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1

21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2011-04-01

2

21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2012-04-01

3

21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.  

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2014-04-01

4

Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride  

DOEpatents

In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA); Rosenhoover, William A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1981-01-01

5

Hydrocracking with molten zinc chloride catalyst containing 2-12% ferrous chloride  

DOEpatents

In a process for hydrocracking heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. by contacting the feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten zinc chloride catalyst and thereafter separating at least a major portion of the hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten zinc chloride catalyst, an improvement comprising: adjusting the FeCl.sub.2 content of the molten zinc chloride to from about 2 to about 12 mol percent based on the mixture of ferrous chloride and molten zinc chloride.

Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA); Bagshaw, Gary H. (Library, PA)

1981-01-01

6

40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.  

...true Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory....

2014-07-01

7

40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory....

2013-07-01

8

40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory....

2012-07-01

9

SUBSTITUTING CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING  

EPA Science Inventory

The environmental and economic implications of substituting zinc chloride electroplating for cadmium cyanide electroplating were evaluated. he process substitution was successful in achieving product quality to satisfy the customer requirements for corrosion resistance. orrosion ...

10

Oral zinc aspartate treats experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.  

PubMed

The essential trace element zinc plays a critical role in the regulation of immune homeostasis. Zinc deficiency or excess can cause severe impairment of the immune response, which points to the importance of the physiological and dietary control of zinc levels for a functioning immune system. We previously reported that injection of zinc aspartate suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as effector T cell functions in vitro. Among the preferred characteristics of novel therapeutics for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as MS are oral availability and a tolerable effective dose to minimize side effects. In this study, we investigated whether oral administration of zinc aspartate, an approved drug to treat zinc deficiency in humans, is effective in controlling EAE at clinically approved doses. We show that oral administration of 6 µg/day [0.3 mg/kg body weight (BW)] or 12 µg/day [0.6 mg/kg BW] of zinc aspartate reduces clinical and histopathological signs during the relapsing remitting phase of the disease in SJL mice. The clinical effect in mice was accompanied by suppression of IFN-?, TNF-?, GM-CSF and IL-5 production in stimulated human T cells and mouse splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, a large array of proinflammatory cytokines was modulated by zinc aspartate exposure in vitro. These data suggest that administration of oral zinc aspartate may have beneficial effects on autoimmune diseases like MS. PMID:25146336

Schubert, Claudia; Guttek, Karina; Grüngreiff, Kurt; Thielitz, Anja; Bühling, Frank; Reinhold, Annegret; Brocke, Stefan; Reinhold, Dirk

2014-12-01

11

Interaction between nanoparticles generated by zinc chloride treatment and oxidative responses in rat liver.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction of zinc chloride (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [ip]) in rat liver in terms of the biosynthesis of nanoparticles. Zinc treatment increased zinc content in rat liver. Analysis of fluorescence revealed the presence of red fluorescence in the liver following zinc treatment. Interestingly, the co-exposure to zinc (3 mg/kg, ip) and selenium (0.20 mg/L, per os [by mouth]) led to a higher intensity of red fluorescence compared to zinc-treated rats. In addition, X-ray diffraction measurements carried out on liver fractions of zinc-treated rats point to the biosynthesis of zinc sulfide and/or selenide nanocomplexes at nearly 51.60 nm in size. Moreover, co-exposure led to nanocomplexes of about 72.60 nm in size. The interaction of zinc with other mineral elements (S, Se) generates several nanocomplexes, such as ZnS and/or ZnSe. The nanocomplex ZnX could interact directly with enzyme activity or indirectly by the disruption of mineral elements' bioavailability in cells. Subacute zinc or selenium treatment decreased malondialdehyde levels, indicating a drop in lipid peroxidation. In addition, antioxidant enzyme assays showed that treatment with zinc or co-treatment with zinc and selenium increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. Consequently, zinc complexation with sulfur and/or selenium at nanoscale level could enhance antioxidative responses, which is correlated to the ratio of number of ZnX nanoparticles (X=sulfur or X=selenium) to malondialdehyde level in rat liver. PMID:24403828

Azzouz, Inès; Trabelsi, Hamdi; Hanini, Amel; Ferchichi, Soumaya; Tebourbi, Olfa; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

2014-01-01

12

Interaction between nanoparticles generated by zinc chloride treatment and oxidative responses in rat liver  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction of zinc chloride (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [ip]) in rat liver in terms of the biosynthesis of nanoparticles. Zinc treatment increased zinc content in rat liver. Analysis of fluorescence revealed the presence of red fluorescence in the liver following zinc treatment. Interestingly, the co-exposure to zinc (3 mg/kg, ip) and selenium (0.20 mg/L, per os [by mouth]) led to a higher intensity of red fluorescence compared to zinc-treated rats. In addition, X-ray diffraction measurements carried out on liver fractions of zinc-treated rats point to the biosynthesis of zinc sulfide and/or selenide nanocomplexes at nearly 51.60 nm in size. Moreover, co-exposure led to nanocomplexes of about 72.60 nm in size. The interaction of zinc with other mineral elements (S, Se) generates several nanocomplexes, such as ZnS and/or ZnSe. The nanocomplex ZnX could interact directly with enzyme activity or indirectly by the disruption of mineral elements’ bioavailability in cells. Subacute zinc or selenium treatment decreased malondialdehyde levels, indicating a drop in lipid peroxidation. In addition, antioxidant enzyme assays showed that treatment with zinc or co-treatment with zinc and selenium increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. Consequently, zinc complexation with sulfur and/or selenium at nanoscale level could enhance antioxidative responses, which is correlated to the ratio of number of ZnX nanoparticles (X=sulfur or X=selenium) to malondialdehyde level in rat liver. PMID:24403828

Azzouz, Inès; Trabelsi, Hamdi; Hanini, Amel; Ferchichi, Soumaya; Tebourbi, Olfa; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

2014-01-01

13

Intercalation studies of zinc hydroxide chloride: Ammonia and amino acids  

SciTech Connect

Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) is a layered hydroxide salt with formula Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O. It was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time and results were compared with intercalation products of the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate and a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide. Ammonia was intercalated into ZHC, while no significant intercalation occurred in ZHN. Aspartic acid intercalation was only achieved by co-precipitation at pH=10 with ZHC and pH=8 with zinc hydroxide nitrate. Higher pH resistance in ZHC favored total deprotonation of both carboxylic groups of the Asp molecule. ZHC conferred more thermal protection against Asp combustion presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 Degree-Sign C while the exothermic event in ZHN was 366 Degree-Sign C and in the LDH at 276 Degree-Sign C. - Graphical abstract: The zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) with formula Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O was tested as intercalation matrix. In comparison with the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) and layered double hydroxides (LDH), ZHC was the best matrix for thermal protection of Asp combustion, presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 Degree-Sign C, while the highest exothermic event in ZHN was at 366 Degree-Sign C, and in the LDH it was at 276 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZHC has higher chemical and thermal stability than zinc hydroxide nitrate and LDH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NH{sub 3} molecules can be intercalated into ZHC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amino group of amino acids limits the intercalation by ion-exchange.

Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal, E-mail: gregoriocarbajal@yahoo.com.mx [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Marcelino Garcia Barragan 1421, CP 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico (Mexico)

2012-01-15

14

The zinc chloride process for the hydrocracking of coal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molten zinc chloride process is a hydrocracking system that converts coal to gasoline in a single step. An economically attractive process is currently under development at the one ton per day process development unit scale. The design and economics of a plant for the production of 53,000 bbl/day of gasoline with 90-92 unleaded research octane number from Western coals are discussed.

Biasca, F. E.; Greene, C. R.; Clark, W. E.; Struck, R. T.

1980-06-01

15

Intercalation studies of zinc hydroxide chloride: Ammonia and amino acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) is a layered hydroxide salt with formula Zn5(OH)8Cl2·2H2O. It was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time and results were compared with intercalation products of the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate and a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide. Ammonia was intercalated into ZHC, while no significant intercalation occurred in ZHN. Aspartic acid intercalation was only achieved by co-precipitation at pH=10 with ZHC and pH=8 with zinc hydroxide nitrate. Higher pH resistance in ZHC favored total deprotonation of both carboxylic groups of the Asp molecule. ZHC conferred more thermal protection against Asp combustion presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 °C while the exothermic event in ZHN was 366 °C and in the LDH at 276 °C.

Arízaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal

2012-01-01

16

Nucleation and growth of zinc from chloride concentrated solutions  

SciTech Connect

The electrodeposition of metals is a complex phenomenon influenced by a number of factors that modify the rates of nucleation and growth and determine the properties of the deposits. In this work the authors study the influence of the zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}) concentration on the zinc nucleation process on glassy carbon, in a KCl electrolyte under conditions close to those employed in commercial acid deposition baths for zinc. The electrochemical study was performed using cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic current-time transients. The charge-transfer coefficient and the formal potential for ZnCl{sub 2} reduction were evaluated from cyclic voltammetry experiments. The nucleation process was analyzed by comparing the transients obtained with the known dimensionless (i/i{sub m}){sup 2} vs. t/t{sub m} response for instantaneous or progressive nucleation. The results show that the nucleation process and the number density of sites are dependent on ZnCl{sub 2} concentration. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the deposits shows that the deposits are homogeneous and compact although a change in the morphology is observed as a function of ZnCl{sub 2} concentration. Evaluation of the corrosion resistance reveals the influence of the nucleation process on the subsequent corrosion resistance of the zinc deposits.

Trejo, G.; Ortega B, R.; Meas V, Y. [Parque Tecnologico Queretaro-Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo (Mexico). Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica; Ozil, P.; Chainet, E.; Nguyen, B. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d`Electrochimie et d`Electrometallurgie de Grenoble, Saint Martin d`Heres (France). Lab. d`Electrochimie et Physicochimie de Materiaux et Interfaces

1998-12-01

17

Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil shale ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordanian oil shale ash was used as an adsorbent for the removal of copper and zinc from aqueous solution. This ash was treated with either hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric or phosphoric acids followed by washing and\\/or neutralization with sodium hydroxide in order to enhance its adsorption capacity. The sample that was treated with nitric acid showed the highest cation exchange capacity

Reyad Shawabkeh; Adnan Al-Harahsheh; Awni Al-Otoom

2004-01-01

18

Evaluating the effects of zinc chloride as a preservative in cracked table olive packing.  

PubMed

This survey studies the influence of different zinc chloride concentrations (0.050, 0.075, and 0.100%, wt/vol) on the shelf life of "Aceituna Aloreña de Málaga" table olives. The Enterobacteriaceae population significantly (P ? 0.05) decreased in treatments containing 0.050 and 0.100% ZnCl(2), and those with 0.075% ZnCl(2) had also lower average counts than those observed under the usual packaging conditions (0.12% potassium sorbate). Lactic acid bacteria increased for treatments with 0.050 and 0.075% ZnCl(2), but in the presence of 0.100% they practically disappeared at the end of the shelf life period (?3 months). With respect to yeasts, populations of these microorganisms significantly decreased with the first two concentrations (0.050 and 0.075%) but showed a slight increase in the presence of 0.100% of ZnCl(2), although remaining markedly below populations observed with potassium sorbate packing. The use of this chloride salt also led to products with higher concentrations of sugars in brine because of its selective microbial inhibition. Finally, olives treated with 0.075% ZnCl(2) showed an improved sensory profile. PMID:22186060

Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Romero-Gil, V; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Garrido-Fernández, A

2011-12-01

19

Textural and chemical properties of zinc chloride activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of activation temperature on the textural and chemical properties of the activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells using zinc chloride activation under both inert nitrogen gas atmosphere and vacuum condition were studied. Relatively low temperature of 400°C was beneficial for the development of pore structures. Too high an activation temperature would lead to sintering of volatiles and shrinkage

Ting Yang; Aik Chong Lua

2006-01-01

20

High Pressure Electrical Resistivity Study on Nonlinear Single Crystal Zinc Thiourea Chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) crystals were crystallized by slow evaporation technique. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were determined by angle dispersive X-ray powder diffraction technique (XRD) and the structure was confirmed. High pressure electrical resistivity study was carried out on this crystal and the results are reported here.

Ariponnammal, S.; Selva Vennila, R.; Radhika, S.; Ushasree, P. M.

21

High Pressure Electrical Resistivity Study on Nonlinear Single Crystal Zinc Thiourea Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) crystals were crystallized by slow evaporation technique. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were determined by angle dispersive X-ray powder diffraction technique (XRD) and the structure was confirmed. High pressure electrical resistivity study was carried out on this crystal and the results are reported here.

S. Ariponnammal; R. Selva Vennila; S. Radhika; P. M. Ushasree

2007-01-01

22

Structural and Mechanical Studies of Semi-Organic NLO Material: Zinc Thiourea Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of bulk zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) single crystals from aqueous solution by low temperature solution growth technique has been reported. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms the crystal structure. The crystalline quality was assessed by high resolution XRD technique. The thermal stability of the crystal was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The microhardness measurement has been carried out

R. Ezhil Vizhi; R. Ashok Kumar; K. Sathiyanarayanan; N. Vijayan; G. Bhagavannarayana; D. Rajan Babu

2012-01-01

23

Growth and characterization of zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC): a semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of bulk zinc thiourea chloride single crystals from aqueous solution by solution growth technique is reported. It has been found that the solution pH influences the growth rate of the crystal along [001] and [010] directions. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the crystal structure. The grown crystals have been subjected to optical and mechanical property studies.

R. Rajasekaran; P. M. Ushasree; R. Jayavel; P. Ramasamy

2001-01-01

24

Investigation on the nucleation kinetics of zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) single crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleation parameters such as radius of critical nucleus, critical free energy change and interfacial tension have been investigated for the aqueous solution growth of zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) single crystals. The formation of ZTC compounds was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction and the functional groups are confirmed by FTIR analysis. Solubility of ZTC has been determined for various temperatures.

R. Rajasekaran; K. V. Rajendiran; R. Mohan Kumar; R. Jayavel; R. Dhanasekaran; P. Ramasamy

2003-01-01

25

ARDS after accidental inhalation of zinc chloride smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five soldiers were injured by inhalation of hexite smoke (ZnCl2) during military training. Two soldiers, not wearing gas masks breathed hexite for 1 or 2 min, they slowly developed severe\\u000a adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) over the ensuing 2 weeks. This slow, progressive clinical course has not been previously\\u000a described. In both patients, an increased plasma zinc concentration was measured

E. Hjortsø; J. Ovist; M. I. Bud; J. L. Thomsen; J. B. Andersen; F. Wiberg-Jørgensen; N. K. Jensen; R. Jones; L. M. Reid; W. M. Zapol

1988-01-01

26

Growth and characterization of pure and KCl doped zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) single crystals.  

PubMed

Potassium Chloride (KCl) as an additive is added into zinc thiourea chloride solution in a small amount (1M%) by the method of slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature to get a new crystal. Due to the doping of the impurities on the crystals, remarkable changes in the physical properties were obtained. The grown crystals have been subjected to different instrumentation methods. The incorporation of the amount of potassium and zinc in the crystal lattices has been determined by AAS method. The lattice dimensions have been identified from single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. The presence of functional group for the grown crystals has been identified by FTIR analysis. The optical, thermal and mechanical behaviors have been assessed by UV-Vis, TG/DTA and Vickers hardness methods respectively. The presence of dislocations of atoms has been identified by etching studies. PMID:23220671

Ruby Nirmala, L; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J

2013-02-01

27

Growth and characterization of pure and KCl doped zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potassium Chloride (KCl) as an additive is added into zinc thiourea chloride solution in a small amount (1 M%) by the method of slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature to get a new crystal. Due to the doping of the impurities on the crystals, remarkable changes in the physical properties were obtained. The grown crystals have been subjected to different instrumentation methods. The incorporation of the amount of potassium and zinc in the crystal lattices has been determined by AAS method. The lattice dimensions have been identified from single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. The presence of functional group for the grown crystals has been identified by FTIR analysis. The optical, thermal and mechanical behaviors have been assessed by UV-Vis, TG/DTA and Vickers hardness methods respectively. The presence of dislocations of atoms has been identified by etching studies.

Ruby Nirmala, L.; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J.

2013-02-01

28

Effect of pentaerythritol and organic tin with calcium\\/zinc stearates on the stabilization of poly(vinyl chloride)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stabilization effect of calcium and zinc stearates (CaSt2\\/ZnSt2) combined with pentaerythritol (PeE) and organic tin on poly(vinyl chloride) was investigated. The results show that the addition of calcium\\/zinc stearates combined with PeE and organic tin can improve thermal and colour stability of poly(vinyl chloride) in both static and dynamic tests. Mechanisms for improving stability of PVC are also discussed.

Ming Wang; Jiayou Xu; Hong Wu; Shaoyun Guo

2006-01-01

29

Mechanisms of magnesium chloride interferences on zinc in electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using a dual cavity platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism of interference due to magnesium chloride on the determination of zinc in electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry has been investigated using a dual cavity platform which has two separate cavities instead of one. It allows the analyte and interferent to be introduced at separate locations on the platform without mixing in the condensed phase; therefore, in principle, gas-phase and condensed phase interferences can be distinguished. In the presence of magnesium chloride, zinc chloride is formed both in the condensed phase and upon reaction between analyte species and HCl(g) formed from the hydrolysis of magnesium chloride, and is lost in molecular form during the pyrolysis or early in the atomization steps. At low pyrolysis temperatures, where magnesium chloride is not significantly hydrolysed but rapidly decomposes during the atomization step, expulsion of analyte from the furnace together with matrix gases and/or gas-phase reaction between zinc atoms and chlorine in this step are responsible for signal depression.

Döner, G.; Akman, S.

1996-01-01

30

Growth, optical and thermal characterization of bis(thiourea)zinc chloride single crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single crystals of nonlinear optical material bis(thiourea)zinc chloride (BTZC) were successfully grown by the temperature lowering method and also by the slow evaporation method at constant temperature 28.5°C from its aqueous solutions having various pH values. The best quality crystal was obtained at pH value of 3.13. Studies on structural, thermal properties of the crystals have been carried out on

Sweta Moitra; Tanusree Kar

2008-01-01

31

Laser induced damage in zinc tris(thiourea) sulfate and bis(thiourea) cadmium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser induced damage threshold values are reported for two metal-organic complex crystals, zinc tris(thiourea) sulfate, and bis(thiourea) cadmium chloride. These crystals have single shot and multiple shot damage thresholds which are the highest among the solution grown crystals. The damage morphology, obtained by irradiating with fluences close to the threshold, reflects the symmetry of the face of the test site.

V. Venkataramanan; C. K. Subramanian; H. L. Bhat

1995-01-01

32

Growth by SR method and characterization of bis(thiourea)zinc(II) chloride single crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large size single crystals of bis(thiourea)zinc(II) chloride (BTZC), a potential nonlinear optical material, have been grown successfully by the Sankaranarayanan–Ramasamy (SR) method. Powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analyses confirmed the material of the grown crystal. Thermal stability was assessed by the thermogravimetric\\/differential thermal analysis. The high-resolution X-ray diffraction and dielectric measurements indicate that the crystal grown by the

S. K. Kushwaha; N. Vijayan; G. Bhagavannarayana

2008-01-01

33

Laser induced damage in zinc tris(thiourea) sulfate and bis(thiourea) cadmium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser induced damage threshold values are reported for two metal-organic complex crystals, zinc tris(thiourea) sulfate, and bis(thiourea) cadmium chloride. These crystals have single shot and multiple shot damage thresholds which are the highest among the solution grown crystals. The damage morphology, obtained by irradiating with fluences close to the threshold, reflects the symmetry of the face of the test site. At higher fluences the damage leads to stress-induced fracture or thermo-chemical degradation.

Venkataramanan, V.; Subramanian, C. K.; Bhat, H. L.

1995-06-01

34

Synthesis and characterization of bis(thiourea)zinc chloride doped with l-arginine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single crystals of bis(thiourea)zinc chloride (BTZC) doped with basic amino acid l-arginine were grown successfully by slow evaporation method at ambient temperature. The doped crystals are optically better and more transparent than the pure ones having wide transmission spectra lying between 280 and 2000nm. The comparative study of solubility curve shows a slight reduction in the solubility of the doped

Sweta Moitra; Tanusree Kar

2009-01-01

35

Synthesis and characterization of some single crystals of thiourea urea zinc chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thiourea Urea Zinc (II) Chloride (TUZC), a new semiorganic non-linear optical material has been synthesized. The solubility\\u000a studies have been carried out at room temperature. Single crystals of different proportions of TUZC have been grown by slow\\u000a evaporation of saturated aqueous solution at room temperature. The FTIR and UV spectral bands have been compared with urea,\\u000a thiourea and bis Thiourea

B. Ravindran; G. Madhurambal; M. Mariappan; S. C. Mojumdar

2011-01-01

36

Growth and characterization of zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC): a semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth of bulk zinc thiourea chloride single crystals from aqueous solution by solution growth technique is reported. It has been found that the solution pH influences the growth rate of the crystal along [0 0 1] and [0 1 0] directions. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the crystal structure. The grown crystals have been subjected to optical and mechanical property studies.

Rajasekaran, R.; Ushasree, P. M.; Jayavel, R.; Ramasamy, P.

2001-07-01

37

Structural and Mechanical Studies of Semi Organic NLO Material: Zinc Thiourea Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of bulk zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) single crystals from aqueous solution by low temperature solution growth technique has been reported. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the crystal structure. The Crystalline quality was assessed by high resolution X-ray diffraction technique. The thermal stability of the crystal was investigated using thermo-gravimetric analysis. The Microhardness measurement has been carried out at

R. Ezhil Vizhi; R. Ashok Kumar; K. Sathiyanarayanan; N. Vijayan; G. Bhagavannarayana; D. Rajan Babu

2011-01-01

38

Growth and characterization of L-Alanine-doped Zinc Thiourea Chloride single crystal (ZTC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single crystal of L-Alanine-doped Zinc Thiourea Chloride (ZTC) was grown by slow evaporation technique. L-Alanine was added in saturated ZTC solution by molar percent. The second-harmonic generation efficiency was studied by Kurtz and Perry powder SHG test for 1, 2, and 3 mole% L-Alanine-doped ZTC and compared with pure ZTC. We observed enhancement in the SHG efficiency of L-Alanine-doped ZTC.

N. R. Dhumane; S. S. Hussaini; V. G. Dongre; P. Ghugare; M. D. Shirsat

2009-01-01

39

Studies of micromorphology and current efficiency of zinc electrodeposited from flowing chloride electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

Results of a study of the micromorphology and current efficiency of zinc electrodeposited from flowing, acidic chloride solutions are reported. The effects of six variables were examined: flow rate, current density, zinc and hydrogen ion concentration, concentrations of nickel, iron and cadmium impurity ions, and the nature of the substrate. The development of micromorphology was studied in-situ by means of videomicrography and ex-situ by means of scanning electron microscopy. This investigation focused on the formation of grooved deposits, which are found under a wide range of deposition conditions. The major conclusions of this study are: the most important variable determining whether grooved deposits form is the interfacial concentration; large protrusions orient themselves parallel to the flow direction with the orientation starting upstream and progressing downstream; large protrusions become ridges due to growth of the highest current density portions of the electrode under mass transport control. The current efficiency was measured using EDTA titration and weight measurements. The fraction of the current taken by zinc deposition increased with zinc concentration, ranging up to 100%, and decreased with pH. The efficiency of zinc deposition was affected by the flow rate and the substrate employed. Impurities lowered the current efficiency.

Mc Vay, L.; Muller, R.H.; Tobias, C.W.

1986-05-01

40

Separation and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil shale ash  

E-print Network

Jordanian oil shale ash was used as an adsorbent for the removal of copper and zinc from aqueous solution.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Oil shale; Ash; Adsorption; Copper and zinc removal 1. IntroductionSeparation and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251­257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

41

Growth and characterization of L-Alanine-doped Zinc Thiourea Chloride single crystal (ZTC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single crystal of L-Alanine-doped Zinc Thiourea Chloride (ZTC) was grown by slow evaporation technique. L-Alanine was added\\u000a in saturated ZTC solution by molar percent. The second-harmonic generation efficiency was studied by Kurtz and Perry powder\\u000a SHG test for 1, 2, and 3 mole% L-Alanine-doped ZTC and compared with pure ZTC. We observed enhancement in the SHG efficiency\\u000a of L-Alanine-doped ZTC. Higher

N. R. Dhumane; S. S. Hussaini; V. G. Dongre; P. Ghugare; M. D. Shirsat

2009-01-01

42

Growth and characterization of Fe 3+-doped bis(thiourea)zinc(II) chloride crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fe3+-doping at ?10mol% in aqueous medium during crystal growth by slow evaporation solution method in bis(thiourea)zinc(II) chloride (BTZC) leads to form a new compound C2H8Cl2N4S2Zn0.93Fe0.07 (BTZCF) which crystallizes in orthorhombic structure with centrosymmetric space group Pnma though the parent compound BTZC crystallizes in noncentrosymmetric structure with space group Pn21a. The interesting feature observed in this new crystal is that though

K. Nithya; B. Karthikeyan; G. Ramasamy; K. Muthu; S. P. Meenakshisundaram

2011-01-01

43

Catalytic liquefaction by zinc chloride melts at pre-pyrolysis temperature  

SciTech Connect

Liquid-phase catalysts have proved effective for opening chemical linkages in subbituminous coal and capping the reactive segments with hydrogen atoms or other low-molecular-weight groups. The preferred temperature range is 275 to 325/sup 0/C (530 to 620/sup 0/F), so that the linkages are opened by controlled catalytic action rather than by thermal pyrolysis which requires appreciably higher temperatures. The best catalyst melt compositions used to date are zinc chloride with 10% water together with tetralin, and zinc chloride with 15% methanol and 3% of zinc metal. Useful residence times range from 30 minutes, or less, to as high as 90 minutes. The products of the treatment have predominately low (300) to medium (3000) molecular weights, analogous to syncrudes and solvent-refined coal. Conversions to pyridine-soluble products of 95% or better are achieved with Wyodak Roland Seam coal, and to date as much as 70% of that coal has been recovered as toluene-solubles (oils and asphaltenes). A major benefit of these conversion conditions is the almost complete absence of by-product char or gas. At these lower temperatures the hydrogen pressures used can be less than in conventional liquefaction; for example, 40 atm rather than 100 atm or more. Hydrogen consumption is significantly lower than in conventional liquefaction; the product yield is higher; and simpler procedures are foreseen for product recovery. The research performed so far clearly shows the industrial potential of homogeneous (liquid-phase) catalysts in penetrating and interacting with the mild temperature and pressure of these studies.

Vermeulen, T.; Onu, C.; Joyce, P.J.; Hershkowitz, F.; Grens, E.A.

1980-02-01

44

Characteristics of activated carbon prepared from pistachio-nut shell by zinc chloride activation under nitrogen and vacuum conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbons with well-developed pore structures were prepared from pistachio-nut shells by chemical activation using zinc chloride under both nitrogen atmosphere and vacuum conditions. The effects of preparation parameters on the carbon pore structure were studied in order to optimize these parameters. It was found that under vacuum conditions, the characteristics of the activated carbons produced are better than those

Aik Chong Lua; Ting Yang

2005-01-01

45

Growth and characterization of a new metal-organic nonlinear optical bis (thiourea) cadmium zinc chloride single crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new semiorganic nonlinear optical bis (thiourea) cadmium zinc chloride (BTCZC) crystal has been synthesized. BTCZC single crystals were grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique. The solubility of BTCZC has been determined for various temperatures. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) study has been carried out to identify the lattice parameters. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies confirm the various

K. Kirubavathi; K. Selvaraju; S. Kumararaman

2008-01-01

46

Growth, optical and thermal characterization of bis(thiourea)zinc chloride single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of nonlinear optical material bis(thiourea)zinc chloride (BTZC) were successfully grown by the temperature lowering method and also by the slow evaporation method at constant temperature 28.5 °C from its aqueous solutions having various pH values. The best quality crystal was obtained at pH value of 3.13. Studies on structural, thermal properties of the crystals have been carried out on the basis of X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravemetric analysis (TGA). DTA study indicates the possibility of structural changes without weight loss. The values of specific heat calculated from DSC data indirectly demonstrate the high damage threshold of BTZC crystal. The crystals possess wide optical transmission window between 290 nm and 2000 nm. Kurtz powder SHG measurement confirms the nonlinear optical property of the grown crystals.

Moitra, Sweta; Kar, Tanusree

2008-06-01

47

Zinc contamination from brass upon heat treating a superconducting magnet  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical calculations predicted that zinc outgassing from brass spacers during a planned heat treatment would likely damage a lab-scale superconducting magnet. This specter was reinforced by a simulated heat treatment, the samples of which were analyzed by gravimetry, metallography, and microprobe chemical analysis. It was found that zinc escaping from the brass could diffuse 80 {mu}m into copper electrical conductors and degrade their conductivity. To avoid this, steel was temporarily substituted for the brass during the heat treatment process.

Stevens, D.W.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

1994-07-01

48

Zinc poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... other materials to make industrial items such as paint, dyes, and more. These combination substances can be ... Compounds used to make paint, rubber, dyes, wood preservatives, and ... Zinc chloride Zinc oxide (relatively nonharmful) Zinc ...

49

Optical, crystalline perfection and mechanical studies on unidirectional grown bis(thiourea) cadmium zinc chloride single crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optically transparent and bulk single crystal of bis(thiourea) cadmium zinc chloride was successfully grown by unidirectional crystal growth technique. The quality of the crystal was examined by high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis. The cell parameters and the crystallinity of the grown crystal were estimated by the single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analyses, respectively. Optical transmittance of the crystal was recorded using

R. Uthrakumar; C. Vesta; G. Bhagavannarayana; R. Robert; S. Jerome Das

2011-01-01

50

Crystal growth and vibrational spectroscopic studies of the semiorganic non-linear optical crystal--bisthiourea zinc chloride.  

PubMed

The semiorganic non-linear optical crystal bisthiourea zinc chloride (BTZC) was grown by mixed solvent slow evaporation technique. The solubilities under various solvents in different proportions have been studied. Vibrational spectra were recorded to determine the symmetries of molecular vibrations. The observed Raman and infrared bands were also assigned and discussed. The optical transmission spectral study was also carried out. The property of second harmonic generation of BTZC was also verified. PMID:15582819

Krishnakumar, V; Nagalakshmi, R

2005-01-14

51

Influence of pH on the growth and characteristics of nonlinear optical zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) single crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of bulk zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) single crystals from aqueous solution by low temperature solution growth technique has been reported. In this report we bring out the influence of pH on the structural, optical, electrical and mechanical properties of the grown crystals. At pH 5.3, the crystals are elongated along a-axis. Bulk crystals have been grown from the optimized

R. Rajasekaran; R. Mohan Kumar; R Jayavel; P Ramasamy

2003-01-01

52

Growth and characterization of pure and potassium chloride-doped Zinc Tris–thiourea Sulphate (ZTS) single crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single crystals of pure and potassium chloride-doped Zinc Tris–thiourea Sulphate (ZTS) were grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals were subjected to various studies such as XRD, FTIR, atomic absorption, SHG and TGA–DTA studies. The melting point and density of the grown crystals were also measured. The various studies revealed the incorporation of the impurity (potassium

C. Krishnan; P. Selvarajan; T. H. Freeda

2008-01-01

53

Synthesis, growth and studies of undoped and sodium chloride-doped Zinc Tris-thiourea Sulphate (ZTS) single crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single crystals of undoped (pure) and sodium chloride (NaCl)-doped Zinc Tris-thiourea Sulphate (ZTS) were grown from aqueous solutions by slow evaporation technique. Morphological alterations have been observed when NaCl is doped into ZTS crystals. Density of the grown crystals was measured by floatation method. The values of unit cell parameters from single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that pure

C. Krishnan; P. Selvarajan; S. Pari

2010-01-01

54

Biosorption of zinc from aqueous solution using chemically treated rice husk.  

PubMed

In this study, adsorption of zinc onto the adsorbent (untreated rice husk and NaOH-treated rice husk) was examined. During the removal process, batch technique was used, and the effects of pH and contact time were investigated. Langmuir isotherm was applied in order to determine the efficiency of NaOH-treated rice husk used as an adsorbent. The zinc adsorption was fast, and equilibrium was attained within 30?min. The maximum removal ratios of zinc for untreated rice husk and NaOH-treated rice husk after 1.5?h were 52.3% and 95.2%, respectively, with initial zinc concentration of 25?mg/L and optimum pH of 4.0. Data obtained from batch adsorption experiments fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model. Maximum adsorption capacity of zinc onto untreated rice husk and NaOH-treated rice husk was 12.41?mg/g, and 20.08?mg/g respectively, at adsorbent dosage of 1?g/L at 25°C. The nature of functional groups (i.e., amino, carboxyl, and hydroxyl) and metal ion interactions was examined by the FT-IR technique. It was concluded that the NaOH-treated rice husk had stronger adsorption capacity for Zn(2+) compared with the untreated rice husk. The NaOH-treated rice husk is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly adsorbent for Zn(2+) removal from aqueous solutions. PMID:23841065

Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Ru; Zhao, Jiaying; Zhang, Yingchao; Wong, Po-Keung; Ma, Fang

2013-01-01

55

Biosorption of Zinc from Aqueous Solution Using Chemically Treated Rice Husk  

PubMed Central

In this study, adsorption of zinc onto the adsorbent (untreated rice husk and NaOH-treated rice husk) was examined. During the removal process, batch technique was used, and the effects of pH and contact time were investigated. Langmuir isotherm was applied in order to determine the efficiency of NaOH-treated rice husk used as an adsorbent. The zinc adsorption was fast, and equilibrium was attained within 30?min. The maximum removal ratios of zinc for untreated rice husk and NaOH-treated rice husk after 1.5?h were 52.3% and 95.2%, respectively, with initial zinc concentration of 25?mg/L and optimum pH of 4.0. Data obtained from batch adsorption experiments fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model. Maximum adsorption capacity of zinc onto untreated rice husk and NaOH-treated rice husk was 12.41?mg/g, and 20.08?mg/g respectively, at adsorbent dosage of 1?g/L at 25°C. The nature of functional groups (i.e., amino, carboxyl, and hydroxyl) and metal ion interactions was examined by the FT-IR technique. It was concluded that the NaOH-treated rice husk had stronger adsorption capacity for Zn2+ compared with the untreated rice husk. The NaOH-treated rice husk is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly adsorbent for Zn2+ removal from aqueous solutions. PMID:23841065

Zheng, Ru; Zhao, Jiaying; Zhang, Yingchao; Wong, Po-keung; Ma, Fang

2013-01-01

56

Effect of Fluid Flow on Zinc Electrodeposits from Acid Chloride Electrolytes. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zinc was deposited potentiostatically from acid chloride baths. Once bath chemistry and electrochemistry were controlled, the study was focused on convective mass transfer at horizontal electrodes and its effect on cell performance. A laser schlieren imaging technique allowed in situ observations of flow patterns and their correlation with current transients. Convection was turbulent and mass transfer as a function of Rayleigh number was well correlated by: Sh = 0.14 R to the 1/3 power. Similarly, convection initiation time was correlated by DT/d squared = 38 Ra to the -2/3 power. Time scale of fluctuations was about half the initiation time. Taking the boundary layer thickness as a characteristic length, a critical Rayleigh number for the onset of convection was deduced: Ra sub CR = 5000. Placing the anode on the top of the cathode completely changed the flow pattern but kept the I-t curves identical whereas the use of a cathode grid doubled the limiting current. A well defined plateau in the current voltage curves suggested that hydrogen evolution has been successfully inhibited. Finally, long time deposition showed that convection at horizontal electrodes increased the induction time for dentrite growth by at least a factor of 2 with respect to a vertical wire.

