Sample records for zinc chloride treated

  1. Zinc chloride (smoke bomb) inhalational lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Matarese, S.L.; Matthews, J.I.

    1986-02-01

    Physicians, military and civilian alike, may be called upon to recognize, treat, and provide long-term care to patients who have suffered a zinc chloride (smoke bomb) inhalational injury. Pathologic changes described in the literature include laryngeal, tracheal, and bronchial mucosal edema and ulceration; interstitial edema; interstitial fibrosis; alveolar obliteration; and bronchiolitis obliterans. Acute injury is associated with a high mortality. Following is a report of a patient with a zinc chloride smoke injury which resulted in subpleural emphysematous blebs complicated by pneumothorax and abnormal exercise physiology. Gradual recovery occurred over several months. However, the chest roentgenogram remains abnormal with emphysematous blebs.

  2. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory....

  3. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory....

  4. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory....

  5. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory....

  6. SUBSTITUTING CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental and economic implications of substituting zinc chloride electroplating for cadmium cyanide electroplating were evaluated. he process substitution was successful in achieving product quality to satisfy the customer requirements for corrosion resistance. orrosion ...

  7. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  8. Interaction between nanoparticles generated by zinc chloride treatment and oxidative responses in rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Azzouz, Inès; Trabelsi, Hamdi; Hanini, Amel; Ferchichi, Soumaya; Tebourbi, Olfa; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction of zinc chloride (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [ip]) in rat liver in terms of the biosynthesis of nanoparticles. Zinc treatment increased zinc content in rat liver. Analysis of fluorescence revealed the presence of red fluorescence in the liver following zinc treatment. Interestingly, the co-exposure to zinc (3 mg/kg, ip) and selenium (0.20 mg/L, per os [by mouth]) led to a higher intensity of red fluorescence compared to zinc-treated rats. In addition, X-ray diffraction measurements carried out on liver fractions of zinc-treated rats point to the biosynthesis of zinc sulfide and/or selenide nanocomplexes at nearly 51.60 nm in size. Moreover, co-exposure led to nanocomplexes of about 72.60 nm in size. The interaction of zinc with other mineral elements (S, Se) generates several nanocomplexes, such as ZnS and/or ZnSe. The nanocomplex ZnX could interact directly with enzyme activity or indirectly by the disruption of mineral elements’ bioavailability in cells. Subacute zinc or selenium treatment decreased malondialdehyde levels, indicating a drop in lipid peroxidation. In addition, antioxidant enzyme assays showed that treatment with zinc or co-treatment with zinc and selenium increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. Consequently, zinc complexation with sulfur and/or selenium at nanoscale level could enhance antioxidative responses, which is correlated to the ratio of number of ZnX nanoparticles (X=sulfur or X=selenium) to malondialdehyde level in rat liver. PMID:24403828

  9. Interaction between nanoparticles generated by zinc chloride treatment and oxidative responses in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Azzouz, Inès; Trabelsi, Hamdi; Hanini, Amel; Ferchichi, Soumaya; Tebourbi, Olfa; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction of zinc chloride (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [ip]) in rat liver in terms of the biosynthesis of nanoparticles. Zinc treatment increased zinc content in rat liver. Analysis of fluorescence revealed the presence of red fluorescence in the liver following zinc treatment. Interestingly, the co-exposure to zinc (3 mg/kg, ip) and selenium (0.20 mg/L, per os [by mouth]) led to a higher intensity of red fluorescence compared to zinc-treated rats. In addition, X-ray diffraction measurements carried out on liver fractions of zinc-treated rats point to the biosynthesis of zinc sulfide and/or selenide nanocomplexes at nearly 51.60 nm in size. Moreover, co-exposure led to nanocomplexes of about 72.60 nm in size. The interaction of zinc with other mineral elements (S, Se) generates several nanocomplexes, such as ZnS and/or ZnSe. The nanocomplex ZnX could interact directly with enzyme activity or indirectly by the disruption of mineral elements' bioavailability in cells. Subacute zinc or selenium treatment decreased malondialdehyde levels, indicating a drop in lipid peroxidation. In addition, antioxidant enzyme assays showed that treatment with zinc or co-treatment with zinc and selenium increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. Consequently, zinc complexation with sulfur and/or selenium at nanoscale level could enhance antioxidative responses, which is correlated to the ratio of number of ZnX nanoparticles (X=sulfur or X=selenium) to malondialdehyde level in rat liver. PMID:24403828

  10. Intercalation studies of zinc hydroxide chloride: Ammonia and amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal, E-mail: gregoriocarbajal@yahoo.com.mx [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Marcelino Garcia Barragan 1421, CP 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-01-15

    Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) is a layered hydroxide salt with formula Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O. It was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time and results were compared with intercalation products of the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate and a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide. Ammonia was intercalated into ZHC, while no significant intercalation occurred in ZHN. Aspartic acid intercalation was only achieved by co-precipitation at pH=10 with ZHC and pH=8 with zinc hydroxide nitrate. Higher pH resistance in ZHC favored total deprotonation of both carboxylic groups of the Asp molecule. ZHC conferred more thermal protection against Asp combustion presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 Degree-Sign C while the exothermic event in ZHN was 366 Degree-Sign C and in the LDH at 276 Degree-Sign C. - Graphical abstract: The zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) with formula Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O was tested as intercalation matrix. In comparison with the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) and layered double hydroxides (LDH), ZHC was the best matrix for thermal protection of Asp combustion, presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 Degree-Sign C, while the highest exothermic event in ZHN was at 366 Degree-Sign C, and in the LDH it was at 276 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZHC has higher chemical and thermal stability than zinc hydroxide nitrate and LDH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NH{sub 3} molecules can be intercalated into ZHC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amino group of amino acids limits the intercalation by ion-exchange.

  11. A Combination of Red Phosphorus-Zinc Chloride for Flame-Retardancy of a Cotton Fabric

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Mostashari; F. Fayyaz

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, the combination of red phosphorus with zinc chloride was found to be effective for flame-retardancy of a pure cotton fabric. The fabrics were dipped in individual aqueous suspensions of red phosphorous and\\/or the zinc chloride; meanwhile, some sets were impregnated with appropriate admixed solutions of both chemicals. The vertical flame spread test was accomplished to characterize the

  12. Zinc Hydroxystannate- or Zinc Stannate-coated Calcium Carbonate as Flame Retardant for Semirigid Poly(vinyl chloride)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Z. Xu; Y. H. Jiao; H. Q. Qu; C. M. Tian; N. Cai

    2006-01-01

    The flame retardant and smoke suppressant properties of semirigid PVC treated with CaCO3, zinc hydroxystannate, zinc stannate, zinc hydroxystannate-coated calcium carbonate, and zinc stannate-coated calcium carbonate have been studied through the limiting oxygen index, anaerobic char yield, and smoke density rating (SDR) methods. The thermal degradation in air of the treated semirigid PVC is studied by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of zinc in PMA-treated human gingival fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangwoo; Jeon, Sangmi; Hui, Zheng; Kim, Young; Im, Yeonggwan; Lim, Wonbong; Kim, Changsu; Choi, Hongran; Kim, Okjoon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Abnormal cellular immune response has been considered to be responsible for oral lesions in recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Zinc has been known to be an essential nutrient metal that is necessary for a broad range of biological activities including antioxidant, immune mediator, and anti-inflammatory drugs in oral mucosal disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of zinc in a phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-treated inflammatory model on human gingival fibroblast cells (hGFs). Study Design: Cells were pre-treated with zinc chloride, followed by PMA in hGFs. The effects were assessed on cell viability, cyclooxygenease-1,2(COX-1/2) protein expression, PGE2 release, ROS production and cytokine release, Results: The effects were assessed on cell viability, COX1/2 protein expression, PGE2 release, ROS production, cytokine release. The results showed that, in the presence of PMA, zinc treatment leads to reduce the production of ROS, which results in decrease of COX-2 expression and PGE2 release. Conclusions: Thus, we suggest that zinc treatment leads to the mitigation of oral inflammation and may prove to be an alternative treatment for recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Key words:Zinc, inflammatory response, cytokines, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, gingival fibroblasts cells. PMID:25662537

  14. Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil shale ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reyad Shawabkeh; Adnan Al-Harahsheh; Awni Al-Otoom

    2004-01-01

    Jordanian oil shale ash was used as an adsorbent for the removal of copper and zinc from aqueous solution. This ash was treated with either hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric or phosphoric acids followed by washing and\\/or neutralization with sodium hydroxide in order to enhance its adsorption capacity. The sample that was treated with nitric acid showed the highest cation exchange capacity

  15. A role for intracellular zinc in glioma alteration of neuronal chloride equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Di Angelantonio, S; Murana, E; Cocco, S; Scala, F; Bertollini, C; Molinari, M G; Lauro, C; Bregestovski, P; Limatola, C; Ragozzino, D

    2014-01-01

    Glioma patients commonly suffer from epileptic seizures. However, the mechanisms of glioma-associated epilepsy are far to be completely understood. Using glioma-neurons co-cultures, we found that tumor cells are able to deeply influence neuronal chloride homeostasis, by depolarizing the reversal potential of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-evoked currents (EGABA). EGABA depolarizing shift is due to zinc-dependent reduction of neuronal KCC2 activity and requires glutamate release from glioma cells. Consistently, intracellular zinc loading rapidly depolarizes EGABA in mouse hippocampal neurons, through the Src/Trk pathway and this effect is promptly reverted upon zinc chelation. This study provides a possible molecular mechanism linking glioma invasion to excitation/inhibition imbalance and epileptic seizures, through the zinc–mediated disruption of neuronal chloride homeostasis. PMID:25356870

  16. Growth and characterization of pure and KCl doped zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruby Nirmala, L.; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J.

    2013-02-01

    Potassium Chloride (KCl) as an additive is added into zinc thiourea chloride solution in a small amount (1 M%) by the method of slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature to get a new crystal. Due to the doping of the impurities on the crystals, remarkable changes in the physical properties were obtained. The grown crystals have been subjected to different instrumentation methods. The incorporation of the amount of potassium and zinc in the crystal lattices has been determined by AAS method. The lattice dimensions have been identified from single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. The presence of functional group for the grown crystals has been identified by FTIR analysis. The optical, thermal and mechanical behaviors have been assessed by UV-Vis, TG/DTA and Vickers hardness methods respectively. The presence of dislocations of atoms has been identified by etching studies.

  17. Growth and characterization of pure and KCl doped zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) single crystals.

    PubMed

    Ruby Nirmala, L; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J

    2013-02-01

    Potassium Chloride (KCl) as an additive is added into zinc thiourea chloride solution in a small amount (1M%) by the method of slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature to get a new crystal. Due to the doping of the impurities on the crystals, remarkable changes in the physical properties were obtained. The grown crystals have been subjected to different instrumentation methods. The incorporation of the amount of potassium and zinc in the crystal lattices has been determined by AAS method. The lattice dimensions have been identified from single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. The presence of functional group for the grown crystals has been identified by FTIR analysis. The optical, thermal and mechanical behaviors have been assessed by UV-Vis, TG/DTA and Vickers hardness methods respectively. The presence of dislocations of atoms has been identified by etching studies. PMID:23220671

  18. Free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes for the transference of zinc chloride from enthylene glycol to water solutions

    E-print Network

    Lomonte, John Nicholas

    1960-01-01

    FREE ENERGY, ENTlDKPY, AND ENTROPY CHANGES FOR THE TRANCE OF ZINC CHLORIDE FROM ETHYLENE GLYCOL TO WATER SOLUTIONS A Thesis JOHN NICHOLAS'8 LOMONTE Submitted to the Graduate School of' the Agricultural and. Mechanical College of' Texas... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of' MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1960 Major Sub)cot: Chemistry FREE ENERGY, ENTHALPY, AND ENTROPY CHANGES FOR THE TRANSFERENCE OF ZINC CHLORIDE FROM ETHYLENE GLYCOL TO WATER SOLUTIONS A Thesis...

  19. The histopathology of rat lung following exposure to zinc oxide/hexachloroethane smoke or installation with zinc chloride followed by treatment with 70% oxygen.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R F; Marrs, T C; Rice, P; Masek, L C

    1990-01-01

    The effects of inhaled zinc oxide/hexachloroethane smoke (11,580 mg x min/m3) and intratracheally instilled zinc chloride (2.5 mg/kg body weight) have been studied in rat lung. The effects of subsequent treatment with 70% oxygen have been studied after both procedures. Both the inhalation of the smoke and instillation of zinc chloride produced similar effects that included pulmonary edema, alveolitis and, at a later stage, some fibrosis. After zinc chloride instillation, the pathological changes largely spared the periphery of the lung, while following smoke inhalation they were more diffuse. Subsequent oxygen administration had little effect on the development or progression of the pathological changes. Images FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. PMID:2384070

  20. Studies of micromorphology and current efficiency of zinc electrodeposited from flowing chloride electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Vay, L.; Muller, R.H.; Tobias, C.W.

    1986-05-01

    Results of a study of the micromorphology and current efficiency of zinc electrodeposited from flowing, acidic chloride solutions are reported. The effects of six variables were examined: flow rate, current density, zinc and hydrogen ion concentration, concentrations of nickel, iron and cadmium impurity ions, and the nature of the substrate. The development of micromorphology was studied in-situ by means of videomicrography and ex-situ by means of scanning electron microscopy. This investigation focused on the formation of grooved deposits, which are found under a wide range of deposition conditions. The major conclusions of this study are: the most important variable determining whether grooved deposits form is the interfacial concentration; large protrusions orient themselves parallel to the flow direction with the orientation starting upstream and progressing downstream; large protrusions become ridges due to growth of the highest current density portions of the electrode under mass transport control. The current efficiency was measured using EDTA titration and weight measurements. The fraction of the current taken by zinc deposition increased with zinc concentration, ranging up to 100%, and decreased with pH. The efficiency of zinc deposition was affected by the flow rate and the substrate employed. Impurities lowered the current efficiency.

  1. Crystal growth, structure and characterizations of a new semiorganic nonlinear optical material-{beta}-Alanine zinc chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Anbuchezhiyan, M. [Department of Physics, Valliammai Engineering College, S.R.M. Nagar, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India)] [Department of Physics, Valliammai Engineering College, S.R.M. Nagar, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India); Ponnusamy, S., E-mail: suruponnus@gmail.com [Centre for Material Science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Kanchipuram, Chennai 603203 (India); Muthamizhchelvan, C. [Centre for Material Science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Kanchipuram, Chennai 603203 (India)] [Centre for Material Science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Kanchipuram, Chennai 603203 (India); Sivakumar, K. [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)] [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2010-08-15

    The title compound, {beta}-alanine zinc chloride-a new semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. Single crystals of {beta}-alanine zinc chloride have been subjected to X-ray diffraction analysis to determine the crystal structure. The powder X-ray diffractogram of the crystal has also been recorded. The amount of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen in the crystals was also estimated. Fourier Transform Infrared and Raman spectral measurements have been carried out on the grown crystals in order to identify the functional groups. The presence of hydrogen and carbon in the {beta}-alanine zinc chloride was confirmed by using proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analyses. The percentage of zinc in the crystal was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Optical behavior such as ultraviolet-vis-near infrared transmittance spectrum and second harmonic generation has been investigated. The mechanical strength and thermal behavior of the grown crystal have been analyzed.

  2. Separation and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil shale ash

    E-print Network

    Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

    Jordanian oil shale ash was used as an adsorbent for the removal of copper and zinc from aqueous solution.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Oil shale; Ash; Adsorption; Copper and zinc removal 1. IntroductionSeparation and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251­257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil

  3. Determination of the Optimum Conditions for Leaching of Zinc Cathode Melting Furnace Slag in Ammonium Chloride Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnajady, Bahram; Babaeidehkordi, Amin; Moghaddam, Javad

    2014-04-01

    This research is part of a continuing effort to leach zinc from zinc cathode melting furnace slags (ZCMFSs) to produce zinc oxide. The slag with an assay of 68.05 pct Zn was used in ammonium chloride leaching for zinc extraction. In this paper, the effects of influential factors on extraction efficiency of Zn from a ZCMFS were investigated. The Taguchi's method based on orthogonal array (OA) design has been used to arrange the experimental runs in order to maximize zinc extraction from a slag. The softwares named Excel and Design-Expert 7 have been used to design experiments and subsequent analysis. OA L 25 (55) consisting of five parameters, each with five levels, was employed to evaluate the effects of reaction time ( t = 10, 30, 50, 70, 90 minutes), reaction temperature [ T = 313, 323, 333, 343, 353 (40, 50, 60, 70, 80) K (°C)], pulp density ( S/ L = 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 g/L), stirring speed ( R = 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 rpm), and ammonium chloride concentration ( C = 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 pctwt), on zinc extraction percent. Statistical analysis, ANOVA, was also employed to determine the relationship between experimental conditions and yield levels. The results showed that the significant parameters affecting leaching of slag were ammonium chloride concentration and pulp density, and increasing pulp density reduced leaching efficiency of zinc. However, increasing ammonium chloride concentration promoted the extraction of zinc. The optimum conditions for this study were found to be t 4: 70 minutes, T 5: 353 K (80 °C), ( S/ L)2: 40 g/L, R 3: 500 rpm, and C 4: 25 pctwt. Under these conditions, the dissolution percentage of Zn in ammonium chloride media was 94.61 pct.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of ZnO Nanorods and Nanodisks from Zinc Chloride Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    ZnO nanorods and nanodisks were synthesized by solution process using zinc chloride as starting material. The morphology of ZnO crystal changed greatly depending on the concentrations of Zn2+ion and ethylene glycohol (EG) additive in the solution. The effect of thermal treatment on the morphology was investigated. Photocatalytic activities of plate-like Zn5(OH)8Cl2 · H2O and rod-like ZnO were characterized. About 18% of 1 ppm NO could be continuously removed by ZnO particles under UV light irradiation. PMID:20596478

  5. Growth, optical and thermal characterization of bis(thiourea)zinc chloride single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moitra, Sweta; Kar, Tanusree

    2008-06-01

    Single crystals of nonlinear optical material bis(thiourea)zinc chloride (BTZC) were successfully grown by the temperature lowering method and also by the slow evaporation method at constant temperature 28.5 °C from its aqueous solutions having various pH values. The best quality crystal was obtained at pH value of 3.13. Studies on structural, thermal properties of the crystals have been carried out on the basis of X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravemetric analysis (TGA). DTA study indicates the possibility of structural changes without weight loss. The values of specific heat calculated from DSC data indirectly demonstrate the high damage threshold of BTZC crystal. The crystals possess wide optical transmission window between 290 nm and 2000 nm. Kurtz powder SHG measurement confirms the nonlinear optical property of the grown crystals.

  6. Zinc contamination from brass upon heat treating a superconducting magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.W.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1994-07-01

    Theoretical calculations predicted that zinc outgassing from brass spacers during a planned heat treatment would likely damage a lab-scale superconducting magnet. This specter was reinforced by a simulated heat treatment, the samples of which were analyzed by gravimetry, metallography, and microprobe chemical analysis. It was found that zinc escaping from the brass could diffuse 80 {mu}m into copper electrical conductors and degrade their conductivity. To avoid this, steel was temporarily substituted for the brass during the heat treatment process.

  7. Zinc poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... other materials to make industrial items such as paint, dyes, and more. These combination substances can be ... Compounds used to make paint, rubber, dyes, wood preservatives, and ... Zinc chloride Zinc oxide (relatively nonharmful) Zinc ...

  8. Bulk crystal growth and characterization of non-linear optical bisthiourea zinc chloride single crystal by unidirectional growth method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Uthrakumar; C. Vesta; C. Justin Raj; S. Krishnan; S. Jerome Das

    2010-01-01

    The unidirectional crystal growth method has been employed for the bulk growth of semi-organic non-linear optical bisthiourea zinc chloride single crystal along a-axis with high solute-crystal conversion efficiency. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies confirm the orthorhombic structure. Optical studies reveal very high transmission of the crystal along the growth axis. Dielectric study shows that the dielectric constant decreases with increase

  9. Copper and zinc in CCI 4 treated rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. F. Loyke

    1984-01-01

    The role of two trace metals, copper and zinc, are important in maintaining blood pressure and the effect of carbon tetrachloride (CClâ) has been found to be a depressor. Experimental renal hypertension has been reduced to normotension after multiple subcutaneous injections of CClâ. By dose adjustment, the degree of liver damage has been reduced to a level of mild to

  10. Habit modification of bis-thiourea zinc chloride (ZTC) semi organic crystals by impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruby Nirmala, L.; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J.

    2013-06-01

    Single crystals of bis-thiourea zinc chloride (ZTC) doped with metal ion (Li+) possess excellent nonlinear optical properties. These crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The effect of Li+ dopant on the growth and properties of ZTC single crystal were investigated and reported. The grown crystals were crystallized in orthorhombic structure with non-centro symmetric space group Pn21a through the parent compound. The amount of dopant incorporated in the parent crystal was revealed by the inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES) studies. The FT-IR spectroscopy study was done for finding and confirming the functional groups present in the compound. The UV-Visible spectral study was carried out to find the optical behavior and transparency nature of the grown crystal. TG/DTA measurements and Vickers microhardness measurements were traced to find out the thermal and mechanical stability of the grown crystals respectively. Using Nd:YAG laser, the Second harmonic generation (SHG) for the grown crystals were confirmed.

  11. Habit modification of bis-thiourea zinc chloride (ZTC) semi organic crystals by impurities.

    PubMed

    Ruby Nirmala, L; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J

    2013-06-01

    Single crystals of bis-thiourea zinc chloride (ZTC) doped with metal ion (Li(+)) possess excellent nonlinear optical properties. These crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The effect of Li(+) dopant on the growth and properties of ZTC single crystal were investigated and reported. The grown crystals were crystallized in orthorhombic structure with non-centro symmetric space group Pn21a through the parent compound. The amount of dopant incorporated in the parent crystal was revealed by the inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES) studies. The FT-IR spectroscopy study was done for finding and confirming the functional groups present in the compound. The UV-Visible spectral study was carried out to find the optical behavior and transparency nature of the grown crystal. TG/DTA measurements and Vickers microhardness measurements were traced to find out the thermal and mechanical stability of the grown crystals respectively. Using Nd:YAG laser, the Second harmonic generation (SHG) for the grown crystals were confirmed. PMID:23571088

  12. Biosorption of Zinc from Aqueous Solution Using Chemically Treated Rice Husk

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ru; Zhao, Jiaying; Zhang, Yingchao; Wong, Po-keung; Ma, Fang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, adsorption of zinc onto the adsorbent (untreated rice husk and NaOH-treated rice husk) was examined. During the removal process, batch technique was used, and the effects of pH and contact time were investigated. Langmuir isotherm was applied in order to determine the efficiency of NaOH-treated rice husk used as an adsorbent. The zinc adsorption was fast, and equilibrium was attained within 30?min. The maximum removal ratios of zinc for untreated rice husk and NaOH-treated rice husk after 1.5?h were 52.3% and 95.2%, respectively, with initial zinc concentration of 25?mg/L and optimum pH of 4.0. Data obtained from batch adsorption experiments fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model. Maximum adsorption capacity of zinc onto untreated rice husk and NaOH-treated rice husk was 12.41?mg/g, and 20.08?mg/g respectively, at adsorbent dosage of 1?g/L at 25°C. The nature of functional groups (i.e., amino, carboxyl, and hydroxyl) and metal ion interactions was examined by the FT-IR technique. It was concluded that the NaOH-treated rice husk had stronger adsorption capacity for Zn2+ compared with the untreated rice husk. The NaOH-treated rice husk is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly adsorbent for Zn2+ removal from aqueous solutions. PMID:23841065

  13. Development of nanoporous structure in carbons by chemical activation with zinc chloride.

    PubMed

    Rajbhandari, Rinita; Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Pokharel, Bhadra Prasad; Pradhananga, Raja Ram

    2013-04-01

    Series of activated carbons (ACs) have been prepared from Lapsi (Choerospondias axillaris) seed powder (LSP) by chemical activation with zinc chloride (ZnCI2) and the effects of ZnCl2 impregnation ratio, carbonization time, and precursor sources on the structure and properties of ACs have been systematically investigated. Carbonization was carried out at 400 degrees C and the ratio of LSP and ZnCI2 was varied from LSP:ZnCl2 = 1:0.25 (AC-0.25), 1:0.50 (AC-0.50) 1:1 (AC-1), 1:2 (AC-2), and 1:4 (AC-4). The ACs were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman scattering, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Surface properties (effective surface areas, pore volumes, and pore size distributions) were studied by nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements. The electrochemical and vapor sensing properties were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method, respectively. All the ACs are amorphous materials containing oxygenated surface functional groups and having nanoporous (microporous and mesoporous) structures. We found that surface properties depend on the LSP:ZnCI2 ratio, carbonization time, and also on the precursor type. The effective surface area increased significantly with increasing LSP:ZnCI2 ratio from 1:0.25 to 1:0.5 and then remain apparently constant. However, total pore volume increased continuously with ZnCI2 ratio. Increase in the carbonization time above 4 h decreased both the surface area and pore volume. ACs prepared from bamboo and coconut shell showed better surface properties compared to AC prepared from sugarcane; surface area and pore volume of the former systems are nearly double of the later system. AC derived from LSP (AC-4) showed excellent electrochemical performance giving specific capacitance value of 328 F/g in 1 M H2SO4 solution demonstrating the potential use of this material for supercapacitor electrodes. Our ACs showed good capability of molecule sensing of toxic solvent vapors such as carbon tetrachloride and pyridine. PMID:23763136

  14. Zinc

    MedlinePLUS

    ... they may not get enough zinc. People with sickle cell disease because they might need more zinc. ... Children in developing countries often die from diarrhea. Studies show that zinc dietary supplements help reduce the ...

  15. Electrodeposition of zinc–tin alloys from deep eutectic solvents based on choline chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P. Abbott; Glen Capper; Katy J. McKenzie; Karl S. Ryder

    2007-01-01

    Here we describe the electrolytic deposition of Zn, Sn and Zn\\/Sn alloys from a solution of the metal chloride salts separately in urea and ethylene glycol\\/choline chloride based ionic liquids. We show that the deposition kinetics and thermodynamics differ from the aqueous processes and that qualitatively different phases, compositions and morphologies are obtained for the metal coatings in the different

  16. Monitoring surface water chemistry near magnesium chloride dust suppressant treated roads in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Betsy A; Koski, Ronda D; Jacobi, William R

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium chloride (MgCl2)-based dust suppression products are commonly used throughout western United States on nonpaved roads for dust suppression and road stabilization by federal, state, and county transportation agencies. The environmental implications of annually applying these products throughout spring and summer months on adjacent stream chemistry are not known. Sixteen streams were monitored biweekly for 1 to 2 yr in two Colorado counties for a suite of water quality variables up and downstream of nonpaved roads treated with MgCl2-based dust suppression products. Eight of 16 streams had significantly higher downstream than upstream concentrations of chloride or magnesium over the entire monitoring period (pchloride concentrations ranged from 0.17 to 36.2 mg/L and magnesium concentrations ranged from 1.06 to 12.8 mg/L. Several other ions and compounds, including those commonly found in dust suppression products such as sodium, calcium, and sulfate, were also significantly higher downstream at some sites. Downstream electrical conductivity (EC), chloride and magnesium concentrations were positively correlated with road surface area draining water toward the stream and yearly amount of MgCl2 applied (R2=0.75, 0.51 and 0.49, respectively), indicating that road managers can limit the amount of product entering roadside streams by assessing drainage characteristics and application rates in best management practices. Although MgCl2-based dust suppressants did move into some roadside streams, the concentrations detected were below those reported to adversely affect fresh water aquatic organisms, but the ultimate fate of these ions in Colorado waterbodies are not known. PMID:19875793

  17. ZINC

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the available information on zinc as it relates to its effects on man and his environment. Zinc is found in most soils, but some areas are deficient in it. Metallurgic operations contribute to zinc contamination in air, water and soil. Trace amounts of zinc...

  18. Influence of zinc chloride addition on the chemical structure of bio-oil obtained during co-pyrolysis of wood/synthetic polymer blends.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Piotr

    2009-12-01

    The chemical structure of liquid products of the pinewood sawdust (W) co-pyrolysis with polystyrene (PS) and polypropylene (PP) with and without the zinc chloride as an additive was investigated. The pyrolysis process was carried out at 450 degrees C with the heating rate of 5 degrees C/min. The yield of liquid products of pyrolysis was in the range of 37-91 wt% and their form was liquid or semi-solid depending on the composition of the wood/polymer blend. The zinc chloride addition to wood/polymer blends has influenced the range of samples decomposition as well as the chemical structure of resulted bio-oils. All bio-oils from wood/polypropylene blends were two-phase (liquid and solid). Contrarily, all bio-oils obtained from biopolymer/polypropylene blends with zinc chloride added were yellow liquids. All analyses proved that the structure and the quality of bio-oil strongly depend on both the composition of the blend and the presence of ZnCl(2) as an additive. The FT-IR analyses of oils showed that oxygen-containing groups and hydrocarbons content highly depend on the composition of biomass/synthetic polymer mixture. The fractionation of bio-oils by column chromatography with four different solvents was followed by GC-MS analysis. Results confirmed the significant removal and/or transformation of oxygen-containing organic compounds due to the zinc chloride presence during pyrolysis process. PMID:19720516

  19. Gastrointestinal side effects in children with Wilson's disease treated with zinc sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Wiernicka, Anna; Ja?czyk, Wojciech; D?dalski, Maciej; Avsar, Yesim; Schmidt, Hartmut; Socha, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the side effects of a zinc sulphate therapy in a cohort of Polish pediatric patients with Wilson’s disease. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 53 pediatric patients with Wilson’s disease treated at the Children’s Memorial Health Institute in Warsaw, Poland between the years 1996 and 2011 with zinc sulphate. Patients were diagnosed with Wilson’s disease according to the scoring system of Ferenci, with 49 cases confirmed by mutation analysis. Data about the dosage scheme of zinc sulphate, side effects and efficacy and toxicity of the treatment were collected and recorded in the patient’s medical chart at each visit to the hospital. RESULTS: Mean age of diagnosis for the entire cohort was 10 years (range, 2.5-17 years). Duration of treatment with zinc sulfate was 83.3 wk (range, 8-344 wk). Side effects, all of gastrointestinal origin, were observed in 21 patients (40% - 9 males and 12 females), irrespective of the duration of therapy. Thirteen out of 21 patients were over the age of 10 years. The most common ATP7B mutation was p.H1069Q. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, performed in 7 patients (33.3%) suffering from persistent and severe abdominal pain, revealed gastrointestinal ulcerations or erosions with negative Helicobacter pylori tests in all subjects investigated. The above mentioned 7 patients were treated with proton pump inhibitors. Three of those experienced resolution of symptoms, whereas proton-pump inhibitors failed to alleviate symptoms of the remaining four children and conversion of therapy to D-penicillamine was needed. CONCLUSION: Zinc sulphate appears to cause significant gastrointestinal side effects, which children on therapy for Wilson’s disease should be closely monitored for. PMID:23885147

  20. Growth and characterization of a new metal-organic nonlinear optical bis (thiourea) cadmium zinc chloride single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirubavathi, K.; Selvaraju, K.; Kumararaman, S.

    2008-11-01

    A new semiorganic nonlinear optical bis (thiourea) cadmium zinc chloride (BTCZC) crystal has been synthesized. BTCZC single crystals were grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique. The solubility of BTCZC has been determined for various temperatures. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) study has been carried out to identify the lattice parameters. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies confirm the various functional groups present in the grown crystal. The transmission and absorption spectra of this crystal show that the lower cut off wavelength lies at 260 nm. The thermal analyses confirmed that the crystal is stable upto 201 °C. The nonlinear optical (NLO) property of the grown crystal has been confirmed by Kurtz-powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test.

  1. Growth and characterization of a new metal-organic nonlinear optical bis (thiourea) cadmium zinc chloride single crystals.

    PubMed

    Kirubavathi, K; Selvaraju, K; Kumararaman, S

    2008-11-01

    A new semiorganic nonlinear optical bis (thiourea) cadmium zinc chloride (BTCZC) crystal has been synthesized. BTCZC single crystals were grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique. The solubility of BTCZC has been determined for various temperatures. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) study has been carried out to identify the lattice parameters. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies confirm the various functional groups present in the grown crystal. The transmission and absorption spectra of this crystal show that the lower cut off wavelength lies at 260 nm. The thermal analyses confirmed that the crystal is stable up to 201 degrees C. The nonlinear optical (NLO) property of the grown crystal has been confirmed by Kurtz-powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test. PMID:18602336

  2. Near-Unity Quantum Yields from Chloride Treated CdTe Colloidal Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Page, Robert C; Espinobarro-Velazquez, Daniel; Leontiadou, Marina A; Smith, Charles; Lewis, Edward A; Haigh, Sarah J; Li, Chen; Radtke, Hanna; Pengpad, Atip; Bondino, Federica; Magnano, Elena; Pis, Igor; Flavell, Wendy R; O'Brien, Paul; Binks, David J

    2015-04-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are promising materials for novel light sources and solar energy conversion. However, trap states associated with the CQD surface can produce non-radiative charge recombination that significantly reduces device performance. Here a facile post-synthetic treatment of CdTe CQDs is demonstrated that uses chloride ions to achieve near-complete suppression of surface trapping, resulting in an increase of photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) from ca. 5% to up to 97.2 ± 2.5%. The effect of the treatment is characterised by absorption and PL spectroscopy, PL decay, scanning transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This process also dramatically improves the air-stability of the CQDs: before treatment the PL is largely quenched after 1 hour of air-exposure, whilst the treated samples showed a PL QY of nearly 50% after more than 12 hours. PMID:25348200

  3. Protective effect of ginger and zinc chloride mixture on the liver and kidney alterations induced by malathion toxicity.

    PubMed

    Baiomy, Ahmed A; Attia, Hossam F; Soliman, Mohamed M; Makrum, Omar

    2015-03-01

    This study was carried out on four groups of male Wistar rats, 10 rats per group. Group I got open access to food intake and water with normal balanced diet. Group II was administered 400 mg ginger per kg body weight (BW) and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) (300 mg/L) diluted in tap water for 4 months. Group III was administered malathion at a dose of 50 mg/kg BW/day in 0.2 mL corn oil via gavages for 4 months. This dose equal to 1/50 of the LD50. Group IV was given a mixture of 400 mg ginger per kg BW and ZnCl2 (300 mg/L) diluted in tap water in addition to 100 mg malathion/kg BW for 4 months. The liver showed histopathological changes include congestion, edema, and leucocytic infiltrations which were ameliorated by the addition of ginger and ZnCl2 mixture. The kidney showed cloudy swelling and hydropic degeneration of the renal tubules. These changes were ameliorated by the addition of ginger and ZnCl2 mixture. Ki67 immunoreactivity was localized in the cytoplasm and nuclear membrane. Its expression was estimated as the percentage of cells positively stained by the antibody in the different groups. In conclusion, malathion was toxic to the liver and kidney and must be avoided and protected by the addition of ginger and zinc mixture. PMID:25816415

  4. Effect of lithium chloride on spectral, optical, thermal and mechanical behaviour of bis thiourea zinc acetate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruby Nirmala, L.; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J.

    2012-11-01

    Single crystals of pure bis thiourea zinc acetate (BTZA) and lithium chloride (LiCl) doped BTZA have been synthesized and grown successfully from aqueous solutions by slow evaporation technique. The single crystals thus grown were characterized by different techniques such as single crystal XRD, AAS, FT-IR, UV-Vis, TG/DTA and SHG test. The single crystal XRD study proved that the dopant has not changed the structure of the parent crystal. The AAS study confirmed the presence of lithium in the doped crystal. The FTIR study ascertained the metal coordination of lithium chloride doped BTZA through thiourea. The optical behavior of the doped crystal has been examined by UV spectral analysis. Thermal studies TGA & DTA of the doped crystal have been investigated and found that the doped crystal is thermally more stable than the pure crystal. The SHG test using Nd: YAG Laser confirmed the NLO activity of the pure and doped crystal. The obtained results are presented and discussed.

  5. Effect of lithium chloride on spectral, optical, thermal and mechanical behaviour of bis thiourea zinc acetate crystals.

    PubMed

    Ruby Nirmala, L; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J

    2012-11-01

    Single crystals of pure bis thiourea zinc acetate (BTZA) and lithium chloride (LiCl) doped BTZA have been synthesized and grown successfully from aqueous solutions by slow evaporation technique. The single crystals thus grown were characterized by different techniques such as single crystal XRD, AAS, FT-IR, UV-Vis, TG/DTA and SHG test. The single crystal XRD study proved that the dopant has not changed the structure of the parent crystal. The AAS study confirmed the presence of lithium in the doped crystal. The FTIR study ascertained the metal coordination of lithium chloride doped BTZA through thiourea. The optical behavior of the doped crystal has been examined by UV spectral analysis. Thermal studies TGA & DTA of the doped crystal have been investigated and found that the doped crystal is thermally more stable than the pure crystal. The SHG test using Nd: YAG Laser confirmed the NLO activity of the pure and doped crystal. The obtained results are presented and discussed. PMID:22868378

  6. Aging of adhesive interfaces treated with benzalkonium chloride and benzalkonium methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Camila; Pashley, David H

    2015-04-01

    Inhibition of endogenous dentin matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) within incompletely infiltrated hybrid layers can contribute to the preservation of resin-dentin bonds. This study evaluated the bond stability of interfaces treated with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and benzalkonium methacrylate (MBAC), and the inhibitory properties of these compounds on dentin MMP activity. Single-component adhesive ALL-BOND UNIVERSAL, modified with BAC or MBAC at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0%, was used for microtensile bond strength (?TBS) evaluation after 24 h, 6 months, and 1 yr. Beams produced from human dentin were treated with 37% phosphoric acid, dipped in 0.5% BAC, 1.0% BAC, or water (control) for 60 s, and then incubated in SensoLyte generic MMP substrate to determine MMP activity. A significant decrease in the ?TBS after 6 months and 1 yr was observed for the control group only. No significant differences among groups were shown at 24 h. After 6 months and 1 yr, the control group demonstrated significantly lower ?TBS than all treatment groups. When applied for 60 s, 0.5% BAC inhibited total MMP activity by 31%, and 1.0% BAC inhibited total MMP activity by 54%. Both BAC and MBAC contributed to the preservation of resin-dentin bonds, probably because of their inhibitory properties of endogenous dentin proteinases. PMID:25639285

  7. Preservation of resin-dentin interfaces treated with benzalkonium chloride adhesive blends.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Camila; Ortiz, Pilar A; Pashley, David H

    2015-04-01

    Reducing collagen degradation within hybrid layers may contribute to the preservation of adhesive interfaces. This study evaluated the stability of resin-dentin interfaces treated with benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-modified adhesive blends and assessed collagen degradation in dentin matrices treated with BAC. The etch-and-rinse adhesive, Adper Single Bond Plus, modified with 0.5% and 1.0% BAC, was evaluated for microtensile bond strength (?TBS) and nanoleakage (NL) after 24 h and 1 yr. Thirty completely demineralized dentin beams from human molars were dipped for 60 s in deionized water (DW; control), or in 0.5% or 1.0% BAC, and then incubated in simulated body fluid (SBF). Collagen degradation was assessed by quantification of the dry mass loss and the amount of hydroxyproline (HYP) released from hydrolyzed specimens after 1 or 4 wk. Although all groups demonstrated a significant increase in NL after 1 yr, adhesive modified with 0.5% BAC showed stable bond strength after 1 yr (9% decrease) relative to the control (44% decrease). Significantly less HYP release and dry mass loss were observed for both 0.5% and 1.0% BAC relative to the control. This in vitro study demonstrates that BAC contributes to the preservation of resin-dentin bonds for up to 1 yr by reducing collagen degradation. PMID:25691079

  8. Synthesis of cadmium and zinc semiconductor compounds from an ionic liquid containing choline chloride and urea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip J. Dale; Anura P. Samantilleke; Dilip D. Shivagan; Laurence M. Peter

    2007-01-01

    A eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea (commercially known as Reline) has been used as a medium from which CdS, CdSe, and ZnS thin films have been electrodeposited for the first time. Reline is a conductive room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) with a wide electrochemical window, which is suitable for use as a medium for electrodeposition. The voltammetric behaviour

  9. In vivo evaluation of bone-bonding of titanium metal chemically treated with a hydrogen peroxide solution containing tantalum chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Kaneko; K Tsuru; S Hayakawa; S Takemoto; C Ohtsuki; T Ozaki; H Inoue; A Osaka

    2001-01-01

    Apatite formation on implants is important in achieving a direct bonding to bone tissue. We recently showed that titanium metal chemically treated with a hydrogen peroxide solution containing tantalum chloride has the ability to form a hydroxyapatite layer in simulated body fluid which had inorganic ion composition similar to human blood plasma. In this study, a pure titanium cylinder (4.0mm

  10. Effect of polyaluminium chloride on phosphorus removal in constructed wetlands treated with swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G B; Forbes, Dean A; Hunt, P G; Cyrus, Johnsely S

    2011-01-01

    Total phosphorus (TP) removal in aged constructed wetlands poses a challenge, especially when treated with swine wastewater with high concentrations of phosphorus (P). Our earlier studies with anaerobic lagoon swine wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands showed a decline in P removal (45-22%) with increased years of operation. These particular wetlands have been treated with swine wastewater every year since the first application in 1997. Preliminary lab-scale studies were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) in the removal of phosphate-P (PO4-P) from swine wastewater. The experimental objective was to increase the phosphorus treatment efficiency in constructed wetland by adding PAC as a precipitating agent. PAC was added by continuous injection to each wetland system at a rate of 3 L day(-1) (1:5 dilution of concentrated PAC). Swine wastewater was added from an anaerobic lagoon to four constructed wetland cells (11m wide x 40m long) at TP loads of 5.4-6.1 kg ha(-1) day(-1) in two experimental periods, September to November of 2008 and 2009. Treatment efficiency of two wetland systems: marsh-pond-marsh (M-P-M) and continuous marsh (CM) was compared. The wetlands were planted with cattails (Typha latifolia L.) and bulrushes (Scirpus americanus). In 2008, PAC treatment showed an increase of 27.5 and 40.8% of TP removal over control in M-P-M and CM respectively. Similar trend was also observed in the following year. PAC as a flocculant and precipitating agent showed potential to enhance TP removal in constructed wetlands treated with swine wastewater. PMID:22049722

  11. Photoluminescence characteristics of undoped and terbium chloride doped zinc oxide films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcony, C.; Ortiz, A.; García, M.; Helman, J. S.

    1988-04-01

    The photoluminescence characteristics of undoped and TbCl3-doped zinc oxide films deposited by the spray pyrolysis technique are reported. Undoped films present the characteristic blue-green emission peak at ˜508 nm observed in single-crystal and powder ZnO. The TbCl3-doped films present a luminescence peak at ˜540 nm. The light emission of the doped films decreases with time of exposure of the sample to the excitation light. The phenomenon is interpreted in terms of a simple model in which a competitive process of hole trapping and phototrapping occurs at a radiative recombination center generated by the TbCl3.

