21H21NH(+)·Cl(-), were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving [(C6H5CH2)3NH]2[HPO4] and Sn(CH3)3Cl in ethanol. Both the cation and the anion are situated on a threefold rotation axis. The central N atom in the cation has a slightly distorted tetra-hedral environment, with angles ranging from 107.7 to 111.16?(10)°. In the crystal, the tri-benzyl-ammonium cations and chloride anions are linked through N-H?Cl and C-H?Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of infinite chains along [001]. The crystal studied was a merohedral twin. PMID:24860409

Diallo, Waly; Diop, Libasse; Plasseraud, Laurent; Cattey, Hélène

2014-05-01

308

Tri-benzyl-ammonium chloride  

PubMed Central

Single crystals of the title salt, C21H21NH+·Cl?, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving [(C6H5CH2)3NH]2[HPO4] and Sn(CH3)3Cl in ethanol. Both the cation and the anion are situated on a threefold rotation axis. The central N atom in the cation has a slightly distorted tetra­hedral environment, with angles ranging from 107.7 to 111.16?(10)°. In the crystal, the tri­benzyl­ammonium cations and chloride anions are linked through N—H?Cl and C—H?Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of infinite chains along [001]. The crystal studied was a merohedral twin. PMID:24860409

Diallo, Waly; Diop, Libasse; Plasseraud, Laurent; Cattey, Helene

2014-01-01

309

Sodium-metal chloride batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1992-01-01

310

[Ventricular fibrillation with tolonium chloride: axillary brachial plexus anesthesia led to cessation of circulation].  

PubMed

A 22-year-old patient underwent surgery for a glass wound incision of the hand and anesthesia was carried out using an axillary brachial plexus block with prilocaine. Following surgery the patient developed methemoglobinemia which was treated with tolonium chloride. After administration of the drug the sinus rhythm changed into ventricular fibrillation. The current treatment options of methemoglobinemia will be discussed. PMID:21491141

Radke, O C; Hoffmann, C; Klut, I; Koch, T

2011-05-01

311

Ethyl Chloride as an Antipruritic Agent: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Prospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Ethyl chloride (EC) is usually used as a topical anesthetic spray agent. However, its antipruritic effects have never been studied, to the best of our knowledge. Methods: A double-blind placebo-controlled prospective study. Overall, 51 healthy volunteers underwent a histamine skin prick test on both arms in order to trigger local pruritus. Thereafter, the affected areas were treated with an

Amir Gal-Oz; Ori Rogowski; Michael Swartzon; Shmuel Kivity

2010-01-01

312

Using chloride and other ions to trace sewage and road salt in the Illinois Waterway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride concentrations in waterways of northern USA are increasing at alarming rates and road salt is commonly assumed to be the cause. However, there are additional sources of Cl? in metropolitan areas, such as treated wastewater (TWW) and water conditioning salts, which may be contributing to Cl? loads entering surface waters. In this study, the potential sources of Cl? and

Walton R. Kelly; Samuel V. Panno; Keith C. Hackley; Hue-Hwa Hwang; Adam T. Martinsek; Momcilo Markus

2010-01-01

313

Mercuric Chloride Induces Autoantibodies against U3 Small Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein in Susceptible Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoantibodies to nucleolar components are a common serological feature of patients suffering from scleroderma, a collagen vascular autoimmune disease. While animal models, which spontaneously develop abundant antinucleolar antibodies, have not yet been described, high titers of such antibodies may be induced by treating susceptible strains of mice with mercuric chloride. We have identified the nucleolar autoantigen against which the HgCl2-induced

Rolf Reuter; Gabriela Tessars; Hans-Werner Vohr; Ernst Gleichmann; Reinhard Luhrmann

1989-01-01

314

A Study on Removing Basic Nitrogen Compounds From Diesel Oil by Ferric Chloride Complexing Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of the basic nitrogen compounds from diesel oil by using ferric chloride as complexing agent was studied. The influence of affect factors on treating conditions was investigated, and orthogonal tests were done to conform the optimum process condition. The results showed that the optimum condition was that of the volume ratio of complexing agent to oil was 1.0, stirring

H. Yu; Z. Hu

2012-01-01

315

Growth Response of Hydroponic Rice Seedlings at Elevated Concentrations of Potassium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydroponic experiment was conducted in the greenhouse to observe the effect of potassium chloride (KCl) on growth, macro elements and sodium (Na) concentration of rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv. Hitomebore). The plants were grown up to 14 days after treatments (DAT) treated with 0, 10, 20 and 30 mM KCl. Shoot dry weight (dw) decreased significantly in the

M. R. SHAIBUR; A. H. M. SHAMIM; S. KAWAI

2008-01-01

316

Preparation of viscosifiers for zinc salt workover and completion brines  

SciTech Connect

Viscosifiers for addition to high zinc salt brines, used as oil well workover and completion fluids, are prepared from natural polysaccharide gums by treatment with a basic nitrogen reagent, such as a quaternary ammonium compound, hexamethylene tetramine, or dimethylol urea. The treated viscosifiers have improved dispersibility and give increased viscosity effects in the brines. Preferably, the viscosifiers are prepared from carrageenan or locust bean gums.

Mosier, B.; Guilbeau, K.G.; McCrary, J.L.

1983-11-15

317

Recent Developments in Silver/Zinc Rechargeable Cell Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation discusses silver/zinc cell casing configurations and test results examining discharge capacity and silver migration comparisons. The following recommendations were proposed: 1) Use silver-treated cellophane instead of clear cellophane; 2) Use split wrap for cellophane whenever possible; and 3) Strongly consider use of sausage casing with PVA film in the following configuration: 1-mil (tubular) SC/1-mil PVA film/2.3-mil plain or 6-mil fiber-reinforced SC tubular.

Lewis, Harlan L.

2001-01-01

318

Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation  

PubMed Central

The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl2 inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection. PMID:20040991

Cooper, Ross G.

2008-01-01

319

Depleted zinc: Properties, application, production.  

PubMed

The addition of ZnO, depleted in the Zn-64 isotope, to the water of boiling water nuclear reactors lessens the accumulation of Co-60 on the reactor interior surfaces, reduces radioactive wastes and increases the reactor service-life because of the inhibitory action of zinc on inter-granular stress corrosion cracking. To the same effect depleted zinc in the form of acetate dihydrate is used in pressurized water reactors. Gas centrifuge isotope separation method is applied for production of depleted zinc on the industrial scale. More than 20 years of depleted zinc application history demonstrates its benefits for reduction of NPP personnel radiation exposure and combating construction materials corrosion. PMID:19318263

Borisevich, V D; Pavlov, A V; Okhotina, I A

2009-01-01

320

Chloride regulatory mechanisms and their influence on neuronal excitability.  

E-print Network

??The chloride concentration in neurons is in general established by the precise functional expression of the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter one (NKCC1) and the potassium-chloride cotransporter two… (more)

Rinke, Ilka

2010-01-01

321

A general method for the synthesis of 3,5-diarylcyclopentenones via friedel-crafts acylation of vinyl chlorides.  

PubMed

A general approach for the synthesis of 3,5-diarylcyclopentenones was developed. Key aspects of this approach are the intramolecular Friedel-Crafts-type cyclization of vinyl chlorides and subsequent Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. The requisite vinyl chloride-bearing arylacetic acid precursors are readily available by straightforward alkylation of arylacetic acid esters and undergo cyclization to yield 3-chloro-5-aryl-2-cyclopentenones when treated with AlCl(3). The vinylogous acid chloride functionality present in these immediate products allows for further elaboration via Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling chemistry, leading to a diverse array of products. PMID:19485346

Xu, Yingju; McLaughlin, Mark; Chen, Cheng-yi; Reamer, Robert A; Dormer, Peter G; Davies, Ian W

2009-07-17

322

Chloride penetration into concrete structures in the marine atmosphere zone – Relationship between deposition of chlorides on the wet candle and chlorides accumulated into concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between chlorides from marine aerosol and chlorides accumulated into concrete is discussed in this paper. The experimental programme comprised an environmental characterisation, with climatic and chloride deposition data, and a study of chloride penetration into concrete based on natural exposure of specimens in a marine atmosphere zone. Results show that salt concentration in marine aerosol strongly decreases in

G. R. Meira; C. Andrade; I. J. Padaratz; C. Alonso; J BORBAJR

2007-01-01

323

Growth characteristics of selected fungi on polyvinyl chloride film.  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine if plasticized polyvinyl chloride film would support the growth of any of nine species of fungi. The film was suspended in distilled water with no nutrients or with glucose or ammonium sulfate. Spores of each of the test species were inoculated into the suspension medium, and the mixture was incubated at 30 degrees C for up to 18 weeks. Most species were found to be capable of utilizing the film for carbon or nitrogen when the other nutrient was supplied. Only two species, Aspergillus fischeri and Paecilomyces sp., were found to be capable of utilizing components of the film without added nutrients. Components of the polyvinyl chloride film were then incorporated into mineral salts medium to determine if these components could serve as carbon sources in the presence of ammonium nitrate. The only component found to be utilized by all the fungi as a carbon source was epoxidized oil, a plasticizer-stabilizer. Calcium-zinc stearate was an available carbon source for all except the Penicillium and Verticillium strains. The only other component utilized was a stearamide, which was metabolized solely by the Aspergillus sp. Only the stearamide contained enough nitrogen to serve as a primary source in the film. The compound, however, did not support growth of fungi in the presence of glucose. It was theorized that either the nitrogen of the stearamide was more readily available to the fungi in the whole film due to the presence of trace nutrients or the nitrogen was supplied by exogenous sources. PMID:3707118

Roberts, W T; Davidson, P M

1986-01-01

324

Imaging Zinc: Old and New Tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As recently as 20 years ago, all zinc in biological systems was believed to be tightly bound to proteins, and the idea of imaging zinc was considered heretical. Beginning with Maske's research with dithizonate staining of the hippocampus in the 1950s, however, zinc-sensitive dyes have indicated that, in mammalian cells, free zinc can exist in at least three separate pools. These pools include vesicular zinc sequestered in presynaptic vesicles and secretory granules, zinc released from these vesicles into the extracellular space after physiological stimulation, and transient increases in zinc in cells in the regions where extracellular release of zinc has occurred. This Perspective covers the zinc-imaging tools, from dithizonate to the newest FRET-based sensors, that have galvanized biomedical science.

Christopher Frederickson (University of Texas Medical Branch;NeuroBioTex Inc and Departments of Anatomy and Neuroscience Biomedical Engineering and Preventive Medicine and Community Health REV)

2003-05-13

325

Imaging zinc: old and new tools.  

PubMed

As recently as 20 years ago, all zinc in biological systems was believed to be tightly bound to proteins, and the idea of imaging zinc was considered heretical. Beginning with Maske's research with dithizonate staining of the hippocampus in the 1950s, however, zinc-sensitive dyes have indicated that, in mammalian cells, free zinc can exist in at least three separate pools. These pools include vesicular zinc sequestered in presynaptic vesicles and secretory granules, zinc released from these vesicles into the extracellular space after physiological stimulation, and transient increases in zinc in cells in the regions where extracellular release of zinc has occurred. This Perspective covers the zinc-imaging tools, from dithizonate to the newest FRET-based sensors, that have galvanized biomedical science. PMID:12746547

Frederickson, Christopher

2003-05-13

326

Zinc protection against aluminium induced altered lipid profile and membrane integrity.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Zinc (Zn) supplementation on lipid profile and fluidity of cerebrum and cerebellum membranes of rats treated with aluminium (Al). Sprague dawley male rats were divided into four different treatment groups viz: Control, aluminium treated, zinc treated and aluminium+zinc treated. Aluminium (AlCl3) was administered orally at a dose of 100mg/kgb.wt./day (dissolved in drinking water). Zinc as zinc sulphate was supplemented to rats at a dose of 227mg/l in drinking water. A significant decrease in the levels of total lipids, glycolipids, phospholipids, cholesterol and gangliosides contents were observed in both the cerebrum and cerebellum following Al exposure, which were found to be significantly increased following Zn supplementation. On the contrary, Al treatment caused a significant increase in the formation of conjugated dienes, which were observed to be reduced on Zn co-treatment. Further, Al treatment significantly elevated the fluorescence polarization, anisotropy and order parameter, which however were normalized upon Zn co-administration. Hence, the present study depicts the potential of Zn in moderating the changes caused by Al on membrane composition and fluidity in rat brain. PMID:23313339

Singla, Neha; Dhawan, D K

2013-05-01

327

Regulation of biokinetics of (65)zn by curcumin and zinc in experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.  