Abdelmassir, A. A.

1982-01-01

57

Habit modification of bis-thiourea zinc chloride (ZTC) semi organic crystals by impurities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of bis-thiourea zinc chloride (ZTC) doped with metal ion (Li+) possess excellent nonlinear optical properties. These crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The effect of Li+ dopant on the growth and properties of ZTC single crystal were investigated and reported. The grown crystals were crystallized in orthorhombic structure with non-centro symmetric space group Pn21a through the parent compound. The amount of dopant incorporated in the parent crystal was revealed by the inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES) studies. The FT-IR spectroscopy study was done for finding and confirming the functional groups present in the compound. The UV-Visible spectral study was carried out to find the optical behavior and transparency nature of the grown crystal. TG/DTA measurements and Vickers microhardness measurements were traced to find out the thermal and mechanical stability of the grown crystals respectively. Using Nd:YAG laser, the Second harmonic generation (SHG) for the grown crystals were confirmed.

Ruby Nirmala, L.; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J.

2013-06-01

58

Growth and characterization of Fe 3+-doped bis(thiourea)zinc(II) chloride crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fe 3+-doping at ˜10 mol% in aqueous medium during crystal growth by slow evaporation solution method in bis(thiourea)zinc(II) chloride (BTZC) leads to form a new compound C 2H 8Cl 2N 4S 2Zn 0.93Fe 0.07 (BTZCF) which crystallizes in orthorhombic structure with centrosymmetric space group Pnma though the parent compound BTZC crystallizes in noncentrosymmetric structure with space group Pn2 1a. The interesting feature observed in this new crystal is that though it crystallizes in centrosymmetric structure, it exhibits positive SHG result (weak signal), quite likely due to possible surface effects or internal stress. The calculated first-order hyperpolarizability is 1.457 × 10 -30 esu which is ˜5.5 times that of urea. Fe 3+-doping enhances the transmittance to a significant extent. Comparison of the thermal analysis results by DSC reveals the incorporation of dopant into the crystalline matrix. The high resolution XRD studies reveal that the crystalline quality is improved considerably when the doping level is reached to ˜10 mol%.

Nithya, K.; Karthikeyan, B.; Ramasamy, G.; Muthu, K.; Meenakshisundaram, S. P.

2011-09-01

59

Growth and characterization of Fe3+-doped bis(thiourea)zinc(II) chloride crystals.  

PubMed

Fe3+-doping at ?10 mol% in aqueous medium during crystal growth by slow evaporation solution method in bis(thiourea)zinc(II) chloride (BTZC) leads to form a new compound C2H8Cl2N4S2Zn0.93Fe0.07 (BTZCF) which crystallizes in orthorhombic structure with centrosymmetric space group Pnma though the parent compound BTZC crystallizes in noncentrosymmetric structure with space group Pn2(1)a. The interesting feature observed in this new crystal is that though it crystallizes in centrosymmetric structure, it exhibits positive SHG result (weak signal), quite likely due to possible surface effects or internal stress. The calculated first-order hyperpolarizability is 1.457×10(-30) esu which is ?5.5 times that of urea. Fe3+-doping enhances the transmittance to a significant extent. Comparison of the thermal analysis results by DSC reveals the incorporation of dopant into the crystalline matrix. The high resolution XRD studies reveal that the crystalline quality is improved considerably when the doping level is reached to ?10 mol%. PMID:21703914

Nithya, K; Karthikeyan, B; Ramasamy, G; Muthu, K; Meenakshisundaram, S P

2011-09-01

60

Habit modification of bis-thiourea zinc chloride (ZTC) semi organic crystals by impurities.  

PubMed

Single crystals of bis-thiourea zinc chloride (ZTC) doped with metal ion (Li(+)) possess excellent nonlinear optical properties. These crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The effect of Li(+) dopant on the growth and properties of ZTC single crystal were investigated and reported. The grown crystals were crystallized in orthorhombic structure with non-centro symmetric space group Pn21a through the parent compound. The amount of dopant incorporated in the parent crystal was revealed by the inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES) studies. The FT-IR spectroscopy study was done for finding and confirming the functional groups present in the compound. The UV-Visible spectral study was carried out to find the optical behavior and transparency nature of the grown crystal. TG/DTA measurements and Vickers microhardness measurements were traced to find out the thermal and mechanical stability of the grown crystals respectively. Using Nd:YAG laser, the Second harmonic generation (SHG) for the grown crystals were confirmed. PMID:23571088

Ruby Nirmala, L; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J

2013-06-01

61

Growth and characterization of L-Alanine-doped Zinc Thiourea Chloride single crystal (ZTC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystal of L-Alanine-doped Zinc Thiourea Chloride (ZTC) was grown by slow evaporation technique. L-Alanine was added in saturated ZTC solution by molar percent. The second-harmonic generation efficiency was studied by Kurtz and Perry powder SHG test for 1, 2, and 3 mole% L-Alanine-doped ZTC and compared with pure ZTC. We observed enhancement in the SHG efficiency of L-Alanine-doped ZTC. Higher enhancement was observed for 3 mole% L-Alanine-doped ZTC. Incorporation of L-Alanine in the crystal was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) qualitatively confirms the presence of all the functional groups. The unit cell parameters and crystal structure were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The UV-visible absorption spectra of L-Alanine-doped ZTC show excellent transmittance from 300 nm to 1100 nm. The thermal stability of the grown crystal was also studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA).

Dhumane, N. R.; Hussaini, S. S.; Dongre, V. G.; Ghugare, P.; Shirsat, M. D.

2009-06-01

62

Antifungal nitro compounds from Skunk Cabbage ( Lysichitum americanum) leaves treated with cupric chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two nitro compounds, 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-nitroethane named as lysichitalexin and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-nitroethane were isolated as stress metabolites from the leaves of Lysichitum americanum Hultén and St. John treated with cupric chloride. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and chemical reactions. The former compound showed antifungal activities against Fusarium oxysporum and Cladosporium herbarum. Both compounds were isolated for the first time from this

Fujinori Hanawa; Satoshi Tahara; G. H. Neil Towers

2000-01-01

63

Free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes for the transference of zinc chloride from enthylene glycol to water solutions  

E-print Network

CALCULATION OF RESULTS From the experimental data, 2 F, dH, and dS of the transference of zinc chloride from ethylene glycol to water were calculated by use of the following equations. dF = -nFE where n = number of electrons involved in the reaction... OF CONTENTS Chapter l. Introduction. ~Pa e Chapter II. Previous Investigations Chapter III. Apparatus Chapter IV. Experimental. Chapter V. Calculations of Results 17 Chapter VI. Results Chapter VII. References. 20 LIST OF TABLES Table I...

Lomonte, John Nicholas

1960-01-01

64

Susceptibility of different bacterial species isolated from food animals to copper sulphate, zinc chloride and antimicrobial substances used for disinfection.  

PubMed

A total of 569 different bacterial isolates (156 Salmonella, 202 E. coli, 43 S. aureus, 38 S. hyicus, 52 E. faecalis, 78 E. faecium) were tested for susceptibility to copper sulphate, benzalkonium chloride, hydrogen peroxide and chlorhexidine using MIC determinations. A total of 442 isolates were also tested for susceptibility to formaldehyde and 177 isolates for susceptibility to zinc chloride. Enterococcal isolates formed a bimodal distribution of MICs to copper sulphate, whereas the other bacterial species formed one large population. Otherwise the isolates formed one large population of susceptibilities to the different antimicrobial agents. Large variations were observed in the susceptibility of the different bacterial species to the different compounds. Staphylococci were in general very susceptible to all antimicrobial compounds tested. The Salmonella isolates were in general less susceptible to copper sulphate, benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine followed by E. coli and the Gram-positive species. The opposite was the case for zinc chloride. All isolates were very susceptible to H(2)O(2) with MICs ranging from 0.002 to 0.016%, and to formaldehyde with MICs at 0.003 and 0.006%. This study showed that Danish bacterial isolates from livestock so far have not or have only to a limited degree developed resistance to antimicrobial compounds commonly used for disinfection. Acquired copper resistance was only found in enterococci. There were large differences in the intrinsic susceptibility of the different bacterial species to these compounds, and Salmonella especially seems intrinsically less susceptible than the other bacterial species, which might have human health implications. PMID:15135516

Aarestrup, Frank M; Hasman, Henrik

2004-05-20

65

Antifungal nitro compounds from skunk cabbage (Lysichitum americanum) leaves treated with cupric chloride.  

PubMed

Two nitro compounds, 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-nitroethane named as lysichitalexin and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-nitroethane were isolated as stress metabolites from the leaves of Lysichitum americanum Hultén and St. John treated with cupric chloride. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and chemical reactions. The former compound showed antifungal activities against Fusarium oxysporum and Cladosporium herbarum. Both compounds were isolated for the first time from this species and the former was isolated from natural sources for the first time. This is the first report on stress metabolites from a member of the Araceae. PMID:10656408

Hanawa, F; Tahara, S; Towers, G H

2000-01-01

66

Electrodeposition of zinc–tin alloys from deep eutectic solvents based on choline chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we describe the electrolytic deposition of Zn, Sn and Zn\\/Sn alloys from a solution of the metal chloride salts separately in urea and ethylene glycol\\/choline chloride based ionic liquids. We show that the deposition kinetics and thermodynamics differ from the aqueous processes and that qualitatively different phases, compositions and morphologies are obtained for the metal coatings in the different

Andrew P. Abbott; Glen Capper; Katy J. McKenzie; Karl S. Ryder

2007-01-01

67

ZINC  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the available information on zinc as it relates to its effects on man and his environment. Zinc is found in most soils, but some areas are deficient in it. Metallurgic operations contribute to zinc contamination in air, water and soil. Trace amounts of zinc...

68

Zinc  

MedlinePLUS

... generally increase zinc absorption, although a protein in cow's milk slows absorption down. Soy proteins also reduce ... the most zinc from mother's milk, less from cow's milk, and even less from soy-based milk. ...

69

Growth and characterization of a new metal-organic nonlinear optical bis (thiourea) cadmium zinc chloride single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new semiorganic nonlinear optical bis (thiourea) cadmium zinc chloride (BTCZC) crystal has been synthesized. BTCZC single crystals were grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique. The solubility of BTCZC has been determined for various temperatures. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) study has been carried out to identify the lattice parameters. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies confirm the various functional groups present in the grown crystal. The transmission and absorption spectra of this crystal show that the lower cut off wavelength lies at 260 nm. The thermal analyses confirmed that the crystal is stable upto 201 °C. The nonlinear optical (NLO) property of the grown crystal has been confirmed by Kurtz-powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test.

Kirubavathi, K.; Selvaraju, K.; Kumararaman, S.

2008-11-01

70

Optical, thermal and dielectric properties of Sr(II)-doped bis(thiourea)zinc(II) chloride crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of strontium doping on the properties of bis(thiourea)zinc(II) chloride (BTZC) crystals has been described. The reduction in the intensity observed in powder X-ray diffraction of doped specimen and slight shifts in vibrational frequencies confirm the lattice stress as a result of doping. The incorporation of Sr(II) into the crystal lattice was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Surface morphological changes due to doping of the alkaline earth metal are observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystal is transparent in the entire visible region having a lower optical cut-off at ˜308 nm with a band gap energy of 4.06 eV. The DSC studies reveal the purity of the materials and no decomposition is observed up to the melting point. Dielectric studies show that the isovalent ion Sr(II)-doping altered the dielectric properties of the host crystal.

Muthu, K.; Rajasekar, M.; Meena, K.; Mahadevan, C. K.; Meenakshisundaram, SP.

2012-10-01

71

Optical, thermal and dielectric properties of Sr(II)-doped bis(thiourea)zinc(II) chloride crystals.  

PubMed

The influence of strontium doping on the properties of bis(thiourea)zinc(II) chloride (BTZC) crystals has been described. The reduction in the intensity observed in powder X-ray diffraction of doped specimen and slight shifts in vibrational frequencies confirm the lattice stress as a result of doping. The incorporation of Sr(II) into the crystal lattice was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Surface morphological changes due to doping of the alkaline earth metal are observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystal is transparent in the entire visible region having a lower optical cut-off at ~308 nm with a band gap energy of 4.06 eV. The DSC studies reveal the purity of the materials and no decomposition is observed up to the melting point. Dielectric studies show that the isovalent ion Sr(II)-doping altered the dielectric properties of the host crystal. PMID:22925910

Muthu, K; Rajasekar, M; Meena, K; Mahadevan, C K; Meenakshisundaram, S P

2012-10-01

72

Growth and characterization of a new metal-organic nonlinear optical bis (thiourea) cadmium zinc chloride single crystals.  

PubMed

A new semiorganic nonlinear optical bis (thiourea) cadmium zinc chloride (BTCZC) crystal has been synthesized. BTCZC single crystals were grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique. The solubility of BTCZC has been determined for various temperatures. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) study has been carried out to identify the lattice parameters. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies confirm the various functional groups present in the grown crystal. The transmission and absorption spectra of this crystal show that the lower cut off wavelength lies at 260 nm. The thermal analyses confirmed that the crystal is stable up to 201 degrees C. The nonlinear optical (NLO) property of the grown crystal has been confirmed by Kurtz-powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test. PMID:18602336

Kirubavathi, K; Selvaraju, K; Kumararaman, S

2008-11-01

73

Toxicity of zinc to fungi, bacteria, and coliphages: influence of chloride ions.  

PubMed Central

A 10 mM concentration of Zn2+ decreased the survival of Escherichia coli; enhanced the survival of Bacillus cereus; did not significantly affect the survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Norcardia corallina, and T1, T7, P1, and phi80 coliphages; completely inhibited mycelial growth of Rhizoctonia solani; and reduced mycelial growth of Fusarium solani, Cunninghamella echinulata, Aspergillus niger, and Trichoderma viride. The toxicity of zinc to the fungi, bacteria, and coliphages was unaffected, lessened, or increased by the addition of high concentrations of NaCl. The increased toxicity of zinc in the presence of high concentrations of NaCl was not a result of a synergistic interaction between Zn2+ and elevated osmotic pressures but of the formation of complex anionic ZnCl species that exerted greater toxicities than did cationic Zn2+. Conversely, the decrease in zinc toxicity with increasing concentrations of NaCl probably reflected the decrease in the levels of Zn2+ due to the formation of Zn-Cl species, which was less inhibitory to these microbes than was Zn2+. A. niger tolerated higher concentrations of zinc in the presence of NaCl at 37 than at 25 degrees C. PMID:736544

Babich, H; Stotzky, G

1978-01-01

74

Effect of lithium chloride on spectral, optical, thermal and mechanical behaviour of bis thiourea zinc acetate crystals.  

PubMed

Single crystals of pure bis thiourea zinc acetate (BTZA) and lithium chloride (LiCl) doped BTZA have been synthesized and grown successfully from aqueous solutions by slow evaporation technique. The single crystals thus grown were characterized by different techniques such as single crystal XRD, AAS, FT-IR, UV-Vis, TG/DTA and SHG test. The single crystal XRD study proved that the dopant has not changed the structure of the parent crystal. The AAS study confirmed the presence of lithium in the doped crystal. The FTIR study ascertained the metal coordination of lithium chloride doped BTZA through thiourea. The optical behavior of the doped crystal has been examined by UV spectral analysis. Thermal studies TGA & DTA of the doped crystal have been investigated and found that the doped crystal is thermally more stable than the pure crystal. The SHG test using Nd: YAG Laser confirmed the NLO activity of the pure and doped crystal. The obtained results are presented and discussed. PMID:22868378

Ruby Nirmala, L; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J

2012-11-01

75

Effect of lithium chloride on spectral, optical, thermal and mechanical behaviour of bis thiourea zinc acetate crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of pure bis thiourea zinc acetate (BTZA) and lithium chloride (LiCl) doped BTZA have been synthesized and grown successfully from aqueous solutions by slow evaporation technique. The single crystals thus grown were characterized by different techniques such as single crystal XRD, AAS, FT-IR, UV-Vis, TG/DTA and SHG test. The single crystal XRD study proved that the dopant has not changed the structure of the parent crystal. The AAS study confirmed the presence of lithium in the doped crystal. The FTIR study ascertained the metal coordination of lithium chloride doped BTZA through thiourea. The optical behavior of the doped crystal has been examined by UV spectral analysis. Thermal studies TGA & DTA of the doped crystal have been investigated and found that the doped crystal is thermally more stable than the pure crystal. The SHG test using Nd: YAG Laser confirmed the NLO activity of the pure and doped crystal. The obtained results are presented and discussed.

Ruby Nirmala, L.; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J.

2012-11-01

76

Neurochemical changes in rats chronically treated with a high concentration of manganese chloride.  

PubMed

Several neurochemical parameters were studied in brain regions of rats chronically treated with a high concentration of manganese chloride (20 mg MnCl2.4H2O per ml. of drinking water) throughout development until adulthood. Large increases in Mn accumulation were found in all brain regions (hypothalamus, +530%; striatum, +479%; other regions, +152 to +250%) of Mn-treated adult rats. In these animals, Ca levels were decreased (-20 to -46%) in cerebellum, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex but were increased (+186%) in midbrain. Mg levels were decreased (-12 to -32%) in pons and medulla, midbrain, and cerebellum. Fe levels were increased (+95%) in striatum but were decreased (-28%) in cerebral cortex. Cu levels were increased (+43 to +100%) in pons and medulla and striatum but Zn levels were decreased (-30%) in pons and medulla. Na levels were increased (+22%) in striatum but those of K and Cl remained unchanged. Type A monoamine oxidase activities were decreased (-13 to -16%) in midbrain, striatum, and cerebral cortex, but type B monoamine oxidase activities decreased (-13%) only in hypothalamus. Acetylcholinesterase activities were increased (+20 to +22%) in striatum and cerebellum. The results are consistent with our hypothesis that chronic manganese encephalopathy not only affects brain metabolism of Mn but also that of other metals. PMID:1407272

Lai, J C; Chan, A W; Leung, T K; Minski, M J; Lim, L

1992-09-01

77

Structural characterization of zinc(II) chloride in aqueous solution and in the protic ionic liquid ethyl ammonium nitrate by x-ray absorption spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the species and structures existing in a series of ZnCl2-H2O-NaCl solutions with different chloride/zinc ratios and in a solution of ZnCl2 in the protic ionic liquid ethyl ammonium nitrate (EAN). The average coordination numbers and distances of zinc species were determined from the analysis of the EXAFS data. In aqueous solution the number of chloride ions tightly bounded to Zn2+ is significantly related to the chloride/zinc ratio, and no inner complex formation between Zn2+ and Cl- ions has been detected for low ZnCl2 concentration (0.1 and 0.2 M). Conversely, in the same concentration range (0.13 M) the ZnCl2 species do not dissociate in EAN and the Zn2+ first coordination shell has two chloride ions and is completed by two oxygen atoms of the nitrate anion. The results of this investigation show that notwithstanding the existence of similar characteristics between EAN and water, the solvation properties of the two solvents are markedly different.

D'Angelo, Paola; Zitolo, Andrea; Ceccacci, Francesca; Caminiti, Ruggero; Aquilanti, Giuliana

2011-10-01

78

Thermal stability of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) compounds stabilized with pre-heated mixtures of calcium and\\/or zinc stearates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processing and post-processing thermal stability of poly(vinyl chloride) compounds, plasticized with di(ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), using several ratios of calcium\\/zinc stearates are reported here. Two series of compounds were prepared, varying the DEHP or ESO concentrations. The compounds were prepared as follows: (1) preheating stearates, (2) dry-blending the compound components, (3) pelletizing the dry-blend and

Luis J. González-Ortiz; Martín Arellano; Carlos F. Jasso; Eduardo Mendizábal; M. Judith Sánchez-Peña

2005-01-01

79

Growth, optical, mechanical and dielectric studies on NLO active pure and metal ion doped single crystals of bis-thiourea zinc chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good quality single crystals of pure and metal ion (Ni 2+ ) doped bis-thiourea zinc chloride (BTZC) possessing excellent nonlinear optical properties have been grown from aqueous solution by the slow solvent evaporation technique. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals are determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. The well defined sharp peaks in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern reveals

K. Parasuraman; K. Sakthi Murugesan; R. Uthrakumar; S. Jerome Das; B. Milton Boaz

2011-01-01

80

Growth, optical, mechanical and dielectric studies on NLO active pure and metal ion doped single crystals of bis-thiourea zinc chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good quality single crystals of pure and metal ion (Ni2+) doped bis-thiourea zinc chloride (BTZC) possessing excellent nonlinear optical properties have been grown from aqueous solution by the slow solvent evaporation technique. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals are determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. The well defined sharp peaks in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern reveals the crystalline

K. Parasuraman; K. Sakthi Murugesan; R. Uthrakumar; S. Jerome Das; B. Milton Boaz

2011-01-01

81

Zinc  

MedlinePLUS

... as most children in the United States. The common cold Some studies suggest that zinc lozenges or syrup ( ... in pill form) help speed recovery from the common cold and reduce its symptoms if taken within 24 ...

82

Unidirectional growth of ?001? triglycine zinc chloride crystal by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method and its characterization.  

PubMed

Bulk nonlinear optical single crystal of triglycine zinc chloride (TGZC) of size 15mm diameter and 50mm length was successfully grown from solution by unidirectional growth method of Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR). The growth conditions were optimized and a maximum growth rate of 1.5mm per day was realized. The crystal system and lattice parameters were confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction studies. The structural perfection of the SR method grown crystal has been analyzed by high resolution X-ray diffraction measurement. The UV-Vis-NIR studies show that the cutoff wavelength is around 240nm. The dielectric measurements were carried out to determine the dielectric behavior for the crystal. The observations are made in the frequency range 1kHz-2MHz at the temperature range of 43-150°C. The fluorescence spectra of grown TGZC single crystals exhibit emission peak at 485nm. The microhardness measurements were used to analyze the mechanical strength of the grown TGZC crystal. The SHG efficiency of TGZC was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder method. PMID:25468436

Aravinth, K; Senthil Pandian, M; Ramasamy, P

2015-03-01

83

Crystalline and liquid structure of zinc chloride trihydrate: a unique ionic liquid.  

PubMed

The water/ZnCl2 phase diagram in the vicinity of the 75 mol % water composition is reported, demonstrating the existence of a congruently melting phase. Single crystals of this 3-equiv hydrate were grown, and the crystal structure of [Zn(OH2)6][ZnCl4] was determined. Synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction and IR and Raman spectroscopy along with reverse Monte Carlo modeling demonstrate that a CsCl-type packing of the molecular ions persists into the liquid state. Consistent with the crystalline and liquid structural data, IR spectroscopy demonstrates that the O-H bonds of coordinated water do not exhibit strong intermolecular hydrogen ion bonding but are significantly weakened because of the water's coordination to Lewis acidic zinc ions. The O-H bond weakening makes this system a very strong hydrogen-bond donor, whereas the ionic packing along with the nonpolar geometry of the molecular ions makes this system a novel nonpolar, hydrogen-bonding, ionic liquid solvent. PMID:25597378

Wilcox, Robert J; Losey, Bradley P; Folmer, Jacob C W; Martin, James D; Zeller, Matthias; Sommer, Roger

2015-02-01

84

Caretakers' perception towards using zinc to treat childhood diarrhoea in rural western Kenya.  

PubMed

Zinc treatment for diarrhoea can shorten the course and prevent future episodes among children worldwide. However, knowledge and acceptability of zinc among African mothers is unknown. We identified children aged 3 to 59 months, who had diarrhoea within the last three months and participated in a home-based zinc treatment study in rural Kenya. Caretakers of these children were enrolled in two groups; zinc-users and non-users. A structured questionnaire was administered to all caretakers, inquiring about knowledge and appropriate use of zinc. Questions on how much the caretakers were willing to pay for zinc were asked. Proportions were compared using Mantel-Haenszel test, and medians were compared using Wilcoxon Rank Sum test. Among 109 enrolled caretakers, 73 (67%) used zinc, and 36 (33%) did not. Sixty-four (88%) caretakers in zinc-user group reported satisfaction with zinc treatment. Caretakers in the zinc-user group more often correctly identified appropriate zinc treatment (98%-100%) than did those in the non-user group (64-72%, p<0.001). Caretakers in the zinc-user group answered more questions about zinc correctly or favourably (median 10 of 11) compared to those in the non-user group (median 6.3 of 11, p<0.001). Caretakers in the zinc-user group were willing to pay more for a course of zinc in the future than those in the non-user group (median US$ 0.26, p<0.001). Caretakers of children given zinc recently had favourable impressions on the therapy and were willing to pay for it in the future. Active promotion of zinc treatment in clinics and communities in Africa could lead to greater knowledge, acceptance, and demand for zinc. PMID:24288945

Otieno, George A; Bigogo, Godfrey M; Nyawanda, Bryan O; Aboud, Frances; Breiman, Robert F; Larson, Charles P; Feikin, Daniel R

2013-09-01

85

Influence of pH on the growth and characteristics of nonlinear optical zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth of bulk zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) single crystals from aqueous solution by low temperature solution growth technique has been reported. In this report we bring out the influence of pH on the structural, optical, electrical and mechanical properties of the grown crystals. At pH 5.3, the crystals are elongated along a-axis. Bulk crystals have been grown from the optimized pH value of 3.0. The single crystal XRD analysis confirms the change in lattice parameters for the crystals grown at these different solution pH values. The change in the crystal morphology at pH 5.3, and at 3.0 and 4.0 is accounted based on the difference in the nature of the species transported to the crystal. At pH 5.3, it appears that Zn 2+ is preferentially transported from solution to the crystal surface, and this is followed by 2Cl - ions and two thiourea molecules to give enhanced growth rate along the a-axis. Previously reported unit cell structure is used to support this view. At pH 3.0 and 4.0, protonated thiourea is preferentially transported to the crystal surface leading to increase in growth rate along b-axis. Cl - ions already bounded to Zn 2+ in the crystal are expected to offer the necessary driving force and this is followed by the transport of other species. This idea is based on the fact that free Zn 2+ is expected to be less at low pH due to formation of ZnCl 42- FTIR and laser Raman spectra confirm the presence of all functional groups. The dielectric loss of ZTC grown from the optimized pH value is low indicating that the crystals have fewer defects. Crystals grown at an optimized pH value possess higher transmittance. The second harmonic generation conversion efficiency measured using Nd:YAG laser was found to be comparable with KDP crystals. Hardness property increases for crystals grown from lower pH values.

Rajasekaran, R.; Kumar, R. Mohan; Jayavel, R.; Ramasamy, P.

2003-05-01

86

Separation and Removal of Cobalt and Zinc from Chloride Solution by Indion BSR—A Chelating Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion?exchange removal of zinc and cobalt from aqueous solutions on Indion BSR, an indigenous chelating resin, was studied in detail. The percentage removal of zinc and cobalt was examined by varying experimental conditions, viz., dosage of adsorbent, pH of the solution and contact time, metal concentration in aqueous feed, and temperature. It was found that more than 95% removal of

Archana Agrawal; K. K. Sahu; B. D. Pandey

2005-01-01

87

Identical flow injection spectrophotometric manifold for determination of protein, phosphorus, calcium, chloride, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc in feeds or premixes.  

PubMed

A simple procedure using an identical manifold was developed for determination of nitrogen (protein) phosphorus, calcium, chloride, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc in feeds and feedstuffs. By changing appropriate reagents and detection wavelength, these 8 elements were determined successively with a simple identical double-line flow injection (FI) manifold. Fl spectrophotometric determinations were made by the blue indophenol reaction for ammonium, the molybdenum blue method for phosphate, the cresolphthalein complexone procedure for calcium, and the mercuric thiocyanate procedure for chloride. The chromogenic reagents for copper, iron, manganese, and zinc determination were bis(cyclohexanone)oxalydihydrazone (Cuprizone), 1,10-phenanthroline, formaldoxime, and xylenol orange, respectively. Sample digestion catalyst, Fl manifold, and some chemical parameters were optimized. The proposed procedure had a sampling rate of 90/h for each analyte. The determination ranges (mg/L) were 10-60 for N, 1-15 for P and Ca, 540 for Cl, and 0.5-15 for Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn, respectively. Results of the analyses of animal feed and feedstuff samples by this procedure did not differ significantly from those obtained by proven manual methods. PMID:11501921

Liu, J F; Feng, Y D; Jiang, G B

2001-01-01

88

Microbiological and chemical quality of ground beef treated with sodium lactate and sodium chloride during refrigerated storage  

PubMed Central

The effects of sodium lactate (NaL) and sodium chloride (NaCl), either alone (30 g/kg) or in combination (20+20 g/kg), on the microbiological and chemical quality of raw ground beef during vacuum-packaged storage at 2°C were investigated. The results showed that addition of NaL alone or in combination with NaCl significantly delayed the proliferation of aerobic plate counts, psychrotrophic counts, lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae and extended the shelf life of the product up to 15 and 21 days, respectively, versus 8 days only for control. Over the storage time (21 days), NaL maintained the ground beef at almost constant pH, while the pH of control or NaCl-treated samples significantly decreased. Lipid oxidation (TBA value) was not affected by addition of NaL. At storage day 21 however, TBA values of both NaL-treated (0.309) and control (0.318) samples were significantly lower than those of samples treated with NaCl (0.463). The combination of NaCl with NaL significantly reduced the oxidative changes caused by NaCl (0.384 versus 0.463). Therefore, NaL alone or in combination with NaCl could be utilized successfully to reduce the microbial growth, maintain the chemical quality, and extend the shelf life of ground beef during refrigerated storage. PMID:17330155

Sallam, Kh. I.; Samejima, K.

2007-01-01

89

Phosphate removal by refined aspen wood fiber treated with carboxymethyl cellulose and ferrous chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass-based filtration media are of interest as an economical means to remove pollutants and nutrients found in stormwater runoff. Refined aspen wood fiber samples treated with iron salt solutions demonstrated limited capacities to remove (ortho)phosphate from test solutions. To provide additional sites for iron complex formation, and thereby impart a greater capacity for phosphate removal, a fiber pretreatment with an

Thomas L. Eberhardt; Soo-Hong Min; James S. Han

2006-01-01

90

Investigation of optical and electrical properties of L-Cystein doped zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) crystal for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The single crystal of L-Cystein doped zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) has been grown by slow evaporation technique. The optical study revealed that the doped ZTC crystal has high transmission with lowest cut off wavelength of 306 nm. The optical band gap was found to be 4.2 eV. The transition band gaps were studied using the photoluminescence spectrum. The incorporation of L-Cystein in ZTC was estimated qualitatively by FT-IR analysis. The presence of dopant was confirmed by energy diffraction X-ray analysis (EDAX) analysis. The lower dielectric characteristics of doped ZTC crystal were scrutinized by dielectric measurements. The high thermal stability of grown crystal was ascertained by TG/DTA analysis. The Second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency measured using Nd-YAG laser is 1.96 times that of pure ZTC.

Anis, Mohd; Shaikh, R. N.; Shirsat, M. D.; Hussaini, S. S.

2014-08-01

91

Influence of Cs(I)-doping on the spectral, thermal, morphological and optical properties of bis(thiourea)zinc(II) chloride crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of alkali metal caesium(I) doped bis(thiourea)zinc(II) chloride are grown at room temperature by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Powder XRD studies reveal some interesting features in the XRD profiles with changes in intensity patterns in doped specimen due to stress development in the crystal. The incorporation of Cs(I) into the crystal lattice was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Slight shifts in vibrational patterns of doped specimen indicate that the crystal undergoes considerable lattice stress as result of doping. SEM studies of pure and doped samples reveal the external morphology. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal studies reveal the purity of the material and the specimens are stable up to the melting point. The optical studies reveal that absorption is minimum in the visible region and doping influenced the diffuse reflectance spectrum. The band gap energies of the pure and doped specimens were estimated by the application of Kubelka-Munk algorithm.

Meena, K.; Muthu, K.; Meenatchi, V.; Rajasekar, M.; Aditya Prasad, A.; Meenakshisundaram, SP.

92

Zinc-histidine complex protects cultured cortical neurons against oxidative stress-induced damage.  

PubMed

The levels of zinc in the brain are directly affected by dietary zinc and deficiency has been associated with alcohol withdrawal seizures, excitotoxicity, impaired learning and memory and an accelerated rate of dysfunction in aged brain. Although zinc is essential for a healthy nervous system, high concentrations of zinc are neurotoxic, thus it is important to identify the most effective forms of zinc for treatment of conditions of the central nervous system. Accumulating evidence suggests that zinc-histidine complex (Zn(His)(2)) has greater biological potency and enhanced bioavailability compared with other zinc salts and also has antioxidant potential. Therefore, in this study we investigated the ability of zinc-histidine to protect cultured cortical neurons against hydrogen peroxide-induced damage. Pre-treating neurons for 18 h with subtoxic concentrations of zinc-histidine (5-25 microM) improved neuronal viability and strongly inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced (75 microM, 30 min) cell damage as assessed by MTT turnover and morphological analysis 24h later. Low concentrations of zinc-histidine were more neuroprotective than zinc chloride. There was evidence of an anti-apoptotic mechanism of action as zinc-histidine inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced caspase-3 activation and c-jun-N-terminal kinase phosphorylation. In summary, zinc supplementation with zinc-histidine protects cultured neurons against oxidative insults and inhibits apoptosis which suggests that zinc-histidine may be beneficial in the treatment of diseases of the CNS associated with zinc deficiency. PMID:15519738

Williams, Robert J; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Goni, Faisal M; Rice-Evans, Catherine A

2004-11-23

93

Infrared evidence for the grafting of ester groups on polyvinyl chloride stabilised by zinc and calcium stearates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Careful FTIR analysis of PVC samples heated in trichlorobenzene solution at 187°C in the présence of mixture of zinc and calcium stearates for various times were carried out. A special accessory allowing identical flushing of several samples with dry nitrogen was used. The samples were thoroughly purified before examination. The very weak carbonyl absorption, after an initial decrease, increases as

Michel Bartholin; Naima Bensemra; Tran van Hoang; Alain Guyot

1990-01-01

94

Investigation of processes to treat zinc-ferrite regeneration offgases in high temperature desulfurization of coal gases  

SciTech Connect

A bench-scale test program has been performed to evaluate the effect of critical operating variables on sulfur dioxide removal efficiency for two candidate throwaway'' desulfurization processes for treating zinc-ferrite reactor regeneration offgas. These two throwaway'' processes, dual-alkali wet scrubbing and spray dryer desulfurization, generate a gypsum waste sludge environmentally acceptable for disposal. They have seen extensive commercial application in flue gas desulfurization, but have not been evaluated for such high levels of removal efficiency and such high inlet sulfur dioxide concentrations as would be required for this application. 13 figs., 15 tabs.

