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21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions...



A case of zinc chloride ingestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc chloride is a powerful corrosive agent. Reports of zinc chloride ingestion are uncommon, and there is little information about its toxicity and management. The authors report the clinical course of a 10-year-old girl who accidentally ingested an acid soldering flux solution (pH, 3.0; zinc chloride, 30%to

Atsuyuki Yamataka; Kevin C Pringle; John Wyeth



Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride  


In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA); Rosenhoover, William A. (Pittsburgh, PA)



Transference numbers of zinc in zinc-chloride battery electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Migration of zinc-ion species affects the local zinc chloride concentration and solution density in the electrolyte adjacent to the zinc electrode and in this way influences natural convection at the electrode during both charge and discharge. Experimentally measured transference numbers are presented for ionic-zinc species in aqueous solutions containing 1.5-3m ZnCl2 + 0-4m KCl + 0-3m NaCl + 0-0.4m HCl at 30 C using the Hittorf method. Negative transference numbers for zinc are obtained in the majority of mixed-salt solutions, with minima of -0.2 to -0.3 occurring in the chloride ion concentration range of 6-8m. The transference number of zinc in general depends on the total chloride content. The effect of the cations is found to be small, noticeable only at higher concentrations; it follows the order of their ionic mobilities. The data corroborate the presence of anionic zinc complexes, such as ZnCl3(-) and ZnCl4(2-), which account for the negative transference numbers.

Jorne, J.; Ho, W.-T.



Electrowinning Zinc from Zinc Chloride-Alkali Metal Chloride Electrolytes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of its goal to help maintain an adequate supply of minerals to meet national economic and strategic needs, the Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, is investigating a fused-salt electrolytic procedure for producing zinc metal. A previ...

D. E. Shanks F. P. Haver C. H. Elges M. M. Wong



Hydrocracking with molten zinc chloride catalyst containing 2-12% ferrous chloride  


In a process for hydrocracking heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about C. by contacting the feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten zinc chloride catalyst and thereafter separating at least a major portion of the hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten zinc chloride catalyst, an improvement comprising: adjusting the FeCl.sub.2 content of the molten zinc chloride to from about 2 to about 12 mol percent based on the mixture of ferrous chloride and molten zinc chloride.

Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA); Bagshaw, Gary H. (Library, PA)



40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory....



Dynamics of vitreous and molten zinc chloride  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of vitreous and molten zinc chloride have been studied with inelastic neutron scattering at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source. The results are analyzed in terms of the scattering function S(Q,E) and the effective vibrational density of states G(E). The vibrational spectra of both glass and liquid are dominated by broad features centered at 15 and 35 MeV which are identified with F{sub 2} modes of ZnCl{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} tetrahedra. The other two normal modes are not observed because of inadequate resolution and broadening and overlap resulting from coupling between tetrahedra. The behavior of ZnCl{sub 2} is contrasted with other tetrahedrally coordinated glasses that have been studied with the same technique. 15 refs,. 5 figs., 1 tab.

Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.L.; Susman, S.; Volin, K.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Wright, A.C. (Reading Univ. (United Kingdom). J.J. Thomson Physical Lab.)




EPA Science Inventory

The environmental and economic implications of substituting zinc chloride electroplating for cadmium cyanide electroplating were evaluated. he process substitution was successful in achieving product quality to satisfy the customer requirements for corrosion resistance. orrosion ...


The Limiting Phenomena at the Anode of the Electrowinning of Zinc from Zinc Chloride in a Molten Chloride Electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research is to investigate the possibilities and technological viability for the electrowinning of zinc from zinc chloride. This research contributes to development of an alternative process, because it provides:\\u000a\\u0009A clear understanding and overview of the present zinc industry and future developments.\\u000a\\u0009A thorough literature investigation, leading to:\\u000ao\\u0009Understanding the reasons to abandon

S. C. Lans



Intercalation studies of zinc hydroxide chloride: Ammonia and amino acids  

SciTech Connect

Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) is a layered hydroxide salt with formula Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O. It was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time and results were compared with intercalation products of the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate and a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide. Ammonia was intercalated into ZHC, while no significant intercalation occurred in ZHN. Aspartic acid intercalation was only achieved by co-precipitation at pH=10 with ZHC and pH=8 with zinc hydroxide nitrate. Higher pH resistance in ZHC favored total deprotonation of both carboxylic groups of the Asp molecule. ZHC conferred more thermal protection against Asp combustion presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 Degree-Sign C while the exothermic event in ZHN was 366 Degree-Sign C and in the LDH at 276 Degree-Sign C. - Graphical abstract: The zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) with formula Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O was tested as intercalation matrix. In comparison with the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) and layered double hydroxides (LDH), ZHC was the best matrix for thermal protection of Asp combustion, presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 Degree-Sign C, while the highest exothermic event in ZHN was at 366 Degree-Sign C, and in the LDH it was at 276 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZHC has higher chemical and thermal stability than zinc hydroxide nitrate and LDH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NH{sub 3} molecules can be intercalated into ZHC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amino group of amino acids limits the intercalation by ion-exchange.

Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal, E-mail: [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Marcelino Garcia Barragan 1421, CP 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico (Mexico)



Zinc chloride inhibition of Nitrosococcus mobilis.  


Nitrosococcus mobilis, a halophilic nitrifier, plays an important role in global nitrogen cycling and in the removal of nitrogen from wastewater treatment plants. However, ammonia oxidation is sensitive to a wide variety of inhibitors, including the heavy metal, zinc. Using a metabolic-steady-state reactor, shotgun DNA microarrays, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), this research looked at the dynamic physiological and transcriptional responses of N. mobilis to 1 and 10 microM ZnCl2. By oxygen uptake rate measurements, zinc was determined to act directly on the ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) enzyme. The addition of excess copper prevented the inhibition of AMO by ZnCl2 suggesting that zinc and copper compete for placement in the metal active site in AMO. Shotgun DNA microarrays identified four previously unsequenced genes that were up- or down-regulated in response to 10 microM ZnCl2. Genes up-regulated in response to zinc inhibition include methionine synthase I, UbiA prenyltransferase and a recG-like helicase. RuBisCO was the lone down-regulated gene identified. qPCR was used to track the gene expression of the identified genes over the course of the 4-h experiment for both ZnCl2 concentrations. Because of their physiological importance, the expressions of AMO and hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) were also monitored via qPCR. The qPCR results showed general agreement with the shotgun DNA microarray results for metH, UbiA, recG and RuBisCO, and revealed that AMO and HAO expression levels were maintained or modestly up-regulated during ZnCl2 inhibition. PMID:17929325

Radniecki, T S; Ely, R L




Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical behavior of zinc-zirconium alloys was studied by ; determinating the electromotive force of galvanic cells which comprise an alloy ; electrode, a pure metal electrode (zinc or zirconium), and an electrolyte made up ; of a eutectic mixture of potassium chloride and lithium chloride. When the ; galvanic chain comprises an alloy electrode and a pure zinc electrcde,

C. Decroly; R. Vaghar



Some applications of fusion reactions with zinc chloride in inorganic spot test analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Anhydrous hydrogen chloride, which is far more reactive than concentrated aqueous hydrochloric acid, is formed when solid zinc chloride or evaporation residues of its solutions are heated. Certain reactions, which cannot be accomplished with the concentrated aqueous acid, can be realized by fusion with zinc chloride. Detection of calcium, magnesium, ferrous iron, nickel, and potassium in silicates; differentiation of

Fritz Feigl; Alcides Caldas



Zirconium and hafnium tetrachloride separation by extractive distillation with molten zinc chloride lead chloride solvent  

SciTech Connect

In an extractive distillation method for separating hafniuim tetrachloride from zirconium tetrachloride of the type wherein a mixture of zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides is introduced into an extractive distillation column, which extractive distillation column has a reboiler connected at the bottom and a reflux condenser connected at the top and wherein a molten salt solvent is circulated into the reflux condenser and through the column to provide a liquid phase, and wherein molten salt solvent containing zirconium tetrachloride is taken from the reboiler and run through a stripper to remove zirconium tetrachloride product from the molten salt solvent and the stripped molten salt solvent is returned to the reflux condenser and hafnium tetrachloride enriched vapor is taken as product from the reflux condenser, the improvement is described comprising: the molten salt having a composition of at least 30 mole percent zinc chloride and at least 10 mole percent of lead chloride.

McLaughlin, D.F.; Stoltz, R.A.



Zinc Hydroxystannate- or Zinc Stannate-coated Calcium Carbonate as Flame Retardant for Semirigid Poly(vinyl chloride)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flame retardant and smoke suppressant properties of semirigid PVC treated with CaCO3, zinc hydroxystannate, zinc stannate, zinc hydroxystannate-coated calcium carbonate, and zinc stannate-coated calcium carbonate have been studied through the limiting oxygen index, anaerobic char yield, and smoke density rating (SDR) methods. The thermal degradation in air of the treated semirigid PVC is studied by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential

J. Z. Xu; Y. H. Jiao; H. Q. Qu; C. M. Tian; N. Cai



Protective effect of zinc chloride against cobalt chloride-induced cytotoxicity on vero cells: preliminary results.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the possible time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of cobalt chloride on Vero cells. The cultured cells were incubated with different concentrations of cobalt chloride ranging from 0.5 to 1,000 ?M, and cytotoxicity was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and resazurin assays. Possible protective effects of vitamin E, coenzyme Q(10), and zinc chloride were also tested in this system. A gradual decrease in cell proliferation was observed at concentrations ~? 200 ?M in incubation periods of 24, 48, 72, and 96 h with MTT assay. Exposure of cells to 500 and 1,000 ?M cobalt chloride caused significant decrease in cell survival. A biphasic survival profile of cells was observed at 1-25 ?M concentration range following 96 h of incubation. With resazurin assay, cytotoxicity profile of CoCl(2) was found comparable to the results of MTT assay, particularly at high concentrations and long incubation periods. Dose-dependent cytotoxicity was noted following exposure of cells to ? 250 ?M of CoCl(2) for 24 h and ? 100 ?M concentrations of CoCl(2) for 48-96 h. Pretreatment of cells with ZnCl(2) for 4 or 24 h provided significant protection against cobalt chloride-induced cytotoxicity when measured with MTT assay. However, vitamin E or coenzyme Q(10) was not protective. CoCl(2) had dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects in Vero cells. Preventive effect of ZnCl(2) against CoCl(2)-induced cytotoxicity should be considered in detail to define exact mechanism of toxicity in Vero cells. PMID:22281816

Grbay, Aylin



Zinc poisoning  


... preservatives, and ointments Rust prevention coatings Vitamin and mineral supplements Zinc chloride Zinc oxide (relatively nonharmful) Zinc acetate Zinc sulfate Heated or burned galvanized metal (releases zinc fumes) ...


Coal Liquefaction Using Zinc Chloride Catalyst in an Extracting Solvent Medium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal liquefaction was studied in a stirred autoclave using zinc chloride catalyst in a cyclohexane solvent medium. Three different coals were investigated: SRC-I, Wyodak subbituminous coal, and Illinois number 6 bituminous coal. Studies on the effect of r...

A. T. Bell S. A. Gandhi



Effect of zinc chloride on the growth and characterization of L-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate semiorganic NLO single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of zinc doped L-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate were successfully grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation method at room temperature for different molar concentration of zinc chloride. The structural properties of grown crystals have been studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction studies and Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis. The incorporation of the dopant (zinc chloride) into L-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate crystal lattice has been confirmed by EDAX analysis. UV-Vis spectral analyses showed that the doped crystals have lower UV cut-off wavelength at 200 nm combined with very good transparency about 85% in a very wide range. The second harmonic generation efficiency test has been carried out and results are discussed. The 0.2 and 0.4 mol Zinc chloride doped crystals were thermally stable up to 208.9 C and 211.9 C respectively. The electrical properties have been studied by dielectric constant studies. All results are compared with the results of pure L-PCCM crystals.

Vetrivel, S.; Anandan, P.; Kanagasabapathy, K.; Bhattacharya, Suman; Gopinath, S.; Rajasekaran, R.



Zinc recovery by ultrasound acid leaching of double kiln treated electric arc furnace dust  

SciTech Connect

The need to convert 70,000 tons a year of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust into an environmentally safe or recyclable product has encouraged studies to reclaim zinc from this waste material. Successful characterization of a double-kiln calcine, produced from EAF dust, has shown that the calcine pellets consisted mainly of zinc oxide plates with some iron oxide particles. Preliminary leaching tests using hydrochloric and sulfuric acids indicated that this calcine is suitable for selective ultrasound leaching of zinc. A factorially designed screening test using hydrochloric acid showed that ultrasound significantly lowered iron dissolution and increased zinc dissolution, thus enhancing the selective leaching of zinc. Ultrasound, temperature, air bubbling rate and acidity increased the sulfuric acid selectivity, while fluorosilicic acid was not selective. Reactor characterization through ultrasonic field measurements led to the selection of reactor and ultrasound bath, which were utilized to enhance the selectivity of a laboratory scale sulfuric acid leaching of a double-kiln treated electric arc furnace dust. Results indicated that ultrasonic leaching of this calcine is a satisfactory technique to selectively separate zinc from iron. After further iron removal by precipitation and cementation of nickel, it was possible to electrowin zinc from the leach liquor under common industrial conditions, with current efficiencies from 86% through 92% being observed. Calcine washing showed that a substantial chloride removal is possible, but fluoride ion in the electrolyte caused deposit sticking during electrowinning.

Barrera Godinez, J.A.



XPS characterisation of plasma treated and zinc oxide coated PET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At first, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses of reference and carbon dioxide plasma treated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were carried out. Significant chemical modifications were outlined in the treated PET surface in comparison with the reference one. The formation of new oxygenated groups was evidenced. These modifications heighten the level of interactions between the polymer substrate and the deposited coating. In a second stage, zinc oxide thin films were elaborated by r.f. magnetron sputtering from a ceramic target and with a reactive gas (mixture of argon-1% oxygen) under optimised conditions on CO 2 plasma treated PET. The interfacial chemistry between the plasma treated PET and the zinc oxide was also studied by XPS. The line shape changes in the high-resolution core level spectra of carbon C1s, oxygen O1s, and zinc (Zn2p3/2, Zn3p), with the progressive deposition of zinc oxide coatings being recorded. The obtained spectra were fitted to mixed Gaussian-Lorentzian components using XPS CASA software. An interaction scheme between the zinc oxide thin layer and its polymer substrate, in the first stage of deposition, was proposed and checked by corroborating the findings of the different XPS spectra and their decompositions. It suggests the formation of Zn sbnd O sbnd C complexes at the interface, which are promoted by an electron transfer from zinc to oxygen in oxygenated species, mainly alcohol groups, generated by the CO 2 plasma treatment of PET.

Amor, S. Ben; Jacquet, M.; Fioux, P.; Nardin, M.


Effect of calcium chloride on the physical characteristics of cellulose fibers regenerated from zinc-cellulose complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

High tensile strength cellulose fibers were made from zinc-cellulose complexes in zinc chloride solution. The formation of zinc-cellulose complex is a path-dependent process. There are many possible types of zinc-cellulose complexes that could be formed in the dissolution process of cellulose. Many metal ions were also shown to interfere with complex formation. Different zinc-cellulose complexes resulted in cellulose fibers with

Qin Xu



Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil shale ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordanian oil shale ash was used as an adsorbent for the removal of copper and zinc from aqueous solution. This ash was treated with either hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric or phosphoric acids followed by washing and\\/or neutralization with sodium hydroxide in order to enhance its adsorption capacity. The sample that was treated with nitric acid showed the highest cation exchange capacity

Reyad Shawabkeh; Adnan Al-Harahsheh; Awni Al-Otoom



Characteristic features of the addition of various isomers of pyridinecarboxylic and aminobenzoic acids to zinc and manganese chlorides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infrared spectra of the products of the addition of pyridinecarboxylic and aminobenzoic acids to copper, manganese, and zinc chlorides have been studied. All the copper compounds, and some of the manganese and zinc compounds, are formed by coordination of the pyridine or aniline nitrogen atom. The other manganese and zinc compounds have an \\

M. A. Azizov; Ya. V. Rashkes; Kh. Kh. Khakimov; S. I. Ibatov; A. D. Khamraev



Nonaqueous reduction of aromatic sulfonyl chlorides to thiols using a dichlorodimethylsilane-zinc-dimethylacetamide system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new and efficient method for the non-aqueous reduction of sulfonyl chlorides to affored the corresponding thiols by use of a dichlorodimethylsilane-zinc-dimethylacetamide system was successfully developed. Various aromatic thiols were prepared in high yield by easy operation. Continuous reactions with the above reduction using the prepared thiol were also demonstrated.

Hiromi Uchiro; Susumu Kobayashi



Structural and Mechanical Studies of Semi-Organic NLO Material: Zinc Thiourea Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of bulk zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) single crystals from aqueous solution by low temperature solution growth technique has been reported. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms the crystal structure. The crystalline quality was assessed by high resolution XRD technique. The thermal stability of the crystal was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The microhardness measurement has been carried out

R. Ezhil Vizhi; R. Ashok Kumar; K. Sathiyanarayanan; N. Vijayan; G. Bhagavannarayana; D. Rajan Babu



Textural and chemical properties of zinc chloride activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of activation temperature on the textural and chemical properties of the activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells using zinc chloride activation under both inert nitrogen gas atmosphere and vacuum condition were studied. Relatively low temperature of 400C was beneficial for the development of pore structures. Too high an activation temperature would lead to sintering of volatiles and shrinkage

Ting Yang; Aik Chong Lua



Risk analysis of exposure to high concentrations of zinc chloride smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

During World War II it was discovered that HC military smoke may produce serious injury and death. This is apparently due to developments in smoke generation technology which result in the production of very finely divided zinc chloride particles. Unlike earlier forms of HC smoke, these particles can reach the lower respiratory tract passages and the lungs and cause corrosive

W. E. Stocum; R. G. Hamilton



Reactions of esters of cyclopropylfurancarboxylic acids in the system paraform-hydrogen chloride-zinc chloride and phosphorylation of reaction products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethyl 2- and 5-cyclopropylfuran-3-carboxylates react with the system comprising Paraform, hydrogen chloride, and zinc chloride to form chloromethyl derivatives. This process is accompanied by selective cleavage of the cyclopropane ring, leading to appearance of a ?-chloropropyl fragment. Phosphorylation of the resulting halides with sodium diethyl phosphite in benzene involves exclusively the chloromethyl group.

L. M. Pevzner



ARDS after accidental inhalation of zinc chloride smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five soldiers were injured by inhalation of hexite smoke (ZnCl2) during military training. Two soldiers, not wearing gas masks breathed hexite for 1 or 2 min, they slowly developed severe\\u000a adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) over the ensuing 2 weeks. This slow, progressive clinical course has not been previously\\u000a described. In both patients, an increased plasma zinc concentration was measured

E. Hjorts; J. Ovist; M. I. Bud; J. L. Thomsen; J. B. Andersen; F. Wiberg-Jrgensen; N. K. Jensen; R. Jones; L. M. Reid; W. M. Zapol



Novel acidic ionic liquids mediated zinc chloride: Highly effective catalysts for the Beckmann rearrangement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mild, efficient, and eco-friendly procedure for Beckmann rearrangement was catalyzed by a series of novel Brnsted acidic ionic liquids (ILs) consisiting double SO3H cations mediated zinc chloride (ILsZnCl2) catalytic system. High yields of amides were achieved by using 5mol.% of ILsZnCl2 catalysts. In addition, the catalyst system could be recycled and reused for three times.

Xiaofei Liu; Linfei Xiao; Hugjiltu Wu; Zhen Li; Jing Chen; Chungu Xia



Production of Activated Carbon from Date Stones by Using Zinc Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of activated carbon from date stones by chemical activation with zinc chloride (ZnCl2) was experimentally investigated using a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor. The effects of process variables, such as activation time, activation temperature, impregnation ratio, and particle size, on the production and quality of activated carbon were measured in terms of adsorptive capacity by iodine number test. An activation time

F. A. H. Al-Qaessi



Structural and Mechanical Studies of Semi Organic NLO Material: Zinc Thiourea Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of bulk zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) single crystals from aqueous solution by low temperature solution growth technique has been reported. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the crystal structure. The Crystalline quality was assessed by high resolution X-ray diffraction technique. The thermal stability of the crystal was investigated using thermo-gravimetric analysis. The Microhardness measurement has been carried out at

R. Ezhil Vizhi; R. Ashok Kumar; K. Sathiyanarayanan; N. Vijayan; G. Bhagavannarayana; D. Rajan Babu



Synthesis of peptides employing Fmoc-amino acid chlorides and commercial zinc dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupling of Fmoc-amino acid chlorides mediated by activated commercial zinc dust for the synthesis of peptides is described. The reaction is carried out in an organic medium. The necessity of using an inorganic base like NaHCO3Na2CO3 or an organic base like DIEA\\/NMM\\/TEA\\/pyridine is circumvented. The coupling is reasonably fast, clean, racemization free and high yielding.

Hosahydya N. Gopi; Vommina V. Suresh Babu



Zirconium and hafnium tetrachloride separation by extractive distillation with molten zinc chloride calcium and/or magnesium chloride solvent  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an extractive distillation method for separating hafnim tetrachloride from zirconium tetrachloride of the type wherein a mixture of zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides is introduced into an extractive distillation column, which distillation column has a reflux reboiler connected at the bottom and a reflux absorber connected at the top and wherein a molten salt solvent is circulated into the reflux absorber and through the column to provide a liquid phase. The molten salt solvent contains zirconium tetrachloride and is taken from the reboiler and run through a stripper to remove zirconium tetrachloride product from the molten salt solvent and the stripped molten salt solvent is returned to the reflux absorber and hafnium tetrachloride enriched vapor is taken as product from the reflux absorber. The improvement comprises: the molten salt solvent having a composition of at least 80 weight percent zinc chloride and at least 5 percent of a viscosity reducer, the viscosity reducer being chosen from the group consisting of magnesium chloride; and calcium chloride, and mixtures thereof.

Stoltz, R.A.; McLaughlin, D.F.



The influence of nickel ions and triethylbenzylammonium chloride on the electrowinning of zinc from sulphate electrolytes containing manganese ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of potentiodynamic dissolution of the deposited zinc, the influence of nickel ions and triethylbenzylammonium chloride (TEBA) on the electrowinning of zinc from sulphate electrolytes is studied. In the presence of a Nafion 423 cationic membrane separating the electrode compartments, the influence of nickel ions is weakened. The membrane prevents access to the cathode by the oxidized products from

Yavor Stefanov; Ivan Ivanov



Susceptibility of different bacterial species isolated from food animals to copper sulphate, zinc chloride and antimicrobial substances used for disinfection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 569 different bacterial isolates (156 Salmonella, 202 E. coli, 43 S. aureus, 38 S. hyicus, 52 E. faecalis, 78 E. faecium) were tested for susceptibility to copper sulphate, benzalkonium chloride, hydrogen peroxide and chlorhexidine using MIC determinations. A total of 442 isolates were also tested for susceptibility to formaldehyde and 177 isolates for susceptibility to zinc chloride.

Frank M Aarestrup; Henrik Hasman



Studies of micromorphology and current efficiency of zinc electrodeposited from flowing chloride electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

Results of a study of the micromorphology and current efficiency of zinc electrodeposited from flowing, acidic chloride solutions are reported. The effects of six variables were examined: flow rate, current density, zinc and hydrogen ion concentration, concentrations of nickel, iron and cadmium impurity ions, and the nature of the substrate. The development of micromorphology was studied in-situ by means of videomicrography and ex-situ by means of scanning electron microscopy. This investigation focused on the formation of grooved deposits, which are found under a wide range of deposition conditions. The major conclusions of this study are: the most important variable determining whether grooved deposits form is the interfacial concentration; large protrusions orient themselves parallel to the flow direction with the orientation starting upstream and progressing downstream; large protrusions become ridges due to growth of the highest current density portions of the electrode under mass transport control. The current efficiency was measured using EDTA titration and weight measurements. The fraction of the current taken by zinc deposition increased with zinc concentration, ranging up to 100%, and decreased with pH. The efficiency of zinc deposition was affected by the flow rate and the substrate employed. Impurities lowered the current efficiency.

Mc Vay, L.; Muller, R.H.; Tobias, C.W.



Potentiation of bacterial killing activity of zinc chloride by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate.  


Zinc has antimicrobial activity and zinc salts including zinc chloride (ZnCl(2)) have been used for the control of oral malodor. In this study, we hypothesized that pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a zinc ionophore, may enhance antimicrobial efficacy of ZnCl(2). The bactericidal effectiveness of ZnCl(2) alone (0.5-8 mM) or in combination with PDTC (1 or 10 microM) was evaluated by in vitro short (1 h) time-killing assays against Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Only a slight viability decrease was observed with ZnCl(2) or PDTC alone after 1-h incubation. By contrast, combination of ZnCl(2) and PDTC could achieve a more than 100-fold viability reduction compared with ZnCl(2) or PDTC alone in F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis. Therefore, PDTC greatly enhanced the bactericidal activity of ZnCl(2) against the oral malodor-producing bacteria. These results suggest that use of PDTC may be useful for enhancing bactericidal activity of antimalodor regimens of zinc salts. PMID:20221728

Choi, Eun-Kyoung; Lee, Hye-Hyang; Kang, Mi-Sun; Kim, Byung-Gook; Lim, Hoi-Soon; Kim, Seon-Mi; Kang, In-Chol





... ulcers and promoting weight gain in people with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa. Some people use zinc ... weight gain and improving depression in people with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa. Treating hypogeusia, a rare ...


Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 85-274-1879, Evaluation of Zinc Chloride Smoke Generating Devices, International Association of Fire Fighters, Washington, DC.,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An assessment was made of hazards to fire fighters (SIC-9224) of using different zinc-chloride (7646857) smoke generating devices, manufactured by the Superior Signal Company, Inc. (SIC-2899), New Jersey. used in fire fighter training exercises, zinc comp...

J. N. Zey F. Richardson



Simulation of spray drying with reaction: Absorption of hydrogen sulfide in ammoniacal solution of zinc chloride  

SciTech Connect

Absorption of hydrogen sulfide gas in ammoniacal solution of zinc chloride is accompanied with an instantaneous chemical reaction forming zinc sulfide precipitates. Such reactions are most suited for operation of spray drying with reaction. A mathematical model for the system which incorporates chemical reaction, heat, mass and momentum transfer has been proposed. It is assumed that the gases and the spray is considered monodisperse for sake of simplicity. The differential equations derived for the model have been solved as an initial value problem using the Runge-Kutta method. The variations of temperature, humidity, droplet diameter, moisture content and concentrations of reactants are predicted along the length of the column and compared with experimental data.

Chander, H.; Ghosh, P.K. (National Physical Lab., New Delhi (India)); Baveja, K.K.; Dhingra, S.C. (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India))



Effect of water vapor on the thermal decomposition process of zinc hydroxide chloride and crystal growth of zinc oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal decomposition process of zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC), Zn5(OH)8Cl2H2O, prepared by a hydrothermal slow-cooling method has been investigated by simultaneous X-ray diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry (XRD-DSC) and thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) in a humidity-controlled atmosphere. ZHC was decomposed to ZnO through ?-Zn(OH)Cl as the intermediate phase, leaving amorphous hydrated ZnCl2. In humid N2 with P=4.5 and 10 kPa, the hydrolysis of residual ZnCl2 was accelerated and the theoretical amount of ZnO was obtained at lower temperatures than in dry N2, whereas significant weight loss was caused by vaporization of residual ZnCl2 in dry N2. ZnO formed by calcinations in a stagnant air atmosphere had the same morphology of the original ZHC crystals and consisted of the c-axis oriented column-like particle arrays. On the other hand, preferred orientation of ZnO was inhibited in the case of calcinations in 100% water vapor. A detailed thermal decomposition process of ZHC and the effect of water vapor on the crystal growth of ZnO are discussed.Graphical abstractThermal decomposition process of zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC), Zn5(OH)8Cl2H2O, has been investigated by novel thermal analyses with three different water vapor partial pressures. In the water vapor atmosphere, the formation of ZnO was completed at lower temperatures than in dry.

Kozawa, Takahiro; Onda, Ayumu; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Kishi, Akira; Masuda, Yasuaki



Cysteine Feeding Affects Urinary Zinc Excretion in Normal and Ethanol-Treated Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of L-cysteine feeding on urinary zinc excretion were studied in normal and ethanol-treated rats. In rats fed 3% cysteine • HC1 for 1-10 weeks, a three-fold increase of urinary zinc excretion was observed. That effect was variable but was significant throughout the experimental weeks. Despite the excessive zinc loss, cysteine-fed animals showed no evidence of zinc depletion as



Effect of unburned carbon on lead, zinc, and copper recovery from molten fly ash by chloride-induced volatilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work focuses on investigation of the effective recovery of heavy metals from molten fly ash by applying chloride-induced\\u000a volatilization. In particular, the effect of unburned carbon on the chloride-induced volatilization of lead, zinc, and copper\\u000a from model and real molten fly ashes was investigated in the temperature range 8731173 K under a N2 atmosphere. As a result, almost

Katsuya Nakayama; Kuchar Dalibor; Keisuke Sakai; Mitsuhiro Kubota; Hitoki Matsuda



Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-274-1879, evaluation of zinc chloride smoke-generating devices, International Association of Fire Fighters, Washington, DC  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment was made of hazards to fire fighters of using different zinc-chloride smoke generating devices, manufactured by the Superior Signal Company, Inc., New Jersey. used in fire-fighter-training exercises, zinc compounds, hydrochloric acid and over 50 chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected in smoke clouds. The concentration of hydrochloric acid ranged as high as 420 mg\\/m³. Zinc chloride concentrations ranged from 11

J. N. Zey; F. Richardson



Zinc chloride catalyzed decomposition of 1,2-dihydronaphthalene at 165 °C, a coal-related model compound study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zinc chloride catalyzed decomposition of 1,2-dihydronaphthalene (1) at 165 °C produces dimers of 1, tetralin, and naphthalene. Zinc chloride functions as a Friedel-Crafts type catalyst by coordinating with a hydroxyl from a water molecule and releasing a proton which initiates a carbonium ion reaction. The stoichiometric role of water has been established by measuring the activity of the zinc

Robert R. Beishline; Brian Gould; Edward B. Walker; Douglas K. Stuart; Joanna Schultzski; John K. Shigley; Kelly Calvert; Don K. Dalling; Larry L. Anderson



Characteristics of activated carbon prepared from pistachio-nut shell by zinc chloride activation under nitrogen and vacuum conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbons with well-developed pore structures were prepared from pistachio-nut shells by chemical activation using zinc chloride under both nitrogen atmosphere and vacuum conditions. The effects of preparation parameters on the carbon pore structure were studied in order to optimize these parameters. It was found that under vacuum conditions, the characteristics of the activated carbons produced are better than those

Aik Chong Lua; Ting Yang



Nickel chloride interferences on zinc and cobalt in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using a dual cavity platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interference mechanisms of nickel chloride in the determination of cobalt and zinc by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry were investigated using a dual cavity platform. This platform, which has two separate cavities instead of one, allows interferences in the gas phase and in the condensed phase to be differentiated by pipetting the analyte and the interferent onto the separate

S. Akman; G. Doner



Nucleation and growth of polytypic-layered crystals from the network liquid zinc chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquid to solid crystallization for zinc (II) chloride is studied by molecular dynamics computer simulation. The transition is unusual in that it involves a change from a three-dimensional network liquid structure to a pseudo-two-dimensional layered crystal. The crystallization events are observed from four distinct liquid starting configurations and are identified by reference to the time evolution of the system energetics and Bragg peaks associated with the cation layering. Order parameters and molecular graphics are applied to understand the transitions at an atomistic length scale. Mechanisms are presented for the initial layer growth, the coherent joining of the layered crystallites, and the destruction of high-energy grain boundaries. The growth kinetics are analyzed by defining times for catastrophic and critical nucleation. The final crystal structures are shown to have essentially random anion close-packed stacking sequences consistent with the large number of experimentally observed polytypic structures. The formation of grain boundary stacking faults is also observed.

Wilson, Mark



Fundamental studies on chlorine behavior as related to zinc electrowinning from aqueous chloride electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements were made on the transport and equilibrium properties of dissolved chlorine in aqueous HC1, HCl-ZnCl2, HCl-MgCl2, and water. These measurements included solubility, absorption rates during bubbling, stripping rates during nitrogen bubbling, and cathodic reduction rates. The solubility of chlorine was found to be affected by speciation into aqueous Cl2, HC1O, and C13 -. With increasing HCl concentration, the solubility of chlorine decreased to a minimum at 0.2 mol dm-3, followed by a slow and linear increase. Metal chloride salts depressed the chlorine solubility approximately in proportion to concentration. Mass transfer of aqueous chlorine was found to support a current of about 100 A m-2 from a chlorine-saturated ZnCl2-HCl solution under typical zinc electrowinning conditions. Comparisons with published zinc electrowinning papers indicate that air sparging would eliminate dissolved chlorine sufficiently to remove the need for diaphragm cell separation of dissolved chlorine, insofar as current inefficiencies due to cathodic chlorine reduction are concerned.

Majima, Hiroshi; Awakura, Yasuhiro; Tsugui, Keisuke; Peters, Ernest



Zinc contamination from brass upon heat treating a superconducting magnet  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical calculations predicted that zinc outgassing from brass spacers during a planned heat treatment would likely damage a lab-scale superconducting magnet. This specter was reinforced by a simulated heat treatment, the samples of which were analyzed by gravimetry, metallography, and microprobe chemical analysis. It was found that zinc escaping from the brass could diffuse 80 {mu}m into copper electrical conductors and degrade their conductivity. To avoid this, steel was temporarily substituted for the brass during the heat treatment process.

Stevens, D.W.; Hassenzahl, W.V.



A Literature Review - Problem Definition Studies on Selected Toxic Chemicals. Volume 5. Occupational Health and Safety and Environmental Aspects of Zinc Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Problem Definition Study provides a literature review (113 references) on occupational health hazards and environmental aspects of zinc chloride which is a major product of a smoke generated from HC (hexachloroethane) mixture for screening purposes a...

H. G. Hill K. Wasti



Mechanisms of the interference of calcium chloride on zinc in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using a dual-cavity platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dual-cavity platform allows the analyte and interferent to be volatilized from separate cavities and therefore, in principle, allows gas-phase and condensed-phase interferences to be distinguished. In the presence of calcium chloride, zinc chloride is formed directly in a condensed-phase interaction between analyte and interferent as well as in a gasphase\\/condensed-phase reaction between zinc and HCI(g), generated from the hydrolysis

S. Akman; G. Doner



Long-term heat stabilisation by (natural) polyols in heavy metal- and zinc-free poly(vinyl chloride)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term heat stabilisation efficiency of (natural) polyol additives in heavy metal- and zinc-free poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) has been investigated. It is shown that polyols, such as sorbitol and xylitol, markedly reduce the dehydrochlorination rate and improve Congo Red values. Extraction experiments on unprocessed and ground-processed PVC-sorbitol (1.0phr) mixtures after thermal degradation at 200C revealed that especially in the ground-processed

Johan Steenwijk; Rik Langerock; Daan S. van Es; Jacco van Haveren; John W. Geus; Leonardus W. Jenneskens



Mechanism of protection by zinc against mercuric chloride toxicity in rats: Effects of zinc and mercury on glutathionine metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the mechanism by which zinc suppresses mercury toxicity, the effects of zinc and mercury on giutathione (GSH) metabolism in the rat kidney were studied. When the time course of GSH level in the rat kidney was examined at 2, 6, and 12 h after treatment of rats with both metals, an increase of GSH was found and was

Hideki Fukino; Masami Hirai; Yu Mei Hsueh; Satoshi Moriyasu; Yasuhiro Yamane



Habit modification of bis-thiourea zinc chloride (ZTC) semi organic crystals by impurities.  


Single crystals of bis-thiourea zinc chloride (ZTC) doped with metal ion (Li(+)) possess excellent nonlinear optical properties. These crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The effect of Li(+) dopant on the growth and properties of ZTC single crystal were investigated and reported. The grown crystals were crystallized in orthorhombic structure with non-centro symmetric space group Pn21a through the parent compound. The amount of dopant incorporated in the parent crystal was revealed by the inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES) studies. The FT-IR spectroscopy study was done for finding and confirming the functional groups present in the compound. The UV-Visible spectral study was carried out to find the optical behavior and transparency nature of the grown crystal. TG/DTA measurements and Vickers microhardness measurements were traced to find out the thermal and mechanical stability of the grown crystals respectively. Using Nd:YAG laser, the Second harmonic generation (SHG) for the grown crystals were confirmed. PMID:23571088

Ruby Nirmala, L; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J



Habit modification of bis-thiourea zinc chloride (ZTC) semi organic crystals by impurities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of bis-thiourea zinc chloride (ZTC) doped with metal ion (Li+) possess excellent nonlinear optical properties. These crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The effect of Li+ dopant on the growth and properties of ZTC single crystal were investigated and reported. The grown crystals were crystallized in orthorhombic structure with non-centro symmetric space group Pn21a through the parent compound. The amount of dopant incorporated in the parent crystal was revealed by the inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES) studies. The FT-IR spectroscopy study was done for finding and confirming the functional groups present in the compound. The UV-Visible spectral study was carried out to find the optical behavior and transparency nature of the grown crystal. TG/DTA measurements and Vickers microhardness measurements were traced to find out the thermal and mechanical stability of the grown crystals respectively. Using Nd:YAG laser, the Second harmonic generation (SHG) for the grown crystals were confirmed.

Ruby Nirmala, L.; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J.



Synthesis of layered zinc hydroxide chlorides in the presence of Al(III)  

SciTech Connect

Zinc hydroxide chloride particles were synthesized by hydrolysis of ZnCl{sub 2} solutions dissolving AlCl{sub 3} at different atomic Al/Zn ratios from 0 to 1.0 and characterized by various techniques. Increasing Al/Zn ratio changed the crystal phases of the products as ZnO{sup {yields}}ZnO+ZHC (Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O){sup {yields}}ZHC{sup {yields}}LDH (layered double hydroxides, Zn-Al-Cl) and the particle morphology as agglomerates (ZnO){sup {yields}}fine particles (ZnO){sup {yields}}plates (ZHC)+rods (ZnO){sup {yields}}plates (ZHC){sup {yields}}plates (LDH). The atomic Cl/Zn ratios of LDH particles formed at Al/Zn{>=}0.3 were ca. 0.3 despite the increase of Al/Zn ratio, being due to the intercalation of CO{sub 3} {sup 2-} into the LDH crystal. The OH{sup -} content of LDH estimated by TG was reduced by the deprotonation of OH{sup -} to counteract the excess positive charge produced by replacing Zn(II) with Al(III). ZHC exhibited a high adsorption selectivity of H{sub 2}O.

Ishikawa, Tatsuo [School of Chemistry, Osaka University of Education, 4-698-1 Asahigaoka, Kashiwara, Osaka 582-8582 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Matsumoto, Kumi [School of Chemistry, Osaka University of Education, 4-698-1 Asahigaoka, Kashiwara, Osaka 582-8582 (Japan); Kandori, Kazuhiko [School of Chemistry, Osaka University of Education, 4-698-1 Asahigaoka, Kashiwara, Osaka 582-8582 (Japan); Nakayama, Takenori [Materials Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel, Ltd., 5-5 Takatsukadai 1-Chome, Nishi-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 615-2271 (Japan)



Total zinc in zinc battery plates by EDTA titration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc battery plate electrodes are analyzed for zinc oxide, zinc chloride, zinc fluoride, zinc carbonate, zinc oxychloride, total zinc, zinc as the metal, and trace metals. A variety of methods are used to determine each of these components. The amount of zinc in each of the zinc compounds is determined by multiplying the percent of the compound by the ratio

Vernon L. Hammersley; Naval Surface



Biosorption of Zinc from Aqueous Solution Using Chemically Treated Rice Husk  

PubMed Central

In this study, adsorption of zinc onto the adsorbent (untreated rice husk and NaOH-treated rice husk) was examined. During the removal process, batch technique was used, and the effects of pH and contact time were investigated. Langmuir isotherm was applied in order to determine the efficiency of NaOH-treated rice husk used as an adsorbent. The zinc adsorption was fast, and equilibrium was attained within 30?min. The maximum removal ratios of zinc for untreated rice husk and NaOH-treated rice husk after 1.5?h were 52.3% and 95.2%, respectively, with initial zinc concentration of 25?mg/L and optimum pH of 4.0. Data obtained from batch adsorption experiments fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model. Maximum adsorption capacity of zinc onto untreated rice husk and NaOH-treated rice husk was 12.41?mg/g, and 20.08?mg/g respectively, at adsorbent dosage of 1?g/L at 25C. The nature of functional groups (i.e., amino, carboxyl, and hydroxyl) and metal ion interactions was examined by the FT-IR technique. It was concluded that the NaOH-treated rice husk had stronger adsorption capacity for Zn2+ compared with the untreated rice husk. The NaOH-treated rice husk is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly adsorbent for Zn2+ removal from aqueous solutions.

Zheng, Ru; Zhao, Jiaying; Zhang, Yingchao; Wong, Po-keung; Ma, Fang



Hepatoprotective role of zinc in lead-treated, protein-deficient rats.  