PubMed

Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the role of curcumin and zinc on the biokinetics and biodistribution of (65)Zn during colon carcinogenesis. Male wistar rats were divided into five groups, namely normal control, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) treated, DMH+curcumin treated, DMH+zinc treated, and DMH+curcumin+zinc treated. Weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (30?mg/kg body weight) for 16 weeks initiated colon carcinogenesis. Curcumin (100?mg/kg body weight orally) and ZnSO4 (227?mg/L in drinking water) were supplemented for 16 weeks. This study revealed a significant depression in the fast (Tb1) and slow component (Tb2) of biological half-life of (65)Zn in the whole body of DMH-treated rats, whereas liver showed a significant elevation in these components. Further, DMH treatment showed a significant increase in the uptake values of (65)Zn in colon, small intestine, and kidneys. Subcellular distribution depicted a significant increase in (65)Zn uptake values in mitochondrial, microsomal, and postmicrosomal fractions of colon. However, curcumin and zinc supplementation when given separately or in combination reversed the trends and restored the uptake values close to normal range. Our study concludes that curcumin and zinc supplementation during colon carcinogenesis shall prove to be efficacious in regulating the altered zinc metabolism. PMID:25226565

Jain, Kinnri; Dhawan, Devinder K

2014-10-01

328

Methylene chloride poisoning in a cabinet worker.  

PubMed Central

More than a million workers are at risk for methylene chloride exposure. Aerosol sprays and paint stripping may also cause significant nonoccupational exposures. After methylene chloride inhalation, significant amounts of carbon monoxide are formed in vivo as a metabolic by-product. Poisoning predominantly affects the central nervous system and results from both carboxyhemoglobin formation and direct solvent-related narcosis. In this report, we describe a case of methylene chloride intoxication probably complicated by exogenous carbon monoxide exposure. The worker's presentation of intermittent headaches was consistent with both methylene chloride intoxication and carbon monoxide poisoning. The exposures and symptoms were corroborated by elevated carboxyhemoglobin saturations and a workplace inspection that documented significant exposures to both methylene chloride and carbon monoxide. When both carbon monoxide and methylene chloride are inhaled, additional carboxyhemoglobin formation is expected. Preventive efforts should include education, air monitoring, and periodic carboxyhemoglobin determinations. Methylene chloride should never be used in enclosed or poorly ventilated areas because of the well-documented dangers of loss of consciousness and death. Images Figure 1 PMID:10464079

Mahmud, M; Kales, S N

1999-01-01

329

Zinc status in human immunodeficiency virus infection  

SciTech Connect

Plasma zinc and copper concentrations, erythrocyte zinc concentration, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity and urinary zinc concentrations were determined for control subjects and individuals with AIDS, ARC, or asymptomatic HIV infection. Significant differences among the population groups were not noted for the above parameters with the exception of plasma copper which was higher in the AIDS group than in other patient groups. These results do not support the idea that zinc deficiency is a common contributory factor of HIV infectivity or clinical expression, nor that HIV infection induces a zinc deficiency.

Walter, R.M. Jr.; Oster, M.H.; Lee, T.J.; Flynn, N.; Keen, C.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

1990-01-01

330

Subchronic oral toxicity of zinc in rats  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that zinc has important biological functions. Clinical manifestations in zinc-deficient animals include growth retardation, testicular atrophy, skin changes, and poor appetite. On the other hand, high levels of dietary zinc have been shown to induce copper deficiency in rats and to interfere with the metabolism of calcium and iron. Little is known on the oral toxicity of zinc in mammals. However, some toxic effects in human subjects, rodents, and sheep have been reported. In order to extend the information about the oral toxicity of zinc, a semichronic toxicity study of zinc acetate in rats has been carried out in this paper.

Llobet, J.M.; Domingo, J.L.; Colomina, M.T.; Mayayo, E.; Corbella, J.

1988-07-01

331

Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride  

SciTech Connect

Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

Nemec, Thomas [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Marsik, Frantisek [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Palmer, Donald [ORNL

2005-01-01

332

Phenomics of Cardiac Chloride Channels  

PubMed Central

Forward genetic studies have identified several chloride (Cl?) channel genes, including CFTR, ClC-2, ClC-3, CLCA, Bestrophin, and Ano1, in the heart. Recent reverse genetic studies using gene targeting and transgenic techniques to delineate the functional role of cardiac Cl? channels have shown that Cl? channels may contribute to cardiac arrhythmogenesis, myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure, and cardioprotection against ischemia reperfusion. The study of physiological or pathophysiological phenotypes of cardiac Cl? channels, however, is complicated by the compensatory changes in the animals in response to the targeted genetic manipulation. Alternatively, tissue-specific conditional or inducible knockout or knockin animal models may be more valuable in the phenotypic studies of specific Cl? channels by limiting the effect of compensation on the phenotype. The integrated function of Cl? channels may involve multiprotein complexes of the Cl? channel subproteome. Similar phenotypes can be attained from alternative protein pathways within cellular networks, which are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The phenomics approach, which characterizes phenotypes as a whole phenome and systematically studies the molecular changes that give rise to particular phenotypes achieved by modifying the genotype under the scope of genome/proteome/phenome, may provide more complete understanding of the integrated function of each cardiac Cl? channel in the context of health and disease. PMID:23720326

Duan, Dayue Darrel

2014-01-01

333

Protective role of zinc during aluminum-induced hepatotoxicity.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to assess the role of zinc (Zn) in mitigating the biochemical alterations induced by aluminum (Al) in rat liver. Rats were divided into four groups: normal control, Al treated (AlCl3, 100 mg/kg b.wt./day), Zn treated (ZnSO4, 227 mg/L drinking water), and combined Al + Zn treated. Al and zinc treatments were given for a total duration of 2 months. Al treatment caused a significant increase in the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), but decreased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotranferase (ALT) activities, which showed the reverse trend following Zn supplementation. Levels of lipid peroxidation (LPx) and activities of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were significantly decreased following Al treatment, which, however, were increased significantly in Zn co-treated rats. Further Al exposure showed a significant increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) content as well as activities, of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). However, Zn supplementation to Al-treated rats brought down the raised levels of reduced (GSH) and SOD to within normal limits, but caused no effect on GR activity. Furthermore, Al treatment also resulted in alterations in liver histoarchitecture with disruption of hepatic cords and increased vacuolization, which were close to normal following Zn supplementation. The present study reveals that Zn is effective in attenuating the liver damage inflicted by Al toxicity. PMID:22422511

Bhasin, Punita; Singla, Neha; Dhawan, D K

2014-03-01

334

Zinc inhibition of GABA-stimulated Cl- influx in rat brain regions is unaffected by acute or chronic benzodiazepine.  

PubMed

Zinc modulation of GABAA receptor function was studied using GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx into microsacs prepared from rat cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus. Zinc (10-100 microM) did not affect the basal influx, but significantly inhibited GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx. The inhibition appeared to be noncompetitive. Zinc produced differing degrees of inhibition of GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx in different brain regions. The order of sensitivity to zinc inhibition of GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx was hippocampus > cerebral cortex > cerebellum. These regional differences may reflect the structural heterogeneity of GABAA receptors among brain areas. Zinc inhibition was not affected by the short-term addition of three benzodiazepines, diazepam, bretazenil and triazolam. The effect of diazepam and bretazenil to potentiate GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx was not affected by zinc, but the effect of triazolam was decreased by zinc. In brain tissue prepared from flurazepam-treated rats, there was no difference compared with controls in zinc inhibition of GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx. The results indicate that the effects of zinc on the GABAA receptor are largely independent of drugs acting on the benzodiazepine binding site. PMID:7862697

Li, M; Rosenberg, H C; Chiu, T H

1994-11-01

335

Spectrofluorimetric determination of thallium in silicate rocks with rhodamine b in the presence of aluminum chloride  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A sensitive spectrofluorimetric procedure with rhodamine B in the presence of aluminum chloride is given for determining submicrogram and microgram quantities of thallium in silicate rocks. Samples are decomposed with a mixture of hydrofluoric and nitric acids and then treated with hydrochloric acid. Thallium is extracted as its dithizonate with chloroform from an alkaline medium containing ascorbate, citrate, and cyanide and then back-extracted with dilute nitric acid. After destruction of the organic matter and treatment with bromine, hydrochloric acid, aluminum chloride, and rhodamine B, the {A table is presented}. ?? 1975.

Shnepfe, M.M.

1975-01-01

336

Responses of Siberian ferrets to secondary zinc phosphide poisoning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hazard of operational-type applications of zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) on a species closely related to the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), was evaluated by feeding 16 Siberian ferrets (M. eversmanni) rats that had been killed by consumption of 2% zinc phosphide treated bait or by an oral dose of 40, 80, or 160 mg of Zn3P2. All ferrets accepted rats and a single emesis by each of 3 ferrets was the only evidence of acute intoxication. All ferrets learned to avoid eating gastrointestinal tracts of the rats. Subacute zinc phosphide toxicity in the ferrets was indicated by significant decreases (18-48%) in hemoglobin, increases of 35-91 % in serum iron, and elevated levels of serum globulin, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Hemoglobin/iron, urea nitrogen/creatinine, and albumin/globulin ratios also were altered by the treatments. This study demonstrated that Siberian ferrets, or other species with a sensitive emetic reflex, are afforded a degree of protection from acute zinc phosphide poisoning due to its emetic action. The importance of toxicity associated with possible respiratory, liver, and kidney damage indicated by altered blood chemistries is not known.

Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.

1982-01-01

337

Structural and spectral properties of a zinc(II) coordination polymer: A combined experimental and theoretical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel 1D zinc(II) coordination polymer [Zn(bbbm)Cl2]n (where bbbm = 1,4-bis(N-benzimidazolyl)butane) was synthetized by ZnCl2 and bbbm ligand under hydrothermal conditions, and its structural and spectral properties were studied by both experimental and theoretical techniques. The center zinc(II) ion displays four-coordinated in a tetrahedral geometry by two chloride anions and two N atoms of distinct bbbm ligands. Adjacent chains are further connected into a 2D layer structure through ?-? stacking interactions. Vibrational frequencies of [Zn(bbbm)Cl2]n have been calculated using DFT/B3LYP/TZVP method, and well reproduced IR data. Furthermore, the vertical excitation energies from time-dependent DFT calculation confirmed that the fluorescent peaks at 385 nm and 450 nm could respectively be assigned to the ? ? ?* transition within the bbbm ligands and ? ? n transition from chloride anion to bbbm ligand.

Hao, Jin-Ming; Li, Guang-Yue; Li, Yue-Hua; Cui, Guang Hua

2014-10-01

338

History of Zinc in Agriculture12  

PubMed Central

Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, >20 y would pass before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it was reported that zinc deficiency induced poor growth, leg abnormalities, poor feathering, and parakeratosis in chicks. In the 1960s, zinc supplementation was found to alleviate parakeratosis in grazing cattle and sheep. Within 35 y, it was established that nearly one half of the soils in the world may be zinc deficient, causing decreased plant zinc content and production that can be prevented by zinc fertilization. In many of these areas, zinc deficiency is prevented in grazing livestock by zinc fertilization of pastures or by providing salt licks. For livestock under more defined conditions, such as poultry, swine, and dairy and finishing cattle, feeds are easily supplemented with zinc salts to prevent deficiency. Today, the causes and consequences of zinc deficiency and methods and effects of overcoming the deficiency are well established for agriculture. The history of zinc in agriculture is an outstanding demonstration of the translation of research into practical application. PMID:23153732

Nielsen, Forrest H.

2012-01-01

339

Zinc functions as a cytotoxic agent for prostate cancer cells independent of culture and growth conditions.  

PubMed

The effects of zinc on the viability of PC3, LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines in vitro were examined. The data indicate that, despite their distinctly different gene expression profiles, morphology and tissue origin, all cell lines responded to zinc in a similar time and dose dependent manner. Experiments using pyrithione indicated that cell death is mediated by internalized zinc. Zinc effects on cells plated as monolayers were compared to its effects on cells plated in a collagen matrix. Although the rate of cell growth in the matrix was delayed compared to cells in 2-dimensional cultures, the cytotoxic effects of zinc were unaltered. Using both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional cultures, we observed that zinc cytotoxicity was independent of both the culture conditions and the rate of cell growth, results that contrast the activity of the current chemotherapeutics used to treat prostate cancer. The attractive properties of zinc cytotoxicity demonstrated in this paper suggest that is can be developed as a novel and effective chemotherapeutic agent for prostate cancer treatment. PMID:21222361

Kriedt, Christopher L; Baldassare, Joseph; Shah, Maulik; Klein, Claudette

2010-01-01

340

Except for the noble gases, all the elements in the Periodic Table form chlorides, often in several oxidation states, and chlorides generally are among the  

E-print Network

Chlorides Except for the noble gases, all the elements in the Periodic Table form chlorides, often of the elements: for chlorides of transition metals, elevated temperatures are usually necessary in dry conditions Most chlorides are soluble in water. Mercury(I) chloride, Hg2Cl2, silver chloride, AgCl, lead chloride

Csonka, Gábor István

341

Presence of links between zinc and melatonin during the circadian cycle in old mice: effects on thymic endocrine activity and on the survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Links between zinc and melatonin in old melatonin treated mice with a reconstitution of thymic functions have been recently documented. Concomitant increments of the nocturnal peaks of zinc and melatonin, with a synchronization of their circadian patterns, are achieved in old mice after melatonin treatment. A recovery of the nocturnal peaks of thymulin plasma levels and of the number of

Eugenio Mocchegiani; Lory Santarelli; Alberto Tibaldi; Mario Muzzioli; Daniele Bulian; Katia Cipriano; Fabiola Olivieri; Nicola Fabris

1998-01-01

342

A Galvanizing Story--Protein Stability and Zinc Homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc is an essential component of protein function in all living cells. The intracellular availability of zinc ions must be balanced against their potential toxicity. Maintaining optimal zinc ion levels requires the integration of zinc enzyme expres- sion with zinc transport. Much of the effort to understand bacterial zinc homeostasis, as well as that of other metals, has focused on

Peter T. Chivers

2007-01-01

343

29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with legible signs bearing the legend: Cancer-Suspect Agent Area Authorized Personnel...with legible signs bearing the legend: Cancer-Suspect Agent in This Area Protective... Contaminated With Vinyl Chloride Cancer-Suspect Agent (4) Containers...