Woodland, L. R.

1988-08-01

95

Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Interferences commonly encountered in the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc at crustal abundance levels are effectively eliminated using a rapid, sensitive, organic extraction technique. A potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid digestion solubilizes the metals not tightly bound in the silicate lattice of rocks, soils, and stream sediments. The six metals are selectively extracted into a 10% Aliquat 336-MIBK organic phase in the presence of ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. Metals in the organic extract are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to the 0.02-ppm level for silver, cadmium, copper, and zinc and to the 0.2-ppm level for bismuth and lead with a maximum relative standard deviation of 18.8% for known reference samples. An additional hydrofluoric acid digestion may be used to determine metals substituted in the silicate lattice.

Viets, J.G.

1978-01-01

96

Enantiopure N,N,O-scorpionate zinc amide and chloride complexes as efficient initiators for the heteroselective ROP of cyclic esters.  

PubMed

The reaction of bpzbeH, bpzteH (racemic mixture) or (R,R)-bpzmmH (enantiopure) with the amide complexes Zn{N(SiMe3)2}2 or Zn{N(SiHMe2)2}2 in 1?:?1 molar ratio in toluene afforded the mononuclear amide zinc complexes [Zn(NR2)(?(3)-NNO)] (1-6) [?(3)-NNO = bpzbe, R = SiMe3 1, SiHMe2 2; bpzte, R = SiMe3 3, SiHMe2 4; (R,R)-bpzmm, SiMe3 5, SiHMe2 6]. These complexes were employed in a protonolysis reaction with HCl-Et2O in 2?:?1 molar ratio to yield the dinuclear amide/chloride zinc complexes [Zn(?(2)-NN-?-O)2{ZnCl(NR2)}] (7-12) [?(2)-NN-?-O = bpzbe, R = SiMe3 7, SiHMe2 8; bpzte, R = SiMe3 9, SiHMe2 10; (R,R)-bpzmm, SiMe3 11, SiHMe2 12]. The mononuclear complexes 5 and 6 and dinuclear complexes 11 and 12 are the first enantiopure-scorpionate zinc amide complexes to be synthesized. The single-crystal X-ray structure analysis of derivatives 1 and 3 confirmed a monomeric 4-coordinative structure in which the heteroscorpionate ligands are in a ?(3) coordination mode, while 8 had a dimeric molecular disposition with two ?-bridging alkoxides of the heteroscorpionate ligands between the two six- and four-coordinate Zn(II) centers. Interestingly, the chiral amide-containing zinc complexes 1-5 and 11 can act as single-component initiators for the ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone and lactides under mild conditions, affording, in a few hours, medium/low molecular weight polymers with low polydispersity indices. MALDI-ToF mass spectra confirmed that the initiation occurred through a nucleophilic attack by the amide on the lactide monomer, and inspection of the kinetic parameters showed that propagations present the usual pseudo-first order dependence on monomer and catalyst concentrations. In addition, microstructural analysis of poly(rac-lactide)s revealed that the myrtenal substituent on the alkoxide fragment has a significant influence on the degree of stereoselectivity, producing enriched-heterotactic PLAs with a P(s) value of up to 0.79 under mild conditions. PMID:25307529

Honrado, Manuel; Otero, Antonio; Fernández-Baeza, Juan; Sánchez-Barba, Luis F; Garcés, Andrés; Lara-Sánchez, Agustín; Rodríguez, Ana M

2014-12-01

97

Foliar Damage, Ion Content, and Mortality Rate of Five Common Roadside Tree Species Treated with Soil Applications of Magnesium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitivity to magnesium chloride (MgCl2) was assessed on five common roadside tree species by maintaining soil concentrations at 0-, 400-, 800-, or 1,600-ppm chloride\\u000a via MgCl2 solution over four growing seasons. Evaluations of growth, leaf retention, foliar damage, and ion concentrations were conducted.\\u000a Water potentials were measured on two species. Foliar chloride and magnesium concentrations were positively correlated with\\u000a foliar

Betsy A. Goodrich; William R. Jacobi

98

Effect of [gamma]-irradiation and temperature on the structure of metal chloride treated poly(acrylamide)  

SciTech Connect

The gamma-induced changes in the structure of poly (acrylamide) (PAAm) treated with metal chlorides were investigated by following the corresponding variations in their ultraviolet spectra. Careful examination of UV spectra revealed that irradiation of the specimens results in the appearance of an absorption peak at 275 nm whose intensity depends on the applied dose and the nature of the metal ions. This band is ascribed to the formation of the carbonyl group. The results indicate that the dependence of the intensities of the band at 275 nm on the nature of the metal used provides strong evidence for the formation of metal polymer complexes. It was found that the pretreatment of PAAm with the appropriate concentration of ZnCl[sub 2], CoCl[sub 2], or NiCl[sub 2] reduces the effects of heating and the oxidation effects of [gamma]-irradiation. These results show that these metal ions can be used as stabilizers against thermal degradation of PAAm in the temperature range up to 160 C.

Moharram, M.A.; Rabie, S.M.; Daghistani, A.Y. (National Research Center and Middle Eastern Regional Center for the Arab Countries, Cario (Egypt))

1993-10-15

99

Quantitative determination of benzalkonium chloride in treated wood by solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.  

PubMed

Ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ) compound wood preservative is comprised of copper and quaternary ammonium compounds with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) as the active ingredient. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (LC-UV) was developed for quantitative determination of BAC in treated wood. Five species of wood were used, Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis), Yezo spruce (Picea jezoensis), Sakhalin fir (Abies sachalinensis), and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla). BAC used in the present study was composed of 66% C12, 33% C14 and less than 1% C16. BAC was added to each wood species (500 mg) then extracted with HCl-ethanol (20 ml) and quantitatively determined with LC-UV (262 nm). Wood extractives from the heartwood of each species, except western hemlock, interfered with quantitative determination of BAC, but SPE with an Oasis MCX cartridge was effective in preventing this. Using the present methods, BAC homologue peaks were clearly confirmed without interference. Recoveries from wood ranged from 92 to 101% and the limit of quantitation was approximately 240 microg/g wood for the C12 and C14 homologues. PMID:16275285

Miyauchi, Teruhisa; Mori, Mitsunori; Ito, Katsuhiko

2005-11-18

100

An experimental study of zinc chloride speciation from 300 to 600 ??C and 0.5 to 2.0 kbar in buffered hydrothermal solutions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The solubility of sphalerite (ZnS) was measured in KCl-HCl-H2O solutions at 300-600??C and 0.5-2.0 kbar. The silicate assemblage K-feldspar-muscovite (or andalusite)-quartz was used to buffer the solution to acid conditions, resulting in the total solubility reaction 2K+ + KAl2AlSi3O10(OH)2 + 6SiO2 + ZnS + nCl- = ZnCln(2-n) + 3KAlSi3O8 + H2S. (muscovite) (quartz) (sphalerite) (K-feldspar) A computer retrieval technique was used to derive average chloride ligand numbers for chlorozinc species at 0.25-2.0 molal total chloride. This technique mathematically solves for the average ligand number using a series of pertinent chemical relations at P and T. Mono- and di-chlorozinc species were found to predominate throughout the pressure-temperature-composition range investigated. The logarithms of the first and second dissociation constants for ZnCl20 were evaluated over the P-T range; for example, at 1 kbar, the values -0.41 and -1.42 were computed for the logarithm of the first dissociation constant, while -7.62 and -10.57 were computed for the logarithm of the second dissociation constant, for 400 and 500??C, respectively. Results are compared to past studies conducted at subcritical conditions and differ in that we find no evidence for more highly coordinated chloro-zinc species except possibly for ZnCl3- at 600??C, 1 and 2 kbar. Our results are consistent with electrostatic theory, which favors lower charged to neutral molecules in low dielectric-constant media. ?? 1994.

Cygan, G.L.; Hemley, J.J.; d'Angelo, W. M.

1994-01-01

101

Zinc complexation in chloride-rich hydrothermal fluids (25-600 °C): A thermodynamic model derived from ab initio molecular dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubility of zinc minerals in hydrothermal fluids is enhanced by chloride complexation of Zn2+. Thermodynamic models of these complexation reactions are central to models of Zn transport and ore formation. However, existing thermodynamic models, derived from solubility measurements, are inconsistent with spectroscopic measurements of Zn speciation. Here, we used ab initio molecular dynamics simulations (with the PBE exchange-correlation functional) to predict the speciation of Zn-Cl complexes from 25 to 600 °C. We also obtained in situ XAS measurements of Zn-Cl solutions at 30-600 °C. Qualitatively, the simulations reproduced the main features derived from in situ XANES and EXAFS measurements: octahedral to tetrahedral transition with increasing temperature and salinity, stability of ZnCl42- at high chloride concentration up to ?500 °C, and increasing stability of the trigonal planar [ZnCl3]- complex at high temperature. Having confirmed the dominant species, we directly determined the stability constants for the Zn-Cl complexes using thermodynamic integration along constrained Zn-Cl distances in a series of MD simulations. We corrected our stability constants to infinite dilution using the b-dot model for the activity coefficients of the solute species. In order to compare the ab initio results with experiments, we need to re-model the existing solubility data using the species we identified in our MD simulations. The stability constants derived from refitting published experimental data are in reasonable agreement with those we obtained using ab initio MD simulations. Our new thermodynamic model accurately predicts the experimentally observed changes in ZnO(s) and ZnCO3(s) solubility as a function of chloride concentration from 200 (Psat) to 600 °C (2000 bar). This study demonstrates that metal speciation and geologically useful stability constants can be derived for species in hydrothermal fluids from ab initio MD simulations even at the generalized gradient approximation for exchange-correlation. We caution, however, that simulations are mostly reliable at high T where ligand exchange is fast enough to yield thermodynamic averages over the timescales of the simulations.

Mei, Yuan; Sherman, David M.; Liu, Weihua; Etschmann, Barbara; Testemale, Denis; Brugger, Joël

2015-02-01

102

Influence of Cs(I)-doping on the spectral, thermal, morphological and optical properties of bis(thiourea)zinc(II) chloride crystals.  

PubMed

Single crystals of alkali metal caesium(I) doped bis(thiourea)zinc(II) chloride are grown at room temperature by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Powder XRD studies reveal some interesting features in the XRD profiles with changes in intensity patterns in doped specimen due to stress development in the crystal. The incorporation of Cs(I) into the crystal lattice was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Slight shifts in vibrational patterns of doped specimen indicate that the crystal undergoes considerable lattice stress as result of doping. SEM studies of pure and doped samples reveal the external morphology. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal studies reveal the purity of the material and the specimens are stable up to the melting point. The optical studies reveal that absorption is minimum in the visible region and doping influenced the diffuse reflectance spectrum. The band gap energies of the pure and doped specimens were estimated by the application of Kubelka-Munk algorithm. PMID:24562162

Meena, K; Muthu, K; Meenatchi, V; Rajasekar, M; Aditya Prasad, A; Meenakshisundaram, Sp

2014-05-01

103

Growth, optical, mechanical and dielectric studies on NLO active pure and metal ion doped single crystals of bis-thiourea zinc chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Good quality single crystals of pure and metal ion (Ni 2+) doped bis-thiourea zinc chloride (BTZC) possessing excellent nonlinear optical properties have been grown from aqueous solution by the slow solvent evaporation technique. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals are determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. The well defined sharp peaks in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern reveals the crystalline perfection and the EDAX spectrum confirms the presence of dopant in the lattice of the parent crystal. The DRS UV-visible spectral study reveals improved transparency for the doped crystal, ascertaining the inclusion of metal ion in the lattice. The optical band gap of the pure and doped crystals was calculated to be 4.8 and 5.2 eV respectively from the UV transmission spectrum. The vickers hardness test brings forth higher hardness value for Ni 2+doped BTZC as compared to pure BTZC crystal. The dielectric measurement exhibits very low dielectric constant and dielectric loss at higher frequencies for both the pure and Ni 2+doped BTZC. The existence of second harmonic generation signals in the crystal also has been confirmed by performing the Kurtz powder test.

Parasuraman, K.; Sakthi Murugesan, K.; Uthrakumar, R.; Jerome Das, S.; Milton Boaz, B.

2011-10-01

104

Xenon chloride ultraviolet B laser is more effective in treating psoriasis and in inducing T cell apoptosis than narrow-band ultraviolet B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier we reported that a 308-nm xenon chloride (XeCl) UVB laser is highly effective for treating psoriasis. As ultraviolet B light seems to cause T cell apoptosis, in the present study we studied the ability of the XeCl laser to induce T-cell apoptosis in vitro, and then compared the apoptosis-inducing capacities of narrow-band UVB (NB-UVB) light and the XeCl laser.

Zoltán Novák; Béla Bónis; Eszter Baltás; Imre Ocsovszki; Ferenc Ignácz; Attila Dobozy; Lajos Kemény

2002-01-01

105

Morphological analysis of the pancreas and liver in diabetic KK-A(y) mice treated with zinc and oxovanadium complexes.  

PubMed

The relationship between biometals, such as zinc (Zn(2+)), vanadium, copper, cobalt, and magnesium ions, and diabetes therapy has been recognized for several years. In particular, the antidiabetic activities of Zn(2+) and oxovanadium (VO(2+)) complexes have been measured using biochemical approaches. In the present study, diabetic KK-A(y) mice were treated with bis(1-oxy-2-pyridine-thiolato)Zn(2+) (Zn(opt)2) and bis(1-oxy-2-pyridine-thiolato)VO(2+) (VO(opt)2) for 4 weeks, and the antidiabetic activities of these metal complexes were evaluated using biochemical and morphological methods. Additionally, zinc gluconate (Zn(glc)2) and bis(ethylmaltolato)VO(2+) (VO(emal)2) were used as reference compounds. Pancreatic islet cells were smaller, and there was a tendency towards a lower islet cell area ratio in Zn(opt)2-treated mice compared with nontreated KK-A(y) mice. Furthermore, plasma insulin concentrations were significantly reduced to 27.2% of insulin concentrations in nontreated KK-A(y) mice. These results suggest that Zn(opt)2 administration provides morphological and biochemical improvements in hyperinsulinaemia. In contrast, in mice that received Zn(glc)2 and VO(2+) complexes, the islet cell size and islet cell area ratio did not differ from those in nontreated controls. Zn(opt)2- and VO(opt)2-treated mice exhibited significantly lower fat deposition and fat deposition area ratio in the liver (63.6% and 65.8% of nontreated KK-A(y) mice, respectively) compared to those observed in nontreated KK-A(y) mice. The differences in morphological improvements of the pancreas and liver owing to Zn(opt)2 or VO(opt)2 treatment may be explained by differences in the sites of actions of Zn(2+) and VO(2+) complexes in different organs in KK-A(y) mice. In conclusion, Zn(opt)2 exhibited superior antidiabetic effects over those of VO(opt)2, and this was owing to greater amelioration of the morphological parameters of the liver and pancreas. PMID:24905743

Moroki, Takayasu; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Tsubura, Airo; Yasui, Hiroyuki

2014-09-01

106

Decreased Immunoreactivities of the Chloride Transporters, KCC2 and NKCC1, in the Lateral Superior Olive Neurons of Kanamycin-treated Rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives From our previous study about the weak expressions of potassium-chloride (KCC2) and sodium-potassium-2 chloride (NKCC1) co-transporters in the lateral superior olive (LSO) in circling mice, we hypothesized that partially damaged cochlea of circling mice might be a cause of the weak expressions of KCC2 or NKCC1. To test this possibility, we reproduced the altered expressions of KCC2 and NKCC1 in the LSO of rats, whose cochleae were partially destroyed with kanamycin. Methods Rat pups were treated with kanamycin from postnatal (P)3 to P8 (700 mg/kg, subcutaneous injection, twice a day) and sacrificed for immunohistochemical analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and auditory brain stem response. Results The SEM study revealed partially missing hair cells in P9 rats treated with kanamycin, and the hearing threshold was elevated to 63.8±2.5 dB SPL (4 ears) at P16. Both KCC2 and NKCC1 immunoreactivities were more prominent in control rats on P16. On 9 paired slices, the mean densities of NKCC1 immunoreactivities were 118.0±1.0 (control) and 112.2±1.2 (kanamycin treated), whereas those of KCC2 were 115.7±1.5 (control) and 112.0±0.8 (kanamycin treated). Conclusion We concluded that weak expressions of KCC2 and NKCC1 in circling mice were due to partial destruction of cochleae. PMID:22977707

Suh, Myung-Whan

2012-01-01

107

Coplanar amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor with He plasma treated heavily doped layer  

SciTech Connect

We report thermally stable coplanar amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with heavily doped n{sup +} a-IGZO source/drain regions. Doping is through He plasma treatment in which the resistivity of the a-IGZO decreases from 2.98 ??cm to 2.79?×?10{sup ?3} ??cm after treatment, and then it increases to 7.92?×?10{sup ?2} ??cm after annealing at 300?°C. From the analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the concentration of oxygen vacancies in He plasma treated n{sup +}a-IGZO does not change much after thermal annealing at 300?°C, indicating thermally stable n{sup +} a-IGZO, even for TFTs with channel length L?=?4??m. Field-effect mobility of the coplanar a-IGZO TFTs with He plasma treatment changes from 10.7 to 9.2?cm{sup 2}/V?s after annealing at 300?°C, but the performance of the a-IGZO TFT with Ar or H{sub 2} plasma treatment degrades significantly after 300?°C annealing.

Jeong, Ho-young [Advanced Display Research Center, Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); LG Display R and D Center, 245 Lg-ro, Wollong-myeon, Paju-si, Gyeonggi-do 413-811 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bok-young; Lee, Young-jang; Lee, Jung-il; Yang, Myoung-su; Kang, In-byeong [LG Display R and D Center, 245 Lg-ro, Wollong-myeon, Paju-si, Gyeonggi-do 413-811 (Korea, Republic of); Mativenga, Mallory; Jang, Jin, E-mail: jjang@khu.ac.kr [Advanced Display Research Center, Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-13

108

Zinc oxide overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products, including certain creams and ointments used to prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally ...

109

A preliminary report on zinc-induced resistance to nitrogen mustard toxicity in mice  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies with cultured human normal fibroblasts indicated that treatment of cells with zinc before exposure to alkylating agents enhanced cell survival by seven- to nine-fold. To establish whether a similar zinc-induced protective response could be elicited in vivo, a set of preliminary experiments was carried out in which Balb/cJ mice were treated with zinc chloride (2 mg/kg body weight) or saline by intraperitoneal (ip) injection at 48, 36, 24, and 12 h before ip administration of 4 mg/kg of the alkylating agent nitrogen mustard. Of the animals that received saline before nitrogen mustard, 57% were killed compared with only 20% in the group treated with zinc before administration of the alkylating agent. These results (which almost certainly were achieved with less than optimal induction conditions) provide evidence for the existence, in vivo, of a zinc-inducible process that reduces alkylating agent lethality. 12 refs., 4 figs.

Shackelford, M.E.; Tobey, R.A.

1988-12-01

110

Partial dissolution of ACQ-treated wood in lithium chloride/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone: separation of copper from potential lignocellulosic feedstocks.  

PubMed

A cellulose solvent system based on lithium chloride (LiCl) in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) was used to assess the merits of partial dissolutions of coarsely ground wood samples. Alkaline Copper Quaternary (ACQ)-treated pine wood was of particular interest for treatment given the potential to generate a copper-rich stream apart from solid and/or liquid lignocellulosic feedstocks. Treatment with NMP alone gave yields of soluble materials that were higher than typical extractives contents thereby suggesting a limited degree of wood dissolution. Inclusion of LiCl, which disrupts hydrogen bonding, gave lower wood residue recoveries (i.e., higher dissolution) with higher LiCl concentration. Lower wood residue recoveries coincided with lower Klason lignin and hemicellulose-derived sugar contents in the wood residues. After treatment with 8% LiCl in NMP, subsequent filtration afforded 34% of the ACQ-treated sapwood as a wood residue retaining only 2% of the original copper. Pouring the filtrate over an excess of water resulted in the recovery of 30% of the solids and 50% of the copper together as a copper-enriched lignocellulosic precipitate. Results demonstrate a solvent system showing potential as a means to separate heavy metals from preservative-treated wood and to recover lignocellulosic feedstocks that may be suitable for use in a biorefinery. PMID:22154004

Eberhardt, Thomas L; Lebow, Stan; Reed, Karen G

2012-02-01

111

Efficient organic Schottky junction solar cells with a platinum chloride-treated PEDOT:PSS interfacial layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate highly efficient organic-based Schottky junction solar cells (OSJSCs) obtained by poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) modification with solution-processed platinum chloride (PtCl4) treatment. The effect of PtCl4 on PEDOT:PSS properties and device performances of solar cells was investigated. Kelvin probe and 4-point probe studies demonstrated that PtCl4 decreased the PEDOT:PSS sheet-resistance and increased the PEDOT:PSS work-function, thereby inducing an improved built-in potential and interface resistance. As a result, with the aid of the PtCl4 treatment, the Schottky junction device had a high power conversion efficiency of 3%, which was more than 20% higher than the reference OSJSCs with no PtCl4, indicating that PtCl4 can be a promising PEDOT:PSS modifier for raising the cell-performances of Schottky-junction based organic solar cells.

Hwang, Kyeongil; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Kim, Seok-Soon; Kim, Dong-Yu; Na, Seok-In

2015-01-01

112

New Process of Pellets-Metallized Sintering Process (PMSP) to Treat Zinc-Bearing Dust from Iron and Steel Company  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative process of pellets-metallized sintering process (PMSP) to prepare pre-reduced ironmaking burden using zinc-bearing dust has been developed. The pre-reduced sinter product, assaying 60.53 pct Fe with the metallization degree of 45.23 pct, and the Zn and Pb content of 0.18 and 0.02 pct with the removal rate of 92.78 and 96.37 pct were obtained at the productivity of 0.471 t m-2 h-1 and tumble index of 81.31 pct. PMSP has opened a new way to utilize the zinc-bearing dust efficiently.

Chun, Tiejun; Zhu, Deqing

2015-02-01

113

New Process of Pellets-Metallized Sintering Process (PMSP) to Treat Zinc-Bearing Dust from Iron and Steel Company  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative process of pellets-metallized sintering process (PMSP) to prepare pre-reduced ironmaking burden using zinc-bearing dust has been developed. The pre-reduced sinter product, assaying 60.53 pct Fe with the metallization degree of 45.23 pct, and the Zn and Pb content of 0.18 and 0.02 pct with the removal rate of 92.78 and 96.37 pct were obtained at the productivity of 0.471 t m-2 h-1 and tumble index of 81.31 pct. PMSP has opened a new way to utilize the zinc-bearing dust efficiently.

Chun, Tiejun; Zhu, Deqing

2014-11-01

114

Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a zinc or titanium promoted palladium-zirconium catalyst  

DOEpatents

A process and system (18) for reducing NO.sub.x in a gas using hydrogen as a reducing agent is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream (29) with a catalyst system (38) comprising sulfated zirconia washcoat particles (41), palladium, a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a promoter (45) comprising at least one of titanium, zinc, or a mixture thereof. The presence of zinc or titanium increases the resistance of the catalyst system to a sulfur and water-containing gas stream.

Sobolevskiy, Anatoly (Orlando, FL); Rossin, Joseph A. (Columbus, OH); Knapke, Michael J. (Columbus, OH)

2011-08-02

115

Development of a combined pyro- and hydro-metallurgical route to treat spent zinc-carbon batteries.  

PubMed

The potential of solvent extraction using Cynanex272 for the recovery of zinc from spent zinc carbon batteries after a prior leaching in hydrochloric acid has been investigated. The elemental analysis of the spent material was carried out by ICP-MS. The major metallic elements are: ZnO (41.30%), Fe(2)O(3) (4.38%), MnO(2) (2.69%), Al(2)O(3) (1.01%), CaO (0.36%) and PbO (0.11%). The quantitative leaching by hydrochloric acid showed that the dissolution rates are significantly influenced by temperature and concentration of the acid solutions. The experimental data for the dissolution rates have been analyzed and were found to follow the shrinking core model for mixed control reaction with surface chemical reaction as the rate-determining step. About 90.3% dissolution was achieved with 4M HCl solution at 80 degrees C with 0.050-0.063 mm particle size within 120 min at 360 rpm. Activation energy value of 22.78 kJ/mol and a reaction order of 0.74 with respect to H(+) ion concentration were obtained for the dissolution process. An extraction yield of 94.23% zinc by 0.032M Cyanex272 in kerosene was obtained from initial 10 g/L spent battery leach liquor at 25+/-2 degrees C and at optimal stirring time of 25 min. Iron has been effectively separated by precipitation prior to extraction using ammoniacal solution at pH 3.5, while lead and other trace elements were firstly separated from Zn and Fe by cementation prior to iron removal and zinc extraction. Finally, the stripping study showed that 0.1M HCl led to the stripping of about 95% of zinc from the organic phase. PMID:19596514

Baba, A A; Adekola, A F; Bale, R B

2009-11-15

116

Enhanced effect of zinc and calcium supplementation on bone status in growth hormone-deficient children treated with growth hormone: a pilot randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Reduced bone mineral content in growth hormone-deficient children (GHD) has been reported. Calcium, zinc, and vitamin D play an important role in bone formation. Hence, the aim of this pilot randomized controlled study was to evaluate the effect of calcium, vitamin D, and zinc supplementation in prepubertal GHD children treated with GH on bone health parameters. After 1 year of treatment with GH (20 mg/m(2)/week), 31 GHD (mean age 8.7 ± 2.8 years, 18 boys) prepubertal children were randomised to receive calcium (500 mg/day) and vitamin D (60,000 IU/3 months) [Group A] or a similar supplement of calcium, vitamin D, and zinc (as per Indian Recommended Allowance) [Group B] along with GH therapy for the next 12 months. The two groups were similar in anthropometric and body composition parameters at baseline (p > 0.1). After 1 year of GH therapy, height-adjusted % gain was similar in both groups, 48 % in bone mineral content (BMC) and 45 % in bone area (BA). Height-adjusted % increase in BMC was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the second year than in the first in both the groups. This % increase in BMC and BA was greater in Group B (51 and 36 % respectively) than in Group A (49 and 34 %), although marginally (p < 0.05). Supplementation of calcium and vitamin D along with GH therapy in GHD Indian children has the potential for enhancing bone mass accrual; this effect was further enhanced through the addition of zinc supplement. PMID:23224626

Ekbote, Veena; Khadilkar, Anuradha; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Mughal, Zulf; Khadilkar, Vaman

2013-06-01

117

Effect of sodium chloride on glassy and crystalline transitions of wheat starch treated with high hydrostatic pressure: Prediction of solute-induced barostability from nonmonotonic solute-induced thermostability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat starch was high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)-treated in various sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations (0 to near-saturation), in order to explore the effects of salt on glassy and crystalline transitions of starch during the treatment, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For wheat st...

118

Thermodynamic Modeling of Zinc Speciation in Electric Arc Furnace Dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remelting of automobile scrap, containing galvanized steel, in an electric arc furnace (EAF) results in the generation of a dust, which contains considerable amounts of zinc and other metals. Typically, the amount of zinc is of significant commercial value, but the recovery of this metal can be hindered by the varied speciation of zinc. The majority of the zinc exists as zincite (ZnO) and zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) or ferritic spinels ((Zn x Mn y Fe1-x-y )Fe2O4), but other zinccontaining species such as zinc chloride, zinc hydroxide chlorides, hydrated zinc sulphates and zinc silicates have also been identified. There is a scarcity of research literature on the thermodynamic aspects of the formation of these zinc-containing species, in particular, the minor zinc-containing species. Therefore, in this study, the equilibrium module of HSC Chemistry® 6.1 was utilized to calculate the types and the amounts of the zinc-containing species. The variables studied were: the gas composition, the temperature and the dust composition. At high temperatures, zincite forms via the reaction of zinc vapour with oxygen gas and the zinc-manganese ferrites form as a result of the reaction of iron-manganese particles with zinc vapour and oxygen. At intermediate temperatures, zinc sulphates are produced through the reaction of zinc oxide and sulphur dioxide gas. As room temperature is approached, zinc chlorides and fluorides form by the reaction of zinc oxide with hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride gases, respectively. Zinc silicate likely forms via the high temperature reaction of zinc vapour and oxygen with silica. In the presence of excess water and as room temperature is approached, the zinc sulphates, chlorides and fluorides can become hydrated.

Pickles, Chris A.

2011-04-01

119

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOEpatents

An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

Ross, Jr., Philip N. (Kensington, CA)

1989-01-01

120

Spectroscopic verification of zinc absorption and distribution in the desert plant Prosopis juliflora-velutina (velvet mesquite) treated with ZnO nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

The impact of metal nanoparticles (NPs) on biological systems, especially plants, is still not well understood. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs in velvet mesquite (Prosopis juliflora-velutina). Mesquite seedlings were grown for 15 days in hydroponics with ZnO NPs (10 nm) at concentrations varying from 500 to 4000 mg L?1. Zinc concentrations in roots, stems and leaves were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Plant stress was examined by the specific activity of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APOX); while the biotransformation of ZnO NPs and Zn distribution in tissues was determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and micro X-ray fluorescence (?XRF), respectively. ICP-OES results showed that Zn concentrations in tissues (2102 ± 87, 1135 ± 56, and 628 ± 130 mg kg?1 d wt in roots, stems, and leaves, respectively) were found at 2000 mg ZnO NPs L?1. Stress tests showed that ZnO NPs increased CAT in roots, stems, and leaves, while APOX increased only in stems and leaves. XANES spectra demonstrated that ZnO NPs were not present in mesquite tissues, while Zn was found as Zn(II), resembling the spectra of Zn(NO3)2. The ?XRF analysis confirmed the presence of Zn in the vascular system of roots and leaves in ZnO NP treated plants. PMID:22820414

Hernandez-Viezcas, J.A.; Castillo-Michel, H.; Servin, A.D.; Peralta-Videa, J.R.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.

2012-01-01

121

Realization of write-once-read-many-times memory device with O2 plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide thin film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices based on O2 plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films has been demonstrated. The device has a simple Al/IGZO/Al structure. The device has a normally OFF state with a very high resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2 V is ˜109 ? for a device with the radius of 50 ?m) as a result of the O2 plasma treatment on the IGZO thin films. The device could be switched to an ON state with a low resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2 V is ˜103 ? for the radius of 50 ?m) by applying a voltage pulse (e.g., 10 V/1 ?s). The WORM device has good data-retention and reading-endurance capabilities.

Liu, P.; Chen, T. P.; Li, X. D.; Liu, Z.; Wong, J. I.; Liu, Y.; Leong, K. C.

2014-01-01

122

Realization of write-once-read-many-times memory device with O{sub 2} plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide thin film  

SciTech Connect

A write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices based on O{sub 2} plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films has been demonstrated. The device has a simple Al/IGZO/Al structure. The device has a normally OFF state with a very high resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2?V is ?10{sup 9} ? for a device with the radius of 50??m) as a result of the O{sub 2} plasma treatment on the IGZO thin films. The device could be switched to an ON state with a low resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2?V is ?10{sup 3} ? for the radius of 50??m) by applying a voltage pulse (e.g., 10?V/1??s). The WORM device has good data-retention and reading-endurance capabilities.

Liu, P., E-mail: liup0013@ntu.edu.sg; Chen, T. P., E-mail: echentp@ntu.edu.sg; Li, X. D.; Wong, J. I. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Liu, Z. [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liu, Y. [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610054 (China); Leong, K. C. [GLOBALFOUNDRIES Singapore Pte Ltd, 60 Woodlands Industrial Park D Street 2, Singapore 738406 (Singapore)

2014-01-20

123

Chloride Test  

MedlinePLUS

... is an electrolyte. It is a negatively charged ion that works with other electrolytes, such as potassium , ... which is made up of sodium and chloride ions. Most of the chloride is absorbed by the ...

124

LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION OF GOLD(III) AND ITS SEPARATION OVER COPPER(II), IRON(III), AND ZINC(II) USING THIOUREA DERIVATIVES FROM CHLORIDE MEDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective liquid-liquid extraction of Au(III) from aqueous chloride media (1 mol\\/L NaCl) into cumene by thiourea derivatives namely 2a-c (N-thiocarbamoylbenzamidine derivatives), 3a-f (N-benzoylthiourea derivatives) has been investigated in detail. Marked differences in the metal extraction are noted using these organic compounds with respect to their structural variation. The extraction behaviour of Au(III) with extractants 2a-c and 3a-f followed the order

F. Z. EI Aamrani; Anil Kumar; L. Beyer; J. L. Cortina; A. M. Sastre

1998-01-01

125

Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts  

PubMed Central

To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L?1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the cell walls; thus, the electrolyte is leaked from cells. PMID:24572014

2014-01-01

126

Zinc movement in sewage-sludge-treated soils as influenced by soil properties, irrigation water quality, and soil moisture level  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A soil column study was conducted to assess the movement of Zn in sewage-sludge-amended soils. Varables investigated were soil properties, irrigation water quality, and soil moisture level. Bulk samples of the surface layer of six soil series were packed into columns, 10.2 cm in diameter and 110 cm in length. An anaerobically digested municipal sewage sludge was incorporated into the top 20 cm of each column at a rate of 300 mg ha-1. The columns were maintained at moisture levels of saturation and unsaturation and were leached with two waters of different quality. At the termination of leaching, the columns were cut open and the soil was sectioned and analyzed. Zinc movement was evaluated by mass balance accounting and correlation and regression analysis. Zinc movement in the unsaturated columns ranged from 3 to 30 cm, with a mean of 10 cm. The difference in irrigation water quality did not have an effect on Zn movement. Most of the Zn applied to the unsaturated columns remained in the sludge-amended soil layer (96.1 to 99.6%, with a mean of 98.1%). The major portion of Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer accumulated in the 0- to 3-cm depth (35.7 to 100%, with a mean of 73.6%). The mean final soil pH values decreased in the order: saturated columns = sludge-amended soil layer > untreated soils > unsaturated columns. Total Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer was correlated negatively at P = 0.001 with final pH (r = -0.85). Depth of Zn movement was correlated negatively at P = 0.001 with final pH (r = -0.91). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the final pH accounted for 72% of the variation in the total amounts of Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer of the unsaturated columns and accounted for 82% of the variation in the depth of Zn movement among the unsaturated columns. A significant correlation was not found between Zn and organic carbon in soil solutions, but a negative correlation significant at P = 0.001 was found between pH and Zn (r = -0.61).

Welch, J.E.; Lund, L.J.