The current study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective role of zinc after lead (Pb) treatment of protein-deficient (PD) rats. The animals were subjected to seven different treatment groups: G-1 (normal control, 18% protein), G-2 (protein-deficient, 8% protein), G-3 (Pb-treated, 100 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate), G-4 (Zn-treated, zinc sulfate at a dose level of 227 mg/L drinking water), G-5 (PD + Pb-treated), G-6 (PD + Zn-treated), and G-7 (PD + Pb + Zn-treated). Serum albumin levels and total serum protein contents were estimated to assess the severity of protein deficiency at the end of 8 weeks in all the treatment groups. Also, the study explored the role of zinc on antioxidative defense system enzymes in liver of protein-deficient rats subjected to lead toxicity treatment. Further, the study was extended to elucidate the levels of zinc and lead in liver tissue after different treatments of rats using positron-induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE). The current study indicated a significant change in the levels of various antioxidative enzymes and serum albumin as well as total protein contents of protein-deficient rats subjected to lead treatment. A significant increase in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was seen after 8 weeks of lead treatment of protein-deficient rats. On the contrary, levels of albumin, total protein content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), GSH, were found to be decreased. Interestingly, zinc supplementation has tended to normalize the altered levels of these enzymes to a significant extent. The levels of zinc in liver tissue was found to be decreased significantly in protein-deficient as well as lead-treated rats. However, hepatic zinc concentration was increased to a significant extent in protein-deficient rats supplemented with zinc when compared with protein-deficient rats. Further, the presence of lead was also observed in livers of lead-treated animals. In conclusion, the study revealed the antioxidative role of zinc in hepatotoxic conditions induced by subjecting the rats to protein-deficient diet and lead treatment. PMID:16455587

Bandhu, H K; Dani, Vijayta; Garg, M L; Dhawan, D K




EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the available information on zinc as it relates to its effects on man and his environment. Zinc is found in most soils, but some areas are deficient in it. Metallurgic operations contribute to zinc contamination in air, water and soil. Trace amounts of zinc...


XPS characterisation of plasma treated and zinc oxide coated PET  

Microsoft Academic Search

At first, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses of reference and carbon dioxide plasma treated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were carried out. Significant chemical modifications were outlined in the treated PET surface in comparison with the reference one. The formation of new oxygenated groups was evidenced. These modifications heighten the level of interactions between the polymer substrate and the deposited coating.In a

S. Ben Amor; M. Jacquet; P. Fioux; M. Nardin



Lewis acidity dependency of the electrochemical window of zinc chloride1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative ion fast atom bombardment mass spectra (FAB-MS) recorded for ZnCl21-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (ZnCl2EMIC) ionic liquids with various compositions indicate that various Lewis acidic chlorozincate clusters (ZnCl3?, Zn2Cl5? and Zn3Cl7?) are present in ZnCl2EMIC ionic liquids depending on the percentage of ZnCl2 used in preparing the ionic liquids; higher ZnCl2 percentage favors the larger clusters. Cyclic voltammetry reveals that the potential

Shu-I Hsiu; Jing-Fang Huang; I-Wen Sun; Cheng-Hui Yuan; Jantaie Shiea



Fall of zinc protoporphyrin levels in workers treated for chronic lead intoxication  

Microsoft Academic Search

A temporal fall of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in whole blood was observed in 51 patients with occupational chronic lead intoxication who were removed from exposure, treated with intravenous calcium disodium edetate (EDTA), and followed for periods up to 2273 days. ZPP levels fell, with a mean half-life of 68 days, to a mean baseline level of 36 micrograms\\/dl of

Daniel O. Hryhorczuk; Mary M. Hogan; Katherine Mallin; Stephen M. Hessl; Peter Orris




National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the available information on zinc as it relates to its effects on man and his environment. Zinc is found in most soils, but some areas are deficient in it. Metallurgic operations contribute to zinc contamination in air, water and so...



Cobalt chloride speciation, mechanisms of cytotoxicity on human pulmonary cells, and synergistic toxicity with zinc.  


Cobalt is used in numerous industrial sectors, leading to occupational diseases, particularly by inhalation. Cobalt-associated mechanisms of toxicity are far from being understood and information that could improve knowledge in this area is required. We investigated the impact of a soluble cobalt compound, CoCl(2)6H(2)O, on the BEAS-2B lung epithelial cell line, as well as its impact on metal homeostasis. Cobalt speciation in different culture media, in particular soluble and precipitated cobalt species, was investigated via theoretical and analytical approaches. The cytotoxic effects of cobalt on the cells were assessed. Upon exposure of BEAS-2B cells to cobalt, intracellular accumulation of cobalt and zinc was demonstrated using direct in situ microchemical analysis based on ion micro-beam techniques and analysis after cell lysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Microchemical imaging revealed that cobalt was rather homogeneously distributed in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm whereas zinc was more abundant in the nucleus. The modulation of zinc homeostasis led to the evaluation of the effect of combined cobalt and zinc exposure. In this case, a clear synergistic increase in toxicity was observed as well as a substantial increase in zinc content within cells. Western blots performed under the same coexposure conditions revealed a decrease in ZnT1 expression, suggesting that cobalt could inhibit zinc release through the modulation of ZnT1. Overall, this study highlights the potential hazard to lung function, of combined exposure to cobalt and zinc. PMID:23505636

Bresson, Carole; Darolles, Carine; Carmona, Asuncion; Gautier, Cline; Sage, Nicole; Roudeau, Stphane; Ortega, Richard; Ansoborlo, Eric; Malard, Vronique



Zinc Treatment for Stabilizing Lightly Processed Fresh Fruits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Zinc chloride is an effective enzymatic browning inhibitor, and is more effective than calcium compounds in maintaining light color and firm texture of lightly processed fruits and fruit products. The method of this invention comprises treating exposed in...

H. R. Bolin



Effect of lithium chloride on spectral, optical, thermal and mechanical behaviour of bis thiourea zinc acetate crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of pure bis thiourea zinc acetate (BTZA) and lithium chloride (LiCl) doped BTZA have been synthesized and grown successfully from aqueous solutions by slow evaporation technique. The single crystals thus grown were characterized by different techniques such as single crystal XRD, AAS, FT-IR, UV-Vis, TG/DTA and SHG test. The single crystal XRD study proved that the dopant has not changed the structure of the parent crystal. The AAS study confirmed the presence of lithium in the doped crystal. The FTIR study ascertained the metal coordination of lithium chloride doped BTZA through thiourea. The optical behavior of the doped crystal has been examined by UV spectral analysis. Thermal studies TGA & DTA of the doped crystal have been investigated and found that the doped crystal is thermally more stable than the pure crystal. The SHG test using Nd: YAG Laser confirmed the NLO activity of the pure and doped crystal. The obtained results are presented and discussed.

Ruby Nirmala, L.; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J.



Structural characterization of zinc(II) chloride in aqueous solution and in the protic ionic liquid ethyl ammonium nitrate by x-ray absorption spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the species and structures existing in a series of ZnCl2-H2O-NaCl solutions with different chloride/zinc ratios and in a solution of ZnCl2 in the protic ionic liquid ethyl ammonium nitrate (EAN). The average coordination numbers and distances of zinc species were determined from the analysis of the EXAFS data. In aqueous solution the number of chloride ions tightly bounded to Zn2+ is significantly related to the chloride/zinc ratio, and no inner complex formation between Zn2+ and Cl- ions has been detected for low ZnCl2 concentration (0.1 and 0.2 M). Conversely, in the same concentration range (0.13 M) the ZnCl2 species do not dissociate in EAN and the Zn2+ first coordination shell has two chloride ions and is completed by two oxygen atoms of the nitrate anion. The results of this investigation show that notwithstanding the existence of similar characteristics between EAN and water, the solvation properties of the two solvents are markedly different.

D'Angelo, Paola; Zitolo, Andrea; Ceccacci, Francesca; Caminiti, Ruggero; Aquilanti, Giuliana



Highly C hemoselect ive Palladium Ca t a1 y zed Conjugate Reduction of a,@Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds with Silicon Hydrides and Zinc Chloride Cocatalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-component system comprised of a soluble palladium catalyst, hydridosilane, and zinc chloride is capable of efficient conjugate reduction of a,&unsaturated ketones and aldehydes. The optimal set of conditions includes diphenylsilane as the most effective hydride donor, any soluble palladium complex in either the 0 or I1 oxidation state, when it is stabilized by phosphine ligands, and ZnCll as the

Ehud Keinan; Noam Greenspoon



A case of transient zinc deficiency in a breast-fed preterm infant successfully treated with oral zinc supplementation: review of zinc metabolism and related diseases.  


A 15-week-old baby girl, born at the 29 week of gestation, presented with a four-week history of demarcated, erythematous, erosive and exudative patches on the perianal, perioral and acral areas. A clinical diagnosis of zinc deficiency was considered. Serum zinc level was decreased (0.5 mg/L; normal 0.70-1.50 mg/L), the mother's serum and milk had normal zinc values. The baby was started an empiric trial of oral zinc supplementation (3 mg zinc gluconate/kg body weight/ day) with complete healing of lesions after two weeks. Treatment was gradually withdrawn at six months of age with no relapse. Transient zinc deficiency due to increased zinc requirements in breast-fed mainly preterm infants is a condition similar to acrodermatitis enteropathica, an autosomal recessive disorder of enteric zinc absorption affecting almost exclusively not breast-fed infants. Early recognition of the disorder and introduction of zinc supplementation rapidly reverses transient zinc deficiency, that probably will become more and more frequent, because of the rising rate of premature infants with breast-feeding only. PMID:19907411

Mandato, F; Rubegni, P; Buonocore, G; Fimiani, M



Characteristics of activated carbon prepared from pistachio-nut shell by zinc chloride activation under nitrogen and vacuum conditions.  


Activated carbons with well-developed pore structures were prepared from pistachio-nut shells by chemical activation using zinc chloride under both nitrogen atmosphere and vacuum conditions. The effects of preparation parameters on the carbon pore structure were studied in order to optimize these parameters. It was found that under vacuum conditions, the characteristics of the activated carbons produced are better than those under nitrogen atmosphere. The impregnation ratio, the activation temperature, and the activation hold time are the important parameters that influence the characteristics of the activated carbons. The optimum experimental conditions for preparing predominantly microporous activated carbons with high pore surface area and micropore volume are an impregnation ratio of 0.75, an activation temperature of 400 degrees C, and a hold time of 1 h. Under these conditions, the BET surface areas of the carbons activated under nitrogen atmosphere and vacuum conditions were 1635.37 and 1647.16 m2/g, respectively. However, at a ZnCl2 impregnation ratio of 1.5, a furnace temperature of 500 degrees C, and a hold time of 2 h, the predominantly mesoporous activated carbon prepared under vacuum condition had a BET surface area of 2527 m2/g. Fourier transform infrared spectra were used to detect changes in the surface functional groups of the samples during the different preparation stages. PMID:16002081

Lua, Aik Chong; Yang, Ting



Zinc and zinc related enzymes in precancerous and cancerous tissue in the colon of dimethyl hydrazine treated rats.  


Trace element zinc deficiency or excess is implicated in the development or progression of some cancers. The exact role of zinc in the etiology of colon cancer is unclear. To cast light on this question, an experimental model of colon carcinogenesis was applied here. Six week old rats were given sub cutaneous injections of DMH (30 mg/kg body weight) twice a week for three months and sacrificed after 4 months (precancer model) and 6 months (cancer model). Plasma zinc levels showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) at 4 months and a greater significant decrease at 6 months (p<0.01) as compared with controls. In the large intestine there was a significant decrease in tissue zinc levels (p<0.005) and in CuZnSOD, and alkaline phosphatase activity (p<0.05) in the pre-cancerous model and a greater significant decrease in tissue zinc (p<0.0001), and in CuZnSOD and alkaline phosphatase activity (p<0.001), in the carcinoma model. The tissue zinc levels showed a significant decrease in the small intestine and stomach (p<0.005) and in liver (p<0.05) in the cancer model. 87% of the rats in the precancer group and 92% rats in the cancer group showed histological evidence of precancerous lesions and carcinomas respectively in the colon mucosa. This study suggests that the decrease in plasma zinc, tissue zinc and activity of zinc related enzymes are associated with the development of preneoplastic lesions and these biochemical parameters further decrease with progression to carcinoma in the colon. PMID:22524812

Christudoss, Pamela; Selvakumar, R; Pulimood, Anna B; Fleming, Jude Joseph; Mathew, George




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing interest by the public in components of the diet that promote health and well being prompt many questions about zinc. This mineral is a nutrient that plays key roles in regulating many biological functions ranging from cell development to brain function. Concern about the importance of zi...


Phosphate removal by refined aspen wood fiber treated with carboxymethyl cellulose and ferrous chloride.  


Biomass-based filtration media are of interest as an economical means to remove pollutants and nutrients found in stormwater runoff. Refined aspen wood fiber samples treated with iron salt solutions demonstrated limited capacities to remove (ortho)phosphate from test solutions. To provide additional sites for iron complex formation, and thereby impart a greater capacity for phosphate removal, a fiber pretreatment with an aqueous solution of a non-toxic anionic polymer, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), was evaluated. Problems with excessive viscosities during the screening of commercially available CMC products led to the selection of an ultra low viscosity CMC product that was still usable at a 4% concentration in water. Soxhlet extractions of chipped aspen wood and refined aspen wood fiber samples showed a higher extractives content for the refined material. Analysis of these extracts by FTIR spectroscopy suggested that the higher extractives content for the refined material resulted from the fragmentation of cell wall polymers (e.g., lignin, hemicelluloses) normally insoluble in their native states. Spectroscopic analysis of CMC and ferrous chloride treated fibers showed that the complex formed was sufficiently stable to resist removal during subsequent water washes. Equilibrium sorption data, which fit better with a Freundlich isotherm model than a Langmuir isotherm model, showed that phosphate removal could be enhanced by the CMC pretreatment. Results suggest that the process outlined may provide a facile means to improve the phosphate removal capacity of biomass-based stormwater filtration media. PMID:16361096

Eberhardt, Thomas L; Min, Soo-Hong; Han, James S



Effect of polyaluminium chloride on phosphorus removal in constructed wetlands treated with swine wastewater.  


Total phosphorus (TP) removal in aged constructed wetlands poses a challenge, especially when treated with swine wastewater with high concentrations of phosphorus (P). Our earlier studies with anaerobic lagoon swine wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands showed a decline in P removal (45-22%) with increased years of operation. These particular wetlands have been treated with swine wastewater every year since the first application in 1997. Preliminary lab-scale studies were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) in the removal of phosphate-P (PO4-P) from swine wastewater. The experimental objective was to increase the phosphorus treatment efficiency in constructed wetland by adding PAC as a precipitating agent. PAC was added by continuous injection to each wetland system at a rate of 3 L day(-1) (1:5 dilution of concentrated PAC). Swine wastewater was added from an anaerobic lagoon to four constructed wetland cells (11m wide x 40m long) at TP loads of 5.4-6.1 kg ha(-1) day(-1) in two experimental periods, September to November of 2008 and 2009. Treatment efficiency of two wetland systems: marsh-pond-marsh (M-P-M) and continuous marsh (CM) was compared. The wetlands were planted with cattails (Typha latifolia L.) and bulrushes (Scirpus americanus). In 2008, PAC treatment showed an increase of 27.5 and 40.8% of TP removal over control in M-P-M and CM respectively. Similar trend was also observed in the following year. PAC as a flocculant and precipitating agent showed potential to enhance TP removal in constructed wetlands treated with swine wastewater. PMID:22049722

Reddy, G B; Forbes, Dean A; Hunt, P G; Cyrus, Johnsely S



Caretakers' Perception towards Using Zinc to Treat Childhood Diarrhoea in Rural Western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Zinc treatment for diarrhoea can shorten the course and prevent future episodes among children worldwide. However, knowledge and acceptability of zinc among African mothers is unknown. We identified children aged 3 to 59 months, who had diarrhoea within the last three months and participated in a home-based zinc treatment study in rural Kenya. Caretakers of these children were enrolled in two groups; zinc-users and non-users. A structured questionnaire was administered to all caretakers, inquiring about knowledge and appropriate use of zinc. Questions on how much the caretakers were willing to pay for zinc were asked. Proportions were compared using Mantel-Haenszel test, and medians were compared using Wilcoxon Rank Sum test. Among 109 enrolled caretakers, 73 (67%) used zinc, and 36 (33%) did not. Sixty-four (88%) caretakers in zinc-user group reported satisfaction with zinc treatment. Caretakers in the zinc-user group more often correctly identified appropriate zinc treatment (98%-100%) than did those in the non-user group (64?72%, p<0.001). Caretakers in the zinc-user group answered more questions about zinc correctly or favourably (median 10 of 11) compared to those in the non-user group (median 6.3 of 11, p<0.001). Caretakers in the zinc-user group were willing to pay more for a course of zinc in the future than those in the non-user group (median US$ 0.26, p<0.001). Caretakers of children given zinc recently had favourable impressions on the therapy and were willing to pay for it in the future. Active promotion of zinc treatment in clinics and communities in Africa could lead to greater knowledge, acceptance, and demand for zinc.

Bigogo, Godfrey M.; Nyawanda, Bryan O.; Aboud, Frances; Breiman, Robert F.; Larson, Charles P.; Feikin, Daniel R.



Photodynamic action of uroporphyrin and protochlorophyllide in greening barley leaves treated with cesium chloride.  


Incubation of greening barley leaves with cesium chloride (CsCl) results in photodynamic leaf lesions within 24 h due to an inactivation of uroporphyrinogen III decarboxylase, an enzyme of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, and transient accumulation of uroporphyrin (ogen). To examine the mechanism of porphyrinogenesis, time kinetics of the accumulating tetrapyrrole intermediates uroporphyrin (ogen) and protochlorophyllide were performed with leaves which were cut from 7-day-old dark-grown barley seedlings and incubated in 15 mM CsCl or water under different light regimes. In the presence of CsCl chlorophyll and carotenoids accumulation was inhibited in the first 24 h of continuous light and the pigment content decreased dramatically during extended illumination. When CsCl=treated leaves were transferred to darkness, accumulated uroporphyrinogen was completely converted to protochlorophyllide. Low temperature fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed that uroporphyrinogen almost completely accumulated in the reduced form. The oxidised form, uroporphyrin, was detectable after 24 h of illumination. The photodynamic leaf lesions became visible at the same time. Protochlorophyllide synthesised from accumulated uroporphyrinogen III in dark incubated leaves had a fluorescence maximum at 635 nm which is indicative for its non-photoconvertible form. Re-illumination of the barley leaves resulted in a rapid degradation of proteins and pigments and an intense lipid peroxidation within less than two hours due to the photodestructive potential of non-metabolised protochlorophyllide. PMID:9540221

Shalygo, N V; Mock, H P; Averina, N G; Grimm, B



Leukotriene D4 activates a chloride conductance in hepatocytes from lipopolysaccharide-treated rats.  

PubMed Central

Endotoxin (LPS) can cause hepatocellular injury under several circumstances, and leukotrienes have been implicated as a contributing factor. Since ion channel activation has been associated with cytotoxicity, the aim of this study was to determine the circumstances under which LPS and/or leukotrienes activate ionic conductances in hepatocytes. LPS treatment of rats increased Cl- conductance in hepatocytes from 232+/-42 to 1236+/-134 pS/pF. Voltage dependence and inhibitor specificity of this conductance were similar to that of a swelling-activated Cl- conductance, and internal dialysis with nucleoside analogues suggested control by an inhibitory G protein. The lipoxygenase inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid, the specific leukotriene D4 (LTD4) receptor antagonist MK-571, and the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein inhibitor MK-886 all significantly inhibited the conductance. Intracellular dialysis with LTD4 (1.5 microM) elevated intracellular Ca2+ from 143+/-6.5 to 388+/-114 nM within 6 min and stimulated an outwardly rectifying conductance from 642+/-159 to 1669+/-224 pS/pF (n = 9, P < 0.001). In hepatocytes prepared from untreated rats, this concentration of intracellular LTD4 neither raised intracellular Ca2+ nor activated the conductance. The LTD4 response could be induced in normal hepatocytes by culture with either conditioned medium from LPS-treated macrophages or purified TNF-alpha. In conclusion, intracellular LTD4 activates a chloride conductance in hepatocytes isolated from rats treated with LPS or primed in vitro with TNF-alpha. Changes in the hepatocellular accumulation of leukotrienes therefore mediate channel activation and may contribute to liver injury during sepsis and other inflammatory conditions.

Meng, X J; Carruth, M W; Weinman, S A



Preparation of activated carbon from dried pods of Prosopis cineraria with zinc chloride activation for the removal of phenol.  


Utilization of agrowaste materials for the production of activated carbon, as an excellent adsorbent with large surface area, is well established industrially, for dephenolation of wastewater. In the present work, dried pods of Prosopis cineraria-a novel and low-cost agrowaste material-were used to prepare activated carbons by zinc chloride activation. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to study the effects of various physicochemical parameters such as initial phenol concentration, adsorbent dose, initial solution pH, and temperature. Pseudo-first-order second-order and diffusion kinetic models were used to identify the possible mechanisms of such adsorption process. The Langmuir and Freundlich equations were used to analyze the adsorption equilibrium. Maximum removal efficiency of 86 % was obtained with 25 mg L(-1) of initial phenol concentration. The favorable pH for maximum phenol adsorption was 4.0. Freundlich equation represented the adsorption equilibrium data more ideally than the Langmuir. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained was 78.32 mg g(-1) at a temperature of 30 C and 25 mg L(-1) initial phenol concentration. The adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. The pseudo-second-order model, an indication of chemisorption mechanism, fitted the experimental data better than the pseudo-first-order Lagergren model. Regeneration of spent activated carbon was carried out using Pseudomonas putida MTCC 2252 as the phenol-degrading microorganism. Maximum regeneration up to 57.5 % was recorded, when loaded phenol concentration was 25 mg L(-1). The data obtained in this study would be useful in designing and fabricating an efficient treatment plant for phenol-rich effluents. PMID:23212266

Nath, Kaushik; Panchani, Suresh; Bhakhar, M S; Chatrola, Sandip



Performance of thermal-sprayed zinc anodes treated with humectants in cathodic protection systems  

SciTech Connect

Thermal-sprayed Zn anodes are used for impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems in Oregon's reinforced concrete coastal bridges to minimize corrosion damage. Thermal-sprayed Zn performs well as an ICCP anode but the voltage requirement can increase with increasing electrochemical age. It also performs well as a galvanic (GCP) anode but current output can decrease with increasing electrochemical age. Past research has shown that increasing moisture at the Zn anode-concrete interface improves the operation of the thermal-sprayed Zn anode. Humectants, hygroscopic materials that are applied to the surface of the Zn-anode, can increase the moisture at the zinc-concrete interface, thereby improving the performance and extending the anode service life. Results are given for humectant-treated (LiBr and LiNO3) thermal-sprayed Zn anodes used in the laboratory electrochemical aging studies and in field studies on the Yaquina Bay Bridge, Oregon, USA.

Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Bennett, John E. (JE Bennett Consulting Inc.); Milius, John K. (Corrosion Restoration Tech.); Cryer, Curtis B. (Oregon Dept. of Transportation); Soltesz, Steven M. (Oregon Dept. of Transportation)



Fall of zinc protoporphyrin levels in workers treated for chronic lead intoxication  

SciTech Connect

A temporal fall of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in whole blood was observed in 51 patients with occupational chronic lead intoxication who were removed from exposure, treated with intravenous calcium disodium edetate (EDTA), and followed for periods up to 2273 days. ZPP levels fell, with a mean half-life of 68 days, to a mean baseline level of 36 micrograms/dl of whole blood. The baseline ZPP level was positively associated with the length of exposure (p less than .01) and the blood lead half-life (p less than .001). The amount of EDTA received had no apparent effect on ZPP levels. These data suggest that the fall of ZPP levels is largely a function of red blood cell turnover. The baseline ZPP level appears to be a useful biologic index of the biologically active pool of lead for at least two years after removal from exposure.

Hryhorczuk, D.O.; Hogan, M.M.; Mallin, K.; Hessl, S.M.; Orris, P.



Economic evaluation of zinc and copper use in treating acute diarrhea in children: A randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The therapeutic effects of zinc and copper in reducing diarrheal morbidity have important cost implications. This health services research study evaluated the cost of treating a child with acute diarrhea in the hospital, the impact of micronutrient supplementation on the mean predicted costs and its cost-effectiveness as compared to using only standard oral rehydration solution (ORS), from the patient's

Archana B Patel; Leena A Dhande; Manwar S Rawat



Comparative toxicity of a zinc salt, zinc powder and zinc oxide to Eisenia fetida, Enchytraeus albidus and Folsomia candida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pore water zinc concentration and the calcium chloride extracted zinc fraction are higher in the soils spiked with a zinc salt (ZnCl2) compared to soils spiked with zinc oxide or zinc powder. Based on total zinc concentrations in the soil, the acute toxicity of zinc salt to the compost worm Eisenia fetida, the potworm Enchytraeus albidus and the springtail

Koen Lock; Colin R. Janssen



Decolourization of anaerobically digested and polyaluminium chloride treated distillery spentwash in a fungal stirred tank aerobic reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decolourization of anaerobically digested and polyaluminium chloride treated distillery spentwash was studied in a fungal\\u000a stirred tank aerobic reactor without dilution of wastewater. Aspergillus niger isolate IITB-V8 was used as the fungal inoculum. The main objectives of the study were to optimize the stirrer speed for\\u000a achieving maximum decolourization and to determine the kinetic parameters. A mathematical model was developed

S. S. Singh; A. K. Dikshit


A global view of gene expression in lithium and zinc treated sea urchin embryos: new components of gene regulatory networks  

PubMed Central

Background The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus has recently been sequenced because it is a major model system for the study of gene regulatory networks. Embryonic expression patterns for most genes are unknown, however. Results Using large-scale screens on arrays carrying 50% to 70% of all genes, we identified novel territory-specific markers. Our strategy was based on computational selection of genes that are differentially expressed in lithium-treated embryos, which form excess endomesoderm, and in zinc-treated embryos, in which endomesoderm specification is blocked. Whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) analysis of 700 genes indicates that the apical organ region is eliminated in lithium-treated embryos. Conversely, apical and specifically neural markers are expressed more broadly in zinc-treated embryos, whereas endomesoderm signaling is severely reduced. Strikingly, the number of serotonergic neurons is amplified by at least tenfold in zinc-treated embryos. WISH analysis further indicates that there is crosstalk between the Wnt (wingless int), Notch, and fibroblast growth factor signaling pathways in secondary mesoderm cell specification and differentiation, similar to signaling cascades that function during development of presomitic mesoderm in mouse embryogenesis. We provide differential expression data for more than 4,000 genes and WISH patterns of more than 250 genes, and more than 2,400 annotated WISH images. Conclusion Our work provides tissue-specific expression patterns for a large fraction of the sea urchin genes that have not yet been included in existing regulatory networks and await functional integration. Furthermore, we noted neuron-inducing activity of zinc on embryonic development; this is the first observation of such activity in any organism.

Poustka, Albert J; Kuhn, Alexander; Groth, Detlef; Weise, Vesna; Yaguchi, Shunsuke; Burke, Robert D; Herwig, Ralf; Lehrach, Hans; Panopoulou, Georgia



Effect of pH on the growth, crystalline perfection, nonlinear optical and mechanical properties of tris-glycine zinc chloride single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk single crystals of tris-glycine zinc chloride (TGZC) have been grown from aqueous solutions at three different pH values. The influence of pH on the morphology, structure, optical and mechanical properties has been investigated. The single crystal X-ray diffraction was used to analyze the influence on the lattice parameters of the grown crystals. The growth morphology obtained at three pH values was analyzed to infer about the growth rate of the different crystallography habit faces. The optical quality was assessed by recording UV-vis transmission spectrum, birefringence interferometry and laser damage threshold studies. The hardness of the grown crystals was compared by Vickers hardness measurements. It is found that TGZC crystals grown at pH 3 results in better optical and mechanical properties.

Sugandhi, K.; Verma, Sunil; Jose, M.; Joseph, V.; Das, S. Jerome



Growth, Mineral Composition, and Biochemical Changes of Broad Bean as Affected by Sodium Chloride and Zinc Levels and Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants grown in salt?affected soils may suffer from limited available water, ion toxicity, and essential plant nutrient deficiency, leading to reduced growth. The present experiment was initiated to evaluate how salinity and soil zinc (Zn) fertilization would affects growth and chemical and biochemical composition of broad bean grown in a calcareous soil low in available Zn. The broad bean was

Jahanshah Saleh; Manoochehr Maftoun; Sedigheh Safarzadeh; Abdolsamad Gholami



Sex and age mortality responses in zinc acetate-treated mice  

SciTech Connect

In regard to trace metal treatment or exposure, a number of variables are known to affect the expression of toxicity concerning its time course and degree. For example, known variables are route of administration, anionic component of the test substance, and sex and age of the recipient animal. Concerning the latter, little, if any, data have been reported dealing with sex- and age-related responses to excess zinc in mammalian systems. The primary purpose of the short communication presented here focuses on the determination of median lethal dose in sexually immature, i.e., juvenile, and adult female and male mice following a single zinc acetate insult. In addition, variation of lethality responses was examined with the age and sex groups to a divided treatment of a lethal dosage of zinc acetate, the injections of which were separated by various intervals.

Hogan, G.R.; Cole, B.S.; Lovelace, J.M.



Lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxygenic enzymes in vitro in mercuric chloride treated human erythrocytes  

SciTech Connect

Mercury can exist in the environment as metal, as monovalent and divalent salts and as organomercurials, the most important of which is methyl mercury. There are reports which suggest that heavy metals like mercury, lead and cadmium have prooxidant catalytic activity and can initiate lipid peroxidation by generating free radicals and thereby interfering with the antioxidant system of the cell. Higher concentrations of mercury have been used earlier to assess the extent of lipid peroxidation in bovine erythrocytes. However, the interaction between mercury and the red blood cell is not properly understood. Therefore, in the present study the in vitro toxicity by lower concentrations of mercuric chloride on human erthrocytes in relation to their effect on lipid peroxidation and some enzymes which have a protective role in such a condition are reported.

Bansal, A.K. (G.G.S. Medical Coll., Faridkot (India)); Bhatnagar, D.; Bhardwaj, R. (D.A. Univ., Indore (India))



The effect of (natural) polyols on the initial colour of heavy metal- and zinc-free poly(vinyl chloride)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The propensity of (natural) polyols dispersed in heavy metal- and zinc-free PVC sheets to improve the initial colour, e.g. the colour during the first minutes of exposure to high processing temperatures (short-term stability), has been investigated. It is shown using W(Lab) values that the initial colour improves upon addition of polyols containing primary hydroxyl groups. The polyols act as HCl

Johan Steenwijk; Daan S. van Es; Jacco van Haveren; John W. Geus; Leonardus W. Jenneskens



Investigation of processes to treat zinc-ferrite regeneration offgases in high temperature desulfurization of coal gases  

SciTech Connect

A bench-scale test program has been performed to evaluate the effect of critical operating variables on sulfur dioxide removal efficiency for two candidate throwaway'' desulfurization processes for treating zinc-ferrite reactor regeneration offgas. These two throwaway'' processes, dual-alkali wet scrubbing and spray dryer desulfurization, generate a gypsum waste sludge environmentally acceptable for disposal. They have seen extensive commercial application in flue gas desulfurization, but have not been evaluated for such high levels of removal efficiency and such high inlet sulfur dioxide concentrations as would be required for this application. 13 figs., 15 tabs.

Woodland, L. R.



Dye adsorption by calcium chloride treated beech sawdust in batch and fixed-bed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch and column kinetics of methylene blue and red basic 22 adsorption on CaCl2 treated beech sawdust was investigated, using untreated beech sawdust as control, in order to explore its potential use as a low-cost adsorbent for wastewater dye removal. The adsorption capacity, estimated according to Freundlich's model, and the adsorption capacity coefficient values, determined using the Bohart and Adams

F. A. Batzias; D. K. Sidiras



Ion Exchange Conceptual Design for Treating Seven Technical Area Sumps with Elevated Levels of Copper and Zinc  

SciTech Connect

Recently a meeting was held to discuss technical support for developing a conceptual design and estimate for installing and operating an in-line ion exchange system to treat seven Technical Area Sumps with elevated levels (high ppb - low ppm) of copper and potentially zinc (copper level is above the outfall limits). These sump waters are currently routed to the A01 outfall, which is permitted by the State of South Carolina. a study of potential treatment options and followup laboratory work done in the summer of 1997 by Larry Oji and John Hage identified two commercially available ion exchange resins, Duolit GT-73 and Chelex 100, for treating waters at these metals concentrations.

Oji, L.N.



[A protein inhibitor of polygalacturonase in apple fruits treated with aminoethoxyvinylglycine and cobalt chloride].  


Ethylene evolution changes were monitored during storage of apple fruits (Malus domestica Borkh., winter variety Mantuanskoe) treated with aminoethoxyvinylglycine and CoCl2. The storage of fruits was shown to be accompanied by changes in the activity of a protein inhibitor of polygalacturonase (PIPG). This inhibitor has been previously isolated from apple fruit tissues. The protein inhibitor of polygalacturonase was also shown to inhibit the activity of an enzyme produced by certain nonpathogenic fungi. The role of PIPG in apple fruit resistance to these fungi is discussed. PMID:11234395

Bulantseva, E A; Glinka, E M; Protsenko, M A; Sal'kova, E G


An experimental study of zinc chloride speciation from 300 to 600 ??C and 0.5 to 2.0 kbar in buffered hydrothermal solutions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The solubility of sphalerite (ZnS) was measured in KCl-HCl-H2O solutions at 300-600??C and 0.5-2.0 kbar. The silicate assemblage K-feldspar-muscovite (or andalusite)-quartz was used to buffer the solution to acid conditions, resulting in the total solubility reaction 2K+ + KAl2AlSi3O10(OH)2 + 6SiO2 + ZnS + nCl- = ZnCln(2-n) + 3KAlSi3O8 + H2S. (muscovite) (quartz) (sphalerite) (K-feldspar) A computer retrieval technique was used to derive average chloride ligand numbers for chlorozinc species at 0.25-2.0 molal total chloride. This technique mathematically solves for the average ligand number using a series of pertinent chemical relations at P and T. Mono- and di-chlorozinc species were found to predominate throughout the pressure-temperature-composition range investigated. The logarithms of the first and second dissociation constants for ZnCl20 were evaluated over the P-T range; for example, at 1 kbar, the values -0.41 and -1.42 were computed for the logarithm of the first dissociation constant, while -7.62 and -10.57 were computed for the logarithm of the second dissociation constant, for 400 and 500??C, respectively. Results are compared to past studies conducted at subcritical conditions and differ in that we find no evidence for more highly coordinated chloro-zinc species except possibly for ZnCl3- at 600??C, 1 and 2 kbar. Our results are consistent with electrostatic theory, which favors lower charged to neutral molecules in low dielectric-constant media. ?? 1994.

Cygan, G. L.; Hemley, J. J.; d'Angelo, W. M.



Increased strontium uptake in trabecular bone of ovariectomized calcium-deficient rats treated with strontium ranelate or strontium chloride.  


Based on clinical trials showing the efficacy to reduce vertebral and non-vertebral fractures, strontium ranelate (SrR) has been approved in several countries for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Hence, it is of special clinical interest to elucidate how the Sr uptake is influenced by dietary Ca deficiency as well as by the formula of Sr administration, SrR versus strontium chloride (SrCl(2)). Three-month-old ovariectomized rats were treated for 90 days with doses of 25?mg kg(-1) d(-1) and 150?mg kg(-1) d(-1) of SrR or SrCl(2) at low (0.1% Ca) or normal (1.19% Ca) Ca diet. Vertebral bone tissue was analysed by confocal synchrotron-radiation-induced micro X-ray fluorescence and by backscattered electron imaging. Principal component analysis and k-means clustering of the acquired elemental maps of Ca and Sr revealed that the newly formed bone exhibited the highest Sr fractions and that low Ca diet increased the Sr uptake by a factor of three to four. Furthermore, Sr uptake in bone of the SrCl(2)-treated animals was generally lower compared with SrR. The study clearly shows that inadequate nutritional calcium intake significantly increases uptake of Sr in serum as well as in trabecular bone matrix. This indicates that nutritional calcium intake as well as serum Ca levels are important regulators of any Sr treatment. PMID:21997907

Pemmer, Bernhard; Hofstaetter, Jochen G; Meirer, Florian; Smolek, Stephan; Wobrauschek, Peter; Simon, Rolf; Fuchs, Robyn K; Allen, Matthew R; Condon, Keith W; Reinwald, Susan; Phipps, Roger J; Burr, David B; Paschalis, Eleftherios P; Klaushofer, Klaus; Streli, Christina; Roschger, Paul



Aqua-chloridobis(1,10-phenanthroline-?N,N')zinc(II) chloride N,N-dimethyl-formamide solvate.  


The Zn atom in the title salt, [ZnCl(C(12)H(8)N(2))(2)(H(2)O)]ClC(3)H(7)NO, is chelated by two phenanthroline mol-ecules and is bonded to one chloride ion and one water mol-ecule, resulting in a ZnN(4)ClO octa-hedral coordination environment with the Cl and O atoms in a cis conformation. The cations and anions are linked by O-H?Cl hydrogen bonds across a center of inversion, forming a hydrogen-bonded dimeric association. The dimethyl-formamide solvent mol-ecule is disordered over two orientations in a 0.56?(1):0.44?(1) ratio. PMID:21201367

Kong, Li-Li; Gao, Shan; Huo, Li-Hua; Ng, Seik Weng



Foliar Damage, Ion Content, and Mortality Rate of Five Common Roadside Tree Species Treated with Soil Applications of Magnesium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitivity to magnesium chloride (MgCl2) was assessed on five common roadside tree species by maintaining soil concentrations at 0-, 400-, 800-, or 1,600-ppm chloride\\u000a via MgCl2 solution over four growing seasons. Evaluations of growth, leaf retention, foliar damage, and ion concentrations were conducted.\\u000a Water potentials were measured on two species. Foliar chloride and magnesium concentrations were positively correlated with\\u000a foliar

Betsy A. Goodrich; William R. Jacobi


Quantitative determination of benzalkonium chloride in treated wood by solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.  


Ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ) compound wood preservative is comprised of copper and quaternary ammonium compounds with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) as the active ingredient. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (LC-UV) was developed for quantitative determination of BAC in treated wood. Five species of wood were used, Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis), Yezo spruce (Picea jezoensis), Sakhalin fir (Abies sachalinensis), and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla). BAC used in the present study was composed of 66% C12, 33% C14 and less than 1% C16. BAC was added to each wood species (500 mg) then extracted with HCl-ethanol (20 ml) and quantitatively determined with LC-UV (262 nm). Wood extractives from the heartwood of each species, except western hemlock, interfered with quantitative determination of BAC, but SPE with an Oasis MCX cartridge was effective in preventing this. Using the present methods, BAC homologue peaks were clearly confirmed without interference. Recoveries from wood ranged from 92 to 101% and the limit of quantitation was approximately 240 microg/g wood for the C12 and C14 homologues. PMID:16275285

Miyauchi, Teruhisa; Mori, Mitsunori; Ito, Katsuhiko



Effect of [gamma]-irradiation and temperature on the structure of metal chloride treated poly(acrylamide)  

SciTech Connect

The gamma-induced changes in the structure of poly (acrylamide) (PAAm) treated with metal chlorides were investigated by following the corresponding variations in their ultraviolet spectra. Careful examination of UV spectra revealed that irradiation of the specimens results in the appearance of an absorption peak at 275 nm whose intensity depends on the applied dose and the nature of the metal ions. This band is ascribed to the formation of the carbonyl group. The results indicate that the dependence of the intensities of the band at 275 nm on the nature of the metal used provides strong evidence for the formation of metal polymer complexes. It was found that the pretreatment of PAAm with the appropriate concentration of ZnCl[sub 2], CoCl[sub 2], or NiCl[sub 2] reduces the effects of heating and the oxidation effects of [gamma]-irradiation. These results show that these metal ions can be used as stabilizers against thermal degradation of PAAm in the temperature range up to 160 C.

Moharram, M.A.; Rabie, S.M.; Daghistani, A.Y. (National Research Center and Middle Eastern Regional Center for the Arab Countries, Cario (Egypt))



Separation and recovery of metals from zinc-treated superalloy scrap. Report of Investigations/1989  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Bureau of Mines treated mixed and contaminated superalloy scrap by pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods to separate and recover metal values. Best results were obtained by leaching Zn-treated or atomized scrap with HC1-02 at 95 C and 50 psig O{sub 2}. This resulted in dissolving approximately 98% of the Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn while rejecting over 98% of the Mo, Nb, Ta, Ti, W, and Zr as an insoluble refractory residue. Chlorine was successfully substituted for HC1 to leach Zn-treated scrap but unsuccessful for leaching atomized scrap. The leaching solution was treated by pH adjustment and hydrothermal precipitation at 200 C for 4 h to remove Al, Cr, Fe, and other contaminants as a filterable precipitate. Recovery of Co and Ni would be accomplished by solvent extraction and electrowinning. Chromium recovery as a ferroally was demonstrated.

Laverty, P.D.; Atkinson, G.B.; Desmond, D.P.



Zinc oxide overdose  


Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products, including certain creams and ointments used to prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally ...


Xenon chloride ultraviolet B laser is more effective in treating psoriasis and in inducing T cell apoptosis than narrow-band ultraviolet B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier we reported that a 308-nm xenon chloride (XeCl) UVB laser is highly effective for treating psoriasis. As ultraviolet B light seems to cause T cell apoptosis, in the present study we studied the ability of the XeCl laser to induce T-cell apoptosis in vitro, and then compared the apoptosis-inducing capacities of narrow-band UVB (NB-UVB) light and the XeCl laser.