2010-07-01

344

Reductive Dechlorination of the Vinyl Chloride Surrogate  

E-print Network

by the plastics industry to produce poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and copolymers. In 1995, the U.S. production of VC with PVC manufacturing. In addition, accumulation of VC, a known carcinogen (2), is sometimes observed

Semprini, Lewis

345

Qualitative Determination of Nitrate with Triphenylbenzylphosphonium Chloride.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses two procedures for the identification of nitrate, the standard test ("Brown Ring" test) and a new procedure using triphenylbenzylphosphonium chloride (TPBPC). Effectiveness of both procedures is compared, with the TPBPC test proving to be more sensitive and accurate. (JM)

Berry, Donna A.; Cole, Jerry J.

1984-01-01

346

21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...crystallizing out magnesium chloride hexahydrate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 177, which is incorporated by reference. Copies are available from the National Academy Press,...

2010-04-01

347

Zinc Biochemistry: From a Single Zinc Enzyme to a Key Element of Life12  

PubMed Central

The nutritional essentiality of zinc for the growth of living organisms had been recognized long before zinc biochemistry began with the discovery of zinc in carbonic anhydrase in 1939. Painstaking analytical work then demonstrated the presence of zinc as a catalytic and structural cofactor in a few hundred enzymes. In the 1980s, the field again gained momentum with the new principle of “zinc finger” proteins, in which zinc has structural functions in domains that interact with other biomolecules. Advances in structural biology and a rapid increase in the availability of gene/protein databases now made it possible to predict zinc-binding sites from metal-binding motifs detected in sequences. This procedure resulted in the definition of zinc proteomes and the remarkable estimate that the human genome encodes ?3000 zinc proteins. More recent developments focus on the regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions in intra- and intercellular information transfer and have tantalizing implications for yet additional functions of zinc in signal transduction and cellular control. At least three dozen proteins homeostatically control the vesicular storage and subcellular distribution of zinc and the concentrations of zinc(II) ions. Novel principles emerge from quantitative investigations on how strongly zinc interacts with proteins and how it is buffered to control the remarkably low cellular and subcellular concentrations of free zinc(II) ions. It is fair to conclude that the impact of zinc for health and disease will be at least as far-reaching as that of iron. PMID:23319127

Maret, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

348

High Dose Zinc Supplementation Induces Hippocampal Zinc Deficiency and Memory Impairment with Inhibition of BDNF Signaling  

PubMed Central

Zinc ions highly concentrate in hippocampus and play a key role in modulating spatial learning and memory. At a time when dietary fortification and supplementation of zinc have increased the zinc consuming level especially in the youth, the toxicity of zinc overdose on brain function was underestimated. In the present study, weaning ICR mice were given water supplemented with 15 ppm Zn (low dose), 60 ppm Zn (high dose) or normal lab water for 3 months, the behavior and brain zinc homeostasis were tested. Mice fed high dose of zinc showed hippocampus-dependent memory impairment. Unexpectedly, zinc deficiency, but not zinc overload was observed in hippocampus, especially in the mossy fiber-CA3 pyramid synapse. The expression levels of learning and memory related receptors and synaptic proteins such as NMDA-NR2A, NR2B, AMPA-GluR1, PSD-93 and PSD-95 were significantly decreased in hippocampus, with significant loss of dendritic spines. In keeping with these findings, high dose intake of zinc resulted in decreased hippocampal BDNF level and TrkB neurotrophic signaling. At last, increasing the brain zinc level directly by brain zinc injection induced BDNF expression, which was reversed by zinc chelating in vivo. These results indicate that zinc plays an important role in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory and BDNF expression, high dose supplementation of zinc induces specific zinc deficiency in hippocampus, which further impair learning and memory due to decreased availability of synaptic zinc and BDNF deficit. PMID:23383172

Zhang, Shou-Peng; Gu, Run-Xia; Tang, Fang-Xu; Wang, Xiu-Lian; Xiong, Yan; Qiu, Mei; Sun, Xu-Ying; Ke, Dan; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Rong

2013-01-01

349

21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Zinc oxide...restrictions. The color additive zinc oxide may be...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixtues...

2012-04-01

350

21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.  

...and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Zinc oxide...restrictions. The color additive zinc oxide may be...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixtues...

2014-04-01

351

21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Zinc oxide...restrictions. The color additive zinc oxide may be...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixtues...

2013-04-01

352

The 5-(4-Ethynylophenoxy) isophthalic chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sulfone-ester polymers containing pendent ethynyl groups and a direct and multistep process for preparing them are disclosed. The multistep process involves the conversion of a pendent bromo group to the ethynyl group while the direct route involves reating hydroxy-terminated sulfone oligomer or polymers with a stoichiometric amount of 5-(4-ethynylphenoxy) isophthaloyl chloride. The 5-(4-ethynylphenoxy) isophthaloyl chloride and the process for preparing it are also disclosed.

Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B. J. (inventors)

1986-01-01

353

Reaction of Sulfur Chlorides with Metal ?-Diketonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal ß-diketonates react with sulfur dichloride to form sulfenyl chlorides irrespective of ß-substituent. Bulky phenyl and tert-butyl groups do not prevent formation of fully substituted complexes. The possibility of preparing sulfenyl chloride derivatives of rhodium, ruthenium, and vanadium ß-diketonates was demonstrated. A new procedure was suggested for preparing chlorosulfenyl-substituted ß-diketonates. Disulfur dichloride reacts with metal chelates with the substitution of

I. V. Svistunova; N. P. Shapkin; O. V. Nikolaeva

2005-01-01

354

Methyl chloride via oxhydrochlorination of methane  

SciTech Connect

Dow Corning is developing a route from methane to methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination (OHC) chemistry with joint support from the Gas Research Institute and the Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center. Dow Corning is the world`s largest producer of methyl chloride and uses it as an intermediate in the production of silicone materials. Other uses include production of higher hydrocarbons, methyl cellulose, quaternary ammonium salts and herbicides. The objective of this project is to demonstrate and develop a route to methyl chloride with reduced variable cost by using methane instead of methanol raw materials. Methyl chloride is currently produced from methanol, but U.S. demand is typically higher than available domestic supply, resulting in fluctuating prices. OHC technology utilizes domestic natural gas as a feedstock, which allows a lower-cost source of methyl chloride which is independent of methanol. In addition to other uses of methyl chloride, OHC could be a key step in a gas-to-liquid fuels process. These uses could divert significant methanol demand to methane. A stable and selective catalyst has been developed in the laboratory and evaluated in a purpose-built demonstration unit. Materials of construction issues have been resolved and the unit has been run under a range of conditions to evaluate catalyst performance and stability. Many technological advances have been made, especially in the areas of catalyst development, online FTIR analysis of the product stream, and recovery of methyl chloride product via an absorber/stripper system. Significant technological hurdles still remain including heat transfer, catalysts scaleup, orthogonality in modeling, and scaleable absorption data. Economics of the oxyhydrochlorination process have been evaluated an found to be unfavorable due to high capital and utility costs. Future efforts will focus on improved methane conversion at high methyl chloride selectivity.

Jarvis, R.F. Jr.

1997-12-31

355

Copper chloride cathode for a secondary battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Higher energy and power densities are achieved in a secondary battery based on molten sodium and a solid, ceramic separator such as a beta alumina and a molten catholyte such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a copper chloride cathode. The higher cell voltage of copper chloride provides higher energy densities and the higher power density results from increased conductivity resulting from formation of copper as discharge proceeds.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (inventor); Bankston, Clyde P. (inventor)

1990-01-01

356

Structure of complexes between aluminum chloride and other chlorides, 2: Alkali-(chloroaluminates). Gaseous complexes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural chemistry of complexes between aluminum chloride and other metal chlorides is important both for practice and theory. Condensed-phase as well as vapor-phase complexes are of interest. Structural information on such complexes is reviewed. The first emphasis is given to the molten state because of its practical importance. Aluminum chloride forms volatile complexes with other metal chlorides and these vapor-phase complexes are dealt with in the second part. Finally, the variations in molecular shape and geometrical parameters are summarized.

Hargittai, M.

1980-01-01

357

Abnormal passive chloride absorption in cystic fibrosis jejunum functionally opposes the classic chloride secretory defect  

PubMed Central

Due to genetic defects in apical membrane chloride channels, the cystic fibrosis (CF) intestine does not secrete chloride normally. Depressed chloride secretion leaves CF intestinal absorptive processes unopposed, which results in net fluid hyperabsorption, dehydration of intestinal contents, and a propensity to inspissated intestinal obstruction. This theory is based primarily on in vitro studies of jejunal mucosa. To determine if CF patients actually hyperabsorb fluid in vivo, we measured electrolyte and water absorption during steady-state perfusion of the jejunum. As expected, chloride secretion was abnormally low in CF, but surprisingly, there was no net hyperabsorption of sodium or water during perfusion of a balanced electrolyte solution. This suggested that fluid absorption processes are reduced in CF jejunum, and further studies revealed that this was due to a marked depression of passive chloride absorption. Although Na+-glucose cotransport was normal in the CF jejunum, absence of passive chloride absorption completely blocked glucose-stimulated net sodium absorption and reduced glucose-stimulated water absorption 66%. This chloride absorptive abnormality acts in physiological opposition to the classic chloride secretory defect in the CF intestine. By increasing the fluidity of intraluminal contents, absence of passive chloride absorption may reduce the incidence and severity of intestinal disease in patients with CF. PMID:12840066

Russo, Michael A.; Hogenauer, Christoph; Coates, Stephen W.; Santa Ana, Carol A.; Porter, Jack L.; Rosenblatt, Randall L.; Emmett, Michael; Fordtran, John S.

2003-01-01

358

The zinc\\/thiolate redox biochemistry of metallothionein and the control of zinc ion fluctuations in cell signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free zinc ions are potent effectors of proteins. Their tightly controlled fluctuations (“zinc signals”) in the picomolar range of concentrations modulate cellular signaling pathways. Sulfur (cysteine) donors generate redox-active coordination environments in proteins for the redox-inert zinc ion and make it possible for redox signals to induce zinc signals. Amplitudes of zinc signals are determined by the cellular zinc buffering

Artur Kr??el; Qiang Hao; Wolfgang Maret

2007-01-01

359

Zinc promotes the death of hypoxic astrocytes by upregulating hypoxia-induced hypoxiainducible factor-1alpha expression via Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase -1  

PubMed Central

Aim Pathological release of excess zinc ions has been implicated in ischemic brain cell death. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In stroke, ischemia-induced zinc release and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) accumulation concurrently occur in the ischemic tissue. The present study testes the hypothesis that the presence of high intracellular zinc concentration is a major cause of modifications to PARP-1 and HIF-1? during hypoxia, which significantly contributes to cell death during ischemia. Methods Primary cortical astrocytes and C8-D1A cells were exposed to different concentrations of zinc chloride. Cell death rate and protein expression of HIF-1 and Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 were examined after 3-hour hypoxic treatment. Results Although 3-hr hypoxia or 100 ?M of zinc alone did not induce noticeable cytotoxicity, their combination led to a dramatic increase in astrocytic cell death in a zinc concentration dependent manner. Exposure of astrocytes to hypoxia for 3-hr remarkably increased the levels of intracellular zinc and HIF-1? protein, which was further augmented by added exogenous zinc. Notably HIF-1? knockdown blocked zinc-induced astrocyte death. Moreover, knockdown of PARP-1, another important protein in the response of hypoxia, attenuated the overexpression of HIF-1? and reduced the cell death rate. Conclusions Our studies show that zinc promotes hypoxic cell death through overexpression of the hypoxia response factor HIF-1? via the cell fate determine factor PARP-1 modification, which provides a novel mechanism for zinc-mediated ischemic brain injury. PMID:23582235

Pan, Rong; Chen, Chen; Liu, Wenlan; Liu, Ke Jian

2013-01-01

360

Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors  

DOEpatents

Varistors and/or resistors are described that include doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

1993-07-27

361

Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors  

DOEpatents

Varistors and/or resistors that includes doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01

362

Low-Resistivity Zinc Selenide for Heterojunctions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetron reactive sputtering enables doping of this semiconductor. Proposed method of reactive sputtering combined with doping shows potential for yielding low-resistivity zinc selenide films. Zinc selenide attractive material for forming heterojunctions with other semiconductor compounds as zinc phosphide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide. Semiconductor junctions promising for future optoelectronic devices, including solar cells and electroluminescent displays. Resistivities of zinc selenide layers deposited by evaporation or chemical vapor deposition too high to form practical heterojunctions.