  12. Radium-223 chloride: Extending life in prostate cancer patients by treating bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Wissing, Michel D; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B; van der Pluijm, Gabri; Gelderblom, Hans

    2013-11-01

    The treatment scope for patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is rapidly expanding. On May 15, 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved radium-223 chloride ((223)RaCl2) for the treatment of mCRPC patients whose metastases are limited to the bones. Radium-223 is an ?-emitting alkaline earth metal ion, which, similar to calcium ions, accumulates in the bone. In a phase III study (ALSYMPCA), mCRPC patients with bone metastases received best standard-of-care treatment with placebo or (223)RaCl2. At a prespecified interim analysis, the primary endpoint of median overall survival was significantly extended by 3.6 months in patients treated with radium-223 compared with placebo (P < 0.001). The radioisotope was well tolerated and gave limited bone marrow suppression. (223)RaCl2 is the first bone-targeting antitumor therapy that received FDA approval based on a significant extended median overall survival. Further studies are required to optimize its dosing and to confirm its efficacy and safety in cancer patients. PMID:24052017

  13. Changes in tissue contents of zinc, copper and iron in rats and beagle dogs treated with polaprezinc.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, I; Shibata, K; Takei, M; Matsuda, K

    1996-08-01

    Zinc, copper and iron levels of tissues in rats or beagle dogs were measured after a 13- or 52-week toxicity study of polaprezinc, which contains a zinc element. The zinc content in almost all rat tissues remarkably increased with a conspicuous decrease of copper and various changes of iron at doses of 600 mg/kg/day or more. Zinc and copper levels increased and decreased respectively, at 300 mg/kg/day. At a dose of 150 mg/kg/day, there was a slight increase of zinc in some tissues at 52-weeks, but no copper decrease. The results obtained from beagle dogs differed somewhat from that in rats. Dogs treated with polaprezinc at 50 mg/kg/day or more accumulated zinc in some tissues. A copper decrement was seen only in the liver and heart from the group given 300 mg/kg/day, whereas copper levels in the kidney of all treated groups were higher than that in the control, suggesting that canine polaprezinc toxicity is due to direct zinc toxic effects. PMID:8887886

  14. Unidirectional growth of ?001? triglycine zinc chloride crystal by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Aravinth, K; Senthil Pandian, M; Ramasamy, P

    2015-03-01

    Bulk nonlinear optical single crystal of triglycine zinc chloride (TGZC) of size 15mm diameter and 50mm length was successfully grown from solution by unidirectional growth method of Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR). The growth conditions were optimized and a maximum growth rate of 1.5mm per day was realized. The crystal system and lattice parameters were confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction studies. The structural perfection of the SR method grown crystal has been analyzed by high resolution X-ray diffraction measurement. The UV-Vis-NIR studies show that the cutoff wavelength is around 240nm. The dielectric measurements were carried out to determine the dielectric behavior for the crystal. The observations are made in the frequency range 1kHz-2MHz at the temperature range of 43-150°C. The fluorescence spectra of grown TGZC single crystals exhibit emission peak at 485nm. The microhardness measurements were used to analyze the mechanical strength of the grown TGZC crystal. The SHG efficiency of TGZC was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder method. PMID:25468436

  15. Crystalline and liquid structure of zinc chloride trihydrate: a unique ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Robert J; Losey, Bradley P; Folmer, Jacob C W; Martin, James D; Zeller, Matthias; Sommer, Roger

    2015-02-01

    The water/ZnCl2 phase diagram in the vicinity of the 75 mol % water composition is reported, demonstrating the existence of a congruently melting phase. Single crystals of this 3-equiv hydrate were grown, and the crystal structure of [Zn(OH2)6][ZnCl4] was determined. Synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction and IR and Raman spectroscopy along with reverse Monte Carlo modeling demonstrate that a CsCl-type packing of the molecular ions persists into the liquid state. Consistent with the crystalline and liquid structural data, IR spectroscopy demonstrates that the O-H bonds of coordinated water do not exhibit strong intermolecular hydrogen ion bonding but are significantly weakened because of the water's coordination to Lewis acidic zinc ions. The O-H bond weakening makes this system a very strong hydrogen-bond donor, whereas the ionic packing along with the nonpolar geometry of the molecular ions makes this system a novel nonpolar, hydrogen-bonding, ionic liquid solvent. PMID:25597378

  16. Removal of Remazol Blue 19 from wastewater by zinc-aluminium-chloride-layered double hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkhattabi, El Hassan; Lakraimi, Mohamed; Badreddine, Mohamed; Legrouri, Ahmed; Cherkaoui, Omar; Berraho, Moha

    2013-06-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), also called anionic clays, consist of cationic brucite-like layers and exchangeable interlayer anions. These hydrotalcite-like compounds, with Zn and Al in the layers and chloride in the interlayer space, were prepared following the coprecipitation method at constant pH. The affinity of this material for Remazol Blue 19, RB19 [ 2- (3- (4- Amino- 9,10- dihydro- 3- sulpho- 9,10- dioxoanthracen- 4- yl) aminobenzenesulphonyl) vinyl) disodiumsulphate], was studied as a function of contact time, pH of the solutions LDH dose and the RB19/[Zn-Al-Cl] mass ratio. It was found that 48 h is enough time for the equilibrium state to be reached with maximum RB19 retention at pH of 9 for an LDH dose equal to 100 mg and with an RB19/[Zn-Al-Cl] mass ratio higher than 3. The adsorption isotherm, described by the Langmuir model, is of L-type. The results demonstrate that RB19 retention on LDHs occurs by adsorption on external surface when RB19/[Zn-Al-Cl] mass ratio is equal or <3 and by both adsorption and interlayer ion exchange for ratios higher than 3. A mechanism for removal of RB19 anion has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and TG analysis (TG and DTG curves).

  17. Adequacy of twice daily dosing with potassium chloride and spironolactone in thiazide treated hypertensive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Toner, J M; Brawn, L A; Yeo, W W; Ramsay, L E

    1991-01-01

    1. The effects of 4-6 weeks treatment with placebo, potassium chloride 32 mmol 12 hourly, and spironolactone 25 mg 12 hourly upon the plasma potassium concentration-time profile were examined in hypertensive patients taking bendrofluazide 5 mg daily. 2. When compared with placebo, potassium chloride increased peak plasma potassium concentration (P less than 0.05), 12 h AUC for plasma potassium (P less than 0.1), and 12 h urine potassium excretion (P = 0.002). Spironolactone increased peak plasma potassium concentration (P less than 0.05), and 12 h AUC for plasma potassium (P less than 0.05), compared with placebo values. 3. Potassium chloride and spironolactone did not differ significantly in any respect other than 12 h urine potassium excretion. The 12 h AUC for plasma potassium was 35% larger with spironolactone than potassium chloride (not significant). 4. With both active drugs peak plasma potassium was observed 2-3 h after dosing, and efficacy tended to wane towards 12 h. However, variability of plasma potassium within the dose interval was not increased markedly, and 12 hourly dosing is probably satisfactory for both potassium chloride and spironolactone at the doses studied. PMID:2049255

  18. Removal and inactivation of Cryptosporidium and microbial indicators by a quaternary ammonium chloride (QAC)-treated zeolite in pilot filters.

    PubMed

    Abbaszadegan, Morteza; Monteiro, Patricia; Ouwens, Rudolf N; Ryu, Hodon; Alum, Absar

    2006-01-01

    A set of pilot filters packed with Zeolite filter media treated with a quaternary ammonium chloride (QAC) were evaluated to verify the proof of concept of their combined antimicrobial capabilities. Escherichia coli was removed and inactivated the most (2.83 log), followed by MS-2 (2.75 log), Klebsiella terriena (2.21 log), PRD-1 (1.95 log), Chlorella vulgaris (1.92 log), and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts (1.78 log). Especially, inactivation of C. parvum oocysts (1.19 log) was higher than physical removal (0.54 log). The data suggest that QAC-treated Zeolite in the pilot filters has microbial inactivation capabilities and may have useful applications in other types of filter media. PMID:16760096

  19. Comparative toxicity of a zinc salt, zinc powder and zinc oxide to Eisenia fetida, Enchytraeus albidus and Folsomia candida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koen Lock; Colin R. Janssen

    2003-01-01

    The pore water zinc concentration and the calcium chloride extracted zinc fraction are higher in the soils spiked with a zinc salt (ZnCl2) compared to soils spiked with zinc oxide or zinc powder. Based on total zinc concentrations in the soil, the acute toxicity of zinc salt to the compost worm Eisenia fetida, the potworm Enchytraeus albidus and the springtail

  20. Zinc

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Crohn’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Down syndrome, Hansen’s disease, ulcerative colitis, peptic ulcers and promoting weight gain in people ... medical treatment has produced varying results. Crohn’s disease. Ulcerative colitis. Diabetes. Treating the common cold when used as ...

  1. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shefali; Mishra, Kumkum; Tandon, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE) were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI) of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids) were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found (r = ?0.97) between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated (r = 0.95) with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent. PMID:25505908

  2. Investigation of optical and electrical properties of L-Cystein doped zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) crystal for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anis, Mohd; Shaikh, R. N.; Shirsat, M. D.; Hussaini, S. S.

    2014-08-01

    The single crystal of L-Cystein doped zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) has been grown by slow evaporation technique. The optical study revealed that the doped ZTC crystal has high transmission with lowest cut off wavelength of 306 nm. The optical band gap was found to be 4.2 eV. The transition band gaps were studied using the photoluminescence spectrum. The incorporation of L-Cystein in ZTC was estimated qualitatively by FT-IR analysis. The presence of dopant was confirmed by energy diffraction X-ray analysis (EDAX) analysis. The lower dielectric characteristics of doped ZTC crystal were scrutinized by dielectric measurements. The high thermal stability of grown crystal was ascertained by TG/DTA analysis. The Second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency measured using Nd-YAG laser is 1.96 times that of pure ZTC.

  3. Influence of Cs(I)-doping on the spectral, thermal, morphological and optical properties of bis(thiourea)zinc(II) chloride crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meena, K.; Muthu, K.; Meenatchi, V.; Rajasekar, M.; Aditya Prasad, A.; Meenakshisundaram, SP.

    Single crystals of alkali metal caesium(I) doped bis(thiourea)zinc(II) chloride are grown at room temperature by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Powder XRD studies reveal some interesting features in the XRD profiles with changes in intensity patterns in doped specimen due to stress development in the crystal. The incorporation of Cs(I) into the crystal lattice was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Slight shifts in vibrational patterns of doped specimen indicate that the crystal undergoes considerable lattice stress as result of doping. SEM studies of pure and doped samples reveal the external morphology. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal studies reveal the purity of the material and the specimens are stable up to the melting point. The optical studies reveal that absorption is minimum in the visible region and doping influenced the diffuse reflectance spectrum. The band gap energies of the pure and doped specimens were estimated by the application of Kubelka-Munk algorithm.

  4. Evaluation of Novel Design Strategies for Developing Zinc Finger Nucleases Tools for Treating Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Christian; Sherman, William; Pallis, Jani; Bajwa, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) are associated with cell death and apoptosis by binding at countless undesired locations. This cytotoxicity is associated with the binding ability of engineered zinc finger domains to bind dissimilar DNA sequences with high affinity. In general, binding preferences of transcription factors are associated with significant degenerated diversity and complexity which convolutes the design and engineering of precise DNA binding domains. Evolutionary success of natural zinc finger proteins, however, evinces that nature created specific evolutionary traits and strategies, such as modularity and rank-specific recognition to cope with binding complexity that are critical for creating clinical viable tools to precisely modify the human genome. Our findings indicate preservation of general modularity and significant alteration of the rank-specific binding preferences of the three-finger binding domain of transcription factor SP1 when exchanging amino acids in the 2nd finger. PMID:24808958

  5. Enhanced reactivation of nitrous acid treated adenovirus is not associated with enhanced mutagenesis in pretreated with heavy metals HeLa cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Piperakis

    1995-01-01

    The reversion of frequency of an adenovirus 2 temperature-sensitive growth mutant treated with different doses of nitrous acid was determined after infection of control. UV-irradiated, cadmium chloride and zinc chloride treated HeLa cells. No enhanced mutagenesis was observed.

  6. Distribution of chloride and potassium in cellular and luminal compartments of control and drug-treated turtle thyroid.

    PubMed Central

    Chow, S Y; Woodbury, D M; Yen-Chow, Y C

    1983-01-01

    Chloride and potassium activities inside the lumen and the transepithelial potentials of control and drug-treated turtle thyroid follicles were determined simultaneously by ion-selective and conventional 3 M-KCl micro-electrodes, respectively. Water and electrolyte contents of these thyroid tissues were determined chemically after each experiment. Cellular and luminal concentrations of Cl- and K+ in control and drug-treated thyroid glands were derived from the data obtained. Both Cl- and K+ equilibrium potentials across the follicular cell membranes calculated from their concentration gradients are not identical to their corresponding membrane potentials measured directly. Thus, transport of both ions occurs. Thyrotrophin, SITS and ouabain increased both cellular and luminal Cl- concentrations. Acetazolamide increased the cellular but did not alter the concentrations. Furosemide and perchlorate markedly increased the cellular but decreased the luminal Cl- concentrations. There is a discrepancy in the intracellular K+ concentration between values derived from electrometric data as measured by ion-selective micro-electrodes and those calculated from the chemical analyses. The electrometrically determined intracellular K+ concentration is smaller. Intracellular Cl- concentrations derived from measurements with the Cl- ion-selective micro-electrodes were in the same range as those calculated from chemical analyses. Thus, either method provides accurate values for intracellular Cl- concentrations. PMID:6310090

  7. In-Situ Seawater Corrosion of Bare, Diffusion Zinc Treated and Alclad Aluminum Heat Exchanger Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Sasscer; T. Summerson; R. Ernst

    1982-01-01

    The Center for Energy and Environment Research of the University of Puerto Rico, The Trane Company, Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Corp., and Solar America, Inc. have jointly conducted a corrosion test of bare and zinc diffusion protected 3003 aluminum extrusions and of bare and 7072 alclad 3004 aluminum tubes. From June through November 1981, six feet per second OTEC site

  8. Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viets, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Interferences commonly encountered in the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc at crustal abundance levels are effectively eliminated using a rapid, sensitive, organic extraction technique. A potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid digestion solubilizes the metals not tightly bound in the silicate lattice of rocks, soils, and stream sediments. The six metals are selectively extracted into a 10% Aliquat 336-MIBK organic phase in the presence of ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. Metals in the organic extract are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to the 0.02-ppm level for silver, cadmium, copper, and zinc and to the 0.2-ppm level for bismuth and lead with a maximum relative standard deviation of 18.8% for known reference samples. An additional hydrofluoric acid digestion may be used to determine metals substituted in the silicate lattice.

  9. Distribution of nickel, zinc, and copper in rat organs after oral administration of nickel(II) chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Cempel; Katarzyna Janicka

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of Ni administered as NiCl2 · 6H2O in the drinking water (300 and 1200 ppm Ni for 90 d) was studied using male Wistar rats. Next, the effect of Ni on the concentration\\u000a of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in selected organs and serum was measured. The metals were analyzed in the liver, kidney, lung,\\u000a spleen, brain, and

  10. Reversal of Hair Loss following Vertical Gastroplasty when Treated with Zinc Sulphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilary J. Neve; Waqar A. Bhatti; Clare Soulsby; John Kincey; T. Vincent Taylor

    1996-01-01

    Background: Nutritional complications following surgery for morbid obesity include both vitamin and mineral deficiency. Severe\\u000a cases of zinc deficiency can lead to alopecia, diarrhoea, emotional disorders, weight loss, intercurrent infection, bullous-pustular\\u000a dermatitis and hypogonadism in males. Hair loss may occur after vertical gastroplasty (VG). Methods: Diffuse hair loss occurred\\u000a in 47 out of 130 patients who underwent VG. All patients

  11. Effect of zinc oxide on flame retardant finishing of plasma pre-treated cotton fabric

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. L. Lam; C. W. Kan; C. W. M. Yuen

    2011-01-01

    An organic phosphorus compound (flame retardant agent, FR) in combination with a melamine resin (crosslinking agent, CL),\\u000a phosphoric acid (catalyst, PA) and zinc oxide (co-catalyst, ZnO\\/nano-ZnO) imparted effective and durable flame retardant properties.\\u000a Also, atmospheric pressure plasma jet was applied as pre-treatment to improve post-finishing (flame retardant finishing) on\\u000a cotton fabrics. In the present paper, surface morphology, chemical structure analysis,

  12. The performance of enhanced coagulation for treating slightly polluted raw water combining polyaluminum chloride with variable charge soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z L; Wu, C D; Wang, Y J; Tang, J C; Liu, Y P

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility and effectiveness of treating pollutants in slightly polluted raw water by variable charge soil and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) was investigated. Removal efficiencies of turbidity, phenol, aniline, algae and heavy metals (Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Pb(2+)) were used to evaluate the coagulation performance. The results indicated that the addition of variable charge soil as a coagulant aid is advantageous due to the improvement of removal efficiencies. The tests also demonstrated that the presence of variable charge soil increased the removal of turbidity rather than adding residuary turbidity. The use of variable charge soil produced settleable flocs of greater density and bigger size. The main mechanism involved in the PAC coagulation was supposed to be sweep flocculation as well as charge-neutralization. Variable charge soil played a promoted aid role by adsorption in the enhanced coagulation process. It is concluded that the enhanced coagulation by PAC and variable charge soil, as coagulant and adsorbent, is more effective and efficient than traditional coagulation. PMID:25521123

  13. Toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats treated by two different routes: single intravenous injection and single oral administration.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jonghye; Kim, Heyjin; Kim, Pilje; Jo, Eunhye; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Moo-Yeol; Jin, Seon Mi; Park, Kwangsik

    2015-01-01

    Toxicokinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) was studied in rats via a single intravenous (iv) injection and a single oral administration (3 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg), respectively. Blood concentrations of zinc (Zn) were monitored for 7 d and tissue distribution were determined in liver, kidneys, lung, spleen, thymus, brain, and testes. To ascertain the excretion of ZnONP, Zn levels in urine and feces were measured for 7 d. ZnONP were not readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) after oral administration and were excreted mostly in feces. When the nanoparticles were injected iv to rats at a dose of 30 mg/kg, peak concentration appeared at 5 min but returned to normal range by d 2 (48 h after injection). ZnONP were distributed mainly to liver, kidneys, lung, and spleen, but not to thymus, brain, and testes. The distribution level was significantly decreased to normal by d 7. Feces excretion levels after iv injection supported biliary excretion of ZnONP. In rats injected iv with 30 mg/kg, mitotic figures in hepatocytes were significantly increased and multifocal acute injuries with dark brown pigment were noted in lungs, while no significant damage was observed in rats treated orally with the same dosage. Color versions of one or more of the figures in the article can be found online at www.tandfonline.com/uteh. PMID:25674826

  14. Effect of post-treatment processing on copper migration from Douglas-fir lumber treated with ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate.

    PubMed

    Ye, Min; Morrell, Jeffrey J

    2015-04-01

    Migration of heavy metals into aquatic environments has become a concern in some regions of the world. Many wood preservatives are copper based systems that have the potential to migrate from the wood and into the surrounding environment. Some wood treaters have developed "best management practices" (BMPs) that are designed to reduce the risk of migration, but there are few comparative studies assessing the efficacy of these processes. The potential for using various heating combinations to limit copper migration was assessed using ammoniacal coper zinc arsenate treated Douglas-fir lumber. Kiln drying and air drying both proved to be the most effective methods for limiting copper migration, while post-treatment steaming or hot water immersion produced more variable results. The results should provide guidance for improving the BMP processes. PMID:25659940

  15. Xenon chloride ultraviolet B laser is more effective in treating psoriasis and in inducing T cell apoptosis than narrow-band ultraviolet B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoltán Novák; Béla Bónis; Eszter Baltás; Imre Ocsovszki; Ferenc Ignácz; Attila Dobozy; Lajos Kemény

    2002-01-01

    Earlier we reported that a 308-nm xenon chloride (XeCl) UVB laser is highly effective for treating psoriasis. As ultraviolet B light seems to cause T cell apoptosis, in the present study we studied the ability of the XeCl laser to induce T-cell apoptosis in vitro, and then compared the apoptosis-inducing capacities of narrow-band UVB (NB-UVB) light and the XeCl laser.

  16. Growth, optical, mechanical and dielectric studies on NLO active pure and metal ion doped single crystals of bis-thiourea zinc chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parasuraman, K.; Sakthi Murugesan, K.; Uthrakumar, R.; Jerome Das, S.; Milton Boaz, B.

    2011-10-01

    Good quality single crystals of pure and metal ion (Ni 2+) doped bis-thiourea zinc chloride (BTZC) possessing excellent nonlinear optical properties have been grown from aqueous solution by the slow solvent evaporation technique. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals are determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. The well defined sharp peaks in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern reveals the crystalline perfection and the EDAX spectrum confirms the presence of dopant in the lattice of the parent crystal. The DRS UV-visible spectral study reveals improved transparency for the doped crystal, ascertaining the inclusion of metal ion in the lattice. The optical band gap of the pure and doped crystals was calculated to be 4.8 and 5.2 eV respectively from the UV transmission spectrum. The vickers hardness test brings forth higher hardness value for Ni 2+doped BTZC as compared to pure BTZC crystal. The dielectric measurement exhibits very low dielectric constant and dielectric loss at higher frequencies for both the pure and Ni 2+doped BTZC. The existence of second harmonic generation signals in the crystal also has been confirmed by performing the Kurtz powder test.

  17. Influence of Cs(I)-doping on the spectral, thermal, morphological and optical properties of bis(thiourea)zinc(II) chloride crystals.

    PubMed

    Meena, K; Muthu, K; Meenatchi, V; Rajasekar, M; Aditya Prasad, A; Meenakshisundaram, Sp

    2014-05-01

    Single crystals of alkali metal caesium(I) doped bis(thiourea)zinc(II) chloride are grown at room temperature by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Powder XRD studies reveal some interesting features in the XRD profiles with changes in intensity patterns in doped specimen due to stress development in the crystal. The incorporation of Cs(I) into the crystal lattice was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Slight shifts in vibrational patterns of doped specimen indicate that the crystal undergoes considerable lattice stress as result of doping. SEM studies of pure and doped samples reveal the external morphology. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal studies reveal the purity of the material and the specimens are stable up to the melting point. The optical studies reveal that absorption is minimum in the visible region and doping influenced the diffuse reflectance spectrum. The band gap energies of the pure and doped specimens were estimated by the application of Kubelka-Munk algorithm. PMID:24562162

  18. Zinc and copper distribution in swine wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Cestonaro do Amaral, André; Kunz, Airton; Radis Steinmetz, Ricardo Luís; Justi, Karin Cristiane

    2014-08-01

    Swine wastewater contain high levels of metals, such as copper and zinc, which can cause a negative impact on the environment. Anaerobic digestion is a process commonly used to remove carbon, and can act on metal availability (e.g., solubility or oxidation state). The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of anaerobic digestion on total Zn and Cu contents, and their chemical fractioning due to the biodegradation of the effluent over different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The sequential extraction protocol proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR), plus two additional fractions, was the method chosen for this study of Cu and Zn distribution evaluation in swine wastewater. The Zn and Cu concentrations in raw swine manure were 63.58 ± 27.72 mg L(-1) and 8.98 ± 3.99 mg L(-1), respectively. The metal retention capacity of the bioreactor decreased when the HRT was reduced from 17.86 d to 5.32 d. Anaerobic digestion had a direct influence on zinc and copper distribution when raw manure (RM) and digested manure (DM) were compared. The reducible fraction showed a reduction of between 3.17% and 7.84% for Zn and between 2.52% and 11.92% for Cu when DM was compared with RM. However, the metal concentration increased in the oxidizable fraction of DM, viz. from 3.01% to 10.64% for Zn and from 4.49% to 16.71% for Cu, thus demonstrating the effect of anaerobic conditions on metal availability. PMID:24794386

  19. Exploring zinc coordination in novel zinc battery electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Kar, Mega; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R

    2014-06-14

    The coordination of zinc ions by tetraglyme has been investigated here to support the development of novel electrolytes for rechargeable zinc batteries. Zn(2+) reduction is electrochemically reversible from tetraglyme. The spectroscopic data, molar conductivity and thermal behavior as a function of zinc composition, between mole ratios [80?:?20] and [50?:?50] [tetraglyme?:?zinc chloride], all suggest that strong interactions take place between chloro-zinc complexes and tetraglyme. Varying the concentration of zinc chloride produces a range of zinc-chloro species (ZnClx)(2-x) in solution, which hinder full interaction between the zinc ion and tetraglyme. Both the [70?:?30] and [50?:?50] mixtures are promising electrolyte candidates for reversible zinc batteries, such as the zinc-air device. PMID:24760367

  20. The microbial community of a passive biochemical reactor treating arsenic, zinc, and sulfate-rich seepage.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Susan Anne; Khoshnoodi, Maryam; Rezadehbashi, Maryam; Taupp, Marcus; Hallam, Steven; Mattes, Al; Sanei, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Sulfidogenic biochemical reactors (BCRs) for metal removal that use complex organic carbon have been shown to be effective in laboratory studies, but their performance in the field is highly variable. Successful operation depends on the types of microorganisms supported by the organic matrix, and factors affecting the community composition are unknown. A molecular survey of a field-based BCR that had been removing zinc and arsenic for over 6?years revealed that the microbial community was dominated by methanogens related to Methanocorpusculum sp. and Methanosarcina sp., which co-occurred with Bacteroidetes environmental groups, such as Vadin HA17, in places where the organic matter was more degraded. The metabolic potential for organic matter decomposition by Ruminococcaceae was prevalent in samples with more pyrolyzable carbon. Rhodobium- and Hyphomicrobium-related genera within the Rhizobiales order that have the metabolic potential for dark hydrogen fermentation and methylotrophy, and unclassified Comamonadaceae were the dominant Proteobacteria. The unclassified environmental group Sh765B-TzT-29 was an important Delta-Proteobacteria group in this BCR that co-occurred with the dominant Rhizobiales operational taxonomic units. Organic matter degradation is one driver for shifting the microbial community composition and therefore possibly the performance of these bioreactors over time. PMID:25798439

  1. The Microbial Community of a Passive Biochemical Reactor Treating Arsenic, Zinc, and Sulfate-Rich Seepage

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Susan Anne; Khoshnoodi, Maryam; Rezadehbashi, Maryam; Taupp, Marcus; Hallam, Steven; Mattes, Al; Sanei, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Sulfidogenic biochemical reactors (BCRs) for metal removal that use complex organic carbon have been shown to be effective in laboratory studies, but their performance in the field is highly variable. Successful operation depends on the types of microorganisms supported by the organic matrix, and factors affecting the community composition are unknown. A molecular survey of a field-based BCR that had been removing zinc and arsenic for over 6?years revealed that the microbial community was dominated by methanogens related to Methanocorpusculum sp. and Methanosarcina sp., which co-occurred with Bacteroidetes environmental groups, such as Vadin HA17, in places where the organic matter was more degraded. The metabolic potential for organic matter decomposition by Ruminococcaceae was prevalent in samples with more pyrolyzable carbon. Rhodobium- and Hyphomicrobium-related genera within the Rhizobiales order that have the metabolic potential for dark hydrogen fermentation and methylotrophy, and unclassified Comamonadaceae were the dominant Proteobacteria. The unclassified environmental group Sh765B-TzT-29 was an important Delta-Proteobacteria group in this BCR that co-occurred with the dominant Rhizobiales operational taxonomic units. Organic matter degradation is one driver for shifting the microbial community composition and therefore possibly the performance of these bioreactors over time. PMID:25798439

  2. Uptake of cadmium and zinc by corn on sludge-treated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Naylor, L.M. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA)); Loehr, R.C. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA)); Barmasse, M.

    1987-04-01

    Since soil physical and chemical characteristics and the type of crop grown influence the uptake of metals by crops, a method to assess agricultural interactions of a sludge with specific soils and crops would be beneficial to engineers and plant and soil scientists. The purpose of this comparative study was to assess plant growth and cadmium and zinc uptake by field corn grown in a glasshouse in pots and in field plots. Corn is known to be a non-accumulator crop and, as such, the plant tissue metal concentrations would reflect changes in soil metal concentration to a lesser extent than a metal accumulator crop. In contrast, however, corn has a larger root system than vegetable crops and potentially would access soil below the layer of sludge incorporation. More specifically, the objectives of this study were to: (a) determine statistical relationships between metal uptake by corn grown in the two environments, (b) investigate the divergencies of such uptake by a crop which is less sensitive to soil metal content, and (c) assess growth of a crop with a high nutrient uptake in pots and in the field.

  3. Reactivity of metallothioneins of frog Rana ridibunda treated by copper and zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Falfushynska, H I; Romanchuk, L D; Stoliar, O B

    2010-01-01

    The metal-buffering and stress proteins metallothioneins (MTs) of frog are characterised by unusually high content of copper as for vertebrate animals and instability that was shown in our previous studies. They easily lost copper and especially zinc under unfavourable conditions. The aim of this study was to examine the reactivity of SH groups in the MTs from the liver of frog Rana ridibunda after the effect of Cu2+ (0.01 mg/l) and Zn2+ (0.1 mg/l) ions on the organism during 14 days. The alpha- and beta-domains of MTs with molecular weights of about 4 kDa were separated by the size-exclusion chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Unlike higher vertebrates, frogs demonstrated higher reactivity of alpha-domain than beta-domain with the Ellman's reagent (DTNB). The signs of partial oxidations in beta-domain included the creation of by-products with molecular weight about 12 kDa, low reactivity of SH-groups, and typical of -S-S-bonds peculiarities of UV-spectra. The effect of both metal ions on frog provoked the elevation of SH-groups reactivity in a-domain with the appearance of by-product with molecular weight of 16 kDa and its reduction in beta-domain. The incubation of MTs of control animals with 0.5 and 5.0 mM of H2O2 did not affect its chromatographic characteristics. In the frogs loaded by Cu2+ and Zn2+ the effect of 5.0 mM H2O2 on MTs provoked the release of 4 kDa product. So the alpha-domain is responsible for the increased release of metals from injured MTs in frogs, whereas extremely high oxidizability of beta-domain makes its participation in the exchange of metals elusive and provokes the aggregation of MTs. PMID:21323122

  4. Performance traits and immune response of broiler chicks treated with zinc and ascorbic acid supplementation during cyclic heat stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Naila; Naz, Shabana; Khan, Ajab; Khan, Sarzamin; Khan, Rifat Ullah

    2014-12-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of zinc (Zn) and ascorbic acid (AA) in heat-stressed broilers. A total of 160-day-old broiler chicks of approximately the same weight and appearance were divided into four treatment groups (control, T1, T2, and T3). Control group was fed a standard diet without any supplementation. T1 was supplemented with Zn at the rate of 60 mg/kg of feed, T2 was supplemented with 300 mg/kg of feed AA, and T3 was supplemented with combination of Zn and AA. From week 3 to 5, heat stress environment was provided at the rate of 12 h at 25 °C, 3 h at 25 to 34 °C, 6 h at 34 °C, and 3 h at 34 to 25 °C daily. The results revealed that feed intake, body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and weight of thymus, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius improved significantly ( P < 0.05) in T3 compared to the other treatments. Antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bursal disease (IBD), and infectious bronchitis (IB) increased significantly ( P < 0.05) in T2 and T3 groups. However, total leucocytes count, lymphocytes, and monocytes increased ( P < 0.05) in all treated groups compared to control. The results indicated that the supplementation of Zn or AA alone or in combination improved the performance and immune status of broilers reared under heat stress.

  5. Coplanar amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor with He plasma treated heavily doped layer

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Ho-young [Advanced Display Research Center, Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); LG Display R and D Center, 245 Lg-ro, Wollong-myeon, Paju-si, Gyeonggi-do 413-811 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bok-young; Lee, Young-jang; Lee, Jung-il; Yang, Myoung-su; Kang, In-byeong [LG Display R and D Center, 245 Lg-ro, Wollong-myeon, Paju-si, Gyeonggi-do 413-811 (Korea, Republic of); Mativenga, Mallory; Jang, Jin, E-mail: jjang@khu.ac.kr [Advanced Display Research Center, Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-13

    We report thermally stable coplanar amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with heavily doped n{sup +} a-IGZO source/drain regions. Doping is through He plasma treatment in which the resistivity of the a-IGZO decreases from 2.98 ??cm to 2.79?×?10{sup ?3} ??cm after treatment, and then it increases to 7.92?×?10{sup ?2} ??cm after annealing at 300?°C. From the analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the concentration of oxygen vacancies in He plasma treated n{sup +}a-IGZO does not change much after thermal annealing at 300?°C, indicating thermally stable n{sup +} a-IGZO, even for TFTs with channel length L?=?4??m. Field-effect mobility of the coplanar a-IGZO TFTs with He plasma treatment changes from 10.7 to 9.2?cm{sup 2}/V?s after annealing at 300?°C, but the performance of the a-IGZO TFT with Ar or H{sub 2} plasma treatment degrades significantly after 300?°C annealing.

  6. Efficient organic Schottky junction solar cells with a platinum chloride-treated PEDOT:PSS interfacial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Kyeongil; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Kim, Seok-Soon; Kim, Dong-Yu; Na, Seok-In

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate highly efficient organic-based Schottky junction solar cells (OSJSCs) obtained by poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) modification with solution-processed platinum chloride (PtCl4) treatment. The effect of PtCl4 on PEDOT:PSS properties and device performances of solar cells was investigated. Kelvin probe and 4-point probe studies demonstrated that PtCl4 decreased the PEDOT:PSS sheet-resistance and increased the PEDOT:PSS work-function, thereby inducing an improved built-in potential and interface resistance. As a result, with the aid of the PtCl4 treatment, the Schottky junction device had a high power conversion efficiency of 3%, which was more than 20% higher than the reference OSJSCs with no PtCl4, indicating that PtCl4 can be a promising PEDOT:PSS modifier for raising the cell-performances of Schottky-junction based organic solar cells.

  7. Single-Step Process to Treat the High Chloride Pu Inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    Leugemors, Robert K. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); MacFarlan, Paul J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Jones, Stanley L. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Delegard, Calvin H. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wallace, Dale E. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2002-03-29

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), operated by Fluor Hanford identified that up to 1000 items in their inventory contained high concentrations of chloride salts. This is problematic in that some of these salts are volatile at stabilization temperatures. At temperature (> 950 C) the molten salt is volatile and very corrosive to the furnace and off-gas system. Early testing at PFP indicated that the salt would deposit and plug the off-gas line. After stabilization, a sample of the material is processed through a Loss-on-Ignition (LOI) test. This test is intended to demonstrate that the stabilized material has < 0.5% moisture, which is required to meet Department of Energy (DOE) Order 3013 requirements. This moisture content is determined by heating a sample of the stabilized material to 1000 C and measuring the weight loss. All weight loss is assumed to be moisture (water). Consequently, any salt remaining after stabilization will volatilize to some extent during the LOI testing. This could cause the sample to fail the LOI test and require additional stabilization processing for the failed material. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) identified a potential process whereby the volatile nature of the salts could be used to potentially separate the salts from the plutonium oxide. After identification of this potential process, the Nuclear Material Focus Area acted quickly and as a result, in July 2001, PNNL was funded to design, build, and test a simple proof-of-principle system.

  8. New Process of Pellets-Metallized Sintering Process (PMSP) to Treat Zinc-Bearing Dust from Iron and Steel Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Tiejun; Zhu, Deqing

    2015-02-01

    An innovative process of pellets-metallized sintering process (PMSP) to prepare pre-reduced ironmaking burden using zinc-bearing dust has been developed. The pre-reduced sinter product, assaying 60.53 pct Fe with the metallization degree of 45.23 pct, and the Zn and Pb content of 0.18 and 0.02 pct with the removal rate of 92.78 and 96.37 pct were obtained at the productivity of 0.471 t m-2 h-1 and tumble index of 81.31 pct. PMSP has opened a new way to utilize the zinc-bearing dust efficiently.

  9. Efficacy of oral potassium chloride administration in treating lactating dairy cows with experimentally induced hypokalemia, hypochloremia, and alkalemia.

    PubMed

    Constable, P D; Hiew, M W H; Tinkler, S; Townsend, J

    2014-03-01

    Hypokalemia occurs commonly in lactating dairy cows. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) whether a 24-h oral KCl dose of 0.4 g/kg of body weight (BW) was effective and safe in hypokalemic cattle; (2) whether potassium was best administered as 2 large doses or multiple smaller doses over a 24-h period; and (3) the effect of oral KCl administration on plasma Mg concentration and urine Mg excretion in fasted lactating dairy cattle. Plasma K and Cl concentrations were decreased, and blood pH increased, in 15 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows by administering 2 intramuscular (i.m.) 10-mg injections of isoflupredone acetate 24h apart followed by 2 i.m. injections of furosemide (1mg/kg of BW) 8h apart and by decreasing feed intake. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups with 5 cows/group: untreated control (group C); oral administration of KCl at 0.05 g/kg of BW 8 times at 3-h intervals (group K3); and oral administration of KCl at 0.2g/kg of BW twice at 12-h intervals (group K12). A 24-h KCl dose rate of 0.4 g/kg of BW increased plasma and milk K concentration and plasma Cl concentration, and corrected the metabolic alkalosis and alkalemia, with no clinically significant difference between 2 large doses (group K12) or multiple small doses (group K3) of KCl over 24 h. Oral KCl administration decreased peripheral fat mobilization in cattle with experimentally induced hypokalemia, as measured by changes in plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration, and slightly augmented the fasting-induced decrease in plasma Mg concentration. Our findings support recommendations for a 24-h oral KCl dose of 0.4 g/kg of BW for treating moderately hypokalemic cattle. Additional Mg may need to be administered to inappetant lactating dairy cattle being treated with oral KCl to minimize K-induced decreases in magnesium absorption. PMID:24377802

  10. Vinyl Chloride

    Cancer.gov

    Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas that burns easily. It does not occur naturally and must be produced industrially for its commercial uses. Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC); PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials. Vinyl chloride is also produced as a combustion product in tobacco smoke.

  11. Spectroscopic verification of zinc absorption and distribution in the desert plant Prosopis juliflora-velutina (velvet mesquite) treated with ZnO nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Viezcas, J.A.; Castillo-Michel, H.; Servin, A.D.; Peralta-Videa, J.R.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of metal nanoparticles (NPs) on biological systems, especially plants, is still not well understood. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs in velvet mesquite (Prosopis juliflora-velutina). Mesquite seedlings were grown for 15 days in hydroponics with ZnO NPs (10 nm) at concentrations varying from 500 to 4000 mg L?1. Zinc concentrations in roots, stems and leaves were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Plant stress was examined by the specific activity of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APOX); while the biotransformation of ZnO NPs and Zn distribution in tissues was determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and micro X-ray fluorescence (?XRF), respectively. ICP-OES results showed that Zn concentrations in tissues (2102 ± 87, 1135 ± 56, and 628 ± 130 mg kg?1 d wt in roots, stems, and leaves, respectively) were found at 2000 mg ZnO NPs L?1. Stress tests showed that ZnO NPs increased CAT in roots, stems, and leaves, while APOX increased only in stems and leaves. XANES spectra demonstrated that ZnO NPs were not present in mesquite tissues, while Zn was found as Zn(II), resembling the spectra of Zn(NO3)2. The ?XRF analysis confirmed the presence of Zn in the vascular system of roots and leaves in ZnO NP treated plants. PMID:22820414

  12. Realization of write-once-read-many-times memory device with O2 plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Chen, T. P.; Li, X. D.; Liu, Z.; Wong, J. I.; Liu, Y.; Leong, K. C.

    2014-01-01

    A write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices based on O2 plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films has been demonstrated. The device has a simple Al/IGZO/Al structure. The device has a normally OFF state with a very high resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2 V is ˜109 ? for a device with the radius of 50 ?m) as a result of the O2 plasma treatment on the IGZO thin films. The device could be switched to an ON state with a low resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2 V is ˜103 ? for the radius of 50 ?m) by applying a voltage pulse (e.g., 10 V/1 ?s). The WORM device has good data-retention and reading-endurance capabilities.

  13. Realization of write-once-read-many-times memory device with O{sub 2} plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, P., E-mail: liup0013@ntu.edu.sg; Chen, T. P., E-mail: echentp@ntu.edu.sg; Li, X. D.; Wong, J. I. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Liu, Z. [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liu, Y. [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610054 (China); Leong, K. C. [GLOBALFOUNDRIES Singapore Pte Ltd, 60 Woodlands Industrial Park D Street 2, Singapore 738406 (Singapore)

    2014-01-20

    A write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices based on O{sub 2} plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films has been demonstrated. The device has a simple Al/IGZO/Al structure. The device has a normally OFF state with a very high resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2?V is ?10{sup 9} ? for a device with the radius of 50??m) as a result of the O{sub 2} plasma treatment on the IGZO thin films. The device could be switched to an ON state with a low resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2?V is ?10{sup 3} ? for the radius of 50??m) by applying a voltage pulse (e.g., 10?V/1??s). The WORM device has good data-retention and reading-endurance capabilities.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and thermodynamics of complex formation of some new Schiff base ligands with some transition metal ions and the adduct formation of zinc Schiff base complexes with some organotin chlorides.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Mozaffar; Asadi, Zahra; Torabi, Susan; Lotfi, Najmeh

    2012-08-01

    Four new complexes, [M(Salpyr)] where Salpyr=N,N'-bis(Salicylidene)-2,3- and 3,4-diiminopyridine and M=Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and UV-vis spectrophotometry. UV-vis spectrophotometric study of the adduct formation of the zinc(II) complexes, [Zn(2,3-Salpyr)] and [Zn(3,4-Salpyr)], as donor with R(2)SnCl(2) (R=methyl, phenyl, n-butyl), PhSnCl(3) and Bu(3)SnCl as acceptors has been investigated in methanol, as solvent. The formation constants and the thermodynamic free energies were measured using UV-vis spectrophotometry. Titration of the organotin chlorides with Zn(II) complexes at various temperatures (T=283-313K) leads to 1:1 adduct formation. The results show that the formation constants were decreased by increasing the temperature. The trend of the reaction of R(n)SnCl(4-n) as acceptors toward given zinc complexes was as follows: PhSnCl3 > Me2SnCl2 > Ph2SnCl2 > Bu2SnCl2 > Bu3SnCl. By considering the formation constants and the ?G° of the complex formation for the Schiff base as donor and the M(II) as acceptor, the following conclusion was drawn: the formation constant for a given Schiff base changes according to the following trend: Ni > Cu > Co > Zn > Mn. PMID:22626922

  15. Zinc movement in sewage-sludge-treated soils as influenced by soil properties, irrigation water quality, and soil moisture level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, J.E.; Lund, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A soil column study was conducted to assess the movement of Zn in sewage-sludge-amended soils. Varables investigated were soil properties, irrigation water quality, and soil moisture level. Bulk samples of the surface layer of six soil series were packed into columns, 10.2 cm in diameter and 110 cm in length. An anaerobically digested municipal sewage sludge was incorporated into the top 20 cm of each column at a rate of 300 mg ha-1. The columns were maintained at moisture levels of saturation and unsaturation and were leached with two waters of different quality. At the termination of leaching, the columns were cut open and the soil was sectioned and analyzed. Zinc movement was evaluated by mass balance accounting and correlation and regression analysis. Zinc movement in the unsaturated columns ranged from 3 to 30 cm, with a mean of 10 cm. The difference in irrigation water quality did not have an effect on Zn movement. Most of the Zn applied to the unsaturated columns remained in the sludge-amended soil layer (96.1 to 99.6%, with a mean of 98.1%). The major portion of Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer accumulated in the 0- to 3-cm depth (35.7 to 100%, with a mean of 73.6%). The mean final soil pH values decreased in the order: saturated columns = sludge-amended soil layer > untreated soils > unsaturated columns. Total Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer was correlated negatively at P = 0.001 with final pH (r = -0.85). Depth of Zn movement was correlated negatively at P = 0.001 with final pH (r = -0.91). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the final pH accounted for 72% of the variation in the total amounts of Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer of the unsaturated columns and accounted for 82% of the variation in the depth of Zn movement among the unsaturated columns. A significant correlation was not found between Zn and organic carbon in soil solutions, but a negative correlation significant at P = 0.001 was found between pH and Zn (r = -0.61).