Zoltn Novk; Bla Bnis; Eszter Balts; Imre Ocsovszki; Ferenc Igncz; Attila Dobozy; Lajos Kemny



Acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3 prime -dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol to juvenile grass shrimp and killifish  

SciTech Connect

The acute toxicity of several compounds was investigated while performing a toxicity evaluation of a complex chemical effluent. The tests were conducted for one or more of the following reasons: (1) data were not available for the chemical; (2) data were not available for the species; or (3) data were not available for the juvenile life stage of the species. Forty-eight hour acute toxicity tests were run on juvenile grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and juvenile killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to the following compounds: cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3{prime}-dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride (dichloromethane) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

Burton, D.T.; Fisher, D.J. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Shady Side, MD (USA))



Effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on fish hepatoma cells treated with mercury chloride and ionizing radiation.  


Organisms are exposed to natural radiations from cosmic or terrestrial origins. Furthermore the combined action of radiation with various chemicals is an inevitable feature of modern life. Radiation is known to cause cell death, mainly due to its ability to produce reactive oxygen species in cells. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a well-known sulfhydryl-containing antioxidant whose role in radioprotection has been reported. Synergistic effects of radiation and mercury chloride on human cells was previously reported by the authors. Based on the previous report, this study was designed to assess the synergistic effects of radiation and mercury chloride on fish hepatoma cells, as well as to investigate the protective effects of NAC on the cells. The cytotoxicity of radiation was enhanced in the presence of mercury chloride. NAC in lower concentrations prevented cells from death after irradiation with lower doses (<300 Gy) while it did not prevent cells from radiation-induced death after irradiation with higher doses (300, 500 Gy). The intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels significantly decreased after irradiation while the combined treatment of NAC and radiation alleviated the decrease in the GSH levels. The investigations give a clue for the action mechanism of synergistic or protective effects of NAC on the cells. Due to their high resistance to ionizing radiation, the PLHC-1 cells can be effectively used as a screening tool for assessing the combined effects of radiation with toxic chemicals. PMID:21962883

Kim, Jin Kyu; Han, Min; Nili, Mohammad



Determination of Chemical Shifts of Core Electron Binding Energies for Some Zinc Compounds and the Applicability of Electron Spectroscopy to Environmental Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Core electron binding energies were determined for zinc borate, zinc carbonate, zinc chloride, zinc fluoride, zinc iodide, zinc phosphate, zinc sulfate and zinc titanate. These binding energies were measured relative to that of the C 1s line (284.3 eV) an...

C. R. Cothern D. W. Langer C. J. Vesely



Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a zinc or titanium promoted palladium-zirconium catalyst  


A process and system (18) for reducing NO.sub.x in a gas using hydrogen as a reducing agent is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream (29) with a catalyst system (38) comprising sulfated zirconia washcoat particles (41), palladium, a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a promoter (45) comprising at least one of titanium, zinc, or a mixture thereof. The presence of zinc or titanium increases the resistance of the catalyst system to a sulfur and water-containing gas stream.

Sobolevskiy, Anatoly (Orlando, FL); Rossin, Joseph A. (Columbus, OH); Knapke, Michael J. (Columbus, OH)



Estimate of the Lowest Dose of Diazepam Required to Treat Soman-Induced Convulsions in Rhesus Monkeys Pretreated with Pyridostigmine and Treated with Atropine, Pralidoxime Chloride and Diazepam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to estimate the minimal dose of intramuscularly administered diazepam to limit soman-induced convulsions in rhesus monkeys pretreated with pyridostigmine and treated with atropine and 2-PAM. Eleven rhesus monkeys were pretrea...

J. D. von Bredow N. K. Jaax I. J. Hayward J. V. Wade G. F. Maitland



The pH effect on sdrption?desorption and fractions of zinc in phosphate treated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc sorption?desorption and Zn fractions in three soils, a Dalhousie clay (DT: Eutric Brunisol), a St Bernard loam (ST: Melanic Brunisol) and an Uplands sand (UT: Ferro?Humic Podzol), were studied with and without added P at different pH values. Phosphate addition increased Zn sorption (Zns) in the order: DT clay > ST loam > UT sand. A positive correlation was

R. J. Xie; A. F. MacKenzie



Enhanced effect of zinc and calcium supplementation on bone status in growth hormone-deficient children treated with growth hormone: a pilot randomized controlled trial.  


Reduced bone mineral content in growth hormone-deficient children (GHD) has been reported. Calcium, zinc, and vitamin D play an important role in bone formation. Hence, the aim of this pilot randomized controlled study was to evaluate the effect of calcium, vitamin D, and zinc supplementation in prepubertal GHD children treated with GH on bone health parameters. After 1 year of treatment with GH (20 mg/m(2)/week), 31 GHD (mean age 8.7 2.8 years, 18 boys) prepubertal children were randomised to receive calcium (500 mg/day) and vitamin D (60,000 IU/3 months) [Group A] or a similar supplement of calcium, vitamin D, and zinc (as per Indian Recommended Allowance) [Group B] along with GH therapy for the next 12 months. The two groups were similar in anthropometric and body composition parameters at baseline (p > 0.1). After 1 year of GH therapy, height-adjusted % gain was similar in both groups, 48 % in bone mineral content (BMC) and 45 % in bone area (BA). Height-adjusted % increase in BMC was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the second year than in the first in both the groups. This % increase in BMC and BA was greater in Group B (51 and 36 % respectively) than in Group A (49 and 34 %), although marginally (p < 0.05). Supplementation of calcium and vitamin D along with GH therapy in GHD Indian children has the potential for enhancing bone mass accrual; this effect was further enhanced through the addition of zinc supplement. PMID:23224626

Ekbote, Veena; Khadilkar, Anuradha; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Mughal, Zulf; Khadilkar, Vaman



Single-Step Process to Treat the High Chloride Pu Inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), operated by Fluor Hanford identified that up to 1000 items in their inventory contained high concentrations of chloride salts. This is problematic in that some of these salts are volatile at stabilization temperatures. At temperature (> 950 C) the molten salt is volatile and very corrosive to the furnace and off-gas system. Early testing at PFP indicated that the salt would deposit and plug the off-gas line. After stabilization, a sample of the material is processed through a Loss-on-Ignition (LOI) test. This test is intended to demonstrate that the stabilized material has < 0.5% moisture, which is required to meet Department of Energy (DOE) Order 3013 requirements. This moisture content is determined by heating a sample of the stabilized material to 1000 C and measuring the weight loss. All weight loss is assumed to be moisture (water). Consequently, any salt remaining after stabilization will volatilize to some extent during the LOI testing. This could cause the sample to fail the LOI test and require additional stabilization processing for the failed material. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) identified a potential process whereby the volatile nature of the salts could be used to potentially separate the salts from the plutonium oxide. After identification of this potential process, the Nuclear Material Focus Area acted quickly and as a result, in July 2001, PNNL was funded to design, build, and test a simple proof-of-principle system.

Leugemors, Robert K. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); MacFarlan, Paul J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Jones, Stanley L. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Delegard, Calvin H. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wallace, Dale E. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))



The dithizone, Timm's sulphide silver and the selenium methods demonstrate a chelatable pool of zinc in CNS. A proton activation (PIXE) analysis of carbon tetrachloride extracts from rat brains and spinal cords intravitally treated with dithizone.  


From rats intravitally treated with dithizone (diphenyl-thiocarbazone) brains and spinal cords were removed and freeze-dried. The dithizonates present in the CNS tissue were extracted with carbon tetrachloride and subjected to a multielement analysis (proton activation, PIXE). It was found that the extract contained two metals. Most of the metal was zinc, but small traces of copper were also detected. Because prior treatment with the chelating agent, dithizone, can block both the Timm and the selenium metal staining methods, it is suggested that the three techniques label predominantly zinc in the neuropil (DTS-zinc). PMID:3000994

Danscher, G; Howell, G; Prez-Clausell, J; Hertel, N



Calcium chloride doped zinc-cobalt metal-cyanide complex: Unexpected highly activity towards ring-opening polymerization of propylene oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly active calcium chloride (CaCl2) doped Zn-CoIII double metal-cyanide (Ca-DMC) catalysts were firstly reported. Ca-DMCs presented a very higher polymer yield (>54kg polymer\\/g catalyst) at relative low temperature (80115C) toward ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of propylene oxide (PO) than did DMC catalysts without modification.

Yi Jun Huang; Xing Hong Zhang; Zheng Jiang Hua; Guo Rong Qi



Potassium Chloride  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Contains Nonbinding Recommendations Draft Guidance on Potassium Chloride ... Active ingredient: Potassium Chloride ... More results from


Zinc and Manduca sexta hemocyte functions  

PubMed Central

Two metalloproteases have recently been linked to the immune response in Lepidoptera. In addition, zinc is highly important in many mammalian immune-related functions. Because of these, we investigated the effect of zinc and two zinc-protease inhibitors on Manduca sexta hemocyte behavior in vitro. Plasmatocytes were significantly more elongated in Grace's medium supplemented with 100 m zinc chloride than in the absence of zinc. To test whether zinc-dependent proteases were responsible for the increased length seen in the presence of zinc, we tested two zinc-protease inhibitors, phosphoramidon and bestatin. Each resulted in decreased plasmatocyte length compared to the control, but the distributions of lengths differed with each inhibitor. Each inhibitor also affected plasmatocyte network formation in vitro. This work suggests (1) that at least two different zinc proteases are involved in the cellular defense response of M. sexta, and (2) that zinc should be included in media used for in vitro studies of the immune response.

Willott, Elizabeth; Tran, Hung Q



Removal of elemental mercury from coal combustion flue gas by chloride-impregnated activated carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, adsorption of vapour-phase elemental mercury (Hg0) from pulverised-coal combustion flue gas by commercially available granular activated carbons treated with zinc chloride (ZnCl2) impregnation was investigated. The experiment results showed that ZnCl2 impregnation significantly enhanced the adsorptive capacity for mercury vapour, but decreased the specific surface area of the activated carbon. This could be explained by the occurrence

Hancai Zeng; Feng Jin; Jia Guo



Dissolution kinetics of smithsonite ore in ammonium chloride solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a dissolution kinetics study of smithsonite ore in ammonium chloride are presented. Effect of stirring speed, ore particle size, reaction temperature, and the concentration of ammonium chloride on zinc dissolution rate are determined. The results obtained show that leaching of about 91.2% of zinc is achieved using 84110 ?m ore particle size at a reaction temperature of

Shaohua Ju; Tang Motang; Yang Shenghai; Li Yingnian



Zinc deposition in acid electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

In the past decade, two aqueous zinc/halogen batteries, the zinc/chlorine, and the zinc/bromine systems, have been considered for load-leveling and vehicular applications. Even though considerable progress has been made in engineering these batteries, several problems related to the zinc electrode have yet to be solved. These are related to the growth of dendritic zinc and a maldistribution of the zinc deposit that can occur during cycling. Both problems are exacerbated by recharge of the battery after partial discharge of the zinc deposit. A survey of the literature indicates that a more desireable zinc morphology can be achieved by use of inorganic additives, fluorinated surfactants, and A-C modulation of the charging current. In this investigation, the deposition of zinc from zinc bromide and zinc chloride electrolytes was investigated under conditions that precluded dendrite growth. The techniques used were cyclic voltammetry, the potential step technique and scanning electron microscopy. The variables investigated were the substrate (zinc and dense graphite), electrolyte pH, inorganic additives (Pb/sup + +/ and Bi/sup 3 +/) and A-V modulation of the charging potential by superimposed square waves.

McBreen, J.; Gannon, E.



The role of zinc on anti-Newcastle disease virus specific antibody response and agranulocytes count in rabbits treated with methotrexate and prednisolone.  


Zinc (Zn) plays a pivotal role in highly proliferative tissues including immune system. The long-term therapy of neoplastic and autoimmune disorders is associated with immunosuppression and myleosuppression. In the current study role of Zn on anti-Newcastle disease virus response and agranulocytes count of methotrexate and prednisolone treated rabbits. Thirty six healthy rabbits were randomly segregated into six groups (group I to VI) each containing six rabbits. Oil based Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine was administered subcutaneously to rabbits of all the groups at day 0 and 21 and after one week, all the groups received Zn, (Zn + prednisolone), prednisolone, (Zn + methotrexate) methotrexate orally from day 7 to day 21, except the control. The serum antibody titer, total and differential leukocyte count were measured weekly for 6 weeks. The administration of zinc in combination with methotrexate showed same antibody titer as that of the control suggesting that Zn has ability to counteract the methotrexate-induced immunosuppression. However, Zn did not show any significant impact in combination with prednisolone (p<0.05). The results of the present study indicate that co-administration of Zn and methotrexate is beneficial in the activity of immune system. PMID:23010003

Tipu, Muhammad Khalid; Saleem, Uzma; Hussain, Khalid; Muhammad, Khushi; Hashmi, Furqan Khurshid; Islam, Muhammad; Ahmad, Bashir



Spectroscopic verification of zinc absorption and distribution in the desert plant Prosopis juliflora-velutina (velvet mesquite) treated with ZnO nanoparticles.  


The impact of metal nanoparticles (NPs) on biological systems, especially plants, is still not well understood. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs in velvet mesquite (Prosopis juliflora-velutina). Mesquite seedlings were grown for 15 days in hydroponics with ZnO NPs (10 nm) at concentrations varying from 500 to 4000 mg L(-1). Zinc concentrations in roots, stems and leaves were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Plant stress was examined by the specific activity of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APOX); while the biotransformation of ZnO NPs and Zn distribution in tissues was determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and micro X-ray fluorescence (?XRF), respectively. ICP-OES results showed that Zn concentrations in tissues (2102 87, 1135 56, and 628 130 mg kg(-1) d wt in roots, stems, and leaves, respectively) were found at 2000 mg ZnO NPs L(-1). Stress tests showed that ZnO NPs increased CAT in roots, stems, and leaves, while APOX increased only in stems and leaves. XANES spectra demonstrated that ZnO NPs were not present in mesquite tissues, while Zn was found as Zn(II), resembling the spectra of Zn(NO(3))(2). The ?XRF analysis confirmed the presence of Zn in the vascular system of roots and leaves in ZnO NP treated plants. PMID:22820414

Hernandez-Viezcas, J A; Castillo-Michel, H; Servin, A D; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L




Microsoft Academic Search

Selective liquid-liquid extraction of Au(III) from aqueous chloride media (1 mol\\/L NaCl) into cumene by thiourea derivatives namely 2a-c (N-thiocarbamoylbenzamidine derivatives), 3a-f (N-benzoylthiourea derivatives) has been investigated in detail. Marked differences in the metal extraction are noted using these organic compounds with respect to their structural variation. The extraction behaviour of Au(III) with extractants 2a-c and 3a-f followed the order

F. Z. EI Aamrani; Anil Kumar; L. Beyer; J. L. Cortina; A. M. Sastre



Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 and Levels of Aerobic Bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae Are Reduced When Hides Are Washed and Treated with Cetylpyridinium Chloride at a Commercial Beef Processing Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this experiment was to test the potential of a combined water wash and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) treatment as a hide intervention applied to cattle in the holding pens of a processing plant immediately before stunning. Over 2 processing days, 149 control and 139 treated cattle were tested. Control cattle were processed in the normal manner. The treatment




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this experiment was to further test the potential of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a hide intervention by applying the treatment to cattle in the holding pens of the processing plant immediately before stunning. Over two processing days, 149 control and 139 treated cattle were ...


Synthesis, characterization and thermodynamics of complex formation of some new Schiff base ligands with some transition metal ions and the adduct formation of zinc Schiff base complexes with some organotin chlorides.  


Four new complexes, [M(Salpyr)] where Salpyr=N,N'-bis(Salicylidene)-2,3- and 3,4-diiminopyridine and M=Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and UV-vis spectrophotometry. UV-vis spectrophotometric study of the adduct formation of the zinc(II) complexes, [Zn(2,3-Salpyr)] and [Zn(3,4-Salpyr)], as donor with R(2)SnCl(2) (R=methyl, phenyl, n-butyl), PhSnCl(3) and Bu(3)SnCl as acceptors has been investigated in methanol, as solvent. The formation constants and the thermodynamic free energies were measured using UV-vis spectrophotometry. Titration of the organotin chlorides with Zn(II) complexes at various temperatures (T=283-313K) leads to 1:1 adduct formation. The results show that the formation constants were decreased by increasing the temperature. The trend of the reaction of R(n)SnCl(4-n) as acceptors toward given zinc complexes was as follows: PhSnCl3 > Me2SnCl2 > Ph2SnCl2 > Bu2SnCl2 > Bu3SnCl. By considering the formation constants and the ?G of the complex formation for the Schiff base as donor and the M(II) as acceptor, the following conclusion was drawn: the formation constant for a given Schiff base changes according to the following trend: Ni > Cu > Co > Zn > Mn. PMID:22626922

Asadi, Mozaffar; Asadi, Zahra; Torabi, Susan; Lotfi, Najmeh



Modeling the fate and effect of benzalkonium chlorides in a continuous-flow biological nitrogen removal system treating poultry processing wastewater.  


The fate and effect of the antimicrobial compounds benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) on the biological nitrogen removal (BNR) processes for a continuous-flow, three-stage laboratory-scale BNR system were modeled. Three kinetic sub-models, corresponding to each reactor, were developed and then combined in a comprehensive ASM1-based model. Kinetic parameters for the three sub-models were evaluated using experimental data obtained from independent batch assays. The biodegradation of BACs was modeled with a mixed-substrate Monod equation. The inhibitory effect of BACs on the utilization of degradable COD and denitrification was modeled as competitive inhibition, whereas non-competitive inhibition was used to model the effect of BACs on nitrification and inhibition coefficients were evaluated. The model simulated well the long-term performance of the BNR system treating a poultry processing wastewater with and without BACs. Enhanced BAC degradation by heterotrophs and increased resistance of nitrifiers to BACs, reflecting acclimation/enrichment over time, is a salient feature of the model. PMID:23313672

Hajaya, Malek G; Pavlostathis, Spyros G



Tris(1,10-phenanthroline-?N,N')zinc(II) chloride 2-phenyl-4-selenazole-5-car-box-yl-ate decahydrate.  


The asymmetric unit of the title salt, [Zn(C(12)H(8)N(2))(3)](C(10)H(6)NO(2)Se)Cl10H(2)O, contains a [Zn(phen)(3)](2+) cation (phen is 1,10-phenanthroline), uncoordinated chloride and 2-phenyl-4-selenazole-5-carboxyl-ate anions and ten uncoord-in-ated water mol-ecules. The central Zn(II) ion is six-coordinated by six N atoms from three phen ligands in a distorted octa-hedral geometry. An extensive O-H?O, O-H?N and O-H?Cl hydrogen-bonding network stabilizes the crystal structure. PMID:21522857

Shen, Jin-Bei; Lv, Xin; Chen, Ji-Fei; Zhou, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Guo-Liang



Innovative uses for zinc in dermatology.  


Severe zinc deficiency states, such as acrodermatitis enteropathica, are associated with a variety of skin manifestations, such as perioral, acral, and perineal dermatitis. These syndromes can be reversed with systemic zinc repletion. In addition to skin pathologies that are clearly zinc-dependent, many dermatologic conditions (eg, dandruff, acne, and diaper rash) have been associated and treated with zinc. Success rates for treatment with zinc vary greatly depending on the disease, mode of administration, and precise zinc preparation used. With the exception of systemic zinc deficiency states, there is little evidence that convincingly demonstrates the efficacy of zinc as a reliable first-line treatment for most dermatologic conditions. However, zinc may be considered as an adjunctive treatment modality. Further research is needed to establish the indications for zinc treatment in dermatology, optimal mode of zinc delivery, and best type of zinc compound to be used. PMID:20510767

Bae, Yoon Soo; Hill, Nikki D; Bibi, Yuval; Dreiher, Jacob; Cohen, Arnon D



Zinc Enzymes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)|

Bertini, I.; And Others



Zinc for treating of children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review of randomized controlled clinical trials.  


This study systematically reviews the randomized clinical trials examining the effect of zinc on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), searching the PubMed/Medline and Scholar Google databases. All randomized controlled trials that examined zinc as the intervention, and ADHD as the primary outcome were included. Only three randomized controlled trials, one which included a community sample and two that included clinical samples, met inclusion criteria. The only trial that was well controlled and randomized according to the baseline zinc level showed that using zinc, either alone or in combination with stimulants, did not improve ADHD. Considering the lack of clear evidence for the effect of zinc on ADHD and the possible effect of zinc on the nervous system, more clinical studies are needed to prove or disprove the effect of zinc as a monotherapy or adjuvant therapy. PMID:23169472

Ghanizadeh, A; Berk, M



SNARE-dependent upregulation of potassium chloride co-transporter 2 activity after metabotropic zinc receptor activation in rat cortical neurons in vitro.  


The major outward chloride transporter in neurons is the potassium chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2), critical for maintaining an inhibitory reversal potential for GABA(A) receptor channels. In a recent study, we showed that Zn(2+) regulates GABA(A) reversal potentials in the hippocampus by enhancing the activity of KCC2 through an increase in its surface expression. Zn(2+) initiates this process by activating the Gq-coupled metabotropic Zn(2+) receptor/G protein-linked receptor 39 (mZnR/GPR39). Here, we first demonstrated that mZnR/GPR39 is functional in cortical neurons in culture, and then tested the hypothesis that the increase in KCC2 activity is mediated through a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-dependent process. We established the presence of functional mZnR in rat cultured cortical neurons by loading cells with a Ca(2+) indicator and exposing cells to Zn(2+), which triggered consistent Ca(2+) responses that were blocked by the Gq antagonist YM-254890, but not by the metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist (RS)-?-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG). Importantly, Zn(2+) treatment under these conditions did not increase the intracellular concentrations of Zn(2+) itself. We then measured KCC2 activity by monitoring both the rate and relative amount of furosemide-sensitive NH(4)(+) influx through the co-transporter using an intracellular pH-sensitive fluorescent indicator. We observed that Zn(2+) pretreatment induced a Ca(2+)-dependent increase in KCC2 activity. The effects of Zn(2+) on KCC2 activity were also observed in wild-type mouse cortical neurons in culture, but not in neurons obtained from mZnR/GPR39(-/-) mice, suggesting that Zn(2+) acts through mZnR/GPR39 activation to upregulate KCC2 activity. We next transfected rat cortical neurons with a plasmid encoding botulinum toxin C1 (Botox C1), which cleaves the SNARE proteins syntaxin 1 and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25). Basal KCC2 activity was similar in both transfected and non-transfected neurons. Non-transfected cells, or cells transfected with marker vector alone, showed a Zn(2+)-dependent increase in KCC2 activity. In contrast, KCC2 activity in neurons expressing Botox C1 was unchanged by Zn(2+). These results suggest that SNARE proteins are necessary for the increased activity of KCC2 after Zn(2+) stimulation of mZnR/GPR39. PMID:22441041

Saadi, R A; He, K; Hartnett, K A; Kandler, K; Hershfinkel, M; Aizenman, E



Zinc Information  


... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Zinc Information Time To Talk About Natural Products for ... Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) ( NEI ) Can Zinc Be Harmful? ( ODS ) Zinc: Quick Facts ( ODS ) Share/ ...


Copper and zinc bioavailabilities to ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) grown in biosolid treated Chilean soils.  


The purpose of this study was assessing Cu and Zn availabilities in soils amended with a biosolid through the determination of their sequentially extracted chemical forms and their relationship with the contents of these metals in ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) plant tissues cultivated in a greenhouse using four soils classified as Aquic Xerochrepts and Ultic Haploxeralfs representatives of potential areas for biosolids application in the central zone of Chile. The soils were treated with sewage sludge at a rate of 0 and 30 Mg ha(-1). The greenhouse experiment was carried out through a completely randomized block design in a 2 x 4 (biosolid ratexsoil) arrangement, considering three repetitions per treatment. The soils used in the greenhouse experiment before and after cultivation, were sequentially extracted with specific reagents and conditions in order to obtain the following fractions: exchangeable, sodium acetate-soluble, soluble in moderately reducing condition, K(4)P(2)O(7)-soluble, soluble in reducing condition, and soluble in strongly acid and oxidizing condition. It was established that Cu and Zn were predominantly found in soils in less available forms, associated to organic matter, oxides and clay minerals. Zinc concentration in ryegrass plants was higher than that found in subterranean clover plants in biosolid-amended soils. Zinc contents in ryegrass shoot and root correlated with the exchangeable, bound-to-carbonate, and bound-to-FeOx metal forms in control soil. Copper and Zn bioavailabilities were estimated through satisfactorily fitted multiple linear regression models, with determination coefficients from 0.77 to 0.99, which showed a positive contribution of the labile metal forms in soils, especially in relation to Zn in both plant species. PMID:19285780

Ahumada, Ins; Gudenschwager, Orianne; Carrasco, M Adriana; Castillo, Gabriela; Ascar, Loreto; Richter, Pablo



Simultaneous derivative spectrophotometric determination of zinc and cadmium with 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol in the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride.  


A selective and sensitive derivative photometric method has been developed for the determination of trace amounts of Zn2+ with 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol in the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride, a cationic surfactant. The molar-absorption coefficient and analytical sensitivity of the 1:2 complex at 554 nm are 1.19 x 10(5) L mol(-1) cm(-1) and 0.56 ng mL(-1), respectively. The detection limit is 1.96 x 10(-2) ng mL(-1) and Beer's law is valid in the 0.02-0.66 microg mL(-1) range of Zn2+. The developed derivative procedure, using the zero-crossing measurement approach, is applied for the rapid and selective simultaneous determination of Zn2+ and Cd2+ in the range of 0.06-0.66 and 0.20-1.60 microg mL(-1), respectively. Complex matrices, including reference materials, environmental and biological samples and synthetic mixtures, have been successfully analyzed for trace amounts of the two metal ions. PMID:15228118

Agnihotri, Narinder K; Ratnani, Sonia; Singh, Vinay K; Singh, Har B



Effects of ingested 4000ppm aluminum on the essential metals, especially zinc, in intact and ethanol treated mice.  


The effects of ingested Al on the essential metals were investigated using mice. Animals were divided into 4 groups: 1) Control, 2) Al, 3) EtOH and 4) Al+EtOH groups. Powdered commercial food, containing 1.26% P, 1.36% Ca, 70ppm Zn, 15ppm Cu, 200ppm Fe and 3.1ppm Al, was used to prepare the diets. For Al-treated groups, Al(AlCl3) was added to powdered food at a concentration of 4000ppm. The co-existing effect of EtOH which is known to affect the essential metals, was also investigated as a possible modulater of Al toxicity at a concentration of 5% for 22 days, followed by 10% for 36 days in the drinking water. After 58 days feeding with food containing Al and / or EtOH containing water, the Al effects on serum and femur P and Ca were found to be slight except for a significant decrease of serum P concentration in the Al+EtOH group. In this group, femur weight was less and femur Al concentration was more compared with the Al group. The effects on Fe and Cu were little. We observed a significant decrease of serum Zn concentration with 4000ppm Al diet in both the Al-treated groups. The fact that serum ALPase activity, a Zn enzyme, increased in disregard of a significant decrease of serum Zn concentration suggested the enzyme release from injures tissues. It is noticeable that a significant decrease of serum Zn concentration was observed when dietary Zn was sufficient. It is reported that the dietary intake of Zn is under the recommended allowance for many people. Since Al compounds are widely used as drugs, food additives and a conditioned latent Zn deficiency is rather common in human diseases, the effects of Al on the Zn metabolism are to be investigated further. PMID:3428182

Sugawara, C; Sugawara, N; Ikeda, N; Okawa, H; Okazaki, T; Otaki, J; Taguchi, K; Yokokawa, K; Miyake, H



Use of enriched stable isotopes to determine zinc and iron absorption in elderly men13  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption of zinc and iron was determined in seven elderly men using the enriched stable isotopes 7Zn and rFe. Analyses of isotopic ratios were done using thermal ionization magnetic sector mass spectrometny on chloride solutions of zinc and of iron after separation of zinc from fecal samples by ion exchange and of iron by solvent extraction. Mean apparent zinc

Judith R. Turniund; M. C. Michel; William R. Keyes; Janet C. King; Sheldon Margen



Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of flame-retardant and smoke-suppressed poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) compositions is increasing gradually in the polymer industry since PVC releases smoke and toxic gases (hydrogen chloride, HCl) during heating at temperatures above 140C with the result of dehydrochlorination reaction. In this study, the synergistic effects of zinc borate (ZB)-zinc phosphate (ZP) on the thermal stability of PVC were investigated using

Cem Aykut Erdo?du; Sevdiye Atakul; Devrim Balkse; Semra lk



Uniform colloidal zinc compounds of various morphologies  

SciTech Connect

The preparation of finely dispersed zinc compounds consisting of uniform particles is described. Aging at elevated temperatures ({approx} 90{degree}C) of aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate or zinc chloride in the presence of urea resulted in precipitation of uniform rodlike basic zinc carbonate particles. These solids show x-ray characteristics of crystalline hydrozincite. In the presence of sulfate ions amorphous spherical particles of narrow size distribution of the same chemical composition are generated. On calcination both kinds of solids change to zinc oxide yet retain the original shape. In the presence of NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and urea, aqueous zinc salt solutions on aging yield rather uniform amorphous spherical zinc basic phosphate particles, which on calcination lose water.

Castellano, M.; Matijevic, E. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (USA))



CBER - Indium IN-111 Chloride Sterile Solution, Mallinckrodt ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... PURITY Indium In 111 Chloride Sterile Solution is tested for the following metallic impurities: copper, iron, cadmium, lead, zinc, nickel, and mercury ... More results from


Percutaneous Absorption of Zinc from Zinc Oxide Applied Topically to Intact Skin in Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

The penetration of zinc through normal skin treated with a zinc oxide (25%) medicated occlusive dressing was studied.The mean release rate of zinc to the skin was 5 ?g\\/cm2\\/h. After 48 h of treatment suction blisters were raised by the Kiistala method. The zinc concentration of the epidermis blister fluid and dermis was increased beneath the zinc dressing compared to

Magnus S. gren



Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for imaging of copper, zinc, and platinum in thin sections of a kidney from a mouse treated with cis-platin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Platinum complexes are used for the treatment of several types of cancer. High platinum concentrations in the target tissue and low concentrations in dose-limiting tissue structures such as renal tubules are desirable to assure selective toxicity. Microlocal analysis of platinum distribution in tissue sections may thus contribute to the optimization of platinum therapy. Scanning laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to produce images of element distribution in 14-[mu]m thin sections of kidney tissue from a mouse treated with cis-platin 60 min prior to victimization. The sample surface was scanned (raster area 300 mm2) with a focused laser beam (wavelength 266 nm, diameter of laser crater 50 [mu]m, inter line distance 50 [mu]m and laser power density 3 x 109 W cm-2) in a cooled laser ablation chamber (about -15 [degree sign]C) developed for these measurements. The laser ablation system was coupled to a double-focusing sector field ICP-MS. Ion intensities of 63Cu+, 64Zn+, and 196Pt+ were measured within the tissue by LA-ICP-MS. Matrix-matched laboratory standards served for calibration of analytical data. The mass spectrometric analysis yielded an inhomogeneous distribution for Cu, Zn, and Pt in thin kidney sections. Copper was enriched in the capsule and outer cortex, zinc in the inner cortex and the platinum concentration followed a centripetal gradient with clear medullar enrichment. Thus, scanning LA-ICP-MS may be a useful tool in the preclinical development of new and less nephrotoxic platinum complexes.

Zoriy, Myroslav; Matusch, Andreas; Spruss, Thilo; Becker, J. Sabine



Chloride Test  


... Chloride Related tests: Sodium , Potassium , Bicarbonate (total CO2) , Electrolytes , CMP , BMP , Blood Gases At a Glance Test ... if there is a problem with your body's electrolyte balance or acid-base balance and to monitor ...


Protective effects of zinc on cadmium toxicity in rodents.  


A study of acute and subacute toxicity of cadmium ions [Cd(II)] was carried out on male Swiss mice and Sprague-Dawley rats with and without previous administration of zinc chloride. The LD50 of Cd(II) as cadmium sulfate (ip) was lower in animals previously given 10 mg/kg of zinc(II) chloride (sc). Factors such as animal weight variations, biochemical parameters, and accumulation patterns of Cd(II) and Zn(II) were taken into consideration when the subacute toxicity was evaluated. Alteration of the activities of glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) was observed in short-term-exposure (<6 h) cases. These alterations reverted to normal after 1 wk. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides in serum are also changed, especially so in the groups given CdSO4 alone. In the experimental groups treated with ZnCl2 prior to administration of cadmium, proteinuria was detected 5 wk after the treatment. Also at 5 wk, both Zn-treated and nontreated groups showed an abnormally low liver mass with respect to total body mass. Both Cd and Zn are retained preferentially in the liver but show also in the kidneys. If CdSO4 and ZnCl2 are given simultaneously, especially after 1 wk of treatment, Cd is accumulated in greater amounts in these organs when compared to the groups given only cadmium sulfate. PMID:11051591

Claverie, C; Corbella, R; Martn, D; Daz, C



Zinc electrode morphology in acid electrolytes. Annual report, March 15, 1982-March 15, 1983  

SciTech Connect

The zinc electrode is common to both zinc/chlorine and zinc/bromine flow batteries. Although considerable progress has been made in engineering these batteries, there are still problems with the zinc electrode. The objective of this work is to elucidate the mechanism of zinc deposition in acid electrolytes and to devise methods to control zinc electrode morphology. In this subcontract, work focused on obtaining baseline data in ultra pure zinc chloride and zinc bromide electrolytes. Emphasis was on the initial stages of electrocrystallization. In addition, the effect of modified charging methods, organic surfactants, inorganic additives and substrates was investigated.

McBreen, J.; Gannon, E.



Chloride channelopathies.  


Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms. Impaired chloride transport can cause diseases as diverse as cystic fibrosis, myotonia, epilepsy, hyperekplexia, lysosomal storage disease, deafness, renal salt loss, kidney stones and osteopetrosis. These disorders are caused by mutations in genes belonging to non-related gene families, i.e. CLC chloride channels and transporters, ABC transporters, and GABA- and glycine receptors. Diseases due to mutations in TMEM16E and bestrophin 1 might be due to a loss of Ca++-activated Cl- channels, although this remains to be shown. PMID:19708126

Planells-Cases, Rosa; Jentsch, Thomas J



Mechanical Properties of Silane and Zirconate Coupling Agent-Treated Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber-Filled Acrylic-Impact Modified Poly (Vinyl Chloride) Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of untreated and treated OPEFB content on the mechanical properties of acrylic impact-modified PVC was investigated. The formulations were first dry blended before being milled into sheets on a two-roll mill. Test specimens were then hot pressed. The modulus significantly increased while the impact and flexural strength insignificantly improved with increasing of treated OPEFB contents. The reduction in

Aznizam Abu Bakar; Azman Hassan; Ahmad Fuad Mohd Yusof



Zinc recovery via the flame reactor process  

SciTech Connect

A major objective of the zinc industry for the 1990s will be to maintain high zinc recovery while eliminating the disposal of copious quantities of hazardous iron residues. The flame reactor process has demonstrated the potential of meeting this objective by either treating the residues or smelting zinc directly. The process has been proven commercially viable for treating flue dusts generated during electric arc furnace steelmaking. Zinc, lead and cadmium are recovered from the dust as a crude oxide for recycle while a nonhazardous slag is produced for sale. Similar products are efficiently produced from electrolytic zinc plant neutral leach and iron precipitation residues. In addition, the reactor shows promise of fulfilling its original objective of being a low-energy primary zinc smelter by fuming and condensing zinc from roasted concentrates.

Pusateri, J.F.; Bounds, C.O.; Lherbier, L.W.



Recovery of metal values from zinc solder dross  

SciTech Connect

Zinc solder dross containing 14.8% Sn, 16.3% Pb, 0.41% Al and 64.5% Zn was leached with 3% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 45 C for 1 h. Zinc and aluminum went into solution, whereas lead and tin remained with the residue. Aluminum was selectively precipitated as calcium aluminum carbonate by treating the sulfate leachate with limestone at pH 4.8. Zinc sulfate solution was either evaporated to obtain zinc sulfate crystals or precipitated as basic zinc carbonate at pH 6.8. The undissolved lead and tin were leached with 5 M hot hydrochloric acid. The major part of lead chloride ({approx_equal} 73%) was separated by cooling the leached products down to room temperature. From the soluble fraction, tin was recovered as hydrated tin oxide by alkylation with caustic soda at pH 2,4, while the remaining lead was separated at pH 8.5 as lead hydroxide. A process flowsheet had been suggested which involved two-stage hydrometallurgical treatment. Parameters affecting the recovery efficiency of the suggested method such as temperature, time, pH and acid: solid stoichiometric ratio were investigated. Results obtained revealed that the optimum leaching conditions were achieved by using 20 ml of 3% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} acid/g dross for 1 h at 45 C. Recovery efficiency of the metal salts was 99.1, 99.4, 99.6 and 99.5% for Zn, Al, Pb and Sn respectively. Recover efficiency was related to the solubility of the concerned salts under the given experimental conditions.

Barakat, M.A.



Preparation and purification of zinc sulfinate reagents for drug discovery.  


The present protocol details the synthesis of zinc bis(alkanesulfinate)s that can be used as general reagents for the formation of radical species. The zinc sulfinates described herein are generated from the corresponding sulfonyl chlorides by treatment with zinc dust. The products may be used crude, or a simple purification procedure may be performed to minimize incorporation of water and zinc chloride. Although the synthesis of the zinc sulfinate salts can generally be completed within 3 h, workup can take up to 24 h and purification can take up to 3 h. Following the steps in this protocol would enable the user to generate a small toolkit of zinc sulfinate reagents over the course of 1 week. PMID:23640168

O'Hara, Fionn; Baxter, Ryan D; O'Brien, Alexander G; Collins, Michael R; Dixon, Janice A; Fujiwara, Yuta; Ishihara, Yoshihiro; Baran, Phil S



Nucleation effects on structural and optical properties of electrodeposited zinc oxide on tin oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc oxide was electrodeposited from oxygenated aqueous solutions of zinc chloride at 80 C on tin oxide covered glass substrates. A new activation treatment for the substrate is established. This consists in the initial formation, in the deposition solution, of a thin metallic zinc layer (550 nm) converted to ZnO by in situ reoxidation. Variable densities of nucleation centers (with

B. Canava; D. Lincot



A New Approach to the Determination of the Cathodic Protection Period in Zinc-Rich Paints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the behavior of zinc-rich paints (ZRP) based on an epoxy binder in 3% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. The study focused on the effect of some design parameters often considered in paint formulation. The paint thickness, the zinc particle grain size, and the zinc particle distribution in the paint were studied. The study was based mainly on

C. M. Abreu; M. M. Izquierdo; X. R. Nvoa; C. M. Prez; P. M. Merino



Melitracenium chloride.  


IN THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 3-(10,10-dimethyl-anthracen-9-yl-idene)-N,N,N-trimethyl-propanaminium chlor-ide], C(21)H(26)N(+)Cl(-), the cyclo-hexane ring adopts a chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the terminal benzene rings is 40.43?(12). In the crystal, ions are linked through inter-molecular N-H?Cl and C-H?Cl hydrogen bonds, forming supra-molecular layers parallel to the bc plane. PMID:21837115

Fun, Hoong-Kun; Hemamalini, Madhukar; Siddegowda, M S; Yathirajan, H S; Narayana, B



Flame Retardancy Behavior of Zinc Borate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of boron chloride formation from zinc borate in burn ing PVC was elucidated. By thermodynamic calculation, experiment, and infra red spectrum analysis, the conditions for boron halide formation when PVC was burned were addressed. It is found that when boron halide is produced, the B2O3 glass layer is destroyed and boron is volatilized, which is unfavorable to flame

Youming Yang; Xichang Shi; Ruirong Zhao



Zinc-bromine batteries with improved electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

The coulombic efficiency of aqueous zinc bromine batteries can be increased if, in addition to the bromide ions required to be present in the electrolyte to charge the cell to rated capacity, chloride ions are added to the electrolyte in amounts sufficient to reduce the amount of free bromine present in the electrolyte during operation of the cell.

Kantner, E.




EPA Science Inventory

This paper summarizes current estimates of chloride inputs to the Great Lakes from various sources. It also evaluates changes that have occurred. Future chloride levels are projected with the aid of a mathematical model that treats the lakes as an integrated system. Management im...


Simultaneous determination of cyanogen chloride and cyanogen bromide in treated water at sub-microg/L levels by a new solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic-electron-capture detection method.  


A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure has been developed and applied for the determination of cyanogen halides in treated water samples at microg/L concentrations. Several SPME coatings were tested, the divinylbenzene-Carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane fiber being the most appropriate coating. GC-electron-capture detection was used for separation and quantitation. Experimental parameters such as sample volume, addition of a salt, extraction time and desorption conditions were studied. The optimized method has an acceptable linearity, good precision, with RSD values <10% for both compounds, and it is sufficiently sensitive to detect ng/L levels. HS-SPME was compared with liquid-liquid microextraction (US Environmental Protection Agency Method 551.1) for the analysis of spiked ultrapure and granular activated carbon filtered water samples. There was good agreement between the results from both methods. Finally, the optimized procedure was applied to determine both compounds at the Barcelona water treatment plant (N.E. Spain). Cyanogen chloride in treated water was <1.0 microg/L and cyanogen bromide ranged from 3.2 to 6.4 microg/L. PMID:11128214

Cancho, B; Ventur, F; Galceran, M



Proposed Regulation: Vinyl Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

OSHA proposes to regulate producers of vinyl chloride, polyvinyl chloride, and articles made from these substances by requiring that their employees not be exposed to vinyl chloride above specified levels. The major impact of the regulation is expected to...