Stirn, R. J.

1986-01-01

363

RESEARCH ARTICLE Increasing chloride concentrations in Lake Constance  

E-print Network

for the year 2006, we estimated total chloride imports to the catchment at 101 kt year-1 . Road deicing salts Chloride Á Budget Á Road deicing salt Introduction Sodium chloride (NaCl) is used widely and in large streams, Trowbridge et al. (2010) showed that [90% of the chloride originated from road salt. Imported

Wehrli, Bernhard

364

Methylene Chloride Management Plan Review and Approval Authority  

E-print Network

Waste Management, Fire Protection, Radiation Safety, Insurance Services, Hazard Communication, AccidentMETHYLENE CHLORIDE MANAGEMENT PLAN #12;#12;Methylene Chloride Management Plan Review and Approval Date #12;ii Methylene Chloride Management Plan #12;Methylene Chloride Management Plan Table of Contents

Rubloff, Gary W.

365

Acinetobacter baumannii response to host-mediated zinc limitation requires the transcriptional regulator Zur.  

PubMed

Acinetobacter baumannii is a leading cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care units, and the increasing rates of antibiotic resistance make treating these infections challenging. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop new antimicrobials to treat A. baumannii infections. One potential therapeutic option is to target bacterial systems involved in maintaining appropriate metal homeostasis, processes that are critical for the growth of pathogens within the host. The A. baumannii inner membrane zinc transporter ZnuABC is required for growth under low-zinc conditions and for A. baumannii pathogenesis. The expression of znuABC is regulated by the transcriptional repressor Zur. To investigate the role of Zur during the A. baumannii response to zinc limitation, a zur deletion mutant was generated, and transcriptional changes were analyzed using RNA sequencing. A number of Zur-regulated genes were identified that exhibit increased expression both when zur is absent and under low-zinc conditions, and Zur binds to predicted Zur box sequences of several genes affected by zinc levels or the zur mutation. Furthermore, the zur mutant is impaired for growth in the presence of both high and low zinc levels compared to wild-type A. baumannii. Finally, the zur mutant exhibits a defect in dissemination in a mouse model of A. baumannii pneumonia, establishing zinc sensing as a critical process during A. baumannii infection. These results define Zur-regulated genes within A. baumannii and demonstrate a requirement for Zur in the A. baumannii response to the various zinc levels experienced within the vertebrate host. PMID:24816603

Mortensen, Brittany L; Rathi, Subodh; Chazin, Walter J; Skaar, Eric P

2014-07-01

366

Silver-Zinc batteries for AUV applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver-zinc batteries have been in use for years in many underwater applications. With the advent of AUVs, silver-zinc has been chosen to supply the power for various applications. Although a specialized niche, the silver-zinc electrochemistry offers advantages in size and power that are critical to certain applications.

P. Imhof

2002-01-01

367

Galvanic corrosion of zinc and its alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical and practical information on galvanic corrosion of zinc and its alloys, coupled to other metals, particularly steel, is organized and presented, along with a conceptual and elemental analysis of galvanic coupling between zinc and steel. Various factors which may play roles in galvanic action between zinc and coupled metals are systematically discussed. The principles and practical applications of galvanic

X. G. Zhang

1996-01-01

368

A case of acquired Zinc deficiency.  

PubMed

We report a case of adult-onset acquired zinc deficiency after bariatric surgery. Zinc deficiency may be inherited in the form of acrodermatitis enteropathica or acquired by low nutritional intake, malabsorption, excessive loss of zinc, or a combination of these factors. PMID:22630571

Bae-Harboe, Yoon-Soo Cindy; Solky, Ana; Masterpol, Katherine Szyfelbein

2012-05-01

369

Zinc-Air (Oxygen) Cell Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shorting by zinc penetration through the separator layers was prevented in zinc-air and zinc-oxygen cells by inserting a 10 mil thick partially wetproofed porous nickel layer within the layers of separator material. Excellent capacity maintenance was atta...

O. C. Wagner

1973-01-01

370

The mode of action of metal stearate stabilisers in poly(vinyl chloride)—IV. The application of fluorescence spectroscopy to characterise chromophoric species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence emission spectroscopy has been used to monitor the development of polyenes in poly(vinyl chloride) [PVC] which has been stabilised with mixtures of pre-heated (180 °C) calcium stearate (CaSt2) and zinc stearate (ZnSt2). Treatment with NaBH4 has been used to distinguish polyenes attached to carbonylic groups. Emission from excitations at 245 and 360 nm enabled the development of short polyene

R. Benavides; M. Edge; N. S. Allen; M. Shah

1997-01-01

371

Zinc carboxylating: a new conversion treatment of zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is devoted to a new surface treatment of zinc, called “carboxylating”, which could be an environmentally friendly alternative to the usual conversion treatments. Carboxylating requires use of both n-alkyl carboxylic acid and peroxoborate as oxidizing agent, in a water–ethanol mixture. As in the phosphating process, the carboxylating one is carried out in four steps: the activation step, oxidation

J. Peultier; E. Rocca; J. Steinmetz

2003-01-01

372

Thermodynamic characteristics of ionic association in dimethylformamide solutions of barium iodide and zinc and lantane chlorides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the results from thermochemical measurements of the dilution enthalpies of BaI2, ZnCl2, and LaCl3 solutions in dimethylformamide, and on the basis of previously proposed methods, the enthalpies and ionic association constants at 298.15 K were found in the abovementioned liquid systems.

Nikitina, T. V.; Solov'ev, S. N.

2010-02-01

373

ZnSe growth from zinc chloride solvent by successive liquid phase epitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZnSe thick layer growth was investigated by two methods: (1) the yo-yo solute feeding method in which ZnSe solute is transported by the difference in density between the solute and ZnCl 2 solvent, and (2) repetition growth by alternate supply of saturated solution in a tipping furnace. The temperature modulation range is typically between 700°C and 600°C. In the yo-yo process, downward transport of ZnSe was clearly enhanced, and the grown layer on the lower substrate was thicker than that on the upper substrate by three times. In the repetition growth with very slow cooling rate of 0.2°C/min, 250 ?m thickness was achieved after five repetitions.

Tanaka, Akira; Sukegawa, Tokuzo

2001-07-01

374

Ab initio study of zinc chloride dication ZnCl2+ in the gas phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our high-level ab initio calculations show that the ZnCl2+ ground state of 2? symmetry is metastable with a bond length of 2.242 Å, an effective dissociation energy of 1.66 eV, and an adiabatic double ionization energy of ZnCl of 26.11 eV. Potential energy curves for 18 ? + S states and ten ? states of ZnCl2+ are presented as well as the associated spectroscopic constants. Tunneling lifetimes, spin-orbit induced predissociation lifetimes and radiative lifetimes for the vibrational levels in the low-lying electronic states of ZnCl2+ are determined and the metastability of the dication is discussed.

Fišer, J.

2014-09-01

375

Comparison of antimicrobial activity of zinc chloride and bismuth subsalicylate against clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed

We determined the in vitro susceptibility of clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori to ZnCl, compared its sensitivity to bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) and clarithromycin (CLR) that are used for the treatment of H. pylori infection and its activity at different gastric pH. One hundred sixteen clinical isolates of H. pylori strains were chosen. Agar gel dilution method was used to determine the susceptibility of H. pylori isolates to ZnCl 40??g/ml, BSS 20??g/ml, and CLR 2??g/ml. Suspension of 10(9) bacteria/?l was streaked on the blood agar plate. The control consisted of H. pylori incubated without ZnCl, BSS, and CLR. One hundred ten H. pylori strains (95%) were susceptible to ZnCl 40??g/ml compared to 114 (98%) to BSS 20??g/ml (p=0.002) and 92 (79%) to CLR 2??g/ml (p=0.602). H. pylori isolates from patients with nonulcer dyspepsia and from peptic ulcer were equally susceptible to ZnCl 40??g/ml (90/96 vs. 26/26, p=0.208). H. pylori associated with chronic gastritis and chronic active gastritis were equally susceptible to ZnCl. H. pylori demonstrated susceptibility to ZnCl in vitro. H. pylori susceptibility to ZnCl 40??g/ml was greater than BSS and comparable to CLR. ZnCl may be used in the treatment of H. pylori infection. PMID:23844851

Yakoob, Javed; Abbas, Zaigham; Usman, Muhammad Waqas; Awan, Safia; Naz, Shagufta; Jafri, Fatima; Hamid, Saeed; Jafri, Wasim

2014-08-01

376

ZnO Nanorods via Spray Deposition of Solutions Containing Zinc Chloride and Thiocarbamide  

PubMed Central

In this work we present the results on formation of ZnO nanorods prepared by spray of aqueous solutions containing ZnCl2and thiocarbamide (tu) at different molar ratios. It has been observed that addition of thiocarbamide into the spray solution has great impact on the size, shape and phase composition of the ZnO crystals. Obtained layers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy selected backscattered electron detection system (ESB), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). Small addition of thiocarbamide into ZnCl2solution (ZnCl2:tu = 1:0.25) supports development of significantly thinner ZnO nanorods with higher aspect ratio compared to those obtained from ZnCl2solution. Diameter of ZnO rods decreases from 270 to 100 nm and aspect ratio increases from ?2.5 to 12 spraying ZnCl2and ZnCl2:tu solutions, respectively. According to XRD, well crystallized (002) orientated pure wurtzite ZnO crystals have been formed. However, tiny ‘spot’—like formations of ZnS were detected on the side planes of hexagonal rods prepared from the thiocarbamide containing solutions. Being adsorbed on the side facets of the crystals ZnS inhibits width growth and promotes longitudinalc-axis growth. PMID:21794191

2007-01-01

377

Effect of zinc chloride on structural, optical and dielectric behavior of solution grown anthracene crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pure and ZnCl 2 doped anthracene (AN & ANZ) single crystals were grown by the slow evaporation method. In XRD studies a shift in peaks towards higher theta value and change in preferred orientation from (0 0 1) to (0 0 2) were observed as a result of doping. UV-vis spectra show a blueshift of various peaks in ANZ. Remarkable increases in dielectric constant and AC conductivity were observed along with a structure related phase transition at 40 °C in ANZ at atmospheric pressure itself. Good fluorescence properties with a strong green emission were observed in photoluminescence studies.