  16. Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L?1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the cell walls; thus, the electrolyte is leaked from cells. PMID:24572014

  17. Congenital chloride diarrhea misdiagnosed as pseudo-Bartter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saneian, Hossein; Bahraminia, Emad

    2013-09-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease which is characterized by intractable diarrhea of infancy, failure to thrive, high fecal chloride, hypochloremia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia and metabolic alkalosis. In this case report, we present the first female and the second official case of CCD in Iran. A 15-month-old girl referred to our hospital due to failure to thrive and poor feeding. She had normal kidneys, liver and spleen. Treating her with Shohl's solution, thiazide and zinc sulfate did not result in weight gain. Consequently, pseudo-Bartter syndrome was suspected, she was treated with intravenous (IV) therapy to which she responded dramatically. In addition, hypokalemia resolved quickly. Since this does not usually happen in patients with the pseudo-Bartter syndrome, stool tests were performed. Abnormal level of chloride in stool suggested CCD and she was thus treated with IV fluid replacement, Total parentral nutrition and high dose of oral omeprazole (3 mg/kg/day). She gained 1 kg of weight and is doing fine until present. CCD is a rare hereditary cause of intractable diarrhea of infancy. It should be considered in infants with unknown severe electrolyte disturbances. PMID:24381629

  18. Congenital chloride diarrhea misdiagnosed as pseudo-Bartter syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Saneian, Hossein; Bahraminia, Emad

    2013-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease which is characterized by intractable diarrhea of infancy, failure to thrive, high fecal chloride, hypochloremia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia and metabolic alkalosis. In this case report, we present the first female and the second official case of CCD in Iran. A 15-month-old girl referred to our hospital due to failure to thrive and poor feeding. She had normal kidneys, liver and spleen. Treating her with Shohl's solution, thiazide and zinc sulfate did not result in weight gain. Consequently, pseudo-Bartter syndrome was suspected, she was treated with intravenous (IV) therapy to which she responded dramatically. In addition, hypokalemia resolved quickly. Since this does not usually happen in patients with the pseudo-Bartter syndrome, stool tests were performed. Abnormal level of chloride in stool suggested CCD and she was thus treated with IV fluid replacement, Total parentral nutrition and high dose of oral omeprazole (3 mg/kg/day). She gained 1 kg of weight and is doing fine until present. CCD is a rare hereditary cause of intractable diarrhea of infancy. It should be considered in infants with unknown severe electrolyte disturbances. PMID:24381629

  19. Innovative uses for zinc in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yoon Soo; Hill, Nikki D; Bibi, Yuval; Dreiher, Jacob; Cohen, Arnon D

    2010-07-01

    Severe zinc deficiency states, such as acrodermatitis enteropathica, are associated with a variety of skin manifestations, such as perioral, acral, and perineal dermatitis. These syndromes can be reversed with systemic zinc repletion. In addition to skin pathologies that are clearly zinc-dependent, many dermatologic conditions (eg, dandruff, acne, and diaper rash) have been associated and treated with zinc. Success rates for treatment with zinc vary greatly depending on the disease, mode of administration, and precise zinc preparation used. With the exception of systemic zinc deficiency states, there is little evidence that convincingly demonstrates the efficacy of zinc as a reliable first-line treatment for most dermatologic conditions. However, zinc may be considered as an adjunctive treatment modality. Further research is needed to establish the indications for zinc treatment in dermatology, optimal mode of zinc delivery, and best type of zinc compound to be used. PMID:20510767

  20. Accumulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HSP32) in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells treated with sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride or proteasomal inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Music, Ena; Khan, Saad; Khamis, Imran; Heikkila, John J

    2014-11-01

    The present study examined the effect of sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride, heat shock and the proteasomal inhibitors MG132, withaferin A and celastrol on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; also known as HSP32) accumulation in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells. Immunoblot analysis revealed that HO-1 accumulation was not induced by heat shock but was enhanced by sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Immunocytochemistry revealed that these metals induced HO-1 accumulation in a granular pattern primarily in the cytoplasm. Additionally, in 20% of the cells arsenite induced the formation of large HO-1-containing perinuclear structures. In cells recovering from sodium arsenite or cadmium chloride treatment, HO-1 accumulation initially increased to a maximum at 12h followed by a 50% reduction at 48 h. This initial increase in HO-1 levels was likely the result of new synthesis as it was inhibited by cycloheximide. Interestingly, treatment of cells with a mild heat shock enhanced HO-1 accumulation induced by low concentrations of sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride. Finally, we determined that HO-1 accumulation was induced in A6 cells by the proteasomal inhibitors, MG132, withaferin A and celastrol. An examination of heavy metal and proteasomal inhibitor-induced HO-1 accumulation in amphibians is of importance given the presence of toxic heavy metals in aquatic habitats. PMID:25064141

  1. Method of preparing zinc orthotitanate pigment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, D. W.; Harada, Y.; Logan, W. R.; Gilligan, J. E. (inventors)

    1977-01-01

    Zinc orthotitanate suitable for use as a pigment for spacecraft thermal control coatings is prepared by heating a slightly zinc deficient reaction mixture of precipitated oxalates of zinc and titanium. The reaction mixture can be formed by coprecipitation of zinc and titanium oxalates from chloride solution or by mixing separately precipitated oxalates. The mixture is first heated to 400 to 600 C to remove volatiles and is then rapidly heated at 900 to 1200 C. Zinc orthotitanate produced by this method exhibits the very fine particle size needed for thermal control coatings as well as stability in a space environment.

  2. Detection of Magnesium Oxide in the Ashes of a Burnt Cellulosic Fabric Treated by Magnesium Chloride Hexahydrate as a Flame-Retardant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seyed Morteza Mostashari; Hadi Fallah Moafi

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of magnesium chloride hexahydrate [Mg Cl2 · 6H2O] as a nondurable finish on the flammability of 100% cotton fabric (woven construction, weighing 144 g\\/m. The laundered bone-dried, weighed fabrics were impregnated with various concentrations of the aqueous aforementioned salt solutions by means of squeeze rolls and drying in an oven at 110°C for 30 min. The specimens were then

  3. Binding of Chromium to Chromatin and DMA from Liver and Kidney of Rats Treated with Sodium Dichromate and Chromium(lll) Chloride in V\\/Vo1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doreen Y. Cupo; Karen E. Wetterhahn

    The in vivo binding of chromium to whole chromatin, polynu- cleosomes, DMA, and cytoplasmic RNA-protein fraction from liver and kidney was examined after treatment of rats with sodium dichromate and chromium(lll) chloride. Significant amounts of chromium were bound to DNA and the nonhistone proteins of chromatin and to cytoplasmic RNA-protein fraction. The binding of chromium to the nuclear and cytoplasmic

  4. Chloride Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... problem with your body's electrolyte balance or acid-base balance and to monitor treatment When to Get ... fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base balance . Chloride is present in all body fluids ...

  5. Comparative tolerance of Pinus radiata and microbial activity to copper and zinc in a soil treated with metal-amended biosolids.

    PubMed

    Jeyakumar, Paramsothy; Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Anderson, Christopher W N; Sivakumaran, Sivalingam; McLaren, Ronald G

    2014-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of elevated concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in a soil treated with biosolids previously spiked with these metals on Pinus radiata during a 312-day glasshouse pot trial. The total soil metal concentrations in the treatments were 16, 48, 146 and 232 mg Cu/kg or 36, 141, 430 and 668 mg Zn/kg. Increased total soil Cu concentration increased the soil solution Cu concentration (0.03-0.54 mg/L) but had no effect on leaf and root dry matter production. Increased total soil Zn concentration also increased the soil solution Zn concentration (0.9-362 mg/L). Decreased leaf and root dry matter were recorded above the total soil Zn concentration of 141 mg/kg (soil solution Zn concentration, >4.4 mg/L). A lower percentage of Cu in the soil soluble?+?exchangeable fraction (5-12 %) and lower Cu(2+) concentration in soil solution (0.001-0.06 ?M) relative to Zn (soil soluble?+?exchangeable fraction, 12-66 %; soil solution Zn(2+) concentration, 4.5-4,419 ?M) indicated lower bioavailability of Cu. Soil dehydrogenase activity decreased with every successive level of Cu and Zn applied, but the reduction was higher for Zn than for Cu addition. Dehydrogenase activity was reduced by 40 % (EC40) at the total solution-phase and solid-phase soluble?+?exchangeable Cu concentrations of 0.5 mg/L and 14.5 mg/kg, respectively. For Zn the corresponding EC50 were 9 mg/L and 55 mg/kg, respectively. Based on our findings, we propose that current New Zealand soil guidelines values for Cu and Zn (100 mg/kg for Cu; 300 mg/kg for Zn) should be revised downwards based on apparent toxicity to soil biological activity (Cu and Zn) and radiata pine (Zn only) at the threshold concentration. PMID:24217968

  6. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for imaging of copper, zinc, and platinum in thin sections of a kidney from a mouse treated with cis-platin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoriy, Myroslav; Matusch, Andreas; Spruss, Thilo; Becker, J. Sabine

    2007-02-01

    Platinum complexes are used for the treatment of several types of cancer. High platinum concentrations in the target tissue and low concentrations in dose-limiting tissue structures such as renal tubules are desirable to assure selective toxicity. Microlocal analysis of platinum distribution in tissue sections may thus contribute to the optimization of platinum therapy. Scanning laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to produce images of element distribution in 14-[mu]m thin sections of kidney tissue from a mouse treated with cis-platin 60 min prior to victimization. The sample surface was scanned (raster area 300 mm2) with a focused laser beam (wavelength 266 nm, diameter of laser crater 50 [mu]m, inter line distance 50 [mu]m and laser power density 3 x 109 W cm-2) in a cooled laser ablation chamber (about -15 [degree sign]C) developed for these measurements. The laser ablation system was coupled to a double-focusing sector field ICP-MS. Ion intensities of 63Cu+, 64Zn+, and 196Pt+ were measured within the tissue by LA-ICP-MS. Matrix-matched laboratory standards served for calibration of analytical data. The mass spectrometric analysis yielded an inhomogeneous distribution for Cu, Zn, and Pt in thin kidney sections. Copper was enriched in the capsule and outer cortex, zinc in the inner cortex and the platinum concentration followed a centripetal gradient with clear medullar enrichment. Thus, scanning LA-ICP-MS may be a useful tool in the preclinical development of new and less nephrotoxic platinum complexes.

  7. Chloride channelopathies.

    PubMed

    Planells-Cases, Rosa; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2009-03-01

    Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms. Impaired chloride transport can cause diseases as diverse as cystic fibrosis, myotonia, epilepsy, hyperekplexia, lysosomal storage disease, deafness, renal salt loss, kidney stones and osteopetrosis. These disorders are caused by mutations in genes belonging to non-related gene families, i.e. CLC chloride channels and transporters, ABC transporters, and GABA- and glycine receptors. Diseases due to mutations in TMEM16E and bestrophin 1 might be due to a loss of Ca++-activated Cl- channels, although this remains to be shown. PMID:19708126

  8. Effect of resveratrol and zinc on intracellular zinc status in normal human prostate epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the influence of resveratrol on cellular zinc status, normal human prostate epithelial (NHPrE) cells were treated with 6 levels of resveratrol (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 microM) and 4 levels of zinc [0, 4, 16, and 32 microM for zinc-deficient (ZD), zinc-normal (ZN), zinc-adequate (ZA), an...

  9. Atmospheric corrosion and chloride deposition on metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Matthes, Steven A.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.

    2004-01-01

    Atmospheric corrosion and chloride deposition on metal surfaces was studied at an unpolluted coastal (marine) site, an unpolluted rural inland site, and a polluted urban site. Chloride deposition by both wet (precipitation) and dry deposition processes over a multi-year period was measured using ion chromatography analysis of incident precipitation and precipitation runoff from the surface of metal samples. Chloride deposition was measured on zinc, copper, lead, mild steel, and non-reactive blank panels, as well as two panels coated with thermal-sprayed zinc alloys. Chloride deposition measured by runoff chemistry was compared with chloride deposition measurements made by the ASTM wet candle technique. Corrosion mass loss as a function of distance from the ocean is presented for copper and mild steel in bold exposures on the west coast.

  10. Recovery of metal values from zinc solder dross

    SciTech Connect

    Barakat, M.A.

    1999-07-01

    Zinc solder dross containing 14.8% Sn, 16.3% Pb, 0.41% Al and 64.5% Zn was leached with 3% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 45 C for 1 h. Zinc and aluminum went into solution, whereas lead and tin remained with the residue. Aluminum was selectively precipitated as calcium aluminum carbonate by treating the sulfate leachate with limestone at pH 4.8. Zinc sulfate solution was either evaporated to obtain zinc sulfate crystals or precipitated as basic zinc carbonate at pH 6.8. The undissolved lead and tin were leached with 5 M hot hydrochloric acid. The major part of lead chloride ({approx_equal} 73%) was separated by cooling the leached products down to room temperature. From the soluble fraction, tin was recovered as hydrated tin oxide by alkylation with caustic soda at pH 2,4, while the remaining lead was separated at pH 8.5 as lead hydroxide. A process flowsheet had been suggested which involved two-stage hydrometallurgical treatment. Parameters affecting the recovery efficiency of the suggested method such as temperature, time, pH and acid: solid stoichiometric ratio were investigated. Results obtained revealed that the optimum leaching conditions were achieved by using 20 ml of 3% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} acid/g dross for 1 h at 45 C. Recovery efficiency of the metal salts was 99.1, 99.4, 99.6 and 99.5% for Zn, Al, Pb and Sn respectively. Recover efficiency was related to the solubility of the concerned salts under the given experimental conditions.

  11. Zinc composite anode for batteries with solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedjar, F.; Melki, T.; Zerroual, L.

    A new negative composite anode for batteries with a solid electrolyte is studied. Using a complex of zinc ammonium chloride mixed with zinc metal powder, the advantage of the Zn/Zn 2+ electrode ( e = -760 mV) is kept while the energy density and the shelf-life of the battery are increased.

  12. Duration and Severity of Symptoms and Levels of Plasma Interleukin1 Receptor Antagonist, Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor, and Adhesion Molecules in Patients with Common Cold Treated with Zinc Acetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Bao; Diane Snell

    2008-01-01

    Background. Zinc lozenges have been used for treatment of the common cold; however, the results remain controversial. Methods. Fifty ambulatory volunteers were recruited within 24 h of developing symptoms of the common cold for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of zinc. Participants took 1 lozenge containing 13.3 mg of zinc (as zinc acetate) or placebo every 2-3 h while awake.

  13. A novel separation and preconcentration method for traces of manganese, cobalt, zinc and cadmium using coagulation of colloidal silica.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Junichi; Fujinami, Masanori; Oguma, Koichi

    2004-12-01

    A separation and preconcentration method has been developed for traces of heavy metals using coagulation of colloidal silica. An appropriate amount of colloidal silica was added to a sample solution, the pH was adjusted to 11 with tetramethylammonium hydroxide solution and calcium chloride solution was then added to coagulate the silica. The coagulated silica and solution were separated by centrifugation, and the silica was then treated with hydrofluoric and perchloric acids. The residue was taken up in dilute nitric acid and subjected to ICP-AES to determine manganese, cobalt, zinc and cadmium. The proposed method was successfully applied to analysis of river-water. PMID:15636526

  14. The Solanum lycopersicum Zinc Finger2 cysteine-2/histidine-2 repressor-like transcription factor regulates development and tolerance to salinity in tomato and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hichri, Imène; Muhovski, Yordan; Žižkova, Eva; Dobrev, Petre I; Franco-Zorrilla, Jose Manuel; Solano, Roberto; Lopez-Vidriero, Irene; Motyka, Vaclav; Lutts, Stanley

    2014-04-01

    The zinc finger superfamily includes transcription factors that regulate multiple aspects of plant development and were recently shown to regulate abiotic stress tolerance. Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Zinc Finger2 [SIZF2]) is a cysteine-2/histidine-2-type zinc finger transcription factor bearing an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression domain and binding to the ACGTCAGTG sequence containing two AGT core motifs. SlZF2 is ubiquitously expressed during plant development, and is rapidly induced by sodium chloride, drought, and potassium chloride treatments. Its ectopic expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tomato impaired development and influenced leaf and flower shape, while causing a general stress visible by anthocyanin and malonyldialdehyde accumulation. SlZF2 enhanced salt sensitivity in Arabidopsis, whereas SlZF2 delayed senescence and improved tomato salt tolerance, particularly by maintaining photosynthesis and increasing polyamine biosynthesis, in salt-treated hydroponic cultures (125 mm sodium chloride, 20 d). SlZF2 may be involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis/signaling, because SlZF2 is rapidly induced by ABA treatment and 35S::SlZF2 tomatoes accumulate more ABA than wild-type plants. Transcriptome analysis of 35S::SlZF2 revealed that SlZF2 both increased and reduced expression of a comparable number of genes involved in various physiological processes such as photosynthesis, polyamine biosynthesis, and hormone (notably ABA) biosynthesis/signaling. Involvement of these different metabolic pathways in salt stress tolerance is discussed. PMID:24567191

  15. Effect of anions on selective solubilization of zinc and copper in bacterial leaching of sulfide ores.

    PubMed

    Harahuc, L; Lizama, H M; Suzuki, I

    2000-07-20

    Bacterial leaching of sulfide ores using Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, Thiobacillus thiooxidans, or a combination of the two was studied at various concentrations of specific anions. Selective zinc and copper solubilization was obtained by inhibiting iron oxidation without affecting sulfur/sulfide oxidation. Phosphate reduced iron solubilization from a pyrite (FeS(2))-sphalerite (ZnS) mixture without significantly affecting zinc solubilization. Copper leaching from a chalcopyrite (CuFeS(2))-sphalerite mixture was stimulated by phosphate, whereas chloride accelerated zinc extraction. In a complex sulfide ore containing pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite, both phosphate and chloride reduced iron solubilization and increased copper extraction, whereas only chloride stimulated zinc extraction. Maximum leaching obtained was 100% zinc and 50% copper. Time-course studies of copper and zinc solubilization suggest the possibility of selective metal recovery following treatment with specific anions. PMID:10861398

  16. Metal distribution in different tissues and in subcellular fractions of the Mediterranean clam Ruditapes decussatus treated with cadmium, copper, or zinc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Roméo; M. Gnassia-Barelli

    1995-01-01

    Kinetics of accumulation of Cd (500 ?g\\/l), Cu (150 ?g\\/l) and Zn (1000 ?g\\/l) were measured in organs (gills, digestive gland and remainder) of the clam Ruditapes decussatus. A significant accumulation was observed in the organs of animals treated with Cd or Cu, whereas no difference was obvious between controls and animals exposed to Zn. A slight increase was noted

  17. The germination and development of seedlings from seeds treated with growth regulators: (2-chloroethyl) trimethylammonium chloride, succinic acid 2,2 dimethylhydrazide and 2,3-dihydro-5-6-diphenyl-1,4 oxathiin

    E-print Network

    Kamp, Marihelen

    1976-01-01

    effectively on geraniums and a few other retardants. Only in isolated instances have growth retarding com- pounds been used as soil amendments. 2, 4-dichlorobenzyl- tributylphosphonium chloride (CBBP) used as a soil amendment on petunia, salvia, and phlox...

  18. Zinc modulates aluminium-induced oxidative stress and cellular injury in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Singla, Neha; Dhawan, D K

    2014-10-01

    Dysregulation of metal homeostasis has been perceived as one of the key factors in the progression of neurodegeneration. Aluminium (Al) has been considered as a major risk factor, which is linked to several neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer's disease, whereas zinc (Zn) has been reported as a vital dietary element, which regulates a number of physiological processes in central nervous system. The present study was conducted to explore the protective potential of zinc, if any, in ameliorating neurotoxicity induced by aluminium. Male Sprague Dawley rats received either aluminium chloride (AlCl3) orally (100 mg kg(-1) b.wt. per day), zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) at a dose level of 227 mg L(-1) in drinking water or combined treatment of aluminium and zinc for 8 weeks. Aluminium treatment significantly elevated the levels of lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species as well as the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase, which however were decreased following Zn co-treatment of Al-treated rats. In contrast, Al treatment decreased the activities of glutathione-S-transferase as well as the levels of reduced glutathione, oxidised glutathione and total glutathione, but co-administration of Zn to Al-treated animals increased these levels. Furthermore, Al treatment caused a significant increase in the levels of Fe and Mn as well as of Al but decreased the Zn and metallothionein levels. In the Zn-supplemented animals, the levels of Al, Fe, Mn were found to be significantly decreased, whereas the levels of metallothionein as well as Zn were increased. Moreover, histopathological alterations such as vacuolization and loss of Purkinje cells were also evident following Al treatment, which showed improvement upon Zn supplementation. Therefore, zinc has the potential to alleviate aluminium-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:25141099

  19. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  20. On The Use Of Mercury-Coated Tips In Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy To Investigate Galvanic Corrosion Processes Involving Zinc And Iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo M. Souto; Yaiza González-García; Dario Battistel; Salvatore Daniele

    The corrosion processes related to zinc dissolution that take place in an iron-zinc galvanic pair exposed to a chloride solution were investigated by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) using a mercury-coated platinum microelectrode as SECM tip. Both the release of zinc ions and the consumption of dissolved oxygen that occur in separate sites at the iron-zinc galvanic pair were monitored. Zinc

  1. Benzotriazole as an inhibitor of brass corrosion in chloride solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosec, Tadeja; Milošev, Ingrid; Pihlar, Boris

    2007-09-01

    The current research explores the formation of protective layers on copper, zinc and copper-zinc (Cu-10Zn and Cu-40Zn) alloys in chloride solution containing benzotriazole (BTAH), by use of electrochemical techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrochemical reactions and surface products formed at the open circuit potential and as a function of the potential range are discussed. The addition of benzotriazole to aerated, near neutral 0.5 M NaCl solution affects the dissolution of copper, zinc, Cu-10Zn and Cu-40Zn alloys. The research also compares the inhibition efficiency and Gibbs adsorption energies of the investigated process. Benzotriazole, generally known as an inhibitor of copper corrosion is also shown to be an efficient inhibitor for copper-zinc alloys and zinc metal. The surface layer formed on alloys in BTAH-inhibited solution comprised both oxide and polymer components, namely Cu 2O and ZnO oxides, and Cu(I)-BTA and Zn(II)-BTA polymers. The formation of this mixed copper-zinc oxide polymer surface film provides an effective barrier against corrosion of both metal components in chloride solution.

  2. Atmospheric Corrosion and Precipitation Runoff From Zinc and Zinc Alloys Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Matthes, S.A.; Cramer, S.D.; Bullard, S.J.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Holcomb, G.R.

    2003-03-16

    The long-term atmospheric corrosion performance of rolled zinc and three thermal-sprayed (TS) zinc materials (Zn, Zn-15Al, and Al-12Zn-0.2In) was characterized by measuring corrosion product concentrations in precipitation runoff at coastal marine and inland sites. Corrosion rates and average zinc concentrations in the runoff were greater at the site having higher annual rainfall. Higher chloride concentrations did not seem to affect either the corrosion rates or the zinc concentrations in the runoff at the coastal site compared to those of the inland site. Zinc runoff concentrations were higher for TS Zn than rolled zinc due to the greater surface area of the thermal-sprayed surface. Average cumulative zinc runoff losses for the two sites were: 64 {micro}mol Zn/L for TS Zn, 37 {micro}mol Zn/L for rolled Zn, 24 {micro}mol Zn/L for TS Zn-15Al, and 1.8 {micro}mol Zn/L for TS Al-12Zn-0.2In. Cumulative zinc runoff losses were directly related both to the precipitation rate and to the availability of Zn in metal surfaces, a consequence of surface roughness and surface chemistry properties of the metal.

  3. Effect of Zinc and Aluminum Ions in Breadmaking 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keswara Rao Vadlamani; Paul A. Seib

    1999-01-01

    Cereal Chem. 76(3):355-360 Zinc and aluminum ions as chloride or sulfate salts at 50-500 ppm metal ion (flour basis) had no detrimental effect on fermentation of yeast- leavened dough. Increased mixing times (?10-50%) due to addition of aqueous solutions of zinc (250-500 ppm) or aluminum (150-250 ppm) ions to a bread formula was overcome by withholding salt un til the

  4. Enhanced zinc consumption causes memory deficits and increased brain levels of zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flinn, J.M.; Hunter, D.; Linkous, D.H.; Lanzirotti, A.; Smith, L.N.; Brightwell, J.; Jones, B.F.

    2005-01-01

    Zinc deficiency has been shown to impair cognitive functioning, but little work has been done on the effects of elevated zinc. This research examined the effect on memory of raising Sprague-Dawley rats on enhanced levels of zinc (10 ppm ZnCO3; 0.153 mM) in the drinking water for periods of 3 or 9 months, both pre- and postnatally. Controls were raised on lab water. Memory was tested in a series of Morris Water Maze (MWM) experiments, and zinc-treated rats were found to have impairments in both reference and working memory. They were significantly slower to find a stationary platform and showed greater thigmotaxicity, a measure of anxiety. On a working memory task, where the platform was moved each day, zinc-treated animals had longer latencies over both trials and days, swam further from the platform, and showed greater thigmotaxicity. On trials using an Atlantis platform, which remained in one place but was lowered on probe trials, the zinc-treated animals had significantly fewer platform crossings, spent less time in the target quadrant, and did not swim as close to the platform position. They had significantly greater latency on nonprobe trials. Microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (??SXRF) confirmed that brain zinc levels were increased by adding ZnCO 3 to the drinking water. These data show that long-term dietary administration of zinc can lead to impairments in cognitive function. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of zinc in pediatric diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Bajait, Chaitali; Thawani, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    Zinc supplementation is a critical new intervention for treating diarrheal episodes in children. Recent studies suggest that administration of zinc along with new low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions / salts (ORS), can reduce the duration and severity of diarrheal episodes for up to three months. The World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF recommend daily 20 mg zinc supplements for 10 – 14 days for children with acute diarrhea, and 10 mg per day for infants under six months old, to curtail the severity of the episode and prevent further occurrences in the ensuing -two to three months, thereby decreasing the morbidity considerably. This article reviews the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of zinc supplementation in pediatric diarrhea and convincingly concludes that zinc supplementation has a beneficial impact on the disease outcome. PMID:21713083

  6. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  7. Recovery of metal values from zinc solder dross

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Barakat

    1999-01-01

    Zinc solder dross containing 14.8% Sn, 16.3% Pb, 0.41% Al and 64.5% Zn was leached with 3% H2SO4 at 45°C for 1 h. Zinc and aluminum went into solution, whereas lead and tin remained with the residue. Aluminum was selectively precipitated as calcium aluminum carbonate by treating the sulphate leachate with limestone at pH 4.8. Zinc sulphate solution was either

  8. Zinc might protect oxidative changes in the retina and pancreas at the early stage of diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Moustafa, Sohair A. [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt)]. E-mail: Sohabdulla@hotmail.com

    2004-12-01

    It is well documented that oxidative stress is a basic mechanism behind the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The current study was undertaken to elucidate the possible role of zinc as an antioxidant and a biological membrane stabilizer in the protection against (DR). Male Wistar rats weighing 250 {+-} 50 g were made diabetic by injection with a single ip dose of alloxan (100 mg/kg). Another group of rats was simultaneously treated with alloxan (100 mg/kg) and a single ip dose of zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}) (5 mg/kg). Blood and tissue samples were collected at 24, 48, and 72 h post-treatment in both groups. Diabetic state was confirmed by the determination of plasma glucose levels (significantly elevated at any time of the experiment when compared with controls receiving vehicle). Plasma insulin was significantly increased 24 h after treatment in both alloxan and alloxan plus ZnCl{sub 2}-treated groups, and then decreased markedly 48 and 72 h post treatment in both groups. Alloxan treatment depleted both retinal and liver glutathione contents. The decrease in retinal and liver GSH in alloxan-treated rats was accompanied with a sustained increase in their thiobarbituric acid (TBA) content. Simultaneous treatment of rats with alloxan and ZnCl{sub 2} blunted the sustained increment in plasma glucose induced by alloxan. The combined administration of alloxan and zinc reversed the depleting effect on retinal and hepatic GSH in alloxan-treated rats and reduced the elevations in TBA content of both retinas and livers. At variance with many other antioxidants the current results clearly indicate the beneficial effects of Zn in both controlling hyperglycemia and the protection of the retina against oxidative stress in diabetes which may help set a new direction toward the development of effective treatments of DR.

  9. Removal of chloride from electric arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Chang, Fang-Chih

    2011-06-15

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust with high chloride content increases the threat of dioxin emissions and the high chloride content reduces the value of recycled zinc oxide produced by EAF dust recycling plants. This study conducts a number of laboratory experiments to determine the technical feasibility of a new dechlorination method. These methods consist of a series of roasting processes and water washing processes. In the roasting process, EAF dust was heated in a tube furnace to evaluate the parameters of atmospheric conditions, roasting temperature, and roasting time. Results indicate that sulfation roasting is more efficient in reducing chloride content than other roasting processes. The water washing process can totally remove water-soluble chloride at a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10. However, the remaining water-insoluble substance is difficult to dechlorinate. For example, lead chloride forms a hydroxyl-halide (PbOHCl) and lead chloride carbonate (Pb(2)CO(3)Cl(2)) agglutinative matrix that is hard to wash away. PMID:21531506

  10. Common cold - how to treat at home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Antibiotics are almost never needed to treat a common cold. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) help lower ... Many home remedies are popular treatments for the common cold. These include vitamin C, zinc supplements, and Echinacea. ...

  11. Zinc and Diarrheal Disease - Control Status and Future Perspectives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diarrhea is a public health problem world-wide. Although elimination of exposure to infectious pathogens is the primary means to combat this debilitating malady, use of oral zinc supplementation has been used to prevent and treat acute diarrhea in children. Evidence suggests that supplemental zinc...

  12. Anthraquinone repellent to reduce take of non-target birds from zinc phosphide rodenticide applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott J. Werner; Shelagh K. Tupper; Susan E. Pettit; James C. Carlson; George M. Linz

    We evaluated anthraquinone as an avian repellent to reduce take of non-target birds from zinc phosphide rodenticide applications. We observed zero mortalities and no overt signs of zinc phosphide toxicosis among 20 Canada geese (Branta canadensis), 24 horned larks (Eremophila alpestris), and 47 ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) offered baits treated with 1% or 2% anthraquinone and 2% zinc phosphide (target

  13. Polarization and corrosion of electrogalvanized steel - evaluation of zinc coatings obtained from waste-derived zinc electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dattilo, M.

    1985-11-01

    The corrosion of electrogalvanized 1070 steel wire has been investigated in molar quiescent ammonium chloride and ammonium sulfate under near-neutral conditions. Zinc coatings obtained from waste-derived electrolytes were evaluated vs. coatings from relatively pure zinc electrolytes. The waste source of zinc was brass smelter flue dust. Corrosion rates were measured by Tafel line extrapolation and the polarization resistance technique. Values of the Tafel slopes and the corrosion currents were also compared with those for pure zinc (99.999%). Corrosion rates were found to be affected by the medium employed, pH, and bimetal diameter reduction (drawing). Drawn electrogalvanized stee displays higher values of the Tafel slopes than do the as-plated samples. The Tafel slopes are different from thos obtained on pure zinc. This is assumed to be due to inhomogeneous surface features obtained from additive adsorption (during plating) and residual lubricants used in the drawing process as well as surface structure. The corrosion rates of electrogalvanized samples plated in the waste-derived zinc electrolytes were similar to the corrosion rates of samples plated in relatively pure zinc electrolytes. Therefore, wastes are a potential source of zinc for electrogalvanizing.

  14. [Genotoxic effect of cadmium chloride in various test-systems].

    PubMed

    Pesheva, M G; Chankova, S G; Avramova, Ts V; Milanov, D V; Genova, G K

    1997-02-01

    Many industrial regions of Bulgaria are contaminated with cadmium. Induction of various genetic damages by four concentrations of cadmium chloride was studied in various test systems. None of the tested concentrations induced gene mutations in Salmonella typhimurium. An increase in frequency of gene mutations, mitochondrial mutations, and intragene recombination was detected in Saccharomyces cerevisiae treated with the highest cadmium chloride concentration. A clastogenic effect and a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) were induced in radicle meristem cells of Pisum sativum L. by the two highest cadmium chloride concentrations. Cadmium chloride was also shown to increase the frequency of sex-linked recessive lethals (SLRLs) and dominant lethals (DLs) in Drosophila germ cells. The results obtained in different test systems allow cadmium chloride to be considered a weak mutagen inducing various genetic damages. PMID:9162694

  15. Zinc in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... reduce your risk of becoming sick with the common cold. Starting to take zinc supplements within 24 hours ... 2000. Singh M, Das RR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Feb 16;2: ...

  16. A Novel Low-Cost Sodium-Zinc Chloride Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-02-28

    The sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) battery has been considered as one of the most attractive energy storage systems for stationary and transportation applications. Even though Na-NiCl2 battery has been widely investigated, there is still a need to develop a more economical system to make this technology more attractive for commercialization. In the present work, a novel low-cost Na-ZnCl2 battery with a thin planar ??-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE) was proposed, and its electrochemical reactions and battery performance were investigated. Compared to the Na-NiCl2 chemistry, the ZnCl2-based chemistry was more complicated, in which multiple electrochemical reactions including liquid-phase formation occurred at temperatures above 253°C. During the first stage of charge, NaCl reacted with Zn to form Na in the anode and Na2ZnCl4 in the cathode. Once all the residual NaCl was consumed, further charging led to the formation of a NaCl-ZnCl2 liquid phase. At the end of charge, the liquid phase reacted with Zn to produce solid ZnCl2. To identify the effects of liquid-phase formation on electrochemical performance, button cells were assembled and tested at 280°C and 240°C. At 280°C where the liquid phase formed during cycling, cells revealed quite stable cyclability. On the other hand, more rapid increase in polarization was observed at 240°C where only solid-state electrochemical reactions occurred. SEM analysis indicated that the stable performance at 280°C was due to the suppressed growth of Zn and NaCl particles, which were generated from the liquid phase during discharge of each cycle.

  17. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

  18. ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition, and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention, and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METH...

  19. Bioavailability of zinc in

    E-print Network

    Machel, Hans

    Bioavailability of zinc in marine systems through time Two geomicrobiologists in our was delayed until the Neoproterozoic (between 1000 and 542 Ma) when zinc became readily available, Australia, Asia and Europe and found consistently high levels of seawater zinc, on the same order

  20. ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METHOD...

  1. Molecular Structure of Barium Chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-15

    Barium Chloride was the byproduct of the discovery of radium by Madame Curie. When refining radium, the final separation resulted in barium chloride and radium chloride. Electrophoresis of barium chloride produces small-scale amounts of barium atom. This can be used for obtaining barium for commercial uses. Applications of barium chloride include stimulating the heart and other muscles for medicinal purposes, and also for softening water. Other uses of barium chloride include the manufacturing of barium salts, as pesticide, pigments, boiler detergent, in purifying sugar, as mordant in dyeing and printing textiles, and in the manufacture of caustic soda, polymers, and stabilizers.

  2. Investigation of factors influencing chloride extraction efficiency during electrochemical chloride extraction from reinforcing concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Stephen R.

    2005-11-01

    Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) is an accelerated bridge restoration method similar to cathodic protection, but operates at higher current densities and utilizes a temporary installation. Both techniques prolong the life of a bridge by reducing the corrosion rate of the reinforcing bar when properly applied. ECE achieves this by moving chlorides away from the reinforcement and out of the concrete while simultaneously increasing the alkalinity of the electrolyte near the reinforcing steel. Despite the proven success, significant use of ECE has not resulted in part due to an incomplete understanding in the following areas: (1) An estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment when the treated member is again subjected to chlorides; (2) The cause of the decrease in current flow and, therefore, chloride removal rate during treatment; (3) Influence of water-to-cement (w/c) ratio and cover depth on the time required for treatment. This dissertation covers the research that is connected to the last two areas listed above. To begin examining these issues, plain carbon steel reinforcing bars (rebar) were embedded in portland cement concrete slabs of varying water-to-cement (w/c) ratios and cover depths, and then exposed to chlorides. A fraction of these slabs had sodium chloride added as an admixture, with all of the slabs subjected to cyclical ponding with a saturated solution of sodium chloride. ECE was then used to remove the chlorides from these slabs while making electrical measurements in the different layers between the rebar (cathode) and the titanium mat (anode) to follow the progress of the ECE process. During this study, it was revealed that the resistance of the outer concrete surface layer increases during ECE, inevitably restricting current flow, while the resistance of the underlying concrete decreases or remains constant. During ECE treatment, a white residue formed on the surface of the concrete. Analyses of the residue revealed that it contains calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, and other yet unidentified minor components when calcium hydroxide was used as the electrolyte. The surface film can be completely removed mechanically or to some extent inhibited chemically, with both of these processes resulting in an increase in the efficiency of the electrochemical chloride extraction process. In addition, an obvious relationship between the cover depth, water-to-cement ratio, and chloride extraction efficiency does not exist, however, cover depth does influence the current density. The final phase of this study will be presented in a VTRC/FHWA final report. This report will include the results that are presented in this dissertation, in addition to the results from the ongoing research. It will also include an estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment.

  3. Determination of chloride in geological samples by ion chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, S.A.; Gent, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    Samples of silicate rocks are prepared by sodium carbonate fusion and then treated by ion chromatography. The method was tested for geological standards with chloride concentration between 0.003 and 3%. Observed chloride concentrations comparedd favorably with literature values. The relative standard deviation and detection limit for the method were 8% and 7 ppm, respectively. Up to 30 determination per 24-hour period were possible. ?? 1983.

  4. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: POLYVINYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes data on air emissions from the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry. PVC is manufactured by 20 companies at 35 plants. Each plant uses one or more of four possible polymerization processes: (1) suspension polymerization, (2) emulsion polymerization, (3) bulk p...

  5. Zinc and Epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dudek, F. Edward

    2001-01-01

    Zinc is concentrated in the hippocampus, particularly in the mossy fiber axons of the dentate gyrus, and has been hypothesized to be important in neurodegeneration and epilepsy. Previous studies have suggested that activity-dependent release of zinc from reorganized mossy fibers leads to collapse of granule-cell inhibition. Synaptically released zinc has been proposed to depress the function of the new “epileptic” GABAA receptors, which have subunits that are zinc-sensitive. Recent experiments by Molnar and Nadler have replicated the previous data, and further tested this hypothesis. Their work suggests that activated mossy fibers in hippocampal slices do not release adequate zinc to depress GABAA receptor function at nearby inhibitory synapses. These studies point to the complexity of this hypothesis, particularly in regard to zinc release in vitro versus in vivo and the diffusion of zinc in the extracellular space. PMID:15309193

  6. Fretting-fatigue behaviour of bridge engineering cables in a solution of sodium chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Périer; L. Dieng; L. Gaillet; C. Tessier; S. Fouvry

    2009-01-01

    Bridge engineering cables are subject to potential damage, mainly due to fretting-fatigue and corrosion. This paper deals with the study of drawn steel wires submitted to fretting-fatigue in a solution of sodium chloride. Experimental tests were conducted to reproduce the contact conditions in spiral strands undergoing free bending deformations and submitted to corrosion. Previous tests showed that lubrication and zinc

  7. Optimal dose of zinc supplementation for preventing aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao; Hu, Jianyang; Li, Jing; Pang, Wei; Hu, Yandan; Yang, Hongpeng; Li, Wenjie; Huang, Chengyu; Zhang, Mingman; Jiang, Yugang

    2013-10-15

    Zinc supplementation can help maintain learning and memory function in rodents. In this study, we hypothesized that zinc supplementation could antagonize the neurotoxicity induced by aluminum in rats. Animals were fed a diet containing different doses of zinc (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) for 9 weeks, and orally administered aluminum chloride (300 mg/kg daily) from the third week for 7 consecutive weeks. Open-field behavioral test results showed that the number of rearings in the group given the 100 mg/kg zinc supplement was significantly increased compared with the group given the 50 mg/kg zinc supplement. Malondialdehyde content in the cerebrum was significantly decreased, while dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels were increased in the groups given the diet supplemented with 100 and 200 mg/kg zinc, compared with the group given the diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg zinc. The acetylcholinesterase activity in the cerebrum was significantly decreased in the group given the 100 mg/kg zinc supplement. Hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed evident pathological damage in the hippocampus of rats in the group given the diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg zinc, but the damage was attenuated in the groups given the diet supplemented with 100 and 200 mg/kg zinc. Our findings suggest that zinc is a potential neuroprotective agent against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in rats, and the optimal dosages are 100 and 200 mg/kg. PMID:25206586

  8. Chloride Channels of Intracellular Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, John C.; Kahl, Christina R.

    2010-01-01

    Proteins implicated as intracellular chloride channels include the intracellular ClC proteins, the bestrophins, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, the CLICs, and the recently described Golgi pH regulator. This paper examines current hypotheses regarding roles of intracellular chloride channels and reviews the evidence supporting a role in intracellular chloride transport for each of these proteins. PMID:20100480

  9. Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

  10. Molecular Structure of Thionyl chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-10-01

    Thionyl chloride is a slightly yellowish liquid with an intense odor and low viscosity. It reacts with lithium to produce lithium chloride and is a good solvent for most organic compounds. Other uses of thionyl chloride include as an intermediate for the production of pharmaceutically active ingredients, as an electrolyte in lithium batteries, and in crop protection.

  11. Intraprostatic injection of neutralized zinc in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fahim, M.S.; Wang, M.; Sutcu, M.F.; Fahim, Z.; Safron, J.A.; Ganjam, V.K. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia (United States) Xian Medical University (China))

    1991-03-11

    Zinc has been implicated in steroid endocrinology of the prostate gland. The conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by 5{alpha}-reductase enzyme is believed to express androgenic responses in the prostate. To note the effect of neutralized zinc on the prostate, 50 sexually mature rats, weighing 325 {plus minus} 20 grams, were divided into 5 groups as follows: (1) control, (2) sham, (3) castrated, (4) injected intraprostatically with 10 mg. neutralized zinc, and (5) injected intraprostatically with 20 mg. neutralized zinc. Results in the treated groups indicated significant reduction of prostate weights, 12% and 53% and histologically normal prostate; no significant change in weight and histological structure of testes, epididymides, and seminal vesicles; significant reduction in 5{alpha}-reductase activity and total protein and DNA concentrations in prostate tissue; and no significant effect on progeny of treated animals. These results suggest that direct application of neutralized zinc to the prostate offers a new modality for treatment of prostatitis without affecting spermatogenesis and testosterone production.

  12. Calculation of equilibrium stable isotope partition function ratios for aqueous zinc complexes and metallic zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Jay R.; Kavner, Abby; Schauble, Edwin A.

    2011-02-01

    The goal of this study is to determine reduced partition function ratios for a variety of species of zinc, both as a metal and in aqueous solutions in order to calculate equilibrium stable isotope partitioning. We present calculations of the magnitude of Zn stable-isotope fractionation ( 66,67,68Zn/ 64Zn) between aqueous species and metallic zinc using measured vibrational spectra (fit from neutron scattering studies of metallic zinc) and a variety of electronic structure models. The results show that the reduced metal, Zn(0), will be light in equilibrium with oxidized Zn(II) aqueous species, with the best estimates for the Zn(II)-Zn(0) fractionation between hexaquo species and metallic zinc being ? 66/64Zn aq-metal ˜ 1.6‰ at 25 °C, and ? 66/64Zn aq-metal ˜ 0.8‰ between the tetrachloro zinc complex and metallic zinc at 25 °C using B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory and basis set. To examine the behavior of zinc in various aqueous solution chemistries, models for Zn(II) complex speciation were used to determine which species are thermodynamically favorable and abundant under a variety of different conditions relevant to natural waters, experimental and industrial solutions. The optimal molecular geometries for [Zn(H 2O) 6] 2+, [Zn(H 2O) 6]·SO 4, [ZnCl 4] 2- and [Zn(H 2O) 3(C 3H 5O(COO) 3)] - complexes in various states of solvation, protonation and coordination were calculated at various levels of electronic structure theory and basis set size. Isotopic reduced partition function ratios were calculated from frequency analyses of these optimized structures. Increasing the basis set size typically led to a decrease in the calculated reduced partition function ratios of ˜0.5‰ with values approaching a plateau using the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set or larger. The widest range of species were studied at the B3LYP/LAN2DZ/6-31G ? level of theory and basis-set size for comparison. Aqueous zinc complexes where oxygen is bound to the metal center tended to have the largest reduced partition function ratios, with estimated fractionations ranging from 2.2 to 2.9‰ ( 66Zn/ 64Zn) at 25 °C relative to metallic zinc. The tetrahedrally coordinated tetrachloro zinc complex, where zinc is bound exclusively to chloride, had the lowest reduced partition function ratio for a Zn(II) species (? 66/64Zn aq-metal ˜ 1-1.3‰ at 25 °C). Increasing the number of waters in the second shell of solvation of the above complexes led to variable results, most commonly leading to a decrease of ˜0.2 to 0.3‰ in calculated ? 66/64Zn aq-metal at 25 °C. These estimates are useful in the interpretation of observed fractionations during the electrochemical deposition of zinc, where aqueous-metal fractionations of up to 5.5‰ are observed. The models show these are not caused by an equilibrium fractionation process. These results suggest that the redox cycle of zinc during industrial processing may be responsible for isotopically distinct reservoirs of zinc observed in polluted environments. The leaching of metallic zinc or zinc tailings from industrial sites could lead to the observed heavy signature in river systems, the magnitude of which will be reliant on the source material and the aqueous species that form.

  13. Chloride channels as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (?-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery. PMID:19153558

  14. Chloride and Salinity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-07-15

    This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  15. Dioxanates of Cadmium Chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin G. Chasanov; Cecil C. Lynch

    1957-01-01

    DIOXANATES of cadmium chloride were precipitated from a solution of the anhydrous salts (certified purity) in acetal-free dioxane, prepared from Eastman Kodak technical 1,4-dioxane by the method of Eigenberger1. The crude dioxanate (that is, wet with dioxane) was placed in the bulb of the isotenoscope of Smith and Menzies2, and oil of paraffin, U.S.P., was employed as the levelling liquid.