Poly Iron Chloride and Poly Aluminum Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structures, basic chemistry, preparation procedures, and applications of poly iron chloride (PIC) and poly aluminum chloride (PAC) are presented. PIC and PAC are unconventional inorganic polymers known to be extremely effective for treatment of water ...

L. K. Wang



Chloride-Initiated Reinforcement Corrosion: Chloride Binding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present report deals with chloride binding, which is one of the mechanisms which determines the service life of the structure with regard to chloride-initiated reinforcement corrosion. The report has been structured so that a model for chloride bindin...

K. Byfors



Spectrophotometric studies and applications for the determination of Ni+ in zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte.  


The absorption properties of zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte were studied by visible spectrophotometer. The results show that the relationship between the absorbance of the zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte and Ni(2+) concentration in the electrolyte obeys Beer's law at 660 nm. In addition, other components except Ni(2+) in the zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte such as zinc chloride, ammonium chloride, potassium chloride and boric acid have no obvious effect on the absorbance of zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte. Based on these properties, a new method is developed to determine Ni(2+) concentration in zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte. Comparing with other methods, this method is simple, direct and accurate. Moreover, the whole testing process does not consume any reagent and dilution, and after testing, the electrolyte samples can be reused without any pollution to the environment. PMID:22591796

Qiao, Xiaoping; Li, Helin; Zhao, Wenzhen; Li, Dejun



Acute inhalation toxicology of oxalyl chloride.  


The acute inhalation LC50 of oxalyl chloride was determined in rats following a one-hour exposure. Four groups of 10 animals per group were exposed to a concentration range of 462-2233 ppm. One set of six animals was exposed to a concentration of oxalyl chloride of 1232 ppm for one hour to evaluate the histopathological change to the lungs. The LC50 is 1840 ppm with the 95% confidence interval between 1531 ppm and 2210 ppm. Microscopically, the lungs from the treated animals exhibited acute bronchiolitis, exudate within the alveoli, and congestion. Pulmonary edema appears to contribute significantly to mortality produced by oxalyl chloride. A comparison of the acute one-hour LC50 of oxalyl chloride to that of hydrogen chloride, phosgene, phosphorus oxychloride, boron trichloride, and chlorine indicates that it shares a comparable degree of acute toxicity to hydrogen chloride and is significantly less toxic via inhalation than the latter four chemicals. PMID:7872205

Barbee, S J; Stone, J J; Hilaski, R J



The influence of zinc on bone healing in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The importance and necessity of the trace element zinc for tissue restitution after injuries has been known for a long time. The influence of zinc on the healing of tibial fractures in rats is studied by daily administration of 0.6 mg zinc-dl-aspartate compared to a non-treated control group. There is a significant decrease of bone-zinc concentration after fracture. This

K. Milachowski; D. Moschinski; R. Jaeschock; A. Kaschner



Long-term efficiency and stability of wetlands for treating wastewater of a lead\\/zinc mine and the concurrent ecosystem development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A constructed wetland system in Guangdong Province, South of China has been used for treating Pb\\/Zn mine discharge since 1985. The performance in the purification of the mine discharge and the concurrent ecosystem development within the system during the period of 19852000 has been studied. The untreated wastewater contained rather high concentrations of cadmium (Cd) (0.05mgL?1), lead (Pb) (11.5mgL?1), and

B. Yang; C. Y. Lan; C. S. Yang; W. B. Liao; H. Chang; W. S. Shu



Study of chloride ion migration in reinforced concrete under cathodic protection. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The migration of chloride ions in concrete with steel reinforcement was investigated. Mortar blocks (15 cm x 15 cm x 17 cm) of various composition (water to cement ratio, chloride ion content) were cast with an iron mesh cathode imbedded along one face and a thermally sprayed zinc anode applied to the opposite face. Current densities of 0.033 and 0.066

N. V. Orlova; J. C. Westall; M. Rehani; M. D. Koretsky



Atmospheric Corrosion and Precipitation Runoff From Zinc and Zinc Alloys Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The long-term atmospheric corrosion performance of rolled zinc and three thermal-sprayed (TS) zinc materials (Zn, Zn-15Al, and Al-12Zn-0.2In) was characterized by measuring corrosion product concentrations in precipitation runoff at coastal marine and inland sites. Corrosion rates and average zinc concentrations in the runoff were greater at the site having higher annual rainfall. Higher chloride concentrations did not seem to affect either the corrosion rates or the zinc concentrations in the runoff at the coastal site compared to those of the inland site. Zinc runoff concentrations were higher for TS Zn than rolled zinc due to the greater surface area of the thermal-sprayed surface. Average cumulative zinc runoff losses for the two sites were: 64 {micro}mol Zn/L for TS Zn, 37 {micro}mol Zn/L for rolled Zn, 24 {micro}mol Zn/L for TS Zn-15Al, and 1.8 {micro}mol Zn/L for TS Al-12Zn-0.2In. Cumulative zinc runoff losses were directly related both to the precipitation rate and to the availability of Zn in metal surfaces, a consequence of surface roughness and surface chemistry properties of the metal.

Matthes, S.A.; Cramer, S.D.; Bullard, S.J.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Holcomb, G.R.




Microsoft Academic Search

A process has been developed for the removal of chromium, copper, iron, ; manganese, nickel, lead, tin, and zinc impurities from an acid aqueous solution ; of americium chloride using a mercury cathode cell operating at 5 to 10 amperes ; and 16 to 18 volts. The americium is not affected. The process may also be used ; to remove

J. L. Holst; C. W. Barrick



Zinc Oxide Stabilized Zirconia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Zinc oxide stabilized zirconia containing zirconia in cubic phase is prepared by evaporating zirconia and zinc oxide and depositing zirconia and zinc oxide on an atomic scale on a substrate. The stabilized zirconia resists corrosion at high temperatures a...

S. B. Qadri E. F. Skelton P. Lubitz




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



Effect of Zinc and Aluminum Ions in Breadmaking 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 76(3):355-360 Zinc and aluminum ions as chloride or sulfate salts at 50-500 ppm metal ion (flour basis) had no detrimental effect on fermentation of yeast- leavened dough. Increased mixing times (?10-50%) due to addition of aqueous solutions of zinc (250-500 ppm) or aluminum (150-250 ppm) ions to a bread formula was overcome by withholding salt un til the

Keswara Rao Vadlamani; Paul A. Seib



Mercuric chloride poisoning  


Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different ... poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric chloride. This is for information only and not for ...


Dehydration of Magnesium Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application discloses a method for dehydrating magnesium chloride hydrates or brines by complexing with amine hydrochlorides. Magnesium chloride hydrate or brine is reacted to an amine hydrochloride to form a complex which is then heated to fir...

H. Dolezal



Chloride Removal Implementation Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equipment and procedures for the electrochemical removal of chloride from reinforced concrete structures are described. The guide provides basic information needed to implement the chloride removal process of field structures. Pretreatment and posttreatme...

J. Bennett T. J. Schue



Preparation and properties of transparent conducting zinc oxide and aluminium-doped zinc oxide films prepared by evaporating method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undoped and aluminium-doped zinc oxide films have been prepared by thermal evaporation of zinc acetate [Zn(CH3COO)2 2H2O] and aluminium chloride [AlCl3] onto a heated glass substrate. The structural and optoelectrical properties of the films have been studied. The effects of heat treatment for the as-deposited films in air and vaccum are investigated. Highly transparent films with conductivity as low as

Jin Ma; Feng Ji; Hong-lei Ma; Shu-ying Li



The kinetics and mechanism of cathodic oxygen reduction on zinc and zincaluminium alloy galvanized coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rotating disk electrode technique is used to investigate the kinetics and mechanism of O2 reduction as it occurs at the surface of various hot-dip AlZn alloy coatings (on steel) immersed in weakly alkaline (pH 9.6) aqueous sodium chloride. The zinc component of coatings behaves electrochemically as though it were free zinc and the O2 reduction pathway is determined by

H. Dafydd; D. A. Worsley; H. N. McMurray



Chloride in smooth muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in the functions of intracellular chloride expanded about twenty years ago but mostly this referred to tissues other than smooth muscle. On the other hand, accumulation of chloride above equilibrium seems to have been recognised more readily in smooth muscle.Experimental data is used to show by calculation that the Donnan equilibrium cannot account for the chloride distribution in smooth

A. R. Chipperfield; A. A. Harper



Determination of zinc dialkyldithiocarbamates in latex condoms.  


A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay is developed for measuring zinc dialkyldithiocarbamate (DTC) levels in latex condoms. After extraction of 14 different brands of latex condoms in acetonitrile, aliquots of the extracts are subjected to a preliminary screening assay by treatment with cobalt chloride and measurement of UV absorption at 320 nm, which results in the identification of 6 DTC-containing samples. Prior to analysis by HPLC, zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (ZDMC) or zinc diethyldithiocarbamate (ZDEC) is added to the extracts in order to block transmetalation reactions with the analytes of interest. A reversed-phase C(18) column, with gradient elution and UV detection at 260 nm, is used to measure the zinc DTCs. The limits of detection for ZDEC and zinc dibutyldithiocarbamate (ZDBC) are 5 and 10 micro g/mL. Levels of ZDBC and ZDEC range from not detectable to 3.31 and 1.79 mg/condom, respectively. Total protein and latex allergenic protein levels are determined and range from 98 to 776 and 0.01 to 14.04 micro g/unit, respectively, but are not related to the level of ZDBC or ZDEC. This methodology provides both screening and specific tools for the determination of unstable zinc DTC complexes in latex products. PMID:15023260

Depree, G J; Bledsoe, T A; Siegel, P D



Enhanced zinc consumption causes memory deficits and increased brain levels of zinc  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Zinc deficiency has been shown to impair cognitive functioning, but little work has been done on the effects of elevated zinc. This research examined the effect on memory of raising Sprague-Dawley rats on enhanced levels of zinc (10 ppm ZnCO3; 0.153 mM) in the drinking water for periods of 3 or 9 months, both pre- and postnatally. Controls were raised on lab water. Memory was tested in a series of Morris Water Maze (MWM) experiments, and zinc-treated rats were found to have impairments in both reference and working memory. They were significantly slower to find a stationary platform and showed greater thigmotaxicity, a measure of anxiety. On a working memory task, where the platform was moved each day, zinc-treated animals had longer latencies over both trials and days, swam further from the platform, and showed greater thigmotaxicity. On trials using an Atlantis platform, which remained in one place but was lowered on probe trials, the zinc-treated animals had significantly fewer platform crossings, spent less time in the target quadrant, and did not swim as close to the platform position. They had significantly greater latency on nonprobe trials. Microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (??SXRF) confirmed that brain zinc levels were increased by adding ZnCO 3 to the drinking water. These data show that long-term dietary administration of zinc can lead to impairments in cognitive function. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Flinn, J. M.; Hunter, D.; Linkous, D. H.; Lanzirotti, A.; Smith, L. N.; Brightwell, J.; Jones, B. F.



Comparative in vitro toxicity of seven zinc-salts towards neuronal PC12 cells.  


Currently much attention has been given to the neurotoxicity of zinc, yet little is known about the influence of the counterions present. Therefore, we investigated the influence of different Zn(2+)-salts (concentrations range 0.05-0.3 mM) on cell viability, ATP and glutathione concentration and caspase activation in differentiated PC12 cells as a model for neuronal cells. Generally, at concentrations of 0.05 mM most Zn(2+)-salts were not cytotoxic except for zinc-citrate. At concentrations between 0.1 and 0.3 mM Zn(2+) a significant decrease in GSH and ATP levels preceded cell death induced by all salts, except of zinc-histidinate. Zinc-citrate and zinc-sulphate turned out to be the most toxic salts particularly at low concentrations. Analyses of caspase 3/7 activity showed that dependent on the concentration and the type of the salt used cell death may show more or less signs of both, necrosis and apoptosis. Interestingly, the uptake of Zn(2+) from zinc-sulphate and zinc-citrate was significantly higher than that of other salts, implicating a correlation between uptake and toxicity. In conclusion, Zn(2+)-salts could be divided into three categories with high (zinc-citrate, zinc-sulphate), moderate (zinc-orotate, zinc-acetate, zinc-chloride(,) zinc-gluconate) and low cytotoxicity (zinc-histidinate). PMID:19306923

Pavlica, Sanja; Gaunitz, Frank; Gebhardt, Rolf



Effect of zinc supplementation on taste acuity of the aged1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc nutritional status was assessed in 49 aged institutionalized persons before and after a 95-day supplementation period. Twenty-five subjects received 15 mg of zinc and 24 subjects received an identical phabebo daily in this double blind study. The zinc concentration of hair and taste detection and recognition thresholds for sodium chloride and sucrose as determined by forced-choice triangle tests were

J. L. Greger; A. H. Geissler


Production of zinc pellets  


Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

Cooper, J.F.



Process for making hydrogen. [reduction of zinc oxide; reaction of zinc and steam; recycling zinc oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for making hydrogen is described which comprises reducing zinc oxide to zinc metal, combining the metallic zinc with molten lead and spraying the mixture under pressure to an oxidizer where metallic zinc is reacted with steam to yield hydrogen and zinc oxide, separating the hydrogen product under pressure, separating the zinc oxide from the molten lead, recycling zinc




Zinc bioavailability and homeostasis.  


Zinc has earned recognition recently as a micronutrient of outstanding and diverse biological, clinical, and global public health importance. Regulation of absorption by zinc transporters in the enterocyte, together with saturation kinetics of the absorption process into and across the enterocyte, are the principal means by which whole-body zinc homeostasis is maintained. Several physiologic factors, most notably the quantity of zinc ingested, determine the quantity of zinc absorbed and the efficiency of absorption. Other factors are age and the time over which zinc is ingested. Zinc from supplements has not been shown to be absorbed differently from that taken with meals that lack inhibitors of zinc absorption. The principal dietary factor known to impair zinc bioavailability is inositol hexa- (and penta-) phosphate or phytate. Modeling of zinc absorption as a function of dietary zinc and phytate accounts for >80% of the variability in the quantity of zinc absorbed. Fitting the model to new data has resulted in continual improvement in parameter estimates, which currently indicate a maximal absorption in adults of approximately 6 mg Zn/d and that the average estimated dietary requirement doubles with 1000 mg dietary phytate/d. Intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc is regulated in response to recent absorption and to zinc status. The quantitative relation of intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc to zinc absorption is currently considered to be of major importance in the determination of zinc requirements. The effects of phytate on intestinal losses of endogenous zinc merit further investigation but are probably not of the same magnitude as its inhibitory effects on absorption of exogenous zinc. PMID:20200254

Hambidge, K Michael; Miller, Leland V; Westcott, Jamie E; Sheng, Xiaoyang; Krebs, Nancy F



Inorganic complexation of Zinc (II) in seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation constants for zinc complexation by bicarbonate, carbonate, and oxalate, on the molal concentration scale, were determined through observation of aqueous/tributyl phosphate distribution equilibria. At 25C in our 0.68 molal ionic strength mixtures (0.55 m NaCl plus 0.13 m NaClO 4-NaHCO 3) we obtained the following results: H?' 1 = [ZnHCO 3+][Zn 2+] -1[HCO 3-] t-1 log H?' 1 = 0.85 0.04 ?' 1 = [ZnCO 30][Zn 2+] -1[CO 32-] t-1 log ?' 1 = 3.30 0.08 Ox?' 1 = [ZnC 2O 40][Zn 2+] -1[C 2O 42-] t-1 log Ox?' 1 = 3.58 0.03 where [ ] denotes the concentration of each indicated chemical species, and [HCO 3-] t, [CO 32-] t, and [C 2O 42-] t are the total (free plus ion paired) concentrations of bicarbonate, carbonate, and oxalate. Our analyses in chloride media provide additionally an assessment of the conditional complexation constant of zinc with chloride ion: Cl? 1 = [ZnCl +][Zn 2+] -1[Cl -] -1; log Cl? 1 = -0.4 0.1 Our results indicate that in seawater ( S = 35%., 25C, carbonate alkalinity = 2.09 10 -3 eq 1 -1, pH 8.2) approximately 64% of total inorganic zinc exists as the free ion, 14% is complexed with chloride, 10% is complexed with carbonate, and complexation with hydroxide, sulfate, and bicarbonate account for approximately 6, 5, and 1% of the total inorganic zinc, respectively.

Stanley, J. K., Jr.; Byrne, R. H.



Recovery of metal values from zinc solder dross  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc solder dross containing 14.8% Sn, 16.3% Pb, 0.41% Al and 64.5% Zn was leached with 3% H2SO4 at 45C for 1 h. Zinc and aluminum went into solution, whereas lead and tin remained with the residue. Aluminum was selectively precipitated as calcium aluminum carbonate by treating the sulphate leachate with limestone at pH 4.8. Zinc sulphate solution was either

M. A. Barakat



Synthesis and Anticancer Properties of Water-Soluble Zinc Ionophores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several water-solubilized versions of the zinc ionophore 1-hydroxypyridine-2-thione (ZnHPT),synthesized as part of the present study,have been found both to increase the intracellular concentrations of free zinc and to produce an antiproliferative activity in exponential phase A549 human lung cancer cultures. Gene expression profiles of A549 cultures treated with one of these water-soluble zinc ionophores,PCI- 5002,reveal the activation of stress response

Darren Magda; Philip Lecane; Zhong Wang; Weilin Hu; Patricia Thiemann; Patricia K. Dranchak; Xiaoming Wang; Vincent Lynch; Wenhao Wei; Viktor Csokai; Joseph G. Hacia; Jonathan L. Sessler



Hydrogen Chloride Sparging Crystallization of Aluminum Chloride Hexahydrate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of its effort to produce cell-grade alumina from clay, the Bureau of Mines investigated the hydrogen chloride gas-sparging crystallization of aluminum chloride hexahydrate (ACH) from aluminum chloride liquor, to provide information for optimizing ...

D. E. Shanks D. J. Bauer J. A. Eisle



Factors affecting threshold chloride for reinforcement corrosion in concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three cements with variable C3A contents were mixed with different levels of chloride, alkali and sulfate contents to study the effect of these parameters on pore solution composition. Effect of exposure temperature was also studied by curing the chloride-treated specimens at 20 and 70 C. Pore solution was extracted using a high pressure pore solution extrusion device and analysed

S. E. Hussain; Rasheeduzzafar; A. Al-Musallam; A. S. Al-Gahtani



III. The Role of Chloride in the Volume Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T a A C T This paper describes the effect of external chloride on the typical swelling response induced in duck red cells by hypertonicity or norepinephrine. Lowering chloride inhibits swelling and produces concomitant changes in net movements of sodium and potassium in ouabain-treated cells, which resemble the effect of lowering external sodium or potassium. Inhibition is



The development of a micropatterned electrode for studies of zinc electrodeposition  

SciTech Connect

A micropatterned electrode was prepared for the study of electrocrystallization. Using microphotolithography, in conjunction with evaporation and pulse electrodeposition of thin films, a set of artificially roughened electrodes with hemispherical surface features five microns in diameter was developed. Voltammetric studies were conducted to determine the best electrode material. Gold, platinum, and various carbon surfaces were evaluated for zinc nucleation density and hydrogen overpotential. Surface homogeneity was examined by both light and scanning electron microscopy. Gold was determined to possess the best combination of material properties: chemical inertness, low melting point, and a high work function allowing underpotential deposition of zinc which reduces the rate of hydrogen evolution. Stripping coulometry was employed to determine zinc limiting currents, and evaluate effective diffusion coefficients in concentrated zinc chloride solutions. Although the method worked well for dilute zinc chloride and copper sulfate solutions, it failed at higher current densities; the emergence of surface roughness obscured actual limiting current plateaus.

Sutija, D.P.; Muller, R.H.; Tobias, C.W.



Platinized Silver Chloride Electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid electrode made by platinizing silver-silver chloride has been found to combine the stable potential and low direct-current resistance properties of a silver-silver chloride electrode with the low high-frequency impedance characteristic of a platinized platinum electrode.

Kenneth S. Cole; Uichiro Kishimoto



Invitro assessment of natural plant extracts Withania somnifera, Cassia fistula, Saraca asoca, and Eucalyptus tereticornis using primary chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture treated with urea or mercuric chloride (II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation examined the detoxifying potential of methanolic herbal extracts, namely the leaf and bark extract of Eucalyptus tereticornis, bark extract of Saraca asoca, Cassia fistula and Withania somnifera invitro using primary chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells against damaging effects of urea and mercuric chloride (HgCl) (II). The influence of 20?mM urea and 10?M?HgCl (II) was determined on cell

Swati Dahiya; Mansi Babbar; Gaurav Chaudhary; Devender Singh



Study of chloride ion migration in reinforced concrete under cathodic protection. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The migration of chloride ions in concrete with steel reinforcement was investigated. Mortar blocks (15 cm x 15 cm x 17 cm) of various composition (water to cement ratio, chloride ion content) were cast with an iron mesh cathode imbedded along one face and a thermally sprayed zinc anode applied to the opposite face. Current densities of 0.033 and 0.066 A (sq m) were applied to the blocks over a period of one year at constant temperature and humidity. The zinc face was covered with a pond of saturated calcium hydroxide to prevent polarization of the zinc-concrete interface. Over the course of polarization, potential vs. time curves were recorded and samples of mortar were extracted for determination of chloride concentration.

Orlova, N.V.; Westall, J.C.; Rehani, M.; Koretsky, M.D.



Hydrolytic reactions in hydrated iridium chloride coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrolytic side reaction in hydrated iridium chloride films heat-treated on titanium supports was discovered by simultaneous thermal analysis, emission FTIR and SIMS techniques. In the presence of water vapour the degree of hydrolysis increases significantly in the outermost part of the film leading to the formation of oxidic species at low temperatures. In a wet oxygen atmosphere encapsulated hydrogen

J. Kristf; J. Mihly; S. Daolio; A. De Battisti; L. Nanni; C. Piccirillo



21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...gram cetylpyridinium chloride per pound of raw poultry carcass, provided that the additive is used in systems that collect and recycle solution that is not carried out of the system with the treated poultry carcasses; or (2) As a liquid aqueous...



Polarization and corrosion of electrogalvanized steel - evaluation of zinc coatings obtained from waste-derived zinc electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion of electrogalvanized 1070 steel wire has been investigated in molar quiescent ammonium chloride and ammonium sulfate under near-neutral conditions. Zinc coatings obtained from waste-derived electrolytes were evaluated vs. coatings from relatively pure zinc electrolytes. The waste source of zinc was brass smelter flue dust. Corrosion rates were measured by Tafel line extrapolation and the polarization resistance technique. Values of the Tafel slopes and the corrosion currents were also compared with those for pure zinc (99.999%). Corrosion rates were found to be affected by the medium employed, pH, and bimetal diameter reduction (drawing). Drawn electrogalvanized stee displays higher values of the Tafel slopes than do the as-plated samples. The Tafel slopes are different from thos obtained on pure zinc. This is assumed to be due to inhomogeneous surface features obtained from additive adsorption (during plating) and residual lubricants used in the drawing process as well as surface structure. The corrosion rates of electrogalvanized samples plated in the waste-derived zinc electrolytes were similar to the corrosion rates of samples plated in relatively pure zinc electrolytes. Therefore, wastes are a potential source of zinc for electrogalvanizing.

Dattilo, M.



Rechargeable zinc halogen battery  

SciTech Connect

A rechargeable zinc halogen battery has an aqueous electrolyte containing ions of zinc and halogen and an amount of polysaccharide and/or sorbitol sufficient to prevent zinc dendrite formation during recharging. The electrolyte may also contain trace amounts of metals such as tungsten, molybdenum, and lead. 7 tables.

Spaziante, P.M.; Nidola, A.



Continuous electrowinning of zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic and pure zinc solution produced from laboratory leached oxidised zinc ores, under controlled temperature and pH were subjected to continuous elctrowinning operations until the least possible zinc concentration was reached. Conventional DC electrolysis technique, PC and PCR procedures were examined. The effect of organic additives and some of the impurity foreign cations were also investigated. Current efficiencies of more

A. E Saba; A. E Elsherief



Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin. In iron deficiency and lead poisoning, the enzyme ferrochelatase catalyzes the incorporation of zinc, instead of iron, into protoporphyrin IX, resulting in the formation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP). In healthy blood donors, there is a good inverse correlation between serum ferritin and ZPP levels. In renal failure patients and in patients with anemia caused by a variety




Tooth about Zinc  


... 07, 2013 About | Contact InfoBites The Tooth About Zinc Article Chapters The Tooth About Zinc send to printer From its involvement in a ... immune system to its role in cell growth, zinc is an essential mineral for the human body. ...


Review of hydrometallurgical recovery of zinc from industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc containing wastes\\/secondaries viz. zinc ash, dross, flue dusts, sludge, residue etc. are generated in various chemical and metallurgical industries. The materials contain different level of impurities depending on the source. The hydrometallurgical processing is effective and flexible for treating such materials as it can control the different level of impurities. Depending on the nature and composition of the secondaries,

M. K Jha; V Kumar; R. J Singh



Zinc and Diarrheal Disease: Current Status and Future Perspectives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this review article is to evaluate clinical data indicating the benefits of oral zinc supplementation to prevent and/or treat diarrhea in children and extend these findings to adults. Zinc plays an important role in modulating host resistan...

A. G. Scrimgeour H. C. Lukaski



Catalytic conversion of biomass pyrolysis vapours with zinc oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conversion of pyrolysis vapours of pine sawdust was studied in micro and bench scales with zinc oxide catalyst. Three different zinc oxides were screened in a gas chromatograph system using an injection port as a fixed-bed catalytic converter in order to find appropriate reaction conditions by emphasising a high yield of bio-oil. Catalytically treated pyrolysis oils were produced in a

M. I Nokkosmki; E. T Kuoppala; E. A Leppmki; A. O. I Krause



Study of Chloride Transport Across the Rabbit Cortical Collecting Tubule  

PubMed Central

Recent micropuncture studies have suggested that the collecting tubule may be involved in the regulation of extracellular fluid volume. The present studies were designed to evaluate chloride transport across the in vitro-perfused rabbit cortical collecting tubule inasmuch as chloride ion would ultimately affect extracellular fluid volume. The tubules were perfused and bathed with artificial solutions simulating ultrafiltrate. Four groups of studies were conducted. In groups one and two, tubules from rabbits not receiving desoxycorticosterone (DOCA) were compared to tubules from rabbits which had received DOCA (5 mg/day) for 1 wk. In groups three and four, tubules were obtained only from rabbits not receiving DOCA. In group one, sequential bidirectional chloride fluxes were measured. The ratio of chloride efflux to influx was 0.990.04 in tubules obtained from rabbits not receiving DOCA whereas it was 1.280.09 in tubules obtained from rabbits receiving DOCA, suggesting stimulation of net chloride flux under these conditions. In group 2, chemical chloride concentration and osmolality of the collected fluid were measured. Neither the chemical chloride concentration nor the osmolality of the collected fluid decreased significantly below their respective perfusion fluid values in tubules from non-DOCA-treated rabbits but there was a significant decrease in the chemical chloride concentration (10-42 meq/liter) and osmolality (10-42 mosmol/kg H2O of the collected fluid in tubules from DOCA-treated rabbits. In group three, unidirectional chloride permeabilities from lumen-to-bath were determined during the passage of current down the perfusion pipette. The alterations of the average lumen potential, ?354 and +282 mV, did not influence unidirectional chloride movement suggesting that the cortical collecting tubule is quite impermeable to chloride. In group four, unidirectional chloride permeability from lumen-to-bath was measured before and after substitution of NaCH3SO4 for sodium chloride in the bath. Replacement of chloride by CH3SO4 reversibly decreased the apparent chloride permeability from 2.410.50 to 0.690.08 (10?5 cm/s) demonstrating that 36Cl permeability is dependent on the chemical concentration of chloride. The current studies demonstrate that: (a) the cortical collecting tubule is able to reabsorb salt under the modulation of circulating mineralocorticoids and, thus, may participate in overall volume homeostasis; (b) the chloride permeability and the major portion of isotopic chloride flux across the cortical collecting tubule is via exchange diffusion; and (c) under certain circumstances the cortical collecting tubule may act as a diluting segment.

Hanley, Michael J.; Kokko, Juha P.



Low temperature electrodeposition of zinc oxide layers as transparent conducting oxide window layers for CIGS solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrodeposition of zinc oxide layers has been carried out in simple aqueous solutions at 80C in presence of zinc ions and dissolved oxygen. Extrinsic n type doping has been proven to be effective by anionic substitution of oxygen by chlorine, using chloride containing electrolytes. Doping level upper values up to 9.1019 cm-3 have been obtained, associated with lateral resistivies in




Hair and plasma zinc levels following exclusion of biliopancreatic secretions from functioning gastrointestinal tract in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pancreatic secretions have been shown to be important in zinc absorption in experimental animals. Recently, complete surgical diversion of biliary and pancreatic secretions from the functioning small intestine has been utilized in Europe to treat morbid obesity. To determine the importance of pancreatic secretions in zinc absorption in the human, we measured hair and serum zinc levels in 14 patients

Jon A. Vanderhoof; Nicola Scopinaro; Dean J. Tuma; Ezio Gianetta; Dario Civalleri; Dean L. Antonson



Purification and characterization of a low molecular weight zinc binding protein from human placenta  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low molecular weight, native zinc binding, cytosolic protein (LMZP) has been isolated, purified and characterized from human normal term placenta. Gel filtration of heat treated placental cytosol after sequential acetone precipitation (80% ppt) revealed a major zinc binding protein in the range of low molecular weight. This partially purified zinc binding fraction was further fractionated on DEAE-Sephadex A-25. The

S. Honey; G. I. Dhall; R. Nath




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



Trimethylsilyl chloride promoted synthesis of ?-branched amines by nucleophilic addition of organozinc halides to nitrones.  


A general procedure for the nucleophilic addition of organozinc halides with nitrones in the presence of trimethylsilyl chloride has been developed. Trimethylsilyl chloride was found to be both an indispensable reaction promoter and a ready hydroxylamine protective agent in these reactions. The produced O-(trimethylsilyl)hydroxylamines can be easily reduced into corresponding amines just by a zinc-copper couple in saturated aqueous NH(4)Cl solution. PMID:22886083

Fu, Ying; Liu, Yanhua; Chen, Yaojuan; Hgel, Helmut M; Wang, Minzhu; Huang, Danfeng; Hu, Yulai



Effect of zinc on haemoglobin binding by red blood cell membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESULTS of recent studies in our laboratory have suggested that zinc plays an important role in sickle cell anaemia. A significant proportion of sickle cell patients are zinc deficient1. Zinc binds to haemoglobin and increases oxygen affinity2,3. Sickle cells treated in vitro with zinc show markedly improved filterability at concentrations too low to be explained on an oxygen affinity basis4,

Sumitra Dash; George J. Brewer; Fred J. Oelshlegel



Surface treatment of zinc anodes to improve discharge capacity and suppress hydrogen gas evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shape change and redistribution of zinc anode material over the electrode during repeated cycling have been identified as the main factors that can limit the life of alkaline zinc-air batteries. Li2O2B2O3 (lithium boron oxide, LBO) glass with high Li+ conductivity and stability can be coated on the surface of zinc powders. The structures of the surface-treated and pristine zinc

Yung-Da Cho; George Ting-Kuo Fey



Toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles through oral route.  


This experiment was aimed to determine the significance of dose by comparing acute oral toxicological potential of nano-sized zinc oxide (20 nm) with its micro-sized zinc oxide. Sprague Dawley rats, 8 to 9 weeks old, were administered with 5, 50, 300, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) of nano- and micro-sized zinc oxide suspended in distilled water once through oral gavage. The effects of the micro- and nano-sized zinc oxide on biochemical and hematological parameters were analyzed on day 14 of administration. The organs were collected for histopathology. Interestingly, inverse dose-dependent increase was noted in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase serum levels of nano-size zinc oxide groups when compared with their micro-sized zinc oxide. Clotting time was effected in all the male groups of nano-size zinc oxide, except in 1000 mg/kg b.w. The incidences of microscopic lesions in liver, pancreas, heart and stomach were higher in lower doses of nano-size zinc oxide compared to higher dose. However, the incidences of above lesions were higher in rats treated with a high dose of micro-sized zinc oxide. We conclude that nano-size zinc oxide exhibited toxicity at lower doses, thus alarming future nanotoxicology research needs to be focused on importance of dose metrics rather following the conventional methods while conducting in vivo experiments. PMID:22033421

Pasupuleti, Surekha; Alapati, Srinivas; Ganapathy, Selvam; Anumolu, Goparaju; Pully, Neelakanta Reddy; Prakhya, Balakrishna Murthy



Thermal treatment for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries.  


The aim of this paper is the recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn, after preliminary physical treatment followed by removal of mercury. Separation of the metals has been carried out on the basis of their different boiling points, being 357C and 906C the boiling point of mercury and zinc and 1564C the melting point of Mn(2)O(3). Characterization by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA and X-ray powder diffraction of the mixture has been carried out after comminution sieving and shaking table treatment to remove the anodic collectors and most of chlorides contained in the mixture. The mixture has been roasted at various temperatures and resident times in a flow of air to set the best conditions to remove mercury that were 400C and 10 min. After that, the flow of air has been turned into a nitrogen one (inert atmosphere) and the temperatures raised, thus permitting the zinc oxide to be reduced to metallic zinc by the carbon present in the original mixture and recovered after volatilization as a high grade concentrate, while manganese was left in the residue. The recovery and the grade of the two metals, at 1000C and 30 min residence time, were 84% and 100% for zinc and 85% and 63% for manganese, respectively. The recovery of zinc increased to 99% with a grade of 97% at 1200C and 30 min residence time, while the recovery and grade of manganese were 86% and 87%, respectively, at that temperature. Moreover, the chlorinated compounds that could form by the combustion of the plastics contained in the spent batteries, are destroyed at the temperature required by the process. PMID:22677015

Belardi, G; Lavecchia, R; Medici, F; Piga, L



Appearance of infused zinc ( sup 70 Zn) and oral zinc ( sup 68 Zn) in breast milk  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to monitor the appearance of a simultaneous intravenous (IV) dose and oral dose of stable isotopes, {sup 70}Zn and {sup 68}Zn, respectively, in breast milk. Three lactating subjects, 2-3 months postpartum were fed a controlled diet which contained an average of 7.8 mg Zn/day. Subjects collected milk samples at the beginning of each feeding for a 24 hour period on the fifth day of the controlled diet. On day 7 of the controlled diet, a 160 ug IV dose of {sup 70}Zn as zinc chloride in saline was infused into each subject. The subjects also received 2 mg of {sup 68 }Zn as zinc chloride in 50 ml of orange juice. Following the stable isotope doses, subjects collected milk samples at the beginning of each feeding for 48 hours, weighing their infants before and after each feeding. The amount of natural Zn, {sup 70}Zn and {sup 68}Zn tracers in the milk was measured by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The cumulative {sup 70}Zn excretion into breast milk over 48 hours was approximately 1% of the infused dose and the cumulative {sup 68}Zn excretion was smaller still. Thus, only a small fraction of a physiological IV or oral dose of zinc comes out in the milk. The small fraction of {sup 70}Zn and {sup 68}Zn appearing in the milk suggests that circulating zinc and dietary zinc are not rapidly or directly incorporated into breast milk in appreciable amounts.

Moser-Veillon, P.B.; Patterson, K.Y.; Mangels, A.R.; Wallace, G.F.; Veillon, C. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States) Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States) Perkin-Elmer Corp., Rockville, MD (United States))



18F-fluoride PET: changes in uptake as a method to assess response in bone metastases from castrate-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with 223Ra-chloride (Alpharadin)  

PubMed Central

Background A qualitative assessment of conventional bone scintigraphy with 99mTc methylene diphosphonate is perceived as an insensitive method for monitoring the treatment response of bone metastases, and we postulated that semi-quantitative 18F-fluoride positron emission tomography (PET) might serve as a suitable alternative biomarker of the treatment response. Methods Five patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases with no known soft tissue disease received 100 kBq/kg of radium-223 (223Ra)-chloride (Alpharadin) therapy at 0 and 6 weeks and had whole body 18F-fluoride PET scans at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks with concurrent prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) measurements. A qualitative comparison of the PET scans was performed blinded to the PSA and ALP results. A semi-quantitative comparison was made by measuring the maximum standardised uptake values (SUVmax) in five bone metastases in each patient. The means of the five SUVmax measurements in each subject were used as a quantitative measure of global metastatic activity at each time point. Results Three patients showed a PSA decline at 12 weeks (-44%, -31%, -27% reduction) whilst two patients showed PSA increases (+10%, +17%). All five patients showed a reduction in ALP of greater than 25%. The qualitative assessment of the 18F-fluoride scans recorded a stable disease in each case. However, the semi-quantitative assessment showed agreement with the PSA decline in three patients (-52%, -75%, -49%) and minimal change (+12%, -16%) in two patients with increased PSA at 12 weeks. Four patients showed similar reductions in mean SUVmax and ALP at 12 weeks. Conclusions The semi-quantitative 18F-fluoride PET is more accurate than the qualitative comparison of scans in assessing response in bone metastases, correlating with the PSA response and ALP activity and offering a potential imaging biomarker for monitoring treatment response in bone metastases following treatment with 223Ra-chloride.



Intraprostatic injection of neutralized zinc in rats  

SciTech Connect

Zinc has been implicated in steroid endocrinology of the prostate gland. The conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by 5{alpha}-reductase enzyme is believed to express androgenic responses in the prostate. To note the effect of neutralized zinc on the prostate, 50 sexually mature rats, weighing 325 {plus minus} 20 grams, were divided into 5 groups as follows: (1) control, (2) sham, (3) castrated, (4) injected intraprostatically with 10 mg. neutralized zinc, and (5) injected intraprostatically with 20 mg. neutralized zinc. Results in the treated groups indicated significant reduction of prostate weights, 12% and 53% and histologically normal prostate; no significant change in weight and histological structure of testes, epididymides, and seminal vesicles; significant reduction in 5{alpha}-reductase activity and total protein and DNA concentrations in prostate tissue; and no significant effect on progeny of treated animals. These results suggest that direct application of neutralized zinc to the prostate offers a new modality for treatment of prostatitis without affecting spermatogenesis and testosterone production.

Fahim, M.S.; Wang, M.; Sutcu, M.F.; Fahim, Z.; Safron, J.A.; Ganjam, V.K. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia (United States) Xian Medical University (China))



Zinc homeostasis and functions of zinc in the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brain barrier system, i.e., the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers, is important for zinc homeostasis in the brain. Zinc is supplied to the brain via both barriers. A large portion of zinc serves as zinc metalloproteins in neurons and glial cells. Approximately 10% of the total zinc in the brain, probably ionic zinc, exists in the synaptic vesicles, and

Atsushi Takeda



[Zinc and diabetes mellitus].  


In patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes was frequently found: low blood zinc levels, high zincuria, severe and ubiquitous cellular depletion of zinc, increased basal and after loading blood mineral clearance, and hyperglycaemia due to the reduction of pancreatic insulin secretion and to the reduced biological action of the hormone on liver, as a consequence of chronic zinc deficit. Strong endocellular zinc depletion in diabetics; low insulin secretion; insulin biological action decrease for zinc deficit; IG-I concentration decrease, that happens in this condition; insulin and IGF-I resistance; insulin and IGF-I receptors depletion in diabetics: are strong arguments for zinc pharmacological supplementation, in gastric protective formulation, to avoid gastroenteric problems. PMID:8622809

Ripa, S; Ripa, R



Effects of zinc on programmed cell death of Musca domestica and Drosophila melanogaster blood cells.  


Programmed cell death (PCD) and phagocytotic activity of immune cells play a pivotal role in insect development. We examined the influence of Zn(2+), an important element to fundamental biological processes, on phagocytosis and apoptosis of hemocytes in two fly species: Musca domestica and Drosophila melanogaster. Hemocytes were isolated from the third instar larvae of both species and treated for 3h with zinc chloride solutions, containing 0.35 mM or 1.7 mM of Zn(2+), and untreated as control. Phagocytotic activity of hemocytes was examined by flow cytometry after adding latex fluorescent beads to the medium, while apoptosis was evaluated by application of annexinV-FITC and pan-caspase-FITC inhibitor. Mitochondrial viability was determined by measuring resazurin absorbancy in the cell medium. The obtained results showed that Zn(2+) increases phagocytosis and affects PCD of both species hemocytes but each in a different way. Zinc decreases fraction of annexin-positive hemocytes in M. domestica but increases it in D. melanogaster. The pan-caspase analysis revealed low and high activity of caspases in hemocytes of M. domestica and D. melanogaster, respectively. Zn(2+) also decreased the viability of hemocyte mitochondria but only in D. melanogaster. It suggests that flies use different pathways of PCD, or that Zn plays a different role in this process in M. domestica than in D. melanogaster. PMID:19941868

Filipiak, Marta; Bilska, Ewelina; Tylko, Grzegorz; Pyza, Elzbieta



Zinc-halogen battery  

SciTech Connect

A zinc-halogen battery having a negative electrode of zinc electrode, a positive electrode of halogen electrode, and an electrolyte of aqueous solution containing a zinc halide as a main component thereof, which is characterized in that said electrolyte contains T1 and/or T1 compound and further at least one additive selected from the group consisting of Mo, W, Sn, Pb, Bi and the compounds thereof, if necessary, with addition of In and/or In compound.