Sinha, Nidhi; Gupta, Manoj K.; Goel, Neeti; Kumar, Binay

2011-09-01

378

Desulfurization of hot syngas containing hydrogen chloride vapors using zinc titanate sorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

New coal gasification processes that can generate electricity with high thermal efficiency either in a combined gas-turbine, a steam-turbine cycle (IGCC), or in a fuel cell (MCFC) are being developed. Both of these new coal-to-electricity pathways require that the coal-derived fuel gas be at a high temperature and free of potential pollutants, such as sulfur compounds. Unfortunately, some high-sulfur Illinois

Raghubir P. Gupta; W. S. OBrien

2000-01-01

379

Lab-on-a-Chip Sensor with Evaporated Bismuth Film Electrode for Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Zinc  

PubMed Central

In this work, we report on the development of a lab-on-a-chip electrochemical sensor that uses an evaporated bismuth electrode to detect zinc using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The microscale electrochemical cell consists of a bismuth working electrode, an integrated silver/silver chloride reference electrode, and a gold auxiliary electrode. The sensor demonstrated linear response in 0.1 M acetate buffer at pH 6 with zinc concentrations ranging from 1 ?M to 30 ?M and a calculated detection limit of 60 nM. The sensor was also able to successfully detect zinc in a bovine serum extract and the results were verified with independent AAS measurements. These results demonstrate the advantageous qualities of this lab-on-a-chip electrochemical sensor for clinical applications, which include a small sample volume (?L scale), reduced cost, short response time and high accuracy at low concentrations of analyte. PMID:24436575

Kang, Wenjing; Pei, Xing; Yue, Wei; Bange, Adam; Heineman, William R.; Papautsky, Ian

2013-01-01

380

(Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2000, based on contained zinc recoverable from  

E-print Network

coproducts of zinc mining and smelting, in order of decreasing tonnage, were lead, sulfur, cadmium, silver186 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2000, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about

381

(Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2004, based on contained zinc recoverable from  

E-print Network

of zinc mining and smelting, in order of decreasing tonnage, were lead, sulfur, cadmium, silver, gold188 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2004, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about

382

Secretagogue-induced protein phosphorylation and chloride transport in Caco-2 cells  

SciTech Connect

The effects of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (DMPGE2) and dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (DBcAMP) on protein phosphorylation were studied in relation to stimulation of chloride transport in cell suspensions of the human colon epithelial cell line Caco-2. In /sup 36/Cl-loaded cells, VIP and DMPGE2 within 1 min decreased cellular chloride content 35-40%, with half-maximal effects being elicited at 1.0 and 85 nM concentration, respectively. A similar effect on chloride content occurred after 10 min of treatment with 0.5 mM DBcAMP. For all three secretagogues, decreases in cellular chloride content were associated with increases in membrane permeability to chloride. DMPGE2 and VIP within 1 min, and DBcAMP within 10 min, increased the phosphorylation of an unidentified soluble protein of Mr = 42,000 and pI = 6.1, and of a protein of Mr = 20,200 and pI = 4.9 identified as myosin regulatory light chain. Between 10 and 30 min of stimulation, however, phosphorylation of the Mr = 42,000 protein and chloride transport activity remained elevated in DMPGE2- and DBcAMP-treated cells, whereas light chain phosphorylation returned to control level. No effect of secretagogues on phosphorylation was detected in the total particulate fraction or an integral membrane protein fraction. It is concluded that increased membrane permeability to chloride induced by cAMP-mediated secretagogues in Caco-2 is temporally associated with the increased phosphorylation of a Mr = 42,000 soluble protein.

Burnham, D.B.; Fondacaro, J.D.

1989-04-01

383

Concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire from 1960 through 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several studies from the 1970s and more recently (for example, Hall (1975), Daley and others (2009) and Mullaney (2009)) have found that concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire have increased during the past 50 years. Increases likely are related to road salt and other anthropogenic sources, such as septic systems, wastewater, and contamination from landfills and salt-storage areas. According to water-quality data reported to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES), about 100 public water systems (5 percent) in 2010 had at least one groundwater sample with chloride concentrations that were equal to or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) of 250 mg/L before the water was treated for public consumption. The SMCL for chloride is a measurement of potential cosmetic or aesthetic effects of chloride in water. High concentrations of chloride and sodium in drinking-water sources can be costly to remove. A new cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the NHDES (Medalie, 2012) assessed chloride and sodium levels in groundwater in New Hampshire from the 1960s through 2011. The purpose of the study was to integrate all data on concentrations of chloride and sodium from groundwater in New Hampshire available from various Federal and State sources, including from the NHDES, the New Hamsphire Department of Health and Human Services, the USGS, and the U.S. Environmental Protection SurveyAgency (USEPA), for public and private (domestic) wells and to organize the data into a database. Medalie (2012) explained the many assumptions and limitations of disparate data that were collected to meet wide-ranging objectives. This fact sheet summarizes the most important findings of the data.

Medalie, Laura

2013-01-01

384

Molecular Structure of Ferrous chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It has been discovered that high levels of exposure to this chemical substance may lead to iron build-up in the body, which can cause nausea, stomach pain, and vomiting. Due to its corrosiveness, it is used as a resource for treating sewage, mixing metals (metallurgy), and textile dyeing. Also it is used in pharmaceutical preparations to prevent oxidation and degradation of easily oxidizable active ingredients in the compounds. Also it is used in pharmaceutical preparations to prevent oxidation and degradation of easily oxidizable active ingredients in the compounds.

2002-08-27

385

Cobalt chloride induces metaphase when topically applied to larvae and pupae of the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini).  

PubMed

In order to optimize preparations of bee metaphases, we tested cobalt chloride, which has been used as a metaphase inducer in other organisms, such as hamsters and fish. Four microliters of 65 mM cobalt chloride aqueous solution was topically applied to larval and pupal stages of the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. The cerebral ganglion was removed after treatment and prepared for cytogenetic analysis. Identically manipulated untreated individuals were used as controls. The number of metaphases was increased 3-fold in treated individuals compared to controls. The micronucleus test showed no mutagenic effects of cobalt chloride on M. scutellaris cells. We concluded that cobalt chloride is a metaphase-inducing agent in M. scutellaris, thus being useful for cytogenetic analyses. PMID:23420403

Ueira-Vieira, C; Tavares, R R; Morelli, S; Pereira, B B; Silva, R P; Torres-Mariano, A R; Kerr, W E; Bonetti, A M

2013-01-01

386

The Zinc Transporter Zip5 (Slc39a5) Regulates Intestinal Zinc Excretion and Protects the Pancreas against Zinc Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Background ZIP5 localizes to the baso-lateral membranes of intestinal enterocytes and pancreatic acinar cells and is internalized and degraded coordinately in these cell-types during periods of dietary zinc deficiency. These cell-types are thought to control zinc excretion from the body. The baso-lateral localization and zinc-regulation of ZIP5 in these cells are unique among the 14 members of the Slc39a family and suggest that ZIP5 plays a role in zinc excretion. Methods/Principal Findings We created mice with floxed Zip5 genes and deleted this gene in the entire mouse or specifically in enterocytes or acinar cells and then examined the effects on zinc homeostasis. We found that ZIP5 is not essential for growth and viability but total knockout of ZIP5 led to increased zinc in the liver in mice fed a zinc-adequate (ZnA) diet but impaired accumulation of pancreatic zinc in mice fed a zinc-excess (ZnE) diet. Loss-of-function of enterocyte ZIP5, in contrast, led to increased pancreatic zinc in mice fed a ZnA diet and increased abundance of intestinal Zip4 mRNA. Finally, loss-of-function of acinar cell ZIP5 modestly reduced pancreatic zinc in mice fed a ZnA diet but did not impair zinc uptake as measured by the rapid accumulation of 67zinc. Retention of pancreatic 67zinc was impaired in these mice but the absence of pancreatic ZIP5 sensitized them to zinc-induced pancreatitis and exacerbated the formation of large cytoplasmic vacuoles containing secretory protein in acinar cells. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that ZIP5 participates in the control of zinc excretion in mice. Specifically, they reveal a paramount function of intestinal ZIP5 in zinc excretion but suggest a role for pancreatic ZIP5 in zinc accumulation/retention in acinar cells. ZIP5 functions in acinar cells to protect against zinc-induced acute pancreatitis and attenuate the process of zymophagy. This suggests that it may play a role in autophagy. PMID:24303081

Geiser, Jim; De Lisle, Robert C.; Andrews, Glen K.

2013-01-01

387

Thermoluminescence of ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride (10?30gcm?3) have been irradiated by X- and ?-rays at 77K, then progressively rewarmed to room temperature. During that phase, their thermoluminescence has been studied and it was found that, despite their dilution beyond the Avogadro number, the emitted light was specific of the original salts dissolved initially.

Louis Rey

2003-01-01

388

Study of chloridizing volatilization roasting of cinnabar as a basis for a process to obtain mercuric and mercurous chlorides  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of the chloridizing volatilization reaction of concentrated cinnabar ore from Almadén, Spain in\\u000a an air atmosphere in order to obtain mercuric and mercurous chlorides in a single step. The chloridizing agents used were\\u000a ferric or aluminum chloride 6-hydrates. These chlorides decompose to HC1 at temperatures lower than required to break down\\u000a cinnabar. According to the

A. Roca; M. Cruells; C. Núñez

1990-01-01

389

Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O-H-O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

Anderson, A. B.

1984-01-01

390

Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O...H...O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

Anderson, A.B.

1984-10-17

391

Zinc-The key to preventing corrosion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Centuries before it was identified as an element, zinc was used to make brass (an alloy of zinc and copper) and for medicinal purposes. Metallic zinc and zinc oxide were produced in India sometime between the 11th and 14th centuries and in China in the 17th century, although the discovery of pure metallic zinc is credited to the German chemist Andreas Marggraf, who isolated the element in 1746. Refined zinc metal is bluish-white when freshly cast; it is hard and brittle at most temperatures and has relatively low melting and boiling points. Zinc alloys readily with other metals and is chemically active. On exposure to air, it develops a thin gray oxide film (patina), which inhibits deeper oxidation (corrosion) of the metal. The metal's resistance to corrosion is an important characteristic in its use.

Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

2011-01-01

392

Galvanic corrosion of zinc and its alloys  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical and practical information on galvanic corrosion of zinc and its alloys, coupled to other metals, particularly steel, is organized and presented, along with a conceptual and elemental analysis of galvanic coupling between zinc and steel. Various factors which may play roles in galvanic action between zinc and coupled metals are systematically discussed. The principles and practical applications of galvanic protection for steel by zinc coatings, zinc anodes, zinc-rich paints, and other means are also reviewed. Galvanic corrosion of zinc as well as galvanic corrosion of steel are essentially determined by chemical and electrochemical processes in the system, which is a function of the electrode potentials, reactions involved, metallurgical properties, of the materials, surface conditions, electrolytic properties, and geometric arrangement. 120 refs.

Zhang, X.G. [COMINCO Product Technology Centre, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

1996-04-01

393

Zinc therapy in dermatology: a review.  

PubMed

Zinc, both in elemental or in its salt forms, has been used as a therapeutic modality for centuries. Topical preparations like zinc oxide, calamine, or zinc pyrithione have been in use as photoprotecting, soothing agents or as active ingredient of antidandruff shampoos. Its use has expanded manifold over the years for a number of dermatological conditions including infections (leishmaniasis, warts), inflammatory dermatoses (acne vulgaris, rosacea), pigmentary disorders (melasma), and neoplasias (basal cell carcinoma). Although the role of oral zinc is well-established in human zinc deficiency syndromes including acrodermatitis enteropathica, it is only in recent years that importance of zinc as a micronutrient essential for infant growth and development has been recognized. The paper reviews various dermatological uses of zinc. PMID:25120566

Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K; Mehta, Karaninder S; Chauhan, Pushpinder S

2014-01-01

394

Zinc Therapy in Dermatology: A Review  

PubMed Central

Zinc, both in elemental or in its salt forms, has been used as a therapeutic modality for centuries. Topical preparations like zinc oxide, calamine, or zinc pyrithione have been in use as photoprotecting, soothing agents or as active ingredient of antidandruff shampoos. Its use has expanded manifold over the years for a number of dermatological conditions including infections (leishmaniasis, warts), inflammatory dermatoses (acne vulgaris, rosacea), pigmentary disorders (melasma), and neoplasias (basal cell carcinoma). Although the role of oral zinc is well-established in human zinc deficiency syndromes including acrodermatitis enteropathica, it is only in recent years that importance of zinc as a micronutrient essential for infant growth and development has been recognized. The paper reviews various dermatological uses of zinc. PMID:25120566

Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

2014-01-01

395

Electrochemical chloride extraction: efficiency and side effects  

SciTech Connect

Some specimens of reinforced concrete cast with an alkali-resistant aggregate, previously maintained in a solution of NaCl, were subjected to an electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE). The chloride profiles before and after treatment were determined. Likewise, alkali ions profiles before and after treatment were determined. After treatment, some specimens were stored in a controlled atmosphere (60 deg. C and 100% RH) in order to accelerate the alkali-silica reaction, if any. Results of chloride content after treatment show that about 40% of the initial chloride is removed within 7 weeks. About one-half of the chloride close to steel was removed, but at the same time, significant amounts of alkali ions were observed around the steel. Microstructural observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that after treatment, new cementitious phases containing higher concentrations of sodium, aluminum and potassium were formed. Moreover, alkali-silica gel was observed in the specimens stored at 60 deg. C and 100% RH. It may be possible that the ECE accumulates locally high amounts of alkali ions that stimulate the alkali-silica reaction even though the concrete contained nominally inert siliceous aggregates. The specimen expansions were not recorded, but no cracks were observed.

Orellan, J.C.; Escadeillas, G.; Arliguie, G

2004-02-01

396

Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense ??-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

2014-12-01

397

Synaptically-released zinc inhibits N-methyl- d-aspartate receptor activation at recurrent mossy fiber synapses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hippocampal slices from pilocarpine-treated rats were used to explore the effect of zinc released at mossy fiber synapses on dentate granule cells. Chelation of zinc enhanced the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated component of the excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC), but did not affect the AMPA\\/kainate receptor-mediated component. Its effect was detectable only at negative membrane potentials and was pathway specific. Thus corelease

Peter Molnár; J. Victor Nadler

2001-01-01

398

Increase in synaptic hippocampal zinc concentration following chronic but not acute zinc treatment in rats.  