  16. Zinc: An Essential Micronutrient

    PubMed Central

    SAPER, ROBERT B.; RASH, REBECCA

    2009-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient for human metabolism that catalyzes more than 100 enzymes, facilitates protein folding, and helps regulate gene expression. Patients with malnutrition, alcoholism, inflammatory bowel disease, and malabsorption syndromes are at an increased risk of zinc deficiency. Symptoms of zinc deficiency are nonspecific, including growth retardation, diarrhea, alopecia, glossitis, nail dystrophy, decreased immunity, and hypogonadism in males. In developing countries, zinc supplementation may be effective for the prevention of upper respiratory infection and diarrhea, and as an adjunct treatment for diarrhea in malnourished children. Zinc in combination with antioxidants may be modestly effective in slowing the progression of intermediate and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Zinc is an effective treatment for Wilson disease. Current data do not support zinc supplementation as effective for upper respiratory infection, wound healing, or human immunodeficiency virus. Zinc is well tolerated at recommended dosages. Adverse effects of long-term high-dose zinc use include suppressed immunity, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, anemia, copper deficiency, and possible genitourinary complications. PMID:20141096

  17. Zinc oxide hexagram whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. X.; Sun, X. W.; Dong, Z. L.; Zhu, G. P.; Cui, Y. P.

    2006-02-01

    Through vapor-phase transport method, zinc oxide hexagram whiskers with uniform size and morphology were fabricated by heating a mixture source of zinc oxide, indium oxide, and graphite powders in air. Each whisker presented a hexagonal disk core closed by six equivalent surfaces of {101¯0} and was surrounded by side nanorods grown along the diagonal of the core disk in the 6-symmetric directions of ±[112¯0], ±[21¯1¯0], and ±[12¯10]. Based on the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, the growth process of the zinc oxide hexagrams were discussed by considering the thermal dynamic properties of zinc oxide and indium oxide.

  18. Thermal treatment for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Belardi, G. [Institute for Environmental Engineering and Geosciences (CNR) Area della Ricerca CNR, via Salaria km 29,300, Monterotondo, 00016 Rome (Italy); Lavecchia, R.; Medici, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, via Eudossiana 84, 00184 Rome (Italy); Piga, L., E-mail: luigi.piga@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, via Eudossiana 84, 00184 Rome (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We separated Zn from Mn in zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries after removal of Hg. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost total removal of Hg is achieved at low temperature in air. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen atmosphere is needed to reduce zinc and to permit its volatilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high grade Zn concentrate was obtained with a high recovery at 1000-1200 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grade of Mn in the residue was enhanced with complete recovery. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is the recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn, after preliminary physical treatment followed by removal of mercury. Separation of the metals has been carried out on the basis of their different boiling points, being 357 Degree-Sign C and 906 Degree-Sign C the boiling point of mercury and zinc and 1564 Degree-Sign C the melting point of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Characterization by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA and X-ray powder diffraction of the mixture has been carried out after comminution sieving and shaking table treatment to remove the anodic collectors and most of chlorides contained in the mixture. The mixture has been roasted at various temperatures and resident times in a flow of air to set the best conditions to remove mercury that were 400 Degree-Sign C and 10 min. After that, the flow of air has been turned into a nitrogen one (inert atmosphere) and the temperatures raised, thus permitting the zinc oxide to be reduced to metallic zinc by the carbon present in the original mixture and recovered after volatilization as a high grade concentrate, while manganese was left in the residue. The recovery and the grade of the two metals, at 1000 Degree-Sign C and 30 min residence time, were 84% and 100% for zinc and 85% and 63% for manganese, respectively. The recovery of zinc increased to 99% with a grade of 97% at 1200 Degree-Sign C and 30 min residence time, while the recovery and grade of manganese were 86% and 87%, respectively, at that temperature. Moreover, the chlorinated compounds that could form by the combustion of the plastics contained in the spent batteries, are destroyed at the temperature required by the process.

  19. Chloride contamination of line pipe: Its effect on FBE coating performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Neal; T. Whitehurst

    1995-01-01

    Two pipes were contaminated with various levels of chloride. One pipe was coated without removing the contamination; the other was coated after decontamination with phosphoric acid. A third pipe, not contaminated, was treated with phosphoric acid before coating. Chloride levels were measured using an extraction sampling technique and ASTM D 512 Method A for analysis. Residual phosphorus was also measured

  20. Molecular Structure of Ferric chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-27

    Ferric chloride is a corrosive chemical, thus, it is used to deodorize sewage and industrial waste by partially reducing to ferrous chloride. It is also employed as an engraving reagent on metal surfaces. Other applications include its use as a flocculating agent in water treatment. Ferric chloride is a hazardous chemical that irritates the skin and eyes and is toxic if ingested, however it can be used as a reagent in pharmaceutical preparations.

  1. Preparation of zinc orthotitanate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, D. W.; Gilligan, J. E.; Harada, Y.; Logan, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Use of decomposable precursors to enhance zinc oxide-titanium dioxide reaction and rapid fixing results in rapid preparation of zinc orthotitanate powder pigment. Preparation process allows production under less stringent conditions. Elimination of powder grinding results in purer that is less susceptible to color degradation.

  2. Zinc in evolution.

    PubMed

    Williams, R J P

    2012-06-01

    The first part of this paper gives an account of the early work I did with Vallee on zinc enzymes. The second part is work and thoughts on zinc biochemistry subsequent to this work and following on from it. I shall then put our knowledge of zinc biochemistry into the context of the evolution of organisms. The zinc proteins are divided into two classes: (1) mainly enzymes often found in the early forms of life, prokaryotes, and continued in eukaryotes, showing virtually no exchange of zinc; (2) mainly buffers, pumps, chaperones and transcription factors all showing faster exchange and largely only found in eukaryotes. The complexity of organisms, especially in three steps, prokaryotes, single-cell and then multicell eukaryotes, coincides with the two major rises of oxygen. The rise of oxygen caused a rise of zinc in the sea as estimated from the analysis of sediments. These changes of zinc and other elements with oxygen indicate that environmental changes were inevitable. To a considerable extent then the rise of organism complexity arose from a need to use and in some cases to avoid the steps in element availability. After about 0.5 Ga there has been little change in the chemistry of the environment and little in the gross features of the chemistry of life notwithstanding the huge increase in diversity. The final paragraph acknowledges the inspiration and stimulation of the work of Vallee in the biology and biochemistry of zinc. PMID:22855949

  3. Zinc oxide hexagram whiskers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. X. Xu; X. W. Sun; Z. L. Dong; G. P. Zhu; Y. P. Cui

    2006-01-01

    Through vapor-phase transport method, zinc oxide hexagram whiskers with uniform size and morphology were fabricated by heating a mixture source of zinc oxide, indium oxide, and graphite powders in air. Each whisker presented a hexagonal disk core closed by six equivalent surfaces of {1010} and was surrounded by side nanorods grown along the diagonal of the core disk in the

  4. Subacute Zinc Administration and L-NAME Caused an Increase of NO, Zinc, Lipoperoxidation, and Caspase-3 during a Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia Process in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Alvarez, Victor Manuel; Lopez-Moreno, Patricia; Soto-Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Rubio, Hector; Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Piña-Leyva, Celia; Torres-Soto, Maricela; Gomez-Villalobos, María de Jesus; Hernandez-Baltazar, Daniel; Eguibar, José Ramon; Ugarte, Araceli; Cebada, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Zinc or L-NAME administration has been shown to be protector agents, decreasing oxidative stress and cell death. However, the treatment with zinc and L-NAME by intraperitoneal injection has not been studied. The aim of our work was to study the effect of zinc and L-NAME administration on nitrosative stress and cell death. Male Wistar rats were treated with ZnCl2 (2.5?mg/kg each 24?h, for 4 days) and N-?-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, 10?mg/kg) on the day 5 (1 hour before a common carotid-artery occlusion (CCAO)). The temporoparietal cortex and hippocampus were dissected, and zinc, nitrites, and lipoperoxidation were assayed at different times. Cell death was assayed by histopathology using hematoxylin-eosin staining and caspase-3 active by immunostaining. The subacute administration of zinc before CCAO decreases the levels of zinc, nitrites, lipoperoxidation, and cell death in the late phase of the ischemia. L-NAME administration in the rats treated with zinc showed an increase of zinc levels in the early phase and increase of zinc, nitrites, and lipoperoxidation levels, cell death by necrosis, and the apoptosis in the late phase. These results suggest that the use of these two therapeutic strategies increased the injury caused by the CCAO, unlike the alone administration of zinc. PMID:23997853

  5. Antibiotic bonding to polytetrafluoroethylene with tridodecylmethylammonium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.A.; Alcid, D.V.; Greco, R.S.

    1982-09-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) treated with the cationic surfactant, triodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDMAC), binds /sup 14/C-penicillin (1.5 to 2 mg antibiotic/cm graft), whereas untreated PTFE or PTFE treated with anionic detergents shows little binding of antibiotic. TDMAC-treated PTFE concomitantly binds penicillin and heparin, generating a surface that potentially can resist both infection and thrombosis. The retention of these biologically active molecules is not due to passive entrapment in the PTFE but reflects an ionic interaction between the anionic ligands and surface-bound TDMAC. Penicillin bound to PTFE is not removed by exhaustive washing in aqueous buffers but is slowly released in the presence of plasma or when the PTFE is placed in a muscle pouch in the rat. Muscle tissue adjacent to the treated PTFE shows elevated levels of antibiotic following implantation. PTFE treated with TDMAC and placed in a muscle pouch binds /sup 14/C-penicillin when it is locally irrigated with antibiotic or when penicillin is administered intravenously. Thus, the TDMAC surface treated either in vitro or in vivo with penicillin provides an effective in situ source for the timed release of antibiotic.

  6. Novel zinc alginate hydrogels prepared by internal setting method with intrinsic antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Straccia, Maria Cristina; d'Ayala, Giovanna Gomez; Romano, Ida; Laurienzo, Paola

    2015-07-10

    In this paper, a controlled gelation of alginate was performed for the first time using ZnCO3 and GDL. Uniform and transparent gels were obtained and investigated as potential wound dressings. Homogeneity, water content, swelling capability, water evaporation rate, stability in normal saline solution, mechanical properties and antibacterial activity were assessed as a function of zinc concentration. Gelation rate increased at increasing zinc content, while a decrease in water uptake and an improvement of stability were found. Release of zinc in physiological environments showed that concentration of zinc released in solution lies below the cytotoxicity level. Hydrogels showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. The hydrogel with highest zinc content was stabilized with calcium by immersion in a calcium chloride solution. The resulting hydrogel preserved homogeneity and antibacterial activity. Furthermore, it showed even an improvement of stability and mechanical properties, which makes it suitable as long-lasting wound dressing. PMID:25857965

  7. Zinc enrichment of whole potato tuber by vacuum impregnation.

    PubMed

    Erihemu; Hironaka, Kazunori; Koaze, Hiroshi; Oda, Yuji; Shimada, Kenichiro

    2015-04-01

    Zinc is a nutritionally essential truce element, and thus zinc deficiency (ZD) severely affects human health. More than 25% of the world's population is at risk of ZD. This study was initiated to examine the use of the vacuum impregnation (VI) technique for enriching zinc content of whole potatoes; the effect of vacuum time, restoration time, steam-cooking and storage at 4 °C on the zinc content of VI whole potatoes was evaluated. Whole potato tubers were immersed in a 9 g/100 g zinc (zinc gluconate) solution. Vacuum pressure of 1,000 Pa was applied for 0-120 min, and atmospheric pressure restoration for 0-4 h. Experimental results showed that the zinc content of VI potatoes increased with vacuum and restoration time. Moreover, VI-cooked unpeeled or peeled potatoes had 63-94 times and 47-75 times higher zinc contents than un-VI-cooked unpeeled or peeled potatoes, respectively. The world daily potato consumption (86 g) of the VI-cooked unpeeled and peeled potatoes provided adult men with 130-148% and 100-135% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of zinc, respectively. Also, the daily potato consumption of the unpeeled and peeled potatoes supplied adult women with 178-203% and 137-185% of the RDA level, respectively. In addition, the VI potatoes had 40 times higher zinc contents through 30 days of storage at 4 °C, compared with un-VI-treated potatoes. This study indicated that VI treatment of whole potatoes was useful for enriching the zinc content. PMID:25829619

  8. Effect of polaprezinc on taste disorders in zinc-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Hiroki; Yoshinaga, Koji; Eta, Runa; Emori, Yutaka; Kawasaki, Daisuke; Iino, Yuka; Sawada, Miwa; Kuroda, Hiroyuki; Takei, Mineo

    2006-01-01

    The effect of polaprezinc, a chelate compound consisting of zinc ion and L-carnosine, on abnormalities of taste sensation induced by feeding a zinc-deficient diet to rats was examined by using the two-bottle preference test (quinine hydrochloride as a bitter taste and sodium chloride as a salty taste). Rats were fed either a zinc-deficient or a zinc-sufficient diet. The zinc-deficient diet increased the preference for both taste solutions, while polaprezinc (at doses of 3 and 10 mg/kg) restored the altered taste preferences. We also evaluated the proliferation of taste bud cells using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). The BrdU incorporation into taste bud cells was significantly reduced in rats fed a zinc-deficient diet compared with rats fed a zinc-sufficient diet (from 50.8% to 45.0%, p<0.05) and this reduction was reversed by polaprezinc at doses of 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg, increasing to 50.2%, 53.5%, and 52.5%, respectively. These findings indicate that zinc deficiency induces the delayed of proliferation of taste bud cells, while polaprezinc improves cell proliferation. In conclusion, polaprezinc had a therapeutic effect in a rat model of abnormal taste sensation. Its mechanism of action was suggested to involve improvement of the decrease in taste bud cell proliferation caused by zinc deficiency. PMID:17473379

  9. Designing Hydrolytic Zinc Metalloenzymes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential element required for the function of more than 300 enzymes spanning all classes. Despite years of dedicated study, questions regarding the connections between primary and secondary metal ligands and protein structure and function remain unanswered, despite numerous mechanistic, structural, biochemical, and synthetic model studies. Protein design is a powerful strategy for reproducing native metal sites that may be applied to answering some of these questions and subsequently generating novel zinc enzymes. From examination of the earliest design studies introducing simple Zn(II)-binding sites into de novo and natural protein scaffolds to current studies involving the preparation of efficient hydrolytic zinc sites, it is increasingly likely that protein design will achieve reaction rates previously thought possible only for native enzymes. This Current Topic will review the design and redesign of Zn(II)-binding sites in de novo-designed proteins and native protein scaffolds toward the preparation of catalytic hydrolytic sites. After discussing the preparation of Zn(II)-binding sites in various scaffolds, we will describe relevant examples for reengineering existing zinc sites to generate new or altered catalytic activities. Then, we will describe our work on the preparation of a de novo-designed hydrolytic zinc site in detail and present comparisons to related designed zinc sites. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the significant progress being made toward building zinc metalloenzymes from the bottom up. PMID:24506795

  10. Molecular Structure of Picryl chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-09-20

    Picryl chloride is ranked as one of the 100 most commonly found explosive and shock sensitive materials. It is made by reacting 2,4,6 trinitrophenol with thionyl chloride. This highly reactive compound is known to be hazardous and toxic, and to cause liver injury in mice. It is often used as a sensitization agent in mice when their cells undergo hypersensitivity studies.

  11. Oral zinc supplementation restore high molecular weight seminal zinc binding protein to normal value in Iraqi infertile men

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Zinc in human seminal plasma is divided into three types of ligands which are high (HMW), intermediate (IMW), and low molecular weight ligands (LMW). The present study was aimed to study the effect of Zn supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen along with Zinc Binding Protein levels in the seminal plasma in asthenozoospermic patients. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 37 fertile and 37 asthenozoospermic infertile men with matched age. The subfertile group was treated with zinc sulfate, every participant took two capsules per day for three months (each one 220mg). Semen samples were obtained (before and after zinc sulfate supplementation). After liquefaction seminal fluid at room temperature, routine semen analyses were performed. For determination of the amount of zinc binding proteins, the gel filtration of seminal plasma on Sephadex G-75 was performed. All the fractions were investigated for protein and for zinc concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Evaluation of chromatograms was made directly from the zinc concentration in each fraction. Results A significant high molecular weight zinc binding ligands percentage (HMW-Zn %) was observed in seminal plasma of fertile males compared with subfertile males. However, seminal low molecular weight ligands (LMW-Zn) have opposite behavior. The mean value of semen volume, progressive sperm motility percentage and total normal sperm count were increased after zinc sulfate supplementation. Conclusions Zinc supplementation restores HMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to normal value. Zinc supplementation elevates LMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to more than normal value. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01612403 PMID:23145537

  12. Effect of metal chlorides on thermal degradation of (waste) polycarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.-J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, MingChi University of Technology, 243, Taishan, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: sjchiu@ns1.mit.edu.tw; Chen, S.-H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, MingChi University of Technology, 243, Taishan, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, C.-T. [Department of Biochemical Engineering, MingChi University of Technology, 243, Taishan, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2006-07-01

    In this study, we investigated how to treat (waste) polycarbonate efficiently to reduce its degraded residue. The study was carried out in an isothermal reactor under continuous nitrogen flow at atmospheric pressure to pyrolyze polycarbonate (PC) alone and in the presence of metal chloride. Some metal chlorides were shown to be catalytic active for the degradation of PC at 400 deg. C, which increased degradation conversion from 8.5% to more than 58.3%. Among those active metal chlorides, ZnCl{sub 2} and SnCl{sub 2} can produce higher liquid product yields. Effects such as particle size of PC, temperature, the weight ratio of metal chloride/PC, and degradation time on the degradation conversion of PC without and with these two most active metal chlorides were studied. Results of the liquid product analysis by GC/MS demonstrated the product composition of PC degradation over the metal chlorides is much simpler than that of degradation alone. The main liquid product is phenol, p-isopropylphenol, diphenyl carbonate, and bisphenol A for all cases.

  13. Clioquinol Synergistically Augments Rescue by Zinc Supplementation in a Mouse Model of Acrodermatitis Enteropathica

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Jim; De Lisle, Robert C.; Finkelstein, David; Adlard, Paul A.; Bush, Ashley I.; Andrews, Glen K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Zinc deficiency due to poor nutrition or genetic mutations in zinc transporters is a global health problem and approaches to providing effective dietary zinc supplementation while avoiding potential toxic side effects are needed. Methods/Principal Findings Conditional knockout of the intestinal zinc transporter Zip4 (Slc39a4) in mice creates a model of the lethal human genetic disease acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE). This knockout leads to acute zinc deficiency resulting in rapid weight loss, disrupted intestine integrity and eventually lethality, and therefore provides a model system in which to examine novel approaches to zinc supplementation. We examined the efficacy of dietary clioquinol (CQ), a well characterized zinc chelator/ionophore, in rescuing the Zip4intest KO phenotype. By 8 days after initiation of the knockout neither dietary CQ nor zinc supplementation in the drinking water was found to be effective at improving this phenotype. In contrast, dietary CQ in conjunction with zinc supplementation was highly effective. Dietary CQ with zinc supplementation rapidly restored intestine stem cell division and differentiation of secretory and the absorptive cells. These changes were accompanied by rapid growth and dramatically increased longevity in the majority of mice, as well as the apparent restoration of the homeostasis of several essential metals in the liver. Conclusions These studies suggest that oral CQ (or other 8-hydroxyquinolines) coupled with zinc supplementation could provide a facile approach toward treating zinc deficiency in humans by stimulating stem cell proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:24015258

  14. Benzalkonium Chloride and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Paul L.; Kiland, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology. PMID:24205938

  15. Sodium selenite and vitamin E in preventing mercuric chloride induced renal toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Aslanturk, Ayse; Uzunhisarcikli, Meltem; Kalender, Suna; Demir, Filiz

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to investigate improving effects of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E on mercuric chloride-induced kidney impairments in rats. Wistar male rats were exposed either to sodium selenite (0.25mg/kgday), vitamin E (100mg/kgday), sodium selenite+vitamin E, mercuric chloride (1mg/kgday), sodium selenite+mercuric chloride, vitamin E+mercuric chloride and sodium selenite+vitamin E+mercuric chloride for 4weeks. Mercuric chloride exposure resulted in an increase in the uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and a decrease in the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Histopathological changes were detected in kidney tissues in mercuric chloride-treated groups. A significant decrease in the uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and MDA levels and a significant increase in the SOD, CAT and GPx activities were observed in the supplementation of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E to mercuric chloride-treated groups. Conclusively, sodium selenite, vitamin E and vitamin E+sodium selenite significantly reduce mercuric chloride induced nephrotoxicity in rats, but not protect completely. PMID:24857817

  16. Chloride concentrations in human hepatic cytosol and mitochondria are a function of age.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Stephan C; Rowland-Faux, Laura; Stacpoole, Peter W; James, Margaret O

    2015-04-10

    We recently reported that, in a concentration-dependent manner, chloride protects hepatic glutathione transferase zeta 1 from inactivation by dichloroacetate, an investigational drug used in treating various acquired and congenital metabolic diseases. Despite the importance of chloride ions in normal physiology, and decades of study of chloride transport across membranes, the literature lacks information on chloride concentrations in animal tissues other than blood. In this study we measured chloride concentrations in human liver samples from male and female donors aged 1 day to 84 years (n = 97). Because glutathione transferase zeta 1 is present in cytosol and, to a lesser extent, in mitochondria, we measured chloride in these fractions by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis following conversion of the free chloride to pentafluorobenzylchloride. We found that chloride concentration decreased with age in hepatic cytosol but increased in liver mitochondria. In addition, chloride concentrations in cytosol, (105.2 ± 62.4 mM; range: 24.7-365.7 mM) were strikingly higher than those in mitochondria (4.2 ± 3.8 mM; range 0.9-22.2 mM). These results suggest a possible explanation for clinical observations seen in patients treated with dichloroacetate, whereby children metabolize the drug more rapidly than adults following repeated doses, and also provide information that may influence our understanding of normal liver physiology. PMID:25748576

  17. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride...o)(12) of this chapter, with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. (d) Prior sanctions for...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride...o)(12) of this chapter, with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. (d) Prior sanctions for...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride...o)(12) of this chapter, with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. (d) Prior sanctions for...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride...o)(12) of this chapter, with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. (d) Prior sanctions for...

  2. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  3. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  4. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  5. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  6. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is...

  16. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ...No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China Determination On the...revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to...Publication 4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation...

  17. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States...concerning the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China...revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely...

  18. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  19. Aluminum doped zinc oxide for organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, G. B.; Hinds, S.; Sargent, E. H.; Tsang, S. W.; Mordoukhovski, L.; Lu, Z. H.

    2009-05-01

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) was grown via magnetron sputtering as a low-cost alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO) for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Postdeposition ozone treatment resulted in devices with lower series resistance, increased open-circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency double that of devices fabricated on untreated AZO. Furthermore, cells fabricated using ozone treated AZO and standard ITO displayed comparable performance.

  20. Aluminum doped zinc oxide for organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Murdoch, G. B.; Hinds, S.; Sargent, E. H.; Tsang, S. W.; Mordoukhovski, L.; Lu, Z. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada)

    2009-05-25

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) was grown via magnetron sputtering as a low-cost alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO) for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Postdeposition ozone treatment resulted in devices with lower series resistance, increased open-circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency double that of devices fabricated on untreated AZO. Furthermore, cells fabricated using ozone treated AZO and standard ITO displayed comparable performance.

  1. Trace analysis in highly concentrated salt solutions of sodium chloride and ammonium fluoride using flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgi Bekjarov; Veselin Kmetov; Lubomir Futekov

    1989-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of high salt concentration are subjected to direct flame atomic absorption analysis. Blockage of nebulizer and burner is eliminated by employing the dosage scheme “washing solution — sample — washing solution” effected by means of a specially designed device. The microtrace content of bismuth, zinc and copper in sodium chloride and of copper, lead and iron in ammonium

  2. Volatilization of cesium-137 from soil with chloride amendments during heating and vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1994-06-01

    During vitrification of soil and soil:limestone mixtures, significant volatilization (> 10%) of the radioisotope [sup 137]Cs occurred particularly in the presence of small amounts (<5%) of chloride-containing species including sodium chloride, calcium chloride, hydrochloric acid, and poly-(vinyl chloride). Sodium chloride was found to be the most effective, resulting in volatilization of >99% of the [sup 137]Cs by repeated amendment and treatment at 1000[degree]C. Amendment with sodium borate and subsequent heating to 1200[degree]C also stimulated significant volatilization of [sup 137]Cs. However, amendments up to 10% of other chemicals including carbonates, nitrates, phosphates, sulfates, fluorides, polystyrene, graphite, stainless steels, iron, zinc oxide, and antimony oxide did not increase [sup 137]Cs volatilization compared to unamended samples. The majority of the chloride-induced volatilization occurred between 800 and 1000[degree]C for sodium chloride-amended samples of both soil and soil:limestone mixtures. Thus, an effective and potentially efficient soil decontamination technique for [sup 137]Cs has been identified. 17 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Zinc deficiency and growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Salgueiro; R. Weill; M. Zubillaga; A. Lysionek; R. Caro; C. Goldman; D. Barrado; M. Martinez Sarrasague; J. Boccio

    2004-01-01

    Zinc deficiency remains a serious health problem worldwide affecting developed as well as developing countries. Despite the\\u000a evidence proving that zinc deprivation during the periods of rapid growth negatively affects the cognitive brain as well as\\u000a sexual development, there are few complete studies carried out in children. The present article proposes a revision of the\\u000a evidence gathered until now on

  4. Calcium phosphate stabilization of fly ash with chloride extraction.

    PubMed

    Nzihou, Ange; Sharrock, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator by products include fly ash and air pollution control residues. In order to transform these incinerator wastes into reusable mineral species, soluble alkali chlorides must be separated and toxic trace elements must be stabilized in insoluble form. We show that alkali chlorides can be extracted efficiently in an aqueous extraction step combining a calcium phosphate gel precipitation. In such a process, sodium and potassium chlorides are obtained free from calcium salts, and the trace metal ions are immobilized in the calcium phosphate matrix. Moderate calcination of the chemically treated fly ash leads to the formation of cristalline hydroxylapatite. Fly ash spiked with copper ions and treated by this process shows improved stability of metal ions. Leaching tests with water or EDTA reveal a significant drop in metal ion dissolution. Hydroxylapatite may trap toxic metals and also prevent their evaporation during thermal treatments. Incinerator fly ash together with air pollution control residues, treated by the combined chloride extraction and hydroxylapatite formation process may be considered safe to use as a mineral filler in value added products such as road base or cement blocks. PMID:12003153

  5. Induction of apoptosis in mammalian cells by cadmium and zinc.

    PubMed Central

    Wätjen, Wim; Haase, Hajo; Biagioli, Marta; Beyersmann, Detmar

    2002-01-01

    In various mammalian cells, two group IIb metals, cadmium and zinc, induce several morphological and biochemical effects that are salient features of programmed cell death. In C6 rat glioma cells, cadmium caused externalization of phosphatidylserine, breakdown of the mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspase-9, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and nuclear fragmentation. In NIH3T3 murine fibroblasts, cadmium-induced apoptosis was inhibited by overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. Cadmium-induced DNA fragmentation in C6 cells was independent of inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, Ca-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, and protein kinase G. Zinc at moderate concentrations (10-50 microM) protected against programmed cell death induced by cadmium, whereas deprivation of zinc by the membrane-permeable chelator N,N,N',N-terakis-(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) caused cell death with features characteristic of apoptosis. On the other hand, at elevated extracellular levels (150-200 microM), zinc alone caused programmed cell death in C6 cells. Zinc-induced apoptosis was independent of inhibition of PKA, PKC, guanylate cyclase and MAPK, but it was suppressed in the presence of 100 microM lanthanum chloride. PMID:12426148

  6. Zinc gluconate and the common cold. Review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, S.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the evidence of seven randomized controlled trials (RCT) on the therapeutic effectiveness of zinc gluconate lozenges for treating the common cold. DATA SOURCES: Using the MeSH headings common cold and zinc gluconate, MEDLINE was searched from 1966 on for all published RCTs evaluating use of zinc gluconate for treating the common cold. STUDY SELECTION: For this study, only double-blind RCTs were included. SYNTHESIS: Fair evidence suggests that zinc gluconate lozenges have a therapeutic effect in treating the common cold. Starting therapy with zinc gluconate lozenges within 24 to 48 hours of onset of cold symptoms reduces the duration and severity of the cold. Patients must suck lozenges every 2 hours while awake during the cold. Minimum effective dose appears to be 13.3 mg of elemental zinc per lozenge. Evidence suggests that compounds such as citric acid, sorbitol, and mannitol bind the free zinc ion in the mouth, and this could account for variations in therapeutic benefit. Bad taste and nausea are important side effects of zinc lozenges. CONCLUSION: Evidence supports use of zinc gluconate lozenges for reducing the symptoms and duration of the common cold, but the side effects, bad taste, and therapeutic protocol might limit patient compliance. PMID:9612589

  7. Zinc pyrithione impairs zinc homeostasis and upregulates stress response gene expression in reconstructed human epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Lamore, Sarah D.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc ion homeostasis plays an important role in human cutaneous biology where it is involved in epidermal differentiation and barrier function, inflammatory and antimicrobial regulation, and wound healing. Zinc-based compounds designed for topical delivery therefore represent an important class of cutaneous therapeutics. Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) is an FDA-approved microbicidal agent used worldwide in over-the-counter topical antimicrobials, and has also been examined as an investigational therapeutic targeting psoriasis and UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia. Recently, we have demonstrated that cultured primary human skin keratinocytes display an exquisite sensitivity to nanomolar ZnPT concentrations causing induction of heat shock response gene expression and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-dependent cell death (Cell Stress Chaperones 15:309–322, 2010). Here we demonstrate that ZnPT causes rapid accumulation of intracellular zinc in primary keratinocytes as observed by quantitative fluorescence microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and that PARP activation, energy crisis, and genomic impairment are all antagonized by zinc chelation. In epidermal reconstructs (EpiDerm™) exposed to topical ZnPT (0.1–2% in Vanicream™), ICP-MS demonstrated rapid zinc accumulation, and expression array analysis demonstrated upregulation of stress response genes encoding metallothionein-2A (MT2A), heat shock proteins (HSPA6, HSPA1A, HSPB5, HSPA1L, DNAJA1, HSPH1, HSPD1, HSPE1), antioxidants (SOD2, GSTM3, HMOX1), and the cell cycle inhibitor p21 (CDKN1A). IHC analysis of ZnPT-treated EpiDerm™ confirmed upregulation of Hsp70 and TUNEL-positivity. Taken together our data demonstrate that ZnPT impairs zinc ion homeostasis and upregulates stress response gene expression in primary keratinocytes and reconstructed human epidermis, activities that may underlie therapeutic and toxicological effects of this topical drug. PMID:21424779

  8. Tissue content of mercury in rats given methylmercuric chloride orally: influence of intestinal flora

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, I.R.; Davies, M.J.; Evans, J.G.

    1980-05-01

    The effect of intestinal flora on the absorption and disposition of mercury in tissues was investigated using conventional rats, and rats treated with antibiotics to eliminate their gut flora. Antibiotic-treated rats given (/sup 203/Hg) -labeled methylmercuric chloride orally had significantly more mercury in their tissues, especially in kidney, brain, lung, blood, and skeletal muscle, and also excreted less mercury in the feces than conventional rats. Furthermore, in the kidneys of the antibiotic-treated rats, the proportion of mercury present as organic mercury was greater than in the kidneys of the conventional rats. The results support the hypothesis that the metabolism of methylmercuric chloride by the gut flora reduces the tissue content of mercury. When rats were administered 10 mg methylmercuric chloride/Kg.day for 6 days, four or five of those given antibiotics developed neurological symptoms of toxicity, whereas only one of five conventional rats given methylmercuric chloride was affected.

  9. Endogenous zinc in neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Koh, Jae-Yong

    2005-10-01

    The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the pantheon of signal ions in biology and medicine. However, the number of biological functions, health implications and pharmacological targets that are emerging for zinc indicate that it might turn out to be 'the calcium of the twenty-first century'. Here neurobiological roles of endogenous zinc is summarized. PMID:20396459

  10. Zinc protects against shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli by acting on host tissues as well as on bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Zinc supplements can treat or prevent enteric infections and diarrheal disease. Many articles on zinc in bacteria, however, highlight the essential nature of this metal for bacterial growth and virulence, suggesting that zinc should make infections worse, not better. To address this paradox, we tested whether zinc might have protective effects on intestinal epithelium as well as on the pathogen. Results Using polarized monolayers of T84 cells we found that zinc protected against damage induced by hydrogen peroxide, as measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance. Zinc also reduced peroxide-induced translocation of Shiga toxin (Stx) across T84 monolayers from the apical to basolateral side. Zinc was superior to other divalent metals to (iron, manganese, and nickel) in protecting against peroxide-induced epithelial damage, while copper also showed a protective effect. The SOS bacterial stress response pathway is a powerful regulator of Stx production in STEC. We examined whether zinc’s known inhibitory effects on Stx might be mediated by blocking the SOS response. Zinc reduced expression of recA, a reliable marker of the SOS. Zinc was more potent and more efficacious than other metals tested in inhibiting recA expression induced by hydrogen peroxide, xanthine oxidase, or the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. The close correlation between zinc’s effects on recA/SOS and on Stx suggested that inhibition of the SOS response is one mechanism by which zinc protects against STEC infection. Conclusions Zinc’s ability to protect against enteric bacterial pathogens may be the result of its combined effects on host tissues as well as inhibition of virulence in some pathogens. Research focused solely on the effects of zinc on pathogenic microbes may give an incomplete picture by failing to account for protective effects of zinc on host epithelia. PMID:24903402

  11. The relationship between erythrocyte zinc levels and isotretinoin use in acne vulgaris patients.

    PubMed

    Bilgiç, Ozlem; Alt?nyazar, Hilmi Cevdet; Sivrikaya, Abdullah; Unlü, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Background: Prior studies have demonstrated lower serum zinc levels in acne vulgaris (AV) patients compared with controls. However, no study has investigated the relationship between AV and erythrocyte zinc levels, which is a superior indicator of body zinc levels. Additionally, the potential influence of isotretinoin use on body zinc status remains to be evaluated. In this study, we aimed to determine erythrocyte zinc levels and their relationship with isotretinoin use in AV patients. Methods: The enrolled study participants included 106 (68% female) isotretinoin-treated AV patients, 89 (65% female) untreated AV patients and 100 (59% female) healthy volunteers between 18 and 30 years of age. The acne severity of the AV patients who did not receive treatment was assessed using the classification system of the International Consensus Conference on Acne. Erythrocyte zinc levels were analysed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results: No significant differences were observed among the three groups with respect to erythrocyte zinc levels. In addition, erythrocyte zinc levels did not vary according to the severity of AV, nor according to the duration of isotretinoin use. Conclusion: This study suggests that no relationships exist among zinc status, AV and isotretinoin use. However, given the relationship between vitamin A and zinc, and the fact that previous studies have indicated low serum zinc levels in AV patients, prospective studies are required to corroborate our data. PMID:25373485

  12. EFFECT OF NANOSCALE ZINC OXIDE PARTICLES ON THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND YIELD OF PEANUT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. N. V. K. V. Prasad; P. Sudhakar; Y. Sreenivasulu; P. Latha; V. Munaswamy; K. Raja Reddy; T. S. Sreeprasad; P. R. Sajanlal; T. Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    An investigation was initiated to examine the effects of nanoscale zinc oxide particles on plant growth and development. In view of the widespread cultivation of peanut in India and in other parts of the globe and in view of the potential influence of zinc on its growth, this plant was chosen as the model system. Peanut seeds were separately treated

  13. Reflectance measurements of cotton leaf senescence altered by mepiquat chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Escobar, D. E.; Rodriguez, R. R. (principal investigators)

    1982-01-01

    Spectrophotometric reflectance measurements were made on plant-attached leaves to evaluate growth chamber-grown cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum L.) senescence (chlorophyll degradation as criterion) that was delayed by mepiquat chloride (1,1-dimethylpiperidinium chloride) rates of 0, 10, 40, 70, and 100 g a.i./ha. Mepiquat chloride (MC increased both chlorophyll and leaf water contents as compared with that of untreated leaves. Reflectance was inversely and linearly correlated (r = -0.873**) with eater content at the 1.65 micrometer wavelength and was inversely correlated (r = -0.812**) with chlorophyll concentration at the 0.55 micrometer wavelength but best fit a quadratic equation. Either wavelength measurement might be useful to remotely detect cotton leaf senescence or fields of MC-treated cotton plants.

  14. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ONE STYLE OF DENVER AGITATOR IN LOWER RIGHT CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  15. Modeling Chloride Penetration in Saturated Concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunping Xi; Zdene?k P. Baz?ant

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model is established for chloride penetration in saturated concrete. The model takes into account various influential parameters such as water-to-cement ratio, curing time, types of cement, and aggregate content. Two material models are developed for binding capacity and chloride diffusivity, which have a dominant effect on the chloride diffusion process. The chloride binding capacity is modeled by means

  16. Chemical vapor deposition of zinc from diallyl zinc precursors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinwoo Cheon; G. S. Girolami; L. H. Dubois

    1994-01-01

    The organometallic compounds bis(allyl)zinc and bis(2-methylallyl)zinc have been shown to serve as MOCVD precursors for the deposition of zinc at temperatures as low as 150°C. The deposits on Si(100) wafers, quartz, copper, and aluminum consist of aggregates of hexagonal plates and columns. On silicon(100) substrates and at low background pressures (10⁻⁴ Torr), the zinc crystals are oriented preferentially with their

  17. Characterization of poly(vinyl chloride) aged in a bromine containing electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Leo, A.; Tarjani, M.

    1988-01-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is being considered for use as a flow frame material in a developmental zinc/bromine battery. The choice of PVC was based on its low cost and the ease with which it can be molded into complex parts. The electrolyte used in this battery is a highly corrosive mixture of bromine, zinc bromide, zinc chloride, potassium bromide, potassium chloride and a quaternary amine salt. The quaternary salt serves to reduce the concentration of free bromine in the electrolyte by virtue of its complexing capability. It is well known that aqueous bromine is capable of oxidizing organic compounds. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of a bromine electrolyte on two PVC formulations, PVC-1 and PVC-4. PVC-1 is the designation given to one of B.F. Goodrich's commercial formulations and is the present baseline material for the flow frame. PVC-4 is an experimental B.F. Goodrich formulation that was developed especially for battery applications. We sought answers to such questions as (1) does oxidation and/or bromination take place. (2) does bromine penetrate into the sample and, if so, how far. (3) how are the mechanical and morphological properties affected. and (4) are there differences in stability between PVC-1 and PVC-4. To accelerate the aging processes we aged the PVC samples at an elevated temperature in an electrolyte which did not contain any complexing agent. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Imaging mobile zinc in biology

    E-print Network

    Tomat, Elisa

    Trafficking and regulation of mobile zinc pools influence cellular functions and pathological conditions in multiple organs, including brain, pancreas, and prostate. The quest for a dynamic description of zinc distribution ...

  19. Insulin Production Hampered by Intermittent Hypoxia via Impaired Zinc Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pae, Eung-Kwon; Kim, Gyuyoup

    2014-01-01

    Without zinc, pancreatic beta cells cannot either assemble insulin molecules or precipitate insulin crystals; thus, a lack of zinc concentration in the beta cells would result in a decreased insulin production. ZIP8 is one of the zinc uptake transporters involved in zinc influx into the cytosol of beta cells. Thus, if ZIP8 is down-regulated, a decreased insulin production would result. We assumed that intermittent hypoxic exposure to the beta cells may result in a decreased production of insulin due to a lack of zinc. To test this hypothesis we harvested pancreatic islets from the rats conditioned under intermittent hypoxia (IH) (fluctuating between 20.5% and 10% every 4 min for 1 h) and compared the results with those from control animals and islets. We also compared their insulin and glucose homeostasis using glucose tolerance tests (GTT) after 3 weeks. GTT results show a significant delay (P<0.05) in recovery of the blood glucose level in IH treated pups. ZIP8 expression in the beta cell membrane was down-regulated. The zinc concentration in the cell as well as insulin production was significantly decreased in the islets harvested from IH animals. However, mRNA for insulin and C-peptide/insulin protein levels in the total cell lysates remained the same as those of controls. When we treated the beta cells using siRNA mediated ZIP8, we observed the commensurate results from the IH-treated islets. We conclude that a transient IH exposure could knockdown ZIP8 transporters at mRNA as well as protein levels in the beta cells, which would decrease the level of blood insulin. However, the transcriptional activity of insulin remains the same. We conclude that the precipitation process of insulin crystal may be disturbed by a lack of zinc in the cytosol that is modulated by mainly ZIP8 after IH exposure. PMID:24587273

  20. History of zinc in agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, over 20 years would past before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure a parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it wa...

  1. Zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.

    1995-12-31

    The zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte is unusual in that supersaturated zincate solutions can form during discharge and spongy or mossy zinc deposits can form on charge at low overvoltages. The effect of additives on regular pasted ZnO electrodes and calcium zincate electrodes is discussed. The paper also reports on in situ x-ray absorption (XAS) results on mossy zinc deposits.

  2. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Allen M. (Newark, DE); Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE); Masi, James V. (Wilbraham, MA); Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Hall, Robert B. (Newark, DE)

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  3. Zinc modulation of glycine receptors.

    PubMed

    Trombley, P Q; Blakemore, L J; Hill, B J

    2011-07-14

    Glycine receptors are widely expressed in the mammalian central nervous system, and previous studies have demonstrated that glycine receptors are modulated by endogenous zinc. Zinc is concentrated in synaptic vesicles in several brain regions but is particularly abundant in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. In the present study, we used patch-clamp electrophysiology of rat hippocampal and olfactory bulb neurons in primary culture to examine the effects of zinc on glycine receptors. Although glycine has been reported to reach millimolar concentrations during synaptic transmission, most previous studies on the effects of zinc on glycine receptors have used relatively low concentrations of glycine. High concentrations of glycine cause receptor desensitization. Our current results extend our previous demonstration that the modulatory actions of zinc are largely prevented when co-applied with desensitizing concentrations of glycine (300 ?M), suggesting that the effects of zinc are dependent on the state of the receptor. In contrast, pre-application of 300 ?M zinc, prior to glycine (300 ?M) application, causes a slowly developing inhibition with a slow rate of recovery, suggesting that the timing of zinc and glycine release also influences the effects of zinc. Furthermore, previous evidence suggests that synaptically released zinc can gain intracellular access, and we provide the first demonstration that low concentrations of intracellular zinc can potentiate glycine receptors. These results support the notion that zinc has complex effects on glycine receptors and multiple factors may interact to influence the efficacy of glycinergic transmission. PMID:21530619

  4. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

    1998-02-03

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750 to about 950 C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 microns, and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 micron. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  5. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Raghubir P. (Durham, NC); Gangwal, Santosh K. (Durham, NC); Jain, Suresh C. (Germantown, MD)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 .mu., and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 .mu.. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  6. A new approach to the determination of the cathodic protection period in zinc-rich paints

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, C.M.; Izquierdo, M.; Merino, P.; Novoa, X.R.; Perez, C.

    1999-12-01

    The present study examined the behavior of zinc-rich paints (ZRP) based on an epoxy binder in 3% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. The study focused on the effect of some design parameters often considered in paint formulation. The paint thickness, the zinc particle grain size, and the zinc particle distribution in the paint were studied. The study was based mainly on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). EIS results were interpreted using a model involving the contact impedance between zinc particles. The contact impedance and electrolyte resistance throughout the coating defined the protective action of ZRP. Based on these two concepts, a practical approach to evaluate ZRP performance was given. This approach, called total film resistance (TFR), can be used for optimization criteria in paint formulation.