1989-01-01

127

Synthesis, structure, and properties of nanocrystalline zinc by pulsed-current electrodeposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Square-wave cathodic current electrodeposition was used to produce for the first time nanocrystalline zinc electrodeposits from both zinc chloride and zinc sulfate-based electrolytes. The influence of pulse electrodeposition parameters and polyacrylamide and thiourea additions on the grain size, surface morphology, and preferred orientation of zinc deposits was determined. The microstructure and surface morphology of the zinc electrodeposits were studied by

Khaled Mohamed Saber Abdel-Hamid Youssef

2003-01-01

128

Congenital chloride diarrhea misdiagnosed as pseudo-Bartter syndrome  

PubMed Central

Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease which is characterized by intractable diarrhea of infancy, failure to thrive, high fecal chloride, hypochloremia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia and metabolic alkalosis. In this case report, we present the first female and the second official case of CCD in Iran. A 15-month-old girl referred to our hospital due to failure to thrive and poor feeding. She had normal kidneys, liver and spleen. Treating her with Shohl's solution, thiazide and zinc sulfate did not result in weight gain. Consequently, pseudo-Bartter syndrome was suspected, she was treated with intravenous (IV) therapy to which she responded dramatically. In addition, hypokalemia resolved quickly. Since this does not usually happen in patients with the pseudo-Bartter syndrome, stool tests were performed. Abnormal level of chloride in stool suggested CCD and she was thus treated with IV fluid replacement, Total parentral nutrition and high dose of oral omeprazole (3 mg/kg/day). She gained 1 kg of weight and is doing fine until present. CCD is a rare hereditary cause of intractable diarrhea of infancy. It should be considered in infants with unknown severe electrolyte disturbances. PMID:24381629

Saneian, Hossein; Bahraminia, Emad

2013-01-01

129

Accumulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HSP32) in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells treated with sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride or proteasomal inhibitors.  

PubMed

The present study examined the effect of sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride, heat shock and the proteasomal inhibitors MG132, withaferin A and celastrol on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; also known as HSP32) accumulation in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells. Immunoblot analysis revealed that HO-1 accumulation was not induced by heat shock but was enhanced by sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Immunocytochemistry revealed that these metals induced HO-1 accumulation in a granular pattern primarily in the cytoplasm. Additionally, in 20% of the cells arsenite induced the formation of large HO-1-containing perinuclear structures. In cells recovering from sodium arsenite or cadmium chloride treatment, HO-1 accumulation initially increased to a maximum at 12h followed by a 50% reduction at 48 h. This initial increase in HO-1 levels was likely the result of new synthesis as it was inhibited by cycloheximide. Interestingly, treatment of cells with a mild heat shock enhanced HO-1 accumulation induced by low concentrations of sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride. Finally, we determined that HO-1 accumulation was induced in A6 cells by the proteasomal inhibitors, MG132, withaferin A and celastrol. An examination of heavy metal and proteasomal inhibitor-induced HO-1 accumulation in amphibians is of importance given the presence of toxic heavy metals in aquatic habitats. PMID:25064141

Music, Ena; Khan, Saad; Khamis, Imran; Heikkila, John J

2014-11-01

130

Method of preparing zinc orthotitanate pigment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zinc orthotitanate suitable for use as a pigment for spacecraft thermal control coatings is prepared by heating a slightly zinc deficient reaction mixture of precipitated oxalates of zinc and titanium. The reaction mixture can be formed by coprecipitation of zinc and titanium oxalates from chloride solution or by mixing separately precipitated oxalates. The mixture is first heated to 400 to 600 C to remove volatiles and is then rapidly heated at 900 to 1200 C. Zinc orthotitanate produced by this method exhibits the very fine particle size needed for thermal control coatings as well as stability in a space environment.

Gates, D. W.; Harada, Y.; Logan, W. R.; Gilligan, J. E. (inventors)

1977-01-01

131

Zinc Information  

MedlinePLUS

... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Zinc Information Time To Talk About Natural Products for ... Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) ( NEI ) Can Zinc Be Harmful? ( ODS ) Zinc: Quick Facts ( ODS ) Share/ ...

132

Cesium Chloride  

MedlinePLUS

... effect on tumors. A few people have had life-threatening problems with heart rhythm, seizures, loss of consciousness, and electrolyte (blood chemistry) imbalances after taking cesium chloride. How is it ...

133

Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for imaging of copper, zinc, and platinum in thin sections of a kidney from a mouse treated with cis-platin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Platinum complexes are used for the treatment of several types of cancer. High platinum concentrations in the target tissue and low concentrations in dose-limiting tissue structures such as renal tubules are desirable to assure selective toxicity. Microlocal analysis of platinum distribution in tissue sections may thus contribute to the optimization of platinum therapy. Scanning laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to produce images of element distribution in 14-[mu]m thin sections of kidney tissue from a mouse treated with cis-platin 60 min prior to victimization. The sample surface was scanned (raster area 300 mm2) with a focused laser beam (wavelength 266 nm, diameter of laser crater 50 [mu]m, inter line distance 50 [mu]m and laser power density 3 x 109 W cm-2) in a cooled laser ablation chamber (about -15 [degree sign]C) developed for these measurements. The laser ablation system was coupled to a double-focusing sector field ICP-MS. Ion intensities of 63Cu+, 64Zn+, and 196Pt+ were measured within the tissue by LA-ICP-MS. Matrix-matched laboratory standards served for calibration of analytical data. The mass spectrometric analysis yielded an inhomogeneous distribution for Cu, Zn, and Pt in thin kidney sections. Copper was enriched in the capsule and outer cortex, zinc in the inner cortex and the platinum concentration followed a centripetal gradient with clear medullar enrichment. Thus, scanning LA-ICP-MS may be a useful tool in the preclinical development of new and less nephrotoxic platinum complexes.

Zoriy, Myroslav; Matusch, Andreas; Spruss, Thilo; Becker, J. Sabine

2007-02-01

134

[Zinc and chronic enteropathies].  

PubMed

In recent years the nutritional importance of zinc has been well established; its deficiency and its symptoms have also been recognized in humans. Furthermore, Acrodermatitis Enteropathica has been isolated, a rare but severe disease, of which skin lesions, chronic diarrhoea and recurring infections are the main symptoms. The disease is related to the malfunctioning of intestinal absorption of zinc and can be treated by administering pharmacological doses of zinc orally. Good dietary sources of zinc are meat, fish and, to a less extent, human milk. The amount of zinc absorbed in the small intestine is influenced by other nutrients: some compounds inhibit this process (dietary fiber, phytate) while others (picolinic acid, citric acid), referred to as Zn-binding ligands (ZnBL) facilitate it. Citric acid is thought to be the ligand which accounts for the high level of bioavailability of zinc in human milk. zinc absorption occurs throughout the small intestine, not only in the prossimal tract (duodenum and jejunum) but also in the distal tract (ileum). Diarrhoea is one of the clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency, thus many illnesses distinguished by chronic diarrhoea entail a bad absorption of zinc. In fact, in some cases of chronic enteropathies in infants, like coeliac disease and seldom cystic fibrosis, a deficiency of zinc has been isolated. Some of the symptoms of Crohn's disease, like retarded growth and hypogonadism, have been related to hypozinchemia which is present in this illness. Finally, it is possible that some of the dietary treatments frequently used for persistent post-enteritis diarrhoea (i.e. cow's milk exclusion, abuse and misuse of dietary fiber like carrot and carub powder, use of soy formula) can constitute a scarce supply of zinc and therefore could promote the persistency of diarrhoea itself. PMID:6100131

Giorgi, P L; Catassi, C; Guerrieri, A

1984-01-01

135

A superhydrophobic layer formed by fluoro-derivative-treated gold sheets on grown-up zinc oxide nanoparticles for a spherical DNA hydrogel.  

PubMed

A facile deposition process was developed for the fabrication of a new superhydrophobic layer composed of an underlying zinc oxide nanoparticle support and a gold top layer doped with the hydrophobic chemical, heptadecafluoro-1-decanethiol (HDFT). The resulting microscaled and spherical DNA-based hydrogels could serve as a platform for pseudo-nucleus mimics. PMID:23838202

Bae, Sun Ju; Song, Hui; Jung, Gun Young; Cho, Seung-Woo; Bae, Jong Wook; Um, Soong Ho

2013-11-01

136

Solvent extraction of zinc by trilaurylamine N-oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solvent extraction behaviour of zinc from aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions using trilaurylamine N-oxide in toluene has been studied. The distribution ratios have been studied as a function of concentration of acid and extractant. The effects of foreign agents such as nitrate, sulphate, chloride, acetate, citrate, oxalate, and ascorbic acid on the extraction of zinc from hydrochloric acid solution are

A. Bari

1988-01-01

137

Improved corrosion behavior of nanocrystalline zinc produced by pulse-current electrodeposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulse electrodeposition was used to produce nanocrystalline (nc) zinc from zinc chloride electrolyte with polyacrylamide and thiourea as additives. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used to study the grain size and surface morphology of the deposits and X-ray diffraction was used to examine their preferred orientation. Corrosion behavior of the electrodeposited nc zinc in comparison with electrogalvanized (EG)

Kh. M. S Youssef; C. C Koch; P. S Fedkiw

2004-01-01

138

Zinc Information  

MedlinePLUS

... Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Zinc Information Time To Talk About Natural Products for the ... Glance Eye Conditions Information Colds/Flu Information Safety Information Zicam Cold Remedy Nasal Products—Warnings ( FDA ; 06/ ...

139

Effect of anions on selective solubilization of zinc and copper in bacterial leaching of sulfide ores.  

PubMed

Bacterial leaching of sulfide ores using Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, Thiobacillus thiooxidans, or a combination of the two was studied at various concentrations of specific anions. Selective zinc and copper solubilization was obtained by inhibiting iron oxidation without affecting sulfur/sulfide oxidation. Phosphate reduced iron solubilization from a pyrite (FeS(2))-sphalerite (ZnS) mixture without significantly affecting zinc solubilization. Copper leaching from a chalcopyrite (CuFeS(2))-sphalerite mixture was stimulated by phosphate, whereas chloride accelerated zinc extraction. In a complex sulfide ore containing pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite, both phosphate and chloride reduced iron solubilization and increased copper extraction, whereas only chloride stimulated zinc extraction. Maximum leaching obtained was 100% zinc and 50% copper. Time-course studies of copper and zinc solubilization suggest the possibility of selective metal recovery following treatment with specific anions. PMID:10861398

Harahuc, L; Lizama, H M; Suzuki, I

2000-07-20

140

Metal distribution in different tissues and in subcellular fractions of the Mediterranean clam Ruditapes decussatus treated with cadmium, copper, or zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetics of accumulation of Cd (500 ?g\\/l), Cu (150 ?g\\/l) and Zn (1000 ?g\\/l) were measured in organs (gills, digestive gland and remainder) of the clam Ruditapes decussatus. A significant accumulation was observed in the organs of animals treated with Cd or Cu, whereas no difference was obvious between controls and animals exposed to Zn. A slight increase was noted

M. Roméo; M. Gnassia-Barelli

1995-01-01

141

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

142

Atmospheric Corrosion and Precipitation Runoff From Zinc and Zinc Alloys Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The long-term atmospheric corrosion performance of rolled zinc and three thermal-sprayed (TS) zinc materials (Zn, Zn-15Al, and Al-12Zn-0.2In) was characterized by measuring corrosion product concentrations in precipitation runoff at coastal marine and inland sites. Corrosion rates and average zinc concentrations in the runoff were greater at the site having higher annual rainfall. Higher chloride concentrations did not seem to affect either the corrosion rates or the zinc concentrations in the runoff at the coastal site compared to those of the inland site. Zinc runoff concentrations were higher for TS Zn than rolled zinc due to the greater surface area of the thermal-sprayed surface. Average cumulative zinc runoff losses for the two sites were: 64 {micro}mol Zn/L for TS Zn, 37 {micro}mol Zn/L for rolled Zn, 24 {micro}mol Zn/L for TS Zn-15Al, and 1.8 {micro}mol Zn/L for TS Al-12Zn-0.2In. Cumulative zinc runoff losses were directly related both to the precipitation rate and to the availability of Zn in metal surfaces, a consequence of surface roughness and surface chemistry properties of the metal.

Matthes, S.A.; Cramer, S.D.; Bullard, S.J.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Holcomb, G.R.

2003-03-16

143

Electrodeposition of semiconductors for optoelectronic devices: results on zinc oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrodeposition of polycrystalline semiconductor thin films is mainly used for photovoltaic applications. Most of the work concerns chalcogenide compounds like CdTe, CuInSe2, CdS… This route is also emerging for semiconductor oxide preparation. Results concerning the electrodeposition of zinc oxide layers by reduction of dissolved oxygen in presence of Zn(II) ions are presented. Epitaxial growth can be achieved in zinc chloride

Thierry Pauporté; Daniel Lincot

2000-01-01

144

Effect of Zinc and Aluminum Ions in Breadmaking 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 76(3):355-360 Zinc and aluminum ions as chloride or sulfate salts at 50-500 ppm metal ion (flour basis) had no detrimental effect on fermentation of yeast- leavened dough. Increased mixing times (?10-50%) due to addition of aqueous solutions of zinc (250-500 ppm) or aluminum (150-250 ppm) ions to a bread formula was overcome by withholding salt un til the

Keswara Rao Vadlamani; Paul A. Seib

1999-01-01

145

Bacitracin zinc overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... Small amounts of bacitracin zinc are dissolved in petroleum jelly to create antibiotic ointments. Bacitracin zinc overdose ... 1-800-222-1222. See also: Bacitracin overdose Petroleum jelly overdose Zinc oxide overdose

146

Electrodeposition of zinc + cobalt alloys: inhibitory effect of zinc with convection and pH of solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of pH and agitation on the electrodeposition of zinc + cobalt alloys from aqueous chloride solutions was studied on vitreous carbon electrodes paying special attention to the initial stages of the electrodeposition process. Several Zn(II)Co(II) ratios in the solution were used, keeping the total concentration of metallic ions at 0.1 mol dm?3 and chloride ion at 1 mol

E. Gómez; E. Vallés

1995-01-01

147

Modified zinc oxide thick film resistors as NH 3 gas sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screen printed thick films of pure and RuO2-doped zinc oxide were prepared. Pure zinc oxide films were also surface modified with ruthenium chloride. Gas sensing properties of the pure, doped and surface modified films were studied. The films were observed to be most sensitive to NH3 gas. The results are discussed and interpreted.

M. S. Wagh; G. H. Jain; D. R. Patil; S. A. Patil; L. A. Patil

2006-01-01

148

Zinc-Thiourea-Diphenyl Ether. a new Reagent for the Debromination of Vic-Dibromides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc with a trace of zinc chloride in methanol, ethanol, dioxane or diethyl ether is one of the most common dehalogenating agents. However, the use of such low boiling solvents causes difficulties when the dehalogenated products have boiling points similar to these solvents, when they form azeotropic mixtures with the solvents or when the products tend to polymerize in the

Ramendra N. Majumdar; H. James Harwood

1981-01-01

149

Preparation of luminescent films of zinc sulfide by spraying of solutions onto a heated substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

New methods for preparing luminescent materials, especially thin-film luminophores, are of value and in this work the authors prepare luminescent films of zinc sulfide by the method of spraying solutions onto a heated substrate. The working solutions consisted of zinc chloride and thiourea. The results obtained made it possible to determine the effect of different factors on the nature of

V. N. Semenov; E. V. Derevyanko; V. G. Klyuev; M. A. Kushnir; L. Ya. Malaya

1987-01-01

150

Metallobiology: Zinc differently  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extracellular ejection of zinc, known as a zinc spark, is triggered by the fertilization of a mammalian egg; however, the origin of this zinc was not clear. Now, a combination of four complementary techniques has revealed the source and provided an unprecedented quantification of the distribution of zinc in a maturing mammalian oocyte.

Carter, Kyle P.; Palmer, Amy E.

2015-02-01

151

Production of zinc pellets  

DOEpatents

Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

1996-01-01

152

Production of zinc pellets  

DOEpatents

Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

Cooper, J.F.

1996-11-26

153

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

154

The influence of particles of a minor component on the matrix strength of sodium chloride.  

PubMed

This paper deals with the matrix strength of sodium chloride particles in pure sodium chloride tablets and in tablets compressed from binary mixtures of sodium chloride with low concentrations of pregelatinised starch. Because this study concerns the strength of the sodium chloride matrix, the tablet strength is reflected as a function of the sodium chloride volume fraction in the tablet. Starch particles in the mixture tablets decrease the sodium chloride volume fraction-tensile strength relationship compared with that of pure sodium chloride tablets. To determine the contribution of the sodium chloride matrix to the tablet strength, the starch particles were removed from the mixture tablets by heat treatment. Determination of the strengths of these heat-treated tablets reveals that the sodium chloride matrix strength determines the tablet strength of mixture tablets containing a single matrix of sodium chloride particles. The decrease of the sodium chloride matrix density in the three different tablets (pure sodium chloride tablets, mixture tablets and heat-treated tablets) is reflected by an increase of the median pore size. The matrix in sodium chloride tablets shows a higher tensile strength to median pore size relation than the matrices in the mixture and heat-treated tablets. Based on calculations according to the theory of elastic-brittle fracture, it is suggested that the initial presence of starch particles during tablet compaction causes the pores in the matrices of the mixtures and heat-treated tablets to be relatively more flat and longer. These pores weaken the sodium chloride matrix in the mixture and heat-treated tablets to a larger extent than the shorter, more spherical pores formed during compaction of pure sodium chloride. PMID:12208452

van Veen, B; van der Voort Maarschalk, K; Bolhuis, G K; Gons, M; Zuurman, K; Frijlink, H W

2002-09-01

155

Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.  

PubMed

Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration?20?g/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. PMID:25439135

Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

2014-10-01

156

[Congenital chloride diarrhea].  

PubMed

Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare hereditary disease, with a prenatal onset, secondary to a deficit in the intestinal chloride transport. In the present study, we describe the clinical characteristics of three patients with congenital watery diarrhea, two of them females, aged between 9 and 14 months at the first visit. All patients presented perinatal antecedents of polyhydramnios and prematurity, watery stools since birth and growth failure. Metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia and hypochloremia were found. Stool ionogram with elevated doses of chloride, exceeding both sodium and potassium, confirmed the diagnosis of CCD. Substitute treatment with sodium and potassium chloride was started with good results. CCD should be considered as a differential diagnosis to congenital watery diarrhea, since early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are mandatory for the normal development of the child, avoiding severe complications such as neurological sequelae and even death. PMID:16127986

Contreras, Mónica; Rocca, Ana; Benedetti, Laura; Kakisu, Hisae; Delgado, Sabrina; Ruiz, José Antonio

2005-01-01

157

[Treatment of tonsillitis with dequalinium chloride].  

PubMed

44 children with acute tonsillitis were treated without the usual penicillin therapy. 22 children received lozenges containing Dequalinium chloride, 22 children received void lozenges under conditions of a double blind study. The results show that the treatment with Dequalinium chloride did not influence conditions caused by haemolytic streptococci -- verified by bacteriological examinations of pharyngeal smears -- inspite of its efficiency in vitro. Also general symptoms like fever, leukocytosis and rapid erythrocyte sedimentation rate were not influenced by Pequalinium chloride. Local symptoms like sore throat, tonsillar redness and exsudation were influenced beneficially. It can therefore be assumed that in cases of acute tonsillitis penicillin therapy is not necessary except in cases of streptococci infections. These should be excluded by pharyngeal smear. The medium of Liebermeister and Braveny is a very simple indicator to differentiate between tonsillitis caused by streptococci and tonsillitis of other origin. PMID:856702

Krämer, W

1977-04-28

158

Zinc might protect oxidative changes in the retina and pancreas at the early stage of diabetic rats  

SciTech Connect

It is well documented that oxidative stress is a basic mechanism behind the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The current study was undertaken to elucidate the possible role of zinc as an antioxidant and a biological membrane stabilizer in the protection against (DR). Male Wistar rats weighing 250 {+-} 50 g were made diabetic by injection with a single ip dose of alloxan (100 mg/kg). Another group of rats was simultaneously treated with alloxan (100 mg/kg) and a single ip dose of zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}) (5 mg/kg). Blood and tissue samples were collected at 24, 48, and 72 h post-treatment in both groups. Diabetic state was confirmed by the determination of plasma glucose levels (significantly elevated at any time of the experiment when compared with controls receiving vehicle). Plasma insulin was significantly increased 24 h after treatment in both alloxan and alloxan plus ZnCl{sub 2}-treated groups, and then decreased markedly 48 and 72 h post treatment in both groups. Alloxan treatment depleted both retinal and liver glutathione contents. The decrease in retinal and liver GSH in alloxan-treated rats was accompanied with a sustained increase in their thiobarbituric acid (TBA) content. Simultaneous treatment of rats with alloxan and ZnCl{sub 2} blunted the sustained increment in plasma glucose induced by alloxan. The combined administration of alloxan and zinc reversed the depleting effect on retinal and hepatic GSH in alloxan-treated rats and reduced the elevations in TBA content of both retinas and livers. At variance with many other antioxidants the current results clearly indicate the beneficial effects of Zn in both controlling hyperglycemia and the protection of the retina against oxidative stress in diabetes which may help set a new direction toward the development of effective treatments of DR.

Moustafa, Sohair A. [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt)]. E-mail: Sohabdulla@hotmail.com

2004-12-01

159

Common cold - how to treat at home  

MedlinePLUS

... Antibiotics are almost never needed to treat a common cold. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) help lower ... Many home remedies are popular treatments for the common cold. These include vitamin C, zinc supplements, and Echinacea. ...

160

77 FR 47291 - Residues of Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...in evaporative humidifiers. Evaporative humidifiers, unlike other types of humidifiers, do not generate and expel treated droplets or mist. The Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride will volatilize in, at most, negligible amounts from treated water in...

2012-08-08

161

Anthraquinone repellent to reduce take of non-target birds from zinc phosphide rodenticide applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated anthraquinone as an avian repellent to reduce take of non-target birds from zinc phosphide rodenticide applications. We observed zero mortalities and no overt signs of zinc phosphide toxicosis among 20 Canada geese (Branta canadensis), 24 horned larks (Eremophila alpestris), and 47 ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) offered baits treated with 1% or 2% anthraquinone and 2% zinc phosphide (target

Scott J. Werner; Shelagh K. Tupper; Susan E. Pettit; James C. Carlson; George M. Linz

162

Zinc in diet  

MedlinePLUS

... reduce your risk of becoming sick with the common cold. Starting to take zinc supplements within 24 hours ... 2000. Singh M, Das RR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Feb 16;2: ...

163

Zinc and gastrointestinal disease  

PubMed Central

This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

2014-01-01

164

Zinc and gastrointestinal disease.  

PubMed

This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

2014-11-15

165

A Novel Low-Cost Sodium-Zinc Chloride Battery  

SciTech Connect

The sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) battery has been considered as one of the most attractive energy storage systems for stationary and transportation applications. Even though Na-NiCl2 battery has been widely investigated, there is still a need to develop a more economical system to make this technology more attractive for commercialization. In the present work, a novel low-cost Na-ZnCl2 battery with a thin planar ??-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE) was proposed, and its electrochemical reactions and battery performance were investigated. Compared to the Na-NiCl2 chemistry, the ZnCl2-based chemistry was more complicated, in which multiple electrochemical reactions including liquid-phase formation occurred at temperatures above 253°C. During the first stage of charge, NaCl reacted with Zn to form Na in the anode and Na2ZnCl4 in the cathode. Once all the residual NaCl was consumed, further charging led to the formation of a NaCl-ZnCl2 liquid phase. At the end of charge, the liquid phase reacted with Zn to produce solid ZnCl2. To identify the effects of liquid-phase formation on electrochemical performance, button cells were assembled and tested at 280°C and 240°C. At 280°C where the liquid phase formed during cycling, cells revealed quite stable cyclability. On the other hand, more rapid increase in polarization was observed at 240°C where only solid-state electrochemical reactions occurred. SEM analysis indicated that the stable performance at 280°C was due to the suppressed growth of Zn and NaCl particles, which were generated from the liquid phase during discharge of each cycle.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

2013-02-28

166

ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition, and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention, and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METH...

167

Bioavailability of zinc in  

E-print Network

Bioavailability of zinc in marine systems through time Two geomicrobiologists in our was delayed until the Neoproterozoic (between 1000 and 542 Ma) when zinc became readily available, Australia, Asia and Europe and found consistently high levels of seawater zinc, on the same order

Machel, Hans

168

Molecular Structure of Barium Chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Barium Chloride was the byproduct of the discovery of radium by Madame Curie. When refining radium, the final separation resulted in barium chloride and radium chloride. Electrophoresis of barium chloride produces small-scale amounts of barium atom. This can be used for obtaining barium for commercial uses. Applications of barium chloride include stimulating the heart and other muscles for medicinal purposes, and also for softening water. Other uses of barium chloride include the manufacturing of barium salts, as pesticide, pigments, boiler detergent, in purifying sugar, as mordant in dyeing and printing textiles, and in the manufacture of caustic soda, polymers, and stabilizers.

2002-08-15

169

Chloride removal from vitrification offgas  

SciTech Connect

This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

Slaathaug, E.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-06-01

170

Determination of chloride in geological samples by ion chromatography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of silicate rocks are prepared by sodium carbonate fusion and then treated by ion chromatography. The method was tested for geological standards with chloride concentration between 0.003 and 3%. Observed chloride concentrations comparedd favorably with literature values. The relative standard deviation and detection limit for the method were 8% and 7 ppm, respectively. Up to 30 determination per 24-hour period were possible. ?? 1983.

Wilson, S.A.; Gent, C.A.

1983-01-01

171

Optimal dose of zinc supplementation for preventing aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in rats  

PubMed Central

Zinc supplementation can help maintain learning and memory function in rodents. In this study, we hypothesized that zinc supplementation could antagonize the neurotoxicity induced by aluminum in rats. Animals were fed a diet containing different doses of zinc (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) for 9 weeks, and orally administered aluminum chloride (300 mg/kg daily) from the third week for 7 consecutive weeks. Open-field behavioral test results showed that the number of rearings in the group given the 100 mg/kg zinc supplement was significantly increased compared with the group given the 50 mg/kg zinc supplement. Malondialdehyde content in the cerebrum was significantly decreased, while dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels were increased in the groups given the diet supplemented with 100 and 200 mg/kg zinc, compared with the group given the diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg zinc. The acetylcholinesterase activity in the cerebrum was significantly decreased in the group given the 100 mg/kg zinc supplement. Hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed evident pathological damage in the hippocampus of rats in the group given the diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg zinc, but the damage was attenuated in the groups given the diet supplemented with 100 and 200 mg/kg zinc. Our findings suggest that zinc is a potential neuroprotective agent against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in rats, and the optimal dosages are 100 and 200 mg/kg. PMID:25206586

Lu, Hao; Hu, Jianyang; Li, Jing; Pang, Wei; Hu, Yandan; Yang, Hongpeng; Li, Wenjie; Huang, Chengyu; Zhang, Mingman; Jiang, Yugang

2013-01-01

172

Bond strength of thermal-sprayed zinc on concrete during early electrochemical aging  

SciTech Connect

The Albany Research Center, in collaboration with the Oregon Department of Transportation, is studying changes in the bond strength of thermal-sprayed zinc anodes on reinforced concrete during the early stages of electrochemical aging in impressed current cathodic protection (CP) systems where the zinc surface was not wetted. The bond strength of the zinc to the concrete decreased more rapidly with electrochemical aging when the zinc surface was not wetted than when wetted. The zinc-concrete interfacial chemistry for samples not wetted showed a greater buildup of chlorides and only weak evidence of secondary mineralization. pH at the zinc-concrete interface was around 7, which was similar to that measured for wetted surfaces. pH at the steel-concrete interface did not change on aging, remained strongly basic, and was similar to that for wetted samples.

Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S. Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D. [Dept. of Energy, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center; McGill, G.E. [Oregon Dept. of Transportation, Salem, OR (United States)

1997-01-01

173

Thermal treatment for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is the recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn, after preliminary physical treatment followed by removal of mercury. Separation of the metals has been carried out on the basis of their different boiling points, being 357°C and 906°C the boiling point of mercury and zinc and 1564°C the melting point of Mn(2)O(3). Characterization by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA and X-ray powder diffraction of the mixture has been carried out after comminution sieving and shaking table treatment to remove the anodic collectors and most of chlorides contained in the mixture. The mixture has been roasted at various temperatures and resident times in a flow of air to set the best conditions to remove mercury that were 400°C and 10 min. After that, the flow of air has been turned into a nitrogen one (inert atmosphere) and the temperatures raised, thus permitting the zinc oxide to be reduced to metallic zinc by the carbon present in the original mixture and recovered after volatilization as a high grade concentrate, while manganese was left in the residue. The recovery and the grade of the two metals, at 1000°C and 30 min residence time, were 84% and 100% for zinc and 85% and 63% for manganese, respectively. The recovery of zinc increased to 99% with a grade of 97% at 1200°C and 30 min residence time, while the recovery and grade of manganese were 86% and 87%, respectively, at that temperature. Moreover, the chlorinated compounds that could form by the combustion of the plastics contained in the spent batteries, are destroyed at the temperature required by the process. PMID:22677015

Belardi, G; Lavecchia, R; Medici, F; Piga, L

2012-10-01

174

Molecular Structure of Thionyl chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thionyl chloride is a slightly yellowish liquid with an intense odor and low viscosity. It reacts with lithium to produce lithium chloride and is a good solvent for most organic compounds. Other uses of thionyl chloride include as an intermediate for the production of pharmaceutically active ingredients, as an electrolyte in lithium batteries, and in crop protection.

2002-10-01

175

Chloride Channels of Intracellular Membranes  

PubMed Central

Proteins implicated as intracellular chloride channels include the intracellular ClC proteins, the bestrophins, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, the CLICs, and the recently described Golgi pH regulator. This paper examines current hypotheses regarding roles of intracellular chloride channels and reviews the evidence supporting a role in intracellular chloride transport for each of these proteins. PMID:20100480

Edwards, John C.; Kahl, Christina R.

2010-01-01

176

Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

177

Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOEpatents

The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1988-06-21

178

Laboratory diagnosis of zinc phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Zinc phosphide, a readily-available rodenticide, poses a significant risk for intoxication in animals. Animals have been poisoned by ingesting treated bait or the carcasses of poisoned rodents. Toxicity is due to the liberation of phosphine gas in the stomach. Clinical signs include central nervous system excitation, depression and vomition. Similarities of clinical signs with other central nervous system toxicants make the diagnosis difficult without a specific diagnostic test. The procedure outlined in this paper detects phosphine liberated from zinc phosphide by the addition of hydrochloric acid as well as the phosphine previously generated by contact with stomach acid. PMID:7900268

Guale, F G; Stair, E L; Johnson, B W; Edwards, W C; Haliburton, J C

1994-12-01

179

Cohesion and polymorphism in solid rubidium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cohesive energetics of three phases of solid cubic rubidium chloride, the zinc blende structured 4:4 phase, the 6:6 sodium chloride polymorph and the 8:8 phase with the cesium chloride structure, are computed using a non-empirical fully ionic model. The rearrangement energies needed to convert free anions to their optimal states in-crystal, two-body inter-ionic potentials, plus the further contributions arising from electron correlation, are reported. The 'optimal' anion-anion potentials, computed by using at each geometry the optimal wavefunction, are compared with the 'frozen' potential using the same wavefunction at all geometries. The lattice energy of the 4:4 structure is predicted to be some 40 kJ mol-1 smaller than that of either the 6:6 or the 8:8 phases. Introduction of the Axilrod-Teller triple dipole dispersion interactions and the vibrational zero point energy predicts the 8:8 phase to lie 3.2 kJ mol-1 lower in energy than the 6:6 structure. This is both consistent with radius ratio arguments and supported by two separate experiments that strongly suggest that the 8:8 phase is favoured over the 6:6 structure at low temperatures even though the latter is more stable at ambient temperatures. A shell model description is presented for the ion-induced dipole interactions that arise both in small clusters and in crystals encapsulated in nanotubes. The elastic constants and entropy at 300 K predicted for the 6:6 phase from this model by using the GULP program agree well with experiment. A smaller entropy is predicted for the 8:8 structure.

Pyper, N. C.; Kirkland, A. I.; Harding, J. H.

2006-01-01

180

Chloride and Salinity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-07-15

181

Zinc in Entamoeba invadens.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and dithizone staining of trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba invadens demonstrate that these cells have a high concentration of zinc (approximately one picogram per cell or 1% of their dry weight). In the cysts of this organism, the zinc is confined to the chromatoid bodies, which previous work has shown to contain crystals of ribosomes. The chemical state and function of this zinc are unknown.

Morgan, R. S.; Sattilaro, R. F.

1972-01-01

182

Effects of Zinc Fertilization of Corn on Hatching of Heterodera glycines in Soil  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of zinc fertilizers on hatching and soil population densities of Heterodera glycines. In vitro egg hatching in solutions of reagent-grade zinc sulfate and zinc chloride and fertilizer-grade zinc sulfate was significantly greater than hatching in deionized water, whereas zinc chelate fertilizer significantly inhibited egg hatching relative to deionized water. In greenhouse experiments, no differences in cumulative percentage egg hatch were detected in soil naturally infested with H. glycines amended with fertilizer-grade zinc sulfate and zinc chelate at rates equivalent to 0, 1.12, 11.2, and 112 kg Zn/ha and subsequently planted with corn (Zea mays L.). In a field experiment, no significant differences in H. glycines egg population densities and corn yields were detected among plots fertilized with 0, 11.2, and 22.4 kg Zn/ha rates of zinc chelate. Yields of H. glycines-susceptible soybean planted in plots 1 year after zinc fertilization of corn plots also were not significantly affected. Zinc compounds significandy affected H. glycines egg hatching in vitro, but had no effect on hatching in natural soils. PMID:19277276

Behm, J. E.; Tylka, G. L.; Niblack, T. L.; Wiebold, W. J.; Donald, P. A.

1995-01-01

183

Thermal treatment for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We separated Zn from Mn in zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries after removal of Hg. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost total removal of Hg is achieved at low temperature in air. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen atmosphere is needed to reduce zinc and to permit its volatilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high grade Zn concentrate was obtained with a high recovery at 1000-1200 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grade of Mn in the residue was enhanced with complete recovery. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is the recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn, after preliminary physical treatment followed by removal of mercury. Separation of the metals has been carried out on the basis of their different boiling points, being 357 Degree-Sign C and 906 Degree-Sign C the boiling point of mercury and zinc and 1564 Degree-Sign C the melting point of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Characterization by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA and X-ray powder diffraction of the mixture has been carried out after comminution sieving and shaking table treatment to remove the anodic collectors and most of chlorides contained in the mixture. The mixture has been roasted at various temperatures and resident times in a flow of air to set the best conditions to remove mercury that were 400 Degree-Sign C and 10 min. After that, the flow of air has been turned into a nitrogen one (inert atmosphere) and the temperatures raised, thus permitting the zinc oxide to be reduced to metallic zinc by the carbon present in the original mixture and recovered after volatilization as a high grade concentrate, while manganese was left in the residue. The recovery and the grade of the two metals, at 1000 Degree-Sign C and 30 min residence time, were 84% and 100% for zinc and 85% and 63% for manganese, respectively. The recovery of zinc increased to 99% with a grade of 97% at 1200 Degree-Sign C and 30 min residence time, while the recovery and grade of manganese were 86% and 87%, respectively, at that temperature. Moreover, the chlorinated compounds that could form by the combustion of the plastics contained in the spent batteries, are destroyed at the temperature required by the process.