PubMed

Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), one of the most effective treatments of depression, induce mossy fiber sprouting (when assayed by means of synaptic zinc method), and this indicates an increase in the synaptic zinc level in the hippocampus following such therapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of acute and chronic zinc hydroaspartate administration on the synaptic and total zinc level in the rat hippocampus. We used two methods of zinc determination: (1) zinc-selenium method, which images the pool of synaptic zinc, and (2) flame atomic absorption spectrometry, which assays the total concentration of zinc. Our results indicate that chronic (14 x 65 mg/kg), but not acute, zinc hydroaspartate administration intraperitoneally (i.p.) increases the pool of synaptic zinc in the majority of rat hippocampal layers (by 72-190%), except for the stratum moleculare and stratum radiatum CA, and perforant path DG. On the other hand, no changes were found in total hippocampal zinc level, measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. These data suggest that chronic zinc treatment increases the pool of synaptic zinc in the hippocampus, and this effect is similar to that observed following chronic ECS treatment. The measurement of zinc concentration in the whole hippocampus by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry method is not sensitive enough to detect such subtle alteration. PMID:16674928

Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Sowa, Magdalena; Czupryn, Artur; Wiero?ska, Joanna M; Bra?ski, Piotr; Sadlik, Krystyna; Opoka, W?odzimierz; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Smia?owska, Maria; Skangiel-Kramska, Jolanta; Pilc, Andrzej; Nowak, Gabriel

2006-05-23

399

Characteristics of zinc behavior during laser welding of zinc "sandwich" sample  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To address the problem of the zinc being easily gasified in laser welding of galvanized steel, laser welding of a zinc "sandwich" sample was performed to experimentally investigate the behavior and characteristics of the zinc inside and outside the keyhole, including the observation of the keyhole, the zinc vapor and zinc plasma, and the calculation of the electron temperature of the zinc plasma. Based on the principle of imaging amplification, the detected multi-points can be located precisely in order to study the distribution of the electron temperature of the zinc plasma. The results show that the zinc behavior played an important role in the formation of the weld-joint and the zinc plasma altered the energy distribution at the top of the keyhole whose diameter has been enlarged in the welding process. For both continuous-wave laser and pulsed laser welding of zinc "sandwich" sample, the average electron temperature of the zinc keyhole plasma was higher than that of the zinc plasma plume outside the keyhole. In the welding process, the continuous wave laser with higher input energy results in higher position of the zinc plasma with higher electron temperature above the sample surface. More zinc vapor resulted in a higher average electron temperature of the plasma.

Zhang, Yi; Li, Shichun; Chen, Genyu; Zhang, Hairong; Zhang, Mingjun

2012-11-01

400

Therapeutic restoration of spinal inhibition via druggable enhancement of potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2-mediated chloride extrusion in peripheral neuropathic pain.  

PubMed

Peripheral neuropathic pain, typified by the development of spontaneous pain or pain hypersensitivity following injury to the peripheral nervous system, is common, greatly impairs quality of life, and is inadequately treated with available drugs. Maladaptive changes in chloride homeostasis due to a decrease in the functional expression of the potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2 in spinal cord dorsal horn neurons are a major contributor to the central disinhibition of ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptor- and glycine receptor-mediated signaling that characterizes neuropathic pain. A compelling novel analgesic strategy is to restore spinal ionotropic inhibition by enhancing KCC2-mediated chloride extrusion. We review the data on which this theory of alternative analgesia is based, discuss recent high-throughput screens that have searched for small-molecule activators of KCC2, and propose other strategies of KCC2 activation based on recent developments in the basic understanding of KCC2's functional regulation. Exploiting the chloride-dependent functional plasticity of the ?-aminobutyric acid and glycinergic system by targeting KCC2 may be a tenable method of restoring ionotropic inhibition not only in neuropathic pain but also in other "hyperexcitable" diseases of the nervous system such as seizures and spasticity. PMID:24615367

Kahle, Kristopher T; Khanna, Arjun; Clapham, David E; Woolf, Clifford J

2014-05-01

401

Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces on zinc substrates and their application as effective corrosion barriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable superhydrophobic surfaces have been effectively fabricated on the zinc substrates through one-step platinum replacement deposition process without the further modification or any other post processing procedures. The effect of reaction temperatures on the surface morphology and wettability was studied by using SEM and water contact angle (CA) analysis. Under room temperature, the composite structure formed on the zinc substrate was consisted of microscale hexagonal cavities, densely packed nanoparticles layer and micro/nanoscale structures like the flowers. The structure has exhibited great surface roughness and porosity contributing to the superhydrophobicity where the contact angle could reach an ultra high value of around 170°. Under reaction temperature of 80 °C, the composite structure, on the other hand, was hierarchical structure containing lots of nanoscale flowers and some large bushes and showed certain surface roughness (maximum CA value of about 150°). In addition, an optimal superhydrophobic platinum surface was able to provide an effective anticorrosive coating to the zinc substrate when it was immersed into an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (3% NaCl) for up to 20 days. The corrosion process was monitored through electrochemical means and the results are compared with those of unprotected zinc plates.

Ning, Tao; Xu, Wenguo; Lu, Shixiang

2011-12-01

402

Experience with zinc protoporphyrin as a marker of endogenous iron availability in chronic haemodialvsis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Ferritin and the percentage of transferrin saturation (TS) are established parameters with which to evaluate endogenous iron availability during treat- ment of renal anaemia with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo). Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) has been proposed as another valid marker in this setting. Methods. We determined the following parameters in 127 patients, including 117 haemodialysis patients: haemoglobin, erythrocytes, haematocrit, mean

M. Baldus; S. Salopek; M. Moller; J. Schliesser; P. Klooker; J. Reddig; U. Gansert; H. Brass

403

Efficacy of oral zinc therapy in epidermodysplasia verruciformis with squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare, inherited disorder that predisposes patients to widespread human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. There is still no definitive therapeutic modality for EV. A 24 year old male patient with EV was treated with oral zinc sulphate, one of the cheapest and safe immuno-modulator available as therapeutic agent with satisfactory result. PMID:24616858

Sharma, Sudhanshu; Barman, Krishna Deb; Sarkar, Rashmi; Manjhi, Mukesh; Garg, Vijay Kumar

2014-01-01

404

Efficacy of oral zinc therapy in epidermodysplasia verruciformis with squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare, inherited disorder that predisposes patients to widespread human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. There is still no definitive therapeutic modality for EV. A 24 year old male patient with EV was treated with oral zinc sulphate, one of the cheapest and safe immuno-modulator available as therapeutic agent with satisfactory result. PMID:24616858

Sharma, Sudhanshu; Barman, Krishna Deb; Sarkar, Rashmi; Manjhi, Mukesh; Garg, Vijay Kumar

2014-01-01

405

Permanent contraception of dogs induced with intratesticular injection of a Zinc Gluconate-based solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a single intratesticular injection of a Zinc Gluconate-based solution to induce sterility in male dogs. Fifteen pubertal mongrel dogs (8 mo to 4 y old) were assigned to two groups; Control dogs (n = 5) received a single injection of an isotonic saline solution into each testis, whereas Treated dogs (n =

Erika C. S. Oliveira; Maria Raquel P. Moura; Marcelo J. C. de Sá; Valdemiro A. Silva Junior; John P. Kastelic; Robert H. Douglas; Antônio P. Marques Junior

406

Effect of Zinc on Cadmium Toxicity-Induced Oxidative Stress in Winter Wheat Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the antioxidant response of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to cadmium (Cd)-zinc (Zn) interactions, Seedlings of winter wheat (cv. Yuandong 977), were grown in modified Hoagland nutrient solution with the addition of increasing concentrations of Cd (0, 10, 25, 50 ?M). In experiment 2, the seedlings of the same cultivar were treated with

Z.-Q. Zhao; Y.-G. Zhu; R. Kneer; S. E. Smith

2005-01-01

407

Comparison of soil zinc extractants for detection of applied zinc and prediction of leaf zinc concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many soil extractants have been developed for determination of zinc (Zn) availability to plants. The optimum soil Zn extractant should be useful not only for prediction of plant Zn concentration but also for detection of applied Zn levels. The objectives of this study were: i) to compare soil Zn extradants for detecting applied Zn and for predicting peanut leaf Zn

J. G. Davis; T. P. Gaines; M. B. Parker

1995-01-01

408

A two-generational reproductive toxicity study of zinc in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-generation reproductive toxicity study of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) was conducted in rats. Fo male and female rats were administered 0.00 (control), 7.50 (low), 15.00 (mid) and 30.00 (high) mg\\/kg\\/day of ZnCl2. Selected F1 male and female rats were exposed to the same doses received by their parents (Fo). Exposure of F0 parental rats to ZnCl2 showed significant reduction in

Abu T. Khan; Thomas C. Graham; L. Ogden; S. Ali; Salwa; Sherylee J. Thompson; Kaniz F. Shireen; Mohd Mahboob

2007-01-01

409

Vitrification of Polyvinyl Chloride Waste from Korean Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Vitrification is considered as an economical and safe treatment technology for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from nuclear power plants (NPPs). Korea is in the process of preparing for its first ever vitrification plant to handle LLW from its NPPs. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has the largest volume of dry active wastes and is the main waste stream to treat. Glass formulation development for PVC waste is the focus of study. The minimum additive waste stabilization approach has been utilized in vitrification. It was found that glasses can incorporate a high content of PVC ash (up to 50 wt%), which results in a large volume reduction. A glass frit, KEP-A, was developed to vitrify PVC waste after the optimization of waste loading, melt viscosity, melting temperature, and chemical durability. The KEP-A could satisfactorily vitrify PVC with a waste loading of 30 to 50 wt%. The PVC-frit was tolerant of variations in waste composition.

Sheng, Jiawei [Kyoto University (Japan); Choi, Kwansik [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Kyung-Hwa [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myung-Chan [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Song, Myung-Jae [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of)

2000-02-15

410

Treatment of automotive wastewater by coagulation-flocculation using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and aluminum sulfate (alum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A physicochemical treatment (coagulation-flocculation) was applied for automotive wastewater using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and aluminum sulfate (alum) aided by anionic polyacrylamide as flocculant to determine the effectiveness of coagulation method for removal of COD, TSS and heavy metals (Fe, Ni and Zn). The results obtained proved that PAC was comparatively more efficient to FeCl3 and alum. At defined optimum experiment condition (coagulant dose: 70 mg/L, coagulant aid dose: 2 mg/L and pH 7), PAC showed 70% removal for (chemical oxygen demand) COD and 98% of (total suspended solid) TSS. For FeCl3 and alum, the maximum removal for COD were 64% and 54%, meanwhile TSS removal were 91% and 94%. Heavy metals removal using PAC also showed better results in which produced 98% of iron removal, 83% of zinc removal and 63% of nickel removal under optimum condition. The comparison revealed that the use of PAC aided by anionic polyacrylamide produced higher removal for COD, TSS and heavy metals compared to FeCl3 and alum for automotive wastewater treatment.

Bakar, Abdul Fattah Abu; Halim, Azhar Abdul

2013-11-01

411

Zinc toxicosis in a free-flying trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator) was observed near it mill pond in Picher, Oklahoma. USA. It became weakened and emaciated after about 1 mo, was captured with little resistance, and taken into captivity for medical care. Serum chemistry results were consistent with hepatic, renal, and muscular damage. Serum zinc concentration was elevated at 11.2 parts per million (ppm). The swan was treated for suspected heavy-metal poisoning, but died overnight. Gross postmortem findings were emaciation and pectoral muscle atrophy. Histopathologic lesions in the pancreas included mild diffuse disruption of acinar architecture, severe diffuse depletion or absence of zymogen granules, occasional apoptotic bodies ics in acinar epithelial cells, and mild interstitial and capsular fibrosis. Zinc concentration in pancreas was 3,200 ppm wet weight, and was similar to that reported in the pancreases of waterfowl known to be killed by zinc toxicity. Zinc concentrations in liver (154 ppm) and kidneys (145 ppm) also were elevated. Acute tubular necrosis of the collecting tubules of the kidneys was also possibly due to zinc toxicity. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first confirmed case of zinc poisoning in a trumpeter swan associated with mining wastes..

Carpenter, J.W.; Andrews, G.A.; Beyer, W.N.

2004-01-01

412

Zinc toxicosis in a free-flying trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator).  