  7. CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-11-30

    Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

  8. Zinc Phosphide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Do?an, Erdal; Güzel, Abdulmenap; Çiftçi, Taner; Aycan, ?lker; Çetin, Bedri; Kavak, Gönül Ölmez

    2014-01-01

    Zinc phosphide has been used widely as a rodenticide. Upon ingestion, it gets converted to phosphine gas in the body, which is subsequently absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach and the intestines and gets captured by the liver and the lungs. Phosphine gas produces various metabolic and nonmetabolic toxic effects. Clinical symptoms are circulatory collapse, hypotension, shock symptoms, myocarditis, pericarditis, acute pulmonary edema, and congestive heart failure. In this case presentation, we aim to present the intensive care process and treatment resistance of a patient who ingested zinc phosphide for suicide purposes. PMID:25101186

  9. Copper and zinc recycling from copper alloys` spent pickling solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Roman-Moguel, G.J.; Plascencia, G.; Perez, J.

    1995-12-31

    The precipitation of copper and zinc as cements from a copper alloys` spent pickling solution has been studied at laboratory and pilot scale, with the objective of designing an economic process to recover both metals and render a solution to be either recycled to the pickling process or treated in a standard fashion and produce a non-hazardous sludge. The sulfuric acid spent pickling solution already containing copper and zinc was used first to dissolve another solid residue originated in the copper alloys foundry to neutralize part of the acidity. The resulting enriched solution was treated separately with two reductants: sodium borohydride and iron powder varying pH and excess of reductant under constant agitation. Under the best conditions, precipitation of over 95 percent of zinc and copper was achieved together with the reduction of lead and cadmium contents respectively. A process for the combined residues treatment is proposed.

  10. Effect of daily lithium chloride administration on bone mass and strength in growing broiler chickens,1.

    PubMed

    Harvey, B M; Eschbach, M; Glynn, E A; Kotha, S; Darre, M; Adams, D J; Ramanathan, R; Mancini, R; Govoni, K E

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of oral lithium chloride supplementation on bone strength and mass in broiler chickens. Ninety-six broilers were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups (lithium chloride or control; n = 48/treatment). Beginning at 1 or 3 wk of age, chickens were administered lithium chloride (20 mg/kg body weight) or water daily by oral gavage. At 6 wk of age, chickens were euthanized and bone and muscle samples were collected. A 24 h lithium chloride (20 mg/kg body weight) challenge determined that serum lithium chloride increased within 2 h and cleared the system within 24 h, demonstrating the effective delivery of lithium chloride. Treatment did not influence body weight (P ? 0.20) or feed intake (P ? 0.81), demonstrating that lithium chloride did not negatively affect broiler growth. To determine bone strength, 3-point bending was performed on the femora and tibiae obtained from control and lithium chloride-treated birds in the 1 wk group. Lithium chloride-treated birds had a 22% reduction in stiffness compared with control in the femora (P = 0.02) without a corresponding reduction in elastic modulus. No differences were observed in yield or ultimate load and in the corresponding calculations of stresses (P ? 0.26). The toughness of tibiae was not altered in lithium chloride compared with control (P = 0.11). Bone length and micro-CT imaging were performed on the tibiae of control and lithium chloride groups. No differences (P ? 0.52) in bone length, cortical or trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, number, or spacing were observed. Lithium chloride treatment did not affect pectoralis muscle color or lipid oxidation (P > 0.05). In conclusion, lithium chloride treatment in broilers did not negatively affect growth or meat quality. A reduction in bone stiffness of the femur with lithium chloride treatment was observed, however unlike the mouse model, the dosages of lithium chloride used in the current study did not result in anabolic effects on broiler long bones. PMID:25609690

  11. The potentiometric determination of stability constants for zinc acetate complexes in aqueous solutions to 295C

    SciTech Connect

    Giordano, T.H. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces (United States)); Drummond, S.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-09-01

    A potentiometric method was used to determine the formation quotients of zinc acetate complexes in aqueous solutions from 50 to 295C at ionic strengths of 0.03, 0.3, and 1.0 m. The potentiometric titrations were carried out in an externally heated, Teflon-lined concentration cell fitted with hydrogen electrodes. Formal sodium acetate concentrations of the experimental solutions ranged from 0.001 to 0.1 m with acetic acid to sodium acetate ratios ranging from 30 to 300. Sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate (F{sub 3}CSO{sub 3}Na) was used as a supporting electrolyte. Stoichiometries and formation quotients for the complexes ZnCH{sub 3}COO{sup +}, Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}, and Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 3}{sup {minus}} were derived from the titration data by regression analysis. Stability constants at infinite dilution (K{sub n}) and other relevant thermodynamic quantities were calculated for these three complexes. Calculations of zinc speciation in acetate-chloride solutions show that zinc acetate complexes should have an importance similar to zinc chloride complexes in high acetate waters where chloride to acetate molal ratios are less than about 10.

  12. Chloride contamination of line pipe: Its effect on FBE coating performance

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, D. [Harding and Neal Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Whitehurst, T. [Energy Coatings Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Two pipes were contaminated with various levels of chloride. One pipe was coated without removing the contamination; the other was coated after decontamination with phosphoric acid. A third pipe, not contaminated, was treated with phosphoric acid before coating. Chloride levels were measured using an extraction sampling technique and ASTM D 512 Method A for analysis. Residual phosphorus was also measured using an x-ray fluorescence procedure. Hot cathodic disbonding resistance is adversely affected in direct proportion to the level of chloride contamination. The data suggest a maximum level of 2.0 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} measured by extraction on a blast-cleaned surface is essential for good coating performance. Residual phosphorus levels may adversely affect cathodic disbonding but appear to enhance water resistance. Data on the accuracy of the chloride measurement procedure is presented together with information on other methods for determining chloride.

  13. Synaptic Released Zinc Promotes Tau Hyperphosphorylation by Inhibition of Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A)*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xu-Ying; Wei, Yu-Ping; Xiong, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Chuan; Xie, Ao-Ji; Wang, Xiu-Lian; Yang, Yang; Wang, Qun; Lu, You-Ming; Liu, Rong; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Hyperphosphorylated tau is the major component of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer disease (AD), and the tangle distribution largely overlaps with zinc-containing glutamatergic neurons, suggesting that zinc released in synaptic terminals may play a role in tau phosphorylation. To explore this possibility, we treated cultured hippocampal slices or primary neurons with glutamate or Bic/4-AP to increase the synaptic activity with or without pretreatment of zinc chelators, and then detected the phosphorylation levels of tau. We found that glutamate or Bic/4-AP treatment caused tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple AD-related sites, including Ser-396, Ser-404, Thr-231, and Thr-205, while application of intracellular or extracellular zinc chelators, or blockade of zinc release by extracellular calcium omission almost abolished the synaptic activity-associated tau hyperphosphorylation. The zinc release and translocation of excitatory synapses in the hippocampus were detected, and zinc-induced tau hyperphosphorylation was also observed in cultured brain slices incubated with exogenously supplemented zinc. Tau hyperphosphorylation induced by synaptic activity was strongly associated with inactivation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and this inactivation can be reversed by pretreatment of zinc chelator. Together, these results suggest that synaptically released zinc promotes tau hyperphosphorylation through PP2A inhibition. PMID:22334661

  14. EEG effects of physostigmine and choline chloride in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adolf Pfefferbaum; Kenneth L. Davis; Cynthia L. Coulter; Richard C. Mohs; Jared R. Tinklenberg; Bert S. Kopell

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen normal volunteers received either 0.5 mg, 1.5 mg, or 2.5 mg physostigmine i.v. in a placebo-drug-placebo single-blind design. EEG was recorded simultaneously and analyzed by computerized spectral analysis. Eleven healthy elderly volunteers (mean age=69.1 years) with mild memory impairment were treated with placebo, followed by oral choline chloride (either 8 g\\/day for 3 weeks, or 16 g\\/day for 1

  15. Salts of Zinc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Bott

    1880-01-01

    THE green tint referred to by ``S.'' (supra) as imparted by zinc sulphate to the Bunsen flame is only observed whilst the water of crystallisation contained in the salt is being given off; the dry salt which remains imparts no colour to the flame. It therefore appears probable that the green colouration of the flame is caused by very finely

  16. Zinc oxide whiskers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Ataev; I. K. Kamilov; V. V. Mamedov

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the first experiments on the production of zinc oxide whiskers in air without crystallization chambers\\u000a or reactors, using CO2-laser radiation. The features of their exciton luminescence are studied, and they are compared with bulk single crystals\\u000a and epitaxial layers of Zno.

  17. Zinc bioavailability in the chick

    SciTech Connect

    Hempe, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Methods for assessing zinc bioavailability were evaluated in the chick. A low-zinc chick diet was developed using rehydrated, spray-dried egg white autoclaved at 121 C for 30 min as the primary protein source. The relative bioavailability of zinc from soy flour and beef was determined by whole-body retention of extrinsic /sup 65/Zn, and in slope ratio assays for growth rate and tissue zinc. Compared to zinc carbonate added to an egg white-based diet, all methods gave similar estimates of approximately 100% zinc bioavailability for beef but estimates for soy flour varied widely. The slope ratio assay for growth rate gave the best estimate of zinc bioavailability for soy flour. True absorption, as measured by percent isotope retention from extrinsically labeled soy flour, was 47%.

  18. Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes for cathodic protection of steel-reinforced concrete bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; McGill, Galen E. (Oregon Dept. of Transportation)

    1996-01-01

    Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are being used in Oregon in impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for reinforced concrete bridges. The U.S. Department of Energy, Albany Research Center, is collaborating with the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) to evaluate the long-term performance and service life of these anodes. Laboratory studies were conducted on concrete slabs coated with 0.5 mm (20 mil) thick, thermal-sprayed zinc anodes. The slabs were electrochemically aged at an accelerated rate using an anode current density of 0.032 A/m2 (3mA/ft2). Half the slabs were preheated before thermal-spraying with zinc; the other half were unheated. Electrochemical aging resulted in the formation at the zinc-concrete interface of a thin, low pH zone (relative to cement paste) consisting primarily of ZnO and Zn(OH)2, and in a second zone of calcium and zinc aluminates and silicates formed by secondary mineralization. Both zones contained elevated concentrations of sulfate and chloride ions. The original bond strength of the zinc coating decreased due to the loss of mechanical bond to the concrete with the initial passage of electrical charge (aging). Additional charge led to an increase in bond strength to a maximum as the result of secondary mineralization of zinc dissolution products with the cement paste. Further charge led to a decrease in bond strength and ultimately coating disbondment as the interfacial reaction zones continued to thicken. This occurred at an effective service life of 27 years at the 0.0022 A/m2 (0.2 mA/ft2) current density typically used by ODOT in ICCP systems for coastal bridges. Zinc coating failure under tensile stress was primarily cohesive within the thickening reaction zones at the zinc-concrete interface. There was no difference between the bond strength of zinc coatings on preheated and unheated concrete surfaces after long service times.

  19. Palladium-Catalyzed ?-Arylation of Zinc Enolates of Esters: Reaction Conditions and Substrate Scope

    PubMed Central

    Hama, Takuo; Ge, Shaozhong; Hartwig, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The intermolecular ?-arylation of esters by palladium-catalyzed coupling of aryl bromides with zinc enolates of esters is reported. Reactions of three different types of zinc enolates have been developed. ?-Arylation of esters occurs in high yields with isolated Reformatsky reagents, with Reformatsky reagents generated from ?-bromo esters and activated zinc, and with zinc enolates generated by quenching lithium enolates of esters with zinc chloride. The use of zinc enolates, instead of alkali metal enolates, greatly expands the scope of the arylation of esters. The reactions occur at room temperature or at 70 °C with bromoarenes containing cyano, nitro, ester, keto, fluoro, enolizable hydrogen, hydroxyl or amino functionality and with bromopyridines. The scope of esters encompasses acyclic acetates, propionates, and isobutyrates, ?-alkoxyesters, and lactones. The arylation of zinc enolates of esters was conducted with catalysts bearing the hindered pentaphenylferrocenyl di-tert-butylphosphine (Q-phos) or the highly reactive dimeric Pd(I) complex {[P(t-Bu)3]PdBr}2. PMID:23931445

  20. Treating Meningitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2012;79;e190-e192 Neurology Steven Karceski Treating meningitis This information is current as of November 26, ... infections http://www.neurology.org//cgi/collection/meningitis Meningitis http://www.neurology.org//cgi/collection/fungal_infections ...

  1. Proof of concept of a zinc-silver battery for the extraction of energy from a concentration difference.

    E-print Network

    Carati, Andrea

    Proof of concept of a zinc-silver battery for the extraction of energy from a concentration of salts, different from sodium chloride, whose concentration difference is produced by means, 34], while battery electrodes undergoing redox reactions are used in the "mixing entropy battery" [20

  2. Study on Durability and Stability of an Aqueous Electrolyte Solution for Zinc Bromide Hybrid Flow Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Donghyeon; Jeon, Joonhyeon

    2015-01-01

    Zinc-bromine flow battery using aqueous electrolyte has advantages of cost effective and high energy density, but there still remains a problem improving stability and durability of electrolyte materials during long-time cell operation. This paper focuses on providing a homogeneous aqueous solution for durability and stability of zinc bromide electrolyte. For performance experiments of conventional and proposed electrolyte solutions, detailed cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements (at a scan rate of 20 mV s?1 in the range of ?1.5 V~1.5 V) are carried out for 40 cycles and five kinds of electrolytes containing which has one of additives, such as (conventionally) zinc chloride, potassium chloride, (newly) lithium perchlorate, sodium perchlorate and zeolite-Y are compared with the 2.0 M ZnBr2 electrolyte, respectively. Experimental results show that using the proposed three additives provides higher anodic and cathodic peak current density of electrolytes than using other two conventional additives, and can lead to improved chemical reversibility of zinc bromide electrolyte. Especially, the solution of which the zeolite-Y added, shows enhanced electrochemical stability of zinc bromide electrolyte. Consequently, proposed electrolytes have a significant advantage in comparison with conventional electrolytes on higher stability and durability.

  3. The effects of mepiquat chloride on the water relations of cotton

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Bryan Lee

    1983-01-01

    pressure in treated plants. Increased water potential and turgor pressure were evident as early as 14 days after mepiquat chloride application. Improved plant water status was re- flected in increased transpiration rates. There was no dif- ference... water potential, solute potential and turgor pressure for low soil moisture conditions, field 2 in 1980, 18 days after mepiquat chloride application 20 6. Changes in midday abaxial transpiration, diffusive resistance and leaf temperature under low...

  4. An XAFS Study of Tantalum Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride\\/ aluminum Chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-01-01

    Tantalum chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride\\/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs). Anhydrous Ta2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic solution than in the acidic solution and the X-ray absorption data shows that the coordination shell of chlorides around the tantalum is larger in the basic solution. In the

  5. Structural, compositional and electrical properties of co-precipitated zinc stannate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Babar; S. B. Kumbhar; S. S. Shinde; A. V. Moholkar; J. H. Kim; K. Y. Rajpure

    2011-01-01

    Zinc stannate (Zn2SnO4) powders were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method using stannic chloride pentahydrate (SnCl4·5H2O) and zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO)3·4H2O) as precursors in aqueous medium. The influence of sintering temperatures on the structural, compositional, dielectric, electrical and impedance properties has been studied. X-ray diffraction study reveals that samples sintered at 400–1200°C show combined phases viz. ZnO, SnO2, Zn2SnO4. The observed binding

  6. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  7. CHEMILUMINESCENT MONITOR FOR VINYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A monitor for vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) in ambient air was constructed using commercially available components of a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a chemiluminescence ozone analyzer slightly modified to make it suitable for use as a GC detector. The specificity for VCM is...

  8. History of Vinyl Chloride Polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waldo L. Semon; G. Allan Stahl

    1981-01-01

    In 1926 Semon tried to dehydrohalogenate high molecular weight poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) in a high boiling solvent to get an unsaturated polymer which might bond rubber to metal. Unexpectedly, he obtained plasticized PVC, a flexible product inert both electrically and chemically. This discovery opened the door to the commercialization of PVC, a plastic with an annual United States production now

  9. Zinc homeostasis and neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element, whose importance to the function of the central nervous system (CNS) is increasingly being appreciated. Alterations in zinc dyshomeostasis has been suggested as a key factor in the development of several neuropsychiatric disorders. In the CNS, zinc occurs in two forms: the first being tightly bound to proteins and, secondly, the free, cytoplasmic, or extracellular form found in presynaptic vesicles. Under normal conditions, zinc released from the synaptic vesicles modulates both ionotropic and metabotropic post-synaptic receptors. While under clinical conditions such as traumatic brain injury, stroke or epilepsy, the excess influx of zinc into neurons has been found to result in neurotoxicity and damage to postsynaptic neurons. On the other hand, a growing body of evidence suggests that a deficiency, rather than an excess, of zinc leads to an increased risk for the development of neurological disorders. Indeed, zinc deficiency has been shown to affect neurogenesis and increase neuronal apoptosis, which can lead to learning and memory deficits. Altered zinc homeostasis is also suggested as a risk factor for depression, Alzheimer's disease (AD), aging, and other neurodegenerative disorders. Under normal CNS physiology, homeostatic controls are put in place to avoid the accumulation of excess zinc or its deficiency. This cellular zinc homeostasis results from the actions of a coordinated regulation effected by different proteins involved in the uptake, excretion and intracellular storage/trafficking of zinc. These proteins include membranous transporters (ZnT and Zip) and metallothioneins (MT) which control intracellular zinc levels. Interestingly, alterations in ZnT and MT have been recently reported in both aging and AD. This paper provides an overview of both clinical and experimental evidence that implicates a dysfunction in zinc homeostasis in the pathophysiology of depression, AD, and aging. PMID:23882214

  10. Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Chloride Sweat Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Flu Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test Print A A A ...

  11. Influence of zinc on growth and development and on energy intakes of children with chronic renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Hagan, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    This investigation assessed whether zinc acetate supplementation (2 mg/kg BW, maximum 40 mg/ka/child) in Children with End Stage Renal Disease, improved energy intakes and, in turn, growth and development. Height, weight, mid-arm circumference, triceps fatfold, hand wrist radiographs, and Tanner Staging measurements were taken at the beginning of the study, prior to zinc supplementation, and at the end of the study period. Clinical analyses for serum sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and CO/sub 2/ were routinely completed monthly. Simultaneously, plasma zinc and copper and erythrocyte zinc and 3 day food diaries were completed. Mean growth velocity in males was 4.07 +/- 2.02 cm/yr (non-supplemented), 2.98 +/- 2.33 cm/yr (supplemented) and in females, 3.88 +/- 0.73 cm/yr (non-supplemented), 3.28 +/- 2.10 cm/yr (supplemented). There were no significant differences between the supplemented and non-zinc supplemented males or females in growth velocity. Bone maturation as determined through hand wrist radiographs, improved in 4 of 6 zinc supplemented subjects. Before zinc supplementation, 50%, 92%, and 42% of the subjects met 67% of their RDA for age and sex for energy, protein, and zinc, respectively. After zinc acetate supplementation, the percentage of subjects meeting 67% of the RDA for energy, protein, and dietary zinc were 67%, 100%, and 67%, respectively. There was a trend toward increased dietary energy, protein, and zinc intake with zinc acetate supplementation.

  12. The influence of selected antihypertensive drugs on zinc, copper, and iron status in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdanski, Pawe?; Jakubowski, Hieronim

    2014-09-01

    Mineral homeostasis in hypertensive patients may be affected by hypotensive drugs. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of selected antihypertensive drugs on mineral homeostasis in a rat model of hypertension. Eight-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were treated with perindopril, metoprolol, indapamide, amlodipine, or no drug for 45 days. In another experiment, the SHRs were treated with indapamide or amlodipine in the presence of zinc and copper gluconate supplement. Lipids, glucose, and insulin levels along with superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were assayed in serum. Iron, zinc, and copper concentrations in serum, erythrocytes, and tissues were determined using the flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Blood pressure was measured using a tail-cuff plethysmograph. Treatment with indapamide and amlodipine was found to significantly lower zinc levels in serum, erythrocytes, livers, and spleens of the SHRs, as well as copper levels in the kidneys, compared with the control no-drug group. A markedly higher concentration of glucose was found in the indapamide-treated rats. Supplementing the indapamide-treated SHRs with zinc and copper gluconate resulted in a significant decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and also lowered serum glucose and triglyceride concentrations and HOMA (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance) values. The results show that indapamide and amlodipine disturb zinc and copper homeostasis in SHRs. Supplementation with zinc and copper restores mineral homeostasis in SHRs treated with indapamide and amlodipine, and also corrects metabolic imbalances while improving the antihypertensive efficiency of indapamide. PMID:24927993

  13. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  14. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M. (Stanford, CA); Muller, Jochen A. (Baltimore, MD); Rosner, Bettina M. (Berlin, DE); Von Abendroth, Gregory (Nannhein, DE); Meshulam-Simon, Galit (Los Altos, CA); McCarty, Perry L (Stanford, CA)

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13 . 6H2 0, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1)...

  16. Salivary zinc as an index of zinc status in women fed a low-zinc diet1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne H. Freeland; Pamela J. Hendrickson; M. Lavone Ebangit; Jeanne V. Snowden

    The effect of a low-zinc diet on saliva and plasma levels was studied in 12 healthy young women. A diet low in zinc (3.2mg\\/day) was fed to the subjects for 22 days.Subjects were determined to be in satisfactory zinc status via analysis of the zinc levels of their diet, hair, plasma, and saliva. During the low-zinc diet, concentrations of zinc

  17. Worker exposure to vinyl chloride and poly(vinyl chloride).

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J H

    1981-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in early 1974 began industrial hygiene studies of vinyl chloride exposed workers. Three VC monomer plants, three VC polymerization plants, and seven PVC fabrication plants were surveyed. V polymerization plant workers and workers in one job category in VC monomer plants were exposed to average levels above 1 ppm. The highest average exposure was 22 ppm. NIOSH health hazard evaluation studies since these initial surveys have primarily shown nondetectable levels of vinyl chloride. A NIOSH control technology study in 1977 showed that exposure levels in VC polymerization plants had been drastically reduced but exposure levels above 1 ppm were still found in several cases. PMID:7333231

  18. Bacitracin zinc overdose

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the patient's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. Symptoms will be treated as appropriate. The patient may receive medicines to treat any allergic reaction. The skin may be washed if the product ...

  19. Lead, zinc, and their alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, F.E. [International Lead Zinc Research Organization Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Recent advances in the technology and applications of lead and its alloys include improved batteries for electric vehicles, and lead-containing dampers that impart earthquake resistance to buildings and highway structures. For zinc, notable accomplishments include further development of zinc-coated steels for automotive and construction applications, and development of an extrusion process for zinc over steel pipe in the oil production industry.

  20. An XAFS Study of Tantalum Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride/ aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Tantalum chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs). Anhydrous Ta2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic solution than in the acidic solution and the X-ray absorption data shows that the coordination shell of chlorides around the tantalum is larger in the basic solution. In the acidic solution, tantalum has five chlorides in its coordination shell while in the basic solution; the tantalum is coordinated by seven chlorides. This indicates that the Lewis acidity of the tantalum chloride causes the Ta to coordinate differently in the acidic and the basic solutions.

  1. Treating Sludges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Julian

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are some of the ways to handle municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge presented at the 1978 American Chemical Society meeting. Suggestions include removing toxic materials, recovering metals, and disposing treated sewage sludge onto farm land. Arguments for and against land use are also given. (MA)

  2. Zinc--2004 84. Referencesthatincludeasectionmark()arefoundintheinternet

    E-print Network

    Zinc--2004 84. Referencesthatincludeasectionmark(§)arefoundintheinternet Referencescitedsection. Zinc ByJohnD.Jorgenson Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Samir Hakim, statistical§ ). Aprocesstorecoverzincfromelectricarcfurnacedustwas developedandtestedbytheBritishfirmZinc

  3. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and...

  4. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and...

  5. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and...

  6. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and...

  7. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc oxide is a white or yellow-white amorphous powder manufactured by the French process (described as the indirect process whereby zinc metal isolated from the zinc-containing ore is vaporized and...

  8. Influence of Al, In, Cu, Fe and Sn dopants in the microstructure of zinc oxide thin films obtained by spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Morales; W. Estrada L; E. Andrade; M. Miki-Yoshida

    2000-01-01

    A spray pyrolytic system was used to obtain ZnO:X films doped with different elements, X=Al, In, Cu, Fe and Sn. A 0.1 M solution of zinc acetate in a mixture of ethanol and deionised water, in a volume proportion of 3:1, was employed. Dopant sources were aluminium chloride, indium acetate, copper acetate, iron chloride and tin tetrachloride. The atomic percentage

  9. Zinc: indications in brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Atish; Bharti, Kanchan; Majeed, Abu Bakar A

    2015-04-01

    Zinc is the authoritative metal which is present in our body, and reactive zinc metal is crucial for neuronal signaling and is largely distributed within presynaptic vesicles. Zinc also plays an important role in synaptic function. At cellular level, zinc is a modulator of synaptic activity and neuronal plasticity in both development and adulthood. Different importers and transporters are involved in zinc homeostasis. ZnT-3 is a main transporter involved in zinc homeostasis in the brain. It has been found that alterations in brain zinc status have been implicated in a wide range of neurological disorders including impaired brain development and many neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, and mood disorders including depression, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and prion disease. Furthermore, zinc has also been implicated in neuronal damage associated with traumatic brain injury, stroke, and seizure. Understanding the mechanisms that control brain zinc homeostasis is thus critical to the development of preventive and treatment strategies for these and other neurological disorders. PMID:25659970

  10. [[Hair zinc levels in children].

    PubMed

    Figueroa Pedraza, Dixis

    2013-09-01

    Study with the objective to assess the capillary zinc concentrations in children, considering differences according to sex, age, growth, and socioeconomic status and hair characteristics. A random sample comprised of 282 children. Capillary zinc concentrations were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry technique. The capillary level of zinc less than 70 ?g/g was considered as deficient. Reference curves of the World Health Organization were used to rate children with height deficit. Domiciliary characteristics and benefit of government assistance were considered as socioeconomic condition. Color, type and size were considered as characteristics of hair. Zinc deficiency was observed in 9.1% of 276 children studied, with mean of 306.06 ?g/g ± 245.13. Lower capillary zinc concentrations were found in children whose households had fewer rooms, fewer individuals and were rented. Children 37-72 months showed higher zinc concentrations than children aged 6-12 and 13-3 6 months. Capillary zinc concentrations showed no statistical difference according to sex and growth, unlike that found for some hair characteristics that showed variations. Zinc deficiency is a health problem in the population studied with more vulnerability in children of lower age; socioeconomic conditions and hair characteristics can affect the capillary zinc concentration. PMID:25362824

  11. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Pinakin M.

    1993-01-01

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

  12. The Effect of Zinc Supplementation of Lactating Rats on Short-Term and Long-Term Memory of Their Male Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Mohammad; EhsaniVostacolaee, Simin; Moazedi, Ali Ahmad; Nosrati, Anahita

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this study the effect of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) administration on the short-term and long-term memory of rats were assessed. Methods: We enrolled six groups of adult female and control group of eight Wistar rats in each group. One group was control group with free access to food and water, and five groups drunk zinc chloride in different doses (20, 30, 50, 70 and 100 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for two weeks during lactation .One month after birth, a shuttle box used to short- term and long-term memory and the latency in entering the dark chamber as well. Results: This experiment showed that maternal 70 mg/kg dietary zinc during lactation influenced the working memory of rats’ offspring in all groups. Rats received 100 mg/kg/day zinc during lactation so they had significant impairment in working memory (short-term) of their offspring (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in reference (long-term) memory of all groups. Conclusion: Drug consumption below70 mg/kg/day zinc chloride during lactation had no effect. While enhanced 100 mg/ kg/ day zinc in lactating rats could cause short-term memory impairment. PMID:24688973

  13. Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, D.R.; Friedman, I.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 ?? 1010 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park. ?? 1985.

  14. Zinc polycarboxylate dental cement for the controlled release of an active organic substance: proof of concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Naseem Ali; Mark Edwards; John W. Nicholson

    2010-01-01

    The potential of employing zinc polycarboxylate dental cement as a controlled release material has been studied. Benzalkonium\\u000a chloride was used as the active ingredient, and incorporated at concentrations of 1, 2 and 3% by mass within the cement. At\\u000a these levels, there was no observable effect on the speed of setting. Release was followed using an ion-selective electrode\\u000a to determine

  15. Growth and Studies of Halides doped Zinc Tris-Thiourea Sulphate(HZTS) Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suveetha, P.; Sathya, T.; Sudha, S.; Raj, M. B. Jessie

    2012-10-01

    Single crystals of Sodium chloride and Potassium iodide (Halides) doped Zinc tris-thiourea sulphate (ZTS) were grown from low temperature solution growth technique by slow evaporation method using water as solvent. The powder X-Ray diffraction pattern were recorded and indexed. The UV transmittance spectrum has been recorded. The optical band gap was estimated using Taucís plot. The TGA/DTA studies show the thermal properties of the crystals.

  16. Alloy formation processes at electrochemical intercalation of lithium into intermetallic compounds of magnesium with zinc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Ozeryanskaya; V. E. Guterman

    2007-01-01

    A comparative study of alloy formation processes that occur during the electrochemical intercalation of lithium from lithium\\u000a chloride solutions in dimethylformamide into intermetallic compounds of magnesium with zinc (MgZn2, Mg2Zn3) and the corresponding individual metals is studied by chronopotentiometric and voltammetric methods. Lithium-containing\\u000a phases are formed in all samples studied; moreover, for MgZn2 and Mg2Zn3 electrodes, the phases formed are

  17. Effects of zinc supplementation on diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The number of people with diabetes and pre-diabetes are exponentially increasing. Studies on humans have shown the beneficial effects of Zinc supplementation in patients with diabetes. The present study aims to systematically evaluate the literature and meta-analyze the effects of Zinc supplementation on diabetes. A systematic review of published studies reporting the effects of Zinc supplementations on diabetes mellitus was undertaken. The literature search was conducted in the following databases; PubMed, Web of Science and SciVerse Scopus. A meta-analysis of studies examining the effects of Zinc supplementation on clinical and biochemical parameters in patients with diabetes was performed. The total number of articles included in the present review is 25, which included 3 studies on type-1 diabetes and 22 studies on type-2 diabetes. There were 12 studies comparing the effects of Zinc supplementation on fasting blood glucose in patients with type-2 diabetes. The pooled mean difference in fasting blood glucose between Zinc supplemented and placebo groups was 18.13mg/dl (95%CI:33.85,2.41; p<0.05). 2-h post-prandial blood sugar also shows a similar distinct reduction in (34.87mg/dl [95%CI:75.44; 5.69]) the Zinc treated group. The reduction in HbA1c was 0.54% (95%CI:0.86;0.21) in the Zinc treated group. There were 8 studies comparing the effects of Zinc supplementation on lipid parameters in patients with type-2 diabetes. The pooled mean difference for total cholesterol between Zinc supplemented and placebo groups was 32.37mg/dl (95%CI:57.39,7.35; p<0.05). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol also showed a similar distinct reduction in the Zinc treated group, the pooled mean difference from random effects analysis was 11.19mg/dl (95%CI:21.14,1.25; p<0.05). Studies have also shown a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressures after Zinc supplementation. This first comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of Zinc supplementation in patients with diabetes demonstrates that Zinc supplementation has beneficial effects on glycaemic control and promotes healthy lipid parameters. Further studies are required to identify the exact biological mechanisms responsible for these results. PMID:22515411

  18. Reaction mechanism for the ferric chloride leaching of sphalerite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, G. W.; Henein, H.; Jin, Zuo-Mei

    1985-12-01

    Reaction mechanisms for the ferric chloride leaching of sphalerite are proposed based on data obtained in leaching and dual cell experiments presented in this work and in a previous study. The results from the leaching experiments show that at low concentrations the rate is proportional to [Fe3+]T 0.5 and [Cl-]T 0.43 but at higher concentrations the reaction order with respect to both [Fe3+]T and [Cl-]T decreases. Using dual cell experiments which allow the half cell reactions to be separated, increased rates are observed when NaCl is added to the anolyte and to the catholyte. The increase in rate is attributed to a direct, anodic electrochemical reaction of Cl- with the mineral. When NaCl is added only to the catholyte, a decrease in the rate is observed due to a decrease in the E 0 of the cathode which is attributed to the formation of ferric-chloro complexes. Several possible electrochemical mechanisms and mathematical models based on the Butler-Volmer relation are delineated, and of these, one model is selected which accounts for the experimentally observed changes in reaction order for both Fe3+ and Cl-. This analysis incorporates a charge transfer process for each ion and an adsorption step for ferric and chloride ions. The inhibiting effect of Fe2+ noted by previous investigators is also accounted for through a similar model which includes back reaction kinetics for Fe2+. The proposed models successfully provide a theoretical basis for describing the role of Cl-, Fe3+, and Fe2+ as well as their interrelationship in zinc sulfide leaching reactions. Possible applications of these results to chloride leaching systems involving other sulfides or complex sulfides are considered.

  19. Corneal Neurotoxicity Due to Topical Benzalkonium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Namavari, Abed; Ozturk, Okan; Chang, Jin-Hong; Yco, Lisette; Sonawane, Snehal; Khanolkar, Vishakha; Hallak, Joelle; Jain, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize the effect of topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on corneal nerves in vivo and in vitro. Methods. Thy1-YFP+ neurofluorescent mouse eyes were treated topically with vehicle or BAK (0.01% or 0.1%). Wide-field stereofluorescence microscopy was performed to sequentially image the treated corneas in vivo every week for 4 weeks, and changes in stromal nerve fiber density (NFD) and aqueous tear production were determined. Whole-mount immunofluorescence staining of corneas was performed with antibodies to axonopathy marker SMI-32. Western immunoblot analyses were performed on trigeminal ganglion and corneal lysates to determine abundance of proteins associated with neurotoxicity and regeneration. Compartmental culture of trigeminal ganglion neurons was performed in Campenot devices to determine whether BAK affects neurite outgrowth. Results. BAK-treated corneas exhibited significantly reduced NFD and aqueous tear production, and increased inflammatory cell infiltration and fluorescein staining at 1 week (P < 0.05). These changes were most significant after 0.1% BAK treatment. The extent of inflammatory cell infiltration in the cornea showed a significant negative correlation with NFD. Sequential in vivo imaging of corneas showed two forms of BAK-induced neurotoxicity: reversible neurotoxicity characterized by axonopathy and recovery, and irreversible neurotoxicity characterized by nerve degeneration and regeneration. Increased abundance of beta III tubulin in corneal lysates confirmed regeneration. A dose-related significant reduction in neurites occurred after BAK addition to compartmental cultures of dissociated trigeminal ganglion cells. Although both BAK doses (0.0001% and 0.001%) reduced nerve fiber length, the reduction was significantly more with the higher dose (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Topical application of BAK to the eye causes corneal neurotoxicity, inflammation, and reduced aqueous tear production. PMID:22410563

  20. Alkanolamine treating

    SciTech Connect

    Butwell, K.F.; Kubek, D.J.; Sigmund, P.W.

    1982-03-01

    In this paper the chemistry, engineering and operational aspects of the primary and secondary amines utilized in syngas purification are explored. The gas treating chemistry is followed by the analysis of reactivity of chemicals involved with H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ which constitute main impurities in gas streams. Other topics discussed include - capacity versus corrosivity; heat of reaction; reboiler duty, metallurgy; chemical degradation of amines; solvent purification; hydrocarbon solubility; mercaptane removed; freezing point of amine solutions. 27 refs.

  1. Acute zinc intoxication: comparison of the antidotal efficacy of several chelating agents.

    PubMed

    Domingo, J L; Llobet, J M; Paternain, J L; Corbella, J

    1988-06-01

    Four zinc compounds (acetate, nitrate, chloride and sulfate) were administered po or ip to rats and mice. The LD50 values were determined. Animals were observed for 14 days. The majority of deaths occurred during the first 48 hr. The clinical and physical signs appearing after intoxication included miosis, conjunctivitis, decreased food and water consumption and hemorrhages and hematomas in the tail. These changes decreased with time which would suggest a quick elimination of zinc. To determine the effect of 6 chelating agents on the toxicity of zinc, various doses of zinc acetate (66-330 mg/kg) were given ip to male mice followed by the injection of one of the chelators. DTPA, D-PA, CDTA and EDTA were the most effective. CDTA and DTPA were also the most effective in increasing the urinary excretion of zinc. DTPA appears to be the most effective agent of those tested in the prevention of acute zinc intoxication. However, CDTA may be considered as a possible alternative. PMID:3388750

  2. Zinc polycarboxylate dental cement for the controlled release of an active organic substance: proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad Naseem; Edwards, Mark; Nicholson, John W

    2010-04-01

    The potential of employing zinc polycarboxylate dental cement as a controlled release material has been studied. Benzalkonium chloride was used as the active ingredient, and incorporated at concentrations of 1, 2 and 3% by mass within the cement. At these levels, there was no observable effect on the speed of setting. Release was followed using an ion-selective electrode to determine changes in chloride ion concentration with time. This technique showed that the additive was released when the cured cement was placed in water, with release occurring by a diffusion mechanism for the first 3 h, but continuing beyond that for up to 1 week. Diffusion coefficients were in the range 5.62 x 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) (for 1% concentration) to 10.90 x 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) (for 3% concentration). Up to 3% of the total loading of benzalkonium chloride was released from the zinc polycarboxylate after a week, which is similar to that found in previous studies with glass-ionomer cement. It is concluded that zinc polycarboxylate cement is capable of acting as a useful material for the controlled release of active organic compounds. PMID:19967407

  3. Volume-sensitive chloride channels are involved in cisplatin treatment of osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Cai, Siyi; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Dandan; Qiu, Guixing; Liu, Yong

    2015-04-01

    Chemotherapy is the most common therapeutic strategy used to treat osteosarcoma. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of functionally activated chloride channels on cisplatin?induced apoptosis of MG?63 human osteosarcoma cells. An MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to detect proliferation and apoptosis of the cells, respectively. Live cell imaging was used to detect volume changes in response to treatment with cisplatin and/or chloride channel blockers. The effects of these treatments on chloride currents were also assayed using the patch?clamp technique. The results of the present study indicate that chloride channel blockers may suppress cisplatin?induced apoptosis. The MG?63 cells cultured with cisplatin demonstrated an apoptotic volume decrease, as well as suppression of cell proliferation; which were reversed by co?treatment with chloride channel blockers. These results suggest that cisplatin may activate chloride channels, and that channel activation is an early signal in the pathways that lead to cisplatin?induced apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in MG?63 cells. In conclusion, these results indicate that chloride channels have an important role in cisplatin treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:25503821

  4. Volume-sensitive chloride channels are involved in cisplatin treatment of osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    CAI, SIYI; ZHANG, TAO; ZHANG, DANDAN; QIU, GUIXING; LIU, YONG

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the most common therapeutic strategy used to treat osteosarcoma. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of functionally activated chloride channels on cisplatin-induced apoptosis of MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells. An MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to detect proliferation and apoptosis of the cells, respectively. Live cell imaging was used to detect volume changes in response to treatment with cisplatin and/or chloride channel blockers. The effects of these treatments on chloride currents were also assayed using the patch-clamp technique. The results of the present study indicate that chloride channel blockers may suppress cisplatin-induced apoptosis. The MG-63 cells cultured with cisplatin demonstrated an apoptotic volume decrease, as well as suppression of cell proliferation; which were reversed by co-treatment with chloride channel blockers. These results suggest that cisplatin may activate chloride channels, and that channel activation is an early signal in the pathways that lead to cisplatin-induced apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in MG-63 cells. In conclusion, these results indicate that chloride channels have an important role in cisplatin treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:25503821

  5. Zinc stannate nanostructures: hydrothermal synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunandan Baruah; Joydeep Dutta

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured binary semiconducting metal oxides have received much attention in the last decade owing to their unique properties rendering them suitable for a wide range of applications. In the quest to further improve the physical and chemical properties, an interest in ternary complex oxides has become noticeable in recent times. Zinc stannate or zinc tin oxide (ZTO) is a class

  6. Multipod zinc oxide nanowhiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. X.; Sun, X. W.

    2005-04-01

    Zinc oxide nanowhiskers with multipod structures have been fabricated on copper-coated Si wafer by sintering the mixture of ZnO and graphite powders in air. The multipod nanowhisker shows tetrapod, tripod and hexapod morphologies with legs of 100-500 nm in diameter and several microns in length. The legs of the multipod nanowhisker intercross at a central knot of the whisker. The octahedron twin nucleus is responsible for the tetrapod structure and possibly responsible for the tripod structure as well. The hexapod structure is due to a stacked nucleus of two octahedron nuclei.

  7. Exposure to a mixture of zinc and copper decreases survival and fecundity of Discocotyle sagittata (Leuckart) parasitizing juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    PubMed

    Blanar, Christopher A; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Kieffer, Jim D; Munkittrick, Kelly R

    2010-06-01

    We assessed the effects of zinc and copper on freshwater monogenean ectoparasites (Discocotyle sagittata Leuckart) infecting juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Exposure to 47 microg/L zinc and 3 microg/L copper reduced survival and fecundity of adult D. sagittata, while egg hatching success was only reduced at high exposure concentrations (2704 microg/L zinc and 164 microg/L copper). Parasitized salmon had decreased plasma chloride, but this was negated in infected fish exposed to metals. No other effects on Atlantic salmon survival and physiology (plasma osmolality, hematocrit) were noted, suggesting that D. sagittata may be more susceptible to metal toxicity than its host fish. PMID:20473654

  8. Oral zinc reduces amyloid burden in Tg2576 mice

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christopher J.; Voss, Kellen; Murchison, Charles; Ralle, Martina; Frahler, Kate; Carter, Raina; Rhoads, Alison; Lind, Betty; Robinson, Emily; Quinn, Joseph F.

    2014-01-01

    The aggregation of amyloid beta in Alzheimer’s disease can be affected by free transition metals such as copper and zinc in the brain. Addition of copper and zinc with amyloid acts to increase aggregation and copper additionally promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species. We propose that reduction of brain copper by blocking uptake of copper from the diet is a viable strategy to regulate the formation of insoluble amyloid beta in the brain of Tg2576 mice. Mice were treated with regimens of zinc acetate, which acts with metallothionein to block copper uptake in the gut, at various times along their lifespan to model prevention and treatment paradigms. We found that the mice tolerated zinc acetate well over the six month course of study. While we did not observe significant changes in cognition and behavior, there was a reduction in insoluble amyloid beta in the brain. This observation coincided with a reduction in brain copper and interestingly no change in brain zinc. Our findings show that blocking copper uptake from the diet can redistribute copper from the brain and reduce amyloid beta aggregation. PMID:24595193

  9. Lithium chloride protects retinal neurocytes from nutrient deprivation by promoting DNA non-homologous end-joining

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang Jing; Li Fan; Liu Xuan; Liu Zhiping; Lin Jianxian [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Ge Yihong [Department of Stomatology, the Southern Medical University (China); Kaminski, Joseph M. [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation, University of South Alabama (United States); Summers, James Bradley [Department of Radiology, University of South Alabama (United States); Wang Zhichong [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Ge Jian [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)], E-mail: gejian@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Yu Keming [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)], E-mail: yukeming@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2009-03-13

    Lithium chloride is a therapeutic agent for treatment of bipolar affective disorders. Increasing numbers of studies have indicated that lithium has neuroprotective effects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of lithium have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate whether lithium chloride produces neuroprotective function by improving DNA repair pathway in retinal neurocyte. In vitro, the primary cultured retinal neurocytes (85.7% are MAP-2 positive cells) were treated with lithium chloride, then cultured with serum-free media to simulate the nutrient deprived state resulting from ischemic insult. The neurite outgrowth of the cultured cells increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner when exposed to different levels of lithium chloride. Genomic DNA electrophoresis demonstrated greater DNA integrity of retinal neurocytes when treated with lithium chloride as compared to the control. Moreover, mRNA and protein levels of Ligase IV (involved in DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway) in retinal neurocytes increased with lithium chloride. The end joining activity assay was performed to determine the role of lithium on NHEJ in the presence of extract from retinal neurocytes. The rejoining levels in retinal neurocytes treated with lithium were significantly increased as compared to the control. Furthermore, XRCC4, the Ligase IV partner, and the transcriptional factor, CREB and CTCF, were up-regulated in retinal cells after treating with 1.0 mM lithium chloride. Therefore, our data suggest that lithium chloride protects the retinal neural cells from nutrient deprivation in vitro, which may be similar to the mechanism of cell death in glaucoma. The improvement in DNA repair pathway involving in Ligase IV might have an important role in lithium neuroprotection. This study provides new insights into the neural protective mechanisms of lithium chloride.

  10. Effect of Zinc Supplement in the Prognosis of Burn Patients in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kaisy, A.A.; Salih Sahib, A.; Al-Biati, H.A.H.K.