Watakabe, Y.; Fujisaki, F.; Fujiwara, K.; Shimizu, Sh.



Zinc: An Essential Micronutrient  

PubMed Central

Zinc is an essential micronutrient for human metabolism that catalyzes more than 100 enzymes, facilitates protein folding, and helps regulate gene expression. Patients with malnutrition, alcoholism, inflammatory bowel disease, and malabsorption syndromes are at an increased risk of zinc deficiency. Symptoms of zinc deficiency are nonspecific, including growth retardation, diarrhea, alopecia, glossitis, nail dystrophy, decreased immunity, and hypogonadism in males. In developing countries, zinc supplementation may be effective for the prevention of upper respiratory infection and diarrhea, and as an adjunct treatment for diarrhea in malnourished children. Zinc in combination with antioxidants may be modestly effective in slowing the progression of intermediate and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Zinc is an effective treatment for Wilson disease. Current data do not support zinc supplementation as effective for upper respiratory infection, wound healing, or human immunodeficiency virus. Zinc is well tolerated at recommended dosages. Adverse effects of long-term high-dose zinc use include suppressed immunity, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, anemia, copper deficiency, and possible genitourinary complications.




76 FR 51992 - Determination That PENTETATE ZINC TRISODIUM (Zinc Trisodium Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2010-P-0630] Determination That PENTETATE ZINC TRISODIUM (Zinc Trisodium Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate) Solution...Administration (FDA) has determined that PENTETATE ZINC TRISODIUM (zinc trisodium...



Synthesis of copper-activated zinc sulphide phosphors sensitive to beta radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts were made to synthesize copper activated zinc sulphide phosphors sensitive to (beta) -radiation. In this purpose, homogeneous synthesis mixtures were prepared from luminescent grade zinc sulphide - thiosulfate route -, copper nitrate and alkaline and\\/or alkaline-earth chloride and were fired at 800-900 degrees C, in nitrogen atmosphere. ZnS:Cu,Cl phosphors prepared in various synthesis conditions were characterized by crystalline structure,

Elisabeth-Jeanne Popovici; Flavia Forgaciu; Cristina Ciocan; Ligia Pascu; D. Angelescu; C. Postolache



FTIR investigation of the specific migration of additives from rigid poly(vinyl chloride)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial sunflower oil was epoxidized and used as organic costabiliser for rigid poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) containing zinc and calcium stearates as primary stabilisers and stearic acid as lubricant. For applications in the packaging of foodstuffs, migration testing must be realised. For that purpose, two food simulants were used (sunflower oil and 15% (v\\/v) aqueous ethanol). The test conditions were

D. Atek; N. Belhaneche-Bensemra



Characterization of Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Aged in a Bromine Containing Electrolyte.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is being considered for use as a flow frame material in a developmental zinc/bromine battery. The choice of PVC was based on its low cost and the ease with which it can be molded into complex parts. The electrolyte used in this ...

C. Arnold A. Leo M. Tarjani



Zinc triggers microglial activation  

PubMed Central

Microglia are resident immune cells of the central nervous system. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, amoeboid morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other pro-inflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with an NF-kB reporter gene showed a several-fold increase in NF-kB activity in response to 30 ?M zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15 30 ?M zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-?B activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-?B. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

Kauppinen, Tiina M.; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A.



Zinc coordination to the bapbpy ligand in homogeneous solutions and at liposomes: zinc detection via fluorescence enhancement.  


In this work, the complexation of the bapbpy ligand to zinc dichloride is described (bapbpy = 6,6?-bis(2-aminopyridyl)-2,2?-bipyridine). The water-soluble, colorless complex [Zn(bapbpy)Cl]Cl2H2O (compound 2H2O) was synthesized; its X-ray crystal structure shows a mononuclear, pentacoordinated geometry with one chloride ligand in apical position. Upon excitation of its lowest-energy absorption band (375 nm) compound 2 shows intense emission (? = 0.50) at 418 nm in aqueous solution, and an excited state lifetime of 5 ns at room temperature. Photophysical measurements, DFT, and TD-DFT calculations prove that emission arises from vibronically coupled Ligand-to-Ligand Charge Transfer singlet excited states, characterized by electron density flowing from the lone pairs of the non-coordinated NH bridges to the ?* orbitals of the pyridine rings. Monofunctionalization of the ligand with one long alkyl chain was realized to afford ligand 3, which can be inserted into dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) or dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) unilamellar vesicles. For negatively charged DMPG membranes the addition of a zinc salt to the vesicles leads to an enhancement of the fluorescence due to zinc coordination to the membrane-embedded tetrapyridyl ligand. No changes were observed for the zwitterionic DMPC lipids, where binding of the Zn ions does not take place. A modest binding constant was found (5 10(6) M(?1)) for the coordination of zinc cations to bapbpy-functionalized DMPG membranes, which allows for the detection of micromolar zinc concentrations in aqueous solution. The influence of chloride concentration and other transition metal ions on the zinc binding was evaluated, and the potential of liposome-supported metal chelators such as ligand 3 for zinc detection in biological media is discussed. PMID:23258585

Molenbroek, Elwin; Straathof, Natan; Dck, Sebastian; Rashid, Zahid; van Lenthe, Joop H; Lutz, Martin; Gandubert, Aurore; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M; De Cola, Luisa; Bonnet, Sylvestre



Monitoring Vinyl Chloride Around Polyvinyl Chloride Fabrication Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A program to measure vinyl chloride emissions from polyvinyl chloride fabrication plants was carried out. Four charcoal collectors were stationed around each of five PVC fabrication plants. 24-hour samples were collected daily for 14 days around each plan...



Preparation of Anhydrous Magnesium Chloride from Magnesium Chloride Hexahydrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method was proposed for the preparation of high-purity anhydrous magnesium chloride by using magnesium chloride hexahydrate and ammonium chloride as raw materials, and alumina as covering agent. X-ray diffraction was employed to investigate the process. The mechanism involved in the process was proposed. The factors affecting the purity of anhydrous magnesium chloride were investigated. Dehydrated ammonium carnallite was formed in the process to facilitate the dehydration process. Alumina as covering agent can guarantee that the formation of high-purity anhydrous magnesium chloride was obtained. The content of magnesia in anhydrous magnesium chloride was 0.02 pct under the optimum conditions: molar ratio of ammonium chloride to dehydrated magnesium chloride was 2:1, thickness of alumina 1.3 cm, reaction temperature 723 K (450 C), reaction time 1 hour, and the number of crystallized water 0.6 to 2.2.

Zhang, Zhimin; Lu, Xuchen; Pan, Feng; Wang, Yun; Yang, Suping



Effect of Zinc, Zinc Oxide and Zinc Borate on the Flammability of Polycarbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycarbonate was blended with zinc, zinc borate (2ZnO3B2O 33.5H2O) and zinc oxide. Blends made of zinc\\/polycarbonate and especially zinc borate\\/polycarbonate show major improvement in oxygen index values. Ohio State University (OSU) heat release studies show reduction in heat release only for zinc borate\\/polycarbonate blends compared to virgin polycarbonate. No improvement in smoke suppression was observed from NBS Smoke Chamber studies

Ramazan Benrashid; Gordon L. Nelson; Donald J. Ferm; Leland W. Chew



Tissue uptake of zinc in rats following the administration of zinc dipicolinate or zinc histidinate.  


Tissue uptake of zinc was determined in rats fed a low zinc diet (less than 1 ppm Zn) and an adequate zinc diet (20 ppm Zn) following the intramuscular injection of either zinc dipicolinate (ZnPA2) or zinc histidinate (ZnHis). Significant differences were observed when dietary and treatment effects on zinc uptake were compared in pancreas, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, kidney, and liver. Zinc uptake by the pancreas was higher in rats fed adequate zinc than in rats fed low zinc regardless of which zinc complex was injected, suggesting that the pancreas has a role in zinc excretion. Since ZnHis was more readily taken up than ZnPA2 by the pancreas of rats on the zinc-adequate diet, zinc chelated by histidine may be more readily excreted than zinc chelated by picolinic acid. No differences in zinc uptake were observed in the intestinal segments from rats fed low zinc compared to rats fed adequate zinc. However, in rats fed low zinc, ZnPA2 was more readily taken up than ZnHis by all intestinal segments implying that zinc chelated by picolinic acid may be more available for storage or utilization by the small intestine than zinc chelated by histidine. Also, the ileum had the highest zinc uptake regardless of which zinc complex was injected. Since the ileum has the largest population of Paneth cells, and high zinc uptake observed in this segment of the small intestine suggests a role for Paneth cells in zinc homeostasis. PMID:7077422

Johnson, W T; Evans, G W



Investigation of factors influencing chloride extraction efficiency during electrochemical chloride extraction from reinforcing concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) is an accelerated bridge restoration method similar to cathodic protection, but operates at higher current densities and utilizes a temporary installation. Both techniques prolong the life of a bridge by reducing the corrosion rate of the reinforcing bar when properly applied. ECE achieves this by moving chlorides away from the reinforcement and out of the concrete while simultaneously increasing the alkalinity of the electrolyte near the reinforcing steel. Despite the proven success, significant use of ECE has not resulted in part due to an incomplete understanding in the following areas: (1) An estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment when the treated member is again subjected to chlorides; (2) The cause of the decrease in current flow and, therefore, chloride removal rate during treatment; (3) Influence of water-to-cement (w/c) ratio and cover depth on the time required for treatment. This dissertation covers the research that is connected to the last two areas listed above. To begin examining these issues, plain carbon steel reinforcing bars (rebar) were embedded in portland cement concrete slabs of varying water-to-cement (w/c) ratios and cover depths, and then exposed to chlorides. A fraction of these slabs had sodium chloride added as an admixture, with all of the slabs subjected to cyclical ponding with a saturated solution of sodium chloride. ECE was then used to remove the chlorides from these slabs while making electrical measurements in the different layers between the rebar (cathode) and the titanium mat (anode) to follow the progress of the ECE process. During this study, it was revealed that the resistance of the outer concrete surface layer increases during ECE, inevitably restricting current flow, while the resistance of the underlying concrete decreases or remains constant. During ECE treatment, a white residue formed on the surface of the concrete. Analyses of the residue revealed that it contains calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, and other yet unidentified minor components when calcium hydroxide was used as the electrolyte. The surface film can be completely removed mechanically or to some extent inhibited chemically, with both of these processes resulting in an increase in the efficiency of the electrochemical chloride extraction process. In addition, an obvious relationship between the cover depth, water-to-cement ratio, and chloride extraction efficiency does not exist, however, cover depth does influence the current density. The final phase of this study will be presented in a VTRC/FHWA final report. This report will include the results that are presented in this dissertation, in addition to the results from the ongoing research. It will also include an estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment.

Sharp, Stephen R.


Health and environmental effects document for batteries - 1981: the zinc/halogen batteries  

SciTech Connect

This document is an assessment of the health and ecological effects of the zinc/halogen batteries (zinc/chloride and zinc/bromine) as related to electric and hybrid vehicles and load-leveling applications. Emissions have been estimated for the complete cycle. Emissions have been estimated for the production capability per kWh of battery and for per module of battery. These values are amenable to scaling up as warranted. Emissions of interest regarding ecological effects are from zinc, titanium, and graphite industries. An analysis of Pb emissions, from the zinc industry, their ecological effects, and movements through the food chains has been attempted. Health effects as a result of increased levels of Pb, Cd, So/sub 2/ and particulates, and vinyl chloride have been assessed using mathematical models for dose-response relationship. Risks of injury to those employed in battery-related industries are also assessed. Potential health effects of chlorine exposure from accidents involving electric vehicles powered by zinc chloride baiteries are evaluated.

Not Available



Rechargeable Alkaline Zinc System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rechargeable alkaline zinc batteries have been investigated heretofore as power sources capable of high energy density applications. One of the major problems with their use is the short circuiting of the unit cells by growth of zinc dendrites from the an...

O. C. Wagner



Preparation of anhydrous magnesium chloride from ammonium magnesium chloride hexahydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium chloride hydrate can be dehydrated to some extent by heating. However, it is not possible to fully dehydrate magnesium chloride by heating in air because of hydrolytic decomposition. Accordingly, the dehydration should be carried out in hydrogen chloride gas atmosphere. However, this process causes many problems, including HCl gas storage and corrosive nature, consuming a large amount of HCl

Hyoung-Choon Eom; Ho-Sung Yoon



Efficacy and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a Dose of Diazepam That Will Reduce the Incidence of Convulsions in Indian Rhesus Monkeys Pretreated with Pyridostigmine Bromide, Challenged with Soman, and Treated with Atropine and Pralidoxime Chloride with the Diazepam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was initiated to determine the smallest dose of diazepam that would result in no more than a 20 percent incidence of convulsions in male rhesus monkeys pretreated with pyridostigmine, challenged with soman, and post treated with atropine and 2-PAM...

C. T. Olson G. S. Dill R. C. Kiser R. G. Menton T. L. Llayes




EPA Science Inventory

The photooxidation of allyl chloride was studied by irradiation either in 100-L Teflon bags or in a 22.7-cu m Teflon smog chamber in the presence of added NOx. In the absence of added hydrocarbons, the reaction involves a Cl atom chain, which leads to a highly reactive system. A ...


Lithium thionyl chloride battery  

SciTech Connect

The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.




EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes data on air emissions from the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry. PVC is manufactured by 20 companies at 35 plants. Each plant uses one or more of four possible polymerization processes: (1) suspension polymerization, (2) emulsion polymerization, (3) bulk p...


Thermal treatment for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We separated Zn from Mn in zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries after removal of Hg. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost total removal of Hg is achieved at low temperature in air. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen atmosphere is needed to reduce zinc and to permit its volatilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high grade Zn concentrate was obtained with a high recovery at 1000-1200 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grade of Mn in the residue was enhanced with complete recovery. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is the recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn, after preliminary physical treatment followed by removal of mercury. Separation of the metals has been carried out on the basis of their different boiling points, being 357 Degree-Sign C and 906 Degree-Sign C the boiling point of mercury and zinc and 1564 Degree-Sign C the melting point of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Characterization by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA and X-ray powder diffraction of the mixture has been carried out after comminution sieving and shaking table treatment to remove the anodic collectors and most of chlorides contained in the mixture. The mixture has been roasted at various temperatures and resident times in a flow of air to set the best conditions to remove mercury that were 400 Degree-Sign C and 10 min. After that, the flow of air has been turned into a nitrogen one (inert atmosphere) and the temperatures raised, thus permitting the zinc oxide to be reduced to metallic zinc by the carbon present in the original mixture and recovered after volatilization as a high grade concentrate, while manganese was left in the residue. The recovery and the grade of the two metals, at 1000 Degree-Sign C and 30 min residence time, were 84% and 100% for zinc and 85% and 63% for manganese, respectively. The recovery of zinc increased to 99% with a grade of 97% at 1200 Degree-Sign C and 30 min residence time, while the recovery and grade of manganese were 86% and 87%, respectively, at that temperature. Moreover, the chlorinated compounds that could form by the combustion of the plastics contained in the spent batteries, are destroyed at the temperature required by the process.

Belardi, G. [Institute for Environmental Engineering and Geosciences (CNR) Area della Ricerca CNR, via Salaria km 29,300, Monterotondo, 00016 Rome (Italy); Lavecchia, R.; Medici, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, via Eudossiana 84, 00184 Rome (Italy); Piga, L., E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, via Eudossiana 84, 00184 Rome (Italy)



Paper-based, printed zincair battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flexible battery is printed on paper by screen-printing a zinc\\/carbon\\/polymer composite anode on one side of the sheet, polymerising a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) cathode on the other side of the sheet, and applying a lithium chloride electrolyte between the two electrodes. The PEDOT cathode is prepared by inkjet printing a pattern of iron(III)p-toluenesulfonate as a solution in butan-1-ol onto paper,

M. Hilder; B. Winther-Jensen; N. B. Clark



Determination of chloride in geological samples by ion chromatography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of silicate rocks are prepared by sodium carbonate fusion and then treated by ion chromatography. The method was tested for geological standards with chloride concentration between 0.003 and 3%. Observed chloride concentrations comparedd favorably with literature values. The relative standard deviation and detection limit for the method were 8% and 7 ppm, respectively. Up to 30 determination per 24-hour period were possible. ?? 1983.

Wilson, S. A.; Gent, C. A.



Chloride removal from plutonium alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

SRP is evaluating a program to recover plutonium from a metallic alloy that will contain chloride salt impurities. Removal of chloride to sufficiently low levels to prevent damaging corrosion to canyon equipment is feasible as a head-end step following dissolution. Silver nitrate and mercurous nitrate were each successfully used in laboratory tests to remove chloride from simulated alloy dissolver solution



Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection  


... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...


In vitro dialyzability of zinc from different salts used in the supplementation of infant formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven zinc saltsacetate, chloride, lactate, sulfate, citrate, gluconate, and oxidewere added to milkand soy-based infant\\u000a formulas to estimate possible differences in zinc availability depending on the type of salt used. For this purpose, an in\\u000a vitro method that estimates the dialyzability of the element (i.e., the fraction available for absorption) was applied. Zinc\\u000a dialyzability is always higher in milk-based products

A. Guillem; A. Alegra; R. Barber; R. Farr; M. J. Lagarda; G. Clemente



Activated and nonactivated forms of zinc powder: Reactivity toward chlorocarbons in water and AFM studies of surface morphologies  

SciTech Connect

This work was carried out with the purpose of developing effective reagents for decontamination of groundwater contaminated with chlorocarbons. Zinc metal as a reducing agent for carbon tetrachloride (CT), chloroform (Chl), and methylene chloride (MC) in aqueous solution has been studied in some detail, especially regarding activated forms of the metal. Chlorocarbon concentrations were monitored at certain time intervals by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the headspace and water phase. Reaction mixture headspace was additionally studied by a GC/headspace analysis system to detect the formation of hydrocarbons. Chloroform, methylene chloride, methyl chloride, methane, and acetylene were found to be products from CT reduction. For methylene chloride reduction, traces of cis and trans-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) were also found. Activated by cryo or mechanical treatment, metallic zinc caused an increase in CT dechlorination rate and conversion into methane. After the first 2.5 h, more than 20% of CT was converted into methane by cryochemically activated zinc in comparison to 1.2% by conventional zinc dust. Furthermore, CT reduction by activated zinc caused the formation of DCEs and TCE. Pathways are proposed to account for the observed methane/methylene chloride ratio and DCEs and TCE formation that include sequential reductive dechlorination through organometallic and carbonoid species on the Zn surface.

Boronina, T.N.; Lagadic, I.; Klabunde, K.J. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Sergeev, G.B. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry



Zinc deficiency alters responsiveness to antidepressant drugs in mice.  


Background: There is some evidence coming from preclinical and clinical studies suggesting a relationship between dietary zinc intake and depressive symptoms. The aim of the study was to determine whether zinc deficiency alters the response to antidepressants with a different mechanism of action. We examine also whether these changes are related to activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal HPA axis. Methods: Male CD-1 mice were assigned to groups according to diet and antidepressant administration. To evaluate animal behavior, the immobility time in the forced swim test (FST) and locomotor activity were measured. To determine serum zinc levels the flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) was used. The serum corticosterone was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results: Antidepressants administered to zinc-deprived mice induced an altered response in the FST when compared to animals fed with an adequate diet. There were no changes in locomotor activity. Animals subjected to a zinc-deficient diet showed a significant reduction in serum zinc levels, which was normalized by antidepressant treatment. An increase in serum corticosterone concentrations in mice fed with a zinc-deficient diet and treated with antidepressants was observed, so it can be concluded that reduced levels of zinc contribute hyperactivation of the HPA axis. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that a diet with a reduced zinc level alters antidepressant action, which is associated with a reduction in the serum zinc level and rise in the corticosterone level. The results of this study may indicate the involvement of zinc deficiency in the pathogenesis of depression. PMID:23950580

M?yniec, Katarzyna; Budziszewska, Bogus?awa; Reczy?ski, Witold; Doboszewska, Urszula; Pilc, Andrzej; Nowak, Gabriel



Comparative absorption of zinc picolinate, zinc citrate and zinc gluconate in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparative absorption of zinc after oral administration of three different complexed forms was studied in 15 healthy human volunteers in a double-blind four-period crossover trial. The individuals were randomly divided into four groups. Each group rotated for four week periods through a random sequence of oral supplementation including: zinc picolinate, zinc citrate, and zinc gluconate (equivalent to 50 mg

S. A. Barrie; J. V. Wright; J. E. Pizzorno; E. Kutter; P. C. Barron



Chloride and Salinity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.



Oxomemazine hydro-chloride  

PubMed Central

In the title compound [systematic name: 3-(5,5-dioxophenothiazin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethylpropanaminium chloride], C18H23N2O2S+Cl?, the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothiazine unit is 30.5?(2). In the crystal, the components are linked by NH?Cl and CH?Cl hydrogen bonds and CH?? interactions.

Siddegowda, M. S.; Butcher, Ray J.; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H. S.; Ramesh, A. R.



Inhibitory zinc sites in enzymes.  


Several pathways increase the concentrations of cellular free zinc(II) ions. Such fluctuations suggest that zinc(II) ions are signalling ions used for the regulation of proteins. One function is the inhibition of enzymes. It is quite common that enzymes bind zinc(II) ions with micro- or nanomolar affinities in their active sites that contain catalytic dyads or triads with a combination of glutamate (aspartate), histidine and cysteine residues, which are all typical zinc-binding ligands. However, for such binding to be physiologically significant, the binding constants must be compatible with the cellular availability of zinc(II) ions. The affinity of inhibitory zinc(II) ions for receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase ? is particularly high (K i = 21 pM, pH 7.4), indicating that some enzymes bind zinc almost as strongly as zinc metalloenzymes. The competitive pattern of zinc inhibition for this phosphatase implicates its active site cysteine and nearby residues in the coordination of zinc. Quantitative biophysical data on both affinities of proteins for zinc and cellular zinc(II) ion concentrations provide the basis for examining the physiological significance of inhibitory zinc-binding sites in proteins and the role of zinc(II) ions in cellular signalling. Regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions add a significant level of complexity to biological control of metabolism and signal transduction and embody a new paradigm for the role of transition metal ions in cell biology. PMID:23456096

Maret, Wolfgang



N-carboxymethylchitosan inhibition of aflatoxin production: Role of zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous Solutions of N-carboxymethylchitosan (NCMC) suppressed both growth and aflatoxin production byAspergillusflavus andA.parasiticus in submerged culture (Adye and Mateles A&M). Test media were amended with various concentrations of zinc (15, 30, 45, 60 uM), and NCMC solution (0.62 uM). After 8 days incubation NCMC-treated cultures showed marked reduction of aflatoxin production and fungal growth. Enhanced levels of zinc did not

R. G. Cuero; G. Osuji



Chemotherapy for giardiasis: randomized clinical trial of bacitracin, bacitracin zinc, and a combination of bacitracin zinc with neomycin.  


This study describes a prospective, randomized, clinical trial in patients infected with the protozoa Giardia lamblia. Patients received a 10-day treatment with twice a day doses of either 120,000 U (USP) of bacitracin zinc, 120,000 U (USP) of bacitracin, 120,000 U (USP) of neomycin, or 60,000 U (USP) of bacitracin zinc and 60,000 U (USP) of neomycin. At the first assessment (day 11), all 21 subjects (100%) treated with bacitracin zinc had ceased to show Giardia parasites in their stools compared with 19 (95%) of 20 receiving bacitracin, 20 (90.9%) of 22 subjects receiving neomycin, and 17 (89.5%) of 19 subjects receiving bacitracin zinc plus neomycin. During the two-week follow up period, one (5.3%) of the 19 subjects examined who received bacitracin zinc experienced a recurrence compared with one (6.7%) of 15 receiving bacitracin, one (5.0%) of 20 receiving neomycin, and 0 (0%) of 14 receiving the combination treatment. Final cure rates of 94.7% for bacitracin zinc, 87.5% for bacitracin, 86.4% for neomycin, and 87.5% for bacitracin zinc plus neomycin were obtained. No synergistic activity was noted between bacitracin zinc and neomycin. Side effects were generally limited to nausea, abdominal discomfort, and diarrhea in a small number of patients. PMID:7741168

Andrews, B J; Panitescu, D; Jipa, G H; Vasile-Bugarin, A C; Vasiliu, R P; Ronnevig, J R



Zinc in diet  


... Zinc is also needed for the senses of smell and taste. During pregnancy, infancy, and childhood the ... sense of taste Problems with the sense of smell Skin sores Slow growth Trouble seeing in the ...


The influence of chloride binding on the chloride induced corrosion risk in reinforced concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride binding by the cement in concrete may affect the rate of chloride ingress and chloride threshold level which in turn determine the time to chloride induced corrosion initiation. In this work, a theoretical assessment of the influence of binding when chloride ingress results from diffusion, is presented. While chloride binding reduces the free chloride content within the concrete, it

G. K. Glass; N. R. Buenfeld



Liquid-liquid-solid equilibria for the ternary systems butanols + water + sodium chloride or + potassium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Liquid-liquid-solid equilibria for the ternary systems water + sodium chloride + 2-butanol, water + sodium chloride + 2-methyl-1-propanol, water + sodium chloride + 2-methyl-2-propanol, water + potassium chloride + 1-butanol, water + potassium chloride + 2-butanol, water + potassium chloride + 2-methyl-1-propanol, and water + potassium chloride + 2-methyl-2-propanol have been measured at 25 C.

Gomis, V.; Ruiz, F.; Asensi, J.C.; Saquete, M.D. [Univ. de Alicante (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica



Lightweight zinc electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document describes a light weight zinc electrode made of a sintered mat of copper metal coated graphite fibers, a composite material of zinc active material, and a hydrogel dispersed in a solid, impervious, inert polymer matrix. The composite material surrounds the individual copper metal coated graphite fibers of the sintered mat which support the composite material and provide paths of electrical conductivity throughout the composite material.

Ferrando, William A.



Zinc wired rebar  

SciTech Connect

A novel method for corrosion protection of rebar in concrete is reported wherein it is galvanically protected by attaching a zinc wire along its length. The self-corrosion and galvanic-corrosion loss of the zinc wire is dependent on the water/cement ratio, the size of the cathode, and the concrete cover thickness. The wire acts as a sacrificial anode when the rebar embedded in concrete is exposed to corrosive environments.

Zhang, X.G.; Hwang, J. [COMINCO Product Technology Centre, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)



Precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts  

SciTech Connect

Precipitation of actinides, lanthanides, and fission products as nitrides from molten chloride melts is being investigated for use as a final cleanup step in treating radioactive salt wastes generated by electrometallurgical processing of spent nuclear fuel. The radioactive components (eg, fission products) need to be removed to reduce the volume of high-level waste that requires disposal. To extract the fission products from the salt, a nitride precipitation process is being developed. The salt waste is first contacted with a molten metal; after equilibrium is reached, a nitride is added to the metal phase. The insoluble nitrides can be recovered and converted to a borosilicate glass after air oxidation. For a bench-scale experimental setup, a crucible was designed to contact the salt and metal phases. Solubility tests were performed with candidate nitrides and metal nitrides for which there are no solubility data. Experiments were performed to assess feasibility of precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts.

Slater, S.A.; Miller, W.E.; Willit, J.L.



Effects of Metabolic Acidosis on Zinc and Calcium Metabolism in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

To delineate the potential role of renal acidosis on zinc and calcium metabolism, 24 male Charles River rats, with a mean weight of 154 g, were assigned to four groups of 6 rats each. Three groups of rats were given ammonium chloride for 5 days by stomach tube at dosages of 4, 8, 16 mEq\\/kg\\/day, respectively. The control group received

Mary Jacob; James C. M. Chan



Determination of Zinc Pyrithione in Hair Care Products by Normal Phase Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid chromatographic method is described for the determination of zinc pyrithione (ZPT) in shampoos, hair conditioners and hair dressings. The method involves simultaneous transchelation to the cupric complex and extraction into methylene chloride. The cupric complex is then separated by normal phase liquid chromatography and detected by UV absorbance at 254 nm. A slight modification of the chromatographic conditions

R. J. Fenn; M. T. Alexander



Determination of Zinc Phytoavailability in Soil by Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of zinc (Zn) phytoavailability by the newly developed technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) has started gaining more importance because of some advantages over routine soil extractants. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine Zn phytotoxicity thresholds and the phytoavailability of Zn to sorghum sudan (Sorghum vulgare var. sudanese) grass by DGT, compared with calcium chloride (CaCl2)

Osman Sonmez; Cengiz Kaya; Salih Aydemir



Zinc-Promoted Barbier-Type Reaction of Propargyl Bromide with Aldehydes in Aqueous Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the prese of metallic zinc, propargyl bromide is found to react with aldehydes at room temperature in tetrahydrofurane-saturated aqueous ammonium chloride (5:2) to afford the corresponding homopropargylic alcohols in moderate to high yields together with small amounts of ?-allenic alchohols.

Issa Yavari; Farhad Riazi-Kermani



Performance of zinc phosphate coatings obtained by cathodic electrochemical treatment in accelerated corrosion tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of zinc phosphate coating by cathodic electrochemical treatment and evaluation of its corrosion resistance is addressed. The corrosion behaviour of cathodically phosphated mild steel substrate in 3.5% sodium chloride solution exhibits the stability of these coatings, which lasts for a week's time with no red rust formation. Salt spray test convincingly proves the white rust formation in the

S. Jegannathan; T. S. N. Sankara Narayanan; K. Ravichandran; S. Rajeswari



Use of SVET and SECM to study the galvanic corrosion of an ironzinc cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work makes use of the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) and the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) to investigate microscopic aspects of the electrochemical reactions that occur in an ironzinc galvanic couple immersed in aqueous sodium chloride solution. Detection of the corrosion processes was made by sensing the phenomena occurring in solution. The SVET provided information on the distribution of

A. M. Simes; A. C. Bastos; M. G. Ferreira; Y. Gonzlez-Garca; S. Gonzlez; R. M. Souto



Quantitative separation of zinc traces from cadmium matrices by solid-phase extraction with polyurethane foam.  


A system for separation of zinc traces from large amounts of cadmium is proposed in this paper. It is based on the solid-phase extraction of the zinc in the form of thiocyanate complexes by the polyurethane foam. The following parameters were studied: effect of pH and of the thiocyanate concentration on the zinc extraction, shaking time required for quantitative extraction, amount of PU foam necessary for complete extraction, conditions for the separation of zinc from cadmium, influence of other cations and anions on the zinc sorption by PU foam, and required conditions for back extraction of zinc from the PU foam. The results show that zinc traces can be separated from large amounts of cadmium at pH 3.0+/-0.50, with the range of thiocyanate concentration from 0.15 to 0.20 mol l(-1), and the shaking time of 5 min. The back extraction of zinc can be done by shaking it with water for 10 min. Calcium, barium, strontium, magnesium, aluminum, nickel and iron(II) are efficiently separated. Iron(III), copper(II) and cobalt(II) are extracted simultaneously with zinc, but the iron reduction with ascorbic acid and the use of citrate to mask copper(II) and cobalt(II) increase the selectivity of the zinc extraction. The anions nitrate, chloride, sulfate, acetate, thiosulphate, tartarate, oxalate, fluoride, citrate, and carbonate do not affect the zinc extraction. Phosphate and EDTA must be absent. The method proposed was applied to determine zinc in cadmium salts using 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) as a spectrophotometric reagent. The result achieved did not show significant difference in the accuracy and precision (95% confidence level) with those obtained by ICP-AES analysis. PMID:18967283

Santiago de Jesus, D; Souza de Carvalho, M; Spnola Costa, A C; Costa Ferreira, S L



Treatment of zinc deficiency without zinc fortification  

PubMed Central

Zinc (Zn) deficiency in animals became of interest until the 1950s. In this paper, progresses in researches on physiology of Zn deficiency in animals, phytate effect on bioavailability of Zn, and role of phytase in healing Zn deficiency of animals were reviewed. Several studies demonstrated that Zn is recycled via the pancreas; the problem of Zn deficiency was controlled by Zn homeostasis. The endogenous secretion of Zn is considered as an important factor influencing Zn deficiency, and the critical molar ratio is 10. Phytate (inositol hexaphosphate) constituted up to 90% of the organically bound phosphorus in seeds. Great improvement has been made in recent years on isolating and measuring phytate, and its structure is clear. Phytate is considered to reduce Zn bioavailability in animal. Phytase is the enzyme that hydrolyzes phytate and is present in yeast, rye bran, wheat bran, barley, triticale, and many bacteria and fungi. Zinc nutrition and bioavailability can be enhanced by addition of phytase to animal feeds. Therefore, using phytase as supplements, the most prevalent Zn deficiency in animals may be effectively corrected without the mining and smelting of several tons of zinc daily needed to correct this deficiency by fortification worldwide.

Oberleas, Donald; Harland, Barbara F.



Chelators for investigating zinc metalloneurochemistry.  


The physiology and pathology of mobile zinc signaling has become an important topic in metalloneurochemistry. To study the action of mobile zinc effectively, specialized tools are required that probe the temporal and positional changes of zinc ions within live tissue and cells. In the present article we describe the design and implementation of selective zinc chelators as antagonists to interrogate the function of mobile zinc, with an emphasis on the pools of vesicular zinc in the terminals of hippocampal mossy fiber buttons. PMID:23478014

Radford, Robert J; Lippard, Stephen J



Endogenous Zinc in Neurological Diseases  

PubMed Central

The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the pantheon of signal ions in biology and medicine. However, the number of biological functions, health implications and pharmacological targets that are emerging for zinc indicate that it might turn out to be 'the calcium of the twenty-first century'. Here neurobiological roles of endogenous zinc is summarized.



Lurasidone hydro-chloride  

PubMed Central

In the crystal structure of the title compound, C28H37N4O2S+Cl? [systematic name: 4-(1,2-benzothiazol-3-yl)-1-({2-[(3,5-dioxo-4-azatricyclo[,6]decan-4-yl)methyl]cyclohexyl}methyl)piperazin-1-ium chloride], the anions and cations are linked by NH?Cl hydrogen bonds. The crystal structure is further stabilized by CH?? and CH?O interactions.

Zhang, Hua; Wang, Hubo; Zhu, Xueyan; Yuan, Zhedong; Jiang, Huijuan



Neurotoxicity of methyl chloride.  


Methyl chloride is encountered in the chemical industry as a methylating agent in the production of butyl rubber, tetramethyl lead, and other products as well as a blowing agent for some polystyrene foams. It is a potent CNS depressant whose principal route of absorption is by inhalation, although it can be absorbed through the skin. Symptoms of the neurotoxicity include headache, drowsiness, giddiness, ataxia, convulsion, and coma. This review focuses on the human case reports of acute and chronic exposures as well as some of the more important inhalation studies conducted with animals. The chemical and physical properties and the more important industrial uses are also discussed. PMID:7038527

Repko, J D



Epoxidation of propylene on Zn-treated TS1 catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct propylene epoxidation with H2O2 performed on zinc salts pre-treated TS-1 has disclosed the specific role of zinc in the framework, changing the Ti-active site properties towards the reaction. When zinc is present, the donor property of the reaction solvent to Ti-site increases and the TiOOH electrophilicity reduces, giving rise to a high propylene oxide selectivity well-evidenced by a lower

V. Arca; A. Boscolo Boscoletto; N. Fracasso; L. Meda; G. Ranghino



Chloride channels as drug targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human

Luis J. V. Galietta; Alan S. Verkman



Molecular Structure of Ferric chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ferric chloride is a corrosive chemical, thus, it is used to deodorize sewage and industrial waste by partially reducing to ferrous chloride. It is also employed as an engraving reagent on metal surfaces. Other applications include its use as a flocculating agent in water treatment. Ferric chloride is a hazardous chemical that irritates the skin and eyes and is toxic if ingested, however it can be used as a reagent in pharmaceutical preparations.



Reaction kinetics of the ferric chloride leaching of sphaleritean experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride leaching processes have significant potential for treating complex sulfides. One advantage of chloride leaching is\\u000a fast dissolution rates for most sulfide minerals. This experimental study is concerned with ferric chloride leaching of sphalerite,\\u000a a common component of many complex concentrates. The effects of stirring, temperature, ferric ion concentration, and particle\\u000a size have been examined. In addition, reaction residues at

Zuo-Mei Jin; G. W. Warren; H. Henein



A sensitive fluorescence technique using dansyl chloride to assess hair damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and sensitive procedure amenable to visual or spectrofluorometric quantitation has been developed to detect certain types of hair damage. We have found that hair treated with the fluorescent dye 1-dimeth- ylamino-naphthalene-5-sulfonyl chloride (dansyl chloride) acquires fluorescence under ultraviolet light. The fluorescence intensity is a function of the amount of dansyl chloride binding to the hair and can be




Evaluation of Nano Zinc (ZnO) for Surface Enhancement of ATRFTIR Spectra of Butter and Spread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of nano zinc (ZnO) particles in surface enhancement of attenuated total reflectionFourier transform mid-infrared\\u000a spectroscopy (ATRFTIR) has been studied in butter and spread. Due to the health implications associated with consumption\\u000a of trans fats, the studies also included the determination of band corresponding to trans fats of butter\\/spread in the nano-zinc-treated samples. The FTIR spectra of nano-zinc-treated butter

Mayeli P. Contreras; Ramesh Y. Avula; Rakesh K. Singh



History of zinc in agriculture.  


Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, >20 y would pass before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it was reported that zinc deficiency induced poor growth, leg abnormalities, poor feathering, and parakeratosis in chicks. In the 1960s, zinc supplementation was found to alleviate parakeratosis in grazing cattle and sheep. Within 35 y, it was established that nearly one half of the soils in the world may be zinc deficient, causing decreased plant zinc content and production that can be prevented by zinc fertilization. In many of these areas, zinc deficiency is prevented in grazing livestock by zinc fertilization of pastures or by providing salt licks. For livestock under more defined conditions, such as poultry, swine, and dairy and finishing cattle, feeds are easily supplemented with zinc salts to prevent deficiency. Today, the causes and consequences of zinc deficiency and methods and effects of overcoming the deficiency are well established for agriculture. The history of zinc in agriculture is an outstanding demonstration of the translation of research into practical application. PMID:23153732

Nielsen, Forrest H



Cobalt chloride-induced lateral root formation in rice: the role of heme oxygenase.  


Lateral roots (LRs) perform the essential tasks of providing water, nutrients, and physical support to plants. Therefore, understanding the regulation of LR development is of agronomic importance. Recent findings suggest that heme oxygenase (HO) plays an important role in LR development. In this study, we examined the effect of cobalt chloride (CoCl2) on LR formation and HO expression in rice. Treatment with CoCl2 induced LR formation and HO activity. We further observed that CoCl2 could induce the expression of OsHO1 but not OsHO2. CoCl2-increased HO activity occurred before LR formation. Zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX, the specific inhibitor of HO) and hemoglobin (the carbon monoxide/nitric oxide scavenger) reduced LR formation, HO activity, and OsHO1 expression. Application of biliverdin, a product of HO-catalyzed reaction, to CoCl2-treated rice seedlings reversed the ZnPPIX-inhibited LR formation and ZnPPIX-decreased HO activity. CoCl2 had no effect on H2O2 content and nitric oxide production. Moreover, application of ascorbate, a H2O2 scavenger, failed to affect CoCl2-promoted LR formation and HO activity. It is concluded that HO is required for CoCl2-promoted LR formation in rice. PMID:23566873

Hsu, Yun Yen; Chao, Yun-Yang; Kao, Ching Huei



Zinc resistance of Staphylococcus aureus of animal origin is strongly associated with methicillin resistance.  


This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of zinc and copper resistances in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from swine and veal calves in a global strain collection. The test population consisted of 476 porcine MRSA isolates from ten European countries, 18 porcine MRSA isolates from Canada and seven MRSA from China, 92 MRSA and 60 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates from veal calves in the Netherlands and 88 porcine MSSA isolates from four European countries. Most porcine MRSA (n=454) and all bovine MRSA belonged to clonal complex (CC) 398 whereas 37 of the pig MRSA from Europe and the seven Chinese isolates belonged to other CCs and 3 isolates were not classified into a CC. All isolates were tested for susceptibility to zinc chloride and copper sulphate using agar dilution and tested by PCR for the czrC gene encoding zinc resistance. Phenotypic zinc resistance (MIC>2mM) was observed in 74% (n=324) and 42% (n=39) of European MRSA CC398 from pigs and veal calves, respectively, and in 44% of the Canadian isolates (n=8), but not among the Chinese isolates. Almost all (99%) zinc-resistant MRSA carried czrC. Of the 37 European non-CC398 MRSA, 62% were resistant to zinc, but only 46% of them carried czrC. The MICs of the MSSA isolates to zinc chloride ranged from 1 to 4mM and none carried czrC. The MICs of copper sulphate were associated neither with methicillin resistance nor with the detection of czrC. This study showed that zinc resistance and the czrC gene are widespread among CC398 MRSA isolates. This suggests that the use of zinc in feed might have contributed to the emergence of MRSA. PMID:21411247

Cavaco, Lina M; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank M



Increased current efficiency of zinc electrowinning in the presence of metal impurities by addition of organic inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of antimony, germanium and nickel ions, and of the organic additives hydroxyethylated-butyne-2-diol-1,4 (EAA) and triethyl-benzylammonium chloride (TEBA), on the process of zinc electrowinning from sulphuric acid electrolytes is studied. It is established that metal impurities decrease the current efficiency of zinc (CEZ) and, at higher concentrations, cause total redissolution of the deposited metal. The organic additives stop the

Ivan Ivanov



Zinc gluconate and the common cold. Review of randomized controlled trials.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the evidence of seven randomized controlled trials (RCT) on the therapeutic effectiveness of zinc gluconate lozenges for treating the common cold. DATA SOURCES: Using the MeSH headings common cold and zinc gluconate, MEDLINE was searched from 1966 on for all published RCTs evaluating use of zinc gluconate for treating the common cold. STUDY SELECTION: For this study, only double-blind RCTs were included. SYNTHESIS: Fair evidence suggests that zinc gluconate lozenges have a therapeutic effect in treating the common cold. Starting therapy with zinc gluconate lozenges within 24 to 48 hours of onset of cold symptoms reduces the duration and severity of the cold. Patients must suck lozenges every 2 hours while awake during the cold. Minimum effective dose appears to be 13.3 mg of elemental zinc per lozenge. Evidence suggests that compounds such as citric acid, sorbitol, and mannitol bind the free zinc ion in the mouth, and this could account for variations in therapeutic benefit. Bad taste and nausea are important side effects of zinc lozenges. CONCLUSION: Evidence supports use of zinc gluconate lozenges for reducing the symptoms and duration of the common cold, but the side effects, bad taste, and therapeutic protocol might limit patient compliance.