Belardi, G. [Institute for Environmental Engineering and Geosciences (CNR) Area della Ricerca CNR, via Salaria km 29,300, Monterotondo, 00016 Rome (Italy); Lavecchia, R.; Medici, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, via Eudossiana 84, 00184 Rome (Italy); Piga, L., E-mail: luigi.piga@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, via Eudossiana 84, 00184 Rome (Italy)

2012-10-15

184

Preparation of zinc orthotitanate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Use of decomposable precursors to enhance zinc oxide-titanium dioxide reaction and rapid fixing results in rapid preparation of zinc orthotitanate powder pigment. Preparation process allows production under less stringent conditions. Elimination of powder grinding results in purer that is less susceptible to color degradation.

Gates, D. W.; Gilligan, J. E.; Harada, Y.; Logan, W. R.

1977-01-01

185

Chronic but not acute antidepresant treatment alters serum zinc/copper ratio under pathological/zinc-deficient conditions in mice.  

PubMed

Depression is the leading psychiatric disorder with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinical studies report lower serum zinc in depressed patients, suggesting a strong link between zinc and mood disorders. Also copper as an antagonistic element to zinc seems to play a role in depression, where elevated concentration is observed. In the present study we investigated serum copper and zinc concentration after acute or chronic antidepressant (AD) treatment under pathological/zinc-deficient conditions. Zinc deficiency in mice was induced by a special diet administered for 6 weeks (zinc adequate diet - ZnA, contains 33.5 mgZn/kg; zinc deficient diet - ZnD, contains 0.2 mgZn/kg). Animals received acute or chronically saline (control), imipramine, escitalopram, reboxetine or bupropion. To evaluate changes in serum copper and zinc concentrations the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was performed. In ZnD animals serum zinc level was reduced after acute ADs treatment (similarly to vehicle treatment), however, as demonstrated in the previous study after chronic ADs administration no differences between both ZnA and ZnD groups were observed. Acute ADs in ZnD animals caused different changes in serum copper concentration with no changes after chronic ADs treatment. The calculated serum Zn/Cu ratio is reduced in ZnD animals (compared to ZnA subjects) treated with saline (acutely or chronically) and in animals treated acutely with ADs. However, chronic treatment with ADs normalized (by escitalopram, reboxetine or bupropion) or increased (by imipramine) this Zn/Cu ratio. Observed in this study normalization of serum Zn/Cu ratio in depression-like conditions by chronic (but not acute) antidepressants suggest that this ratio may be consider as a marker of depression or treatment efficacy. PMID:25371526

Mlyniec, K; Ostachowicz, B; Krakowska, A; Reczynski, W; Opoka, W; Nowak, G

2014-10-01

186

Small and intermediate conductance chloride channels in HT 29 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, it has been shown that intermediate conductance outwardly rectifying chloride channels (ICOR) are blocked by cytosolic inhibitor (C. I.) found in the cytosol of human placenta and epithelial cells. C. I. also reduced the baseline current in excised membrane patches of HT29 cells. In the present study, this effect of C. I. was characterized further. Heat treated human placental

C. P. Hansen; B. Roch; K. Kunzelmann; R. Kubitz; R. Greger

1993-01-01

187

Antibiotic bonding to polytetrafluoroethylene with tridodecylmethylammonium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) treated with the cationic surfactant, triodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDMAC), binds /sup 14/C-penicillin (1.5 to 2 mg antibiotic/cm graft), whereas untreated PTFE or PTFE treated with anionic detergents shows little binding of antibiotic. TDMAC-treated PTFE concomitantly binds penicillin and heparin, generating a surface that potentially can resist both infection and thrombosis. The retention of these biologically active molecules is not due to passive entrapment in the PTFE but reflects an ionic interaction between the anionic ligands and surface-bound TDMAC. Penicillin bound to PTFE is not removed by exhaustive washing in aqueous buffers but is slowly released in the presence of plasma or when the PTFE is placed in a muscle pouch in the rat. Muscle tissue adjacent to the treated PTFE shows elevated levels of antibiotic following implantation. PTFE treated with TDMAC and placed in a muscle pouch binds /sup 14/C-penicillin when it is locally irrigated with antibiotic or when penicillin is administered intravenously. Thus, the TDMAC surface treated either in vitro or in vivo with penicillin provides an effective in situ source for the timed release of antibiotic.

Harvey, R.A.; Alcid, D.V.; Greco, R.S.

1982-09-01

188

Designing Hydrolytic Zinc Metalloenzymes  

PubMed Central

Zinc is an essential element required for the function of more than 300 enzymes spanning all classes. Despite years of dedicated study, questions regarding the connections between primary and secondary metal ligands and protein structure and function remain unanswered, despite numerous mechanistic, structural, biochemical, and synthetic model studies. Protein design is a powerful strategy for reproducing native metal sites that may be applied to answering some of these questions and subsequently generating novel zinc enzymes. From examination of the earliest design studies introducing simple Zn(II)-binding sites into de novo and natural protein scaffolds to current studies involving the preparation of efficient hydrolytic zinc sites, it is increasingly likely that protein design will achieve reaction rates previously thought possible only for native enzymes. This Current Topic will review the design and redesign of Zn(II)-binding sites in de novo-designed proteins and native protein scaffolds toward the preparation of catalytic hydrolytic sites. After discussing the preparation of Zn(II)-binding sites in various scaffolds, we will describe relevant examples for reengineering existing zinc sites to generate new or altered catalytic activities. Then, we will describe our work on the preparation of a de novo-designed hydrolytic zinc site in detail and present comparisons to related designed zinc sites. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the significant progress being made toward building zinc metalloenzymes from the bottom up. PMID:24506795

2015-01-01

189

Zinc homeostasis and immunosenescence.  

PubMed

For more than 50 years, zinc is known to be an essential trace element, having a regulatory role in the immune system. Deficiency in zinc thus compromises proper immune function, like it is observed in the elderly population. Here mild zinc deficiency is a common condition, documented by a decline of serum or plasma zinc levels with age. This leads to a dysregulation mainly in the adaptive immunity that can result in an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, known as a status called inflamm-aging. T cell activation as well as polarization of T helper (Th) cells into their different subpopulations (Th1, Th2, Th17, regulatory T cells (Treg)) is highly influenced by zinc homeostasis. In the elderly a shift of the Th cell balance towards Th2 response is observed, a non-specific pre-activation of T cells is displayed, as well as a decreased response to vaccination is seen. Moreover, an impaired function of innate immune cells indicate a predominance of zinc deficiency in the elderly that may contribute to immunosenescence. This review summarizes current findings about zinc deficiency and supplementation in elderly individuals. PMID:25022332

Maywald, Martina; Rink, Lothar

2015-01-01

190

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings  

DOEpatents

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

Sugama, T.

1997-02-18

191

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings  

DOEpatents

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

1997-01-01

192

Chloride removal from ferrous substrates  

SciTech Connect

Chlorides will be summarized with respect to occurrence, electrolytic confinement of chlorides on pitted steel, action at the steel/paint interface, and removal. Processes which will be discussed for removal are (1) blast cleaning, (2) blast cleaning enhanced with electrode reversal and nocturnal humidity, (3) water spray and water jetting procedures.

Johnson, B. [KTA-Tator, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1998-12-31

193

Molecular Structure of Picryl chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Picryl chloride is ranked as one of the 100 most commonly found explosive and shock sensitive materials. It is made by reacting 2,4,6 trinitrophenol with thionyl chloride. This highly reactive compound is known to be hazardous and toxic, and to cause liver injury in mice. It is often used as a sensitization agent in mice when their cells undergo hypersensitivity studies.

2002-09-20

194

Performance of zinc phosphate coatings obtained by cathodic electrochemical treatment in accelerated corrosion tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of zinc phosphate coating by cathodic electrochemical treatment and evaluation of its corrosion resistance is addressed. The corrosion behaviour of cathodically phosphated mild steel substrate in 3.5% sodium chloride solution exhibits the stability of these coatings, which lasts for a week's time with no red rust formation. Salt spray test convincingly proves the white rust formation in the

S. Jegannathan; T. S. N. Sankara Narayanan; K. Ravichandran; S. Rajeswari

2005-01-01

195

Aluminum doped zinc oxide for organic photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) was grown via magnetron sputtering as a low-cost alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO) for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Postdeposition ozone treatment resulted in devices with lower series resistance, increased open-circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency double that of devices fabricated on untreated AZO. Furthermore, cells fabricated using ozone treated AZO and standard ITO displayed comparable performance.

Murdoch, G. B.; Hinds, S.; Sargent, E. H.; Tsang, S. W.; Mordoukhovski, L.; Lu, Z. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada)

2009-05-25

196

75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China Determination On the...revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to...Publication 4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation...

2010-06-15

197

75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States...concerning the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China...revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely...

2010-04-15

198

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2011-01-01

199

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2010-01-01

200

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

...Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2014-01-01

201

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2012-01-01

202

7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

2013-01-01

203

21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193...GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2010-04-01

204

Evaluation of Nano Zinc (ZnO) for Surface Enhancement of ATR–FTIR Spectra of Butter and Spread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of nano zinc (ZnO) particles in surface enhancement of attenuated total reflection–Fourier transform mid-infrared\\u000a spectroscopy (ATR–FTIR) has been studied in butter and spread. Due to the health implications associated with consumption\\u000a of trans fats, the studies also included the determination of band corresponding to trans fats of butter\\/spread in the nano-zinc-treated samples. The FTIR spectra of nano-zinc-treated butter

Mayeli P. Contreras; Ramesh Y. Avula; Rakesh K. Singh

2010-01-01

205

Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA): Inorganic Arsenical Pressure-Treated Wood  

MedlinePLUS

... Consumer Safety Information Sheet: Inorganic Arsenical Pressure-Treated Wood CCA Table of Contents General Information Alternatives Guidance ... Ammoniacal Copper Zinc Arsenate(ACZA)] Consumer Information: This wood has been preserved by pressure-treatment with an ...

206

Quantitative separation of zinc traces from cadmium matrices by solid-phase extraction with polyurethane foam.  

PubMed

A system for separation of zinc traces from large amounts of cadmium is proposed in this paper. It is based on the solid-phase extraction of the zinc in the form of thiocyanate complexes by the polyurethane foam. The following parameters were studied: effect of pH and of the thiocyanate concentration on the zinc extraction, shaking time required for quantitative extraction, amount of PU foam necessary for complete extraction, conditions for the separation of zinc from cadmium, influence of other cations and anions on the zinc sorption by PU foam, and required conditions for back extraction of zinc from the PU foam. The results show that zinc traces can be separated from large amounts of cadmium at pH 3.0+/-0.50, with the range of thiocyanate concentration from 0.15 to 0.20 mol l(-1), and the shaking time of 5 min. The back extraction of zinc can be done by shaking it with water for 10 min. Calcium, barium, strontium, magnesium, aluminum, nickel and iron(II) are efficiently separated. Iron(III), copper(II) and cobalt(II) are extracted simultaneously with zinc, but the iron reduction with ascorbic acid and the use of citrate to mask copper(II) and cobalt(II) increase the selectivity of the zinc extraction. The anions nitrate, chloride, sulfate, acetate, thiosulphate, tartarate, oxalate, fluoride, citrate, and carbonate do not affect the zinc extraction. Phosphate and EDTA must be absent. The method proposed was applied to determine zinc in cadmium salts using 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) as a spectrophotometric reagent. The result achieved did not show significant difference in the accuracy and precision (95% confidence level) with those obtained by ICP-AES analysis. PMID:18967283

Santiago de Jesus, D; Souza de Carvalho, M; Spínola Costa, A C; Costa Ferreira, S L

1998-08-01

207

Biocidal effects of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on the bioluminescent bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles in combination with alginate on bioluminescent Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1 bacteria was investigated. Silver nanoparticles were found to be more toxic than zinc oxide nanoparticles on bioluminescent bacteria. The nanoparticles and their ions released results in the same effect, however, it was absent in combination with alginate. The effective inhibiting concentration (EC50) for silver nanoparticles was found about 0.3 - 0.4 ?g mL-1, which was up to two times larger then for zinc oxide nanoparticles. The absence of sodium chloride in the tested media prevented the formation of colloidal particles of larger size and the effective inhibition concentrations of metal derivatives were lower than in the presence of sodium chloride.

Taran, M. V.; Starodub, N. F.; Katsev, A. M.; Guidotti, M.; Khranovskyy, V. D.; Babanin, A. A.; Melnychuk, M. D.

2013-11-01

208

Effects of some additives on the corrosion behaviour and preferred orientations of zinc obtained by continuous current deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of thiourea, urea and guanidin on zinc deposits obtained from chloride baths under continuous current conditions\\u000a are described and discussed. The corrosion behaviour of the deposits was investigated in an aerated 3.5% NaCl solution; anodic\\u000a polarization curves, polarization resistance (R\\u000a p) measurements and weight-loss studies were performed. The corrosion resistance of zinc deposits improved in the presence\\u000a of

M. Mouanga; L. Ricq; J. Douglade; P. Berçot

2007-01-01

209

Zinc pyrithione impairs zinc homeostasis and upregulates stress response gene expression in reconstructed human epidermis  

PubMed Central

Zinc ion homeostasis plays an important role in human cutaneous biology where it is involved in epidermal differentiation and barrier function, inflammatory and antimicrobial regulation, and wound healing. Zinc-based compounds designed for topical delivery therefore represent an important class of cutaneous therapeutics. Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) is an FDA-approved microbicidal agent used worldwide in over-the-counter topical antimicrobials, and has also been examined as an investigational therapeutic targeting psoriasis and UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia. Recently, we have demonstrated that cultured primary human skin keratinocytes display an exquisite sensitivity to nanomolar ZnPT concentrations causing induction of heat shock response gene expression and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-dependent cell death (Cell Stress Chaperones 15:309–322, 2010). Here we demonstrate that ZnPT causes rapid accumulation of intracellular zinc in primary keratinocytes as observed by quantitative fluorescence microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and that PARP activation, energy crisis, and genomic impairment are all antagonized by zinc chelation. In epidermal reconstructs (EpiDerm™) exposed to topical ZnPT (0.1–2% in Vanicream™), ICP-MS demonstrated rapid zinc accumulation, and expression array analysis demonstrated upregulation of stress response genes encoding metallothionein-2A (MT2A), heat shock proteins (HSPA6, HSPA1A, HSPB5, HSPA1L, DNAJA1, HSPH1, HSPD1, HSPE1), antioxidants (SOD2, GSTM3, HMOX1), and the cell cycle inhibitor p21 (CDKN1A). IHC analysis of ZnPT-treated EpiDerm™ confirmed upregulation of Hsp70 and TUNEL-positivity. Taken together our data demonstrate that ZnPT impairs zinc ion homeostasis and upregulates stress response gene expression in primary keratinocytes and reconstructed human epidermis, activities that may underlie therapeutic and toxicological effects of this topical drug. PMID:21424779

Lamore, Sarah D.

2014-01-01

210

Treatment of zinc deficiency without zinc fortification  

PubMed Central

Zinc (Zn) deficiency in animals became of interest until the 1950s. In this paper, progresses in researches on physiology of Zn deficiency in animals, phytate effect on bioavailability of Zn, and role of phytase in healing Zn deficiency of animals were reviewed. Several studies demonstrated that Zn is recycled via the pancreas; the problem of Zn deficiency was controlled by Zn homeostasis. The endogenous secretion of Zn is considered as an important factor influencing Zn deficiency, and the critical molar ratio is 10. Phytate (inositol hexaphosphate) constituted up to 90% of the organically bound phosphorus in seeds. Great improvement has been made in recent years on isolating and measuring phytate, and its structure is clear. Phytate is considered to reduce Zn bioavailability in animal. Phytase is the enzyme that hydrolyzes phytate and is present in yeast, rye bran, wheat bran, barley, triticale, and many bacteria and fungi. Zinc nutrition and bioavailability can be enhanced by addition of phytase to animal feeds. Therefore, using phytase as supplements, the most prevalent Zn deficiency in animals may be effectively corrected without the mining and smelting of several tons of zinc daily needed to correct this deficiency by fortification worldwide. PMID:18357621

Oberleas, Donald; Harland, Barbara F.

2008-01-01

211

Endogenous zinc in neurological diseases.  

PubMed

The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the pantheon of signal ions in biology and medicine. However, the number of biological functions, health implications and pharmacological targets that are emerging for zinc indicate that it might turn out to be 'the calcium of the twenty-first century'. Here neurobiological roles of endogenous zinc is summarized. PMID:20396459

Koh, Jae-Yong

2005-10-01

212

Endogenous Zinc in Neurological Diseases  

PubMed Central

The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the pantheon of signal ions in biology and medicine. However, the number of biological functions, health implications and pharmacological targets that are emerging for zinc indicate that it might turn out to be 'the calcium of the twenty-first century'. Here neurobiological roles of endogenous zinc is summarized. PMID:20396459

2005-01-01

213

Zinc protects against shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli by acting on host tissues as well as on bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Zinc supplements can treat or prevent enteric infections and diarrheal disease. Many articles on zinc in bacteria, however, highlight the essential nature of this metal for bacterial growth and virulence, suggesting that zinc should make infections worse, not better. To address this paradox, we tested whether zinc might have protective effects on intestinal epithelium as well as on the pathogen. Results Using polarized monolayers of T84 cells we found that zinc protected against damage induced by hydrogen peroxide, as measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance. Zinc also reduced peroxide-induced translocation of Shiga toxin (Stx) across T84 monolayers from the apical to basolateral side. Zinc was superior to other divalent metals to (iron, manganese, and nickel) in protecting against peroxide-induced epithelial damage, while copper also showed a protective effect. The SOS bacterial stress response pathway is a powerful regulator of Stx production in STEC. We examined whether zinc’s known inhibitory effects on Stx might be mediated by blocking the SOS response. Zinc reduced expression of recA, a reliable marker of the SOS. Zinc was more potent and more efficacious than other metals tested in inhibiting recA expression induced by hydrogen peroxide, xanthine oxidase, or the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. The close correlation between zinc’s effects on recA/SOS and on Stx suggested that inhibition of the SOS response is one mechanism by which zinc protects against STEC infection. Conclusions Zinc’s ability to protect against enteric bacterial pathogens may be the result of its combined effects on host tissues as well as inhibition of virulence in some pathogens. Research focused solely on the effects of zinc on pathogenic microbes may give an incomplete picture by failing to account for protective effects of zinc on host epithelia. PMID:24903402

2014-01-01

214

The relationship between erythrocyte zinc levels and isotretinoin use in acne vulgaris patients.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Prior studies have demonstrated lower serum zinc levels in acne vulgaris (AV) patients compared with controls. However, no study has investigated the relationship between AV and erythrocyte zinc levels, which is a superior indicator of body zinc levels. Additionally, the potential influence of isotretinoin use on body zinc status remains to be evaluated. In this study, we aimed to determine erythrocyte zinc levels and their relationship with isotretinoin use in AV patients. Methods: The enrolled study participants included 106 (68% female) isotretinoin-treated AV patients, 89 (65% female) untreated AV patients and 100 (59% female) healthy volunteers between 18 and 30 years of age. The acne severity of the AV patients who did not receive treatment was assessed using the classification system of the International Consensus Conference on Acne. Erythrocyte zinc levels were analysed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results: No significant differences were observed among the three groups with respect to erythrocyte zinc levels. In addition, erythrocyte zinc levels did not vary according to the severity of AV, nor according to the duration of isotretinoin use. Conclusion: This study suggests that no relationships exist among zinc status, AV and isotretinoin use. However, given the relationship between vitamin A and zinc, and the fact that previous studies have indicated low serum zinc levels in AV patients, prospective studies are required to corroborate our data. PMID:25373485

Bilgiç, Ozlem; Alt?nyazar, Hilmi Cevdet; Sivrikaya, Abdullah; Unlü, Ali

2014-11-01

215

Suppression of zinc dendrites in zinc electrode power cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Addition of various tetraalkyl quarternary ammonium salts, to alkaline zincate electrolyte of cell, prevents formation of zinc dendrites during charging of zinc electrode. Electrode capacity is not impaired and elimination of dendrites prolongs cell life.

Damjanovic, A.; Diggle, J. W.

1970-01-01

216

ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ONE STYLE OF DENVER AGITATOR IN LOWER RIGHT CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

217

Role of zinc in maternal and child mental health.  

PubMed

Mental health problems in women, children, and adolescents are a significant public health issue. Given current barriers to the effective treatment of these problems, researchers are looking to the field of nutrition for potential alternatives to better understand and address mental health issues. The purpose of this article was to review current evidence on the relation between zinc and mental health disorders with a focus on 2 mental health problems that commonly affect women and children: depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A literature search of the databases Medline and PsychInfo was conducted with the use of key terms. The review included articles from 1975 to May 2008, but focused on articles published in recent years. Relations between zinc concentrations and behavior in animals; the relation between zinc deficiency, depression, and ADHD in patient and community samples; and the potential biological mechanisms for these relations were explored. The data support a relation between low concentrations of zinc and mental health problems, especially in at-risk populations. Evidence for the potential use of zinc in treating mental health problems comes mainly from patient populations and is strongest when zinc is given in combination with pharmacologic treatment. Less conclusive evidence exists for the effectiveness of zinc alone or in general community samples. Recommendations for further research in this area are provided. PMID:19176735

DiGirolamo, Ann M; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel

2009-03-01

218

USE OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM DATE SEEDS TO TREAT TEXTILE AND TANNERY EFFLUENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon from date seed has activated by treatment with zinc chloride and with steam, and sieved into 250, 500 and 1000 ìm particle sizes. Reduction of zinc, nickel and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) from tannery effluent was found to decrease with increase in particle size, and the carbon activated by ZnCl2\\/steam recorded the highest waste removal. The ZnCl2 only activated

M. K. Yakubu; M. S. Gumel; A. M. Abdullahi

219

Aromatic 1,3,4-oxadiazoles as thermal stabilizers for rigid poly(vinyl chloride)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several aromatic 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives have been investigated as thermal stabilizers for rigid poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) at 180°C in air. Their stabilizing efficiencies are evaluated by measuring the rate of dehydrochlorination and the extent of discoloration of the degraded polymer. The results obtained show the greater stabilizing efficiency of the investigated compounds as compared with dibasic lead carbonate (DBLC), barium-cadmium-zinc stearate

Nadia Ahmed Mohamed; Eljazi I. Al-afaleq

1999-01-01

220

Reflectance measurements of cotton leaf senescence altered by mepiquat chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectrophotometric reflectance measurements were made on plant-attached leaves to evaluate growth chamber-grown cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum L.) senescence (chlorophyll degradation as criterion) that was delayed by mepiquat chloride (1,1-dimethylpiperidinium chloride) rates of 0, 10, 40, 70, and 100 g a.i./ha. Mepiquat chloride (MC increased both chlorophyll and leaf water contents as compared with that of untreated leaves. Reflectance was inversely and linearly correlated (r = -0.873**) with eater content at the 1.65 micrometer wavelength and was inversely correlated (r = -0.812**) with chlorophyll concentration at the 0.55 micrometer wavelength but best fit a quadratic equation. Either wavelength measurement might be useful to remotely detect cotton leaf senescence or fields of MC-treated cotton plants.

Gausman, H. W.; Escobar, D. E.; Rodriguez, R. R. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

221

A high amount of dietary zinc changes the expression of zinc transporters and metallothionein in jejunal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo but does not prevent zinc accumulation in jejunal tissue of piglets.  

PubMed

High dietary zinc concentrations are used to prevent or treat diarrhea in piglets and humans, but long-term adaptation to high zinc supply has yet not been assessed. Intestinal zinc uptake is facilitated through members of zinc transporter families SLC30 (ZnT) and SLC39 (ZIP). Whereas in rodents, regulation of zinc homeostasis at low or adequate zinc supply has been described, such mechanisms are unclear in piglets. A total of 54 piglets were fed diets containing 57 [low dietary zinc (LZn)], 164 [normal dietary zinc (NZn)], or 2425 [high dietary zinc (HZn)] mg/kg dry matter zinc. After 4 wk, 10 piglets/group were killed and jejunal tissues taken for analysis of zinc transporters SLC30A1 (ZnT1), SLC30A2 (ZnT2), SLC30A5 (ZnT5), SLC39A4 (ZIP4), divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), and metallothionein-1 (MT). Weight gain was higher (P < 0.05) in pigs fed HZn than in the LZn and NZn groups during the first 2 wk. Food intake did not differ between groups. The digesta and jejunal tissue zinc concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in the HZn pigs than in NZn and LZn pigs. Expression of ZnT1 was higher (P < 0.05) and ZIP4 lower (P < 0.05) in HZn pigs than in the 2 other groups, whereas expression of ZnT5 and DMT1 did not differ between treatments. Expression of ZnT2 was lower (P < 0.05) in the LZn group than in the HZn and NZn groups. The mRNA expression and protein abundance of MT was higher (P < 0.05) in the HZn group than in the NZn and LZn groups. Studies with intestinal porcine cell line intestinal epithelial cell-J2 confirmed the dose-dependent downregulation of ZIP4 and upregulation of ZnT1 and MT (P < 0.05) with increasing zinc concentration within 24 h. In conclusion, high dietary zinc concentrations increase intracellular zinc, promote increased zinc export from intestinal tissues into extracellular compartments, and decrease zinc uptake from the gut lumen. The adaptive process appears to be established within 24 h; however, it does not prevent tissue zinc accumulation. PMID:23761649

Martin, Lena; Lodemann, Ulrike; Bondzio, Angelika; Gefeller, Eva-Maria; Vahjen, Wilfried; Aschenbach, Jörg Rudolf; Zentek, Jürgen; Pieper, Robert

2013-08-01

222

An XAFS study of nickel chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride  

SciTech Connect

Nickel chloride was studied with cyclic voltammetry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Acidic melts display metal stripping peaks which are not observed in the basic melt. EXAFS analysis shows that the nickel is tetrahedrally coordinated with chloride ions in the basic solution. In the acidic solution the nickel is coordinated by six chloride ions that are also associated with aluminum ions.

D Roeper; G Cheek; K Pandya; W OGrady

2011-12-31

223

Imaging mobile zinc in biology  

E-print Network

Trafficking and regulation of mobile zinc pools influence cellular functions and pathological conditions in multiple organs, including brain, pancreas, and prostate. The quest for a dynamic description of zinc distribution ...

Tomat, Elisa

224

Synthesis, structure, and properties of nanocrystalline zinc by pulsed-current electrodeposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Square-wave cathodic current electrodeposition was used to produce for the first time nanocrystalline zinc electrodeposits from both zinc chloride and zinc sulfate-based electrolytes. The influence of pulse electrodeposition parameters and polyacrylamide and thiourea additions on the grain size, surface morphology, and preferred orientation of zinc deposits was determined. The microstructure and surface morphology of the zinc electrodeposits were studied by SEM, FESEM, and AFM. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the preferred orientation of these deposits. The grain size of zinc deposits decreased gradually with increasing current on-time at constant current off-time and peak current density. An increase in the current off-time at constant current on-time and peak current density resulted in grain growth. A progressive decrease of the grain size was observed with increasing peak current density at constant current on-time and off-time. Nanocrystalline zinc (50 nm) was obtained from the chloride-based electrolyte at on-time of 5 ms, off-time of 9 ms and a peak current density of 1000 mA/cm2. Nanocrystalline zinc with an average grain size of 38 nm was obtained from sulfate-based electrolyte at on-time of 7 ms, off-time of 9 ms and at peak current density of 1200 mA/cm2. The hardness of nanocrystalline zinc increases from 5 to 8 times higher than that of pure polycrystalline zinc (0.29 GPa). Calorimetric investigations using DSC show two exothermic peaks. The first peak (peak temperature of 429 K) was attributed to the release of internal lattice strain. Abnormal grain growth was observed by the AFM and the second peak from the DSC scan, which begins at 576 K with a peak temperature of 608 K. Potentiodynamic and alternating current impedance testing of nanocrystalline zinc deposits show that the corrosion current density of nanocrystalline zinc was about 60% lower than that of electrogalvanized (EG) steel, 90 muA/cm 2 and 229 muA/cm2, respectively. The passive film formed on the nanocrystalline zinc surface seems to be a dominating factor for the corrosion behavior observed.

Youssef, Khaled Mohamed Saber Abdel-Hamid

225

Alcoholism Causes Alveolar Macrophage Zinc Deficiency and Immune Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Alcohol use disorders cause oxidative stress in the lower airways and increase susceptibility to pneumonia and lung injury. Currently, no therapeutic options exist to mitigate the pulmonary consequences of alcoholism. Objectives: We recently determined in an animal model that alcohol ingestion impairs pulmonary zinc metabolism and causes alveolar macrophage immune dysfunction. The objective of this research is to determine the effects of alcoholism on zinc bioavailability and alveolar macrophage function in human subjects. Methods: We recruited otherwise healthy alcoholics (n = 17) and matched control subjects (n = 17) who underwent bronchoscopy for isolation of alveolar macrophages, which were analyzed for intracellular zinc, phagocytic function, and surface expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony–stimulating factor receptor; all three of these indices are decreased in experimental models. Measurements and Main Results: Alcoholic subjects had normal serum zinc, but significantly decreased alveolar macrophage intracellular zinc levels (adjusted means [SE], 718 [41] vs. 948 [25] RFU/cell; P < 0.0001); bacterial phagocytosis (adjusted means [SE], 1,027 [48] vs. 1,509 [76] RFU/cell; P < 0.0001); and expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony–stimulating factor receptor ? subunit (adjusted means [SE], 1,471 [42] vs. 2,114 [35] RFU/cell; P < 0.0001]. Treating alveolar macrophages with zinc acetate and glutathione in vitro increased intracellular zinc levels and improved their phagocytic function. Conclusions: These novel clinical findings provide evidence that alcohol abuse is associated with significant zinc deficiency and immune dysfunction within the alveolar space and suggest that dietary supplementation with zinc and glutathione precursors could enhance airway innate immunity and decrease the risk for pneumonia or lung injury in these vulnerable individuals. PMID:23805851

Yeligar, Samantha M.; Elon, Lisa; Brown, Lou Ann; Guidot, David M.

2013-01-01

226

Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

Du Fresne, E. R.

1984-01-01

227

Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide  

DOEpatents

A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

Barnett, Allen M. (Newark, DE); Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE); Masi, James V. (Wilbraham, MA); Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Hall, Robert B. (Newark, DE)

1984-01-01

228

Zinc Oxide for Weanling Piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digestive disorders and impaired performance are common problems among weanling piglets. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect on health and performance of feeding different levels of zinc (as zinc oxide) for one, two or three weeks after weaning to piglets weaned at 28 days of age. A supplement of 2500 ppm zinc for two weeks

Hanne Damgaard Poulsen

1995-01-01

229

A new approach to the determination of the cathodic protection period in zinc-rich paints  

SciTech Connect

The present study examined the behavior of zinc-rich paints (ZRP) based on an epoxy binder in 3% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. The study focused on the effect of some design parameters often considered in paint formulation. The paint thickness, the zinc particle grain size, and the zinc particle distribution in the paint were studied. The study was based mainly on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). EIS results were interpreted using a model involving the contact impedance between zinc particles. The contact impedance and electrolyte resistance throughout the coating defined the protective action of ZRP. Based on these two concepts, a practical approach to evaluate ZRP performance was given. This approach, called total film resistance (TFR), can be used for optimization criteria in paint formulation.

Abreu, C.M.; Izquierdo, M.; Merino, P.; Novoa, X.R.; Perez, C.

1999-12-01

230

Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE): structure, biological roles, and molecular basis for chloride ion dependence.  

PubMed

Somatic angiotensin-I converting enzyme (sACE) has an essential role in the regulation of blood pressure and electrolyte fluid homeostasis. It is a zinc protease that cleaves angiotensin-I (AngI), bradykinin, and a broad range of other signalling peptides. The enzyme activity is provided by two homologous domains (N- and C-), which display clear differences in substrate specificities and chloride activation. The presence of chloride ions in sACE and its unusual role in activity was identified early on in the characterisation of the enzyme. The molecular mechanisms of chloride activation have been investigated thoroughly through mutagenesis studies and shown to be substrate-dependent. Recent results from X-ray crystallography structural analysis have provided the basis for the intricate interactions between ACE, its substrate and chloride ions. Here we describe the role of chloride ions in human ACE and its physiological consequences. Insights into the chloride activation of the N- and C-domains could impact the design of improved domain-specific ACE inhibitors. PMID:25205727

Masuyer, Geoffrey; Yates, Christopher J; Sturrock, Edward D; Acharya, K Ravi

2014-10-01

231

Zinc Phosphide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Zinc phosphide has been used widely as a rodenticide. Upon ingestion, it gets converted to phosphine gas in the body, which is subsequently absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach and the intestines and gets captured by the liver and the lungs. Phosphine gas produces various metabolic and nonmetabolic toxic effects. Clinical symptoms are circulatory collapse, hypotension, shock symptoms, myocarditis, pericarditis, acute pulmonary edema, and congestive heart failure. In this case presentation, we aim to present the intensive care process and treatment resistance of a patient who ingested zinc phosphide for suicide purposes. PMID:25101186

Do?an, Erdal; Güzel, Abdulmenap; Çiftçi, Taner; Aycan, ?lker; Çetin, Bedri; Kavak, Gönül Ölmez

2014-01-01

232

Zinc phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Zinc phosphide has been used widely as a rodenticide. Upon ingestion, it gets converted to phosphine gas in the body, which is subsequently absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach and the intestines and gets captured by the liver and the lungs. Phosphine gas produces various metabolic and nonmetabolic toxic effects. Clinical symptoms are circulatory collapse, hypotension, shock symptoms, myocarditis, pericarditis, acute pulmonary edema, and congestive heart failure. In this case presentation, we aim to present the intensive care process and treatment resistance of a patient who ingested zinc phosphide for suicide purposes. PMID:25101186

Do?an, Erdal; Güzel, Abdulmenap; Ciftçi, Taner; Aycan, Ilker; Celik, Feyzi; Cetin, Bedri; Kavak, Gönül Ölmez

2014-01-01

233

Observations of interstellar zinc  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of interstellar zinc toward 10 stars are examined. It is found that zinc is at most only slightly depleted in the interstellar medium; its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. The local interstellar medium has abundances that apparently are homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc, and this result is important for understanding the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood. The intrinsic errors in detecting weak interstellar lines are analyzed and suggestions are made as to how this error limit may be lowered to 5 mA per target observation.