    2006-01-01

    Summary Many studies have reported that zinc plasma levels significantly decrease after a burn, leading to zinc deficiency, and that increased free radical generation and decreased natural antioxidant may negatively affect wound healing and burn outcome in general. Targeting of these changes is considered an important strategy in the treatment of burns in an attempt to improve burn outcome in the clinical setting. Zinc was given orally in a nutritional dose (15 mg elemental zinc) as a zinc sulphate capsule to burn patients in order to improve post-burn zinc deficiency and burn outcome. The study was carried out in 58 burn patients of different age groups, sex, and occupation with different burn size. The patients were allocated to two groups: group A patients (43 in number) were treated with topical povidone-iodine ointment for the first four days post-injury followed by topical silver sulphadiazine cream 1% until discharge in addition to other prescribed drugs according to our burn unit policy; group B patients (15) received the same treatment as group A plus a single daily oral dose of zinc sulphate in a 66 mg capsule, equivalent to 15 mg elemental zinc. In each group, using standard methods, we considered plasma zinc and copper levels, oxidative stress parameters, thyroid, liver, and renal function tests, microbiological factors, mortality rate, healing time, and cost effectiveness. The administration of zinc in dietary doses significantly increased the plasma zinc level in burn patients to around normal control levels and improved the antioxidant status, as represented by elevation of the natural antioxidant level (glutathione), in addition to improving healing time, the incidence of eschar formation, and the mortality rate, compared with the zinc-nonsupplemented group. We conclude that dietary zinc supplementation in zinc-deficient burn patients led to great improvements in their outcome and that zinc deficiency was as an important goal to target during treatment; also, that the use of a combination of topical and systemic antioxidants (povidoneiodine ointment and zinc sulphate, respectively) represented a good strategy for improving results in burn patient treatment. PMID:21991035

  11. Rambutan peels promoted biomimetic synthesis of bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuvakkumar, R.; Suresh, J.; Saravanakumar, B.; Joseph Nathanael, A.; Hong, Sun Ig; Rajendran, V.

    2015-02-01

    A naturally occurring rambutan peel waste was employed to synthesis bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains. Rambutan peels has the ability of ligating zinc ions as a natural ligation agent resulting in zinc oxide nanochains formation due to its extended polyphenolic system over incubation period. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanochains was confirmed employing transmission electron microscopy studies. About 60% and ?40% cell viability was lost and 50% and 10% morphological change was observed in 7 and 4 days incubated ZnO treated cells compared with control. Moreover, 50% and 55% of cell death was observed at 24 and 48 h incubation with 7 days treated ZnO cells and hence alters and disturbs the growth of cancer cells and could be used for liver cancer cell treatment.

  12. An XAFS Study of Niobium chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride\\/ aluminum chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-01-01

    Niobium chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride\\/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Although anhydrous Nb2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic melt than in the acidic melt, the EXAFS data shows that the coordination shell around the niobium does not change in the different ionic liquids. Both the acidic

  13. Surface study of thioacetamide and zinc sulfide passivated long wavelength infrared type-II strained layer superlattice

    E-print Network

    Krishna, Sanjay

    agent to treat long wavelength infrared (LWIR) superlattice surface for the first time. The results were treated surface after long term air exposure asserting the need for a suitable capping layer to preserve the quality of the surface. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to cap the TAM treated surface with zinc

  14. An XAFS Study of Niobium chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Niobium chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Although anhydrous Nb2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic melt than in the acidic melt, the EXAFS data shows that the coordination shell around the niobium does not change in the different ionic liquids. Both the acidic and basic melts show a coordination of five chlorides in the first shell. This indicates that in this series of ionic liquids, the Nb2Cl10 breaks up into two NbCl5 entities in both the acidic and the basic melts.

  15. Zinc metabolism and homeostasis: The application of tracer techniques to human zinc physiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy F. Krebs; K. Michael Hambidge

    2001-01-01

    Tracer kinetic techniques based on zinc stable isotopes have a vital role in advancing knowledge of human zinc physiology and homeostasis. These techniques have demonstrated the complexity of zinc metabolism, and have been critical to estimating the size and interrelationships of those pools of zinc that exchange rapidly with zinc in plasma and which are likely to be especially important

  16. Effectiveness of Zinc in Modulating Lithium Induced Biochemical and Behavioral Changes in Rat Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Punita Bhalla; Vijayta Dani Chadha; D. K. Dhawan

    2007-01-01

      1. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of zinc on the status of various neurotransmitters as well\\u000a as behavioral patterns of lithium-treated rats. The study was designed with a view to find out whether zinc affords protection\\u000a to brain against lithium toxicity.\\u000a \\u000a 2. Animals were segregated into four different groups. Animals in group I were

  17. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition

    DOEpatents

    Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-10-08

    A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  18. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications ...milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate neutralized to pH...

  19. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. ...milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate neutralized to pH...

  20. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications ...milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate neutralized to pH...

  1. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications ...milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate neutralized to pH...

  2. Zinc Deficiency in Sickle Cell Disease

    E-print Network

    A S. Prasad; Eric B. Schoomaker; Jesus Ortega; George J. Brewer; Donald Oberleas; Fred J. Oelshlegel

    1974-01-01

    Clinical similarities between patients with sickle cell anemia and zinc-deficient subjects suggested a secon-dary zinc deficiency in sickle cell anemia. Zinc was as-sayed in various biological fluids and tissues by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Zinc in the plasma, erythrocytes, and hair was

  3. Molecular Structure of Sodium chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-15

    Sodium chloride, or simply (table) salt, is found in the mineral Halite (rock salt) but also in seawater, sweat, etc. It is used in industry and in our everyday life, for seasoning and perserving food or for winter road maintenance. Seawater contains a lot of salt, on average of 2.6% NaCl, or 26 million metric tons per cubic kilometer. In rock salt the NaCl content typically ranges between 95% and 99% NaCl, and mechanically evaporated salt and solar salt normally exceed 99% NaCl.

  4. Chloride Transporting CLC Proteins1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusch, Michael

    In the early 1980s, Chris Miller and colleagues described a curious "double-barreled" chloride channel from the electric organ of Torpedo fish reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers (Miller and White, 1980). Single-channel openings occurred in "bursts" separated by long closures. A single burst was characterized by the presence of two open conductance levels of equal size and the gating (i.e., openings and closings) during a burst could be almost perfectly described as a superposition of two identical and independent conductances that switched between open and closed states with voltage-dependent rates ? and ? (Hanke and Miller, 1983) (Fig. 8.1).

  5. Metal chloride cathode for a battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

    1991-05-01

    A method of fabricating a rechargeable battery is disclosed which includes a positive electrode which contains a chloride of a selected metal when the electrode is in its active state. The improvement comprises fabricating the positive electrode by: providing a porous matrix composed of a metal; providing a solution of the chloride of the selected metal; and impregnating the matrix with the chloride from the solution.

  6. Metal chloride cathode for a battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Bankston, C. Perry (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method of fabricating a rechargeable battery is disclosed which includes a positive electrode which contains a chloride of a selected metal when the electrode is in its active state. The improvement comprises fabricating the positive electrode by: providing a porous matrix composed of a metal; providing a solution of the chloride of the selected metal; and impregnating the matrix with the chloride from the solution.

  7. Influence of benzotriazole derivatives on the dezincification of 65-35 brass in sodium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, R.; Rajendran, N.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of new corrosion inhibitors namely N-[1-(benzotriazol-1-yl)ethyl]aniline (BTEA), and N, N-dibenzotriazol-1-ylmethylaminoethane (DBME) on the dezincification of 65-35 brass in sodium chloride solution was investigated using weight-loss measurements and electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Results obtained revealed that these compounds were very good inhibitors and behaved better in NaCl solution. Polarization studies showed that the BTEA and DBME behave as a mixed-type of inhibitors for 65-35 brass in sodium chloride solution. They decrease the anodic reaction rate more strongly than the cathodic reaction rate and renders the open circuit potential of brass more positive in NaCl solutions. Solution analysis revealed the decrease in dissolution of both copper and zinc in the presence of these inhibitors.

  8. Extension Bulletin E-1813, August 1989 (Reprint) Guidelines for Use of Chemically Treated Wood

    E-print Network

    , tri- butyl-tin oxide, tetrachlorophenol and zinc naphthenates. Penta-treated and CCA-treated wood Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 Arsenate (CCA)-TreatedWood The arsenical preservative structures are commonly built in such environments on livestock farms, preserved wood is frequently used

  9. National scale-up of zinc promotion in Nepal: results from a post-project population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjuan; MacDonald, Vicki M; Paudel, Mahesh; Banke, Kathryn K

    2011-06-01

    The World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund recommend using a new oral rehydration solution (ORS) plus zinc supplementation for 10-14 days for the treatment of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. The Social Marketing Plus for Diarrhoeal Disease Control: Point of Use Water Disinfection and Zinc Treatment (POUZN) project in Nepal was one of the first zinc-promotion projects to move beyond pilot efforts into a scaled-up programme with national-level reach. This study used data from a survey conducted in 26 districts in Nepal in 2008 to examine zinc-use behaviour, knowledge, and beliefs of caregivers of children aged less than six years, other diarrhoea-treatment practices, and recollection of project communication messages. The results of the survey indicated that, by six months following the onset of a zinc-promotion campaign, the majority (67.5%) of children (n=289), aged less than six years, with diarrhoea were treated with ORS, and 15.4% were treated with zinc. Over half (53.1%) of all caregivers (n=3,550) interviewed had heard about zinc products; most (97.1%) of those who had heard of zinc knew that zinc should be used for the treatment of diarrhoea. Zinc-related knowledge and behaviours were positively associated with recall of communication messages. Children whose caregivers recalled the mass-media message that zinc should be used for 10 days [odds ratio (OR)=2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.85-2.19] and whose caregivers perceived that zinc is easy to obtain (OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.49-2.09) were more likely to be treated with zinc for 10 days, along with ORS. The findings demonstrated that mass media play an important role in increasing caregivers' knowledge about zinc and encouraging trial and correct use. Future efforts should also focus on understanding the factors that motivate providers to continue recommending antibiotics and antidiarrhoeals instead of zinc. These findings are being used for informing the design and implementation of zinc programmes in other developing countries with a high prevalence of diarrhoea. PMID:21766556

  10. Zinc Bells Rang in Jerusalem!

    PubMed Central

    Hershfinkel, Michal; Aizenman, Elias; Andrews, Glen; Sekler, Israel

    2010-01-01

    “Oh, Jerusalem of gold, and of light, and of bronze…” goes the popular song. But it was another metal that towered above the Jerusalem landscape during the meeting of the International Society for Zinc Biology (ISZB; http://www.iszb.org/), held at Mishkenot Sha’ananim, a whisper away from the Old City walls. More than 100 scientists gathered on 1 to 5 December 2009 to discuss their research on the biology of this metal. Zinc is a double-edged sword. Zinc supplementation accelerates wound healing and growth and promotes an effective immune response. On the other hand, zinc deficiency leads to growth retardation and impaired learning and memory function, and has been linked to mood disorders. At the cellular level, however, uncontrolled increases in zinc concentrations can lead to neuronal cell death and may be involved in neurodegenerative disorders. Through regulation of various intracellular signaling pathways, zinc can accelerate cell growth and possibly contribute to cancer. However, despite the physiological and clinical importance of this metal, research on the molecular basis of these effects is still in its infancy. The 2009 ISZB meeting provided a venue for investigators working on various zinc-related issues to share their thoughts and ideas and to promote the growth of this field. PMID:20606213

  11. Production of chlorine from chloride salts

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A. (Kennewick, WA)

    1981-01-01

    A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

  12. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject...

  13. Potentiometric titration of chloride in plant tissue extracts using the chloride ion electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. LaCroix; D. R. Keeney; L. M. Walsh

    1970-01-01

    Use of the chloride specific ion electrode to determine chloride in plants was evaluted. Direct potentiometric determination of chloride by the electrode resulted in unreproducible and extremely high chloride values. However, use of this electrode to indicate the end point in titration of the tissue?extract mixture with AgNO3 gave results nearly identical to those obtained by the Mohr procedure. The

  14. Enrofloxacin hydro­chloride dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Calderón, Jorge E.; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Sumano, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H23FN3O3 +·Cl?·2H2O [systematic name: 4-(3-carb­oxy-1-cyclo­propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-di­hydro­quin­o­lin-7-yl)-1-ethyl­piperazin-1-ium chloride dihydrate], consists of two independent monocations of the protonated enrofloxacin, two chloride anions and four water mol­ecules. In the cations, the piperazinium rings adopt chair conformations and the dihedral angles between the cyclo­propyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring system are 56.55?(2) and 51.11?(2)°. An intra­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bond is observed in each cation. In the crystal, the components are connected via O—H?Cl, N—H?Cl and O—H?O hydrogen bonds, and a ?–? inter­action between the benzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.6726?(13)?Å], resulting in a three-dimensional array. PMID:24826167

  15. Chloride Analysis of RFSA Second Campaign Dissolver Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, H.P.

    2001-05-17

    The dissolver solution from the second RFSA campaign was analyzed for chloride using the recently-developed turbidimetric method. Prior to chloride removal in head end, the solution contained 1625 ppm chloride. After chloride removal with Hg(I) and prior to feeding to solvent extraction, the solution contained only 75 ppm chloride. This report discusses those analysis results.

  16. XAFS Studies of Ni Ta and Nb Chlorides in the Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl Imidazolium Chloride / Aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    W OGrady; D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek

    2011-12-31

    The structures of anhydrous nickel, niobium, and tantalum chlorides have been investigated in situ in acidic and basic ionic liquids (ILs) of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (EMIC)/AlCl{sub 3} with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The coordination of NiCl{sub 2} changes from tetrahedral in basic solution to octahedral in acidic solution. The NiCl{sub 2} is a strong Lewis acid in that it can induce the AlCl{sub 3} to share its chlorides in the highly acidic IL, forming a structure with six near Cl{sup -} ions and eight further distant Al ions which share the chloride ions surrounding the Ni{sup 2+}. When Nb{sub 2}Cl{sub 10}, a dimer, is added to the acidic or basic solution, the dimer breaks apart and forms two species. In the acid solution, two trigonal bipyramids are formed with five equal chloride distances, while in the basic solution, a square pyramid with four chlorides forming a square base and one shorter axial chloride bond. Ta{sub 2}Cl{sub 10} is also a dimer and divides into half in the acidic solution and forms two trigonal bipyramids. In the basic solution, the dimer breaks apart but the species formed is sufficiently acidic that it attracts two additional chloride ions and forms a seven coordinated tantalum species.

  17. Cyanuric chloride derivatives for cotton textile treatment--synthesis, analysis, and flammability testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a series of experiments, two cyanuric chloride derivatives were synthesized in good yields and analyzed by 1H, 13C, and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as high performance liquid and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Cotton fabric was treated with these compounds and teste...

  18. Preparation of poly(vinyl chloride-g-isobutylene) by BCl 3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Gupta; J. P. Kennedy

    1979-01-01

    Summary  Poly(vinyl chloride-g-isobutylene) has been synthesized using mildly dehydrochlorinated (NaOH treated) PVC in conjunction\\u000a with BCl3 coinitiator. Treatment of PVC with NaOH increases initial thermal dehydrochlorination rate and renders the polymer suitable\\u000a for efficient grafting. Untreated PVC produces negligible grafting.

  19. Energy dispersive X?ray fluorescence for rapid potassium, calcium, and chloride diagnosis in barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Y. Miah; M. K. Wang; M. Chino

    1999-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Doriru) leaf samples were collected from a field comprising three plots, plot F chemical fertilizer treated, plot S receiving sewage sludge and sawdust mixed compost, and plot H receiving sewage sludge and rice husk mixed compost. Relative concentrations of selected elements, potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and chloride (Cl) of young, mature, and old barley leaves

  20. Racemization of Isobornyl Chloride via Carbocations: A Nonclassical Look at a Classic Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rzepa, Henry S.; Allan, Charlotte S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of carbonium ions as intermediates in chemical reaction mechanisms derives from the early work of Julius Stieglitz and the more famous Hans Meerwein, the latter studying the racemization of isobornyl chloride when treated with Lewis acids. This review analyzes how key mechanistic concepts for this reaction evolved and gives the…

  1. Using chloride and other ions to trace sewage and road salt in the Illinois Waterway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walton R. Kelly; Samuel V. Panno; Keith C. Hackley; Hue-Hwa Hwang; Adam T. Martinsek; Momcilo Markus

    2010-01-01

    Chloride concentrations in waterways of northern USA are increasing at alarming rates and road salt is commonly assumed to be the cause. However, there are additional sources of Cl? in metropolitan areas, such as treated wastewater (TWW) and water conditioning salts, which may be contributing to Cl? loads entering surface waters. In this study, the potential sources of Cl? and

  2. Review: Zinc’s functional significance in the vertebrate retina

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    This review covers a broad range of topics related to the actions of zinc on the cells of the vertebrate retina. Much of this review relies on studies in which zinc was applied exogenously, and therefore the results, albeit highly suggestive, lack physiologic significance. This view stems from the fact that the concentrations of zinc used in these studies may not be encountered under the normal circumstances of life. This caveat is due to the lack of a zinc-specific probe with which to measure the concentrations of Zn2+ that may be released from neurons or act upon them. However, a great deal of relevant information has been garnered from studies in which Zn2+ was chelated, and the effects of its removal compared with findings obtained in its presence. For a more complete discussion of the consequences of depletion or excess in the body’s trace elements, the reader is referred to a recent review by Ugarte et al. in which they provide a detailed account of the interactions, toxicity, and metabolic activity of the essential trace elements iron, zinc, and copper in retinal physiology and disease. In addition, Smart et al. have published a splendid review on the modulation by zinc of inhibitory and excitatory amino acid receptor ion channels. PMID:25324679

  3. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2003, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-print Network

    188 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2003, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about refined zinc metal of commercial grade in 2003. Of zinc metal consumed, about 75% was used in Illinois

  4. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 1999, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-print Network

    190 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 1999, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about%. Three primary and eight secondary smelters refined zinc metal of commercial grade in 1999. Of zinc metal

  5. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2000, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-print Network

    186 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2000, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about zinc metal of commercial grade in 2000. Of zinc metal consumed, about 75% was used in Illinois, Indiana

  6. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2005, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-print Network

    190 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2005, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about refined zinc metal of commercial grade in 2005. Of zinc metal consumed, about 75% was used in Illinois

  7. Zinc and Health: Current Status and Future Directions Zinc Transport in the Brain: Routes of Zinc Influx and Efflux in Neurons1,2

    E-print Network

    Zinc and Health: Current Status and Future Directions Zinc Transport in the Brain: Routes of Zinc of the routes of entry and exit for zinc in different tissues and cell types have shown that zinc can use and that mediate extracellular zinc toxicity and (3) a plasma membrane transporter potentially present in all

  8. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2006, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-print Network

    186 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2006, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about smelters refined zinc metal of commercial grade in 2006. Of zinc metal consumed, about 75% was used

  9. Zinc deficiency in Mexican American children: influence of zinc and other micronutrients on T cells, cytokines, and antiinflammatory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold H Sandstead; Ananda S Prasad; James G Penland; Frances WJ; Joseph Kaplan Beck; Norman G Egger; Nancy W Alcock; Richard M Carroll; VMS Ramanujam; Hari H Dayal; Carmen D Rocco; Ruth Ann Plotkin; Antonio N Zavaleta

    Background: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examina- tion Survey suggested some Mexican American children are at risk of zinc deficiency. Objective:Wemeasuredtheeffectsofzincandmicronutrientsorof micronutrients alone on indexes of cell-mediated immunity and an- tiinflammatory plasma proteins. Design: Subjects (n 54) aged 6-7 y were randomly assigned and treated in double-blind fashion in equal numbers with 20 mg Zn (as sulfate) and micronutrients

  10. Air pollution and plants: hydrogen chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1972-01-01

    The sensitivity of plants is discussed in relation to both hydrogen chloride and chlorine. At the present time, the burning of chloride containing plastics is a major source of HCl. It has been assumed that the origin of the gaseous form of natural atmospheric Clâ results from volcanic activity. However, the high concentrations of Clâ necessary to injure vegetation are

  11. Process for synthesis of beryllium chloride dietherate

    DOEpatents

    Bergeron, Charles (Baton Rouge, LA); Bullard, John E. (Kendall Park, NJ); Morgan, Evan (Lynchburg, VA)

    1991-01-01

    A low temperature method of producing beryllium chloride dietherate through the addition of hydrogen chloride gas to a mixture of beryllium metal in ether in a reaction vessel is described. A reflux condenser provides an exit for hydrogen produced form the reaction. A distillation condenser later replaces the reflux condenser for purifying the resultant product.

  12. Metabolism of chloride in halophilic prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Müller, Volker; Oren, Aharon

    2003-08-01

    While much understanding has been achieved on the intracellular sodium and potassium concentrations of halophilic and halotolerant microorganisms and on their regulation, we know little on the metabolism of anions. Archaea of the family Halobacteriaceae contain molar concentrations of chloride, which is pumped into the cells by cotransport with sodium ions and/or using the light-driven primary chloride pump halorhodopsin. Most halophilic and halotolerant representatives of the bacterial domain contain low intracellular ion concentrations, with organic osmotic solutes providing osmotic balance. However, some species show a specific requirement for chloride. In Halobacillus halophilus certain functions, such as growth, endospore germination, motility and flagellar synthesis, and glycine betaine transport are chloride dependent. In this organism the expression of a large number of proteins is chloride regulated. Other moderately halophilic Bacteria such as Halomonas elongata do not show a specific demand for chloride. A very high requirement for chloride was demonstrated in two groups of Bacteria that accumulate inorganic salts intracellularly rather than using organic osmotic solutes: the anaerobic Halanaerobiales and the aerobic extremely halophilic Salinibacter ruber. It is thus becoming increasingly clear that chloride has specific functions in haloadaptation in different groups of halophilic microorganisms. PMID:12728360

  13. A double-blind block randomized clinical trial on the effect of zinc as a treatment for diarrhea in neonatal Holstein calves under natural challenge conditions.

    PubMed

    Glover, A D; Puschner, B; Rossow, H A; Lehenbauer, T W; Champagne, J D; Blanchard, P C; Aly, S S

    2013-11-01

    Diarrhea is the leading cause of death in neonatal calves and contributes to major economic losses. The objective of this double-blind randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of oral inorganic or organic zinc supplementation as a treatment for neonatal diarrhea in calves. Seventy nine 1 to 8 day old male Holstein calves on a California calf ranch were block randomized to one of 3 treatments within 24h from their first onset of diarrhea. Calves received a daily dose of either a placebo composed of 80 mg of zinc-free powder, 381.54 mg of zinc methionine (Met) (equivalent to 80 mg of zinc), or 99.69 mg of zinc oxide (ZO) (equivalent to 80 mg of zinc) in 2L of a zinc-free oral rehydration solution (ORS). Calves were treated once daily until normal fecal consistency or for a maximum of 14 days. Upon enrollment and exit, calves were weighed, and blood, feces, and liver biopsies were collected for trace mineral analysis. Fecal samples at enrollment and exit were tested for E. coli K99, Cryptosporidium spp., rotavirus and coronavirus. Pre-treatment liver zinc concentrations for the 71 calves in the placebo, zinc Met, and ZO treatment groups were 710.6 (SEM=147.7), 852.3 (SEM=129.6), and 750.7 (SEM=202.9)mg/kg dry weight (DW), respectively. Exit liver zinc concentrations for the calves in the placebo, zinc Met, and ZO treatment groups were 728.9 (SEM=182.9), 1141.0 (SEM=423.8), and 636.8 (SEM=81.5)mg/kg dry weight, respectively. Although statistically non-significant, there were clinically important findings identified for each of zinc Met and ZO treatments. Calves treated with zinc Met gained on average 40 g/day during a diarrhea episode compared to a weight loss of 67 g/day on average in the placebo-treated calves (Power 19.9%). Calves treated with ZO had 1.4 times higher hazard of clinical cure compared to calves in the placebo group (Power 5.3%). Calves that were fecal positive to cryptosporidium spp. at enrollment and treated with zinc Met had higher odds of testing negative at exit compared to placebo calves (Odds Ratio (OR)=16.0). In contrast, calves treated with ZO tended to recover (fecal score=1) one day earlier compared to calves treated with a placebo (8.5 d vs. 9.7 d). The current trial identified clinically important findings that warrant further research to investigate zinc's therapeutic effect for calf diarrhea. PMID:24074841

  14. Regulation of biokinetics of (65)Zn by curcumin and zinc in experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Kinnri; Dhawan, Devinder K

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of curcumin and zinc on the biokinetics and biodistribution of (65)Zn during colon carcinogenesis. Male wistar rats were divided into five groups, namely normal control, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) treated, DMH + curcumin treated, DMH + zinc treated, and DMH + curcumin + zinc treated. Weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (30 mg/kg body weight) for 16 weeks initiated colon carcinogenesis. Curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight orally) and ZnSO4 (227 mg/L in drinking water) were supplemented for 16 weeks. This study revealed a significant depression in the fast (Tb1) and slow component (Tb2) of biological half-life of (65)Zn in the whole body of DMH-treated rats, whereas liver showed a significant elevation in these components. Further, DMH treatment showed a significant increase in the uptake values of (65)Zn in colon, small intestine, and kidneys. Subcellular distribution depicted a significant increase in (65)Zn uptake values in mitochondrial, microsomal, and postmicrosomal fractions of colon. However, curcumin and zinc supplementation when given separately or in combination reversed the trends and restored the uptake values close to normal range. Our study concludes that curcumin and zinc supplementation during colon carcinogenesis shall prove to be efficacious in regulating the altered zinc metabolism. PMID:25226565

  15. Recovery of soluble chloride salts from the wastewater generated during the washing process of municipal solid wastes incineration fly ash.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hailong; Erzat, Aris; Liu, Yangsheng

    2014-01-01

    Water washing is widely used as the pretreatment method to treat municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, which facilitates the further solidification/stabilization treatment or resource recovery of the fly ash. The wastewater generated during the washing process is a kind of hydrosaline solution, usually containing high concentrations of alkali chlorides and sulphates, which cause serious pollution to environment. However, these salts can be recycled as resources instead of discharge. This paper explored an effective and practical recovery method to separate sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride salts individually from the hydrosaline water. In laboratory experiments, a simulating hydrosaline solution was prepared according to composition of the waste washing water. First, in the three-step evaporation-crystallization process, pure sodium chloride and solid mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides were obtained separately, and the remaining solution contained potassium and calcium chlorides (solution A). And then, the solid mixture was fully dissolved into water (solution B obtained). Finally, ethanol was added into solutions A and B to change the solubility of sodium, potassium, and calcium chlorides within the mixed solvent of water and ethanol. During the ethanol-adding precipitation process, each salt was separated individually, and the purity of the raw production in laboratory experiments reached about 90%. The ethanol can be recycled by distillation and reused as the solvent. Therefore, this technology may bring both environmental and economic benefits. PMID:25176491

  16. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-02-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  17. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-01-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  18. The zinc repository of Cupriavidus metallidurans.

    PubMed

    Herzberg, Martin; Dobritzsch, Dirk; Helm, Stefan; Baginsky, Sacha; Nies, Dietrich H

    2014-11-01

    Zinc is a central player in the metalloproteomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We used a bottom-up quantitative proteomic approach to reveal the repository of the zinc pools in the proteobacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans. About 60% of the theoretical proteome of C. metallidurans was identified, quantified, and the defect in zinc allocation was compared between a ?zupT mutant and its parent strain. In both strains, the number of zinc-binding proteins and their binding sites exceeded that of the zinc ions per cell, indicating that the totality of the zinc proteome provides empty binding sites for the incoming zinc ions. This zinc repository plays a central role in zinc homeostasis in C. metallidurans and probably also in other organisms. PMID:25315396

  19. Zinc in innate and adaptive tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Zinc is important. It is the second most abundant trace metal with 2-4 grams in humans. It is an essential trace element, critical for cell growth, development and differentiation, DNA synthesis, RNA transcription, cell division, and cell activation. Zinc deficiency has adverse consequences during embryogenesis and early childhood development, particularly on immune functioning. It is essential in members of all enzyme classes, including over 300 signaling molecules and transcription factors. Free zinc in immune and tumor cells is regulated by 14 distinct zinc importers (ZIP) and transporters (ZNT1-8). Zinc depletion induces cell death via apoptosis (or necrosis if apoptotic pathways are blocked) while sufficient zinc levels allows maintenance of autophagy. Cancer cells have upregulated zinc importers, and frequently increased zinc levels, which allow them to survive. Based on this novel synthesis, approaches which locally regulate zinc levels to promote survival of immune cells and/or induce tumor apoptosis are in order. PMID:21087493

  20. Cytotoxicity of nitric oxide is alleviated by zinc-mediated expression of antioxidant genes.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mi Ja; Hogstrand, Christer; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2006-10-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich zinc binding proteins that are powerful antioxidants. In this study, we investigated the interaction between zinc, MTs, and other components of the antioxidant defense system in HepG2 cells. Cells were preincubated with zinc and then exposed to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor. Both zinc pretreatment and SNP exposure separately induced transcription of MT genes (MT1A, MT2A, MT1E, MT1X), as measured using real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after reverse transcription (RT). Pretreatment of HepG2 cells with zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) followed by SNP exposure caused MT and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) mRNA levels to increase more than in cells only exposed to SNP. However, when cells were incubated with N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethyl-enediamine (TPEN), a membrane-permeant Zn2+ chelator, the stimulation of MT transcription by SNP was blocked, suggesting that SNP-induced upregulation of these genes is zinc-dependent. Human glutathione-S-transferase (hGSTA1) and G6PD mRNA levels in the cells treated with 5 microM TPEN decreased. Additionally, the induction of MT by SNP after zinc pretreatment appears to be mediated by metal-activated transcription factor-1 (MTF-1), which is induced by labile zinc in the cytosol. SNP cytotoxicity was inhibited by preincubation with zinc. Taken together, these results suggest that NO plays an important role in regulation of cellular zinc homeostasis and that NO-mediated release of protein-bound Zn2+ may be an important signal in antioxidant defense. PMID:17018880

  1. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 ...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be...

  2. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...114 and 120) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...

  3. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...114 and 120) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...

  4. Chloride penetration into concrete structures in the marine atmosphere zone – Relationship between deposition of chlorides on the wet candle and chlorides accumulated into concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Meira; C. Andrade; I. J. Padaratz; C. Alonso; J BORBAJR

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between chlorides from marine aerosol and chlorides accumulated into concrete is discussed in this paper. The experimental programme comprised an environmental characterisation, with climatic and chloride deposition data, and a study of chloride penetration into concrete based on natural exposure of specimens in a marine atmosphere zone. Results show that salt concentration in marine aerosol strongly decreases in

  5. Zinc content of selected tissues and taste perception in rats fed zinc deficient and zinc adequate rations

    SciTech Connect

    Boeckner, L.S.; Kies, C.

    1986-03-05

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding zinc sufficient and zinc deficient rations on taste sensitivity and zinc contents of selected organs in rats. The 36 Sprague-Dawley male weanling rats were divided into 2 groups and fed zinc deficient or zinc adequate rations. The animals were subjected to 4 trial periods in which a choice of deionized distilled water or a solution of quinine sulfate at 1.28 x 10/sup -6/ was given. A randomized schedule for rat sacrifice was used. No differences were found between zinc deficient and zinc adequate rats in taste preference aversion scores for quinine sulfate in the first three trial periods; however, in the last trial period rats in the zinc sufficient group drank somewhat less water containing quinine sulfate as a percentage of total water consumption than did rats fed the zinc deficient ration. Significantly higher zinc contents of kidney, brain and parotid salivary glands were seen in zinc adequate rats compared to zinc deficient rats at the end of the study. However, liver and tongue zinc levels were lower for both groups at the close of the study than were those of rats sacrificed at the beginning of the study.

  6. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis induced by zinc, copper and nickel in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hujanen, E S; Seppä, S T; Virtanen, K

    1995-10-19

    Metallic dental restorations and prosthetic constructions are susceptible to corrosion in oral environment, resulting in the release of various heavy metal ions. Chloride salts of zinc, copper, nickel, chromium, iron and gold were tested for their ability to promote the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Using a modified Boyden chamber assay for chemotaxis zinc, copper and nickel enhanced the migration of PMN cells in concentration range of 0.5-1.0 mM, whereas no augmentation in migratory activity was noted using chromium or iron. In contrast, an inhibition in migratory activity was observed in cells directed toward gold ions. Exposure of cells to zinc, copper or nickel ions induced an orientation reaction in leukocytes in a similar fashion as the polarization reaction induced by a potent peptide chemoattractant, N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (fMLP), in these cells. Exposure of PMN cells to zinc or nickel in chemotactic concentrations stimulated the chemotaxis of these cells to fMLP 2-fold, whereas pretreatment of the cells with zinc prior to assay markedly decreased the subsequent chemotactic migration of the cells to this metal or to fMLP. The enhanced locomotion of PMN cells induced by zinc, copper or nickel ions was found to be in greater extent due to an increase in directed migration (chemotaxis) rather than an augmentation in random movement (chemokinesis) as assessed by Zigmond-Hirsch checkerboard analysis. These results suggest that zinc, copper and nickel ions attract leukocytes by inducing and promoting the chemotactic response in these cells, which may modulate the inflammatory response of host tissue around such metals. PMID:7492570

  7. 21 CFR 73.2995 - Luminescent zinc sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Luminescent zinc sulfide. 73.2995 Section 73.2995... Cosmetics § 73.2995 Luminescent zinc sulfide. (a) Identity. The color additive luminescent zinc sulfide is zinc sulfide containing...

  8. 21 CFR 73.2995 - Luminescent zinc sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Luminescent zinc sulfide. 73.2995 Section 73.2995... Cosmetics § 73.2995 Luminescent zinc sulfide. (a) Identity. The color additive luminescent zinc sulfide is zinc sulfide containing...

  9. 21 CFR 73.2995 - Luminescent zinc sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Luminescent zinc sulfide. 73.2995 Section 73.2995... Cosmetics § 73.2995 Luminescent zinc sulfide. (a) Identity. The color additive luminescent zinc sulfide is zinc sulfide containing...

  10. 21 CFR 73.2995 - Luminescent zinc sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Luminescent zinc sulfide. 73.2995 Section 73.2995... Cosmetics § 73.2995 Luminescent zinc sulfide. (a) Identity. The color additive luminescent zinc sulfide is zinc sulfide containing...

  11. The preparation of zinc silicate/ZnO particles and their use as an efficient UV absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Podbrscek, Peter [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)] [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drazic, Goran [Department for Nanostructured Materials, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)] [Department for Nanostructured Materials, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Anzlovar, Alojz [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia) [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Center of Excellence for Polymer Materials and Technologies, Tehnoloski Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Orel, Zorica Crnjak, E-mail: zorica.crnjak.orel@ki.si [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Center of Excellence for Polymer Materials and Technologies, Tehnoloski Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} We used innovative gel-route in order to prepare zinc silicate/ZnO nano-particles. {yields} Continuous reactor was efficient for synthesizing ZnO and zinc silicate/ZnO precursors. {yields} Introduction of Si into reaction mixture influenced on particle size and their photoactivity. {yields} Prepared particles are appropriate for UV absorbers in polymers. -- Abstract: The formation of zinc silicate/ZnO particles synthesized by a two-step method and their incorporation into PMMA is presented. In the first step a segmented-flow tubular reactor was used for the continuous room-temperature preparation of a zinc silicate/Zn(OH){sub 2} gel that was thermally treated after rinsing and drying in the second step. The same preparation procedure was also employed for the synthesis of pure ZnO and pure zinc silicate particles. It was found that the presence of the zinc silicate phase significantly influenced the final particle size, decreased the degree of crystallization and reduced the particles' UV absorption capabilities. The reduced photocatalytic activity of the zinc silicate/ZnO particles indicated that the majority of ZnO crystallites were formed inside the zinc silicate matrix. The nanocomposite prepared from zinc silicate/ZnO particles (0.04 wt.%) and PMMA showed high UV shielding and at the same time sufficient transmittance in the visible-light region.

  12. Sorbitol dehydrogenase is a zinc enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, J; Chesters, J; Mills, C; Sadler, P J; Jörnvall, H

    1984-01-01

    Evidence is given that tetrameric sorbitol dehydrogenase from sheep liver contains one zinc atom per subunit, most probably located at the active site, and no other specifically bound zinc or iron atom. In alcohol dehydrogenases that are structurally related to sorbitol dehydrogenase, more than one zinc atom per subunit can complicate investigations of zinc atom function. Therefore, sorbitol dehydrogenase will be particularly valuable for defining the precise roles of zinc in alcohol and polyol dehydrogenases, and for establishing correlations of structure and function with other important zinc-containing proteins. PMID:6370679

  13. Structural and spectral properties of a zinc(II) coordination polymer: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jin-Ming; Li, Guang-Yue; Li, Yue-Hua; Cui, Guang Hua

    2014-10-15

    A novel 1D zinc(II) coordination polymer [Zn(bbbm)Cl2]n (where bbbm=1,4-bis(N-benzimidazolyl)butane) was synthetized by ZnCl2 and bbbm ligand under hydrothermal conditions, and its structural and spectral properties were studied by both experimental and theoretical techniques. The center zinc(II) ion displays four-coordinated in a tetrahedral geometry by two chloride anions and two N atoms of distinct bbbm ligands. Adjacent chains are further connected into a 2D layer structure through ?-? stacking interactions. Vibrational frequencies of [Zn(bbbm)Cl2]n have been calculated using DFT/B3LYP/TZVP method, and well reproduced IR data. Furthermore, the vertical excitation energies from time-dependent DFT calculation confirmed that the fluorescent peaks at 385nm and 450nm could respectively be assigned to the ???(*) transition within the bbbm ligands and ??n transition from chloride anion to bbbm ligand. PMID:24820328

  14. Structural and spectral properties of a zinc(II) coordination polymer: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jin-Ming; Li, Guang-Yue; Li, Yue-Hua; Cui, Guang Hua

    2014-10-01

    A novel 1D zinc(II) coordination polymer [Zn(bbbm)Cl2]n (where bbbm = 1,4-bis(N-benzimidazolyl)butane) was synthetized by ZnCl2 and bbbm ligand under hydrothermal conditions, and its structural and spectral properties were studied by both experimental and theoretical techniques. The center zinc(II) ion displays four-coordinated in a tetrahedral geometry by two chloride anions and two N atoms of distinct bbbm ligands. Adjacent chains are further connected into a 2D layer structure through ?-? stacking interactions. Vibrational frequencies of [Zn(bbbm)Cl2]n have been calculated using DFT/B3LYP/TZVP method, and well reproduced IR data. Furthermore, the vertical excitation energies from time-dependent DFT calculation confirmed that the fluorescent peaks at 385 nm and 450 nm could respectively be assigned to the ? ? ?* transition within the bbbm ligands and ? ? n transition from chloride anion to bbbm ligand.

  15. Targeting zinc homeostasis to combat Aspergillus fumigatus infections

    PubMed Central

    Vicentefranqueira, Rocío; Amich, Jorge; Laskaris, Paris; Ibrahim-Granet, Oumaima; Latgé, Jean P.; Toledo, Héctor; Leal, Fernando; Calera, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is able to invade and grow in the lungs of immunosuppressed individuals and causes invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The concentration of free zinc in living tissues is much lower than that required for optimal fungal growth in vitro because most of it is tightly bound to proteins. To obtain efficiently zinc from a living host A. fumigatus uses the zinc transporters ZrfA, ZrfB, and ZrfC. The ZafA transcriptional regulator induces the expression of all these transporters and is essential for virulence. Thus, ZafA could be targeted therapeutically to inhibit fungal growth. The ZrfC transporter plays the major role in zinc acquisition from the host whereas ZrfA and ZrfB rather have a supplementary role to that of ZrfC. In addition, only ZrfC enables A. fumigatus to overcome the inhibitory effect of calprotectin, which is an antimicrobial Zn/Mn-chelating protein synthesized and released by neutrophils within the fungal abscesses of immunosuppressed non-leucopenic animals. Hence, fungal survival in these animals would be undermined upon blocking therapeutically the function of ZrfC. Therefore, both ZafA and ZrfC have emerged as promising targets for the discovery of new antifungals to treat Aspergillus infections.

  16. Targeting zinc homeostasis to combat Aspergillus fumigatus infections.

    PubMed

    Vicentefranqueira, Rocío; Amich, Jorge; Laskaris, Paris; Ibrahim-Granet, Oumaima; Latgé, Jean P; Toledo, Héctor; Leal, Fernando; Calera, José A

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is able to invade and grow in the lungs of immunosuppressed individuals and causes invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The concentration of free zinc in living tissues is much lower than that required for optimal fungal growth in vitro because most of it is tightly bound to proteins. To obtain efficiently zinc from a living host A. fumigatus uses the zinc transporters ZrfA, ZrfB, and ZrfC. The ZafA transcriptional regulator induces the expression of all these transporters and is essential for virulence. Thus, ZafA could be targeted therapeutically to inhibit fungal growth. The ZrfC transporter plays the major role in zinc acquisition from the host whereas ZrfA and ZrfB rather have a supplementary role to that of ZrfC. In addition, only ZrfC enables A. fumigatus to overcome the inhibitory effect of calprotectin, which is an antimicrobial Zn/Mn-chelating protein synthesized and released by neutrophils within the fungal abscesses of immunosuppressed non-leucopenic animals. Hence, fungal survival in these animals would be undermined upon blocking therapeutically the function of ZrfC. Therefore, both ZafA and ZrfC have emerged as promising targets for the discovery of new antifungals to treat Aspergillus infections. PMID:25774155

  17. Zinc-deficient diet aggravates ventilation-induced lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Bian, Jieyu; Ge, Yingbin

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of zinc deficiency on acute lung injury (ALI) induced by mechanical ventilation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a zinc-deficient or zinc-proficient diet for 4 weeks, and then received mechanical ventilation at normal frequency and pressure for 30 min. Total protein, cell count, the number of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in the lung were determined. Activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) was detected by examining the phosphorylation of NF-?B (pNF-?B p65) and the expression of inhibitor of NF-?B (pI-kB?). Compared to the controls, total cell count and the number of PMNs were significantly increased to 160% and 140%, respectively, in zinc-deficient rats treated with ventilation. Activation of NF-?B was significantly increased and VEGF was also increased to three-folds. Zinc deficiency aggravated the inflammatory response in rats and was associated with the overexpression of VEGF in response to mechanical ventilation. Zinc supplementation may be beneficial to zinc-deficient patients during mechanical ventilation. PMID:23554731

  18. Spectrofluorimetric determination of thallium in silicate rocks with rhodamine b in the presence of aluminum chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shnepfe, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    A sensitive spectrofluorimetric procedure with rhodamine B in the presence of aluminum chloride is given for determining submicrogram and microgram quantities of thallium in silicate rocks. Samples are decomposed with a mixture of hydrofluoric and nitric acids and then treated with hydrochloric acid. Thallium is extracted as its dithizonate with chloroform from an alkaline medium containing ascorbate, citrate, and cyanide and then back-extracted with dilute nitric acid. After destruction of the organic matter and treatment with bromine, hydrochloric acid, aluminum chloride, and rhodamine B, the {A table is presented}. ?? 1975.

  19. Methylene chloride poisoning in a cabinet worker.

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, M; Kales, S N

    1999-01-01

    More than a million workers are at risk for methylene chloride exposure. Aerosol sprays and paint stripping may also cause significant nonoccupational exposures. After methylene chloride inhalation, significant amounts of carbon monoxide are formed in vivo as a metabolic by-product. Poisoning predominantly affects the central nervous system and results from both carboxyhemoglobin formation and direct solvent-related narcosis. In this report, we describe a case of methylene chloride intoxication probably complicated by exogenous carbon monoxide exposure. The worker's presentation of intermittent headaches was consistent with both methylene chloride intoxication and carbon monoxide poisoning. The exposures and symptoms were corroborated by elevated carboxyhemoglobin saturations and a workplace inspection that documented significant exposures to both methylene chloride and carbon monoxide. When both carbon monoxide and methylene chloride are inhaled, additional carboxyhemoglobin formation is expected. Preventive efforts should include education, air monitoring, and periodic carboxyhemoglobin determinations. Methylene chloride should never be used in enclosed or poorly ventilated areas because of the well-documented dangers of loss of consciousness and death. Images Figure 1 PMID:10464079

  20. Zinc/nickel oxide battery membrane separator studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennion, D. N.; Bradshaw, J. S.