PubMed

A trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator) was observed near a mill pond in Picher, Oklahoma, USA. It became weakened and emaciated after about 1 mo, was captured with little resistance, and taken into captivity for medical care. Serum chemistry results were consistent with hepatic, renal, and muscular damage. Serum zinc concentration was elevated at 11.2 parts per million (ppm). The swan was treated for suspected heavy-metal poisoning, but died overnight. Gross postmortem findings were emaciation and pectoral muscle atrophy. Histopathologic lesions in the pancreas included mild diffuse disruption of acinar architecture, severe diffuse depletion or absence of zymogen granules, occasional apoptotic bodies in acinar epithelial cells, and mild interstitial and capsular fibrosis. Zinc concentration in pancreas was 3,200 ppm wet weight, and was similar to that reported in the pancreases of waterfowl known to be killed by zinc toxicity. Zinc concentrations in liver (154 ppm) and kidneys (145 ppm) also were elevated. Acute tubular necrosis of the collecting tubules of the kidneys was also possibly due to zinc toxicity. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first confirmed case of zinc poisoning in a trumpeter swan associated with mining wastes. PMID:15650098

Carpenter, James W; Andrews, Gordon A; Beyer, W Nelson

2004-10-01

413

Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

Parry, J. M.

1978-01-01

414

Measuring Sodium Chloride Contents of Aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amount of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles measured in real time by analyzer that includes mass spectrometer. Analyzer used to determine mass distributions of active agents in therapeutic or diagnostic aerosols derived from saline solutions and in analyzing ocean spray. Aerosol particles composed of sodium chloride introduced into oven, where individually vaporized on hot wall. Vapor molecules thermally dissociated, and some of resulting sodium atoms ionized on wall. Ions leave oven in burst and analyzed by spectrometer, which is set to monitor sodium-ion intensity.

Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

1986-01-01

415

Continual Groundwater Monitoring with Inexpensive Chloride Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple chloride sensor technology, using an oxidized silver rod and reference electrode attached to a data logger, can be used as an inexpensive yet effective tool for the continuous measurement of chloride concentration in groundwater. The sensor is seen to be responsive at concentrations from less than 35 mg/l to 35,000 mg/l, with an error of less than 7% after the sensor is corrected for drift. When monitoring changes in groundwater salinity, the sensor has shown to be particularly useful when chloride concentrations are under 100 mg/l; at these lower salinities, conductivity probes become less responsive, whereas the chloride sensor is still able to register the smaller concentration changes. The sensor is particularly useful for continuous monitoring. Calibration and drift adjustment can be accomplished by simply taking a water sample in the beginning and at the end of the monitoring period. This allows the sensor to be adjusted for drift within the signal over the monitoring period. Occasional samples taken during the monitoring period provide control on the drift during the monitoring period. Chloride concentration from the control samples can be accurately and inexpensively calculated through titration methods, and do not need to be sent to an external laboratory for analysis. Tests have shown the sensor to be robust during long-term monitoring. When the sensor has been applied in unconfined aquifers, there has been virtually no observable difference in the responsiveness of the sensors. However, when the sensors are applied in reduced groundwater conditions, gradual fouling of the sensor surface has been seen to reduce the responsiveness of the sensor over time. Thus fouling can be an issue when applying the sensor in reduced conditions. The chloride sensors have shown to be very effective at measuring changes in chloride concentration in groundwater over short time spans. Therefore, the sensors would be particularly useful in monitoring changes in the saltwater - freshwater interface and seawater intrusion, as well as in groundwater tracer tests. In addition, the sensors could be easily applied in monitoring spills from waste disposal sites or well sites conducting hydraulic fracturing, where chloride would be one of the potential leachates to groundwater.

Thorn, P.; Mortensen, J.

2012-12-01

416

Intestinal zinc transport: influence of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, insulin and arachidonic acid  

SciTech Connect

The influence of arachidonic acid (AA) on the zinc flux rates of jejunal segments, isolated from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats injected with saline or with insulin, was investigated using an Ussing chamber technique. Although the zinc flux rates from mucose-to-serosa (J/sub ms/) of normal rats were inhibited by addition of 5 ..mu..M AA to the jejunal segment bathing medium, AA had no effect on the J/sub ms/ of diabetic rats either with or without insulin treatment. Induction of diabetes also significantly reduces J/sub ms/, but 3 day insulin treatment did not reverse this effect. Addition of AA to the serosal side did not significantly alter the zinc flux rate from serosa-to-mucosa (J/sub sm/) in either control, diabetic or diabetic rats treated with insulin. The net zinc absorption rate (J/sub net/) of jejunal segments was decreased in diabetic rats compared to controls, but normalization of blood glucose with 3 day insulin treatment did not increase J/sub net/. Addition of AA was associated with a tendency to increase zinc uptake capacity. This change reached statistical significance in insulin treated diabetic rats. Short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) for diabetic rats was increased compared to controls but addition of AA to the mucosal side bathing medium decreased I/sub sc/ in all groups. 32 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Song, M.K.; Mooradian, A.D.

1988-01-01

417

Zinc metabolism in normal and zinc-deficient rat brain.  

PubMed

Zinc uptake and turnover was measured in nine brain regions, choroid plexus, arachnoid, and cerebrospinal fluid during a 28-day period following a single dose of 65Zn in rats fed Zn-adequate diets. Zinc entry into brain was slow with maximal 65Zn uptake (0.5% of administered dose) occurring between 5 and 14 days in contrast to its rapid metabolism in plasma and nonneural tissues. The brain stem, at the level of the caudal IV ventricle, had the highest rate of initial 65Zn uptake of any brain region. In general, turnover was most rapid in periventricular regions and least in the hippocampus. Relative to plasma, the choroid plexus concentrated 65Zn whereas 65Zn was undetectable in the cerebrospinal fluid after day 1. To determine if specific brain regions were particularly sensitive to changes in Zn status, 65Zn metabolism was measured in Zn-deficient rats and compared with ad libitum- and pair-fed controls. Zinc deficiency was associated with increased 65Zn retention by all brain regions; however, the effect was greatest in optic nerve and choroid plexus. The results of this study suggest that a formidable barrier to Zn entry into brain exists but is under homeostatic control, increasing net Zn uptake during dietary deficiency. Moreover, the choroid plexus may participate in cerebral Zn homeostasis, possibly by transporting Zn out of the cerebrospinal fluid compartment. PMID:6734773

Kasarskis, E J

1984-07-01

418

Zinc Competition among the Intestinal Microbiota  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Bioavailable levels of trace metals, such as iron and zinc, for bacterial growth in nature are sufficiently low that most microbes have evolved high-affinity binding and transport systems. The microbe Campylobacter jejuni lives in the gastrointestinal tract of chickens, the principal source of human infection. A high-affinity ABC transporter for zinc uptake is required for Campylobacter survival in chicken intestines in the presence of a normal microbiota but not when chickens are raised with a limited microbiota. Mass spectrometric analysis of cecal contents revealed the presence of numerous zinc-binding proteins in conventional chicks compared to the number in limited-microbiota chicks. The presence of a microbiota results in the production of host zinc-binding enzymes, causing a growth restriction for bacteria that lack the high-affinity zinc transporter. Such transporters in a wide range of pathogenic bacteria make them good targets for the development of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Importance Zinc is an essential trace element for the growth of most organisms. Quantities of zinc inside cells are highly regulated, as too little zinc does not support growth, while too much zinc is toxic. Numerous bacterial cells require zinc uptake systems for growth and virulence. The work presented here demonstrates that the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract reduces the quantity of zinc. Without a high-affinity zinc transporter, Campylobacter jejuni, a commensal organism of chickens, is unable to replicate or colonize the gastrointestinal tract. This is the first demonstration of zinc competition between microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of a host. These results could have profound implications in the field of microbial pathogenesis and in our understanding of host metabolism and the microbiota. PMID:22851657

Gielda, Lindsay M.; DiRita, Victor J.

2012-01-01

419

Mutagenic and Genotoxic Effects of cis -(Dichloro)tetraammineruthenium(III) Chloride on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemotherapeutic agents play an important role in cancer treatment mostly due their systemic action on human organism allowing\\u000a access to liquid tumors and even metastases. Among these drugs, ruthenium compounds have been showing promising results to\\u000a treat tumors and represent an important development of new antitumor therapy. This study presents the evaluation of cis-(dichloro)tetraammineruthenium(III) chloride, cis-[RuCl2(NH3)4]Cl, genotoxic effects using human

Alessandra de Santana Braga Barbosa Ribeiro; Cláudio Carlos da Silva; Flávia de Castro Pereira; Aliny Pereira de Lima; Cesar Augusto Sam Tiago Vilanova-Costa; Simone Santos Aguiar; Luiz Alfredo Pavanin; Aparecido Divino da Cruz; Elisângela de Paula Silveira-Lacerda

2009-01-01

420

Zinc, T-cell pathways, aging: role of metallothioneins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc is an essential trace element for many biological functions, including immune functions. Indeed zinc is required for the biological activity of a thymic hormone, called thymulin in its zinc-bound form, important for the maturation and differentiation of T-cells. With advancing age zinc, thymic functions and peripheral immune efficiency show a progressive decline. Supplementing zinc in old age restores them.

Eugenio Mocchegiani; Mario Muzzioli; Catia Cipriano; Robertina Giacconi

1998-01-01

421

Leucocyte zinc in non?Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc status and the effect of zinc supplementation were assessed in groups of patients with non?Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease; patients were either untreated or in remission. In the patients in remission, plasma zinc was normal; and whereas 30% of untreated patients had low plasma zinc, the group as a whole did not differ from normal. For mononuclear cell zinc,

Helen P. Field; Robert Jones; Barry E. Walker; Jerry Kelleher; Adrian V. Simmons

1988-01-01

422

Cellular Zinc Levels Are Modulated by TRPML1-TMEM163 Interaction.  

PubMed

Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is caused by loss of function mutations in the TRPML1 ion channel. We previously reported that tissue zinc levels in MLIV were abnormally elevated; however, the mechanism behind this pathologic accumulation remains unknown. Here, we identify transmembrane (TMEM)-163 protein, a putative zinc transporter, as a novel interacting partner for TRPML1. Evidence from yeast two-hybrid, tissue expression pattern, co-immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry and confocal microscopy studies confirmed the physical association of TMEM163 with TRPML1. This interaction is disrupted when a part of TMEM163's N-terminus was deleted. Further studies to define the relevance of their interaction revealed that the plasma membrane (PM) levels of TMEM163 significantly decrease when TRPML1 is co-expressed in HEK-293 cells, while it mostly localizes within the PM when co-expressed with a mutant TRPML1 that distributes mostly in the PM. Meanwhile, co-expression of TMEM163 does not alter TRPML1 channel activity, but its expression levels in MLIV patient fibroblasts are reduced, which correlate with marked accumulation of zinc in lysosomes when these cells are acutely exposed to exogenous zinc (100??M). When TMEM163 is knocked down or when TMEM163 and TRPML1 are co-knocked down in HEK-293 cells treated overnight with 100 nm zinc, the cells have significantly higher intracellular zinc levels than untreated control. Overall, these findings suggest that TMEM163 and TRPML1 proteins play a critical role in cellular zinc homeostasis, and thus possibly explain a novel mechanism for the pathological overload of zinc in MLIV disease. PMID:25130899

Cuajungco, Math P; Basilio, Luigi C; Silva, Joshua; Hart, Thomas; Tringali, Jonathan; Chen, Cheng-Chang; Biel, Martin; Grimm, Christian

2014-11-01

423

Ethambutol-induced toxicity is mediated by zinc and lysosomal membrane permeabilization in cultured retinal cells  

SciTech Connect

Ethambutol, an efficacious antituberculosis agent, can cause irreversible visual loss in a small but significant fraction of patients. However, the mechanism of ocular toxicity remains to be established. We previously reported that ethambutol caused severe vacuole formation in cultured retinal cells, and that the addition of zinc along with ethambutol aggravated vacuole formation whereas addition of the cell-permeable zinc chelator, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), reduced vacuole formation. To investigate the origin of vacuoles and to obtain an understanding of drug toxicity, we used cultured primary retinal cells from newborn Sprague-Dawley rats and imaged ethambutol-treated cells stained with FluoZin-3, zinc-specific fluorescent dye, under a confocal microscope. Almost all ethambutol-induced vacuoles contained high levels of labile zinc. Double staining with LysoTracker or MitoTracker revealed that almost all zinc-containing vacuoles were lysosomes and not mitochondria. Intracellular zinc chelation with TPEN markedly blocked both vacuole formation and zinc accumulation in the vacuole. Immunocytochemistry with antibodies to lysosomal-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2) and cathepsin D, an acid lysosomal hydrolase, disclosed lysosomal activation after exposure to ethambutol. Immunoblotting after 12 h exposure to ethambutol showed that cathepsin D was released into the cytosol. In addition, cathepsin inhibitors attenuated retinal cell toxicity induced by ethambutol. This is consistent with characteristics of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). TPEN also inhibited both lysosomal activation and LMP. Thus, accumulation of zinc in lysosomes, and eventual LMP, may be a key mechanism of ethambutol-induced retinal cell death.