Jura, M.; York, D.

1981-01-01

234

Vibrational spectra and structures of zinc carboxylates II. Anhydrous zinc acetate and zinc stearate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A normal mode analysis was carried out for a monoclinic anhydrous zinc acetate crystal in which the acetate groups had bridging bidentate coordination forms, and spectral assignments were made. Based on the assignments, a relation between the coordination structure of the carboxylate groups around the zinc atom and the vibrational frequencies of the carboxylate rocking mode was found. This relation was applied to zinc stearate to determine its coordination form, and we found that zinc stearate had a bridging bidentate form.

Ishioka, Tsutomu; Shibata, Youko; Takahashi, Mizuki; Kanesaka, Isao

1998-10-01

235

Morphological changes of integumental chloride cells to ambient cadmium during the early development of the teleost, Oreochromis mossambicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis Newly-hatched embryos of Oreochromis mossambicus were reared in freshwater and treated with 0 (control), 50 (low level) or 200 (high level) ppb cadmium for 4 days. Changes in the numbers and dimensions of chloride cell apical crypts on the skin of the free embryos were examined daily using scanning electron microscopy. The apical crypts of the chloride cells were

Tsung-Han Lee; Pung-Pung Hwang; Hui-Chen Lin

1996-01-01

236

Metal chloride precursor synthesization of Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cell materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films with kesterite structures were prepared by directly sol-gel synthesizing spin-coated precursors on soda-lime-glass (SLG) substrates. The CZTS precursors were prepared by using solutions of copper (II) chloride, zinc (II) chloride, tin (IV) chloride, and thiourea. The ratio of SnCl4 in the precursors was found to play a critical role in the synthesization of CZTS. CZTS phases of SnS and SnS2 were observed in the synthesized films as prepared using precursors with a close to stoichiometric ratio of CuCl2:ZnCl2:SnCl4:CH4N2S = 4:1:1:8, where SnCl4 was 1 mol/l. The amounts of the educed SnS and SnS2 phases observed in the SEM images could be readily reduced by decreasing the volume of SnCl4 in the mixed solution. With decreasing amount of SnCl4 from 1 mol/l, the as prepared CZTS reveals a significant improvement in its crystalline properties. In this work, CZTS with an average absorption coefficient and an optical energy gap of over 104 cm-1 and ~1.5 eV, respectively, was obtained using precursors of copper (II) chloride, zinc (II) chloride, tin (IV) chloride, and thiourea mixed in a ratio of 2:1:0.25:8, and it had good crystallinity revealing a Cu-poor composition.

Yeh, Min Yen; Huang, Yu-Fong; Huang, Cheng-Liang; Yang, Chyi-Da; Wuu, Dong-Sing; Lei, Po-Hsun

2014-07-01

237

Doped zinc oxide microspheres  

DOEpatents

A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01

238

Doped zinc oxide microspheres  

DOEpatents

A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

1993-12-14

239

Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst  

DOEpatents

A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

1984-01-01

240

Zinc oxide varistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is given of zinc oxide varistors, which are made of semiconducting ceramics with highly nonohmic current-voltage characteristics, which originate at the grain boundaries. These varistors are widely utilized to protect electric power lines and electronic components against dangerous voltage surges. This overview covers electrical characteristics, fabrication methods, effects of additives, microstructures, the conduction mechanism, degradation, and applications.<>

K. Eda

1989-01-01

241

Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.  

PubMed

The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. PMID:22947185

Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

2012-10-30

242

Constructed Wetlands Treating Runoff Contaminated with Nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to assess the role of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. in experimental, mature, and temporarily flooded vertical flow wetland filters treating urban runoff\\u000a rich in organic matter. During the experiment, ammonium chloride was added to sieved concentrated road runoff to simulate\\u000a primary treated urban runoff contaminated with nitrogen. Five days at 20°C N-allylthiourea biochemical oxygen demand

M. Scholz; Å. Hedmark

2010-01-01

243

Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes for cathodic protection of steel-reinforced concrete bridges  

SciTech Connect

Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are being used in Oregon in impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for reinforced concrete bridges. The U.S. Department of Energy, Albany Research Center, is collaborating with the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) to evaluate the long-term performance and service life of these anodes. Laboratory studies were conducted on concrete slabs coated with 0.5 mm (20 mil) thick, thermal-sprayed zinc anodes. The slabs were electrochemically aged at an accelerated rate using an anode current density of 0.032 A/m2 (3mA/ft2). Half the slabs were preheated before thermal-spraying with zinc; the other half were unheated. Electrochemical aging resulted in the formation at the zinc-concrete interface of a thin, low pH zone (relative to cement paste) consisting primarily of ZnO and Zn(OH)2, and in a second zone of calcium and zinc aluminates and silicates formed by secondary mineralization. Both zones contained elevated concentrations of sulfate and chloride ions. The original bond strength of the zinc coating decreased due to the loss of mechanical bond to the concrete with the initial passage of electrical charge (aging). Additional charge led to an increase in bond strength to a maximum as the result of secondary mineralization of zinc dissolution products with the cement paste. Further charge led to a decrease in bond strength and ultimately coating disbondment as the interfacial reaction zones continued to thicken. This occurred at an effective service life of 27 years at the 0.0022 A/m2 (0.2 mA/ft2) current density typically used by ODOT in ICCP systems for coastal bridges. Zinc coating failure under tensile stress was primarily cohesive within the thickening reaction zones at the zinc-concrete interface. There was no difference between the bond strength of zinc coatings on preheated and unheated concrete surfaces after long service times.

Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; McGill, Galen E. (Oregon Dept. of Transportation)

1996-01-01

244

Effect of chlorides on solution corrosivity of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) solutions  

SciTech Connect

Solution corrosivity of MDEA/water solutions containing added HCl or NaCl have been measured by weight loss coupons at 250 F and by linear polarization resistance (LPR) at 208 F using carbon steel, 304SS, 316SS and 410SS. General corrosion as well as pitting or crevice corrosion tendencies were recorded for each species. Based on these results, recommendations are made for chlorides in MDEA that minimizes corrosion in gas treating operations.

Rooney, P.C.; Bacon, T.R.; DuPart, M.S.; Willbanks, K.D. [Dow Chemical Co., Freeport, TX (United States)

1997-08-01

245

Study on Durability and Stability of an Aqueous Electrolyte Solution for Zinc Bromide Hybrid Flow Batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc-bromine flow battery using aqueous electrolyte has advantages of cost effective and high energy density, but there still remains a problem improving stability and durability of electrolyte materials during long-time cell operation. This paper focuses on providing a homogeneous aqueous solution for durability and stability of zinc bromide electrolyte. For performance experiments of conventional and proposed electrolyte solutions, detailed cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements (at a scan rate of 20 mV s?1 in the range of ?1.5 V~1.5 V) are carried out for 40 cycles and five kinds of electrolytes containing which has one of additives, such as (conventionally) zinc chloride, potassium chloride, (newly) lithium perchlorate, sodium perchlorate and zeolite-Y are compared with the 2.0 M ZnBr2 electrolyte, respectively. Experimental results show that using the proposed three additives provides higher anodic and cathodic peak current density of electrolytes than using other two conventional additives, and can lead to improved chemical reversibility of zinc bromide electrolyte. Especially, the solution of which the zeolite-Y added, shows enhanced electrochemical stability of zinc bromide electrolyte. Consequently, proposed electrolytes have a significant advantage in comparison with conventional electrolytes on higher stability and durability.

Kim, Donghyeon; Jeon, Joonhyeon

2015-01-01

246

Treating Meningitis  

MedlinePLUS

... ways to treat bacterial meningitis. 1 They compared steroids (dexamethasone) with placebo. The doctors gave medication (or ... al. compared antibiotics by themselves with antibiotics plus steroids. Dr. Fritz and colleagues compared the mortality (deaths) ...

247

Zinc'ing sensibly: controlling zinc homeostasis at the transcriptional level.  

PubMed

Zinc-responsive transcription factors are found in all kingdoms of life and include the transcriptional activators ZntR, SczA, Zap1, bZip19, bZip23, and MTF-1, and transcriptional repressors Zur, AdcR, Loz1, and SmtB. These factors have two defining features; their activity is regulated by zinc and they all play a central role in zinc homeostasis by controlling the expression of genes that directly affect zinc levels or its availability. This review summarizes what is known about the mechanisms by which each of these factors sense changes in intracellular zinc levels and how they control zinc homeostasis through target gene regulation. Other factors that influence zinc ion sensing are also discussed. PMID:24722954

Choi, Sangyong; Bird, Amanda J

2014-07-01

248

Hydrolytic stability of terephthaloyl chloride and isophthaloyl chloride.  

PubMed

The phthaloyl chloride isomers, terephthaloyl chloride (TCl) and isophthaloyl chloride (ICl), are high production volume chemicals used in polymers to impartflame resistance, chemical resistance, and temperature stability and as water scavengers. In these studies, we determined the hydrolytic stability of TCl and ICl and their hydrolysis products in aqueous solutions. Hydrolysis rates for TCl and ICl were initially determined by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection in water buffered at pH 4.0, 7.0, and 9.0 and 0 degrees C for up to 30 min. Subsequent studies determined the products from TCl and ICl hydrolysis. The parent phthaloyl chlorides (TCl and ICl), their intermediate hydrolysis products (designated as the "half-acids"), and their stable hydrolysis products (terephthalic acid (TPA) and isophthalic acid (IPA)) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The half-lives (t(1/2)) of TCl and ICl ranged from an average of 1.2 to 2.2 min and from 2.2 to 4.9 min, respectively, at pH 4-9 and 0 degrees C. The observed first-order rate constants (k(obs)) ranged from an average of 530 to 1100 (x 10(5) s(-1)) for TCl and 240 to 520 (x 10(5) s(-1)) for ICl. Both phthaloyl chlorides formed their respective short-lived intermediates, in which one of the two carboxylic acid chloride functionalities reacts with water to form the carboxylic acid ("half-acid"). Subsequently, the half-acids underwent further hydrolysis so that greater than 90% of the initial phthaloyl chloride hydrolyzed in less than 60 min at 0 degrees C. The hydrolysis products TPA and IPA were hydrolytically stable, undergoing no further transformations after 20 min at pH 7 and 25 degrees C. This work demonstrated that TCl, ICl, and their respective half-acids will not be persistent in aqueous systems for a time sufficient to have a sustained toxicological effect on aquatic organisms (less than 1 h). Performing additional aquatic toxicity studies, biodegradation studies, and potentially mammalian studies on TCl and ICl are unnecessary since the existing information on TPA and IPA with the hydrolysis data presented here is sufficient to address questions on the fate and effects of these two substances in aqueous environments. PMID:17120561

Berti, William R; Wolstenholme, Barry W; Kozlowski, John J; Sobocinski, Raymond L; Freerksen, Robert W

2006-10-15

249

Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

250

Barnacles: Possible indicators of zinc pollution?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barnacles [Balanus balanoides (L.), Elminius modestus Darwin, Lepas anatifera (L.)] from several different sites were found to accumulate the heavy metal zinc. The majority of the zinc was deposited in the tissues associated with the gut, and the level of zinc in soft body tissue generally reflected well the level of zinc in the immediate sea-water environment. The zinc accumulated

G. Walker; P. S. Rainbow; P. Foster; D. J. Crisp

1975-01-01

251

Zinc homeostasis and neurodegenerative disorders  

PubMed Central

Zinc is an essential trace element, whose importance to the function of the central nervous system (CNS) is increasingly being appreciated. Alterations in zinc dyshomeostasis has been suggested as a key factor in the development of several neuropsychiatric disorders. In the CNS, zinc occurs in two forms: the first being tightly bound to proteins and, secondly, the free, cytoplasmic, or extracellular form found in presynaptic vesicles. Under normal conditions, zinc released from the synaptic vesicles modulates both ionotropic and metabotropic post-synaptic receptors. While under clinical conditions such as traumatic brain injury, stroke or epilepsy, the excess influx of zinc into neurons has been found to result in neurotoxicity and damage to postsynaptic neurons. On the other hand, a growing body of evidence suggests that a deficiency, rather than an excess, of zinc leads to an increased risk for the development of neurological disorders. Indeed, zinc deficiency has been shown to affect neurogenesis and increase neuronal apoptosis, which can lead to learning and memory deficits. Altered zinc homeostasis is also suggested as a risk factor for depression, Alzheimer's disease (AD), aging, and other neurodegenerative disorders. Under normal CNS physiology, homeostatic controls are put in place to avoid the accumulation of excess zinc or its deficiency. This cellular zinc homeostasis results from the actions of a coordinated regulation effected by different proteins involved in the uptake, excretion and intracellular storage/trafficking of zinc. These proteins include membranous transporters (ZnT and Zip) and metallothioneins (MT) which control intracellular zinc levels. Interestingly, alterations in ZnT and MT have been recently reported in both aging and AD. This paper provides an overview of both clinical and experimental evidence that implicates a dysfunction in zinc homeostasis in the pathophysiology of depression, AD, and aging. PMID:23882214

Szewczyk, Bernadeta

2013-01-01

252

Influence of zinc on growth and development and on energy intakes of children with chronic renal failure  

SciTech Connect

This investigation assessed whether zinc acetate supplementation (2 mg/kg BW, maximum 40 mg/ka/child) in Children with End Stage Renal Disease, improved energy intakes and, in turn, growth and development. Height, weight, mid-arm circumference, triceps fatfold, hand wrist radiographs, and Tanner Staging measurements were taken at the beginning of the study, prior to zinc supplementation, and at the end of the study period. Clinical analyses for serum sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and CO/sub 2/ were routinely completed monthly. Simultaneously, plasma zinc and copper and erythrocyte zinc and 3 day food diaries were completed. Mean growth velocity in males was 4.07 +/- 2.02 cm/yr (non-supplemented), 2.98 +/- 2.33 cm/yr (supplemented) and in females, 3.88 +/- 0.73 cm/yr (non-supplemented), 3.28 +/- 2.10 cm/yr (supplemented). There were no significant differences between the supplemented and non-zinc supplemented males or females in growth velocity. Bone maturation as determined through hand wrist radiographs, improved in 4 of 6 zinc supplemented subjects. Before zinc supplementation, 50%, 92%, and 42% of the subjects met 67% of their RDA for age and sex for energy, protein, and zinc, respectively. After zinc acetate supplementation, the percentage of subjects meeting 67% of the RDA for energy, protein, and dietary zinc were 67%, 100%, and 67%, respectively. There was a trend toward increased dietary energy, protein, and zinc intake with zinc acetate supplementation.

Hagan, D.W.

1985-01-01

253

CHEMILUMINESCENT MONITOR FOR VINYL CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

A monitor for vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) in ambient air was constructed using commercially available components of a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a chemiluminescence ozone analyzer slightly modified to make it suitable for use as a GC detector. The specificity for VCM is...

254

MACROMINERALS - SODIUM, POTASSIUM AND CHLORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of minerals in the diet of horses is well recognized by horse owners and equine nutritionists alike. The type and quantity of minerals required are very diverse and essential minerals include the major or macrominerals and the trace or microminerals. This discussion will be restricted to three macrominerals, sodium, potassium, and chloride (Na+, K+, Cl-), that are essen-

L. J. McCutcheon

255

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from the extraction of spice, at a level not to exceed 30 parts per million; Provided, That, if residues of...

2010-04-01

256

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

...chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from the extraction of spice, at a level not to exceed 30 parts per million; Provided, That, if residues of...

2014-04-01

257

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from the extraction of spice, at a level not to exceed 30 parts per million; Provided, That, if residues of...

2012-04-01

258

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from the extraction of spice, at a level not to exceed 30 parts per million; Provided, That, if residues of...

2011-04-01

259

21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from the extraction of spice, at a level not to exceed 30 parts per million; Provided, That, if residues of...

2013-04-01

260

21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2-ethyl-hexyl)-hexa-decyl-ammonium chloride. (b...Free Amine Value of Fatty Quaternary Ammonium Chlorides,” 2d...entitled “Colorimetric Determination of Residual Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (Arquad...

2011-04-01

261

21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2-ethyl-hexyl)-hexa-decyl-ammonium chloride. (b...Free Amine Value of Fatty Quaternary Ammonium Chlorides,” 2d...entitled “Colorimetric Determination of Residual Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (Arquad...

2010-04-01

262

21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2012-04-01

263

21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2011-04-01

264

21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2010-04-01

265

21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2010-04-01

266

21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2013-04-01

267

21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2011-04-01

268

21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

2012-04-01

269

Altered Uptake and Biological Half-Lives of 65 Zn on Arsenic Exposure—Modulation by Zinc Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study revealed the effects of zinc on the biokinetics of 65Zn in rats following arsenic intoxication. The animals were segregated into four groups: group I—untreated controls, group\\u000a II—arsenic treated (100 ppm as NaAsO2 in drinking water), group III—zinc treated (227 mg ZnSO4 per liter drinking water), and group IV—arsenic?+?zinc treated. Each rat was injected intraperitoneally with 1.85 MBq radioactivity\\u000a of 65Zn

Ashok Kumar; Praveen Nair; Anshoo Malhotra; Shaoli Majumdar; Mohan Lal Garg; Devinder Kumar Dhawan

270

Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride  

DOEpatents

Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

2014-02-11

271

Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride  

DOEpatents

Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

Spormann, Alfred M. (Stanford, CA); Muller, Jochen A. (Baltimore, MD); Rosner, Bettina M. (Berlin, DE); Von Abendroth, Gregory (Nannhein, DE); Meshulam-Simon, Galit (Los Altos, CA); McCarty, Perry L (Stanford, CA)

2011-11-22

272

Observations of interstellar zinc  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IUE observations toward 10 stars have shown that zinc is not depleted in the interstellar medium by more than a factor of two, suggesting that its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. A result pertinent to the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood is that the local interstellar medium has abundances that appear to be homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc.

York, D. G.; Jura, M.

1982-01-01

273

New uses for calcium chloride solution as a mounting medium.  

PubMed

Fresh cross sections of stems (Psilotum nudum, Coleus blumei, and Pelargonium peltatum) and roots (Setcreasea purpurea) 120 microns thick were fixed in FPA50 (formalin: propionic acid: 50% ethanol, 5:5:90, v/v) for 24 hr and stored in 70% ethanol. The sections were transferred to water and then to 1% phloroglucin in 20% calcium chloride solution plus either hydrochloric, nitric, or lactic acid in the following ratios of phloroglucin-CaCl2 solution:acid: 25:4, 20:2, or 15:5. The sections were mounted on slides either in one of the three mixtures or in fresh 20% calcium chloride solution. A rapid reaction of the acid-phloroglucin with lignin produced a deep red color in tracheary elements and an orange-red color in sclerenchyma. Fixed and stored leaf pieces from Nymphaea odorata were autoclaved in lactic acid, washed in two changes of 95% ethanol, transferred to water, and treated with the three acid-phloroglucin-calcium chloride mixtures. The abundant astrosclereids stained an orange-red color similar to that of sclerenchyma in the sections. In addition, a new method is reported for specifically staining lignified tissues. When sections or leaf pieces are stained in aqueous 0.05% toluidine blue O, then placed in 20% calcium chloride solution, all tissues destain except those with lignified or partially lignified cell walls. Thus, toluidine blue O applied as described becomes a reliable specific test for lignin comparable to the acid-phloroglucin test. PMID:1377501

Herr, J M

1992-01-01

274

Inhibition of rat colon tumor isograft growth with dequalinium chloride.  

PubMed

In searching for a new approach to the systemic treatment of colorectal carcinoma, we have observed that certain lipophilic cationic compounds are accumulated and retained for a significantly longer period in the mitochondria of living carcinoma cells than in normal cells or sarcoma cells. We report the in vivo therapeutic effect of one of these compounds, dequalinium chloride, on the W163 rat colon carcinoma isograft, which grows rapidly in Wistar/Furth rats after primary tumor implantation, and which recurs rapidly after primary tumor resection. In the primary transplant model, tumors were implanted, and daily dequalinium chloride treatments were begun the following day in doses ranging from 1 to 10 mg/kg. In the recurrence model, isografts were implanted, allowed to grow for one week, and then all gross tumor was resected. Dequalinium chloride was administered in varying daily doses starting the day after resection. In both models, tumor was removed on day 11 after implantation or resection. At sublethal doses, dequalinium chloride significantly inhibited primary tumor growth to 60% that of controls and recurrent tumor growth to 50% that of controls. We propose that this unique biologic approach of targeting carcinoma mitochondria with lipophilic cationic compounds may provide a major new opportunity for treating colorectal carcinoma. PMID:3778199

Bleday, R; Weiss, M J; Salem, R R; Wilson, R E; Chen, L B; Steele, G

1986-11-01

275

21 CFR 178.3290 - Chromic chloride complexes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 true Chromic chloride complexes. 178.3290 Section 178.3290 Food...Production Aids § 178.3290 Chromic chloride complexes. Myristo chromic chloride complex and stearato chromic chloride...

2010-04-01

276

Zinc--2004 84. Referencesthatincludeasectionmark()arefoundintheinternet  

E-print Network

Zinc--2004 84. Referencesthatincludeasectionmark(§)arefoundintheinternet Referencescitedsection. Zinc ByJohnD.Jorgenson Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Samir Hakim, statistical§ ). Aprocesstorecoverzincfromelectricarcfurnacedustwas developedandtestedbytheBritishfirmZinc

277

21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from...

2010-04-01

278

21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from...

2013-04-01

279

21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from...

2011-04-01

280

21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from...

2012-04-01

281

21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.  

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from...

2014-04-01

282

Differential impact of zinc deficiency on phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by human monocytes.  

PubMed

Zinc deficiency has a fundamental influence on the immune defense, with multiple effects on different immune cells, resulting in a major impairment of human health. Monocytes and macrophages are among the immune cells that are most fundamentally affected by zinc, but the impact of zinc on these cells is still far from being completely understood. Therefore, this study investigates the influence of zinc deficiency on monocytes of healthy human donors. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which include monocytes, were cultured under zinc deficient conditions for 3 days. This was achieved by two different methods: by application of the membrane permeable chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) or by removal of zinc from the culture medium using a CHELEX 100 resin. Subsequently, monocyte functions were analyzed in response to Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Zinc depletion had differential effects. On the one hand, elimination of bacterial pathogens by phagocytosis and oxidative burst was elevated. On the other hand, the production of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-6 was reduced. This suggests that monocytes shift from intercellular communication to basic innate defensive functions in response to zinc deficiency. These results were obtained regardless of the method by which zinc deficiency was achieved. However, CHELEX-treated medium strongly augmented cytokine production, independently from its capability for zinc removal. This side-effect severely limits the use of CHELEX for investigating the effects of zinc deficiency on innate immunity. PMID:24823619

Mayer, Lena S; Uciechowski, Peter; Meyer, Sören; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Rink, Lothar; Haase, Hajo

2014-07-01

283

Chloroquine Is a Zinc Ionophore  

PubMed Central

Chloroquine is an established antimalarial agent that has been recently tested in clinical trials for its anticancer activity. The favorable effect of chloroquine appears to be due to its ability to sensitize cancerous cells to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and induce apoptosis. The present study investigated the interaction of zinc ions with chloroquine in a human ovarian cancer cell line (A2780). Chloroquine enhanced zinc uptake by A2780 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as assayed using a fluorescent zinc probe. This enhancement was attenuated by TPEN, a high affinity metal-binding compound, indicating the specificity of the zinc uptake. Furthermore, addition of copper or iron ions had no effect on chloroquine-induced zinc uptake. Fluorescent microscopic examination of intracellular zinc distribution demonstrated that free zinc ions are more concentrated in the lysosomes after addition of chloroquine, which is consistent with previous reports showing that chloroquine inhibits lysosome function. The combination of chloroquine with zinc enhanced chloroquine's cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in A2780 cells. Thus chloroquine is a zinc ionophore, a property that may contribute to chloroquine's anticancer activity. PMID:25271834

Xue, Jing; Moyer, Amanda; Peng, Bing; Wu, Jinchang; Hannafon, Bethany N.; Ding, Wei-Qun

2014-01-01

284

Treating Sludges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are some of the ways to handle municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge presented at the 1978 American Chemical Society meeting. Suggestions include removing toxic materials, recovering metals, and disposing treated sewage sludge onto farm land. Arguments for and against land use are also given. (MA)

Josephson, Julian

1978-01-01

285

Spectral reflectance properties of electroplated and converted zinc for use as a solar selective coating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spectral reflectance properties of electroplated and chemically converted zinc were measured for both chromate and chloride conversion coatings. The reflectance properties were measured for various times of conversion and for conversion at various chromate concentrations. The values of absorptance, integrated over the solar spectrum, and of infrared emittance, integrated over black body radiation at 250 F were then calculated from the measured reflectance values. The interdependent variations of absorptance and infrared emittance were plotted. The results indicate that the optimum combination of the highest absorptance in the solar spectrum and the lowest emittance in the infrared of the converted electroplated zinc is produced by chromate conversion at 1/2 concentration of the standard NEOSTAR chromate black solution for 0.50 minute or by chloride conversion for 0.50 minute.

Mcdonald, G. E.; Curtis, H. B.; Gianelos, L.

1975-01-01

286

Zinc causes acute impairment of glutathione metabolism followed by coordinated antioxidant defenses amplification in gills of brown mussels Perna perna.  

PubMed

Zinc demonstrates protective and antioxidant properties at physiological levels, although these characteristics are not attributed at moderate or high concentrations. Zinc toxicity has been related to a number of factors, including interference with antioxidant defenses. In particular, the inhibition of glutathione reductase (GR) has been suggested as a possible mechanism for acute zinc toxicity in bivalves. The present work investigates the biochemical effects of a non-lethal zinc concentration on antioxidant-related parameters in gills of brown mussels Perna perna exposed for 21 days to 2.6 ?M zinc chloride. After 2 days of exposure, zinc caused impairment of the antioxidant system, decreasing GR activity and glutathione levels. An increase in antioxidant defenses became evident at 7 and 21 days of exposure, as an increase in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity along with restoration of glutathione levels and GR activity. After 7 and 21 days, an increase in cellular peroxides and lipid peroxidation end products were also detected, which are indicative of oxidative damage. Changes in GR activity contrasts with protein immunoblotting data, suggesting that zinc produces a long lasting inhibition of GR. Contrary to the general trend in antioxidants, levels of peroxiredoxin 6 decreased after 21 days of exposure. The data presented here support the hypothesis that zinc can impair thiol homeostasis, causes an increase in lipid peroxidation and inhibits GR, imposing a pro-oxidant status, which seems to trigger homeostatic mechanisms leading to a subsequent increase on antioxidant-related defenses. PMID:24095941

Trevisan, Rafael; Flesch, Samira; Mattos, Jacó Joaquim; Milani, Márcio Raimundo; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias; Dafre, Alcir Luiz

2014-01-01

287

A Chemical Stain for Identifying Arsenic-Treated Wood  

E-print Network

A Chemical Stain for Identifying Arsenic-Treated Wood (FINAL) Submitted June 23, 2006 Amy Omae-TREATED WOOD II.1 Applying Phosphate Stains to Arsenate Stains 7 II.2 A Potential Arsenic-Test Kit 14 II.3 Whole Wood Application of the Modified Stannous Chloride Stain 19 II.4 Other Attempted Stain

Florida, University of

288

Zinc Oxide Nanostructures by Solvothermal Synthesis .  

E-print Network

??The synthesis, characterization, and properties of three types of one-dimensional zinc oxide nanostructures are described. They were obtained by solvothermal treatment of nanometric zinc oxide… (more)

Segovia, M.

2012-01-01

289

Intraluminal zinc bioavailability - effect of amino acids on zinc solubility  

SciTech Connect

Human and bovine milks and simple solutions modeled after milks (milk models) have been used in the development of an intraluminal system involves subjecting a food, i.e., milk, to the pH range encountered in the digestive tract, and measuring the amount of soluble minerals at various pH's. With this system the authors have demonstrated that co-precipitation of zinc with calcium phosphate is a key factor modulating the solubility of zinc in milks and in milk models. Since a mineral must be soluble in order to be bioavailable, and since free amino acids have been suggested to increase the solubility of zinc by adding various amino acids. Of the amino acids, aspartate, glutamate, histidine, and phosphoserine, only histidine (10 mM) increased the solubility of zinc in a milk model, albeit slightly. Supplementation of bovine milk with 10 mM histidine also resulted in a slight increase in zinc solubility. No increase in zinc solubility was observed at a physiologic histidine level. Free amino acids at physiologic concentrations do not increase zinc solubility in milks, and therefore, do not seem to contribute to zinc bioavailability.

Jacobs, F.A.; Nelson, L.S. Jr.; Brushmiller, J.G.

1986-03-01

290

Living cationic polymerization of isobutyl vinyl ether initiated by the trimethylsilyl iodide\\/zinc iodide system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trimethylsilyl iodide in conjunction with zinc iodide (Me3SiI\\/ZnI2) as an initiating system led to living cationic polymerization of isobutyl vinyl ether in toluene at 0 or -40°C or in methylene chloride at -40°C (ZnI2 was dissolved in acetone). The number-average molecular weight of the polymers was directly proportional to monomer conversion and in excellent agreement with the calculated value assuming

Mitsuo Sawamoto; Masami Kamigaito; Kazushige Kojima; Toshinobu Higashimura

1988-01-01

291

Novel metallic iron\\/manganese–zinc ferrite nanocomposites prepared by microwave hydrothermal flash synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallic iron (?-Fe)\\/manganese–zinc ferrite (Fe3?x?yMnxZnyO4) nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized for the first time using microwave hydrothermal treatment of alcoholic solutions of chloride precursors and sodium ethoxide. This new type of nanocomposites, never obtained by conventional synthesis, can now be produced in a short period (e.g. 15s). The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and magnetic properties

T. Caillot; G. Pourroy; D. Stuerga

2011-01-01

292

Growth and Studies of Halides doped Zinc Tris-Thiourea Sulphate(HZTS) Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of Sodium chloride and Potassium iodide (Halides) doped Zinc tris-thiourea sulphate (ZTS) were grown from low temperature solution growth technique by slow evaporation method using water as solvent. The powder X-Ray diffraction pattern were recorded and indexed. The UV transmittance spectrum has been recorded. The optical band gap was estimated using Taucís plot. The TGA/DTA studies show the thermal properties of the crystals.

Suveetha, P.; Sathya, T.; Sudha, S.; Raj, M. B. Jessie

2012-10-01

293

Effects of thiourea and urea on zinc–cobalt electrodeposition under continuous current  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of thiourea and urea on zinc-cobalt alloys obtained from chloride baths under continuous current deposition are\\u000a described and discussed. The deposit morphology was analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and an X-Ray Diffraction\\u000a (XRD) was used to determine the preferred crystallographic orientations of the deposits. The use of additives does not refine\\u000a the grain size of the Zn–Co

M. Mouanga; L. Ricq; P. Berçot

2008-01-01

294

Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 ?? 1010 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park. ?? 1985.

Norton, D.R.; Friedman, I.

1985-01-01

295

Reaction mechanism for the ferric chloride leaching of sphalerite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reaction mechanisms for the ferric chloride leaching of sphalerite are proposed based on data obtained in leaching and dual cell experiments presented in this work and in a previous study. The results from the leaching experiments show that at low concentrations the rate is proportional to [Fe3+]T 0.5 and [Cl-]T 0.43 but at higher concentrations the reaction order with respect to both [Fe3+]T and [Cl-]T decreases. Using dual cell experiments which allow the half cell reactions to be separated, increased rates are observed when NaCl is added to the anolyte and to the catholyte. The increase in rate is attributed to a direct, anodic electrochemical reaction of Cl- with the mineral. When NaCl is added only to the catholyte, a decrease in the rate is observed due to a decrease in the E 0 of the cathode which is attributed to the formation of ferric-chloro complexes. Several possible electrochemical mechanisms and mathematical models based on the Butler-Volmer relation are delineated, and of these, one model is selected which accounts for the experimentally observed changes in reaction order for both Fe3+ and Cl-. This analysis incorporates a charge transfer process for each ion and an adsorption step for ferric and chloride ions. The inhibiting effect of Fe2+ noted by previous investigators is also accounted for through a similar model which includes back reaction kinetics for Fe2+. The proposed models successfully provide a theoretical basis for describing the role of Cl-, Fe3+, and Fe2+ as well as their interrelationship in zinc sulfide leaching reactions. Possible applications of these results to chloride leaching systems involving other sulfides or complex sulfides are considered.

Warren, G. W.; Henein, H.; Jin, Zuo-Mei

1985-12-01

296

Accidental benzalkonium chloride (zephiran) injection.  

PubMed

We report a case of an accidental injection of benzalkonium chloride (zephiran) instead of a local anesthetic agent during a tooth extraction. The sudden development of chin and neck swelling led to dyspnea and the patient lost consciousness. She was sent to an emergency clinic by her dentist immediately. After medical treatment for 20 days, the necrotic tissue was debrided and a gingival sulcoplasty was performed. Healing was uneventful. PMID:22014998

Kilic, Erdem; Er, Nilay; Alkan, Alper; Ferahbas, Ayten

2011-12-01

297

Supplementation of zinc on oocyte in vitro maturation improves preimplatation embryonic development in pigs.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of zinc supplementation during the IVM of porcine oocytes. Nuclear maturation, intracellular glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, subsequent embryonic development, and gene expression were evaluated. Zinc concentrations in porcine plasma and follicular fluid were 0.82 and 0.84 ?g/mL, respectively. Zinc was not detected in IVM medium. After treatment with various zinc concentrations (0.0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, and 1.6 ?g/mL), no significant difference in IVM was observed among groups (85.7%, 88.7%, 90.4%, 90.3%, and 87.2%, respectively). The effects of different zinc concentrations on porcine oocyte intracellular GSH and ROS levels were examined in mature oocytes. Intracellular GSH levels were significantly higher in the 0.8-, 1.2-, and 1.6-?g/mL groups than in the control (P < 0.05). Intracellular ROS levels of oocytes matured with 0.8, 1.2, and 1.6 ?g/mL were reduced significantly (P < 0.05) compared with the control and 0.4-?g/mL groups. The developmental competence of oocytes matured with different zinc concentrations was evaluated after parthenogenetic activation (PA) and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Oocytes treated with zinc during IVM showed no significant difference in cleavage rate after PA. Oocytes treated with 0.8 and 1.2 ?g/mL zinc during IVM had significantly higher blastocyst formation rates after PA (41.5% and 41.1%, respectively) than the control (27.2%). IVF embryos showed similar results. The blastocyst formation rate was significantly higher (28.2%) in the 0.8-?g/mL group. TNFAIP2 and Bax were decreased in zinc-treated cumulus cells. Increased POU5F1 and decreased Bax transcript levels were observed in zinc-treated oocytes. POU5F1 and Bcl-2 transcript levels were significantly higher in zinc-treated IVF blastocysts. These results indicate that treatment with adequate zinc concentrations during IVM improved the developmental potential of porcine embryos by regulating the intracellular GSH concentration, the ROS level, and transcription factor expression. PMID:25091527

Jeon, Yubyeol; Yoon, Junchul David; Cai, Lian; Hwang, Seon-Ung; Kim, Eunhye; Zheng, Zhong; Lee, Eunsong; Kim, Dae Young; Hyun, Sang-Hwan

2014-10-01

298

Zinc deficiency regulates hippocampal gene expression and impairs neuronal differentiation  

PubMed Central

Objectives Proliferating adult stem cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus have the capacity not only to divide, but also to differentiate into neurons and integrate into the hippocampal circuitry. The present study identifies several hippocampal genes putatively regulated by zinc and tests the hypothesis that zinc deficiency impairs neuronal stem cell differentiation. Methods Genes that regulate neurogenic processes were identified using microarray analysis of hippocampal mRNA isolated from adult rats fed zinc-adequate or zinc-deficient (ZD) diets. We directly tested our hypothesis with cultured human neuronal precursor cells (NT2), stimulated to differentiate into post-mitotic neurons by retinoic acid (RA), along with immunocytochemistry and western analysis. Results Microarray analysis revealed the regulation of genes involved in cellular proliferation. This analysis also identified a number of genes known to be involved in neuronal differentiation, including the nuclear RA receptor, retinoid X receptor (RXR), doublecortin, and a transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) binding protein (P < 0.05). Zinc deficiency significantly reduced RA-induced expression of the neuronal marker proteins doublecortin and ?-tubulin type III (TuJ1) to 40% of control levels (P < 0.01). This impairment of differentiation may be partially mediated by alterations in TGF-? signaling. The TGF-? type II receptor, responsible for binding TGF-? during neuronal differentiation, was increased 14-fold in NT2 cells treated with RA (P < 0.001). However, this increase was decreased by 60% in ZD RA-treated cells (P < 0.001). Discussion This research identifies target genes that are involved in governing neurogenesis under ZD conditions and suggests an important role for TGF-? and the trace metal zinc in regulating neuronal differentiation. PMID:23582512

Gower-Winter, Shannon D.; Corniola, Rikki S.; Morgan, Thomas J.; Levenson, Cathy W.