    1986-03-01

    Fourteen different macrocyclic compounds were synthesized for possible use in anionic exchange membranes and several polymerized with polyvinylbenzyl chloride. Two others were used in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membranes. Work continued to develop a suitable polymer material for the membranes. PVA could be cross-linked using a crown-ether dialdehyde as a cross-linking agent to produce a membrane with high ionic conductivity (0.02 mho/cm) and reasonable short-term stability in strong caustic solution at room temperatures. Selectivity of the membrane for hydroxide ions was essentially the same as that in the solution itself. Two new fabrication methods for polypropylene membranes were investigated and developed. Development of a two-dimensional code of a zinc-nickel oxide cell was begun.

  1. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, H.; Love, A. J.; Simmons, C. T.; Makhnin, O.; Kayaalp, A. S.

    2010-05-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construct a chloride deposition map in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR), a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia. We examined geographic (related to coastal distance), orographic, and atmospheric factors that may influence chloride deposition, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, elevation, as well as terrain aspect and slope, appear to be significant factors controlling chloride deposition in the study area. Coastal distance accounts for 70% of spatial variability in bulk chloride deposition, with elevation, terrain aspect and slope an additional 15%. The results are incorporated into a de-trended residual kriging model (ASOADeK) to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution bulk chloride deposition and concentration maps. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 20-30% in the western MLR, and 40-50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a useful basis for examining catchment chloride balance for the CMB application in the study area.

  2. Kinetics of chloridization of nickel-bearing lateritic iron ore by hydrogen chloride gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanungo, S. B.; Mishra, S. K.

    1997-06-01

    The selective chloridization of nickel in a lateritic iron ore by gaseous HCl is based on the principle of relative thermal stability of iron and nickel chlorides. This aspect has been discussed with differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetric (TG) data of the hydrated chlorides of iron and nickel. The kinetics of chloridization of nickel in a lateritic nickel ore from Orissa, India, have been studied by using both pure HCl (g) and the HCl (g) + N2 mixture. The sharp decrease in the rate of chloridization of nickel at temperatures above 250 °C is attributed to the rapid decomposition of molten ferric chloride hydrate (FeCl3 · 3H2O), which blocks the pores of the reactant solid. Therefore, kinetics of chloridization follow both the pore-blocking model (logarithmic rate law) and diffusion-controlled mechanisms. Very low values of apparent activation energy and effective diffusivity derived from the rate constants of the diffusion-controlled process suggest that diffusion of HCl (g) takes place either in a dissolved state in the molten ferric chloride (at 100 °C to 150 °C) or through cracks and fissures formed on the surface due to rapid decomposition of ferric chloride at 200 °C to 250 °C. Because of the complexity of the reaction system, the rate of chloridization of nickel is almost independent of grain size.

  3. CYANEX 272 for the extraction and recovery of zinc from aqueous waste solution using a mixer-settler unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. I. Ali; I. M. Ahmad; J. A. Daoud

    2006-01-01

    The extraction of Zn(II) with bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid, commonly known as CYANEX 272, in kerosene from aqueous sulphate, chloride and nitrate media was investigated. The extraction was found to increase with CYANEX 272 concentration, pH of the aqueous phase and ammonium sulphate concentrations. Stripping investigations using different stripping agents indicated that HCl and HNO3 are effective for stripping zinc. The

  4. Village-Randomized Clinical Trial of Home Distribution of Zinc for Treatment of Childhood Diarrhea in Rural Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Feikin, Daniel R.; Bigogo, Godfrey; Audi, Allan; Pals, Sherri L.; Aol, George; Mbakaya, Charles; Williamson, John; Breiman, Robert F.; Larson, Charles P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Zinc treatment shortens diarrhea episodes and can prevent future episodes. In rural Africa, most children with diarrhea are not brought to health facilities. In a village-randomized trial in rural Kenya, we assessed if zinc treatment might have a community-level preventive effect on diarrhea incidence if available at home versus only at health facilities. Methods We randomized 16 Kenyan villages (1,903 eligible children) to receive a 10-day course of zinc and two oral rehydration solution (ORS) sachets every two months at home and 17 villages (2,241 eligible children) to receive ORS at home, but zinc at the health–facility only. Children’s caretakers were educated in zinc/ORS use by village workers, both unblinded to intervention arm. We evaluated whether incidence of diarrhea and acute lower respiratory illness (ALRI) reported at biweekly home visits and presenting to clinic were lower in zinc villages, using poisson regression adjusting for baseline disease rates, distance to clinic, and children’s age. Results There were no differences between village groups in diarrhea incidence either reported at the home or presenting to clinic. In zinc villages (1,440 children analyzed), 61.2% of diarrheal episodes were treated with zinc, compared to 5.4% in comparison villages (1,584 children analyzed, p<0.0001). There were no differences in ORS use between zinc (59.6%) and comparison villages (58.8%). Among children with fever or cough without diarrhea, zinc use was low (<0.5%). There was a lower incidence of reported ALRI in zinc villages (adjusted RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46–0.99), but not presenting at clinic. Conclusions In this study, home zinc use to treat diarrhea did not decrease disease rates in the community. However, with proper training, availability of zinc at home could lead to more episodes of pediatric diarrhea being treated with zinc in parts of rural Africa where healthcare utilization is low. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00530829 PMID:24835009

  5. Zinc metalloregulation of the zinc finger pair domain.

    PubMed

    Bird, Amanda J; Swierczek, Sabina; Qiao, Wei; Eide, David J; Winge, Dennis R

    2006-09-01

    The yeast transcriptional activator Zap1 contains two uncommon structural motifs designated zinc finger pair domains. The hallmark of this domain is the packing of two zinc finger motifs in one globular unit. One finger pair domain in Zap1 contains the AD2 transactivation domain. Zn(II) binding to this domain (ZF1/2) is kinetically labile yielding a zinc-regulated transactivator. The second finger pair domain (ZF3/4) lies within the DNA-binding domain, and it stably binds Zn(II). The goal of this study was to map the determinant conferring lability in Zn(II) binding by using finger pair chimeras. Whereas ZF2 contains the transactivation function, zinc regulation is dependent on the presence of ZF1. ZF3 can functionally replace ZF1, and a ZF3/2 finger pair retains limited zinc regulation. Replacement of ZF3 by ZF1 creating a ZF1/4 chimera was found to stably bind Zn(II), suggesting that the presence of a stable motif (ZF4) can impart binding stability on a labile motif (ZF1). Zn(II) binding in finger pair domains is dependent on the presence of both motifs. Mutations in one finger motif markedly attenuate Zn(II) binding to the second motif. Kinetic lability in Zn(II) binding was mapped to the alpha-helix of ZF2. A ZF1/ZFbeta2alpha4 chimera resembles ZF3/4 in Zn(II) binding stability in incubation studies with the Zn(II) chelators. The present results demonstrate that zinc regulation of AD activity of ZF2 is dependent on determinants in ZF1 as well as the alpha-helix segment of ZF2. PMID:16829533

  6. Development of fluxes for lead-free solders containing zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Vaynman, S.; Fine, M.E.

    1999-11-19

    New lead-free solders based on the Sn-Zn eutectic (92 wt. pct Sn - 8 wt. pct Zn) are promising candidates to replace near-eutectic tin-lead solders because these solders are less expensive than alternatives such as Sn-Ag eutectic base solders and the melting point of the tin-zinc eutectic (198 C) is much closer to melting point of commonly used tin-lead eutectic (183 C) than the melting point of the Sn-Ag eutectic (221 C). Solders based on the Sn-Zn eutectic have been shown to have excellent mechanical properties. However, the Zn-bearing solders oxidize easily during soldering and for this and perhaps other reasons the contact angle on copper for Sn-Zn solders is rather high when utilized with fluxes used for Sn-Pb solders. Tin chloride containing fluxes give satisfactory wetting of Sn-Zn eutectic solders on Cu but tin chloride is corrosive and, therefore, unacceptable as a flux for electronic applications. Development of a non-corrosive flux that gives satisfactory wetting of copper surfaces by tin-zinc eutectic solders is thus needed. At the present time tin or tin-lead solders are used for pre-tinning. This procedure adds to the production cost. Also Sn-Pb coatings are unacceptable for a lead-free soldering system. As this paper demonstrates, a tin containing organic compound that decomposes at soldering temperatures to produce metallic tin on surfaces to be soldered can be added to the flux to improve wetting of Sn-Zn eutectic solder on Cu. It may also be used for general pretinning purposes done before soldering.

  7. Zinc Biochemistry: From a Single Zinc Enzyme to a Key Element of Life12

    PubMed Central

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional essentiality of zinc for the growth of living organisms had been recognized long before zinc biochemistry began with the discovery of zinc in carbonic anhydrase in 1939. Painstaking analytical work then demonstrated the presence of zinc as a catalytic and structural cofactor in a few hundred enzymes. In the 1980s, the field again gained momentum with the new principle of “zinc finger” proteins, in which zinc has structural functions in domains that interact with other biomolecules. Advances in structural biology and a rapid increase in the availability of gene/protein databases now made it possible to predict zinc-binding sites from metal-binding motifs detected in sequences. This procedure resulted in the definition of zinc proteomes and the remarkable estimate that the human genome encodes ?3000 zinc proteins. More recent developments focus on the regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions in intra- and intercellular information transfer and have tantalizing implications for yet additional functions of zinc in signal transduction and cellular control. At least three dozen proteins homeostatically control the vesicular storage and subcellular distribution of zinc and the concentrations of zinc(II) ions. Novel principles emerge from quantitative investigations on how strongly zinc interacts with proteins and how it is buffered to control the remarkably low cellular and subcellular concentrations of free zinc(II) ions. It is fair to conclude that the impact of zinc for health and disease will be at least as far-reaching as that of iron. PMID:23319127

  8. Cell Calcium 40 (2006) 393402 Determining zinc with commonly used calcium and zinc fluorescent

    E-print Network

    Li, Yang V.

    Cell Calcium 40 (2006) 393­402 Determining zinc with commonly used calcium and zinc fluorescent rights reserved. Keywords: Zinc; Calcium; Fluorescence; Fluorophore; Calcium Green-1; Fura-2; Fluo-3 Zn2+ and histo- chemically reactive free Zn2+ (chelatable Zn2+). Bound zinc, which makes up

  9. Influence of the zinc concentration of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite on cytokines production by human

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Influence of the zinc concentration of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite on cytokines production osteoclasts activation. The present work studies the effect of zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite particles with various concentrations of zinc on cytokines production (TNF-, IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-8) by human

  10. Trichomes of Tobacco Excrete Zinc as Zinc-Substituted Calcium Carbonate and Other

    E-print Network

    to study biomineralization and metal homeostasis processes in plants. Smoking of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacumTrichomes of Tobacco Excrete Zinc as Zinc-Substituted Calcium Carbonate and Other Zinc.F., M.A.M.) Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) plants were exposed to toxic levels of zinc (Zn

  11. Zinc levels after intravenous administration of zinc sulphate in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Maldonado Martín; B. Gil Extremera; M. Fernfindez Soto; M. Ruiz Martínez; A. González Jiménez; A. Guijarro Morales; J. de Dios Luna del Castillo

    1991-01-01

    Summary Diabetic patients commonly have increased urinary excretion of zinc, although blood concentrations may be normal, lowered, or raised. We analyzed zinc levels in plasma and urine after an intravenous overload of zinc sulphate (8 mg) in 22 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and 22 healthy individuals. No significant differences were found in basal levels of serum zinc in

  12. Treating Prescription Drug Addiction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... approach may be best. Some addictions, such as opioid addiction, can be treated with medications. These pharmacological ... best. In This Section Treating addiction to prescription opioids Treating addiction to CNS depressants Treating addiction to ...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with...

  18. Characterisation of endogenous KRAB zinc finger proteins 

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) zinc finger protein (ZFP) genes comprise one of the largest gene families in the mammalian genome, encoding transcription factors with an N-terminal KRAB domain and C-terminal zinc ...

  19. Absorption behavior of vinyl chloride\\/calcium carbonate and pressure\\/temperature\\/conversion relationship for vinyl chloride suspension polymerization in the presence of calcium carbonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bao Yong-zhong; Zhang Li-feng; Huang Zhi-ming; Weng Zhi-xue

    2003-01-01

    The absorption of vinyl chloride (VC) on surface-treated light-grade and nano-scale calcium carbonate (CaCO3), and VC suspension polymerization in the presence of CaCO3 were carried out in a 5 L autoclave. It showed that the absorption of VC on CaCO3 increased with the partial pressure of VC up to a critical point. Nano-scale CaCO3 was more effective in absorbing VC

  20. Phenomics of Cardiac Chloride Channels

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Dayue Darrel

    2014-01-01

    Forward genetic studies have identified several chloride (Cl?) channel genes, including CFTR, ClC-2, ClC-3, CLCA, Bestrophin, and Ano1, in the heart. Recent reverse genetic studies using gene targeting and transgenic techniques to delineate the functional role of cardiac Cl? channels have shown that Cl? channels may contribute to cardiac arrhythmogenesis, myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure, and cardioprotection against ischemia reperfusion. The study of physiological or pathophysiological phenotypes of cardiac Cl? channels, however, is complicated by the compensatory changes in the animals in response to the targeted genetic manipulation. Alternatively, tissue-specific conditional or inducible knockout or knockin animal models may be more valuable in the phenotypic studies of specific Cl? channels by limiting the effect of compensation on the phenotype. The integrated function of Cl? channels may involve multiprotein complexes of the Cl? channel subproteome. Similar phenotypes can be attained from alternative protein pathways within cellular networks, which are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The phenomics approach, which characterizes phenotypes as a whole phenome and systematically studies the molecular changes that give rise to particular phenotypes achieved by modifying the genotype under the scope of genome/proteome/phenome, may provide more complete understanding of the integrated function of each cardiac Cl? channel in the context of health and disease. PMID:23720326

  1. The mechanism of zinc tolerance in grasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Brookes; J. C. Collins; D. A. Thurman

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism of zinc tolerance in non?tolerant and tolerant clones of Deschampsia caespitosa and Anthoxanthum odoratum has been investigated. Analysis of non?tolerant and tolerant clones of these two grasses showed that the tolerant roots accumulated more zinc than the non?tolerant ones. The zinc contents of the shoots of both clones were similar and contained less zinc than the roots. Compartmental

  2. Low-Resistivity Zinc Selenide for Heterojunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetron reactive sputtering enables doping of this semiconductor. Proposed method of reactive sputtering combined with doping shows potential for yielding low-resistivity zinc selenide films. Zinc selenide attractive material for forming heterojunctions with other semiconductor compounds as zinc phosphide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide. Semiconductor junctions promising for future optoelectronic devices, including solar cells and electroluminescent displays. Resistivities of zinc selenide layers deposited by evaporation or chemical vapor deposition too high to form practical heterojunctions.

  3. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-07-27

    Varistors and/or resistors are described that include doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  4. Crystallization in heat-treated fluorochlorozirconate glasses

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, JA; Weber, JKR; Kolesnikov, AI; Schweizer, S

    2009-01-01

    Crystallization phenomena of fluorochlorozirconate glasses were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and inelastic neutron scattering. The precipitation of barium chloride nanoparticles from the glass matrix upon heat treatment was found to be suppressed when re-melting the glass with a reducing agent but not if the agent was present in the initial synthesis. Addition of small amounts of oxide to the predominantly fluoride melt was found to maintain the presence of nanoparticles but not to induce the predicted phase transition of the barium chloride nanoparticles from hexagonal to orthorhombic structure. Inelastic neutron scattering performed on an ‘as-made’ glass and a heat-treated glass showed an increase in ‘hardness’, consistent with a more ordered structure. PMID:19789720

  5. Sulfate and chloride concentrations in Texas aquifers.

    PubMed

    Hudak, P F

    2000-08-01

    Median sulfate and chloride concentrations in groundwater were calculated for 244 Texas counties from measurements at 8236 water wells. The data were mapped and analyzed with a geographic information system (GIS). Concentration clusters for both solutes were highest in north-central, west, and south Texas. Thirty-four counties had median sulfate levels above the secondary standard of 250 mg/L, and 31 counties registered median chloride concentrations above 250 mg/L. County median concentrations ranged from < 1.5 to 1,953 mg/L for sulfate, and from 6 to 1,275 mg/L for chloride. Various factors contribute to high sulfate and chloride levels in Texas aquifers, including mineral constitutents of aquifers, seepage of saline water from nearby formations, coastal saltwater intrusion, irrigation return flow, and oil/gas production. Ten counties in central and northeast Texas lack data and warrant additional monitoring. PMID:11345739

  6. The hidden hand of chloride in hypertension.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Linsay; Lip, Stefanie; Padmanabhan, Sandosh

    2015-03-01

    Among the environmental factors that affect blood pressure, dietary sodium chloride has been studied the most, and there is general consensus that increased sodium chloride intake increases blood pressure. There is accruing evidence that chloride may have a role in blood pressure regulation which may perhaps be even more important than that of Na(+). Though more than 85 % of Na(+) is consumed as sodium chloride, there is evidence that Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations do not go necessarily hand in hand since they may originate from different sources. Hence, elucidating the role of Cl(-) as an independent player in blood pressure regulation will have clinical and public health implications in addition to advancing our understanding of electrolyte-mediated blood pressure regulation. In this review, we describe the evidence that support an independent role for Cl(-) on hypertension and cardiovascular health. PMID:25619794

  7. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...with legible signs bearing the legend: Cancer-Suspect Agent Area Authorized Personnel...with legible signs bearing the legend: Cancer-Suspect Agent in This Area Protective... Contaminated With Vinyl Chloride Cancer-Suspect Agent (4) Containers...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...the ammonia-soda (Solvay) process and as a joint product from natural salt brines, or it may be prepared by substitution reactions with other calcium and chloride salts. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...the ammonia-soda (Solvay) process and as a joint product from natural salt brines, or it may be prepared by substitution reactions with other calcium and chloride salts. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...the ammonia-soda (Solvay) process and as a joint product from natural salt brines, or it may be prepared by substitution reactions with other calcium and chloride salts. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...the ammonia-soda (Solvay) process and as a joint product from natural salt brines, or it may be prepared by substitution reactions with other calcium and chloride salts. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...the ammonia-soda (Solvay) process and as a joint product from natural salt brines, or it may be prepared by substitution reactions with other calcium and chloride salts. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  13. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is produced by one of the following...hexa-decyl-ammonium chloride. (b) The food additive described in paragraph...

  14. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is produced by one of the following...hexa-decyl-ammonium chloride. (b) The food additive described in paragraph...

  15. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is produced by one of the following...hexa-decyl-ammonium chloride. (b) The food additive described in paragraph...

  16. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is produced by one of the following...hexa-decyl-ammonium chloride. (b) The food additive described in paragraph...

  17. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is produced by one of the following...hexa-decyl-ammonium chloride. (b) The food additive described in paragraph...

  18. Immunoregulatory actions of melatonin and zinc during chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Brazão, Vânia; Santello, Fabricia Helena; Filipin, Marina Del Vecchio; Azevedo, Angela Palamin; Toldo, Míriam Paula Alonso; de Morais, Fabiana Rossetto; Prado, José Clóvis do

    2015-03-01

    After one century of the discovery of Chagas' disease and the development of an efficient drug with amplitude of actions both in the acute and chronic phase is still a challenge. Alternative immune modulators have been exhaustively used. For that purpose, melatonin and zinc were administered during chronic Trypanosoma cruzi-infected Wistar rats and several endpoints were assessed. Melatonin has a remarkable functional versatility, being associated with important antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. The cross-talk between zinc and the immune system includes its ability to influence the production and signaling of numerous inflammatory cytokines in a variety of cell types. Our study showed that zinc triggered a decrease in the generation of IFN-? for TCD4(+) cells. Reduced percentage of CD4(+) T cells producing TNF-? was observed in control melatonin or zinc-and-melatonin-treated animals as compared with untreated rats. On the other hand, a significant increase in the percentage of IL-4 from CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes producers was observed 60 days after infection, for all zinc-treated animals, whether infected or not. Melatonin and zinc therapies increased the percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes IL-10 producers. CD4(+) CD25(high) Foxp3(+) T cells were also elevated in zinc- and melatonin-treated animals. The modulation of the immune system influenced by these molecules affected cytokine production and the inflammatory process during chronic T. cruzi infection. Elucidation of the interplay between cytokine balance and the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease is extremely relevant not only for the comprehension of the immune mechanisms and clinical forms but, most importantly, also for the implementation of efficient and adequate therapies. PMID:25611919

  19. 21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food...Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a) Specifications. Type A medicated articles containing bacitracin zinc equivalent to 10, 25, 40, or 50...

  20. Zinc supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to malabsorption of macro- and micronutrients. Symptomatic zinc deficiency has been reported in CF but little is known about zinc homeostasis in children with CF. Zinc supplementation (Zn suppl) is increasingly common in children with CF but it is not without theoretcial r...

  1. Silver-Zinc batteries for AUV applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Imhof

    2002-01-01

    Silver-zinc batteries have been in use for years in many underwater applications. With the advent of AUVs, silver-zinc has been chosen to supply the power for various applications. Although a specialized niche, the silver-zinc electrochemistry offers advantages in size and power that are critical to certain applications.

  2. Atomistic Simulation Study of Spinel Oxides: Zinc Aluminate and Zinc Gallate

    E-print Network

    Pandey, Ravi

    Atomistic Simulation Study of Spinel Oxides: Zinc Aluminate and Zinc Gallate Ravindra Pandey´tica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006-Oviedo, Spain Stoichiometric zinc aluminate (ZnAl2O4) and zinc gallate (ZnGa2O4 of Al2O3/Ga2O3 via the formation of zinc vacancies is predicted relative to that of ZnO in ZnAl2O4/ZnGa2

  3. Lab-on-a-Chip Sensor with Evaporated Bismuth Film Electrode for Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Wenjing; Pei, Xing; Yue, Wei; Bange, Adam; Heineman, William R.; Papautsky, Ian

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we report on the development of a lab-on-a-chip electrochemical sensor that uses an evaporated bismuth electrode to detect zinc using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The microscale electrochemical cell consists of a bismuth working electrode, an integrated silver/silver chloride reference electrode, and a gold auxiliary electrode. The sensor demonstrated linear response in 0.1 M acetate buffer at pH 6 with zinc concentrations ranging from 1 ?M to 30 ?M and a calculated detection limit of 60 nM. The sensor was also able to successfully detect zinc in a bovine serum extract and the results were verified with independent AAS measurements. These results demonstrate the advantageous qualities of this lab-on-a-chip electrochemical sensor for clinical applications, which include a small sample volume (?L scale), reduced cost, short response time and high accuracy at low concentrations of analyte. PMID:24436575

  4. Copper chloride cathode for a secondary battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (inventor); Bankston, Clyde P. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Higher energy and power densities are achieved in a secondary battery based on molten sodium and a solid, ceramic separator such as a beta alumina and a molten catholyte such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a copper chloride cathode. The higher cell voltage of copper chloride provides higher energy densities and the higher power density results from increased conductivity resulting from formation of copper as discharge proceeds.

  5. The 5-(4-Ethynylophenoxy) isophthalic chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B. J. (inventors)

    1986-01-01

    Sulfone-ester polymers containing pendent ethynyl groups and a direct and multistep process for preparing them are disclosed. The multistep process involves the conversion of a pendent bromo group to the ethynyl group while the direct route involves reating hydroxy-terminated sulfone oligomer or polymers with a stoichiometric amount of 5-(4-ethynylphenoxy) isophthaloyl chloride. The 5-(4-ethynylphenoxy) isophthaloyl chloride and the process for preparing it are also disclosed.

  6. Methyl chloride via oxhydrochlorination of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, R.F. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Dow Corning is developing a route from methane to methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination (OHC) chemistry with joint support from the Gas Research Institute and the Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center. Dow Corning is the world`s largest producer of methyl chloride and uses it as an intermediate in the production of silicone materials. Other uses include production of higher hydrocarbons, methyl cellulose, quaternary ammonium salts and herbicides. The objective of this project is to demonstrate and develop a route to methyl chloride with reduced variable cost by using methane instead of methanol raw materials. Methyl chloride is currently produced from methanol, but U.S. demand is typically higher than available domestic supply, resulting in fluctuating prices. OHC technology utilizes domestic natural gas as a feedstock, which allows a lower-cost source of methyl chloride which is independent of methanol. In addition to other uses of methyl chloride, OHC could be a key step in a gas-to-liquid fuels process. These uses could divert significant methanol demand to methane. A stable and selective catalyst has been developed in the laboratory and evaluated in a purpose-built demonstration unit. Materials of construction issues have been resolved and the unit has been run under a range of conditions to evaluate catalyst performance and stability. Many technological advances have been made, especially in the areas of catalyst development, online FTIR analysis of the product stream, and recovery of methyl chloride product via an absorber/stripper system. Significant technological hurdles still remain including heat transfer, catalysts scaleup, orthogonality in modeling, and scaleable absorption data. Economics of the oxyhydrochlorination process have been evaluated an found to be unfavorable due to high capital and utility costs. Future efforts will focus on improved methane conversion at high methyl chloride selectivity.

  7. Simulation of the bis-(penicillamine) enkephalin in ammonium chloride solution: a comparison with sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Gail E; Pettitt, B Montgomery

    2003-02-01

    In order to quantify specific ion effects, a simulation study of bis(penicllamine) enkephalin, also known as DPDPE, has been performed in aqueous ammonium chloride solution and has been compared to a previous simulation of DPDPE in aqueous sodium chloride solution. Global thermodynamics have been calculated for a model system and the solution environment around DPDPE has been characterized. Associations of ions with DPDPE have been investigated. The observed differences between sodium chloride solution and ammonium chloride solution suggest that individual cations affect the solvation and peptide binding properties of a given anion. PMID:12548623

  8. Structure of complexes between aluminum chloride and other chlorides, 2: Alkali-(chloroaluminates). Gaseous complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargittai, M.

    1980-01-01

    The structural chemistry of complexes between aluminum chloride and other metal chlorides is important both for practice and theory. Condensed-phase as well as vapor-phase complexes are of interest. Structural information on such complexes is reviewed. The first emphasis is given to the molten state because of its practical importance. Aluminum chloride forms volatile complexes with other metal chlorides and these vapor-phase complexes are dealt with in the second part. Finally, the variations in molecular shape and geometrical parameters are summarized.

  9. Methylene Chloride Management Plan Review and Approval Authority

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Waste Management, Fire Protection, Radiation Safety, Insurance Services, Hazard Communication, AccidentMETHYLENE CHLORIDE MANAGEMENT PLAN #12;#12;Methylene Chloride Management Plan Review and Approval Date #12;ii Methylene Chloride Management Plan #12;Methylene Chloride Management Plan Table of Contents

  10. EFFECTS OF IONIZING RADIATION ON CHOLINE CHLORIDE AND ITS ANALOGS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. II Lemmon; P. K. Gordon; M. A. Parsons; F. Mazzetti

    1958-01-01

    The radiation sensitivities of crystalline choline chloride and nineteen ; crystalline analogs have been compared. The chloride is extremely radiation ; sensitive and appears to decompose by a free-radical chain mechanism. Choline ; bromide is about one-third as sensitive as the chloride; none of the other ; analogs show abnormal radiation instability. That choline chloride's ; susceptibility to radiation damage

  11. Fiber-optic oxygen sensor using molybdenum chloride cluster luminescence

    E-print Network

    Ghosh, Ruby N.

    Fiber-optic oxygen sensor using molybdenum chloride cluster luminescence Ruby N. Ghosh,a) Gregory L molybdenum chloride clusters. Measurements of the probe operating in a 0%­21% gaseous oxygen environment have of molybdenum atoms with eight face bridging chlorides and four axial chlorides, which are shared among

  12. Vinyl chloride loss during laboratory holding time

    SciTech Connect

    Soule, R.G.; Jones, D.B.A.; Symonik, D.M.; Gerbec, B.A.; Turgeon, D.W. [Minnesota Dept. of Health, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Because vinyl chloride is a potent human carcinogen, it`s important that analytical results from groundwater samples accurately reflect levels of exposure. This study investigated the current allowable sample holding time of 14 days to determine if vinyl chloride is lost from samples during this time. In addition to lab spiked samples, groundwater was collected from a well known to contain vinyl chloride. A statistically significant (a = 0.05) decrease in vinyl chloride concentrations was observed over the 14-day holding time. The most significant loss was seen for those samples held the maximum length of time (14 days). No differences in degradation pattern were noted between analytical detectors used (PID versus Hall) or sample type (lab versus field). There also was a loss of vinyl chloride observed during the sampling and handling process. Analytical variability at low concentrations and the establishment of health-based guidelines near the analytical detection limit require that multiple samples be collected from a single location when highly accurate results are required. These findings have implications for the accurate generation of public health exposure assessments and the implementation of health-based recommendations at sites with vinyl chloride groundwater contamination.

  13. Zinc fluxes and zinc transporter genes in chronic diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiara Devirgiliis; Peter D. Zalewski; Giuditta Perozzi; Chiara Murgia

    2007-01-01

    The group IIb metal zinc (Zn) is an essential dietary component that can be found in protein rich foods such as meat, seafood and legumes. Thousands of genes encoding Zn binding proteins were identified, especially after the completion of genome projects, an indication that a great number of biological processes are Zn dependent. Imbalance in Zn homeostasis was found to

  14. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 1997, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-print Network

    190 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 1997, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about than one-half. Three primary and five secondary smelters refined zinc metal of commercial grade in 1997

  15. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 1998, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-print Network

    192 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 1998, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about 62%. Three primary and eight secondary smelters refined zinc metal of commercial grade in 1998

  16. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2001, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-print Network

    188 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2001, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about-fourths of production. Three primary and 12 large- and medium-sized secondary smelters refined zinc metal of commercial

  17. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2002, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-print Network

    190 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2002, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about% of production. Two primary and 13 large- and medium-sized secondary smelters refined zinc metal of commercial

  18. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2004, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-print Network

    188 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2004, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about% of total U.S. production. Two primary and 12 large- and medium-sized secondary smelters refined zinc metal

  19. Induction of similar features of apoptosis in human and bovine vascular endothelial cells treated by 7-ketocholesterol.

    PubMed

    Lizard, G; Moisant, M; Cordelet, C; Monier, S; Gambert, P; Lagrost, L

    1997-11-01

    Cholesterol oxides have numerous cytotoxic effects and those oxidized in the C7 position have been shown to induce apoptosis in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). The aim of the present study was to determine whether apoptosis also occurs in human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) treated with 7-ketocholesterol. To this end, cultured BAEC and HUVEC were incubated for 48 h with 7-ketocholesterol (concentration range 5-80 micrograms/ml) and the characteristics of cell death were assessed by various methods: counting of adherent and non-adherent cells; analysis of DNA fragmentation pattern; and morphological study by light, fluorescence, and electron microscopy. The 7-ketocholesterol treatment was accompanied by a decrease in the number of adherent cells and an increase in the number of non-adherent cells. Apoptotic cells, recognized by fragmented and/or condensed nuclei after staining with Hoechst 33342 or Giemsa, were mainly detected among non-adherent cells, and agarose gel electrophoresis revealed a typical internucleosomal DNA fragmentation among 7-ketocholesterol-treated cells. The DNA fragmentation was no longer detected when HUVEC and BAEC were simultaneously incubated with 0.5 mmol/l zinc chloride, which is known to inhibit Ca2+/Mg(2+)-dependent endonucleases. Finally, the ultrastructural abnormalities observed by electron microscopy in both 7-ketocholesterol-treated HUVEC and BAEC were remarkably similar and were mainly characterized by condensed chromatin, altered mitochondria, disturbed organization of the cytoskeleton, and vacuoles containing myelin figures and/or cell debris; apoptotic bodies were also frequently detected. It is concluded that 7-ketocholesterol constitutes a potent inducer of apoptosis in endothelial vascular cells of both bovine and human origin, suggesting that cholesterol oxides may be involved in the early steps of the atherosclerotic process in humans. PMID:9422990

  20. Concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire from 1960 through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Several studies from the 1970s and more recently (for example, Hall (1975), Daley and others (2009) and Mullaney (2009)) have found that concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire have increased during the past 50 years. Increases likely are related to road salt and other anthropogenic sources, such as septic systems, wastewater, and contamination from landfills and salt-storage areas. According to water-quality data reported to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES), about 100 public water systems (5 percent) in 2010 had at least one groundwater sample with chloride concentrations that were equal to or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) of 250 mg/L before the water was treated for public consumption. The SMCL for chloride is a measurement of potential cosmetic or aesthetic effects of chloride in water. High concentrations of chloride and sodium in drinking-water sources can be costly to remove. A new cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the NHDES (Medalie, 2012) assessed chloride and sodium levels in groundwater in New Hampshire from the 1960s through 2011. The purpose of the study was to integrate all data on concentrations of chloride and sodium from groundwater in New Hampshire available from various Federal and State sources, including from the NHDES, the New Hamsphire Department of Health and Human Services, the USGS, and the U.S. Environmental Protection SurveyAgency (USEPA), for public and private (domestic) wells and to organize the data into a database. Medalie (2012) explained the many assumptions and limitations of disparate data that were collected to meet wide-ranging objectives. This fact sheet summarizes the most important findings of the data.

  1. Secretagogue-induced protein phosphorylation and chloride transport in Caco-2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, D.B.; Fondacaro, J.D.

    1989-04-01

    The effects of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (DMPGE2) and dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (DBcAMP) on protein phosphorylation were studied in relation to stimulation of chloride transport in cell suspensions of the human colon epithelial cell line Caco-2. In /sup 36/Cl-loaded cells, VIP and DMPGE2 within 1 min decreased cellular chloride content 35-40%, with half-maximal effects being elicited at 1.0 and 85 nM concentration, respectively. A similar effect on chloride content occurred after 10 min of treatment with 0.5 mM DBcAMP. For all three secretagogues, decreases in cellular chloride content were associated with increases in membrane permeability to chloride. DMPGE2 and VIP within 1 min, and DBcAMP within 10 min, increased the phosphorylation of an unidentified soluble protein of Mr = 42,000 and pI = 6.1, and of a protein of Mr = 20,200 and pI = 4.9 identified as myosin regulatory light chain. Between 10 and 30 min of stimulation, however, phosphorylation of the Mr = 42,000 protein and chloride transport activity remained elevated in DMPGE2- and DBcAMP-treated cells, whereas light chain phosphorylation returned to control level. No effect of secretagogues on phosphorylation was detected in the total particulate fraction or an integral membrane protein fraction. It is concluded that increased membrane permeability to chloride induced by cAMP-mediated secretagogues in Caco-2 is temporally associated with the increased phosphorylation of a Mr = 42,000 soluble protein.

  2. Novel interventions targeting on apoptosis and necrosis induced by aluminum chloride in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q L; Niu, Qiao; Niu, P Y; Ji, X L; Zhang, C; Wang, L

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum chloride induces neuroblastoma cell (SH-SY5Y) death following in vitro exposure. The objective of this study is to define apoptosis and necrosis in an in vitro model system of SH-SY5Y cells, and to investigate appropriate defense mechanisms with caspase-3 small interference RNA (siRNA) and necrostatin-1 (Nec-1). SH-SY5Y cells were treated with aluminum chloride for 24 h, followed by analysis of cell death rates and alterations in morphology. The results show that aluminum chloride could induce cell death by a combination of apoptosis and necrosis. Treatment with caspase-3 siRNA resulted in inhibition of caspase-3 gene and protein expression, both indicatives of apoptosis reduction. In addition, decrement of apoptotic rate was evident. Interestingly, treatment with caspase-3 siRNA could markedly up-regulate the expression of LC3- II, indicating a shift of cell death mode, from apoptosis to autophagy. Nec-1 treatment significantly affected necrosis induced by aluminum chloride, resulting in decreased necrotic rates and marked inhibition of LC3- II expression. Results showed for the first time that cell death induced by aluminum chloride could be rescued by caspase-3 siRNA and Nec-1 in SH-SY5Y cells, and co-administration of both produced an additive effect on reducing cell death. These data will pave the way for future studies investigating the prevention of cell death in Al neurotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:20487627

  3. Differential Binding of Monomethylarsonous Acid Compared to Arsenite and Arsenic Trioxide with Zinc Finger Peptides and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is an environmental toxin that enhances the carcinogenic effect of DNA-damaging agents, such as ultraviolet radiation and benzo[a]pyrene. Interaction with zinc finger proteins has been shown to be an important molecular mechanism for arsenic toxicity and cocarcinogenesis. Arsenicals such as arsenite, arsenic trioxide (ATO), and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) have been reported to interact with cysteine residues of zinc finger domains, but little is known about potential differences in their selectivity of interaction. Herein we analyzed the interaction of arsenite, MMA(III), and ATO with C2H2, C3H1, and C4 configurations of zinc fingers using UV–vis, cobalt, fluorescence, and mass spectrometry. We observed that arsenite and ATO both selectively bound to C3H1 and C4 zinc fingers, while MMA(III) interacted with all three configurations of zinc finger peptides. Structurally and functionally, arsenite and ATO caused conformational changes and zinc loss on C3H1 and C4 zinc finger peptide and protein, respectively, whereas MMA(III) changed conformation and displaced zinc on all three types of zinc fingers. The differential selectivity was also demonstrated in zinc finger proteins isolated from cells treated with these arsenicals. Our results show that trivalent inorganic arsenic compounds, arsenite and ATO, have the same selectivity and behavior when interacting with zinc finger proteins, while methylation removes the selectivity. These findings provide insights on the molecular mechanisms underlying the differential effects of inorganic versus methylated arsenicals, as well as the role of in vivo arsenic methylation in arsenic toxicity and carcinogenesis. PMID:24611629

  4. The critical role of intracellular zinc in adenosine A2 receptor activation induced cardioprotection against reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Rachel; Lee, SungRyul; Ghio, Andrew J.; Xi, Jinkun; Zhu, Min; Shen, Xiangjun; Chanoit, Guillaume; Zvara, David A.; Xu, Zhelong

    2010-01-01

    Exogenous zinc can protect cardiac cells from reperfusion injury, but the exact roles of endogenous zinc in the pathogenesis of reperfusion injury and in adenosine A2 receptor activation-induced cardioprotection against reperfusion injury remain unknown. Adenosine A1/A2 receptor agonist 5?-(N-ethylcarboxamido) adenosine (NECA) given at reperfusion reduced infarct size in isolated rat hearts subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. This effect of NECA was partially but significantly blocked by the zinc chelator N,N,N?,N?-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), and ZnCl2 given at reperfusion mimicked the effect of NECA by reducing infarct size. Total tissue zinc concentrations measured with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICPOES) were decreased upon reperfusion in rat hearts and this was reversed by NECA. NECA increased intracellular free zinc during reperfusion in the heart. Confocal imaging study showed a rapid increase in intracellular free zinc in isolated rat cardiomyocytes treated with NECA. Further experiments revealed that NECA increased total zinc levels upon reperfusion in mitochondria isolated from isolated hearts. NECA attenuated mitochondrial swelling upon reperfusion in isolated hearts and this was inhibited by TPEN. Similarly, NECA prevented the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) caused by oxidant stress in cardiomyocytes. Finally, both NECA and ZnCl2 inhibited the mitochondrial metabolic activity. NECA-induced cardioprotection against reperfusion injury is mediated by intracellular zinc. NECA prevents reperfusion-induced zinc loss and relocates zinc to mitochondria. The inhibitory effects of zinc on both the mPTP opening and the mitochondrial metabolic activity may account for the cardioprotective effect of NECA. PMID:20144616

  5. Differential binding of monomethylarsonous acid compared to arsenite and arsenic trioxide with zinc finger peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xixi; Sun, Xi; Mobarak, Charlotte; Gandolfi, A Jay; Burchiel, Scott W; Hudson, Laurie G; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-04-21

    Arsenic is an environmental toxin that enhances the carcinogenic effect of DNA-damaging agents, such as ultraviolet radiation and benzo[a]pyrene. Interaction with zinc finger proteins has been shown to be an important molecular mechanism for arsenic toxicity and cocarcinogenesis. Arsenicals such as arsenite, arsenic trioxide (ATO), and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) have been reported to interact with cysteine residues of zinc finger domains, but little is known about potential differences in their selectivity of interaction. Herein we analyzed the interaction of arsenite, MMA(III), and ATO with C2H2, C3H1, and C4 configurations of zinc fingers using UV-vis, cobalt, fluorescence, and mass spectrometry. We observed that arsenite and ATO both selectively bound to C3H1 and C4 zinc fingers, while MMA(III) interacted with all three configurations of zinc finger peptides. Structurally and functionally, arsenite and ATO caused conformational changes and zinc loss on C3H1 and C4 zinc finger peptide and protein, respectively, whereas MMA(III) changed conformation and displaced zinc on all three types of zinc fingers. The differential selectivity was also demonstrated in zinc finger proteins isolated from cells treated with these arsenicals. Our results show that trivalent inorganic arsenic compounds, arsenite and ATO, have the same selectivity and behavior when interacting with zinc finger proteins, while methylation removes the selectivity. These findings provide insights on the molecular mechanisms underlying the differential effects of inorganic versus methylated arsenicals, as well as the role of in vivo arsenic methylation in arsenic toxicity and carcinogenesis. PMID:24611629

  6. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, H.; Love, A. J.; Simmons, C. T.; Kayaalp, A. S.

    2009-09-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many coastal areas of Australia, may have perturbed catchment chloride balance conditions for appropriate use in CMB applications. In order to deal with these issues, a high resolution chloride deposition map in the coastal region is needed. In this study, we examined geographic, orographic, and atmospheric factors influencing chloride deposition in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR), a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, and terrain aspect and slope are two most significant factors controlling chloride deposition. Coastal distance accounts for 65% spatial variability in chloride deposition, with terrain aspect and slope for 8%. The deposition gradient is about 0.08 gm-2 year-1 km-1 as one progresses inland. The results are incorporated into a published de-trended residual kriging approach (ASOADeK) to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution annual chloride deposition map and a bulk precipitation chloride concentration map. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 30% in the western MLR, and over 50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a very useful basis for examining catchment chloride balances for use in the CMB application in the study area.

  7. Electrowinning of cerium group metals from fused chloride bath

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sohan Singh; A L Pappachan

    1980-01-01

    Cerium group metals, namely, misch metal, lanthanum and cerium have been electrowon from their vacuum-dehydrated chlorides\\u000a in fused sodium chloride-potassium chloride and lithium chloride-potassium chloride solvent. Temperature, cathode current\\u000a density and composition of bath were optimised for high current efficiency and metal yield. In the case of lanthanum, current\\u000a efficiency of 88% was achieved. The metals were free from inclusions

  8. Emission factor of exhaust gas constituents during the pyrolysis of zinc chloride immersed biosolid.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Chiu, Hua-Hsien

    2013-08-01

    Pyrolysis enables ZnCl2 immersed biosolid to be reused, but some hazardous air pollutants are emitted during this process. Physical characteristics of biosolid adsorbents were investigated in this work. In addition, the constituents of pyrolytic exhaust were determined to evaluate the exhaust characteristics. Results indicated that the pyrolytic temperature was higher than 500 °C, the specific surface area was >900 m(2)/g, and the total pore volume was as much as 0.8 cm(3)/g at 600 °C. For non-ZnCl2 immersed biosolid pyrolytic exhaust, VOC emission factors increased from 0.677 to 3.170 mg-VOCs/g-biosolid with the pyrolytic temperature increase from 400 to 700 °C, and chlorinated VOCs and oxygenated VOCs were the dominant fraction of VOC groups. VOC emission factors increased about three to seven times, ranging from 1.813 to 21.448 mg/g for pyrolytic temperatures at 400-700 °C, corresponding to the mass ratio of ZnCl2 and biosolid ranging from 0.25-2.5. PMID:23471775

  9. Zinc chloride mediated degradation of cellulose at 200 °C and identification of the products

    PubMed Central

    Amarasekara, Ananda S.; Ebede, Chidinma C.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of ZnCl2 on the degradation of cellulose was studied to develop conditions to produce useful feedstock chemicals directly from cellulosic biomass. Cellulose containing 0.5 mol of ZnCl2/mol of glucose unit of cellulose was found to degrade at 200 °C when heated for more than 60 s in air. The major non gaseous products of the degradation were identified as furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid. The maximum yields for furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural are 8 and 9 % respectively based on glucose unit of cellulose. These yields are reached after 150 s of heating at 200 °C. A cellulose sample containing 0.5 mol of ZnCl2/mol of glucose unit of cellulose and 5.6 equivalents of water when heated for 150 s at 200 °C produced levulinic acid as the only product in 6% yield. The ZnCl2 mediated controlled degradation of cellulose at 200 °C is shown to produce useful feedstock chemicals in low yield. PMID:19540751

  10. Zinc transport and diabetes risk.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Ewan

    2014-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies have previously identified variants in SLC30A8, encoding the zinc transporter ZnT8, associated with diabetes risk. A rare variant association study has now established the direction of effect, surprisingly showing that loss-of-function mutations in SLC30A8 are protective against diabetes. PMID:24675520

  11. Rechargeable nickel-zinc batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soltis, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Device proves superiority in having two and one half to three times the energy content of popular lead-zinc or nickel-cadmium batteries. Application to electric utility vehicles improved acceleration rate and nearly doubled driving range between rechargings. Unit contributes substantially toward realization of practical urban electrical automobiles.