Marshall, S.



Structure of Aluminum Chloride-Sodium Chloride Melts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equilibrium constants were calculated for reactions governing the species present at 175C in molten mixtures of aluminum chloride and sodium chloride. The equilibria postulated pertain to formation of the complex ions AlCl4(-), Al2Cl7(-), and Al3Cl1o(-) f...

A. A. Fannin D. W. Seegmiller L. A. King



Role of zinc in maternal and child mental health1234  

PubMed Central

Mental health problems in women, children, and adolescents are a significant public health issue. Given current barriers to the effective treatment of these problems, researchers are looking to the field of nutrition for potential alternatives to better understand and address mental health issues. The purpose of this article was to review current evidence on the relation between zinc and mental health disorders with a focus on 2 mental health problems that commonly affect women and children: depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A literature search of the databases Medline and PsychInfo was conducted with the use of key terms. The review included articles from 1975 to May 2008, but focused on articles published in recent years. Relations between zinc concentrations and behavior in animals; the relation between zinc deficiency, depression, and ADHD in patient and community samples; and the potential biological mechanisms for these relations were explored. The data support a relation between low concentrations of zinc and mental health problems, especially in at-risk populations. Evidence for the potential use of zinc in treating mental health problems comes mainly from patient populations and is strongest when zinc is given in combination with pharmacologic treatment. Less conclusive evidence exists for the effectiveness of zinc alone or in general community samples. Recommendations for further research in this area are provided.

Ramirez-Zea, Manuel



Chloride dependence of growth in bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride is an abundant anion on earth but studies analyzing a possible function of chloride in prokaryotes are scarce. To address the question, we have tested 44 different Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria for a chloride dependence or chloride stimulation of growth. None required chloride for growth at their optimal growth (salt) conditions. However, in hyperosmotic media containing high concentrations of

Markus Roeler; Xaver Sewald; Volker Mller



Double-blind comparison of a zinc pyrithione shampoo and its shampoo base in the treatment of tinea versicolor.  


A zinc pyrithione shampoo was compared with its shampoo base in the treatment of tinea versicolor. Forty patients with tinea versicolor were included in the study. The condition in twenty patients treated with the zinc pyrithione shampoo cleared; the condition in the remaining twenty patients treated with the shampoo base did not. No side effects were noted in any of the patients. PMID:6342980

Fredriksson, T; Faergemann, J



Zinc and Alcoholic Liver Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc deficiency is one of the most consistent nutritional\\/biochemical observations in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The objectives of our research are to determine how alcohol interferes with cellular zinc homeostasis and if zinc deficiency is a causal factor in the development of ALD. Metallothionein (MT) is a major protein responsible for cellular zinc homeostasis. MT-transgenic (MT-TG) mice with hepatic overexpression

Zhanxiang Zhou



In vitro exchangeable erythrocytic zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exchangeable erythrocytic zinc is measured by65Zn uptake in and release from erythrocytes under standarized and near, physiological conditions: 7.6 ?M zinc and 580 ?M albumin in the medium. The intracellular exchangeable erythrocytic zinc pool in healthy volunteers amounts to 5 ?mol zinc\\/L\\u000a packed cells. The half-time of the exchange is 7 h, its activation energy 84 kJ\\/mol. The effects of

JACOBUS P. VAIl WOUWE; Marcel Veldhuizen; Jeroen J. M. De Goeij; Cornelis J. A. Van den Hamer



Synthesis of Hydroximoyl Chlorides from Aldoximes and Benzyltrimethylammonium Tetrachloroiodate (BTMA ICl 4)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzyltrimethylammonium tetrachloroiodate (BTMA ICl4) acts as a convenient reagent to convert aldoximes to hydroximoyl chlorides by a simple procedure. When an aldoxime is treated with BTMA ICl4 in dichloromethane, the suspension of BTMA ICl4 shortly diasappears as the reaction proceeds. The resulting BTMA ICl2 can be precipitated out by adding diethyl ether. Not only stable aromatic and heteroaromatic hydroximoyl chlorides

Shuji Kanemasa; Haruhiko Matsuda; Akio Kamimura; Takaaki Kakinami



Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide  


A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

Barnett, Allen M. (Newark, DE); Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE); Masi, James V. (Wilbraham, MA); Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Hall, Robert B. (Newark, DE)



Zinc Modulation of Glycine Receptors  

PubMed Central

Glycine receptors are widely expressed in the mammalian central nervous system, and previous studies have demonstrated that glycine receptors are modulated by endogenous zinc. Zinc is concentrated in synaptic vesicles in several brain regions but is particularly abundant in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. In the present study, we used patch-clamp electrophysiology of rat hippocampal and olfactory bulb neurons in primary culture to examine the effects of zinc on glycine receptors. Although glycine has been reported to reach millimolar concentrations during synaptic transmission, most previous studies on the effects of zinc on glycine receptors have used relatively low concentrations of glycine. High concentrations of glycine cause receptor desensitization. Our current results extend our previous demonstration that the modulatory actions of zinc are largely prevented when co-applied with desensitizing concentrations of glycine (300 ?M), suggesting that the effects of zinc are dependent on the state of the receptor. In contrast, pre-application of 300 ?M zinc, prior to glycine (300 ?M) application, causes a slowly developing inhibition with a slow rate of recovery, suggesting that the timing of zinc and glycine release also influences the effects of zinc. Furthermore, previous evidence suggests that synaptically released zinc can gain intracellular access, and we provide the first demonstration that low concentrations of intracellular zinc can potentiate glycine receptors. These results support the notion that zinc has complex effects on glycine receptors and multiple factors may interact to influence the efficacy of glycinergic transmission.

Trombley, Paul Q.; Blakemore, Laura J.; Hill, Brook J.



Zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

The zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte is unusual in that supersaturated zincate solutions can form during discharge and spongy or mossy zinc deposits can form on charge at low overvoltages. The effect of additives on regular pasted ZnO electrodes and calcium zincate electrodes is discussed. The paper also reports on in situ x-ray absorption (XAS) results on mossy zinc deposits.

McBreen, J.



History of zinc in agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, over 20 years would past before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure a parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it wa...


Zinc Deposition in Acid Electrolytes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the past decade, two aqueous zinc/halogen batteries, the zinc/chlorine, and the zinc/bromine systems, have been considered for load-leveling and vehicular applications. Even though considerable progress has been made in engineering these batteries, sev...

J. McBreen E. Gannon



Vinyl Chloride -- An Information Resource.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A discussion of the link between exposure to vinyl chloride and the occurrence of toxic, nonmalignant illnesses involving skin, bones, liver, lungs, and blood is provided. The regulatory history of vinyl chloride is outlined. It is pointed out that the po...

T. H. Milby



Molecular Structure of Picryl chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Picryl chloride is ranked as one of the 100 most commonly found explosive and shock sensitive materials. It is made by reacting 2,4,6 trinitrophenol with thionyl chloride. This highly reactive compound is known to be hazardous and toxic, and to cause liver injury in mice. It is often used as a sensitization agent in mice when their cells undergo hypersensitivity studies.



Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of pyrrole anions with aryl chlorides, bromides, and iodides.  


[reaction: see text] A general method for the conversion of pyrrole anions to 2-arylpyrroles has been developed. Using a palladium precatalyst and sterically demanding 2-(dialkylphosphino)biphenyl ligands, (pyrrolyl)zinc chloride may be cross-coupled with a wide range of aryl halides, including aryl chlorides and aryl bromides, at low catalyst loadings and under mild conditions. A high degree of steric hindrance is tolerated. Certain ring-substituted pyrrole anions have also been arylated with aryl bromide substrates. PMID:15496079

Rieth, Ryan D; Mankad, Neal P; Calimano, Elisa; Sadighi, Joseph P



Comparison of zinc complexation properties of dissolved natural organic matter from different surface waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zinc binding characteristics of natural organic matter (NOM) from several representative surface waters were studied and compared. NOM samples were concentrated by reverse osmosis. The samples were treated in the laboratory to remove trace metals. Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was used to study zinc complexing properties of those NOM samples at fixed pH, ionic strength, and dissolved

Tao Cheng; Herbert E. Allen




Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was initiated to examine the effects of nanoscale zinc oxide particles on plant growth and development. In view of the widespread cultivation of peanut in India and in other parts of the globe and in view of the potential influence of zinc on its growth, this plant was chosen as the model system. Peanut seeds were separately treated

T. N. V. K. V. Prasad; P. Sudhakar; Y. Sreenivasulu; P. Latha; V. Munaswamy; K. Raja Reddy; T. S. Sreeprasad; P. R. Sajanlal; T. Pradeep



Mitochondrial effects of low-level cadmium in rats: Interaction with zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with sodium or cadmium (Cd) 4 acetate (25 g Cd per kg body weight) orally 5 times a week for 6 weeks. A second group of animals was repeatedly injected with zinc sulphate (6 and 12 mg zinc (Zn) per kg ip) with or without Cd gavage. Cadmium treatment alone yielded no obvious toxic effects

Ludwig Muller; Ira Muller; Neill H. Stacey



Thermochemistry of Charge-Unsymmetrical Binary Fused Halide Systems. Ii. Mixtures of Magnesium Chloride with the Alkali Chlorides and with Silver Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The integral enthalpies of mixing of the liquid mixtures of magnesium chloride with the alkali chlorides and with silver chloride were determined calorimetrically. The magnesium chloride-silver chloride system is slightly endothermic, while the alkali chl...

O. J. Kleppa F. G. McCarty



21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...



21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...



Status Assessment of Toxic Chemicals: Vinylidene Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report details the uses and the technology employed to control emissions of vinylidene chloride. Data on vinylidene chloride emissions and their sources are given, as well as information dealing with the effects of exposure to vinylidene chloride. Fi...

D. R. Tierney T. R. Blackwood M. R. Piana



29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1910.1017 Section 1910...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1017 Vinyl chloride. (a) Scope and application...control of employee exposure to vinyl chloride (chloroethene), Chemical...



29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1910.1017 Section 1910...Hazardous Substances § 1910.1017 Vinyl chloride. (a) Scope and application...control of employee exposure to vinyl chloride (chloroethene), Chemical...



21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food and...Agents and Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the...



49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation...Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must be packaged in any of the following...



75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis...the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to...4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No....



75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International...the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China...the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead...



7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...



The protective nature of passivation films on zinc: surface charge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of oxide surface charge on the corrosion performance of zinc metals was investigated. Oxidised zinc species (zinc oxide, zinc hydroxychloride, zinc hydroxysulfate and zinc hydroxycarbonate) with chemical compositions similar to those produced on zinc during atmospheric corrosion were formed as particles from aqueous solution, and as passive films deposited onto zinc powder, and rolled zinc, surfaces. Synthesized oxides

Tim H Muster; Ivan S Cole



A new approach to the determination of the cathodic protection period in zinc-rich paints  

SciTech Connect

The present study examined the behavior of zinc-rich paints (ZRP) based on an epoxy binder in 3% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. The study focused on the effect of some design parameters often considered in paint formulation. The paint thickness, the zinc particle grain size, and the zinc particle distribution in the paint were studied. The study was based mainly on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). EIS results were interpreted using a model involving the contact impedance between zinc particles. The contact impedance and electrolyte resistance throughout the coating defined the protective action of ZRP. Based on these two concepts, a practical approach to evaluate ZRP performance was given. This approach, called total film resistance (TFR), can be used for optimization criteria in paint formulation.

Abreu, C.M.; Izquierdo, M.; Merino, P.; Novoa, X.R.; Perez, C.



Imaging Mobile Zinc in Biology  

PubMed Central

Summary Trafficking and regulation of mobile zinc pools influence cellular functions and pathological conditions in multiple organs, including brain, pancreas, and prostate. The quest for a dynamic description of zinc distribution and mobilization in live cells fuels the development of increasingly sophisticated probes. Detection systems that respond to zinc binding with changes of their fluorescence emission properties have provided sensitive tools for mobile zinc imaging, and fluorescence microscopy experiments have afforded depictions of zinc distribution within live cells and tissues. Both small-molecule and protein-based fluorescent probes can address complex imaging challenges, such as analyte quantification, site-specific sensor localization, and real-time detection.

Tomat, Elisa; Lippard, Stephen J.



Effect of metal chlorides on thermal degradation of (waste) polycarbonate  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we investigated how to treat (waste) polycarbonate efficiently to reduce its degraded residue. The study was carried out in an isothermal reactor under continuous nitrogen flow at atmospheric pressure to pyrolyze polycarbonate (PC) alone and in the presence of metal chloride. Some metal chlorides were shown to be catalytic active for the degradation of PC at 400 deg. C, which increased degradation conversion from 8.5% to more than 58.3%. Among those active metal chlorides, ZnCl{sub 2} and SnCl{sub 2} can produce higher liquid product yields. Effects such as particle size of PC, temperature, the weight ratio of metal chloride/PC, and degradation time on the degradation conversion of PC without and with these two most active metal chlorides were studied. Results of the liquid product analysis by GC/MS demonstrated the product composition of PC degradation over the metal chlorides is much simpler than that of degradation alone. The main liquid product is phenol, p-isopropylphenol, diphenyl carbonate, and bisphenol A for all cases.

Chiu, S.-J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, MingChi University of Technology, 243, Taishan, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail:; Chen, S.-H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, MingChi University of Technology, 243, Taishan, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, C.-T. [Department of Biochemical Engineering, MingChi University of Technology, 243, Taishan, Taipei, Taiwan (China)



Zinc: the brain's dark horse.  


Zinc is a life-sustaining trace element, serving structural, catalytic, and regulatory roles in cellular biology. It is required for normal mammalian brain development and physiology, such that deficiency or excess of zinc has been shown to contribute to alterations in behavior, abnormal central nervous system development, and neurological disease. In this light, it is not surprising that zinc ions have now been shown to play a role in the neuromodulation of synaptic transmission as well as in cortical plasticity. Zinc is stored in specific synaptic vesicles by a class of glutamatergic or "gluzinergic" neurons and is released in an activity-dependent manner. Because gluzinergic neurons are found almost exclusively in the cerebral cortex and limbic structures, zinc may be critical for normal cognitive and emotional functioning. Conversely, direct evidence shows that zinc might be a relatively potent neurotoxin. Neuronal injury secondary to in vivo zinc mobilization and release occurs in several neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, in addition to epilepsy and ischemia. Thus, zinc homeostasis is integral to normal central nervous system functioning, and in fact its role may be underappreciated. This article provides an overview of zinc neurobiology and reviews the experimental evidence that implicates zinc signals in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases. A greater understanding of zinc's role in the central nervous system may therefore allow for the development of therapeutic approaches where aberrant metal homeostasis is implicated in disease pathogenesis. PMID:19623531

Bitanihirwe, Byron K Y; Cunningham, Miles G



Systematic functional characterization of putative zinc transport genes and identification of zinc toxicosis phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster.  


The heavy metal zinc is an essential component of the human diet and is incorporated as a structural component in up to 10% of all mammalian proteins. The physiological importance of zinc homeostasis at the cellular level and the molecular mechanisms involved in this process have become topics of increasing interest in recent years. We have performed a systematic functional characterization of the majority of the predicted Drosophila Zip (zinc/iron regulated transporter-related protein) and ZnT genes, using the Gal4-UAS system to carry out both ubiquitous and targeted over-expression and suppression studies for 13 of the 17 putative zinc transport genes identified to date. We found that six of these 13 genes may be essential for fly viability and that three of the remaining seven demonstrate over-expression phenotypes. Our findings reaffirm the previously proposed function of dZnT63C (CG17723: FBgn005432) as an important zinc efflux protein and indicate that the fly homolog of hZip1, dZip42C.1 (CG9428: FBgn0033096), is a strong zinc importer in Drosophila. By combining over-expression of dZip42C.1 with suppression of dZnT63C we were able to produce easily identifiable zinc toxicosis phenotypes, which can be rescued or worsened by modifying dietary zinc content. Our findings show that a genetically based zinc toxicosis situation can be therapeutically treated or exacerbated by modifications to the diet, providing a sensitized background for future, more detailed studies of Zip/ZnT function. PMID:22693027

Lye, Jessica C; Richards, Christopher D; Dechen, Kesang; Paterson, David; de Jonge, Martin D; Howard, Daryl L; Warr, Coral G; Burke, Richard



Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst  


A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)



Doped zinc oxide microspheres  


A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)



Doped zinc oxide microspheres  


A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.



Creep Resistant Zinc Alloy  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the development of Hot Chamber Die Castable Zinc Alloys with High Creep Strengths. This project commenced in 2000, with the primary objective of developing a hot chamber zinc die-casting alloy, capable of satisfactory service at 140 C. The core objectives of the development program were to: (1) fill in missing alloy data areas and develop a more complete empirical model of the influence of alloy composition on creep strength and other selected properties, and (2) based on the results from this model, examine promising alloy composition areas, for further development and for meeting the property combination targets, with the view to designing an optimized alloy composition. The target properties identified by ILZRO for an improved creep resistant zinc die-casting alloy were identified as follows: (1) temperature capability of 1470 C; (2) creep stress of 31 MPa (4500 psi); (3) exposure time of 1000 hours; and (4) maximum creep elongation under these conditions of 1%. The project was broadly divided into three tasks: (1) Task 1--General and Modeling, covering Experimental design of a first batch of alloys, alloy preparation and characterization. (2) Task 2--Refinement and Optimization, covering Experimental design of a second batch of alloys. (3) Task 3--Creep Testing and Technology transfer, covering the finalization of testing and the transfer of technology to the Zinc industry should have at least one improved alloy result from this work.

Frank E. Goodwin



Zinc bioavailability in the chick  

SciTech Connect

Methods for assessing zinc bioavailability were evaluated in the chick. A low-zinc chick diet was developed using rehydrated, spray-dried egg white autoclaved at 121 C for 30 min as the primary protein source. The relative bioavailability of zinc from soy flour and beef was determined by whole-body retention of extrinsic /sup 65/Zn, and in slope ratio assays for growth rate and tissue zinc. Compared to zinc carbonate added to an egg white-based diet, all methods gave similar estimates of approximately 100% zinc bioavailability for beef but estimates for soy flour varied widely. The slope ratio assay for growth rate gave the best estimate of zinc bioavailability for soy flour. True absorption, as measured by percent isotope retention from extrinsically labeled soy flour, was 47%.

Hempe, J.M.



The effect of cetylpyridinium chloride on halitosis and periodontal disease-related parameters in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodontal disease is an oral disease common in middle-aged dogs and cats, with halitosis being the most common sign. There\\u000a are many commercial products containing chlorhexidine, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), zinc salts and essential oils for controlling\\u000a halitosis and periodontal disease. CPC is a quaternary ammonium compound and has a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity.\\u000a In this study, oral spray (OS) and

Se Eun Kim; Kyung Mi Shim; Kyeong Hoon Yoo; Jong-Choon Kim; Sung-Ho Kim; Chun-Sik Bae; Doman Kim; Don Hee Park; Ji-Won Ryu; Seong Soo Kang



Exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles affects reproductive development and biodistribution in offspring rats.  


Understanding reproductive development effects and transferable properties to next generation of zinc oxide nanoparticles is necessary for prevention of its potential risks. To accomplish this, rats were exposed to zinc oxide nanomaterials (500 mg/kg bw) of less than 100 nm beginning 2 weeks before mating to postnatal day 4. In addition, body distribution of zinc concentration was evaluated in dams and offspring. Rat treated with nano-zinc oxide showed reduced number of born/live pups, decreased body weights of pups and increased fetal resorption. Zinc oxide nanomaterials were also distributed to organs such as mammary tissue of dams and liver and kidney of pups. These results indicate that zinc oxide nanoparticles-exposure before and during pregnancy and lactation could pose health risks to pregnant women and their fetus. PMID:23824008

Jo, Eunhye; Seo, Gyounbaek; Kwon, Jung-Taek; Lee, Mimi; Lee, Byoung cheun; Eom, Igchun; Kim, Philje; Choi, Kyunghee



Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc absorption, turnover and distribution in rats fed diet marginal and adequate in zinc  

SciTech Connect

Ethambutol, (CH/sub 3/CH/sub 2/-CH(CH/sub 2/OH)-NH-CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/ (EMB), is an oral antituberculous agent that is administered therapeutically over extended time periods. It has chelating properties and may affect mineral metabolism. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats received 0, 400 or 600 mg EMB per kilogram body weight daily by gavage for 30 d. They were fed a casein-based diet with either adequate (49 ppm) or marginal (11 ppm) zinc. Both adequate-Zn (AZn) and marginal-Zn (MZn) rats receiving EMB showed alopecia and dose-dependent reductions in feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency. None of these changes was seen in rats fed the MZn diet without EMB. Serum and tissue zinc levels were similar in rats not receiving EMB, regardless of the dietary zinc level. Serum zinc was consistently lower in AZn and MZn rats receiving EMB than in rats without EMB. Apparent zinc absorption, measured by /sup 65/Zn balance, was higher in AZn rats receiving EMB than in AZn rats without EMB. Thus, changes in absorption could not account for lower serum zinc levels in EMB-treated rats. However, /sup 65/Zn turnover was also higher in EMB groups. This suggests that EMB may have increased urinary zinc losses resulting in reduced circulating zinc and a consequent increase in zinc absorption.

King, A.B.; Schwartz, R.



The potentiometric determination of stability constants for zinc acetate complexes in aqueous solutions to 295C  

SciTech Connect

A potentiometric method was used to determine the formation quotients of zinc acetate complexes in aqueous solutions from 50 to 295C at ionic strengths of 0.03, 0.3, and 1.0 m. The potentiometric titrations were carried out in an externally heated, Teflon-lined concentration cell fitted with hydrogen electrodes. Formal sodium acetate concentrations of the experimental solutions ranged from 0.001 to 0.1 m with acetic acid to sodium acetate ratios ranging from 30 to 300. Sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate (F{sub 3}CSO{sub 3}Na) was used as a supporting electrolyte. Stoichiometries and formation quotients for the complexes ZnCH{sub 3}COO{sup +}, Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}, and Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 3}{sup {minus}} were derived from the titration data by regression analysis. Stability constants at infinite dilution (K{sub n}) and other relevant thermodynamic quantities were calculated for these three complexes. Calculations of zinc speciation in acetate-chloride solutions show that zinc acetate complexes should have an importance similar to zinc chloride complexes in high acetate waters where chloride to acetate molal ratios are less than about 10.

Giordano, T.H. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces (United States)); Drummond, S.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))



Kinetics of chloridization of nickel oxide with gaseous hydrogen chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of chloridization of finely divided as well as granulated nickel oxide by gaseous HCl were studied in the temperature\\u000a range 150 C to 400 C. The rate of chloridization depended upon temperature, partial pressure of HCl, and granule size. The\\u000a conversion of NiO to NiCl2 follows the logarithmic rate law or a pore-blocking model, which is attributed to

S. B. Kanungo; S. K. Mishra



Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes for cathodic protection of steel-reinforced concrete bridges  

SciTech Connect

Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are being used in Oregon in impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for reinforced concrete bridges. The U.S. Department of Energy, Albany Research Center, is collaborating with the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) to evaluate the long-term performance and service life of these anodes. Laboratory studies were conducted on concrete slabs coated with 0.5 mm (20 mil) thick, thermal-sprayed zinc anodes. The slabs were electrochemically aged at an accelerated rate using an anode current density of 0.032 A/m2 (3mA/ft2). Half the slabs were preheated before thermal-spraying with zinc; the other half were unheated. Electrochemical aging resulted in the formation at the zinc-concrete interface of a thin, low pH zone (relative to cement paste) consisting primarily of ZnO and Zn(OH)2, and in a second zone of calcium and zinc aluminates and silicates formed by secondary mineralization. Both zones contained elevated concentrations of sulfate and chloride ions. The original bond strength of the zinc coating decreased due to the loss of mechanical bond to the concrete with the initial passage of electrical charge (aging). Additional charge led to an increase in bond strength to a maximum as the result of secondary mineralization of zinc dissolution products with the cement paste. Further charge led to a decrease in bond strength and ultimately coating disbondment as the interfacial reaction zones continued to thicken. This occurred at an effective service life of 27 years at the 0.0022 A/m2 (0.2 mA/ft2) current density typically used by ODOT in ICCP systems for coastal bridges. Zinc coating failure under tensile stress was primarily cohesive within the thickening reaction zones at the zinc-concrete interface. There was no difference between the bond strength of zinc coatings on preheated and unheated concrete surfaces after long service times.

Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; McGill, Galen E. (Oregon Dept. of Transportation)




Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon from date seed has activated by treatment with zinc chloride and with steam, and sieved into 250, 500 and 1000 m particle sizes. Reduction of zinc, nickel and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) from tannery effluent was found to decrease with increase in particle size, and the carbon activated by ZnCl2\\/steam recorded the highest waste removal. The ZnCl2 only activated

M. K. Yakubu; M. S. Gumel; A. M. Abdullahi


Extracellular chelation of zinc does not affect hippocampal excitability and seizure-induced cell death in rats  

PubMed Central

In the nervous system, zinc can influence synaptic responses and at extreme concentrations contributes to epileptic and ischaemic neuronal injury. Zinc can originate from synaptic vesicles, the extracellular space and from intracellular stores. In this study, we aimed to determine which of these zinc pools is responsible for the increased hippocampal excitability observed in zinc-depleted animals or following zinc chelation. Also, we investigated the source of intracellularly accumulating zinc in vulnerable neurons. Our data show that membrane-permeable and membrane-impermeable zinc chelators had little or no effect on seizure activity in the CA3 region. Furthermore, extracellular zinc chelation could not prevent the accumulation of lethal concentrations of zinc in dying neurons following epileptic seizures. At the electron microscopic level, zinc staining significantly increased at the presynaptic membrane of mossy fibre terminals in kainic acid-treated animals. These data indicate that intracellular but not extracellular zinc chelators could influence neuronal excitability and seizure-induced zinc accumulation observed in the cytosol of vulnerable neurons.

Lavoie, Nathalie; Peralta, Modesto R; Chiasson, Marilou; Lafortune, Kathleen; Pellegrini, Luca; Seress, Laszlo; Toth, Katalin



Characterization of poly(vinyl chloride) aged in a bromine containing electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is being considered for use as a flow frame material in a developmental zinc/bromine battery. The choice of PVC was based on its low cost and the ease with which it can be molded into complex parts. The electrolyte used in this battery is a highly corrosive mixture of bromine, zinc bromide, zinc chloride, potassium bromide, potassium chloride and a quaternary amine salt. The quaternary salt serves to reduce the concentration of free bromine in the electrolyte by virtue of its complexing capability. It is well known that aqueous bromine is capable of oxidizing organic compounds. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of a bromine electrolyte on two PVC formulations, PVC-1 and PVC-4. PVC-1 is the designation given to one of B.F. Goodrich's commercial formulations and is the present baseline material for the flow frame. PVC-4 is an experimental B.F. Goodrich formulation that was developed especially for battery applications. We sought answers to such questions as (1) does oxidation and/or bromination take place. (2) does bromine penetrate into the sample and, if so, how far. (3) how are the mechanical and morphological properties affected. and (4) are there differences in stability between PVC-1 and PVC-4. To accelerate the aging processes we aged the PVC samples at an elevated temperature in an electrolyte which did not contain any complexing agent. 5 refs., 6 figs.

Arnold, C. Jr.; Leo, A.; Tarjani, M.



Zinc: an essential but elusive nutrient123  

PubMed Central

Zinc is essential for multiple aspects of metabolism. Physiologic signs of zinc depletion are linked with diverse biochemical functions rather than with a specific function, which makes it difficult to identify biomarkers of zinc nutrition. Nutrients, such as zinc, that are required for general metabolism are called type 2 nutrients. Protein and magnesium are examples of other type 2 nutrients. Type 1 nutrients are required for one or more specific functions: examples include iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate, and copper. When dietary zinc is insufficient, a marked reduction in endogenous zinc loss occurs immediately to conserve the nutrient. If zinc balance is not reestablished, other metabolic adjustments occur to mobilize zinc from small body pools. The location of those pools is not known, but all cells probably have a small zinc reserve that includes zinc bound to metallothionein or zinc stored in the Golgi or in other organelles. Plasma zinc is also part of this small zinc pool that is vulnerable to insufficient intakes. Plasma zinc concentrations decline rapidly with severe deficiencies and more moderately with marginal depletion. Unfortunately, plasma zinc concentrations also decrease with a number of conditions (eg, infection, trauma, stress, steroid use, after a meal) due to a metabolic redistribution of zinc from the plasma to the tissues. This redistribution confounds the interpretation of low plasma zinc concentrations. Biomarkers of metabolic zinc redistribution are needed to determine whether this redistribution is the cause of a low plasma zinc rather than poor nutrition. Measures of metallothionein or cellular zinc transporters may fulfill that role.

King, Janet C



Barnacles: Possible indicators of zinc pollution?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barnacles [Balanus balanoides (L.), Elminius modestus Darwin, Lepas anatifera (L.)] from several different sites were found to accumulate the heavy metal zinc. The majority of the zinc was deposited in the tissues associated with the gut, and the level of zinc in soft body tissue generally reflected well the level of zinc in the immediate sea-water environment. The zinc accumulated

G. Walker; P. S. Rainbow; P. Foster; D. J. Crisp



Zinc hydroxide sulphate and its transformation to crystalline zinc oxide.  


The thermal transformation of zinc hydroxide sulphate hydrate to zinc oxide has been examined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and surface area measurements. By collecting X-ray diffraction data in situ, we found that the dehydration of zinc hydroxide sulphate pentahydrate proceeded in discrete steps to form anhydrous zinc hydroxide sulphate. This compound then decomposed to a mixture of zinc oxide and a compound tentatively identified as Zn3(OH)2(SO4)2 at ?235 C. At ?360 C, the final dehydroxylation occurred with the formation of zinc oxy-sulphate, Zn3O(SO4)2, which then decomposed to ZnO at about ?800 C. Interruption of the dehydration process can be used to synthesize the intermediate compounds. PMID:23963063

Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael B; McDonagh, Andrew M



Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)|

Rawls, Rebecca



Chemiluminescent Monitor for Vinyl Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A monitor for vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) in ambient air was constructed using commercially available components of a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a chemiluminescence ozone analyzer slightly modified to make it suitable for use as a GC detector. T...

M. W. Greene S. G. Riccio W. D. Dencker R. I. Wilson



Synthesis and Anticancer Properties of Water-Soluble Zinc Ionophores  

PubMed Central

Several water-solubilized versions of the zinc ionophore 1-hydroxypyridine-2-thione (ZnHPT), synthesized as part of the present study, have been found both to increase the intracellular concentrations of free zinc and to produce an antiproliferative activity in exponential phase A549 human lung cancer cultures. Gene expression profiles of A549 cultures treated with one of these water-soluble zinc ionophores, PCI-5002, reveal the activation of stress response pathways under the control of metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1), hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1 (HIF-1), and heat shock transcription factors. Additional oxidative stress response and apoptotic pathways were activated in cultures grown in zinc-supplemented media. We also show that these water-soluble zinc ionophores can be given to mice at 100 ?mol/kg (300 ?mol/m2) with no observable toxicity and inhibit the growth of A549 lung and PC3 prostate cancer cells grown in xenograft models. Gene expression profiles of tumor specimens harvested from mice 4 h after treatment confirmed the in vivo activation of MTF-1responsive genes. Overall, we propose that water-solubilized zinc ionophores represent a potential new class of anticancer agents.

Magda, Darren; Lecane, Philip; Wang, Zhong; Hu, Weilin; Thiemann, Patricia; Ma, Xuan; Dranchak, Patricia K.; Wang, Xiaoming; Lynch, Vincent; Wei, Wenhao; Csokai, Viktor; Hacia, Joseph G.; Sessler, Jonathan L.



Smoking alters the relationship between maternal zinc intake and biochemical indices of fetal zinc status13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal smoking impairs fetal zinc status. This study was designed to clarify the effect of smoking on the relationship between maternal zinc intake and zinc status in mother and fetus. Zinc was measured with atomic-absorption spectroscopy. Statistical analyses consisted of descriptive statis- tics, simple correlations, and stepwise multiple regression. The results suggest that maternal plasma zinc, red blood cell zinc,

Betty R Kuhnert; Paul M Kuhnert; Sharon L Groh; Noam Lazebnik


Synthesis of zinc oxide by zincair system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economical and environment friendly zincair system route is used for the synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) on a zinc (Zn) plate in room temperature. A Zn plate and a single air-cathode are used as the anode and cathode, respectively. It is found that the growth of ZnO increases with increasing electrolyte solution concentration until an optimum concentration is reached.

C. K. Yap; W. C. Tan; S. S. Alias; A. A. Mohamad



An XAFS study of nickel chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride  

SciTech Connect

Nickel chloride was studied with cyclic voltammetry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Acidic melts display metal stripping peaks which are not observed in the basic melt. EXAFS analysis shows that the nickel is tetrahedrally coordinated with chloride ions in the basic solution. In the acidic solution the nickel is coordinated by six chloride ions that are also associated with aluminum ions.

D Roeper; G Cheek; K Pandya; W OGrady



Chloride removal from Eshidiya phosphate mining wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of industrial wastewater from Eshidiya phosphate mining was studied in this work for reuse possibilities. The wastewater contains sediments and chloride ions. The removal of chloride from the industrial wastewater by adsorption using Amberlite IRA-402 was investigated via batch and continuous adsorptions. In the batch adsorption, the amount of chloride removal reached about 82.5%. The equilibrium data for chloride

Mousa K. Abu-Arabi; Sadeq Emeish; Banan I. Hudaib



Zinc Chelation Reduces Hippocampal Neurogenesis after Pilocarpine-Induced Seizure  

PubMed Central

Several studies have shown that epileptic seizures increase hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult. However, the mechanism underlying increased neurogenesis after seizures remains largely unknown. Neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus in the adult brain, although an understanding of why it actively occurs in this region has remained elusive. A high level of vesicular zinc is localized in the presynaptic terminals of the SGZ. Previously, we demonstrated that a possible correlation may exist between synaptic zinc localization and high rates of neurogenesis in this area after hypoglycemia. Using a lithium-pilocarpine model, we tested our hypothesis that zinc plays a key role in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure. Then, we injected the zinc chelator, clioquinol (CQ, 30 mg/kg), into the intraperitoneal space to reduce brain zinc availability. Neuronal death was detected with Fluoro Jade-B and NeuN staining to determine whether CQ has neuroprotective effects after seizure. The total number of degenerating and live neurons was similar in vehicle and in CQ treated rats at 1 week after seizure. Neurogenesis was evaluated using BrdU, Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining 1 week after seizure. The number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cell was increased after seizure. However, the number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cells was significantly decreased by CQ treatment. Intracellular zinc chelator, N,N,N0,N-Tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), also reduced seizure-induced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The present study shows that zinc chelation does not prevent neurodegeneration but does reduce seizure-induced progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Therefore, this study suggests that zinc has an essential role for modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure.

Kim, Jin Hee; Jang, Bong Geom; Choi, Bo Young; Kwon, Lyo Min; Sohn, Min; Song, Hong Ki; Suh, Sang Won



Zinc halide hydrocracking process for distillate fuels from coal. Annual technical progress report, February 1, 1977January 31, 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major efforts during the year were (1) to construct a 1 TPD Process Development Unit (PDU) for conversion of coal to distillate fuels using a molten zinc chloride catalyst and (2) to explore the effects of operating variables on a 2 lb\\/hr continuous bench-scale unit and develop correlations predicting conversion and product yields with Montana subbituminous coal. Construction of

M. Pell; W. A. Parker; J. T. Maskew; C. W. Zielke; R. T. Struck



Performance characteristics of zinc hexacyanoferrate\\/Prussian blue and copper hexacyanoferrate\\/Prussian blue solid state secondary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid state secondary cells were constructed with Prussian blue (PB), i.e. iron (III) hexacyanoferrate (II) as the active material for cathodes and zinc (II) hexacyanoferrate (III) (Znhcf) and copper (II) hexacyanoferrate (III) (Cuhcf) as the active materials for anodes. The metal hexacyanoferrates were mixed with graphite powder, potassium chloride and dilute hydrochloric acid to form a thick paste. A Nafion

M Jayalakshmi; F Scholz



Sensitivity of Vertebrate Embryos to Heavy Metals as a Criterion of Water Quality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Embryonic and/or larval stages of the leopard frog (Rana pipiens), domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus) and the goldfish (Carassius auratus) were treated with cadmium chloride, mercuric chloride, lead chloride, zinc chloride and sodium arsenite. The principa...

J. J. Just W. J. Birge



Zinc transporters in prostate cancer.  


Prostate cancer is a major health concern as it has the second highest incidence rate among cancers in men. Despite progress in tumor diagnostics and therapeutic approaches, prognosis for men with advanced disease remains poor. In this review we provide insight into the changes of the intermediary metabolism in normal prostate and prostate cancer. In contrast to normal cells, prostate cancer cells are reprogrammed for optimal energy-efficiency with a functional Krebs cycle and minimal apoptosis rates. A key element in this relationship is the uniquely high zinc level of normal prostate epithelial cells. Zinc is transported by the SLC30 and SLC39 families of zinc transporters. However, in prostate cancer the intracellular zinc content is remarkably reduced and expression levels of certain zinc transporters are altered. Here, we summarize the role of different zinc transporters in the development of prostate cancer. PMID:23506906

Franz, M-C; Anderle, P; Brzle, M; Suzuki, Y; Freeman, M R; Hediger, M A; Kovacs, G


Influence of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) on zinc electrodeposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is a study of the electrodeposition of zinc onto SAE 4140 steel electrodes using solutions containing zinc sulfate and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT). The influence of different parameters such as electrolyte concentration, electrodeposition time and temperature on the morphology of the electrodeposits was analyzed. The deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction. The variation of open circuit potential over time in chloride solutions was also evaluated. The nucleation-growth process and consequently the morphology of the electrodeposits are modified in the presence of AOT. The surfactant induces the formation of a porous deposit.

Lehr, I. L.; Saidman, S. B.



Zinc and diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders, the incidence of which varies widely throughout the world. The treatment\\u000a of diabetes mellitus includes insulin, oral antidiabetic agents, and dietary regimens. Although the emphasis is on macronutrients\\u000a intakes, there is strong evidence that there is an abnormal metabolism of several micronutrients in diabetic individuals.\\u000a Zinc is one of the essential micronutrients

Maria J. Salgueiro; Nancy Krebs; Marcela B. Zubillaga; Ricardo Weill; Eric Postaire; Alexis E. Lysionek; Ricardo A. Caro; Tomas De Paoli; Alfredo Hager; Jose Boccio



Salivary zinc as an index of zinc status in women fed a low-zinc diet1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a low-zinc diet on saliva and plasma levels was studied in 12 healthy young women. A diet low in zinc (3.2mg\\/day) was fed to the subjects for 22 days.Subjects were determined to be in satisfactory zinc status via analysis of the zinc levels of their diet, hair, plasma, and saliva. During the low-zinc diet, concentrations of zinc

Jeanne H. Freeland; Pamela J. Hendrickson; M. Lavone Ebangit; Jeanne V. Snowden


Surface energy of zinc  

SciTech Connect

The influence of temperature and associated dislocation microstructure on the energetics of basal plane cleavage in zinc crystals has been investigated using the method of Hull, Beardmore, and Valentine (HBV). A marked temperature dependence was observed in the zinc surface energy, over the range 77--298 /sup 0/K, contrary to previous expectations. Plastic relaxation was associated with crack initiation at 77 /sup 0/K, but not propagation; while at room temperature a plastic zone of 1200--1500 in depth was produced by crack extension. The surface energy could be estimated, independent of the usual Griffith analysis, by measuring the energy dissipation in a fully relaxed deformed zone associated with an explosively formed precursor crack. This method yielded surface energies of 0.066 to 0.079 J m/sup -2/ which was in good agreement with previous work. It is demonstrated that the cleavage surface energy of zinc is well below the thermodynamic surface energy and that this discrepancy is not related to plastic deformation.

Bilello, J.C.; Dew-Hughes, D.; Pucino, A.T.



Aluminum chloride in the treatment of symptomatic athelete's foot.  