Chung, Hyewon; Yoon, Young Hee [Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnab-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jung Jin [Institute for Innovative Cancer Research, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung Sook [Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnab-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Jae Young [NRL Neural Injury Research Center and the Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, June-Gone [Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnab-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: junekim@amc.seoul.kr

2009-03-01

424

21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...prepared from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with acrylonitrile, methyl...units derived from vinyldene chloride. (c) Optional adjuvant...desired properties may include sodium...

2011-04-01

425

21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...units derived from vinylidene chloride. The finished coating produced from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with methyl methacrylate...desired properties may include sodium...

2011-04-01

426

21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...prepared from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with acrylonitrile, methyl...units derived from vinyldene chloride. (c) Optional adjuvant...desired properties may include sodium...

2013-04-01

427

21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.  

...prepared from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with acrylonitrile, methyl...units derived from vinyldene chloride. (c) Optional adjuvant...desired properties may include sodium...

2014-04-01

428

21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...prepared from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with acrylonitrile, methyl...units derived from vinyldene chloride. (c) Optional adjuvant...desired properties may include sodium...

2010-04-01

429

21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...units derived from vinylidene chloride. The finished coating produced from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with methyl methacrylate...desired properties may include sodium...

2012-04-01

430

21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...units derived from vinylidene chloride. The finished coating produced from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with methyl methacrylate...desired properties may include sodium...

2010-04-01

431

21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...units derived from vinylidene chloride. The finished coating produced from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with methyl methacrylate...desired properties may include sodium...

2013-04-01

432

21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.  

...units derived from vinylidene chloride. The finished coating produced from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with methyl methacrylate...desired properties may include sodium...

2014-04-01

433

21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...prepared from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with acrylonitrile, methyl...units derived from vinyldene chloride. (c) Optional adjuvant...desired properties may include sodium...

2012-04-01

434

40 CFR 415.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production...

2012-07-01

435

Abundance of Zinc Ions in Synaptic Terminals of mocha Mutant Mice: Zinc Transporter 3 Immunohistochemistry and Zinc Sulphide Autometallography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mocha mouse is an autosomal recessive pigment mutant on mouse chromosome 10 caused by a deletion in the gene for the subunit of the adaptor-like complex AP-3. Based on zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) immunohistochemistry, zinc TSQ fluorescence and a modified Timm method, previous studies found a lack of histochemically-detectable zinc and a substantial reduction in the ZnT3 immunoreactivity. It

Meredin Stoltenberg; Lene N. Nejsum; Agnete Larsen; Gorm Danscher

2004-01-01

436

Potentiating effects of oxygen in lungs damaged by methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl, cadmium chloride, oleic acid, and antitumor drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intraperitoneal administration of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) and cyclophosphamide, exposure to an aerosol of cadmium chloride, intravenous administration of oleic acid, and intratracheal instillation of bleomycin to young female BALB\\/c mice or CD\\/CR rats result in acute lung injury. Pulmonary morphology and lung collagen content were examined in animals treated with these chemicals alone or in combination with an

P. J. Hakkinen; C. C. Morse; F. M. Martin; W. E. Dalbey; W. M. Haschek; H. R. Witschi

1983-01-01

437

Water quality improvement through bioretention: lead, copper, and zinc removal.  

PubMed

Intensive automobile use, weathering of building materials, and atmospheric deposition contribute lead, copper, zinc, and other heavy metals to urban and roadway runoff. Bioretention is a low-impact-development best management practice that has the potential to improve stormwater quality from developed areas. The practice represents a soil, sand, organic matter, and vegetation-based storage and infiltration facility used in parking lots and on individual lots to treat runoff. Investigations using pilot-plant laboratory bioretention systems and two existing bioretention facilities documented their effectiveness at removing low levels of lead, copper, and zinc from synthetic stormwater runoff. Removal rates of these metals (based on concentration and total mass) were excellent, reaching close to 100% for all metals under most conditions, with effluent copper and lead levels mostly less than 5 microg/L and zinc less than 25 microg/L. Somewhat less removal was noted for shallow bioretention depths. Runoff pH, duration, intensity, and pollutant concentrations were varied, and all had minimal effect on removal. The two field investigations generally supported the laboratory studies. Overall, excellent removal of dissolved heavy metals can be expected through bioretention infiltration. Although the accumulation of metals is a concern, buildup problems are not anticipated for more than 15 years because of the low metal concentrations expected in runoff. PMID:12683466

Davis, Allen P; Shokouhian, Mohammad; Sharma, Himanshu; Minami, Christie; Winogradoff, Derek

2003-01-01

438

[Steroid metabolism in primates. XVI. Secretion of corticosteroids in the baboon Papio hamadryas during chronic administration of sodium chloride].  

PubMed

The adrenal steroid secretion was investigated in male baboons (Papio hamadryas) treated for a long time with sodium chloride, in comparison to an untreated control group. In animals treated with NaCl, the secretion of progesterone, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, aldosterone and corticosterone was decreased, while cortisone, pregnenolone, 7-keto-cholesterol, 7-keto-DHEA, DHEA and adrenosterone were increased. PMID:125195

Gontscharow, N P; Simarina, A J; Jefremova, S K; Schön, R; Schubert, K

1975-01-01

439

Methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination of methane  

SciTech Connect

Work to develop a highly selective methyl chloride synthesis catalyst continued, but no stable catalyst with >80% selectivity at 20% methane exists yet. Effort was made on finalizing the pre- engineering scope definition of the Process Demonstration Unit. Natural gas purification, reactor, reactor effluent and MeCl purification, and anhydrous HCl recovery are discussed.

Naasz, B.

1993-03-04

440

HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR DICHLOROMETHANE (METHYLENE CHLORIDE)  

EPA Science Inventory

Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) is known to be metabolized to carbon monoxide in man and animals, primarily by the liver. Because the oxygen content of blood is decreased, depriving the brain and heart of the oxygen they require, serious permanent damage may result. Carboxyh...

441

KINETICS STUDY OF CHLORIDE IN RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

The kinetics of chloride were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats following the oral administration of Na36Cl. The half-life for (36)Cl(-1) absorption from plasma was 19.2 hr corresponding to a rate constant of 0.0361 hr, while the half-life for (36)Cl(-1) elimination from plasma was ...

442

MERCURIC CHLORIDE CAPTURE BY ALKALINE SORBENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of bench-scale mechanistic studies of mercury/sorbent reactions that showed that mercuric chloride (HgC12) is readily adsorbed by alkaline sorbents, which may offers a less expensive alternative to the use of activated carbons. A laboratory-scale, fixed-b...

443

Absorption media for irreversibly gettering thionyl chloride  

DOEpatents

Thionyl chloride is a hazardous and reactive chemical used as the liquid cathode in commercial primary batteries. Contrary to previous thinking, ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon (Calgon Corporation) reversibly absorbs thionyl chloride. Thus, several candidate materials were examined as irreversible getters for thionyl chloride. The capacity, rate and effect of temperature were also explored. A wide variety of likely materials were investigated through screening experiments focusing on the degree of heat generated by the reaction as well as the material absorption capacity and irreversibility, in order to help narrow the group of possible getter choices. More thorough, quantitative measurements were performed on promising materials. The best performing getter was a mixture of ZnO and ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon. In this example, the ZnO reacts with thionyl chloride to form ZnCl.sub.2 and SO.sub.2. The SO.sub.2 is then irreversibly gettered by ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon. This combination of ZnO and carbon has a high capacity, is irreversible and functions effectively above -20.degree. C.

Buffleben, George (Tracy, CA); Goods, Steven H. (Livermore, CA); Shepodd, Timothy (Livermore, CA); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy (Danville, CA)

2002-01-01

444

Processing of mercurous chloride in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercurous chloride is an acoustical optical material with an unusually low acoustic velocity and high acousto-optical figure of merit, which makes it an interesting candidate for optical delay lines and Bragg cells for optical signal processors. It also has a broad range of spectral transmissivity which makes it an ideal candidate for wide band acoustically tuned optical filter (ATOF) applications.

C. Watson; N. B. Singh; A. Thomas; A. E. Nelson; T. O. Rolin; J. Griffin; G. Haulenbeek; N. Daniel; J. Seaquist; C. Cacioppo; J. Weber; Maria I. Zugrav; R. J. Naumann

1997-01-01

445

1-Methyl-1-propyl-pyrrolidinium chloride  

PubMed Central

The aymmetric unit of the title compound, C8H18N+·Cl?, consists of one crystallographically independent 1-methyl-1-propyl­pyrrolidinium cation and one chloride anion, both of which lie in general positions. Minor hydrogen-bonded C—H?Cl inter­actions occur. However, no classical hydrogen bonding is observed. PMID:21201968

Dean, Pamela M.; Pringle, Jennifer M.; MacFarlane, Douglas R.

2008-01-01

446

Dr. Carnelley's Experiment with Mercuric Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

I WAS a little surprised to notice from a paragraph in Prof. McLeod's letter in NATURE, vol. xxiv. p. 28, that he had been unable to repeat Dr. Carnelley's experiment with mercuric chloride. Immediately after the publication of my former letter, it was remarked to me, that although I had shown hot ice to be an impossible commodity, perhaps Dr.

J. B. Hannay

1881-01-01

447

Third Order Elastic Constants of Ammonium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sound velocities along several directions in ammonium chloride crystals have been measured under hydrostatic and uniaxial pressures by means of an ultrasonic method. Second order elastic constants and their pressure derivatives were evaluated in the vicinity of the phase transition point in disordered phase, and third order elastic constants were calculated from the data. It was found that the absolute

Haruyasu Yamashita; Itaru Tatsuzaki

1984-01-01

448

The dissolution of chalcopyrite in chloride solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Parts 1 and 2 of this series, which describe the results of a study of the dissolution of chalcopyrite under conditions that could be expected in a heap leaching process for primary copper minerals, it was shown that enhanced leaching of chalcopyrite from several copper concentrates in dilute acidic chloride solutions can be achieved by controlling the potential in

Michael Nicol; Hajime Miki; Lilian Velásquez-Yévenes

2010-01-01

449

Ferric chloride plus GAC for removing TOC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment is one method that water utilities can use to increase removal of natural organic matter and comply with tibe recently promulgated Disinfectants\\/Disinfection By-products Rule. The cost of GAC depends on its useful service life and its capacity for reuse. The research reported here used minicolumns to investigate how ferric chloride coagulation influenced the total organic

Kirk O. Nowack; Fred S. Cannon; Harish Arora

1999-01-01

450

Electrorefining of aluminium scrap from chloride melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of aluminium of primary quality from scrap by electrorefining may become an option of strategic importance. Two important requirements are: (i) substantial energy savings compared to electrowinning, and (ii) easy recycling of alloying elements and molten electrolyte without ecological hazards. The use of molten chloride instead of fluoride electrolytes is preferred as emissions are low, purification of contaminated

V. Schwarz; H. Wendt

1995-01-01

451

Long life, rechargeable nickel-zinc battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A production version of the inorganic separator was evaluated for improving the life of the nickel-zinc system. Nickel-zinc cells (7-10 Ah capacities) of different electrode separator configurations were constructed and tested. The nickel-zinc cells using the inorganic separator encasing the zinc electrode, the nickel electrode, or both electrodes had shorter lives than cells using Visking and cellophane separation. Cells with the inorganic separation all fell below 70% of their theoretical capacity within 30 cycles, but the cells constructed with organic separation required 80 cycles. Failure of the cells using the ceramic separator was irreversible capacity degradation due to zinc loss through cracks developed in the inorganic separator. Zinc loss through the separator was minimized with the use of combinations of the inorganic separator with Visking and cellophane. Cells using the combined separation operated 130 duty cycles before degrading to 70% of their theoretical capacity.

Luksha, E.

1974-01-01

452

High performance zinc anode for battery applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved zinc anode for use in a high density rechargeable alkaline battery is disclosed. A process for making the zinc electrode comprises electrolytic loading of the zinc active material from a slightly acidic zinc nitrate solution into a substrate of nickel, copper or silver. The substrate comprises a sintered plaque having very fine pores, a high surface area, and 80-85 percent total initial porosity. The residual porosity after zinc loading is approximately 25-30%. The electrode of the present invention exhibits reduced zinc mobility, shape change and distortion, and demonstrates reduced dendrite buildup cycling of the battery. The disclosed battery is useful for applications requiring high energy density and multiple charge capability.

Casey, John E., Jr. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

453

Evaluation of strychnine and zinc phosphide baits to control northern pocket gophers ( Thomomys talpoides) in alfalfa fields in Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the effectiveness of Sanex 0.40% strychnine-treated oats, Fairview 0.37% strychnine-treated grains, and United Agri Products 2% zinc phosphide-treated oats to control northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) populations in alfalfa fields in Alberta, Canada. The poison baits were tested during three phenological periods corresponding to the repr