  12. Efficacy of oral zinc therapy in epidermodysplasia verruciformis with squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sudhanshu; Barman, Krishna Deb; Sarkar, Rashmi; Manjhi, Mukesh; Garg, Vijay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare, inherited disorder that predisposes patients to widespread human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. There is still no definitive therapeutic modality for EV. A 24 year old male patient with EV was treated with oral zinc sulphate, one of the cheapest and safe immuno-modulator available as therapeutic agent with satisfactory result. PMID:24616858

  13. Zinc Therapy in Dermatology: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc, both in elemental or in its salt forms, has been used as a therapeutic modality for centuries. Topical preparations like zinc oxide, calamine, or zinc pyrithione have been in use as photoprotecting, soothing agents or as active ingredient of antidandruff shampoos. Its use has expanded manifold over the years for a number of dermatological conditions including infections (leishmaniasis, warts), inflammatory dermatoses (acne vulgaris, rosacea), pigmentary disorders (melasma), and neoplasias (basal cell carcinoma). Although the role of oral zinc is well-established in human zinc deficiency syndromes including acrodermatitis enteropathica, it is only in recent years that importance of zinc as a micronutrient essential for infant growth and development has been recognized. The paper reviews various dermatological uses of zinc. PMID:25120566

  14. Zinc-The key to preventing corrosion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2011-01-01

    Centuries before it was identified as an element, zinc was used to make brass (an alloy of zinc and copper) and for medicinal purposes. Metallic zinc and zinc oxide were produced in India sometime between the 11th and 14th centuries and in China in the 17th century, although the discovery of pure metallic zinc is credited to the German chemist Andreas Marggraf, who isolated the element in 1746. Refined zinc metal is bluish-white when freshly cast; it is hard and brittle at most temperatures and has relatively low melting and boiling points. Zinc alloys readily with other metals and is chemically active. On exposure to air, it develops a thin gray oxide film (patina), which inhibits deeper oxidation (corrosion) of the metal. The metal's resistance to corrosion is an important characteristic in its use.

  15. Novel zinc-based fixative for high quality DNA, RNA and protein analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lykidis, Dimitrios; Van Noorden, Susan; Armstrong, Alan; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Li, Jie; Zhuang, Zhengping; Stamp, Gordon W. H.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a reliable, cost-effective and non-toxic fixative to meet the needs of contemporary molecular pathobiology research, particularly in respect of RNA and DNA integrity. The effects of 25 different fixative recipes on the fixed quality of tissues from C57BL/6 mice were investigated. Results from IHC, PCR, RT–PCR, RNA Agilent Bioanalyser and Real-Time PCR showed that a novel zinc-based fixative (Z7) containing zinc trifluoroacetate, zinc chloride and calcium acetate was significantly better than the standard zinc-based fixative (Z2) and neutral buffered formalin (NBF) for DNA, RNA and protein preservation. DNA sequences up to 2.4?kb in length and RNA fragments up to 361?bp in length were successfully amplified from Z7 fixed tissues, as demonstrated by PCR, RT–PCR and Real-Time PCR. Total protein analysis was achieved using 2-D gel electrophoresis. In addition, nucleic acids and proteins were very stable over a 6–14-month period. This improved, non-toxic and economical tissue fixative could be applied for routine use in pathology laboratories to permit subsequent genomic/proteomic studies. PMID:17576663

  16. Characteristics of zinc behavior during laser welding of zinc "sandwich" sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Shichun; Chen, Genyu; Zhang, Hairong; Zhang, Mingjun

    2012-11-01

    To address the problem of the zinc being easily gasified in laser welding of galvanized steel, laser welding of a zinc "sandwich" sample was performed to experimentally investigate the behavior and characteristics of the zinc inside and outside the keyhole, including the observation of the keyhole, the zinc vapor and zinc plasma, and the calculation of the electron temperature of the zinc plasma. Based on the principle of imaging amplification, the detected multi-points can be located precisely in order to study the distribution of the electron temperature of the zinc plasma. The results show that the zinc behavior played an important role in the formation of the weld-joint and the zinc plasma altered the energy distribution at the top of the keyhole whose diameter has been enlarged in the welding process. For both continuous-wave laser and pulsed laser welding of zinc "sandwich" sample, the average electron temperature of the zinc keyhole plasma was higher than that of the zinc plasma plume outside the keyhole. In the welding process, the continuous wave laser with higher input energy results in higher position of the zinc plasma with higher electron temperature above the sample surface. More zinc vapor resulted in a higher average electron temperature of the plasma.

  17. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, C; Leiva-Revilla, J; Rubio, J; Gasco, M; Gonzales, G F

    2012-05-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a plant that grows exclusively above 4000 m in the Peruvian central Andes. Red maca (RM) extract significantly reduced prostate size in rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone enanthate (TE). Zinc is an important regulator of prostate function. This study aimed to determine the effect of RM on prostate zinc levels in rats with BPH induced by TE. Also, the study attempted to determine the best marker for the effect of RM on sex accessory glands. Rats treated with RM extract from day 1 to day 14 reversed the effect of TE administration on prostate weight and zinc levels. However, RM administered from day 7 to day 14 did not reduce the effect of TE on all studied variables. Finasteride (FN) reduced prostate, seminal vesicle and preputial gland weights in rats treated with TE. Although RM and FN reduced prostate zinc levels, the greatest effect was observed in TE-treated rats with RM from day 1 to day 14. In addition, prostate weight and zinc levels showed the higher diagnosis values than preputial and seminal vesicle weights. In conclusion, RM administered from day 1 to day 14 reduced prostate size and zinc levels in rats where prostatic hyperplasia was induced with TE. Also, this experimental model could be used as accurately assay to determine the effect of maca obtained under different conditions and/or the effect of different products based on maca. PMID:21762188

  18. Molecular Structure of Ferrous chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-27

    It has been discovered that high levels of exposure to this chemical substance may lead to iron build-up in the body, which can cause nausea, stomach pain, and vomiting. Due to its corrosiveness, it is used as a resource for treating sewage, mixing metals (metallurgy), and textile dyeing. Also it is used in pharmaceutical preparations to prevent oxidation and degradation of easily oxidizable active ingredients in the compounds. Also it is used in pharmaceutical preparations to prevent oxidation and degradation of easily oxidizable active ingredients in the compounds.

  19. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tommasso J.R., Wright, M. I.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  20. Synthesis of chemically crosslinked poly(vinyl chloride) by vinyl chloride\\/divinyls suspension copolymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Zhong Bao; Zhi-Xue Weng; Zhi-Ming Huang; Zu-Ren Pan

    2000-01-01

    Vinyl chloride (VC)\\/divinyl derivative copolymerization was carried out in the suspension process for preparing chemically crosslinked poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). Effects of the reactivity ratios and concentration of divinyl, polymerization temperature and conversion on the structure of crosslinked PVC (such as the gel fraction, polymerization degree of sol and crosslinking density of gel) were investigated. It showed that the crosslinking behavior

  1. Contribution of the Potassium-Chloride Cotransporter KCC2 to the Strength of Inhibition in the Neonatal Rodent Spinal Cord In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Gackière, Florian; Vinay, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    In healthy mature motoneurons (MNs), KCC2 cotransporters maintain the intracellular chloride concentration at low levels, a prerequisite for postsynaptic inhibition mediated by GABA and glycine. KCC2 expression in lumbar MNs is reduced after spinal cord injury (SCI) resulting in a depolarizing shift of the chloride equilibrium potential. Despite modeling studies indicating that such a downregulation of KCC2 function would reduce the strength of postsynaptic inhibition, physiological evidence is still lacking. The present study aimed at investigating the functional impact of a modification of KCC2 function. We focused on a well characterized disynaptic inhibitory pathway responsible for reciprocal inhibition between antagonistic muscles. We performed in vitro extracellular recordings on spinal cords isolated from rodents at the end of the first postnatal week. Genetic reduction of KCC2 expression, pharmacological blockade of KCC2, as well as SCI-induced downregulation of KCC2 all resulted in a reduction of the strength of reciprocal inhibition. We then tried to restore endogenous inhibition after SCI by means of zinc ions that have been shown to boost KCC2 function in other models. Zinc chloride indeed hyperpolarized the chloride equilibrium potential in MNs and increased reciprocal inhibition after neonatal SCI. This study demonstrates that the level of KCC2 function sets the strength of postsynaptic inhibition and suggests that the downregulation of KCC2 after SCI likely contributes to the high occurrence of flexor-extensor cocontractions in SCI patients. PMID:25834055

  2. Response of zinc, iron and copper status parameters to supplementation with zinc or zinc and iron in women

    SciTech Connect

    Yadrick, K.; Kenney, M.A.; Winterfeldt, E.

    1986-03-05

    Supplementation with zinc at levels available over-the-counter may compromise iron or copper status. This study examined the effects of zinc(50mg/day) or zinc and iron(50 mg each/day) on 18 women aged 25-40. Subjects were matched on initial levels of serum ferritin(SF) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase(ESOD) and randomly assigned to Group Z (zinc) or F-Z (iron and zinc). The following were measured pretreatment and after 6 and 10 weeks treatment: serum zinc (BZ), salivary sediment zinc (SSZ), hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (Hct), SF, serum ceruloplasmin (Cp) and ESOD. Effects of treatment and weeks of treatment on changes from initial blood and saliva levels were analyzed using AOV. BZ increased (P=0.0144) and ESOD decreased (P=0.0001) with weeks of treatment. Differences due to treatment are presented. No effects were noted on Hgb, Hct or Cp. Intakes of zinc supplements at about 4X RDA appear to decrease copper(ESOD) and iron(SF) status. Use of iron w/zinc may be protective for FE but not Cu, and may compromise zinc (SSZ) status.

  3. Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. B.

    1984-01-01

    A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O-H-O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

  4. Comparison of soil zinc extractants for detection of applied zinc and prediction of leaf zinc concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Davis; T. P. Gaines; M. B. Parker

    1995-01-01

    Many soil extractants have been developed for determination of zinc (Zn) availability to plants. The optimum soil Zn extractant should be useful not only for prediction of plant Zn concentration but also for detection of applied Zn levels. The objectives of this study were: i) to compare soil Zn extradants for detecting applied Zn and for predicting peanut leaf Zn

  5. Aquagenic keratoderma treated with tap water iontophoresis.

    PubMed

    Errichetti, Enzo; Piccirillo, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Aquagenic keratoderma (AK) is a rare acquired skin condition characterized by recurrent and transient white papules and plaques associated with a burning sensation, pain, pruritus and/or hyperhidrosis on the palms and more rarely, soles triggered by sweat or contact with water. Often AK cause significant discomfort, thus requiring an appropriate therapy. Topical aluminum-based products are the most commonly used medications, but they are not always effective. We report a case of AK unresponsive to topical 20% of aluminum chloride successfully treated with tap water iontophoresis. PMID:25814730

  6. Aquagenic Keratoderma Treated with Tap Water Iontophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Errichetti, Enzo; Piccirillo, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Aquagenic keratoderma (AK) is a rare acquired skin condition characterized by recurrent and transient white papules and plaques associated with a burning sensation, pain, pruritus and/or hyperhidrosis on the palms and more rarely, soles triggered by sweat or contact with water. Often AK cause significant discomfort, thus requiring an appropriate therapy. Topical aluminum-based products are the most commonly used medications, but they are not always effective. We report a case of AK unresponsive to topical 20% of aluminum chloride successfully treated with tap water iontophoresis.

  7. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense ??-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  8. Intestinal zinc transport: influence of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, insulin and arachidonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Song, M.K.; Mooradian, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of arachidonic acid (AA) on the zinc flux rates of jejunal segments, isolated from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats injected with saline or with insulin, was investigated using an Ussing chamber technique. Although the zinc flux rates from mucose-to-serosa (J/sub ms/) of normal rats were inhibited by addition of 5 ..mu..M AA to the jejunal segment bathing medium, AA had no effect on the J/sub ms/ of diabetic rats either with or without insulin treatment. Induction of diabetes also significantly reduces J/sub ms/, but 3 day insulin treatment did not reverse this effect. Addition of AA to the serosal side did not significantly alter the zinc flux rate from serosa-to-mucosa (J/sub sm/) in either control, diabetic or diabetic rats treated with insulin. The net zinc absorption rate (J/sub net/) of jejunal segments was decreased in diabetic rats compared to controls, but normalization of blood glucose with 3 day insulin treatment did not increase J/sub net/. Addition of AA was associated with a tendency to increase zinc uptake capacity. This change reached statistical significance in insulin treated diabetic rats. Short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) for diabetic rats was increased compared to controls but addition of AA to the mucosal side bathing medium decreased I/sub sc/ in all groups. 32 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  9. Oxidative leaching of an offgrade/complex copper concentrate in chloride lixiviants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngoc, N. V.; Shamsuddin, M.; Prasad, P. M.

    1990-08-01

    Laboratory studies have been conducted on chloride leaching as a possible route for the simultaneous recovery of copper, zinc, and lead from an off grade and complex chalcopyrite concentrate (from Sikkim, India) associated with appreciable amounts of sphalerite, galena, and pyrite. The effects of temperature, concentration, and quantity of ferric chloride, stirring speed, and leaching time on metal dissolution have been investigated. Leaching tests have also been conducted with in-dividual (HC1, NaCl, CuCl2, FeCl3) and mixed chlorides (two-, three-, and four-component mix-tures). Results show the possibility of recovering not only 99 pct Cu and 89 pct Zn but also 82 pct Pb and 58 pct elemental S by treatment of the concentrate with 4 M FeCl3 at 383 K (110 °C) for 7.2 ks (2 hours) employing 25 pct excess FeCl3 and a stirring speed of 700 rev min-1. Though 64 pct iron of the concentrate is found to dissolve, the pyrite seems to remain unattacked. Kinetic studies indicate that the chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena of the concen-trate dissolve simultaneously in the FeCl3 lixiviant as if each mineral is separately leached, and the Cu and Zn dissolution reactions are under chemical control (linear kinetics). The addition of NaCl to the chloride lixiviants is found to be beneficial only up to a common salt concen-tration of 100 g/l. Leaching of the copper concentrate with CuCl2 or mixed FeCl3-CuCl2-NaCl has not been as effective as its direct leaching with 4 M FeCl3.

  10. Vitrification of Polyvinyl Chloride Waste from Korean Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Jiawei [Kyoto University (Japan); Choi, Kwansik [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Kyung-Hwa [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myung-Chan [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Song, Myung-Jae [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-15

    Vitrification is considered as an economical and safe treatment technology for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from nuclear power plants (NPPs). Korea is in the process of preparing for its first ever vitrification plant to handle LLW from its NPPs. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has the largest volume of dry active wastes and is the main waste stream to treat. Glass formulation development for PVC waste is the focus of study. The minimum additive waste stabilization approach has been utilized in vitrification. It was found that glasses can incorporate a high content of PVC ash (up to 50 wt%), which results in a large volume reduction. A glass frit, KEP-A, was developed to vitrify PVC waste after the optimization of waste loading, melt viscosity, melting temperature, and chemical durability. The KEP-A could satisfactorily vitrify PVC with a waste loading of 30 to 50 wt%. The PVC-frit was tolerant of variations in waste composition.

  11. Effect of Low Pressure Nitrogen DC Plasma on Optical Properties of Biaxial-Oriented Polypropylene (BOPP), Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) and Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, S. H.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Faryadras, S.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper properties of Biaxial-Oriented Polypropylene, Poly Vinyl Chloride and Poly Methyl Methacrylate samples treated by DC glow discharge of N2 plasma have been investigated by UV-Vis_NIR spectrophotometer. It was found that plasma treatment change chemical structure of polymer surfaces. In addition, absorption coefficient, refractive index and extinction coefficient of all treated samples have been slightly changed.

  12. Ethambutol-induced toxicity is mediated by zinc and lysosomal membrane permeabilization in cultured retinal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hyewon; Yoon, Young Hee [Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnab-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jung Jin [Institute for Innovative Cancer Research, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung Sook [Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnab-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Jae Young [NRL Neural Injury Research Center and the Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, June-Gone [Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnab-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: junekim@amc.seoul.kr

    2009-03-01

    Ethambutol, an efficacious antituberculosis agent, can cause irreversible visual loss in a small but significant fraction of patients. However, the mechanism of ocular toxicity remains to be established. We previously reported that ethambutol caused severe vacuole formation in cultured retinal cells, and that the addition of zinc along with ethambutol aggravated vacuole formation whereas addition of the cell-permeable zinc chelator, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), reduced vacuole formation. To investigate the origin of vacuoles and to obtain an understanding of drug toxicity, we used cultured primary retinal cells from newborn Sprague-Dawley rats and imaged ethambutol-treated cells stained with FluoZin-3, zinc-specific fluorescent dye, under a confocal microscope. Almost all ethambutol-induced vacuoles contained high levels of labile zinc. Double staining with LysoTracker or MitoTracker revealed that almost all zinc-containing vacuoles were lysosomes and not mitochondria. Intracellular zinc chelation with TPEN markedly blocked both vacuole formation and zinc accumulation in the vacuole. Immunocytochemistry with antibodies to lysosomal-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2) and cathepsin D, an acid lysosomal hydrolase, disclosed lysosomal activation after exposure to ethambutol. Immunoblotting after 12 h exposure to ethambutol showed that cathepsin D was released into the cytosol. In addition, cathepsin inhibitors attenuated retinal cell toxicity induced by ethambutol. This is consistent with characteristics of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). TPEN also inhibited both lysosomal activation and LMP. Thus, accumulation of zinc in lysosomes, and eventual LMP, may be a key mechanism of ethambutol-induced retinal cell death.

  13. Treatment of automotive wastewater by coagulation-flocculation using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and aluminum sulfate (alum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Abdul Fattah Abu; Halim, Azhar Abdul

    2013-11-01

    A physicochemical treatment (coagulation-flocculation) was applied for automotive wastewater using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and aluminum sulfate (alum) aided by anionic polyacrylamide as flocculant to determine the effectiveness of coagulation method for removal of COD, TSS and heavy metals (Fe, Ni and Zn). The results obtained proved that PAC was comparatively more efficient to FeCl3 and alum. At defined optimum experiment condition (coagulant dose: 70 mg/L, coagulant aid dose: 2 mg/L and pH 7), PAC showed 70% removal for (chemical oxygen demand) COD and 98% of (total suspended solid) TSS. For FeCl3 and alum, the maximum removal for COD were 64% and 54%, meanwhile TSS removal were 91% and 94%. Heavy metals removal using PAC also showed better results in which produced 98% of iron removal, 83% of zinc removal and 63% of nickel removal under optimum condition. The comparison revealed that the use of PAC aided by anionic polyacrylamide produced higher removal for COD, TSS and heavy metals compared to FeCl3 and alum for automotive wastewater treatment.

  14. Summary review of health effects associated with zinc and zinc oxide: health issue assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    Zinc is a dense, bluish-white, relatively soft metal used extensively in the galvanizing of iron and steel. Zinc oxide, the most valued of the variety of compounds formed by zinc is used principally in rubber products as an activator in the vulcanization process and in the treatment of burns, infections, and skin diseases. Zinc occurs naturally in the environment; however, zinc may also enter the environment as the result of mining and processing the production of zinc oxide and the manufacture and use of products containing zinc oxide, the combustion of coal and oil, the production of iron and steel, and the incineration of refuse. Humans are mainly exposed to zinc through the ingestion of food (between 8 and 18.6 mg/kg/day) and drink (averaging up to 10 mg/day). Based on annual average airborne zinc concentrations in areas throughout the United States without mines or smelters of generally < 1mg/cu. m., the contribution of zinc from inhaled air represents an insignificant amount of daily zinc exposure, averaging approximately 20 micrograms. The literature on the toxic effects of zinc is limited. The most widely known systemic effect resulting from acute inhalation of freshly formed zinc oxide fumes is a disease called metal fume fever. Metal fume fever occurs in certain occupational settings and the exposure level at which the fever occurs is not known.

  15. ZINC--2001 85.1 By Jozef Plachy

    E-print Network

    ZINC--2001 85.1 ZINC By Jozef Plachy Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Aaron J, international data coordinator. In 2001, domestic zinc mine production, expressed in zinc content of ore and annual average U.S. price, the value of zinc mine production was estimated to be about $774 million

  16. ZINC--1999 85.1 By Jozef Plachy

    E-print Network

    ZINC--1999 85.1 ZINC By Jozef Plachy Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Brandon P, international data coordinator. In 1999, domestic zinc mine production, expressed in zinc content of ore in Alaska (table 1). On the basis of recoverable content and annual average U.S. price, the value of zinc

  17. ZINC--2000 86.1 By Jozef Plachy

    E-print Network

    ZINC--2000 86.1 ZINC By Jozef Plachy Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Aaron J, international data coordinator. In 2000, domestic zinc mine production, expressed in zinc content of ore). On the basis of recoverable content and annual average U.S. price, the value of zinc mine production

  18. Zinc and its transporters, pancreatic beta cells, and insulin metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc is an essential trace metal for life. Two families of zinc transporters, SLC30A (ZnT) and SLC39A (ZIP) are required for maintaining cellular zinc homeostasis. ZnTs function to decrease cytoplasmic zinc concentrations whereas ZIPs do the opposite. Expression of zinc transporters can be tissue/ce...

  19. [Successful topical treatment of chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis with paromomycin sulfate (15%) and methylbenzethonium chloride (12%)].

    PubMed

    Schallreuter, K U; Lemke, K R

    1994-11-01

    A 19-year-old male patient with chronic cutaneous leishmania is was treated topically with paromomycin sulphate (15%) and methylbenzethonium chloride (12%) in petrolatum album. After application twice daily for two periods of 32 and 44 days the lesions were completely healed. Previous treatment for 9 months with ketoconazole (400 mg/day) together with the topical application of thiabendazole (2.5%) in base had been unsuccessful. No major side effects were observed after paromomycin sulphate application. PMID:7822205

  20. Strontium89 Chloride in the Treatment of Bone Metastases from Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Baziotis; E. Yakoumakis; A. Zissimopoulos; X. Geronicola-Trapali; J. Malamitsi; Ch. Proukakis

    1998-01-01

    Sixty-four patients with painful metastatic breast cancer in bone were treated with 2 MBq\\/kg of strontium-89 chloride as a single intravenous injection. Patients were followed with records of medication, hematology parameters, serial bone and Sr-89 bremsstrahlung images and with a point pain score scale (10–0). The response was assessed during a 6-month period of follow-up. Fifty-two of 64 patients (81%)

  1. Gold (III) Chloride-Catalyzed 6-endo-trig Oxa-Michael Addition Reactions for Diastereoselective Synthesis of Fused Tetrahydropyranones

    PubMed Central

    Ciesielski, Jennifer; Lebœuf, David; Stern, Harry A.

    2013-01-01

    Alkynones were treated with boron trifluoride diethyl etherate to generate ?-iodoallenolates, which underwent intramolecular aldol reactions to produce cycloalkenyl alcohols. Diastereoselective oxa-Michael ring closure could then be induced by treatment with a catalytic amount of gold(III) chloride, affording highly functionalized tetrahydropyran-containing ring systems. PMID:24032002

  2. Prevention of Plasticizer Leaching From the Inner Surface of Narrow Polyvinyl Chloride Tube by DC Glow Discharge Plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao Qiong Wen; Xue Hua Liu; Gui Shi Liu

    2010-01-01

    The prevention of plasticizer leaching from the inner surface of a narrow polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tube by dc glow discharge plasma generated inside the tube was investigated. The inner surface of PVC tubes with a 4-mm inner diameter was treated by Ar plasma. The amount of plasticizer leached from the inner surface of the PVC tubes was measured by using

  3. Alkyl Chlorides as Hydrogen Bond Acceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Nadas, Janos I [ORNL; Vukovic, Sinisa [ORNL; Hay, Benjamin [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    To gain an understanding of the role of an alkyl chloride as a hydrogen bond acceptor, geometries and interaction energies were calculated at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory for complexes between ethyl chloride and representative hydrogen donor groups. The results establish that these donors, which include hydrogen cyanide, methanol, nitrobenzene, pyrrole, acetamide, and N-methylurea, form X-H {hor_ellipsis} Cl hydrogen bonds (X = C, N, O) of weak to moderate strength, with {Delta}E values ranging from -2.8 to -5.3 kcal/mol.

  4. Measuring Sodium Chloride Contents of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Amount of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles measured in real time by analyzer that includes mass spectrometer. Analyzer used to determine mass distributions of active agents in therapeutic or diagnostic aerosols derived from saline solutions and in analyzing ocean spray. Aerosol particles composed of sodium chloride introduced into oven, where individually vaporized on hot wall. Vapor molecules thermally dissociated, and some of resulting sodium atoms ionized on wall. Ions leave oven in burst and analyzed by spectrometer, which is set to monitor sodium-ion intensity.

  5. Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parry, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

  6. Zinc stannate nanostructures: hydrothermal synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Sunandan; Dutta, Joydeep

    2011-02-01

    Nanostructured binary semiconducting metal oxides have received much attention in the last decade owing to their unique properties rendering them suitable for a wide range of applications. In the quest to further improve the physical and chemical properties, an interest in ternary complex oxides has become noticeable in recent times. Zinc stannate or zinc tin oxide (ZTO) is a class of ternary oxides that are known for their stable properties under extreme conditions, higher electron mobility compared to its binary counterparts and other interesting optical properties. The material is thus ideal for applications from solar cells and sensors to photocatalysts. Among the different methods of synthesizing ZTO nanostructures, the hydrothermal method is an attractive green process that is carried out at low temperatures. In this review, we summarize the conditions leading to the growth of different ZTO nanostructures using the hydrothermal method and delve into a few of its applications reported in the literature.

  7. 40 CFR 415.40 - Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415...Applicability; description of the calcium chloride production subcategory....

  8. 40 CFR 415.500 - Applicability; description of the potassium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the potassium chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.500 Applicability; description of the potassium chloride production subcategory....

  9. 40 CFR 415.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production...

  10. 40 CFR 415.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production...

  11. 40 CFR 415.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production...

  12. 40 CFR 415.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production...

  13. 40 CFR 415.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production...

  14. 40 CFR 415.500 - Applicability; description of the potassium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the potassium chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.500 Applicability; description of the potassium chloride production subcategory....

  15. Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Viral Response in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C and Beta Thalassemia Major, A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Behnava, Bita; Asgharinia, Mansour; Salimi, Shima; Keshvari, Maryam; Mehrnoush, Leala; Karim, Pegah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Zinc deficiency has been reported in patients with both hepatitis C and beta thalassemia major. Zinc supplementation in addition to antiviral therapy of chronic hepatitis C has been accompanied by some success in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Objective: The aim of the present pilot study is to determine the effect of 30 mg elemental zinc on biochemical and virological response in a population of patients with chronic hepatitis C with beta thalassemia major. Materials and Methods: A prospective, double blind,placebo controlled trial included 40 patients being treated with Pegylated interferon Alfa (Peg IFN-?) and ribavirin. Biochemical and virological parameters and plasma zinc levels were determined before starting treatment. Patients were randomly selected to receive either zinc or a placebo in addition to Peg IFN-? and ribavirin for a period of one year. AST, ALT, sustained viral response (SVR), and zinc levels were measured after treatment.Of the original 40 eligible patients, eight withdrawn from the study and 32 patients completed the study; 16 in the zinc group and 16 in the placebo group. Analysis of the data shows that there is no difference between the two groups in AST, ALT, SVR or zinc level following one year of treatment (p=0.224, p=0.616, p=0.670, p=0.999, respectively). Conclusion:The results of this study indicate that using 30 mg/day elemental zinc did not significantly improve the outcome of treatment in thalassemia patients with chronic hepatitis C. In future studies, we recommend trying higher doses zinc in patients with hepatitis C who had beta thalassemia major. PMID:25653968

  16. Production of nano zinc, zinc sulphide and nanocomplex of magnetite zinc oxide by Brevundimonas diminuta and Pseudomonas stutzeri.

    PubMed

    Mirhendi, Mansoureh; Emtiazi, Giti; Roghanian, Rasoul

    2013-12-01

    ZnO (Zincite) nanoparticle has many industrial applications and is mostly produced by chemical reactions, usually prepared by decomposition of zinc acetate or hot-injection and heating-up method. Synthesis of semi-conductor nanoparticles such as ZnS (Sphalerite) by ultrasonic was previously reported. In this work, high-zinc tolerant bacteria were isolated and used for nano zinc production. Among all isolated microorganisms, a gram negative bacterium which was identified as Brevundimonas diminuta could construct nano magnetite zinc oxide on bacterial surface with 22 nm in size and nano zinc with 48.29 nm in size. A piece of zinc metal was immersed in medium containing of pure culture of B. diminuta. Subsequently, a yellow-white biofilm was formed which was collected from the surface of zinc. It was dried at room temperature. The isolated biofilm was analysed by X-ray diffractometer. Interestingly, the yield of these particles was higher in the light, with pH 7 at 23°C. To the best of the authors knowledge, this is the first report about the production of nano zinc metal and nano zinc oxide that are stable and have anti-bacterial activities with magnetite property. Also ZnS (sized 12 nm) produced by Pseudomonas stutzeri, was studied by photoluminescence and fluorescent microscope. PMID:24206770

  17. Role of zinc in modulating histo-architectural and biochemical alterations during dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced rat colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Anshoo; Chadha, Vijayta Dani; Nair, Praveen; Dhawan, Devinder K

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to gain insight into the putative anticancer effect of dietary zinc during 1,2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis. The rats were segregated into four groups, namely, normal control, DMH-treated, zinc-treated, and (DMH + zinc)-treated. Colon carcinogenesis was induced through weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (30 mg/kg body weight) for 12 weeks. Zinc in the form of zinc sulfate was supplemented to rats at a dose level of 227 mg/L in drinking water, ad libitum for the entire duration of the study. The effects of different treatments were studied on lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), and antioxidative enzymes, which included superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), as well as on the histoarchitecture of the colon. A total of 12 weeks of DMH treatment resulted in a significant increase in LPO. GSH levels and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GST were found to be significantly decreased following DMH treatment. A significant elevation in the activity of GR was observed following 12 weeks of DMH treatment. Histopathological studies showed well-differentiated signs of dysplasia, which included nuclei enlargement, epithelial thickening, and nuclear pleomorphism indicative of promotional phase of colon carcinogenesis in DMH-administered rats. Administration of zinc to DMH-treated rats decreased the levels of LPO and GSH significantly, but the activities of SOD and CAT were found to be significantly increased following zinc treatment. Zinc supplementation along with DMH treatment did not reveal any significant change in the activity of GR but significantly improved the activity of GST, which was depressed following DMH treatment. Also, zinc treatment in DMH-treated rats showed signs of great improvement, but structureless masses of the cells and hyperchromic nuclei were still visible occasionally. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that zinc has a positive beneficial effect against chemically DMH-induced colonic preneoplastic progression in rats. PMID:20102331

  18. Zinc bioavailability and tea consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay Ganji; C. V. Kies

    1994-01-01

    One self-selected study (study A) and one laboratory-controlled study (study B) were conducted to investigate the effect of tea consumption on zinc bioavailability in healthy humans. The 14-day study A consisted of two 7-day experimental periods, while the 28-day study B consisted of two 14-day experimental periods. In study A eight subjects and in study B ten subjects were participated.

  19. Long life, rechargeable nickel-zinc battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luksha, E.

    1974-01-01

    A production version of the inorganic separator was evaluated for improving the life of the nickel-zinc system. Nickel-zinc cells (7-10 Ah capacities) of different electrode separator configurations were constructed and tested. The nickel-zinc cells using the inorganic separator encasing the zinc electrode, the nickel electrode, or both electrodes had shorter lives than cells using Visking and cellophane separation. Cells with the inorganic separation all fell below 70% of their theoretical capacity within 30 cycles, but the cells constructed with organic separation required 80 cycles. Failure of the cells using the ceramic separator was irreversible capacity degradation due to zinc loss through cracks developed in the inorganic separator. Zinc loss through the separator was minimized with the use of combinations of the inorganic separator with Visking and cellophane. Cells using the combined separation operated 130 duty cycles before degrading to 70% of their theoretical capacity.

  20. Zinc and zinc alloys as protective coatings. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the corrosion protection of materials by means of zinc and zinc coatings, exclusive of electroplating and electrodeposition. Zinc rich paints and metallization are discussed, as well as polymeric coatings based on zinc. Major applications include structural steel work, oil and gas pipes, pipe joints, and offshore structures. Conversion coatings and conversion coating processes are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 199 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Zinc protects sperm from being damaged by reactive oxygen species in assisted reproduction techniques.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinxiang; Wu, Shiqiang; Xie, Yuanzhi; Wang, Zhengyao; Wu, Ruiyun; Cai, Junfeng; Luo, Xiangmin; Huang, Suzhen; You, Liuxia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of zinc on hydrogen peroxide-induced sperm damage in assisted reproduction techniques. First, sperms were selected from semen samples of 20 healthy men prepared by density gradient centrifugation. Selected sperm were treated with either 0.001% H2O2, 12.5?nM ZnCL2, 0.001% H2O2?+?12.5?nM ZnCL2 or 0.9% NaCl2 (control). After this treatment, the motility, viability, membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation of sperms in each group were analysed by Goodline sperm detection system, optical microscopy and sperm DNA fragmentation assay. Poorer motility, vitality, membrane integrity and more DNA damage were found in sperms treated by H2O2, compared with control. When sperms were treated with both H2O2 and zinc, however, all indicators were improved compared with H2O2 alone. There was a close association between oxidative stimulation and sperm injury; zinc could inhibit hydrogen peroxide-induced damage of sperm in assisted reproductive technology. However, the presence of zinc in culture medium can decrease the sperm quality without addition of peroxide. PMID:25682308

  2. Heavy metals in cottontail rabbits on mined lands treated with sewage sludge. [Sylvilagus floridanua

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Dressler; G. L. Storm; W. M. Tzilkowski; W. E. Sopper

    2009-01-01

    Levels of heavy metals in soils, vegetation, and tissues of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) on a Pennsylvania strip-mined site treated with sewage sludge were compared with those from a non-treated mine site to determine increases due to treatment effect. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn were higher in vegetation on the sludge-treated site. Zinc was higher in femurs of cottontails

  3. Zinc deficiency in Sudanese desert sheep.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, O M; El Samani, F; Bakheit, A O; Hassan, M A

    1983-10-01

    Reduced appetite, skin lesions and deaths occurred in sheep feeding on Rhodes grass (Chloris gayama) at a farm near Khartoum North. The concentration of zinc in the grass and in the serum and liver of affected animals was low. These findings, the skin lesions and the favourable response to the injection of zinc (to be reported) suggest that the clinical condition was due to a deficiency of zinc in the diet of the sheep. PMID:6643758

  4. Setaria Viridis tolerance of high zinc concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Kaznina; A. F. Titov; G. F. Laidinen; A. V. Talanov

    2009-01-01

    The effect of high zinc concentrations on the growth and photosynthetic apparatus of Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. was investigated under laboratory conditions and a vegetation experiment. The experiments showed that zinc concentrations\\u000a of 10?6 to 10?3 M did not influence seed germination. Moreover, zinc in concentrations of 40 and 80 mg kg substrate had no significant effect\\u000a on most of

  5. Contamination of soil and vegetation near a zinc smelter by zinc, cadmium, copper, and lead

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn J. Buchauer

    1973-01-01

    Metal oxide fumes escaping from two zinc smelters in Palmerton, Pa., have highly contaminated soil and vegetation with zinc, cadmium, copper, and lead. Within 1 km of the smelters, 135,000 parts per million (ppm) zinc, 1750 ppm cadmium, 2000 ppm copper, and 2000 ppm lead have been measured in the Oâ horizon. Approximately 90% of metals deposited on the soil

  6. Study of zinc electrodes for single flow zinc\\/nickel battery application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Zhang; Jie Cheng; Yu-sheng Yang; Yue-hua Wen; Xin-dong Wang; Gao-ping Cao

    2008-01-01

    Zinc deposition from alkaline zincate solution in single flow zinc\\/nickel battery has been investigated. The effect of different substrates such as copper, cadmium and lead were examined by using cyclic voltammetry and cathodic polarization technique. It was found that the cadmium substrate is better than the others. Zinc deposition was carried out by using galvanostatic technique, and the deposits were

  7. Morphology control of zinc regeneration for zinc-air fuel cell and battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Xu, Huachi; Li, Pengcheng; Wang, Xizhong

    2014-12-01

    Morphology control is crucial both for zinc-air batteries and for zinc-air fuel cells during zinc regeneration. Zinc dendrite should be avoided in zinc-air batteries and zinc pellets are yearned to be formed for zinc-air fuel cells. This paper is mainly to analyze the mechanism of shape change and to control the zinc morphology during charge. A numerical three-dimensional model for zinc regeneration is established with COMSOL software on the basis of ionic transport theory and electrode reaction electrochemistry, and some experiments of zinc regeneration are carried out. The deposition process is qualitatively analyzed by the kinetics Monte Carlo method to study the morphological change from the electrocrystallization point of view. Morphological evolution of deposited zinc under different conditions of direct currents and pulse currents is also investigated by simulation. The simulation shows that parametric variables of the flowing electrolyte, the surface roughness and the structure of the electrode, the charging current and mode affect morphological evolution. The uniform morphology of deposited zinc is attained at low current, pulsating current or hydrodynamic electrolyte, and granular morphology is obtained by means of an electrode of discrete columnar structure in combination with high current and flowing electrolyte.

  8. 21 CFR 522.2112 - Sometribove zinc suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Sometribove zinc suspension. 522.2112 Section 522...ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2112 Sometribove zinc suspension. (a) Specifications...contains 500 milligrams (mg) sometribove zinc in a prolonged-release suspension....

  9. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). ...chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  10. 21 CFR 522.2112 - Sometribove zinc suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Sometribove zinc suspension. 522.2112 Section 522...ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2112 Sometribove zinc suspension. (a) Specifications...contains 500 milligrams (mg) sometribove zinc in a prolonged-release suspension....

  11. 40 CFR 721.10714 - Zinc bis(dialkyldithiocarbamate) (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc bis(dialkyldithiocarbamate) (generic...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10714 Zinc bis(dialkyldithiocarbamate) (generic...chemical substance identified generically as zinc bis(dialkyldithiocarbamate)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). ...chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). ...chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  14. 21 CFR 522.2112 - Sometribove zinc suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Sometribove zinc suspension. 522.2112 Section 522...ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2112 Sometribove zinc suspension. (a) Specifications...contains 500 milligrams (mg) sometribove zinc in a prolonged-release suspension....

  15. 21 CFR 522.2112 - Sometribove zinc suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Sometribove zinc suspension. 522.2112 Section 522...ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2112 Sometribove zinc suspension. (a) Specifications...contains 500 milligrams (mg) sometribove zinc in a prolonged-release suspension....

  16. The marine biogeochemistry of zinc isotopes

    E-print Network

    John, Seth G

    2007-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) stable isotopes can record information about important oceanographic processes. This thesis presents data on Zn isotopes in anthropogenic materials, hydrothermal fluids and minerals, cultured marine phytoplankton, ...

  17. The Neurophysiology and Pathology of Brain Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Sensi, Stefano L.; Paoletti, Pierre; Koh, Jae-Young; Aizenman, Elias; Bush, Ashley I.; Hershfinkel, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the roles played by zinc in the physiological and pathological functioning of the brain is rapidly expanding. The increased availability of genetically modified animal models, selective zinc-sensitive fluorescent probes, and novel chelators is producing a remarkable body of exciting new data that clearly establishes this metal ion as a key modulator of intracellular and intercellular neuronal signaling. In this Mini-Symposium, we will review and discuss the most recent findings that link zinc to synaptic function as well as the injurious effects of zinc dyshomeostasis within the context of neuronal death associated with major human neurological disorders, including stroke, epilepsy, and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:22072659

  18. Zinc air battery development for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Putt, R.A.; Merry, G.W. (MATSI, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the results of research conducted during the sixteen month continuation of a program to develop rechargeable zinc-air batteries for electric vehicles. The zinc-air technology under development incorporates a metal foam substrate for the zinc electrode, with flow of electrolyte through the foam during battery operation. In this soluble'' zinc electrode the zincate discharge product dissolves completely in the electrolyte stream. Cycle testing at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where the electrode was invented, and at MATSI showed that this approach avoids the zinc electrode shape change phenomenon. Further, electrolyte flow has been shown to be necessary to achieve significant cycle life (> 25 cycles) in this open system. Without it, water loss through the oxygen electrode results in high-resistance failure of the cell. The Phase I program, which focused entirely on the zinc electrode, elucidated the conditions necessary to increase electrode capacity from 75 to as much as 300 mAh/cm{sup 2}. By the end of the Phase I program over 500 cycles had accrued on one of the zinc-zinc half cells undergoing continuous cycle testing. The Phase II program continued the half cell cycle testing and separator development, further refined the foam preplate process, and launched into performance and cycle life testing of zinc-air cells.

  19. Zinc absorption in inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Kertesz, A.; Bondy, D.C.

    1986-07-01

    Zinc absorption was measured in 29 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and a wide spectrum of disease activity to determine its relationship to disease activity, general nutritional state, and zinc status. Patients with severe disease requiring either supplementary oral or parenteral nutrition were excluded. The mean 65ZnCl2 absorption, in the patients, determined using a 65Zn and 51Cr stool-counting test, 45 +/- 17% (SD), was significantly lower than the values, 54 +/- 16%, in 30 healthy controls, P less than 0.05. Low 65ZnCl2 absorption was related to undernutrition, but not to disease activity in the absence of undernutrition or to zinc status estimated by leukocyte zinc measurements. Mean plasma zinc or leukocyte zinc concentrations in patients did not differ significantly from controls, and only two patients with moderate disease had leukocyte zinc values below the 5th percentile of normal. In another group of nine patients with inflammatory bowel disease of mild-to-moderate severity and minimal nutritional impairment, 65Zn absorption from an extrinsically labeled turkey test meal was 31 +/- 10% compared to 33 +/- 7% in 17 healthy controls, P greater than 0.1. Thus, impairment in 65ZnCl2 absorption in the patients selected for this study was only evident in undernourished persons with moderate or severe disease activity, but biochemical evidence of zinc deficiency was uncommon, and clinical features of zinc depletion were not encountered.

  20. Differential susceptibility of brain regions to tributyltin chloride toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sumonto; Siddiqui, Waseem A; Khandelwal, Shashi

    2014-06-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), a well-known endocrine disruptor, is an omnipresent environmental pollutant and is explicitly used in many industrial applications. Previously we have shown its neurotoxic potential on cerebral cortex of male Wistar rats. As the effect of TBT on other brain regions is not known, we planned this study to evaluate its effect on four brain regions (cerebellum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and striatum). Four-week-old male Wistar rats were gavaged with a single dose of TBT-chloride (TBTC) (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) and sacrificed on days 3 and 7, respectively. Effect of TBTC on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and tin (Sn) accumulation were measured. Oxidative stress indexes such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation were analyzed as they play an imperative role in various neuropathological conditions. Since metal catalyzed reactions are a major source of oxidant generation, levels of essential metals like iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and calcium (Ca) were estimated. We found that TBTC disrupted BBB and increased Sn accumulation, both of which appear significantly correlated. Altered metal homeostasis and ROS generation accompanied by elevated lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation indicated oxidative damage which appeared more pronounced in the striatum than in cerebellum, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. This could be associated to the depleted GSH levels in striatum. These results suggest that striatum is more susceptible to TBTC induced oxidative damage as compared with other brain regions under study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014. PMID:24895210