2012-01-01

299

Zinc polycarboxylate dental cement for the controlled release of an active organic substance: proof of concept.  

PubMed

The potential of employing zinc polycarboxylate dental cement as a controlled release material has been studied. Benzalkonium chloride was used as the active ingredient, and incorporated at concentrations of 1, 2 and 3% by mass within the cement. At these levels, there was no observable effect on the speed of setting. Release was followed using an ion-selective electrode to determine changes in chloride ion concentration with time. This technique showed that the additive was released when the cured cement was placed in water, with release occurring by a diffusion mechanism for the first 3 h, but continuing beyond that for up to 1 week. Diffusion coefficients were in the range 5.62 x 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) (for 1% concentration) to 10.90 x 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) (for 3% concentration). Up to 3% of the total loading of benzalkonium chloride was released from the zinc polycarboxylate after a week, which is similar to that found in previous studies with glass-ionomer cement. It is concluded that zinc polycarboxylate cement is capable of acting as a useful material for the controlled release of active organic compounds. PMID:19967407

Ali, Mohammad Naseem; Edwards, Mark; Nicholson, John W

2010-04-01

300

Zinc cellular traffic: physiopathological considerations.  

PubMed

Zinc cellular traffic is reviewed in both influx and efflux stages. Zinc influx happens through three different modalities: 1) anionic exchange channels, with the metal cotransported in complex form with anions, often as anionic monovalent complex (Zn [HCO3)2Cl]. Bicarbonate-ions, chloro-ions and thiocyanate-ions can stimulate zinc < uptake >, while phosphate and sulphate-ions are inhibitory. 2) facilitated diffusion through amino acids which, by passing into cells, carry zinc (particularly cysteine and histidine) with them. 3) transferrin receptor route, very important for cellular uptake of iron and zinc. Various mitogenic factors cause increased synthesis of transferrin receptors and increase of metal uptake. Zinc efflux happens through zinc/calcium exchange (zinc efflux coupled with calcium influx). Calcium is then expelled from cells by means of calcium pump (with energy consumption), regulated by membrane Ca-ATPase. Impairment of this ionic exchange process may cause an intracellular accumulation (as may be seen in SHR rats). PMID:7753436

Ripa, S; Ripa, R

1995-01-01

301

Antimicrobial effect of zinc pyrithione  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The antimicrobial effect of zinc pyrithione has been studied with healthy scalps in relation to its ANTIDANDRUFF effect. Use of zinc pyrithione-containing shampoo sharply reduced the CORNEOCYTE COUNTS, while the similarly active antimicrobial agent, Irgasan DP-300 © had no effect on the corneocyte counts. Quantitative estimation of scalp microorganisms revealed that corresponding to the decrease in dandruff, Pityrospbrum ovale

GENJI IMOKAWA; HARUO SHIMIZU

302

Acute toxicity of cyanogen chloride to Daphnia magna  

SciTech Connect

The destruction of cyanide in waste waters by chlorination has been shown to result in the formation of the extremely toxic compound, cyanogen chloride. Industrial cyanide-containing waste waters may be treated by a batch chlorination process under highly alkaline conditions prior to being discharged into a receiving water systems. Alternatively, if the concentration of cyanide is relatively low, and such waste waters may be diverted to municipal waste treatment facilities where they may be subjected to a process of chlorination which may not be sufficient for the complete oxidative destruction of the available cyanide. Although a large body of literature exists concerning the toxicity of HCN and metallic cyanide compounds to aquatic organisms, there is a comparative scarcity of information concerning cyanogen chloride toxicity. This study was designed to determine the acute toxicity of CNCl to Daphnia magna neonates under static bioassay conditions.

Kononen, D.W.

1988-09-01

303

Arsenic doped zinc oxide  

SciTech Connect

As-doping of zinc oxide has been approached by ion implantation and chemical vapor deposition. The effect of thermal annealing on the implanted samples has been investigated by using secondary ion mass spectrometry and Rutherford backscattering/channeling geometry. The crystal damage, the distribution of the arsenic, the diffusion of impurities, and the formation of secondary phases is discussed. For the thin films grown by vapor deposition, the composition has been determined with regard to the growth parameters. The bonding state of arsenic was investigated for both series of samples using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Volbers, N.; Lautenschlaeger, S.; Leichtweiss, T.; Laufer, A.; Graubner, S.; Meyer, B. K. [Physics Institute, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Potzger, K.; Zhou Shengqiang [Institute for Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)

2008-06-15

304

Blackcurrant seed oil, zinc, and fetal alcohol syndrome.  

PubMed

The effects of dietary supplementation by blackcurrant seed oil (BSO) and zinc sulphate on PGI2 gastric release and on serum zinc levels were investigated in 50 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats which received watery alcohol solutions from 5% to 30% (v/v) as well as in their newborns. Blood zinc was assayed by atomic absorption spectroscopy; PGI2 was evaluated by platelet aggregation PGI2-dependent test. Dietary supplementation by BSO increased gastric release of PGI2 both in the mothers and their newborns; blood zinc levels were significantly (p < 0.01) lower in both vs control. The content of PGI2 in the stomachs was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in the mothers treated by zinc sulphate vs their new-borns. Protection of gastric mucosa of the new-born rats from alcohol fetal exposure might depend on polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) dietary supplementation, because of the capability of PUFA to cross placenta; the efficacy in the protection might be monitored by platelet aggregation PGI2-dependent test. PMID:9270175

Seri, S; D'Alessandro, A

1997-01-01

305

Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of a series of novel zinc vanadium oxides as cathode materials  

SciTech Connect

The authors report here the hydrothermal synthesis of a series of novel zinc vanadium oxides, using tetramethyl ammonium ion in order to stabilize the layered structure of vanadium oxide during electrochemical redox reactions with lithium. The compounds were synthesized by the reaction of zinc chloride, vanadium (V) oxide, and tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide at 165 C for 60 hours. Four new zinc vanadium oxide compounds were discovered, only one of which contained the organic cation; another was found to have a layered structure with bridging V-O-V groups analogous to that of beta alumina. These compounds were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, and IR. Three of the compounds reacted readily with lithium, and their electrochemical behavior in lithium cells were determined.

Zhang, F.; Zavalij, P.Y.; Whittingham, M.S.

1998-07-01

306

Preparation of luminescent films of zinc sulfide by spraying of solutions onto a heated substrate  

SciTech Connect

New methods for preparing luminescent materials, especially thin-film luminophores, are of value and in this work the authors prepare luminescent films of zinc sulfide by the method of spraying solutions onto a heated substrate. The working solutions consisted of zinc chloride and thiourea. The results obtained made it possible to determine the effect of different factors on the nature of the spectra and the intensity of the luminescence. The luminescence properties of films were found to vary over wide limits for different conditions of deposition of zinc sulfide by the method used here. The temperature of the substrate, the ratio of the components, and the pH of the solution have the greatest effect.

Semenov, V.N.; Derevyanko, E.V.; Klyuev, V.G.; Kushnir, M.A.; Malaya, L.Ya.

1987-07-01

307

Volume-sensitive chloride channels are involved in cisplatin treatment of osteosarcoma.  

PubMed

Chemotherapy is the most common therapeutic strategy used to treat osteosarcoma. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of functionally activated chloride channels on cisplatin?induced apoptosis of MG?63 human osteosarcoma cells. An MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to detect proliferation and apoptosis of the cells, respectively. Live cell imaging was used to detect volume changes in response to treatment with cisplatin and/or chloride channel blockers. The effects of these treatments on chloride currents were also assayed using the patch?clamp technique. The results of the present study indicate that chloride channel blockers may suppress cisplatin?induced apoptosis. The MG?63 cells cultured with cisplatin demonstrated an apoptotic volume decrease, as well as suppression of cell proliferation; which were reversed by co?treatment with chloride channel blockers. These results suggest that cisplatin may activate chloride channels, and that channel activation is an early signal in the pathways that lead to cisplatin?induced apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in MG?63 cells. In conclusion, these results indicate that chloride channels have an important role in cisplatin treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:25503821

Cai, Siyi; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Dandan; Qiu, Guixing; Liu, Yong

2015-04-01

308

Rambutan peels promoted biomimetic synthesis of bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains for biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A naturally occurring rambutan peel waste was employed to synthesis bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains. Rambutan peels has the ability of ligating zinc ions as a natural ligation agent resulting in zinc oxide nanochains formation due to its extended polyphenolic system over incubation period. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanochains was confirmed employing transmission electron microscopy studies. About 60% and ?40% cell viability was lost and 50% and 10% morphological change was observed in 7 and 4 days incubated ZnO treated cells compared with control. Moreover, 50% and 55% of cell death was observed at 24 and 48 h incubation with 7 days treated ZnO cells and hence alters and disturbs the growth of cancer cells and could be used for liver cancer cell treatment.

Yuvakkumar, R.; Suresh, J.; Saravanakumar, B.; Joseph Nathanael, A.; Hong, Sun Ig; Rajendran, V.

2015-02-01

309

Rambutan peels promoted biomimetic synthesis of bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

A naturally occurring rambutan peel waste was employed to synthesis bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains. Rambutan peels has the ability of ligating zinc ions as a natural ligation agent resulting in zinc oxide nanochains formation due to its extended polyphenolic system over incubation period. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanochains was confirmed employing transmission electron microscopy studies. About 60% and ?40% cell viability was lost and 50% and 10% morphological change was observed in 7 and 4days incubated ZnO treated cells compared with control. Moreover, 50% and 55% of cell death was observed at 24 and 48h incubation with 7days treated ZnO cells and hence alters and disturbs the growth of cancer cells and could be used for liver cancer cell treatment. PMID:25228035

Yuvakkumar, R; Suresh, J; Saravanakumar, B; Joseph Nathanael, A; Hong, Sun Ig; Rajendran, V

2015-02-25

310

Vibrational spectra and structures of zinc carboxylates II. Anhydrous zinc acetate and zinc stearate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A normal mode analysis was carried out for a monoclinic anhydrous zinc acetate crystal in which the acetate groups had bridging bidentate coordination forms, and spectral assignments were made. Based on the assignments, a relation between the coordination structure of the carboxylate groups around the zinc atom and the vibrational frequencies of the carboxylate rocking mode was found. This relation

Tsutomu Ishioka; Youko Shibata; Mizuki Takahashi; Isao Kanesaka

1998-01-01

311

Crystallographic evidence for dual coordination around zinc in the T3R3 human insulin hexamer.  

PubMed

The T3R3 human insulin hexamer (T and R referring to extended and alpha-helical conformations, respectively, of the first eight residues of the B-chain), complexed to two zinc ions, crystallizes in space group R3 with hexagonal cell constants a = 80.64 and c = 37.78 A. The structure has been refined to a residual of 0.172 using 9225 independent data to 1.6-A resolution. The asymmetric unit consists of a TR dimer, and the insulin hexamer is generated by the action of the crystallographic 3-fold axis. The conformation of one insulin trimer is nearly identical to that of the T6 hexamer, while the other trimer approximates that of the R6 hexamer, except for the three N-terminal B-chain residues that adopt an extended rather than an alpha-helical conformation. Each of the two zinc ions, which lie on the crystallographic 3-fold axis and exhibit two different, disordered coordination geometries, is coordinated by the imidazole groups of three symmetry-related B10 histidine residues. The coordination sphere of the zinc in the T3 trimer is either tetrahedral, with the fourth site filled by a chloride ion, or octahedral, completed by three water molecules. The coordination of the zinc in the 12-A narrow channel in the R3 trimer is tetrahedral, with either a second chloride ion or a water molecule completing the coordination sphere. The putative off-axial zinc binding sites that result from the T-->R transition of monomer II do not contain zinc ion, but instead are filled with clusters of ordered water molecules.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8312271

Ciszak, E; Smith, G D

1994-02-15

312

Lithium chloride protects retinal neurocytes from nutrient deprivation by promoting DNA non-homologous end-joining  

SciTech Connect

Lithium chloride is a therapeutic agent for treatment of bipolar affective disorders. Increasing numbers of studies have indicated that lithium has neuroprotective effects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of lithium have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate whether lithium chloride produces neuroprotective function by improving DNA repair pathway in retinal neurocyte. In vitro, the primary cultured retinal neurocytes (85.7% are MAP-2 positive cells) were treated with lithium chloride, then cultured with serum-free media to simulate the nutrient deprived state resulting from ischemic insult. The neurite outgrowth of the cultured cells increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner when exposed to different levels of lithium chloride. Genomic DNA electrophoresis demonstrated greater DNA integrity of retinal neurocytes when treated with lithium chloride as compared to the control. Moreover, mRNA and protein levels of Ligase IV (involved in DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway) in retinal neurocytes increased with lithium chloride. The end joining activity assay was performed to determine the role of lithium on NHEJ in the presence of extract from retinal neurocytes. The rejoining levels in retinal neurocytes treated with lithium were significantly increased as compared to the control. Furthermore, XRCC4, the Ligase IV partner, and the transcriptional factor, CREB and CTCF, were up-regulated in retinal cells after treating with 1.0 mM lithium chloride. Therefore, our data suggest that lithium chloride protects the retinal neural cells from nutrient deprivation in vitro, which may be similar to the mechanism of cell death in glaucoma. The improvement in DNA repair pathway involving in Ligase IV might have an important role in lithium neuroprotection. This study provides new insights into the neural protective mechanisms of lithium chloride.

Zhuang Jing; Li Fan; Liu Xuan; Liu Zhiping; Lin Jianxian [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Ge Yihong [Department of Stomatology, the Southern Medical University (China); Kaminski, Joseph M. [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation, University of South Alabama (United States); Summers, James Bradley [Department of Radiology, University of South Alabama (United States); Wang Zhichong [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Ge Jian [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)], E-mail: gejian@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Yu Keming [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)], E-mail: yukeming@mail.sysu.edu.cn

2009-03-13

313

Zinc Oxide Nanowires by Oxidation of Zinc Powder for Ethanol Gas Sensor Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc oxide nanowires were prepared by oxidation of zinc powder. The oxidation of zinc was performed by heating a tube of zinc powder at various duration times and temperatures. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Disper- sive Spectrometry (EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to char- acterize the tube. It was found that the diameter of zinc

Chanchai Viriyaworasakul; Sombat Kittikunodom; Supab Choopun; Torranin Chairuangsri; Pongsri Mangkorntong; Nikorn Mangkorntong

314

Cadmium and zinc accumulation in soybean: A threat to food safety?  

PubMed

A greenhouse study was conducted to quantify cadmium and zinc accumulated by soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) when the metals were supplied separately and together. The highest dose of cadmium (100 mg/kg) reduced plant height and dry weight (down to 40% and 34% of control, respectively); the highest dose of zinc (2000 mg/kg) reduced plant height to 55% of control and dry weight to 70% of control. With both metals present, the plants were approximately the same size as those treated with cadmium only. The concentration of cadmium in the roots was unaffected by zinc. In other tissues, the effect of zinc on the accumulation of cadmium depended on the doses provided. At low doses, the addition of zinc reduced the concentration of cadmium in aboveground tissues to 40-50% of that found in plants exposed to cadmium only. However, when applied in high doses, the presence of zinc in cadmium-contaminated soils increased the uptake and accumulation of cadmium in aboveground tissues by up to 42%. In contrast, at high doses, the presence of cadmium in zinc-contaminated soil resulted in approximately 35% lower concentrations of zinc in all tissues. At a lower dose, cadmium had no effect on concentration of zinc in the plant tissues. The effects of high doses of one metal on the uptake of the other metal can be partially explained by the effects of one metal on the bioavailability of the other metal. In soils to which only one metal was added, bioavailable cadmium was 70-80% of the total cadmium, and bioavailable zinc was 50-70% of the total zinc. When both metals were added to the soil, 80-100% of the cadmium and 46-60% of the zinc were bioavailable. Concentrations of both metals were highest in root tissues (10-fold higher for cadmium, and up to 2-fold higher for zinc). Although relatively little cadmium was translocated to pods and seeds, the seeds of all plants (including those from control and zinc-treated plants) had concentrations of cadmium 3-4 times above the limit of 0.2 mg/kg set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. This was surprising given that cadmium in the soil was only 1 mg/kg well below the maximum allowable amount for agricultural soil. While it is possible that more cadmium was accumulated by plants in this study than that which might occur under agricultural field conditions, these results reinforce the need to monitor concentrations of toxic metals in food crops. PMID:16949649

Shute, Tracy; Macfie, Sheila M

2006-12-01

315

Effect of Supplementation with Zinc and Other Micronutrients on Malaria in Tanzanian Children: A Randomised Trial  

PubMed Central

Background It is uncertain to what extent oral supplementation with zinc can reduce episodes of malaria in endemic areas. Protection may depend on other nutrients. We measured the effect of supplementation with zinc and other nutrients on malaria rates. Methods and Findings In a 2×2 factorial trial, 612 rural Tanzanian children aged 6–60 months in an area with intense malaria transmission and with height-for-age z-score??1.5 SD were randomized to receive daily oral supplementation with either zinc alone (10 mg), multi-nutrients without zinc, multi-nutrients with zinc, or placebo. Intervention group was indicated by colour code, but neither participants, researchers, nor field staff knew who received what intervention. Those with Plasmodium infection at baseline were treated with artemether-lumefantrine. The primary outcome, an episode of malaria, was assessed among children reported sick at a primary care clinic, and pre-defined as current Plasmodium infection with an inflammatory response, shown by axillary temperature ?37.5°C or whole blood C-reactive protein concentration ?8 mg/L. Nutritional indicators were assessed at baseline and at 251 days (median; 95% reference range: 191–296 days). In the primary intention-to-treat analysis, we adjusted for pre-specified baseline factors, using Cox regression models that accounted for multiple episodes per child. 592 children completed the study. The primary analysis included 1,572 malaria episodes during 526 child-years of observation (median follow-up: 331 days). Malaria incidence in groups receiving zinc, multi-nutrients without zinc, multi-nutrients with zinc and placebo was 2.89/child-year, 2.95/child-year, 3.26/child-year, and 2.87/child-year, respectively. There was no evidence that multi-nutrients influenced the effect of zinc (or vice versa). Neither zinc nor multi-nutrients influenced malaria rates (marginal analysis; adjusted HR, 95% CI: 1.04, 0.93–1.18 and 1.10, 0.97–1.24 respectively). The prevalence of zinc deficiency (plasma zinc concentration <9.9 µmol/L) was high at baseline (67% overall; 60% in those without inflammation) and strongly reduced by zinc supplementation. Conclusions We found no evidence from this trial that zinc supplementation protected against malaria. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00623857 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. PMID:22131908

Veenemans, Jacobien; Milligan, Paul; Prentice, Andrew M.; Schouten, Laura R. A.; Inja, Nienke; van der Heijden, Aafke C.; de Boer, Linsey C. C.; Jansen, Esther J. S.; Koopmans, Anna E.; Enthoven, Wendy T. M.; Kraaijenhagen, Rob J.; Demir, Ayse Y.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Mbugi, Erasto V.; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Verhoef, Hans

2011-01-01

316

Biosorption of zinc(II) ions onto powdered waste sludge (PWS): Kinetics and isotherms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste sludge samples obtained from a paint industry wastewater treatment plant was dried, ground and pre-treated with 1% H2O2 to improve the biosorption capacity. The powdered waste sludge (PWS) was sieved to different mesh sizes and used for biosorption of zinc(II) ions from aqueous solution. Kinetics of zinc biosorption onto PWS was investigated by using the PWS samples with particle

Fikret Kargi; Sinem Cikla

2006-01-01

317

Effect of Zinc Phosphide Rodenticide on Prairie Dog Colony Expansion as Determined From Aerial Photography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial photography (1:16,000) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc phosphide in reducing area expansion of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies over a 5-year period in western South Dakota. Untreated prairie dog colonies increased 65 % in area, compared to a 1% increase on treated colonies (P = 0.11). Zinc phosphide, applied at 3-year intervals, was effective in

DANIEL W. URESK; GREG L. SCHENBECK

318

21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. ...milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate neutralized to pH...

2014-04-01

319

21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications ...milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate neutralized to pH...

2012-04-01

320

21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications ...milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate neutralized to pH...

2013-04-01

321

Importance of the structural zinc atom for the stability of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase.  

PubMed Central

Yeast alcohol dehydrogenase is a tetrameric enzyme containing zinc. Initially we confirmed the presence of two zinc atoms per subunit. Incubation of the enzyme with increasing concentrations of dithiothreitol, a method for partial chelation, allowed first the reduction of four disulphide bridges per enzyme, but eventually was sufficient to chelate the structural zinc atom without having any effect on the zinc located in the active site. The enzyme activity was not affected but the enzyme became very sensitive to heat denaturation. Chelation by EDTA was also performed. Given its location at an external position in the globular protein, protected in each subunit by one disulphide bridge, the results establish that the second zinc atom present on each enzymic subunit plays a prominent conformational role, probably by stabilizing the tertiary structure of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase. Recovery experiments were performed by incubation of the native enzyme, or the dithiothreitol-treated enzyme, with a small amount of Zn2+. A stabilization effect was found when the structural zinc was re-incorporated after its removal by dithiothreitol. In all cases a large increase in activity was also observed, which was much greater than that expected based on the amount of re-incorporated zinc atom, suggesting the re-activation of some inactive commercial enzyme which had lost some of its original catalytic zinc atoms. PMID:1445195

Magonet, E; Hayen, P; Delforge, D; Delaive, E; Remacle, J

1992-01-01

322

Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition  

DOEpatents

A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

1981-10-08

323

Zinc Bells Rang in Jerusalem!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

“Oh, Jerusalem of gold, and of light, and of bronze…” goes the popular song. But it was another metal that towered above the Jerusalem landscape during the meeting of the International Society for Zinc Biology (ISZB; http://www.iszb.org/), held at Mishkenot Sha’ananim, a whisper away from the Old City walls. More than 100 scientists gathered on 1 to 5 December 2009 to discuss their research on the biology of this metal. Zinc is a double-edged sword. Zinc supplementation accelerates wound healing and growth and promotes an effective immune response. On the other hand, zinc deficiency leads to growth retardation and impaired learning and memory function, and has been linked to mood disorders. At the cellular level, however, uncontrolled increases in zinc concentrations can lead to neuronal cell death and may be involved in neurodegenerative disorders. Through regulation of various intracellular signaling pathways, zinc can accelerate cell growth and possibly contribute to cancer. However, despite the physiological and clinical importance of this metal, research on the molecular basis of these effects is still in its infancy. The 2009 ISZB meeting provided a venue for investigators working on various zinc-related issues to share their thoughts and ideas and to promote the growth of this field.

Michal Hershfinkel (Ben Gurion University;Department of Morphology REV); Elias Aizenman (University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine;Department of Neurobiology REV); Glen Andrews (University of Kansas Medical Center;Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology REV); Israel Sekler (Ben Gurion University;Department of Physiology REV)

2010-07-06

324

Comparison of the anti-inflammatory activity of sodium acexamate and zinc acexamate in healing skin wounds in rabbits.  

PubMed

After obtaining an abscess on the inner thigh of rabbits, the resulting inflammatory area was treated with sodium acexamate and zinc acexamate (0.5 ml s.c. of a 7% w/v solution). All animals received labeled leukocytes (111In, 1 mCi, i.v.). The hyperfixation was measured by comparing the inflammatory areas. In the group treated with zinc acexamate, the regression of inflammation was highly significant (p less than 0.001) in comparison with the other groups. These results emphasize the importance of combining zinc with acexamic acid for healing skin wounds. PMID:3615571

Guillard, O; Masson, P; Piriou, A; Brugier, J C; Courtois, P

1987-01-01

325

Molecular Structure of Sodium chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium chloride, or simply (table) salt, is found in the mineral Halite (rock salt) but also in seawater, sweat, etc. It is used in industry and in our everyday life, for seasoning and perserving food or for winter road maintenance. Seawater contains a lot of salt, on average of 2.6% NaCl, or 26 million metric tons per cubic kilometer. In rock salt the NaCl content typically ranges between 95% and 99% NaCl, and mechanically evaporated salt and solar salt normally exceed 99% NaCl.

2002-08-15

326

Metal chloride cathode for a battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of fabricating a rechargeable battery is disclosed which includes a positive electrode which contains a chloride of a selected metal when the electrode is in its active state. The improvement comprises fabricating the positive electrode by: providing a porous matrix composed of a metal; providing a solution of the chloride of the selected metal; and impregnating the matrix with the chloride from the solution.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Bankston, C. Perry (inventor)

1991-01-01

327

Inhibition of caudal fin regeneration in Corydoras aeneus by lithium chloride.  

PubMed

In the present study we examined the effects of lithium chloride on the Corydoras aeneus caudal fin regeneration. After caudal fin amputation, the fish were exposed 3h daily to 35 mM lithium chloride for 9 days. The effects of lithium chloride treatment were evaluated by analyzing the caudal fin structure at 3, 6 and 9 days after amputation. Comparison of normal and LiCl treated fish clearly shows that regeneration of amputated caudal fins was inhibited or delayed after lithium treatment. By the third day after amputation (dpa) either no epidermal cap or blastema ever formed or the epidermal cap had an abnormal morphology in lithium treated fish. By the 3 and 6 dpa no lepidotrichial matrix deposition was observed in the lithium treated fish compared to control fish. Unlike the control fish that completely regenerate their caudal fins after 9 dpa and have fully mineralized lepidotrichia, lithium treated fish have small blastema. In some treated fish, small amounts of new lepidotrichial matrix were observed at this time, in some fin rays. Ultrastructural observations have shown differences between control and lithium treated fish. Thus, in the lithium treated fish we observed expanded intercellular spaces between epidermal cells and many apoptotic cells. Results of this study suggest the use of this model in elucidating the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for regeneration of complex structures such as fish fins. PMID:23352777

Zarnescu, Otilia; Stavri, Simona; Moldovan, Lucia

2013-03-01

328

75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject...

2010-04-20

329

Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Vinyl Chloride  

E-print Network

Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Vinyl Chloride AMENDED PATHOLOGY Triangle Park, NC 27709 Submitted by: Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Street Address: Mailing, 2011 #12; Experimental Pathology Laboratories

Baker, Chris I.

330

Production of chlorine from chloride salts  

DOEpatents

A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

Rohrmann, Charles A. (Kennewick, WA)

1981-01-01

331

Undervehicle corrosion testing of zinc and zinc alloy coated steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undervehicle and on-vehicle coupon corrosion test programs were initiated by Dofasco Inc. in 1981, using two commercial trucks\\u000a operated in the deicing salt\\/snow belt area of Southern Ontario, Canada. The purpose was to investigate the relative corrosion\\u000a performance of numerous zinc and zinc alloy coated steels. Seventeen coated steels were tested. Results to date indicate that\\u000a the hot dip coated

R. J. Neville; K. M. de Souza

1986-01-01

332

Preparation of viscosifiers for zinc salt workover and completion brines  

SciTech Connect

Viscosifiers, for addition to high zinc salt brines, used as oil well workover and completion fluids, are prepared from polysaccharide gums or gelatin by treatment with formaldehyde and/or an aliphatic dialdehyde containing from 2 to 6 carbons. The treated viscosifiers have improved dispersibility and give increased viscosity effects in the brines. Preferably, the viscosifiers are prepared from carrageenan, locust bean gum, hydroxyethyl cellulose, or gelatin by treatment with a mixture of formaldehyde and glyoxal.

Guilbeau, K.G.; Mccrary, J.L.; Mosier, B.

1982-09-21

333

Recent Developments in Silver/Zinc Rechargeable Cell Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation discusses silver/zinc cell casing configurations and test results examining discharge capacity and silver migration comparisons. The following recommendations were proposed: 1) Use silver-treated cellophane instead of clear cellophane; 2) Use split wrap for cellophane whenever possible; and 3) Strongly consider use of sausage casing with PVA film in the following configuration: 1-mil (tubular) SC/1-mil PVA film/2.3-mil plain or 6-mil fiber-reinforced SC tubular.

Lewis, Harlan L.

2001-01-01

334

Enrofloxacin hydro­chloride dihydrate  

PubMed Central

The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H23FN3O3 +·Cl?·2H2O [systematic name: 4-(3-carb­oxy-1-cyclo­propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-di­hydro­quin­o­lin-7-yl)-1-ethyl­piperazin-1-ium chloride dihydrate], consists of two independent monocations of the protonated enrofloxacin, two chloride anions and four water mol­ecules. In the cations, the piperazinium rings adopt chair conformations and the dihedral angles between the cyclo­propyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring system are 56.55?(2) and 51.11?(2)°. An intra­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bond is observed in each cation. In the crystal, the components are connected via O—H?Cl, N—H?Cl and O—H?O hydrogen bonds, and a ?–? inter­action between the benzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.6726?(13)?Å], resulting in a three-dimensional array. PMID:24826167

Miranda-Calderón, Jorge E.; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Sumano, Héctor

2014-01-01

335

Color removal from dye-containing wastewater by magnesium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color removal by MgCl2 when treating synthetic waste containing pure dyes was studied. The color removal efficiency of MgCl2\\/Ca(OH)2 was compared with that of Al2(SO4)3, polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and FeSO4\\/Ca(OH)2. The mechanism of color removal by MgCl2 was also investigated. The experimental results show that the color removal efficiency of MgCl2 is related to the type of dye and depends

Bao-Yu Gao; Qin-Yan Yue; Yan Wang; Wei-Zhi Zhou

2007-01-01

336

Review: Zinc’s functional significance in the vertebrate retina  

PubMed Central

This review covers a broad range of topics related to the actions of zinc on the cells of the vertebrate retina. Much of this review relies on studies in which zinc was applied exogenously, and therefore the results, albeit highly suggestive, lack physiologic significance. This view stems from the fact that the concentrations of zinc used in these studies may not be encountered under the normal circumstances of life. This caveat is due to the lack of a zinc-specific probe with which to measure the concentrations of Zn2+ that may be released from neurons or act upon them. However, a great deal of relevant information has been garnered from studies in which Zn2+ was chelated, and the effects of its removal compared with findings obtained in its presence. For a more complete discussion of the consequences of depletion or excess in the body’s trace elements, the reader is referred to a recent review by Ugarte et al. in which they provide a detailed account of the interactions, toxicity, and metabolic activity of the essential trace elements iron, zinc, and copper in retinal physiology and disease. In addition, Smart et al. have published a splendid review on the modulation by zinc of inhibitory and excitatory amino acid receptor ion channels. PMID:25324679

Chappell, Richard L.

2014-01-01

337

Zinc and Health: Current Status and Future Directions Zinc Transport in the Brain: Routes of Zinc Influx and Efflux in Neurons1,2  

E-print Network

Zinc and Health: Current Status and Future Directions Zinc Transport in the Brain: Routes of Zinc of the routes of entry and exit for zinc in different tissues and cell types have shown that zinc can use and that mediate extracellular zinc toxicity and (3) a plasma membrane transporter potentially present in all

338

Effects of cadmium, copper, and zinc on ?APP processing and turnover in COS7 and PC12 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cadmium, copper, and zinc on ?APP metabolism were investigated in COS-7 and PC12 cells. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) increased ?APP steady-state protein levels and decreased ?APP posttranslational processing. These changes were not accompanied\\u000a by alterations in ?APP mRNA levels or splicing. In addition, cytosolic ?-actin and G3PDH levels were not affected. Further,\\u000a neither zinc (ZnCl2) nor copper (CuSO4)

Marilyn Smedman; Anna Potempska; Richard Rubenstein; Weina Ju; Narayan Ramakrishna; Robert B. Denman

1997-01-01

339

XAFS Studies of Ni Ta and Nb Chlorides in the Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl Imidazolium Chloride / Aluminum Chloride  

SciTech Connect

The structures of anhydrous nickel, niobium, and tantalum chlorides have been investigated in situ in acidic and basic ionic liquids (ILs) of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (EMIC)/AlCl{sub 3} with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The coordination of NiCl{sub 2} changes from tetrahedral in basic solution to octahedral in acidic solution. The NiCl{sub 2} is a strong Lewis acid in that it can induce the AlCl{sub 3} to share its chlorides in the highly acidic IL, forming a structure with six near Cl{sup -} ions and eight further distant Al ions which share the chloride ions surrounding the Ni{sup 2+}. When Nb{sub 2}Cl{sub 10}, a dimer, is added to the acidic or basic solution, the dimer breaks apart and forms two species. In the acid solution, two trigonal bipyramids are formed with five equal chloride distances, while in the basic solution, a square pyramid with four chlorides forming a square base and one shorter axial chloride bond. Ta{sub 2}Cl{sub 10} is also a dimer and divides into half in the acidic solution and forms two trigonal bipyramids. In the basic solution, the dimer breaks apart but the species formed is sufficiently acidic that it attracts two additional chloride ions and forms a seven coordinated tantalum species.

W OGrady; D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek

2011-12-31

340

Neurons of origin of zinc-containing pathways and the distribution of zinc-containing boutons in the hippocampal region of the rat.  