Various aluminum salts were evaluated for in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity and ability to bind with serum proteins (astrigency) with the object of finding a colorless substance to substitute for carbol-fuchsin solution (Castellani paint) in the treatment of symptomatic interdigital athlete's foot. Aluminum chlorohydrate was more powerful in killing bacteria and fungi than aluminum acetate and aluminum chloride. However, aluminum chloride showed pronounced astringency and was the only compound to bring about rapid resolution of the signs and symptoms of athlete's foot in open-ended clinical trials. This salt promptly controls odor, pruritus, and maceration. The beneficial effect depends largely on drying the surface, not killing organisms. A solution of 30% aluminum chloride was found to be equlvalent to carbol-fuchsin solution in effectively treating symptomatic athlete's foot. PMID:822782

Leyden, J J; Kligman, A M



Zinc can for battery anode  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Presented is a virtually lead additive-free but highly reliable and practical anode zinc can for battery with improved process-ability and corrosion resistance, and a manganese dry battery made by using such a zinc can. Disclosed is a manufacturing method of a proposed zinc can and a battery along with engineering clues for material evaluation and processing with regard to metallographic aspect.

Kobayashi; Kazunari (Chiba, JP); Maeda; Mutsuhiro (Chiba, JP)



Zinc and depression. An update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsatisfactory clinical efficacy and a variety of adverse effects of current antidepressant drugs have incited search for better therapy. Zinc, an antagonist of the glutamate\\/N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, exhibits antidepressant-like activity in rodent tests\\/models of depression. Similarly to antidepressants, zinc induces brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression and increases level of synaptic pool of zinc in the hippocampus. Clinical observations

Gabriel Nowak; Bernadeta Szewczyk; Andrzej Pilc


21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc oxide is a white or yellow-white amorphous powder manufactured by the French process (described as the indirect process whereby zinc metal isolated from the zinc-containing ore is vaporized and...



21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 ...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from...



Zinc for Colds: The Final Word?  


... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Zinc for colds: The final word? By Mayo Clinic ... share your e-mail address Sign up Question Zinc for colds: The final word? Will taking zinc ...


Kinetics of cobalt cementation on zinc powder  

SciTech Connect

The cementation process may be considered an interesting method to treat dilute solutions containing metal ions. The aim of the process may be either the removal of pollutant metals or the recovery of economically valuable metals such as Ag from spent photographic liquors. The kinetics of cobalt cementation on Zn powder from zinc sulfate concentrated solutions in the presence of copper and antimony ions was investigated in stirred tank reactors. The composition of the solutions was in the range usually utilized in industrial zinc electrowinning plants. The results showed that the reaction occurs by means of the formation of crystallization nuclei of noble metals on the zinc powder, followed by the cementation of cobalt ions on these newly-formed nuclei. Mass transfer to the reaction surface is shown to be the controlling step in copper and antimony reduction, and an equation correlating mass transfer coefficients has been determined. A kinetic equation, which interprets the influence of stirring speed and solution composition on cobalt cementation, has also been proposed.

Polcaro, A.M.; Palmas, S.; Dernini, S. [Univ. degli studi di Cagliari (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali



Comparative electrochemical studies of zinc chromate and zinc phosphate as corrosion inhibitors for zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anticorrosive performance of two inhibitive pigments, zinc chromate and zinc phosphate, was compared using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) in pigment extracts in 0.1M NaCl. It was observed that zinc was protected from corrosion in both extracts. In tests using hot dip galvanised steel painted with an epoxy primer incorporating the pigments, the

A. C. Bastos; M. G. S. Ferreira; A. M. Simes



Polarographic Method of Determining Zinc in Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate Additives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A polarographic method has been developed for determining zinc in additives DF-11, DFTs-3/8, LANI-317, VNIINP-354, and VNIINP-360. The zinc is extracted from the solution of the additive in hexane by a 6N aqueous HCl. This method allows the content of zin...

L. G. Fedorenko V. A. Kuznestsov Y. T. Gordash



Electroluminescence in zinc sulpho-selenide and in zinc sulphide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light-emitting devices with electrode areas of 1 mm2 have been prepared on single crystals of solid solutions of zinc selenide and zinc sulphide. It is shown that it is relatively easy to prepare ohmic contacts with indium on samples containing lp to 80% molar of sulphur. The most intense electroluminescence has been obtained from devices carrying one indium and one

M. E. Ozsan; J. Woods



Zinc-promoted alkyl transfer: a new role for zinc.  


The roles of zinc in biology are often thought to be limited to activating water, as in hydrolytic enzymes, and conferring structure, as in the zinc finger proteins. Over the past 15 years, it has been shown that there are many zinc-containing proteins that have 'structural-like' zinc sites with multiple cysteine ligands but in which the site promotes the alkylation of a zinc-bound thiolate. Recent work continues to extend the range of proteins showing zinc-promoted alkytransfer activity, and has refined the structural details of these sites. Of particular interest are recent crystal structures suggesting that in most cases the endogenous ligand that is displaced when the substrate thiol bind is an endogenous amino acid and not water, as had been previously thought. Despite extensive study, it remains unclear whether these enzymes function via an associative mechanism (direct alkylation of a zinc-bound thiolate) or a dissociate mechanism (nucleophilic attack by a free thiolate that has dissociated from the zinc). PMID:17376731

Penner-Hahn, James



Involvement of NMDA receptors and l-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in the antidepressant-like effects of zinc in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the involvement of NMDA receptors and the l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the antidepressant-like effects of zinc in the forced swimming test (FST). The immobility times in the FST and in the tail suspension test (TST) were reduced by zinc chloride (ZnCl2, 30 and 1030mg\\/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.), respectively). The doses active in the FST and TST reduced

Angelo Oscar Rosa; Jaime Lin; Joo Batista Calixto; Adair Roberto S. Santos; Ana Lcia S. Rodrigues



Effect of microwave power on the morphology and optical property of zinc oxide nano-structures prepared via a microwave-assisted aqueous solution method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the microwave power on the morphology and optical properties of zinc oxide nanostructures prepared using a microwave-assisted aqueous solution method has been investigated. The ZnO nanostructures were synthesized from zinc chloride and sodium hydroxide mixed aqueous solutions exposed for 5min to microwave radiation at four different powers, namely 150, 450, 700 and 1000W. The morphologies of the

R. Al-Gaashani; S. Radiman; N. Tabet; A. Razak Daud



40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection...POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.65 Emission standard for ethylene...



40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection...POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.65 Emission standard for ethylene...



46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements § 151.50-34 Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys...that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b)...



46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements § 151.50-34 Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys...that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b)...



Nicotine aerosol generation from thermally reversible zinc halide complexes using the Staccato system.  


Application of the Staccato system to liquid drugs presents unique technological challenges. Liquids, such as nicotine, do not form physically stable films on vaporization substrates. We identified two thermally reversible zinc halides (ZnCl2 and ZnBr2) that complex with nicotine in a 1:2 mol ratio (zinc halide: nicotine) that can be coated as a solid film. Feasibility studies indicated that the chloride complex liberates a higher fraction of nicotine upon heating whereas the nicotine aerosol purity for both complexes was approximately 99%. Using a multidose Staccato device previously used in a Phase I clinical trial, we demonstrated that highly pure nicotine aerosol can be reliably generated from the chloride complex with the following qualities: aerosol purity approximately 99%, single emitted dose approximately 117 microg, particle fraction approximately 57%, and mean particle size approximately 0.8 microm. These results were supported by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. PMID:18800254

Simis, Kathleen; Lei, Mingzu; Lu, Amy Tsai; Sharma, Krishnamohan C V; Hale, Ron L; Timmons, Ryan; Cassella, Jim



The CLC chloride channel family.  


Chloride channels perform important roles in the regulation of cellular excitability, in transepithelial transport, cell volume regulation, and acidification of intracellular organelles. This variety of functions requires a large number of different chloride channels that are encoded by genes belonging to several unrelated gene families. The CLC family of chloride channels has nine known members in mammals that show a differential tissue distribution and function both in plasma membranes and in intracellular organelles. CLC proteins have about 10-12 transmembrane domains. They probably function as dimers and may have two pores. The functional expression of channels altered by site-directed mutagenesis has led to important insights into their structure-function relationship. Their physiological relevance is obvious from three human inherited diseases (myotonia congenita, Dent's disease and Bartter's syndrome) that result from mutations in some of their members and from a knock-out mouse model. PMID:10370055

Jentsch, T J; Friedrich, T; Schriever, A; Yamada, H



Zinc-bromine cell design  

SciTech Connect

A set of slides is reproduced which illustrates the design of a zinc-bromine circulating battery. Low-cost manufacturing techniques and scale-up rationale are outlined, and design parameters are listed. Also outlined is a computer model of the zinc-bromine battery. (LEW)

Bellows, R.



Zinc-bromine cell design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of slides is reproduced which illustrates the design of a zinc-bromine circulating battery. Low cost manufacturing techniques and scale up rationale are outlined, and design parameters are listed. A computer model of the zinc-bromine battery is outlined.

Bellows, R.



Zinc-bromine cell design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of slides is reproduced which illustrates the design of a zinc-bromine circulating battery. Low cost manufacturing techniques and scale up rationale are outlined, and design parameters are listed. A computer model of the zinc-bromine battery is outlined.

R. Bellows



Antimicrobial effect of zinc pyrithione  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The antimicrobial effect of zinc pyrithione has been studied with healthy scalps in relation to its ANTIDANDRUFF effect. Use of zinc pyrithione-containing shampoo sharply reduced the CORNEOCYTE COUNTS, while the similarly active antimicrobial agent, Irgasan DP-300 had no effect on the corneocyte counts. Quantitative estimation of scalp microorganisms revealed that corresponding to the decrease in dandruff, Pityrospbrum ovale



Zinc partitioning in Mediterranean rainwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven rainwater samples were collected in the Western Mediterranean region in clean conditions in order to study the partitioning of zinc between soluble and insoluble forms. The pH of the rainwater sampled ranges between 4 and 7; the high values of pH resulting from the neutralization of acidic species by the calcium carbonate present in desertic dusts. The soluble zinc

Rmi Losno; Gilles Bergametti; Patrick Buat-Mnard



Thermokinetic characteristics of lithium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterisation of the ionic compound of lithium chloride, LiCl, through XRD, SEM, DSC, TG, DTG and TG-MS analysis is\\u000a reported. The results show that nominally anhydrous LiCl particles can readily absorb water from the ambient atmosphere to\\u000a form a surface layer of lithium chloride mono-hydrate, LiClH2O. Solid surface-hydrated LiCl is de-dehydrated via a two-stage mechanism at low heating rates

Ali Reza Kamali; Derek J. Fray; Carsten Schwandt



Fragmentation of molecular tributyltin chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fragmentation of tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) vapour has been studied experimentally by means of time-of-flight mass spectrometry at the photon energy range of 9-25 eV of synchrotron radiation, at 21.22 eV of HeI as well as with 500 eV electron beam excitation. Branching ratios of the tributyltin chloride fragments taken with HeI and synchrotron radiation have been presented first time. Calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) were carried out for TBTCl and the ionization energies obtained were used to predict the dissociation pathways creating the observed ions.

Osmekhin, S.; Cal, A.; Kisand, V.; Nmmiste, E.; Kotilainen, H.; Aksela, H.; Aksela, S.



Zinc protects human peripheral blood lymphocytes from Cr(III)(phenanthroline)3-induced apoptosis.  


We have studied the effect of Cr(III)(phen)3 [(tris(1,10-phenanthroline) chromium(III) chloride)] on lymphocytes in order to find out if metallothioneins (MTs) are produced in the process. We also investigated whether zinc pretreatment is able to protect cells from apoptosis reported to occur for this compound. Our results indicate that MT synthesis is induced by Cr(III)(phen)3, and it has been identified as the MT-3 isoform through RT-PCR which has not been reported earlier. By zinc pretreatment, this apoptosis is reversed as inferred from cytotoxicity studies, Annexin-V/PI staining, ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining and DNA fragmentation pattern and ultrastructural investigations using TEM and SEM. The zinc pretreatment reduces the amount of ROS produced by Cr(III)(phen)3. The MT-1a and 1b synthesized by zinc (also evidenced through RT-PCR experiments) is possibly able to scavenge ROS which is one of the early signaling molecules that lead to apoptosis. Zinc pretreatment also reverses the changes in downstream signaling events such as mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP levels and the activation of caspase-3. This is the first report on the induction of MT-3 in lymphocytes due to a metal stress or any other stimuli. Even though MT-3 is synthesized here, apoptosis still occurs due to ROS production on Cr(III)(phen)3 exposure when the cells have not been primed with zinc. PMID:20043934

Sankaramanivel, Sundararaj; Rajaram, Anantanarayanan; Rajaram, Rama



Enrichment of zinc isotopes by a liquid membrane system using a crown ether  

SciTech Connect

A liquid membrane system to enrich zinc isotope was investigated. The liquid membrane was composed of a solution of dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 in chloroform. Zinc chloride dissolved in diluted hydrochloric acid was used as a feed phase. A receiving phase was made of a 0.001 M HCl solution. The zinc isotopes were enriched (1) at the interface of the liquid-membrane/feed-phase and (2) at that of the liquid-membrane/receiving-phase. The separation factor attained in the system was {alpha} = 1.049 for the separation of {sup 64}Zn and {sup 66}Zn. The enrichment factor of {sup 66}Zn relative to {sup 67}Zn was {epsilon} = {minus}0.053, which is in the inverse direction of enrichment by a liquid-liquid extraction. The enrichment factor of {sup 64}Zn to {sup 66}Zn showed a different value from that of {sup 66}Zn to {sup 68}Zn, regardless of their similar mass difference. The isotope effects in the Zn-crown complex were dominated by the field shift of electronic energy in the isotope atom. This is in contrast to the Bigeleisen-Mayer approximation for a chemical exchange reaction. Trace amounts of zinc are injected into the primary coolant of boiling water reactors in order to suppress {sup 60}Co build-up. The use of {sup 64}Zn-depleted zinc suppresses the production of {sup 65}Zn within the reactor. Zinc isotopes are also useful precursors of radiopharmaceuticals.

Nishizawa, Kazushige; Miki, Takahito; Satoyama, Tomonori; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Tadashi [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Nomura, Masao [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Research Lab. for Nuclear Reactors



Effects of zinc supplementation on diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

The number of people with diabetes and pre-diabetes are exponentially increasing. Studies on humans have shown the beneficial effects of Zinc supplementation in patients with diabetes. The present study aims to systematically evaluate the literature and meta-analyze the effects of Zinc supplementation on diabetes. A systematic review of published studies reporting the effects of Zinc supplementations on diabetes mellitus was undertaken. The literature search was conducted in the following databases; PubMed, Web of Science and SciVerse Scopus. A meta-analysis of studies examining the effects of Zinc supplementation on clinical and biochemical parameters in patients with diabetes was performed. The total number of articles included in the present review is 25, which included 3 studies on type-1 diabetes and 22 studies on type-2 diabetes. There were 12 studies comparing the effects of Zinc supplementation on fasting blood glucose in patients with type-2 diabetes. The pooled mean difference in fasting blood glucose between Zinc supplemented and placebo groups was 18.13mg/dl (95%CI:33.85,2.41; p<0.05). 2-h post-prandial blood sugar also shows a similar distinct reduction in (34.87mg/dl [95%CI:75.44; 5.69]) the Zinc treated group. The reduction in HbA1c was 0.54% (95%CI:0.86;0.21) in the Zinc treated group. There were 8 studies comparing the effects of Zinc supplementation on lipid parameters in patients with type-2 diabetes. The pooled mean difference for total cholesterol between Zinc supplemented and placebo groups was 32.37mg/dl (95%CI:57.39,7.35; p<0.05). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol also showed a similar distinct reduction in the Zinc treated group, the pooled mean difference from random effects analysis was 11.19mg/dl (95%CI:21.14,1.25; p<0.05). Studies have also shown a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressures after Zinc supplementation. This first comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of Zinc supplementation in patients with diabetes demonstrates that Zinc supplementation has beneficial effects on glycaemic control and promotes healthy lipid parameters. Further studies are required to identify the exact biological mechanisms responsible for these results.



N-Silylation of amines and amino acid esters under neutral conditions employing TMS-Cl in the presence of zinc dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expedient synthetic approach to N-silylamines has been developed. The protocol, using TMS-Cl\\/zinc dust instead of BSA, is useful for the conversion of amines or amino acid esters to the corresponding silyl derivatives, followed by acylation with an acyl chloride or Fmoc-amino acid chloride to give the corresponding amide or peptide. This procedure, affording products in good to excellent yields,

Vommina V. Suresh Babu; Ganga-Ramu Vasanthakumar; Subramanyam J. Tantry



A zinc paste primary battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that zinc/air batteries could, in principle, be used to power electric vehicles. One concept for enhancing the practical performance of this battery system involves the separation of energy density factors from power density factors. This concept can be implemented by employing the active negative plate material in the form of a zinc slurry, which is circulated from a reservoir through the negative electrode compartment. An extension of this fuel cell-battery concept is related to the utilization of the active material as a pumpable paste rather than as a slurry. The present investigation is concerned with preliminary experiments on formulating and characterizing pumpable zinc/zinc oxide pastes in the context of a primary zinc/oxygen battery. A 'paste' is defined as a thick viscous mass of solid, uniformly and semipermanently dispersed in a liquid phase. Attention is given to the physical basis for predicting which solid/liquid mixtures will provide pumpable pastes.

Jasinski, R.; McCarron, R.; Brilmyer, G.



Zinc Therapy for Diarrhoea Increased the Use of Oral Rehydration Therapy and Reduced the Use of Antibiotics in Bangladeshi Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive use of antibiotics for diarrhoea is a major contributing factor towards increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance in developing countries. Zinc therapy for diarrhoea has been shown to be bene- ficial in controlled efficacy trials, and it is of interest to determine if availability of zinc syrup for treat- ment of diarrhoea would satisfy the demand for a 'medicine' for

Abdullah H. Baqui; Robert E. Black; Shams El Arifeen; Mohammad Yunus; K. Zaman; Nazma Begum; Amira A. Roess; Mathuram Santosham


Arsenic antagonism studies with monoisoamyl DMSA and zinc in male mice.  


Administration of zinc either alone or in combination with monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) during and post-arsenic exposure was investigated in male mice. The animals were administered 2mgkg(-1) arsenic as sodium arsenite, intraperitoneally, once daily for 5 days either alone or in combination with 10mgkg(-1), zinc (as zinc acetate, orally), 50mgkg(-1) monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA) given orally (p.o.), 2h after arsenic administration. Another group of arsenic treated animals was given both zinc (10mgkg(-1)) and MiADMSA (50mgkg(-1), p.o.). Animals were sacrificed 24h after the last dose. In another set of experimentation, arsenic pre-exposed mice (2mgkg(-1), i.p. for 5 days) were treated with saline, zinc, MiADMSA or zinc plus MiADMSA for next 3 days and sacrificed thereafter. Exposure to arsenic led to a significant inhibition of blood ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), depletion of glutathione (GSH) level and marginal elevations of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP). Arsenic exposure caused a significant decrease in hepatic and renal GSH level and an increase in liver oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and liver and kidney thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels. Concomitant administration of zinc with arsenic provided significant protection to blood ALAD activity while, GSH and ZPP levels remained unaltered. Co-administration of MiADMSA with arsenic significantly prevented accumulation of arsenic in blood, liver and kidney while, zinc had no effect on tissue arsenic concentration. Combined administration of zinc and MiADMSA had no major additional beneficial effects over their individual effects. Interestingly, post-arsenic exposure treatment with MiADMSA provided significant recovery in blood ALAD activity while, zinc supplementation alone had no effect. The best results however, were obtained when MiADMSA was administered along-with zinc. Most of the biochemical variables indicative of hepatic oxidative stress responded favorably to MiADMSA treatment while, zinc administration had no effect. Administration of MiADMSA significantly depleted arsenic concentration from the soft tissues while, combined zinc and MiADMSA had no additional beneficial effect over the individual effect of MiADMSA. The results thus lead us to conclude that in order to achieve best effects of chelation therapy, co-administration of zinc with chelator might be preferred. However, detailed experimental studies with variable doses and after chronic arsenic exposure are required. PMID:21783469

Modi, Manoj; Pathak, Uma; Kalia, Kiran; Flora, S J S



Zinc hydroxystannate-coated metal hydroxide fire retardants: Fire performance and substrate-coating interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire retardant (FR) properties, including limiting oxygen index, peak rate of heat release and smoke parameter have been measured and compared for unfilled and filled polyvinyl-chloride (PVC) based cable formulations, containing various amounts of uncoated and zinc-hydroxystannate (ZHS)-coated alumina trihydrate (ATH) and magnesium hydroxide (MH) fillers. Uncoated ATH or MH proved to be efficient FR additives, but when coated with

P. R. Hornsby; P. A. Cusack; M. Cross; A. Tth; B. Zelei; G. Marosi



Sulfidation of zinc by traces of hydrogen sulfide in air  

SciTech Connect

The effect of H{sub 2}S in the sub-parts per million range on the atmospheric corrosion of zinc has been investigated in the laboratory. Each sample was exposed individually to air with careful control of pollutant concentration, relative humidity, and flow conditions. Monitoring of H{sub 2}S concentration at the outlet of the corrosion chamber was used to study the reaction of H{sub 2}S with zinc metal during the first 24 h. Four-week exposures were also performed to study the corrosion rate and the corrosion products. The deposition of H{sub 2}S on zinc strongly depended on the relative humidity. In dry air H{sub 2}S deposition was limited to an uptake on the order of a monolayer. At 70 to 99% RH the initial deposition rate of H{sub 2}S was faster, and the deposition reached a steady state after 15 to 20 h of exposure. Analysis of the H{sub 2}S evolved from the samples when treated with acid showed 95 {+-} 5% of the H{sub 2}S deposited on zinc to be present in sulfide form. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ion chromatographic analysis supported this finding, small amounts of sulfate being detected besides sulfide. After a 4 week exposure to 410 ppb H{sub 2}S at 95% RH, zinc blende (sphalerite) (ZnS) was identified by grazing angle X-ray diffraction. It was concluded that the zinc sulfide film grows by bulk diffusion of ions. The rate of zinc sulfidation was independent of H{sub 2}S concentration between 25 and 780 ppb.

Svensson, J.E.; Johansson, L.G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry]|[Univ. of Goeteborg (Sweden)



Stress responses of human dermal fibroblasts exposed to zinc pyrithione.  


Zinc pyrithione is used as a topical agent in a range of medicinal and cosmetic applications. Despite its extensive use and reported beneficial effects in treatment of various dermal problems, its potential toxicity towards skin cells remains relatively underexplored. In this work we investigated effects of nM zinc pyrithione on cell stress response pathways of primary human skin fibroblasts during 24h of exposure. We demonstrate that zinc pyrithione-induced cytotoxity in dermal fibroblasts is dose-dependent and it associates with increased intracellular zinc concentrations and activated stress response pathways including p53 and stress kinase p38. Higher zinc pyrithione concentrations (500nM and above) stimulate oxidative stress and moderate DNA damage which occur in the presence of activated p38 kinase. Cells further upregulate the expression of p53 which increases its transcriptional activity while mitogenic signaling exemplified by mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) expression is suppressed and these steps lead to mitochondrial, caspase-dependent apoptosis. Conversely, lower zinc concentrations (125nM) fail to induce oxidative stress and significant DNA damage; however, treated cells still activate p38 and upregulate the expression and transcriptional activity of p53 and its target gene p21 as well as the expression of p16 in the presence of active mTOR pathway and a changed DNA methylation pattern. The end result is premature senescence phenotype. Specific pharmacological inhibitors as well as gene knockdown technology prove that an interaction between p38, p53 and mTOR might be responsible for these observed endpoints. Taken together, exposure of dermal fibroblasts to varying concentrations of zinc pyrithione may result in either cell death-apoptosis or cellular premature senescence which attests to the ability of this compound to affect this type of cells in an in vitro model system. PMID:21557991

Rudolf, Emil; Cervinka, Miroslav



Electronic structure of spinel oxides: zinc aluminate and zinc gallate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic structure of zinc aluminate (ZnAl2O4) and that of zinc gallate (ZnGa2O4) were studied by the self-consistent tight-binding linearized muffin-tin orbital method with the atomic sphere approximation. The calculated results predict these zinc-based spinel oxides to be direct-gap materials. The direct gap at icons/Journals/Common/Gamma" ALT="Gamma" ALIGN="TOP"/> is found to be 4.11 eV for ZnAl2O4 and 2.79 eV for ZnGa2O4. With reference to the calculated band gap of 5.36 eV for MgAl2O4, the systematic decrease in the gap is attributed to the presence of 3d orbitals of Zn and Ga and the associated p-d hybridization in the upper valence band of zinc aluminate and gallate. Comparison of the contour maps of the electron localization function of ZnAl2O4 and ZnGa2O4 with that of MgAl2O4 clearly shows the bonding to be less ionic in the zinc-based spinel oxides. Finally, the calculations yield a smaller electron effective mass for zinc gallate as compared to that for zinc aluminate, suggesting a higher mobility of electrons in gallate.

Sampath, Suresh K.; Kanhere, D. G.; Pandey, Ravindra



Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin.  


In iron deficiency and lead poisoning, the enzyme ferrochelatase catalyzes the incorporation of zinc, instead of iron, into protoporphyrin IX, resulting in the formation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP). In healthy blood donors, there is a good inverse correlation between serum ferritin and ZPP levels. In renal failure patients and in patients with anemia caused by a variety of chronic disorders, two different types of iron deficiency are found: (a) absolute iron deficiency and (b) relative, or functional, iron deficiency. The latter occurs when iron, despite adequate stores, is not delivered rapidly enough to the erythroblasts. ZPP is not only indicative of absolute iron deficiency, but it is also, for now, the best indicator of iron-deficient erythropoiesis, along with the percentage of hypochromic red blood cells. By contrast, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation may not adequately assess functional iron deficiency. Elevated ZPP levels in renal failure patients can be caused by different pathogenetic mechanisms, such as chronic inflammatory disease, lead poisoning, and the presence of uremic factors, all of which could potentially inhibit heme biosynthesis. However, ZPP levels do not consistently predict an erythropoietic response to iron supplementation in maintenance hemodialysis patients, and thus, iron overload during i.v. iron supplementation cannot be detected by measuring ZPP. PMID:10084287

Braun, J



Hematologic depression following therapy with strontium-89 chloride  

SciTech Connect

Initial clinical trials using strontium-89 (Sr-89) chloride for the treatment of painful skeletal metastases have observed minimal or no hematological depression secondary to the radiostrontium. A patient with marked bone marrow depression temporally related to the administration of the Sr-89 is reported, and the need for close hematological monitoring is emphasized. Bone marrow tumor replacement may predispose patients to marrow depression from radiostrontium, and such patients should be treated with caution.

Cowan, R.J.; Chilton, H.M.; Cooper, M.R.; Ferree, C.R.; Watson, E.E.; Robinson, R.G.



Zinc Oxide Nanowires by Oxidation of Zinc Powder for Ethanol Gas Sensor Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc oxide nanowires were prepared by oxidation of zinc powder. The oxidation of zinc was performed by heating a tube of zinc powder at various duration times and temperatures. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Disper- sive Spectrometry (EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to char- acterize the tube. It was found that the diameter of zinc

Chanchai Viriyaworasakul; Sombat Kittikunodom; Supab Choopun; Torranin Chairuangsri; Pongsri Mangkorntong; Nikorn Mangkorntong


Zinc metabolism and homeostasis: The application of tracer techniques to human zinc physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracer kinetic techniques based on zinc stable isotopes have a vital role in advancing knowledge of human zinc physiology and homeostasis. These techniques have demonstrated the complexity of zinc metabolism, and have been critical to estimating the size and interrelationships of those pools of zinc that exchange rapidly with zinc in plasma and which are likely to be especially important

Nancy F. Krebs; K. Michael Hambidge



Zinc polycarboxylate dental cement for the controlled release of an active organic substance: proof of concept.  


The potential of employing zinc polycarboxylate dental cement as a controlled release material has been studied. Benzalkonium chloride was used as the active ingredient, and incorporated at concentrations of 1, 2 and 3% by mass within the cement. At these levels, there was no observable effect on the speed of setting. Release was followed using an ion-selective electrode to determine changes in chloride ion concentration with time. This technique showed that the additive was released when the cured cement was placed in water, with release occurring by a diffusion mechanism for the first 3 h, but continuing beyond that for up to 1 week. Diffusion coefficients were in the range 5.62 x 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) (for 1% concentration) to 10.90 x 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) (for 3% concentration). Up to 3% of the total loading of benzalkonium chloride was released from the zinc polycarboxylate after a week, which is similar to that found in previous studies with glass-ionomer cement. It is concluded that zinc polycarboxylate cement is capable of acting as a useful material for the controlled release of active organic compounds. PMID:19967407

Ali, Mohammad Naseem; Edwards, Mark; Nicholson, John W




Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of minerals in the diet of horses is well recognized by horse owners and equine nutritionists alike. The type and quantity of minerals required are very diverse and essential minerals include the major or macrominerals and the trace or microminerals. This discussion will be restricted to three macrominerals, sodium, potassium, and chloride (Na+, K+, Cl-), that are essen-

L. J. McCutcheon


Chloride Binding in Building Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt binding in porous materials is commonly described by ion binding isotherms which express the equilibrium relation between the amount of free ions in the solution and the amount of bound ions on the pore walls in the porous medium. In this article, chloride binding isotherms of several different types of building materials, among them cement paste, ceramic brick, mineral



Chloride Binding in Building Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt binding in porous materials is commonly described by ion binding isotherms which express the equilibrium relation between the amount of free ions in the solution and the amount of bound ions on the pore walls in the porous medium. In this article, chloride binding isotherms of several different types of building materials, among them cement paste, ceramic brick, mineral



Toxicological Profile for Vinyl Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Statement was prepared to give information about vinyl chloride and to emphasize the human health effects that may result from exposure to it. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified 1,300 sites on its National Priorities List (NPL). ...

B. Henriques C. S. Rabe



Toxicological Profile for Methylene Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Statement was prepared to give information about methylene chloride and to emphasize the human health effects that may result from exposure to it. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified 1,300 sites on its National Priorities List (NP...

C. Harper Y. N. Hales



Partial molar volumes of uni-univalent electrolytes in methanol + water; 1: Lithium chloride, sodium chloride, and potassium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Densities of methanol + water + lithium chloride, + sodium chloride, and + potassium chloride were measured at 15, 25, 35, and 45 C. The apparent molar volumes of the electrolytes in these mixtures were calculated, and the apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution, the partial molar volumes, and partial molar thermal expansivities were evaluated.

Takenaka, Nobuo; Takemura, Takeshi; Sakurai, Masao (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Research Inst. for Electronic Science)



[Acute zinc poisoning in a dog].  


Zinc-induced haemolytic anaemia was diagnosed in a young dog. The origin of the zinc intoxication was the ingestion of a toy material which contained a high percentage of zinc. The level of zinc in the liver and kidneys was resp. 1050 and 1320 ppm. PMID:15551629

Borst, G H A; Peperkamp, N H M T; Soethout, N C J



21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications ...milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate neutralized to pH...



The mechanism of zinc uptake in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of zinc influx was investigated using giant algal cells (Chara corallina Klein ex Will.esk. R.D. Wood), in which it was possible to discriminate clearly between tracer zinc bound in the cell wall and actual uptake into the cell. It was shown that despite lengthy desorption, retention of zinc in slowly exchanging zinc pools in the cell wall can

Robert J. Reid; Justin D. Brookes; Mark A. Tester; F. Andrew Smith



The effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the metallome in freshwater mussels.  


The use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nanoZnO) as sunscreens has raised concerns about their safety and release in the aquatic environment through swimming activities and within municipally treated wastewaters. This study's purpose was to examine the effects of nanoZnO on the elemental composition (metallome) in exposed freshwater mussels, Elliptio complanata. Mussels were exposed for 21 days to an environmentally realistic (low) concentration (2 ?g/L) of nanoZnO and zinc chloride. The mussels were also exposed to a physically and chemically treated municipal effluent (ME), both alone and in the presence of both forms of Zn. The metallome profile was characterized by the following 15 elements in gills, digestive gland and gonad tissues: Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, V and Zn. The levels of metallothioneins (MT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the digestive gland were also measured as biomarkers of toxic effects. The data revealed that exposure to nanoZnO increased the total levels of Zn, MT and LPO in the digestive gland. Discriminate function analysis revealed that the digestive gland responded the most to exposure to either nanoZnO or Zn(2+). For nanoZnO, the observed changes in Al, As and Mo in the digestive gland offered the best discrimination from dissolved Zn(2+). Co-exposure of nanoZnO with the ME changed the metallome profile closer to dissolved Zn(2+), suggesting a common interaction site within the ME. This was observed in changes in Ni, Cu, Se and Zn in the digestive gland of exposed mussels. Canonical analysis of essential and non-essential elements revealed that exposure to nanoZnO increased the relationships between LPO and the sum of essential elements in the digestive gland. Conversely, exposure to dissolved Zn(2+) and the ME decreased the relationship between the sum of non-essential elements and LPO and MT. In conclusion, the use of a "metallomic" approach was used to discriminate changes following exposure to nanoZnO and dissolved Zn in freshwater mussels and provided insights into the interaction of forms of Zn in ME towards mussels. PMID:23570753

Gagn, F; Turcotte, P; Auclair, J; Gagnon, C



Corrosion behavior of rapidly solidified magnesium-aluminium-zinc alloys  

SciTech Connect

Rapidly solidified magnesium alloys with 8 at%, 15 at%, and 20 at% Al and 1 at% and 3 at% Zn were fabricated by centrifugal atomization followed by hot extrusion. Microstructure of the alloys was composed of a fine-grain magnesium matrix (0.5 {micro}m) with {beta}-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} precipitates. Electrochemical and weight-loss tests were performed in borate and ASTM D 1384 solution (chloride, carbonate, and sulfate). In both media, corrosion current f the alloys decreased with increases in aluminum or zinc content. In borate solution, a passivating plateau was observed from the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) to E{sub corr} + 1,200 mV. Current density decreased with aluminum and zinc concentrations. Electrochemical behavior of the synthesized matrix and precipitates was characterized. Zinc increased E{sub corr} of the two phases, with a corresponding decrease of corrosion current. The same trend was noticed for aluminum but with a less dramatic effect. The corrosion mechanism was suggested result from galvanic coupling of the matrix and the second phase. The galvanic corrosion, however, was reduced strongly by passivation of the matrix as a result of the surrounding precipitates. The positive influence of rapid solidification (corrosion rate decreased 1 order of magnitude) was the creation of a fine, highly homogeneous microstructure through this fabrication process.

Daloz, D.; Michot, G. [Ecole des Mines, Nancy (France). Lab. de Metallurgie Physique et Science des Materiaux; Steinmetz, P. [Faculte des Sciences, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France). Lab. de Chimie du Solide Mineral



Quantitative Studies of Chloride Permeability of Concrete.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies were undertaken to develop a quantitative determination of chloride ion permeability in concrete based upon measuring the chloride ion migration in the concrete. The intent was to modify AASHTO standard method T-277 to measure the amount of chlori...

J. Walsh M. Sock J. Lima S. Quintin J. Fera



BAM R25: Ferric Chloride, 10%  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM R25: Ferric Chloride, 10%. January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. R25 Ferric Chloride, 10%. FeCl 3, 10 g. ... More results from


21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b)...



Nulytely (polyethylene glycol 3350, sodium chloride, sodium ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. Medication Guide NuLYTELY (Noo-lite-ly) (PEG-3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride oral solution) ... More results from


21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in...



Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride  


The present invention provides a method for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

Winston, Steven J. (Idaho Falls, OH); Thomas, Thomas R. (Idaho Falls, OH)



Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride  


A method is described for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel, and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

Winston, S.J.; Thomas, T.R.



Zinc-bromine battery development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes development activities on the zinc-bromine battery system conducted by Energy Research Corporation (ERC). The project was a cost-shared program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and managed through Sandia. The project began in September 1985 and ran through January 1990. The zinc-bromine battery has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional energy storage options for many applications. The low cost of the battery reactants and the potential for long life make the system an attractive candidate for bulk energy storage applications, such as utility load leveling. The battery stores energy by the electrolysis of an aqueous zinc bromide salt to zinc metal and dissolved bromine. Zinc is plated as a layer on the electrode surface while bromine is dissolved in the electrolyte and carried out of the stack. The bromine is then extracted from the electrolyte with an organic complexing agent in the positive electrolyte storage tank. On discharge the zinc and bromine are consumed, regenerating the zinc bromide salt.

Richards, Lew; Vanschalwijk, Walter; Albert, George; Tarjanyi, Mike; Leo, Anthony; Lott, Stephen



Zinc Bells Rang in Jerusalem!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

“Oh, Jerusalem of gold, and of light, and of bronze…” goes the popular song. But it was another metal that towered above the Jerusalem landscape during the meeting of the International Society for Zinc Biology (ISZB;, held at Mishkenot Sha’ananim, a whisper away from the Old City walls. More than 100 scientists gathered on 1 to 5 December 2009 to discuss their research on the biology of this metal. Zinc is a double-edged sword. Zinc supplementation accelerates wound healing and growth and promotes an effective immune response. On the other hand, zinc deficiency leads to growth retardation and impaired learning and memory function, and has been linked to mood disorders. At the cellular level, however, uncontrolled increases in zinc concentrations can lead to neuronal cell death and may be involved in neurodegenerative disorders. Through regulation of various intracellular signaling pathways, zinc can accelerate cell growth and possibly contribute to cancer. However, despite the physiological and clinical importance of this metal, research on the molecular basis of these effects is still in its infancy. The 2009 ISZB meeting provided a venue for investigators working on various zinc-related issues to share their thoughts and ideas and to promote the growth of this field.

Michal Hershfinkel (Ben Gurion University;Department of Morphology REV); Elias Aizenman (University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine;Department of Neurobiology REV); Glen Andrews (University of Kansas Medical Center;Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology REV); Israel Sekler (Ben Gurion University;Department of Physiology REV)



Chloride attack of reinforced concrete: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of chloride-induced corrosion of steel embedded in concrete, the ingress of chlorides into the concrete, and\\u000a the threshold chloride content for corrosion to occur are discussed. The binding of chloride ions by cement compounds and\\u000a the associated effect of using different cements, both Portland and blended, as well as other factors influencing corrosion,\\u000a are considered. Tests for the

Adam Neville



Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride  


Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

Spormann, Alfred M. (Stanford, CA); Muller, Jochen A. (Baltimore, MD); Rosner, Bettina M. (Berlin, DE); Von Abendroth, Gregory (Nannhein, DE); Meshulam-Simon, Galit (Los Altos, CA); McCarty, Perry L (Stanford, CA)



Effects of zinc on interleukins and antioxidant enzyme values in psoriasis-induced mice.  


The effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2), disodium zinc ethylenediamine tetraacetate (Zn-EDTA), and zinc gluconate (Zn-GLU) on the antioxidant enzyme activities and levels of interleukins (ILs) in psoriasis-induced mice were studied. One hundred twenty female mice were randomly divided into six groups with 20 mice in each group: the control, positive control (PC), methotrexate (MTX), ZnCl2, Zn-EDTA, and Zn-GLU groups. All animals except the control group were given diethylstilbestrol for three consecutive days. After successfully inducing psoriasis, the control and PC groups were given normal saline (i.g.) daily while the remaining groups were given MTX, ZnCl2, Zn-EDTA, and Zn-GLU, respectively. The results revealed that the zinc supplementation could significantly (p?zinc forms. After ZnCl2, Zn-EDTA, and Zn-GLU supplementation, the levels of liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) activities increased and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased significantly (p?zinc supplementation group and MTX group were insignificant (p?>?0.05). The zinc treatments also caused a significant (p?zinc as a complementary pharmaceutical intervention for the treatment of topical psoriasis. PMID:24018880

Yin, L L; Zhang, Y; Guo, D M; An, K; Yin, M S; Cui, X



21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13 . 6H2 0, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1)...



The Determination of Chloride in Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of chloride in milk is one of the standard tests used in the diagnosis of mastitis in dairy cows. The methods most commonly used in this country are modifications of Mohr's direct titration method, in which chloride is titrated with a standardized solution of silver nitrate in the pres- ence of potassium chromate indicator. Direct titratable chloride values

George P. Sanders



21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 184.1193 Section 184.1193 ...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Calcium chloride (CaCl2 ·2H2 O, CAS Reg. No....



Some properties of crystals of silver chloride containing traces of copper chlorides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of properties of crystals of silver chloride containing traces of copper chlorides have been investigated with the microscope. It has been found that the dislocations remaining after annealing in crystals which contained originally 0.1 mol % of cupric chloride are decorated by the separation of a second phase during cooling. Crystals containing cuprous chloride have a high photosensitivity

A. S. Parasnis; J. W. Mitchell; H. H. Wills



Effect of Supplementation with Zinc and Other Micronutrients on Malaria in Tanzanian Children: A Randomised Trial  

PubMed Central

Background It is uncertain to what extent oral supplementation with zinc can reduce episodes of malaria in endemic areas. Protection may depend on other nutrients. We measured the effect of supplementation with zinc and other nutrients on malaria rates. Methods and Findings In a 22 factorial trial, 612 rural Tanzanian children aged 660 months in an area with intense malaria transmission and with height-for-age z-score??1.5 SD were randomized to receive daily oral supplementation with either zinc alone (10 mg), multi-nutrients without zinc, multi-nutrients with zinc, or placebo. Intervention group was indicated by colour code, but neither participants, researchers, nor field staff knew who received what intervention. Those with Plasmodium infection at baseline were treated with artemether-lumefantrine. The primary outcome, an episode of malaria, was assessed among children reported sick at a primary care clinic, and pre-defined as current Plasmodium infection with an inflammatory response, shown by axillary temperature ?37.5C or whole blood C-reactive protein concentration ?8 mg/L. Nutritional indicators were assessed at baseline and at 251 days (median; 95% reference range: 191296 days). In the primary intention-to-treat analysis, we adjusted for pre-specified baseline factors, using Cox regression models that accounted for multiple episodes per child. 592 children completed the study. The primary analysis included 1,572 malaria episodes during 526 child-years of observation (median follow-up: 331 days). Malaria incidence in groups receiving zinc, multi-nutrients without zinc, multi-nutrients with zinc and placebo was 2.89/child-year, 2.95/child-year, 3.26/child-year, and 2.87/child-year, respectively. There was no evidence that multi-nutrients influenced the effect of zinc (or vice versa). Neither zinc nor multi-nutrients influenced malaria rates (marginal analysis; adjusted HR, 95% CI: 1.04, 0.931.18 and 1.10, 0.971.24 respectively). The prevalence of zinc deficiency (plasma zinc concentration <9.9 mol/L) was high at baseline (67% overall; 60% in those without inflammation) and strongly reduced by zinc supplementation. Conclusions We found no evidence from this trial that zinc supplementation protected against malaria. Trial Registration NCT00623857 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

Veenemans, Jacobien; Milligan, Paul; Prentice, Andrew M.; Schouten, Laura R. A.; Inja, Nienke; van der Heijden, Aafke C.; de Boer, Linsey C. C.; Jansen, Esther J. S.; Koopmans, Anna E.; Enthoven, Wendy T. M.; Kraaijenhagen, Rob J.; Demir, Ayse Y.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Mbugi, Erasto V.; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Verhoef, Hans



Investigation of Zinc Electrodes Relevant to Zinc-Air Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The particulate electrode (fluidized bed electrode or moving bed electrode) has been studied to evaluate its possible application to energy storage. The first part of this study is concerned with the effect of current fluctuation on the morphology of zinc...

H. S. Choi



Electrolytic production of neodymium metal from a molten chloride electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted experiments on electrowinning of neodymium metal by using a molten-metal cathode at 650{degrees} C and an electrolyte of 50 mol pet NdCl, (neodymium chloride) and 50 mol pet KCl (potassium chloride). The molten-metal cathodes were alloys of magnesium and zinc or magnesium and cadmium. Current efficiencies were 90 pct with a Mg-Zn cathode and 80 pct with a Mg-Cd cathode. The Mg-Cd cathode was easily separated from the electrolyte. In contrast, the Mg-Zn cathode tended to mix with the electrolyte, making separation difficult. The cathode metals were separated from the neodymium by distillation at 1,100{degrees} C under a vacuum of 10{sup {minus}4} torr. Neodymium metal of 99.9 + purity was recovered from the Mg-Cd alloy cathode after 30 min distillation time. The neodymium recovered from the Mg-Zn system contained almost 2 pct Zn after vacuum distillation. Continuous operation using the Mg-Cd alloy cathode was demonstrated.

Chambers, M.F.; Murphy, J.E.



Importance of the structural zinc atom for the stability of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase.  

PubMed Central

Yeast alcohol dehydrogenase is a tetrameric enzyme containing zinc. Initially we confirmed the presence of two zinc atoms per subunit. Incubation of the enzyme with increasing concentrations of dithiothreitol, a method for partial chelation, allowed first the reduction of four disulphide bridges per enzyme, but eventually was sufficient to chelate the structural zinc atom without having any effect on the zinc located in the active site. The enzyme activity was not affected but the enzyme became very sensitive to heat denaturation. Chelation by EDTA was also performed. Given its location at an external position in the globular protein, protected in each subunit by one disulphide bridge, the results establish that the second zinc atom present on each enzymic subunit plays a prominent conformational role, probably by stabilizing the tertiary structure of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase. Recovery experiments were performed by incubation of the native enzyme, or the dithiothreitol-treated enzyme, with a small amount of Zn2+. A stabilization effect was found when the structural zinc was re-incorporated after its removal by dithiothreitol. In all cases a large increase in activity was also observed, which was much greater than that expected based on the amount of re-incorporated zinc atom, suggesting the re-activation of some inactive commercial enzyme which had lost some of its original catalytic zinc atoms.

Magonet, E; Hayen, P; Delforge, D; Delaive, E; Remacle, J



Zinc phosphide-zinc oxide heterojunction solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc phosphide-zinc oxide heterojunction solar cells have been prepared by sputter-depositing ZnO onto a Zn3P2 substrate. An active-area conversion efficiency of 2% has been obtained. In the absence of shunts and by reducing the series resistance of the device, an efficiency of 5% is achievable. The experimental results are discussed in terms of an interface recombination model. It is indicated

P. S. Nayar; A. Catalano



Zinc-rich epoxy primers based on lamellar zinc dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions1. Lamellar zinc primers showed an apparent reduction in the effective pigment volume concentration; the levels from 50 to\\u000a 55% were the best and they are estimated to be near the corresponding critical pigment volume concentration which is significantly\\u000a lower than that for spherical zinc primers which was approximately 66%.\\u000a \\u000a 2. Taking into account both corrosion and blistering resistance, the

C Gidice; J C Benftez; M M Linares



Zinc electrodeposition and dendritic growth from zinc-halide electrolytes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Roughness evolution and dendritic growth restrict the thickness of electroplated zinc during the charge of zinc/halogen batteries and thereby impose operating and economic limitations on their application. Although technologically important, there has so far been little fundamental understanding of dendritic growth and, in the absence of an adequate theory, the phenomenon has been treated mostly empirically. A systematic theoretical and experimental study quantitatively characterizing roughness and dendrite evolution on zinc electrodes is reported here. Comprehensive models were theoretically derived accounting for the initiation and for the propagation rates of dendrites in terms of system parameters including the current, applied potential, reaction kinetics, surface energy, macroscopic and microscopic geometry and convective flow. Morphological stability criteria were applied to define conditions under which electrodes are expected to remain smooth. The macroscopic current and potential distribution in flow cells were calculated and then coupled with analytical models for dendritic growth to provide the growth history and distribution of roughness elements along extended electrodes. Experimental studies of roughness evolution in electrodeposition under well-defined conditions were performed together with kinetic and transport measurements. Careful experimental measurementsand a theoretical study of the impedance of electrodes undergoing electrodeposition were conducted also. Good agreement was observed between the experimental dendritic growth measurements and theoretical predictions.

Landau, U.; Cahan, B.D.; Selman, J.R.



? NMR in zinc metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-precision observation of NMR in zinc metal at 295 K is reported. The 0953-8984/8/50/051/img2 nuclear quadrupole coupling 0953-8984/8/50/051/img3 and isotropic and axial components of the Knight shift (0953-8984/8/50/051/img4 and 0953-8984/8/50/051/img5) have been determined, as well as the temperature variation of 0953-8984/8/50/051/img6 and 0953-8984/8/50/051/img4 in a 283 K range around 295 K. The large positive value for the temperature coefficient of 0953-8984/8/50/051/img4 is comparable to that of cadmium, and a similar explanation appears likely. At 295 K the following values are obtained: 0953-8984/8/50/051/img9 MHz, 0953-8984/8/50/051/img10 and 0953-8984/8/50/051/img11.

Bastow, T. J.



Comparison of inactivation and unfolding of green crab ( Scylla serrata ) alkaline phosphatase during denaturation by guanidinium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green crab (Scylla serrata) alkaline phosphatase (EC is a metalloenzyme, each active site in which contains a tight cluster of two zinc ions and one magnesium ion. Unfolding and inactivation of the enzyme during denaturation in guanidinium chloride (GuHCl) solutions of different concentrations have been compared. The kinetic theory of the substrate reaction during irreversible inhibition of enzyme activity

Qing-Xi Chen; Wei Zhang; Wen-Zu Zheng; Zhe Zhang; Si-Xu Yan; Tong Zhang; Hai-Meng Zholl



Effects of annealing on properties of ZnO thin films prepared by electrochemical deposition in chloride medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of cost-effective and low-temperature synthesis techniques for the growth of high-quality zinc oxide thin films is paramount for fabrication of ZnO-based optoelectronic devices, especially ultraviolet (UV)-light-emitting diodes, lasers and detectors. We demonstrate that the properties, especially UV emission, observed at room temperature, of electrodeposited ZnO thin films from chloride medium (at 70C) on fluor-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates

O. Lupan; T. Pauport; L. Chow; B. Viana; F. Pell; L. K. Ono; B. Roldan Cuenya; H. Heinrich



An XAFS Study of Tantalum Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride/ aluminum Chloride  

SciTech Connect

Tantalum chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs). Anhydrous Ta2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic solution than in the acidic solution and the X-ray absorption data shows that the coordination shell of chlorides around the tantalum is larger in the basic solution. In the acidic solution, tantalum has five chlorides in its coordination shell while in the basic solution; the tantalum is coordinated by seven chlorides. This indicates that the Lewis acidity of the tantalum chloride causes the Ta to coordinate differently in the acidic and the basic solutions.

D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady



Design, synthesis and characterization of zinc-3 hydroxy flavone, a novel zinc metallo complex for the treatment of experimental diabetes in rats.  


Zinc is essential in the physiology of insulin and has prominent roles in the structural and functional aspects of insulin. Most of the zinc complexes so far tested for their antidiabetic potential exerts significant toxicity. Hence, the development of zinc complexes with various ligands in order to reduce the toxicity of zinc continues. In the present study, an attempt has been made to synthesize zinc-3-hydroxy flavone (Zn-flavonol) complex and it was subjected to spectral characterization. The UV-visible, IR, fluorescence, mass and NMR spectral studies provide information that complexation involves the binding of zinc ion with ? hydroxyl keto group of the 3-hydroxy flavone (flavonol). Acute toxicity and dosage fixation studies revealed that the Zn-flavonol complex is non toxic and oral administration of the complex at a concentration of 5mg/kg b.w./rat/day for 30days to streptozotocin induced diabetic rats showed significant reduction in blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), urea, uric acid and creatinine with concomitant improvement in plasma insulin and C-peptide levels. Further, the oral glucose tolerance test performed in experimental rats indicated that the Zn-flavonol complex has significant antihyperglycemic activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Also, the reduced activities of serum AST, ALT and ALP in the diabetic rats treated with the complex revealed the non-toxic nature of the zinc-flavonol complex. The antidiabetic activity of the complex was comparable with gliclazide, a standard antidiabetic drug. PMID:22327044

Vijayaraghavan, Kalavakunda; Iyyam Pillai, Subramanian; Subramanian, Sorimuthu Pillai



Electropolymerization of pyrrole on zincleadsilver alloys electrodes in acidic and neutral organic media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electropolymerization of pyrrole on zincleadsilver (ZnPbAg) alloys was carried out in acetonitrile, nitrobenzene and propylene carbonate (PC) organic media in the presence of para-toluene sulfonate counter ions. Adherent and homogeneous PPy films have been obtained on zinc alloy electrodes (65% Zn, 10% Pb and 25% Ag) prealably treated with aqueous sodium sulfide solution. Among the electrochemical techniques used in these

M Bazzaoui; E. A Bazzaoui; L Martins; J. I Martins



Sol-gel preparation and phosphorescence property of Mn 2+ -doped zinc borosilicate glass thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mn2+-doped zinc borosilicate (ZBSM) glass thin films were first synthesized by sol-gel method. In the experiment, a thin gel film\\u000a was deposited onto quartz glass substrates by dip-coating method and then heat-treated to form a Mn2+-doped zinc borosilicate glass thin film. Long lasting phosphorescence (LLP) and photo-stimulated long lasting phosphorescence\\u000a (PSLLP) were found in the film sample. According to fluorescence

Fengfeng Li; Mingxi Zhang; Guiqin Hou; Yi Shen; Zhigang Liu; Hongsheng Li



Effect of Zinc and Zinc Borate on Fire Properties of Modified Polyphenylene Oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified polyphenylene oxide resin (m-PPO) (virgin) and m-PPO flame retarded with triaryl phosphate (FR m-PPO) were blended with zinc borate, zinc, and zinc\\/zinc borate. Both virgin and FR m-PPO containing zinc borate showed a marked reduction in smoke production (flaming and non- flaming-NBS Smoke Chamber). In FR m-PPO a reduction in oxygen index values was seen for zinc borate, except

R. Benrashid; G. L. Nelson; Donald J. Ferm



Ion exchange in a zeolite-molten chloride system  

SciTech Connect

Electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel results in a secondary waste stream of radioactive fission products dissolved in chloride salt. Disposal plans include a waste form that can incorporate chloride forms featuring one or more zeolites consolidated with sintered glass. A candidate method for incorporating fission products in the zeolites is passing the contaminated salt over a zeolite column for ion exchange. To date, the molten chloride ion-exchange properties of four zeolites have been investigated for this process: zeolite A, IE95{reg_sign}, clinoptilolite, and mordenite. Of these, zeolite A has been the most promising. Treating zeolite 4A, the sodium form of zeolite A , with the solvent salt for the waste stream-lithium-potassium chloride of eutectic melting composition, is expected to provide a material with favorable ion-exchange properties for the treatment of the waste salt. The authors constructed a pilot-plant system for the ion-exchange column. Initial results indicate that there is a direct relationship between the two operating variable of interest, temperature, and initial sodium concentration. Also, the mass ratio has been about 3--5 to bring the sodium concentration of the effluent below 1 mol%.

Woodman, R.H.; Pereira, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.



Reaction mechanism for the ferric chloride leaching of sphalerite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reaction mechanisms for the ferric chloride leaching of sphalerite are proposed based on data obtained in leaching and dual cell experiments presented in this work and in a previous study. The results from the leaching experiments show that at low concentrations the rate is proportional to [Fe3+]T 0.5 and [Cl-]T 0.43 but at higher concentrations the reaction order with respect to both [Fe3+]T and [Cl-]T decreases. Using dual cell experiments which allow the half cell reactions to be separated, increased rates are observed when NaCl is added to the anolyte and to the catholyte. The increase in rate is attributed to a direct, anodic electrochemical reaction of Cl- with the mineral. When NaCl is added only to the catholyte, a decrease in the rate is observed due to a decrease in the E 0 of the cathode which is attributed to the formation of ferric-chloro complexes. Several possible electrochemical mechanisms and mathematical models based on the Butler-Volmer relation are delineated, and of these, one model is selected which accounts for the experimentally observed changes in reaction order for both Fe3+ and Cl-. This analysis incorporates a charge transfer process for each ion and an adsorption step for ferric and chloride ions. The inhibiting effect of Fe2+ noted by previous investigators is also accounted for through a similar model which includes back reaction kinetics for Fe2+. The proposed models successfully provide a theoretical basis for describing the role of Cl-, Fe3+, and Fe2+ as well as their interrelationship in zinc sulfide leaching reactions. Possible applications of these results to chloride leaching systems involving other sulfides or complex sulfides are considered.

Warren, G. W.; Henein, H.; Jin, Zuo-Mei



Zinc complexes of the carbahemiporphyrazines.  


Zinc can be inserted into the carbahemiporphyrazines by use of the organometallic reagent diethylzinc; in the case of benziphthalocyanine, concomitant alkylation of an alpha-carbon position and metalation occurs. PMID:20148207

Bonner, Emily S; Engle, James T; Sripothongak, Saovalak; Ziegler, Christopher J



A zinc oxide microwire laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report stimulated emission from a zinc oxide (ZnO) microcrystal grown by carbothermal evaporation observed by spatially resolved photoluminescence (PL) and high excitation spectroscopy (HES).

C. Czekalla; J. Lenzner; A. Rahm; T. Nobis; M. Grundmann



A zinc oxide microwire laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report stimulated emission from a zinc oxide (ZnO) microcrystal grown by carbothermal evaporation observed by spatially resolved photoluminescence (PL) and high excitation spectroscopy (HES).

Czekalla, C.; Lenzner, J.; Rahm, A.; Nobis, T.; Grundmann, M.



Depleted zinc: Properties, application, production.  


The addition of ZnO, depleted in the Zn-64 isotope, to the water of boiling water nuclear reactors lessens the accumulation of Co-60 on the reactor interior surfaces, reduces radioactive wastes and increases the reactor service-life because of the inhibitory action of zinc on inter-granular stress corrosion cracking. To the same effect depleted zinc in the form of acetate dihydrate is used in pressurized water reactors. Gas centrifuge isotope separation method is applied for production of depleted zinc on the industrial scale. More than 20 years of depleted zinc application history demonstrates its benefits for reduction of NPP personnel radiation exposure and combating construction materials corrosion. PMID:19318263

Borisevich, V D; Pavlov, A V; Okhotina, I A



Marine Biogeochemistry of Zinc Isotopes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Zinc (Zn) stable isotopes can record information about important oceanographic processes. This thesis presents data on Zn isotopes in anthropogenic materials, hydrothermal fluids and minerals, cultured marine phytoplankton, natural plankton, and seawater....

S. G. John



Zinc: Mineral Commodity Profiles 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Bureau of Mines report presents comprehensive data on zinc including strategic considerations, problems, technology trends and developments, reserves-resources, supply-demand relationships, economic factors and problems, and operating factors and pro...

J. H. Jolly



Zinc\\/bromine battery development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and testing of 20-40 kWh zinc\\/bromine battery systems for electric vehicles and load-leveling applications are discussed. Cycling for a 20-kWh electric vehicle battery (Z20-low profile), including capacity tests, power tests, and standing self-discharge tests, is reported. A load management test facility is described, and assembly and testing of a 20-kWh load-leveling module is discussed. A zinc\\/bromine battery system

J. P. Zagrodnik; M. D. Eskra



Zinc-bromine battery development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes development activities on the zinc-bromine battery system conducted by Energy Research Corporation (ERC). The project was a cost-shared program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and managed through Sandia. The project began in September 1985 and ran through January 1990. The zinc-bromine battery has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional energy storage options for

Lew Richards; Walter Vanschalwijk; George Albert; Mike Tarjanyi; Anthony Leo; Stephen Lott



Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a\\u000a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase.\\u000a The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard

Raffaele De Nicola; Graeme Walker



Volatility of heavy metals during incineration of tannery sludge in the presence of chlorides and phosphoric acid.  


Knowledge of the behaviour of heavy metals in the combustion process is a most important factor in selecting disposal alternatives for waste materials. Accordingly, in this work, the vaporization behaviour of highly concentrated heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr) in tannery sludge were investigated experimentally. The sludge was spiked with various chlorine compounds (i.e. PVC, FeCl3, CaCl2 and NaCl) and pre-treated with phosphoric acid in order to evaluate the capacity of enhancement and weakening of the volatility of the heavy metals contained in tannery sludge. The experimental results show that the vaporization percentages increased with increasing ratio of Cl/sludge and temperature, and the accelerating and increasing effect of the addition of chlorides on the vaporization percentage of heavy metals was dependent on the release capacity of chlorine radicals. The vaporization percentages of lead and zinc increased by 15-20%, whereas those of copper and chromium increased by only about 3 and 10% at 800 degrees C. However, heavy metals were not expected to be completely released in the combustion process in spite of the high ratio of Cl/sludge. Alternately, heavy metals contained in tannery sludge can be immobilized effectively by pre-treatment with phosphoric acid. When the 85% phosphoric acid accounted for 10% of dry basis of tannery sludge, the phosphate-treated sludge showed the lowest vaporization percentage of about 3-15% with formation of Ca18Cu3(PO4)14, Ca9Cr(PO4)7, Ca19Zn2(PO4)14 and PbMgP2O7 in the bottom ash. PMID:18727329

Tang, P; Zhao, Y C; Chen, D Z; Xia, F Y



Nutritional zinc increases platelet reactivity.  


After ingestion of 220 mg zinc sulfate, platelet aggregation was evaluated at various time intervals (i.e., T = 0, 1, and 3 hr) and the autologous plasma analyzed by atomic absorption analysis. The zinc levels increased maximally some 0.4 +/- 0.2 microgram/ml within 3 hr after ingestion, which for the entire blood pool corresponds to only 5% of the ingested zinc. Aggregation responses of platelet rich plasma (PRP), instigated with suboptimal levels of thrombin (less than 0.2 U/ml), ADP (less than 2 microM), epinephrine (less than 2 microM), collagen (less than 2 micrograms/ml), or PAF (less than 50 ng/ml), show significant improvement to at least one aggregant. Mean +/- SEM values for delta % aggregation increase are as follows: thrombin, 51 +/- 10%; epinephrine, 21 +/- 6%; ADP, 31 +/- 6%; collagen 23 +/- 6%; and platelet aggregating factor (PAF), 56 +/- 6%. For controls, the platelets from one individual with Glanzmann thrombasthenia as well as four undosed volunteers exhibited no significant changes in platelet responsiveness. Increased platelet responsiveness to agonists after zinc sulfate ingestion was observed in PRP from blood collected in either citrate or heparin. We demonstrate that within a relatively short time period, single bolus of nutritional zinc intake can significantly increase platelet reactivity. These findings show that nutritional zinc availability is relevant to hemostasis and may pertain to the viability of platelet concentrates in blood banks. PMID:1951315

Marx, G; Krugliak, J; Shaklai, M



Treating Meningitis  


... ways to treat bacterial meningitis. 1 They compared steroids (dexamethasone) with placebo. The doctors gave medication (or ... al. compared antibiotics by themselves with antibiotics plus steroids. Dr. Fritz and colleagues compared the mortality (deaths) ...


Suicidal poisoning with barium chloride.  


A 49-year-old male pharmacist suffering from depression phoned the emergency services telling of how he had ingested barium chloride. He was found semicomatose in bed and resuscitation attempts were to no avail and he died at the scene. A white plastic container labelled "Barium chloride... Poison", and a book with a writing on a blank page... "give sulphate... SO(4)" were found. At autopsy, 1l of whitish-yellow fluid was found in the stomach. Autopsy barium levels were: blood 9.9mg/l; bile 8.8mg/l; urine 6.3mg/l; gastric 10.0g/l. Cause of death was given as cardiorespiratory arrest due to barium chloride poisoning. The issue of barium toxicity in a variety of itatrogenic and non itatrogenic situation is discussed together with the two only other cases of suicidal barium ingestion, and the feasibility of early intervention at the scene by an emergency team. PMID:11376995

Jourdan, S; Bertoni, M; Sergio, P; Michele, P; Rossi, M



Imaging Zinc: Old and New Tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As recently as 20 years ago, all zinc in biological systems was believed to be tightly bound to proteins, and the idea of imaging zinc was considered heretical. Beginning with Maske's research with dithizonate staining of the hippocampus in the 1950s, however, zinc-sensitive dyes have indicated that, in mammalian cells, free zinc can exist in at least three separate pools. These pools include vesicular zinc sequestered in presynaptic vesicles and secretory granules, zinc released from these vesicles into the extracellular space after physiological stimulation, and transient increases in zinc in cells in the regions where extracellular release of zinc has occurred. This Perspective covers the zinc-imaging tools, from dithizonate to the newest FRET-based sensors, that have galvanized biomedical science.

Christopher Frederickson (University of Texas Medical Branch;NeuroBioTex Inc and Departments of Anatomy and Neuroscience Biomedical Engineering and Preventive Medicine and Community Health REV)



Zinc in innate and adaptive tumor immunity  

PubMed Central

Zinc is important. It is the second most abundant trace metal with 2-4 grams in humans. It is an essential trace element, critical for cell growth, development and differentiation, DNA synthesis, RNA transcription, cell division, and cell activation. Zinc deficiency has adverse consequences during embryogenesis and early childhood development, particularly on immune functioning. It is essential in members of all enzyme classes, including over 300 signaling molecules and transcription factors. Free zinc in immune and tumor cells is regulated by 14 distinct zinc importers (ZIP) and transporters (ZNT1-8). Zinc depletion induces cell death via apoptosis (or necrosis if apoptotic pathways are blocked) while sufficient zinc levels allows maintenance of autophagy. Cancer cells have upregulated zinc importers, and frequently increased zinc levels, which allow them to survive. Based on this novel synthesis, approaches which locally regulate zinc levels to promote survival of immune cells and/or induce tumor apoptosis are in order.



Effects of cadmium, copper, and zinc on ?APP processing and turnover in COS7 and PC12 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cadmium, copper, and zinc on ?APP metabolism were investigated in COS-7 and PC12 cells. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) increased ?APP steady-state protein levels and decreased ?APP posttranslational processing. These changes were not accompanied\\u000a by alterations in ?APP mRNA levels or splicing. In addition, cytosolic ?-actin and G3PDH levels were not affected. Further,\\u000a neither zinc (ZnCl2) nor copper (CuSO4)

Marilyn Smedman; Anna Potempska; Richard Rubenstein; Weina Ju; Narayan Ramakrishna; Robert B. Denman



Zinc signals in neutrophil granulocytes are required for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps.  


Zinc signals, i.e. changes in the free intracellular Zn(2+)concentration, are an integral component of signal transduction in several immune cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate if this is also the case in neutrophil granulocytes. One neutrophil function is NETosis, the release of a matrix composed of DNA, chromatin and granule proteins to capture extracellular bacteria within so-called neutrophil extracellular traps (NET). NETosis can be induced by the protein kinase C (PKC) activator 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). PMA treatment led to a zinc signal in neutrophil granulocytes. NETosis was inhibited when the zinc signal was sequestered by the membrane permeable high affinity chelator N,N,N',N',-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN). PKC-mediated NET formation depends on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase with diphenyleneiodonium chloride blocked ROS formation and NETosis, as well as the zinc signal. TPEN, however, had no effect on PKC activity and ROS production, indicating that Zn(2+) is not required for activation of PKC, but for signals downstream of ROS production. In conclusion, zinc signals are an essential component of the ROS-dependent signal transduction leading to NETosis. PMID:23008348

Hasan, Rafah; Rink, Lothar; Haase, Hajo



[Zinc and nociception: a pharmacological approach].  


In the last decade, neurophysiological research regarding nociceptive mediation seems to suggest a possible new approach in pain management--zinc applicability. Immunohistochemical studies prove that zinc can be found in central nervous system, inside structures active in nociception. Zinc stabilizes primary afferent C fibers, nervous fibers involved in nociception. However, this phenomenon is probably only true for extreme zinc concentrations--excess or deficit. Electrophysiological studies indicate that zinc inhibits NMDA receptors, while potentiating the activity of non-NMDA receptors. All these are arguments supporting the existence of a role of endogenous zinc regarding pain transmission. PMID:12635353

Mungiu, Q C; Ionescu, Dun?rea Georgeta; Jaba, Irina Maria


Zinc status in human immunodeficiency virus infection  

SciTech Connect

Plasma zinc and copper concentrations, erythrocyte zinc concentration, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity and urinary zinc concentrations were determined for control subjects and individuals with AIDS, ARC, or asymptomatic HIV infection. Significant differences among the population groups were not noted for the above parameters with the exception of plasma copper which was higher in the AIDS group than in other patient groups. These results do not support the idea that zinc deficiency is a common contributory factor of HIV infectivity or clinical expression, nor that HIV infection induces a zinc deficiency.

Walter, R.M. Jr.; Oster, M.H.; Lee, T.J.; Flynn, N.; Keen, C.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))



Neutron diffraction study of aluminum chloride imidazolium chloride molten salts  

SciTech Connect

The structure of molten mixtures of (AlCl{sub 3}){sub x}(1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride){sub 1-x} was investigated by neutron diffraction techniques for x=0.46, 0.50, 0.60 and 0.67. Results derived from earlier ab initio molecular orbital (6-31G* basis set) computations for AlCl{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, Al{sub 2}Cl{sub 7}{sup {minus}}, and EMI{sup +} were used to calculate the diffraction patterns; the calculated contributions of each species are thus obtained and overall results are in good agreement with measurements.

Takahashi, S. [Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Saboungi, M.L.; Suzuya, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Koura, N. [Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology



Inhibition of intestinal chloride secretion by proanthocyanidins from Guazuma ulmifolia.  


The antisecretory activity of Guazuma ulmifolia bark was examined in rabbit distal colon mounted in an Ussing chamber. Chloride secretion was stimulated by cholera toxin and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Guazuma ulmifolia extract (GUE) completely inhibited cholera toxin-induced secretion if the extract was added to the mucosal bath prior to the toxin. Adding the extract after administration of the toxin had no effect on secretion. GUE did not inhibit PGE2-induced chloride secretion. These results indicate an indirect antisecretory mechanism. SDS-PAGE analysis of cholera toxin treated with GUE confirmed this presumption. GUE specifically interacted with the A subunit of the toxin. Preliminary phytochemical examinations showed that the most active fraction contains procyanidins with a degree of polymerisation higher than 8. PMID:7617760

Hr, M; Rimpler, H; Heinrich, M



Acute toxicity of cyanogen chloride to Daphnia magna  

SciTech Connect

The destruction of cyanide in waste waters by chlorination has been shown to result in the formation of the extremely toxic compound, cyanogen chloride. Industrial cyanide-containing waste waters may be treated by a batch chlorination process under highly alkaline conditions prior to being discharged into a receiving water systems. Alternatively, if the concentration of cyanide is relatively low, and such waste waters may be diverted to municipal waste treatment facilities where they may be subjected to a process of chlorination which may not be sufficient for the complete oxidative destruction of the available cyanide. Although a large body of literature exists concerning the toxicity of HCN and metallic cyanide compounds to aquatic organisms, there is a comparative scarcity of information concerning cyanogen chloride toxicity. This study was designed to determine the acute toxicity of CNCl to Daphnia magna neonates under static bioassay conditions.

Kononen, D.W.



History of Zinc in Agriculture12  

PubMed Central

Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, >20 y would pass before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it was reported that zinc deficiency induced poor growth, leg abnormalities, poor feathering, and parakeratosis in chicks. In the 1960s, zinc supplementation was found to alleviate parakeratosis in grazing cattle and sheep. Within 35 y, it was established that nearly one half of the soils in the world may be zinc deficient, causing decreased plant zinc content and production that can be prevented by zinc fertilization. In many of these areas, zinc deficiency is prevented in grazing livestock by zinc fertilization of pastures or by providing salt licks. For livestock under more defined conditions, such as poultry, swine, and dairy and finishing cattle, feeds are easily supplemented with zinc salts to prevent deficiency. Today, the causes and consequences of zinc deficiency and methods and effects of overcoming the deficiency are well established for agriculture. The history of zinc in agriculture is an outstanding demonstration of the translation of research into practical application.

Nielsen, Forrest H.



Preparation of ionic membranes for zinc\\/bromine storage batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc\\/bromine flow batteries are being developed for vehicular and utility load leveling applications. During charge, an aqueous zinc bromide salt is electrolyzed to zinc metal and molecular bromine. During discharge, the zinc and bromine react to again form the zinc bromide salt. One serious disadvantage of the microporous separators presently used in the zinc\\/bromine battery is that modest amounts of

R. A. Assink; C. Arnold Jr.



Electronic Structure of Zinc Oxide and Related Crystals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this investigati on is the elucidation of the electronic energy band structure of zinc oxide and related wurtzite-type crystals, including alloys of zinc oxide and zinc sulfide; zinc sulfide; zinc selenide; and zinc telluride. The principal fea...

F. Herman



Hepatoprotective Effect of Manganese Chloride Against CCl4-Induced Liver Injury in Rats.  


The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of manganese chloride against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in rats. Manganese chloride (0.001, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1g/kg bw) was administered intragastrically for 28 consecutive days to male CCl4-treated rats. The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Histopathological changes in the liver of different groups were also studied. Administration of CCl4 increased the serum ALT, AST, ALP and GGT but decreased SOD levels in rats. Treatment with manganese chloride significantly attenuated these changes to nearly normal levels. The animals treated with manganese chloride have shown decreased necrotic zones and hepatocellular degeneration when compared to the liver exposed to CCl4 intoxication alone. Thus, the histopathalogical studies also supported the protective effect of manganese chloride. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that manganese chloride exerts hepatoprotection via promoting antioxidative properties against CCl4-induced oxidative liver damage. PMID:24037643

Eidi, Akram; Mortazavi, Pejman; Behzadi, Khodabakhsh; Rohani, Ali Haeri; Safi, Shahabeddin



An XAFS Study of Niobium chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride  

SciTech Connect

Niobium chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Although anhydrous Nb2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic melt than in the acidic melt, the EXAFS data shows that the coordination shell around the niobium does not change in the different ionic liquids. Both the acidic and basic melts show a coordination of five chlorides in the first shell. This indicates that in this series of ionic liquids, the Nb2Cl10 breaks up into two NbCl5 entities in both the acidic and the basic melts.

D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady



Zinc protection against aluminium induced altered lipid profile and membrane integrity.  


The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Zinc (Zn) supplementation on lipid profile and fluidity of cerebrum and cerebellum membranes of rats treated with aluminium (Al). Sprague dawley male rats were divided into four different treatment groups viz: Control, aluminium treated, zinc treated and aluminium+zinc treated. Aluminium (AlCl3) was administered orally at a dose of 100mg/kgb.wt./day (dissolved in drinking water). Zinc as zinc sulphate was supplemented to rats at a dose of 227mg/l in drinking water. A significant decrease in the levels of total lipids, glycolipids, phospholipids, cholesterol and gangliosides contents were observed in both the cerebrum and cerebellum following Al exposure, which were found to be significantly increased following Zn supplementation. On the contrary, Al treatment caused a significant increase in the formation of conjugated dienes, which were observed to be reduced on Zn co-treatment. Further, Al treatment significantly elevated the fluorescence polarization, anisotropy and order parameter, which however were normalized upon Zn co-administration. Hence, the present study depicts the potential of Zn in moderating the changes caused by Al on membrane composition and fluidity in rat brain. PMID:23313339

Singla, Neha; Dhawan, D K



Responses of Siberian ferrets to secondary zinc phosphide poisoning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hazard of operational-type applications of zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) on a species closely related to the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), was evaluated by feeding 16 Siberian ferrets (M. eversmanni) rats that had been killed by consumption of 2% zinc phosphide treated bait or by an oral dose of 40, 80, or 160 mg of Zn3P2. All ferrets accepted rats and a single emesis by each of 3 ferrets was the only evidence of acute intoxication. All ferrets learned to avoid eating gastrointestinal tracts of the rats. Subacute zinc phosphide toxicity in the ferrets was indicated by significant decreases (18-48%) in hemoglobin, increases of 35-91 % in serum iron, and elevated levels of serum globulin, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Hemoglobin/iron, urea nitrogen/creatinine, and albumin/globulin ratios also were altered by the treatments. This study demonstrated that Siberian ferrets, or other species with a sensitive emetic reflex, are afforded a degree of protection from acute zinc phosphide poisoning due to its emetic action. The importance of toxicity associated with possible respiratory, liver, and kidney damage indicated by altered blood chemistries is not known.

Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.



Hepatic and pulmonary carcinogenicity of methylene chloride in mice: a search for mechanisms.  


An inhalation study utilizing over 1400 female B6C3F1 mice was undertaken to study mechanistic factors associated with liver and lung tumor induction following exposure to 2000 ppm of methylene chloride. Mice were exposed to methylene chloride (treated) or chamber air (controls) 6 h per day, for varying durations up to 104 weeks. Several interim sacrifices and 'stop exposures' were included. Exposure to 2000 ppm methylene chloride caused an increase in liver and lung neoplasia in the absence of overt cytotoxicity. Measurement of replicative DNA synthesis done after 13, 26, 52 and 78 weeks of exposure showed a significant decrease in the hepatocyte labeling index at 13 weeks. Replicative DNA synthesis in pulmonary airways after 1, 2, 3, 4, 13 and 26 weeks of exposure to methylene chloride was significantly lower than in air-exposed controls. Likewise, the increase in tumor induction in treated mice was not associated with increased replicative DNA synthesis in liver foci or in alveolar parenchyma. The frequency and pattern of H-ras gene activation were similar in control and methylene chloride-induced liver neoplasms. Similarly, the frequency and pattern of K-ras activation in lung neoplasms were not altered by exposure to methylene chloride. Early exposure to methylene chloride for only 26 weeks was sufficient to cause an increase in lung tumors by 2 years, suggesting that methylene chloride may cause early and persistent loss of growth control in lung cells. This implies that risk management strategies should be aimed at minimizing or eliminating exposure to methylene chloride. Liver neoplasms continued to increase in incidence and multiplicity as exposure continued, suggesting that methylene chloride-induced hepatocarcinogenesis is facilitated by continuing exposure to methylene chloride. Since methylene chloride is a more potent inducer of lung than liver neoplasia, it is recommended that health risk assessment be based on the lung data. While no novel molecular lesions have been found to explain the induction of lung and liver neoplasia in mice, ongoing studies may identify other molecular changes that are important in the genesis of these neoplasms. Hence, it may be necessary to revise risk assessment and management strategies in light of future research findings. PMID:7482563

Maronpot, R R; Devereux, T R; Hegi, M; Foley, J F; Kanno, J; Wiseman, R; Anderson, M W



Zinc levels after intravenous administration of zinc sulphate in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Diabetic patients commonly have increased urinary excretion of zinc, although blood concentrations may be normal, lowered, or raised. We analyzed zinc levels in plasma and urine after an intravenous overload of zinc sulphate (8 mg) in 22 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and 22 healthy individuals. No significant differences were found in basal levels of serum zinc in

A. Maldonado Martn; B. Gil Extremera; M. Fernfindez Soto; M. Ruiz Martnez; A. Gonzlez Jimnez; A. Guijarro Morales; J. de Dios Luna del Castillo



Quantitative analysis of copper, zinc and copper\\/zinc ratio in selected human brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Serum copper and zinc concentrations and copper\\/zinc ratios have been shown to be increased in several types of human malignancies, including human brain tumors. In this study, copper and zinc levels and copper\\/zinc ratios were determined by atomic absorption analysis in tissue and serum from 29 primary and metastatic brain tumor patients. Metastatic carcinomas and malignant gliomas revealed significantly

Daizo Yoshida; Yukio Ikeda; Shozo Nakazawa



Release of zinc mobilizing root exudates in different plant species as affected by zinc nutritional status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of zinc nutritional status of the plant on the release of zinc mobilizing root exudates was studied in various dicotyledonous (apple, bean, cotton, sunflower, tomato) and graminaceous (barley, wheat) plant species grown in nutrient solutions. In all species, zinc deficiency increased root exudation of amino acids, sugars and phenolics. However, the root exudates of zinc deficient dicotyledonous species

Fusuo Zhang; Volker Romheld; Horst Marschner



Zinc Utilization in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women Fed Controlled Diets Providing the Zinc RDA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight pregnant (P) women in their third trimester and 10 nonpregnant (NP) women participated in a 21-day confined metabolic study. The participants were fed semipurified liquid diets providing 20 mg zinc\\/day. Apparent zinc balance was calculated and parameters of zinc status assessed. Even though an adequate amount of a readily available form of zinc was fed, the P women consistently




Steel cathodic protection afforded by zinc, aluminium and zinc\\/aluminium alloy coatings in the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc has traditionally been the metallic material most widely used to protect steel against atmospheric corrosion due to its ability to afford cathodic protection to steel in all types of natural atmospheres. In recent decades, aluminium and zinc\\/aluminium alloy coatings have been used instead of zinc in certain atmospheric applications. Although these coatings present some advantages over zinc, they are

Z. Panossian; L. Mariaca; M. Morcillo; S. Flores; J. Rocha; J. J. Pea; F. Herrera; F. Corvo; M. Sanchez; O. T. Rincon; G. Pridybailo; J. Simancas



The current distribution and shape change of zinc electrodes in secondary silver-zinc cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current and potential distributions of zinc electrodes in secondary zinc-silver oxide cells during cycling were studied using a sectioned electrode technique. The shape change occurring in zinc electrodes resulting from cell cycling was examined. The zinc electrodes used for this study were of a conventional type of design and were fabricated by a slurry paste method. The positive electrodes

S.-P. Poa; C. H. Wu



Recovery, Re-Use, and Reduction of Zinc Metal Waste in Zinc-Rich Primers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of mechanisms to re-use zinc wastes in zinc-rich primers is reported. Rapid expansion in the use of zinc-rich primers for protective coatings is sharply increasing the volume of waste zinc which amounts to over 50 percent of the amount used in...

E. V. Plock



High Dose Zinc Supplementation Induces Hippocampal Zinc Deficiency and Memory Impairment with Inhibition of BDNF Signaling  

PubMed Central

Zinc ions highly concentrate in hippocampus and play a key role in modulating spatial learning and memory. At a time when dietary fortification and supplementation of zinc have increased the zinc consuming level especially in the youth, the toxicity of zinc overdose on brain function was underestimated. In the present study, weaning ICR mice were given water supplemented with 15 ppm Zn (low dose), 60 ppm Zn (high dose) or normal lab water for 3 months, the behavior and brain zinc homeostasis were tested. Mice fed high dose of zinc showed hippocampus-dependent memory impairment. Unexpectedly, zinc deficiency, but not zinc overload was observed in hippocampus, especially in the mossy fiber-CA3 pyramid synapse. The expression levels of learning and memory related receptors and synaptic proteins such as NMDA-NR2A, NR2B, AMPA-GluR1, PSD-93 and PSD-95 were significantly decreased in hippocampus, with significant loss of dendritic spines. In keeping with these findings, high dose intake of zinc resulted in decreased hippocampal BDNF level and TrkB neurotrophic signaling. At last, increasing the brain zinc level directly by brain zinc injection induced BDNF expression, which was reversed by zinc chelating in vivo. These results indicate that zinc plays an important role in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory and BDNF expression, high dose supplementation of zinc induces specific zinc deficiency in hippocampus, which further impair learning and memory due to decreased availability of synaptic zinc and BDNF defic