PubMed

Recent methods allow the study of neurons that contain zinc in synaptic vesicles of their boutons (Timm-stainable boutons) by the intravital precipitation (local or throughout the CNS) of the vesicular zinc with selenium compounds and its subsequent retrograde transport to the parent neurons, where the precipitate can be silver enhanced. The present study is a description of the distribution of zinc-containing neurons, their possible connections and their terminal fields within the hippocampal region of the rat. Problems inherent to the methods are addressed. Finally, based on the results and a review of literature, the possible function of zinc in the hippocampal region is considered. Neurons which contain silver-enhanced precipitates were observed in layers II, V and VI of the lateral entorhinal area and in layers V and VI of the medial entorhinal area. In the parasubiculum, labeled cells were seen in layer II/III of the parasubiculum a and in layer V. Labeled cells in the presubiculum were concentrated in layers III and V, in the hippocampal pyramidal cell layer and the dentate granule cell layer, but neurons containing precipitates were largely absent from the subiculum. Zinc-containing axonal boutons defined subpopulations within principal hippocampal neuron populations. Within layer II of the lateral entorhinal cortex and the pyramidal cell layer for regio inferior deeply situated neurons were labeled, whereas superficially placed pyramidal cells were labeled in regio superior. The neuropil staining described in the present study corresponded to that found in earlier studies. However, glial and vascular staining or unspecific background were largely absent, and the neuropil staining could unequivocally be identified light microscopically. Methodological problems are most prominently reflected in unstained mossy fibers in some animals. Based on series from animals treated with decreasing doses of sodium selenite and increased survival times, this problem can be related to small amounts of circulating reactive selenium and a competition of zinc compartments (vesicles) for the selenium. Staining will fail where the competition prevents individual compartments from reaching a threshold amount of zinc precipitate for silver amplification. A guide to evaluate histological material is provided. The distribution of zinc-containing boutons and their cells of origin indicate that zinc-containing and zinc-negative projections are not organized as parallel pathways. The mossy fibers provide an example of a pure zinc-containing pathway. Projections from regio superior to the dorsal presubiculum are likely to be zinc-negative while projections from the same area to the subiculum are zinc-containing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1376449

Slomianka, L

1992-01-01

341

Racemization of Isobornyl Chloride via Carbocations: A Nonclassical Look at a Classic Mechanism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our understanding of carbonium ions as intermediates in chemical reaction mechanisms derives from the early work of Julius Stieglitz and the more famous Hans Meerwein, the latter studying the racemization of isobornyl chloride when treated with Lewis acids. This review analyzes how key mechanistic concepts for this reaction evolved and gives the…

Rzepa, Henry S.; Allan, Charlotte S. M.

2010-01-01

342

Distribution of chloride ion in MSWI bottom ash and de-chlorination performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

When recycling bottom ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs), salts and heavy metals contents must be considered; in particular, chloride ions must be addressed because they cause serious corrosion in metals. Therefore, only limited amounts of bottom ash can be utilized as a substitution for material or the bottom ash must be treated at high temperatures prior to use.

Ching-Ho Chen; Ing-Jia Chiou

2007-01-01

343

Cyanuric chloride derivatives for cotton textile treatment--synthesis, analysis, and flammability testing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In a series of experiments, two cyanuric chloride derivatives were synthesized in good yields and analyzed by 1H, 13C, and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as high performance liquid and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Cotton fabric was treated with these compounds and teste...

344

Effect on electrochemistry of hexacyanoferrate at carbon fibers after pretreatment with titanium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and fast method for carbon fiber activation is proposed to improve the electrochemical activity of electrodes made of carbon fibers. A layer of titanium (IV) oxide was coated on the carbon fiber surface, using titanium tetrachloride dissolved in carbon tetrachloride. The fibers were treated for 1 h at room temperature followed by hydrolyzation of the remaining chloride and

Rosangela M. de Carvalho; Lauro T. Kubota; Jarbas J. R. Rohwedder; Elisabeth Csöregi; Lo Gorton

1998-01-01

345

Using chloride and other ions to trace sewage and road salt in the Illinois Waterway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride concentrations in waterways of northern USA are increasing at alarming rates and road salt is commonly assumed to be the cause. However, there are additional sources of Cl? in metropolitan areas, such as treated wastewater (TWW) and water conditioning salts, which may be contributing to Cl? loads entering surface waters. In this study, the potential sources of Cl? and

Walton R. Kelly; Samuel V. Panno; Keith C. Hackley; Hue-Hwa Hwang; Adam T. Martinsek; Momcilo Markus

2010-01-01

346

Depleted zinc: Properties, application, production.  

PubMed

The addition of ZnO, depleted in the Zn-64 isotope, to the water of boiling water nuclear reactors lessens the accumulation of Co-60 on the reactor interior surfaces, reduces radioactive wastes and increases the reactor service-life because of the inhibitory action of zinc on inter-granular stress corrosion cracking. To the same effect depleted zinc in the form of acetate dihydrate is used in pressurized water reactors. Gas centrifuge isotope separation method is applied for production of depleted zinc on the industrial scale. More than 20 years of depleted zinc application history demonstrates its benefits for reduction of NPP personnel radiation exposure and combating construction materials corrosion. PMID:19318263

Borisevich, V D; Pavlov, A V; Okhotina, I A

2009-01-01

347

Durability of Adhesive Bonds to Zinc-Coated Steels: Effects of Corrosive Environments on Lap Shear Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of corrosive environments on adhesive bonds to electro-galvanized, zinc\\/aluminum alloy coated, coated electro-galvanized, and cold-rolled steels have been investigated. Bonds prepared using a rubber-modified dicyandiamide-cured epoxy adhesive, an epoxy-modified poly(vinyl chloride)-based adhesive, an acrylic-modified poly(vinyl chloride)-based adhesive a one-part urethane adhesive, and a two-component epoxy-modified acrylic adhesive were exposed under no-load conditions to constant high humidity or cyclic

J. W. Holubka; W. Chun; R. A. Dickie

1989-01-01

348

A double-blind block randomized clinical trial on the effect of zinc as a treatment for diarrhea in neonatal Holstein calves under natural challenge conditions.  

PubMed

Diarrhea is the leading cause of death in neonatal calves and contributes to major economic losses. The objective of this double-blind randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of oral inorganic or organic zinc supplementation as a treatment for neonatal diarrhea in calves. Seventy nine 1 to 8 day old male Holstein calves on a California calf ranch were block randomized to one of 3 treatments within 24h from their first onset of diarrhea. Calves received a daily dose of either a placebo composed of 80 mg of zinc-free powder, 381.54 mg of zinc methionine (Met) (equivalent to 80 mg of zinc), or 99.69 mg of zinc oxide (ZO) (equivalent to 80 mg of zinc) in 2L of a zinc-free oral rehydration solution (ORS). Calves were treated once daily until normal fecal consistency or for a maximum of 14 days. Upon enrollment and exit, calves were weighed, and blood, feces, and liver biopsies were collected for trace mineral analysis. Fecal samples at enrollment and exit were tested for E. coli K99, Cryptosporidium spp., rotavirus and coronavirus. Pre-treatment liver zinc concentrations for the 71 calves in the placebo, zinc Met, and ZO treatment groups were 710.6 (SEM=147.7), 852.3 (SEM=129.6), and 750.7 (SEM=202.9)mg/kg dry weight (DW), respectively. Exit liver zinc concentrations for the calves in the placebo, zinc Met, and ZO treatment groups were 728.9 (SEM=182.9), 1141.0 (SEM=423.8), and 636.8 (SEM=81.5)mg/kg dry weight, respectively. Although statistically non-significant, there were clinically important findings identified for each of zinc Met and ZO treatments. Calves treated with zinc Met gained on average 40 g/day during a diarrhea episode compared to a weight loss of 67 g/day on average in the placebo-treated calves (Power 19.9%). Calves treated with ZO had 1.4 times higher hazard of clinical cure compared to calves in the placebo group (Power 5.3%). Calves that were fecal positive to cryptosporidium spp. at enrollment and treated with zinc Met had higher odds of testing negative at exit compared to placebo calves (Odds Ratio (OR)=16.0). In contrast, calves treated with ZO tended to recover (fecal score=1) one day earlier compared to calves treated with a placebo (8.5 d vs. 9.7 d). The current trial identified clinically important findings that warrant further research to investigate zinc's therapeutic effect for calf diarrhea. PMID:24074841

Glover, A D; Puschner, B; Rossow, H A; Lehenbauer, T W; Champagne, J D; Blanchard, P C; Aly, S S

2013-11-01

349

Zinc in innate and adaptive tumor immunity  

PubMed Central

Zinc is important. It is the second most abundant trace metal with 2-4 grams in humans. It is an essential trace element, critical for cell growth, development and differentiation, DNA synthesis, RNA transcription, cell division, and cell activation. Zinc deficiency has adverse consequences during embryogenesis and early childhood development, particularly on immune functioning. It is essential in members of all enzyme classes, including over 300 signaling molecules and transcription factors. Free zinc in immune and tumor cells is regulated by 14 distinct zinc importers (ZIP) and transporters (ZNT1-8). Zinc depletion induces cell death via apoptosis (or necrosis if apoptotic pathways are blocked) while sufficient zinc levels allows maintenance of autophagy. Cancer cells have upregulated zinc importers, and frequently increased zinc levels, which allow them to survive. Based on this novel synthesis, approaches which locally regulate zinc levels to promote survival of immune cells and/or induce tumor apoptosis are in order. PMID:21087493

2010-01-01

350

The SLC39 family of zinc transporters  

PubMed Central

Zinc is a trace element nutrient that is essential for life. This mineral serves as a cofactor for enzymes that are involved in critical biochemical processes and it plays many structural roles as well. At the cellular level, zinc is tightly regulated and disruption of zinc homeostasis results in serious physiological or pathological issues. Despite the high demand for zinc in cells, free or labile zinc must be kept at very low levels. In humans, two major zinc transporter families, the SLC30 (ZnT) family and SLC39 (ZIP) family control cellular zinc homeostasis. This review will focus on the SLC39 transporters. SLC39 transporters primarily serve to pass zinc into the cytoplasm, and play critical roles in maintaining cellular zinc homeostasis. These proteins are also significant at the organismal level, and studies are revealing their link to human diseases. Therefore, we will discuss the function, structure, physiology, and pathology of SLC39 transporters. PMID:23506894

Jeong, Jeeyon; Eide, David J.

2012-01-01

351

Polarization and charge transfer in the hydration of chloride ions  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical study of the structural and electronic properties of the chloride ion and water molecules in the first hydration shell is presented. The calculations are performed on an ensemble of configurations obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of a single chloride ion in bulk water. The simulations utilize the polarizable AMOEBA force field for trajectory generation and MP2-level calculations are performed to examine the electronic structure properties of the ions and surrounding waters in the external field of more distant waters. The ChelpG method is employed to explore the effective charges and dipoles on the chloride ions and first-shell waters. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) is further utilized to examine charge transfer from the anion to surrounding water molecules. The clusters extracted from the AMOEBA simulations exhibit high probabilities of anisotropic solvation for chloride ions in bulk water. From the QTAIM analysis, 0.2 elementary charges are transferred from the ion to the first-shell water molecules. The default AMOEBA model overestimates the average dipole moment magnitude of the ion compared to the quantum mechanical value. The average magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first shell treated at the MP2-level, with the more distant waters handled with an AMOEBA effective charge model, is 2.67 D. This value is close to the AMOEBA result for first-shell waters (2.72 D) and is slightly reduced from the bulk AMOEBA value (2.78 D). The magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first solvation shell is most strongly affected by the local water-water interactions and hydrogen bonds with the second solvation shell, rather than by interactions with the ion.

Zhao Zhen; Rogers, David M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0172 (United States); Beck, Thomas L. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0172 (United States)

2010-01-07

352

Chloride/bicarbonate exchange in human erythrocytes.  

PubMed

1. The exchange of chloride and bicarbonate across the human erythrocyte membrane has been followed by measuring the changes in extracellular pH which occur when chloride-rich erythrocytes are added to chloride-free media containing varying concentrations of bicarbonate and carbonic anhydrase. 2. The dependence of the rate of chloride/bicarbonate exchange on the extracellular concentration of bicarbonate was consistent with the existence of a saturable membrane anion transporter exhibiting Michaelis--Menten kinetics. In a medium containing sodium gluconate buffered to pH 7.0 with imidazole--malate the Km for bicarbonate activation of transport was 0.39 (+/- 0.03) mM and the Vmax was 2033 (+/- 80 m-mole anions exchanged/3 X 10(13) cells. min, at 10 degrees C. 3. Chloride/bicarbonate exchange was temperature-dependent with an Arrhenius activation energy of 19.4 kcal/mole in the temperature range 2--10 degrees C. 4. Exchange of intracellular chloride for extracellular bicarbonate was inhibited by the presence of extracellular halides. Inhibition by chloride, bromide and fluoride was competitive and the affinity of the transport system decreased in the order HCO-3 greater than Cl- greater than Br- greater than F-. The kinetics of inhibition by iodide were complex, but inhibitory effects of low concentrations of iodide were less than those of chloride and bromide. PMID:633149

Lambert, A; Lowe, A G

1978-02-01

353

interdisciplinary Effects of cadmium chloride on mouse  

E-print Network

interdisciplinary Effects of cadmium chloride on mouse inner medullary collecting duct cells Eun August 2013 · Accepted: 17 August 2013 ABSTRACT Cadmium is a known renal toxin. The cytotoxic effect of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was evaluated on renal inner medullary collecting duct cells (mIMCD3). The 24 hr

Hammock, Bruce D.

354

Process for synthesis of beryllium chloride dietherate  

DOEpatents

A low temperature method of producing beryllium chloride dietherate through the addition of hydrogen chloride gas to a mixture of beryllium metal in ether in a reaction vessel is described. A reflux condenser provides an exit for hydrogen produced form the reaction. A distillation condenser later replaces the reflux condenser for purifying the resultant product.

Bergeron, Charles (Baton Rouge, LA); Bullard, John E. (Kendall Park, NJ); Morgan, Evan (Lynchburg, VA)

1991-01-01

355

Recovery of soluble chloride salts from the wastewater generated during the washing process of municipal solid wastes incineration fly ash.  

PubMed

Water washing is widely used as the pretreatment method to treat municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, which facilitates the further solidification/stabilization treatment or resource recovery of the fly ash. The wastewater generated during the washing process is a kind of hydrosaline solution, usually containing high concentrations of alkali chlorides and sulphates, which cause serious pollution to environment. However, these salts can be recycled as resources instead of discharge. This paper explored an effective and practical recovery method to separate sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride salts individually from the hydrosaline water. In laboratory experiments, a simulating hydrosaline solution was prepared according to composition of the waste washing water. First, in the three-step evaporation-crystallization process, pure sodium chloride and solid mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides were obtained separately, and the remaining solution contained potassium and calcium chlorides (solution A). And then, the solid mixture was fully dissolved into water (solution B obtained). Finally, ethanol was added into solutions A and B to change the solubility of sodium, potassium, and calcium chlorides within the mixed solvent of water and ethanol. During the ethanol-adding precipitation process, each salt was separated individually, and the purity of the raw production in laboratory experiments reached about 90%. The ethanol can be recycled by distillation and reused as the solvent. Therefore, this technology may bring both environmental and economic benefits. PMID:25176491

Tang, Hailong; Erzat, Aris; Liu, Yangsheng

2014-01-01

356

49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...114 and 120) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...

2014-10-01

357

21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 ...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be...

2010-04-01

358

Fiber optic chloride sensing: if corrosion's the problem, chloride sensing is the key  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of chloride-based deicing agents to help clear US highways of roadway hazards leads to associated chemical related problems. Fouling of local rivers and streams due to runoff of the water borne chlorides is significant and has contributed to local ordances are attempting to force state agencies to reduce, if not eliminate, the use of these chlorides. With respect to the corrosion aspects of chloride application, cracks that occur in the roadway/bridge pavement allow water to seep into the pavement carrying the chloride to the rebar with the resultant increase in corrosion. The costs of this corrosion are considerable and have led to the widespread use of chloride/water impermeable membranes on roadways and especially within bridges. Fiber optic sensor have repeatedly been shown to provide measurement capabilities of parameters within such reinforced concrete structures. Development of a fiber optic chloride sensors capable of being embedded within a roadway or bridge deck is reported.

Fuhr, Peter L.; MacCraith, Brian D.; Huston, Dryver R.; Guerrina, Mario; Nelson, Matthew

1997-09-01

359

The preparation of zinc silicate/ZnO particles and their use as an efficient UV absorber  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} We used innovative gel-route in order to prepare zinc silicate/ZnO nano-particles. {yields} Continuous reactor was efficient for synthesizing ZnO and zinc silicate/ZnO precursors. {yields} Introduction of Si into reaction mixture influenced on particle size and their photoactivity. {yields} Prepared particles are appropriate for UV absorbers in polymers. -- Abstract: The formation of zinc silicate/ZnO particles synthesized by a two-step method and their incorporation into PMMA is presented. In the first step a segmented-flow tubular reactor was used for the continuous room-temperature preparation of a zinc silicate/Zn(OH){sub 2} gel that was thermally treated after rinsing and drying in the second step. The same preparation procedure was also employed for the synthesis of pure ZnO and pure zinc silicate particles. It was found that the presence of the zinc silicate phase significantly influenced the final particle size, decreased the degree of crystallization and reduced the particles' UV absorption capabilities. The reduced photocatalytic activity of the zinc silicate/ZnO particles indicated that the majority of ZnO crystallites were formed inside the zinc silicate matrix. The nanocomposite prepared from zinc silicate/ZnO particles (0.04 wt.%) and PMMA showed high UV shielding and at the same time sufficient transmittance in the visible-light region.

Podbrscek, Peter [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)] [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drazic, Goran [Department for Nanostructured Materials, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)] [Department for Nanostructured Materials, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Anzlovar, Alojz [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia) [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Center of Excellence for Polymer Materials and Technologies, Tehnoloski Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Orel, Zorica Crnjak, E-mail: zorica.crnjak.orel@ki.si [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Center of Excellence for Polymer Materials and Technologies, Tehnoloski Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2011-11-15

360

Chloride penetration into concrete structures in the marine atmosphere zone – Relationship between deposition of chlorides on the wet candle and chlorides accumulated into concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between chlorides from marine aerosol and chlorides accumulated into concrete is discussed in this paper. The experimental programme comprised an environmental characterisation, with climatic and chloride deposition data, and a study of chloride penetration into concrete based on natural exposure of specimens in a marine atmosphere zone. Results show that salt concentration in marine aerosol strongly decreases in

G. R. Meira; C. Andrade; I. J. Padaratz; C. Alonso; J BORBAJR

2007-01-01

361

Growth characteristics of selected fungi on polyvinyl chloride film.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine if plasticized polyvinyl chloride film would support the growth of any of nine species of fungi. The film was suspended in distilled water with no nutrients or with glucose or ammonium sulfate. Spores of each of the test species were inoculated into the suspension medium, and the mixture was incubated at 30 degrees C for up to 18 weeks. Most species were found to be capable of utilizing the film for carbon or nitrogen when the other nutrient was supplied. Only two species, Aspergillus fischeri and Paecilomyces sp., were found to be capable of utilizing components of the film without added nutrients. Components of the polyvinyl chloride film were then incorporated into mineral salts medium to determine if these components could serve as carbon sources in the presence of ammonium nitrate. The only component found to be utilized by all the fungi as a carbon source was epoxidized oil, a plasticizer-stabilizer. Calcium-zinc stearate was an available carbon source for all except the Penicillium and Verticillium strains. The only other component utilized was a stearamide, which was metabolized solely by the Aspergillus sp. Only the stearamide contained enough nitrogen to serve as a primary source in the film. The compound, however, did not support growth of fungi in the presence of glucose. It was theorized that either the nitrogen of the stearamide was more readily available to the fungi in the whole film due to the presence of trace nutrients or the nitrogen was supplied by exogenous sources. PMID:3707118

Roberts, W T; Davidson, P M

1986-04-01

362

Growth characteristics of selected fungi on polyvinyl chloride film.  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine if plasticized polyvinyl chloride film would support the growth of any of nine species of fungi. The film was suspended in distilled water with no nutrients or with glucose or ammonium sulfate. Spores of each of the test species were inoculated into the suspension medium, and the mixture was incubated at 30 degrees C for up to 18 weeks. Most species were found to be capable of utilizing the film for carbon or nitrogen when the other nutrient was supplied. Only two species, Aspergillus fischeri and Paecilomyces sp., were found to be capable of utilizing components of the film without added nutrients. Components of the polyvinyl chloride film were then incorporated into mineral salts medium to determine if these components could serve as carbon sources in the presence of ammonium nitrate. The only component found to be utilized by all the fungi as a carbon source was epoxidized oil, a plasticizer-stabilizer. Calcium-zinc stearate was an available carbon source for all except the Penicillium and Verticillium strains. The only other component utilized was a stearamide, which was metabolized solely by the Aspergillus sp. Only the stearamide contained enough nitrogen to serve as a primary source in the film. The compound, however, did not support growth of fungi in the presence of glucose. It was theorized that either the nitrogen of the stearamide was more readily available to the fungi in the whole film due to the presence of trace nutrients or the nitrogen was supplied by exogenous sources. PMID:3707118

Roberts, W T; Davidson, P M

1986-01-01

363

High-field solid-state (67)Zn NMR spectroscopy of several zinc-amino acid complexes.  

PubMed

We report the results of our solid-state (67)Zn NMR study of the various zinc sites in four zinc-amino acid coordination complexes: bis(glycinato)zinc(II) monohydrate; bis(l-alaninato)zinc(II); bis(l-histidinato)zinc(II) dihydrate; and sodium bis(l-cysteinato)zincate(II) hexahydrate; as well as a related complex, bis(imidazole)zinc(II) chloride. We demonstrate the advantages of using high (21.1 T) applied magnetic fields for detecting (67)Zn directly at ambient temperatures using the quadrupolar Carr-Purcell Meiboom-Gill (QCPMG) pulse sequence. The stepped-frequency technique was employed in cases where the central-transition (CT) (67)Zn NMR spectra were too broad to be uniformly excited. The parameters of the anisotropic zinc tensors were extracted by iterative simulations of the experimental spectra. In all cases, the quadrupolar interaction is found to dominate the central-transition (67)Zn NMR spectra; no convincing effects from chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) on the NMR spectra of the five complexes could be reliably detected at this field strength. Analyses of the experimental NMR spectra reveal that the (67)Zn quadrupolar coupling constants (C(Q)) range from 7.05 to 26.4 MHz, the isotropic chemical shifts (delta(iso)) range from 140 to 265 ppm, and the quadrupolar asymmetry parameters (eta(Q)) range from 0.20 to 0.95. The first report of the NMR spectral features of pentacoordinated zinc sites is included for two complexes. Quantum chemical calculations of the electric field gradient (EFG) and magnetic shielding tensors reproduced the experimental results to a reasonable extent. Moreover, the computationally determined orientations of both tensors permit correlations between NMR tensor properties and zinc local environments to be understood. PMID:19919076

Mroué, Kamal H; Power, William P

2010-01-14

364

The protective role of zinc against acute toxicity of depleted uranium in rats.  

PubMed

Depleted uranium (DU) has been widely used in both civilian and military activities and contributes to health problems. This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective role of zinc against acute toxicity of DU. Sprague Dawley rats were injected with DU (10 mg/kg, i.p.) to create a toxicity model (DU group). Before and after the injection of DU, zinc sulphate (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered once a day for 2 days. The survival rates at 30 days post DU administration and the effects of zinc at 4 days post DU administration were evaluated. Our data indicate that zinc has obvious protective effects, especially pre-treatment with zinc. Rats pre-treated with zinc had significantly higher survival rates than rats in the DU group, with 60.03% more surviving. In addition, at 4 days post DU administration, the former had lower kidney uranium content, insignificant renal tubular epithelial cell necrosis and less transparent tubes. Meanwhile, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and urine N-acethyl-?-d-glucosaminidase concentrations were significantly decreased; the gene expression levels of metallothionein (MT) in kidney tissues were significantly increased; and catalase levels were increased and malondialdehyde levels were decreased. In conclusion, pre-treatment with zinc significantly alleviated acute toxicity of DU, and the mechanism appeared to be related to the induction of MT synthesis and enhancement of the antioxidant function. PMID:22703381

Hao, Yuhui; Ren, Jiong; Liu, Jing; Luo, Shenglin; Ma, Ting; Li, Rong; Su, Yongping

2012-12-01

365

Zinc and Diabetic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Zinc (Zn) is an important nutrient that is involved in various physiological metabolisms. Zn dyshomeostasis is often associated with various pathogeneses of chronic diseases, such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and related complications. Zn is present in ocular tissue in high concentrations, particularly in the retina and choroid. Zn deficiencies have been shown to affect ocular development, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and even diabetic retinopathy. However, the mechanism by which Zn deficiency increases the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy remains unclear. In addition, due to the negative effect of Zn deficiency on the eye, Zn supplementation should prevent diabetic retinopathy; however, limited available data do not always support this notion. Therefore, the goal of this paper was to summarize these pieces of available information regarding Zn prevention of diabetic retinopathy. Current theories and possible mechanisms underlying the role of Zn in the eye-related diseases are discussed. The possible factors that affect the preventive effect of Zn supplementation on diabetic retinopathy were also discussed. PMID:23671870

Miao, Xiao; Sun, Weixia; Miao, Lining; Fu, Yaowen; Wang, Yonggang; Su, Guanfang; Liu, Quan

2013-01-01

366

Mitigation of chloride and sulfate based corrosion in reinforced concrete via electrokinetic nanoparticle treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concrete is a porous material which is susceptible to the migration of highly deleterious species such as chlorides and sulfates. Various external sources, including sea salt spray, direct seawater wetting, deicing salts and chlorides can contaminate reinforced concrete. Chlorides diffuse into the capillary pores of concrete and come into contact with the reinforcement. When chloride concentration at the reinforcement exceeds a threshold level it breaks down the passive oxide layer, leading to chloride induced corrosion. The application of electrokinetics using positively charged nanoparticles for corrosion protection in reinforced concrete structures is an emerging technology. This technique involves the principle of electrophoretic migration of nanoparticles to hinder chloride diffusion in the concrete. The return of chlorides is inhibited by the electrodeposited assembly of the nanoparticles at the reinforcement interface. This work examined the nanoparticle treatment impact on chloride and sulfate induced corrosion in concrete. Electrokinetic Nanoparticle (EN) treatments were conducted on reinforced cylindrical concrete, rectangular ASTM G109 specimens that simulate a bridge deck and full scale beam specimens. EN treatment to mitigate external sulfate attack in concrete was performed on cylindrical concrete specimens. Corrosion results indicated lower corrosion potentials and rates as compared to the untreated specimens. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed a dense microstructure within the EN treated specimens. Chemical analysis (Raman spectroscopy, X ray-diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR) showed the presence of strength enhancing phases such as calcium aluminate hydrate (C-A-H) and increased amounts of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) within the EN treated specimens. Strength and porosity results showed an increase in strength and a reduction in porosity among the EN treated specimens. EN treatment acted as a protective barrier that formed primarily at the reinforcement surface where it inhibited the ingress of chlorides. When applied to sulfate attack, EN treatment was found to extract sulfate ions. This treatment also reduced porosity and increased concrete strength. The strength increases were limited by the accumulation of spallation damage that was accrued during the sulfate exposure period of the work. This demonstrated that treatment for sulfate attack was best suited to early stages of degradation or as a preventive measure.

Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

367

Good response with zinc acetate monotherapy in an adolescent affected by severe Wilson disease.  

PubMed

We describe a 17-year-old girl with haemolytic anaemia as presentation of Wilson disease. The diagnosis was based on the findings of < 20 mg/dl ceruloplasmin serum level, Kayser-Fleischer ring and Coombs-negative haemolytic anaemia. Genetic testing revealed the presence of the H1069Q heterozygous mutation. The patient was treated with Zinc acetate monotherapy, with good response, maintened after 22 months. This case emphasizes the importance of recognizing atypical clinical presentation of Wilson disease, which must always be considered in patients with Coombs-negative haemolytic anaemia. The good clinical response to treatment with zinc acetate monotherapy in our case might lend to consider the use of zinc monotherapy as initial therapy also in symptomatic patients with Wilson disease under close clinical observation. Clinical trials are needed to provide evidence for use of zinc monotherapy as first-line therapy in symptomatic patients with Wilson disease. PMID:22730635

Marazzi, M G; Giardino, S; Dufour, C; Serafino, M; Sperlì, D; Giacchino, R

2012-01-01

368

Spectrofluorimetric determination of thallium in silicate rocks with rhodamine b in the presence of aluminum chloride  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A sensitive spectrofluorimetric procedure with rhodamine B in the presence of aluminum chloride is given for determining submicrogram and microgram quantities of thallium in silicate rocks. Samples are decomposed with a mixture of hydrofluoric and nitric acids and then treated with hydrochloric acid. Thallium is extracted as its dithizonate with chloroform from an alkaline medium containing ascorbate, citrate, and cyanide and then back-extracted with dilute nitric acid. After destruction of the organic matter and treatment with bromine, hydrochloric acid, aluminum chloride, and rhodamine B, the {A table is presented}. ?? 1975.

Shnepfe, M.M.

1975-01-01

369

Embedded chloride detectors for roadways and bridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problems associated with the application of chloride-based deicing agents to roadways and specifically bridges include chemical pollution and accelerated corrosion of strength members (especially rebar) within the structure. In many instances, local ordinances are attempting to force state agencies to reduce, if not eliminate, the use of these chlorides (typically at the cost of increased driving hazards). With respect to the corrosion aspects of chloride application, cracks that occur in the roadway/bridge pavement allow water to seep into the pavement carrying the chloride to the rebar with the resultant increase in corrosion. In response to this problem, particularly in high roadsalt usage areas, a chloride/water impermeable membrane is placed above the rebar matrix so if/when roadway cracking occurs, the roadsalts won't be able to damage the rebar. Such a membrane is costly -- and the question of its in-service performance is questionable. In a joint effort between the University of Vermont and the Vermont Agency of Transportation, we are developing fiber optic chloride detectors which are capable of being embedded into the rebar-concrete roadway under this membrane. The sensing mechanism relies on spectroscopic analysis of a chemical reaction of chloride and reagents (which have been coated onto the ends of fibers). Laboratory results of these detectors and a usable system configuration are presented.

Fuhr, Peter L.; Huston, Dryver R.; McPadden, Adam P.; Cauley, Robert F.

1996-04-01

370

Possibility of alveolar bone promoting enhancement by using lipophilic and/or hydrophilic zinc related compounds in zinc-deficient osteoporosis rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research is improvement of therapeutic treatment for periodontitis by using lipophilic and/or hydrophilic zinc materials. The sample suspension injections were prepared from zinc octanate (C8Zn), zinc stearate (C18Zn), zinc sulfate hepta-hydrate (ZnSO4) and tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP) containing 6.17 w/w% zinc. After administrating of all injections to around alveolar bone of zinc-deficient osteoporosis rats, plasma Zn concentration, bone mineral content (BMC) of jawbone, BMC and bone mechanical strength (BMS) of femur and permeability tests for hairless rat stripped skin were measured as therapeutic scores. BMC and BMS were measured by using an X-ray computing tomography and the three-point bending method, respectively. The body weight, plasma Zn concentrations and the area under curve (AUC) for Zn of C8Zn, C18Zn and ZnTCP group rats were higher than those of control group, but those of ZnSO4 group were not changed. BMC of alveolar bone and femur and BMS of femur for C8Zn and C18Zn groups for 12 weeks were significantly higher than those of the control group, but those of ZnSO4 group were not changed. Stripped rat skin permeability treated by the hydrophilic creams containing C8Zn was 5-times higher than that of ZnTCP. PMID:22975500

Tokudome, Yoshihiro; Otsuka, Makoto

2012-01-01

371

Cell Calcium 40 (2006) 393402 Determining zinc with commonly used calcium and zinc fluorescent  

E-print Network

Cell Calcium 40 (2006) 393­402 Determining zinc with commonly used calcium and zinc fluorescent rights reserved. Keywords: Zinc; Calcium; Fluorescence; Fluorophore; Calcium Green-1; Fura-2; Fluo-3 Zn2+ and histo- chemically reactive free Zn2+ (chelatable Zn2+). Bound zinc, which makes up

Li, Yang V.

372

Trichomes of Tobacco Excrete Zinc as Zinc-Substituted Calcium Carbonate and Other  

E-print Network

Trichomes of Tobacco Excrete Zinc as Zinc-Substituted Calcium Carbonate and Other Zinc.F., M.A.M.) Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) plants were exposed to toxic levels of zinc (Zn to study biomineralization and metal homeostasis processes in plants. Smoking of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum

373

Influence of Zinc Deficiency on Zinc and Dry Matter Content of Ruminant Tissues and on Excretion of Zinc1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experiments involving 24 animals, zinc and dry matter contents of various tissues were studied in zinc-deficient and control goats and calves at various time intervals after control animals were fed the zinc- deficient diet. All samples were obtained before any symptoms of a deficiency oc- curred in the controls. Length of time, from 9 to 35 days, which controls

W. J. Miller; D. M. Blackmon; R. P. Gentry; G. W. Powell; H. F. Perkins

1966-01-01

374

21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Zinc oxide...restrictions. The color additive zinc oxide may be...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixtues...

2011-04-01

375

21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Zinc oxide...restrictions. The color additive zinc oxide may be...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixtues...

2010-04-01

376

21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good...

2010-04-01

377

21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Zinc oxide...restrictions. The color additive zinc oxide may be...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixtues...

2012-04-01

378

21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Zinc oxide...restrictions. The color additive zinc oxide may be...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixtues...

2013-04-01

379

21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.  

...and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Zinc oxide...restrictions. The color additive zinc oxide may be...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixtues...

2014-04-01

380

21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2013-04-01

381

21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2010-04-01

382

Contrasting melting behavior of zinc stearate and zinc oleate.  

PubMed

The influence of a double bond in the middle of an otherwise flexible hydrocarbon chain on the melting of such assemblies has been investigated by comparing the melting behavior of zinc stearate and zinc oleate. By monitoring features in the infrared spectra that are characteristic of the global conformation of the hydrocarbon chain, it is shown that the double bond effectively decouples the thermal evolution of conformational disorder in the chain segments on either side of the double bond and the melting of each of these segments in the assembly occurs as independent events. PMID:16471580

Barman, S; Vasudevan, S

2006-01-19

383

Synchrotron Speciation of Silver and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Aged in a Kaolin Suspension  

SciTech Connect

Assessments of the environmental fate and mobility of nanoparticles must consider the behavior of nanoparticles in relevant environmental systems that may result in speciation changes over time. Environmental conditions may act on nanoparticles to change their size, shape, and surface chemistry. Changing these basic characteristics of nanoparticles may result in a final reaction product that is significantly different than the initial nanomaterial. As such, basing long-term risk and toxicity on the initial properties of a nanomaterial may lead to erroneous conclusions if nanoparticles change upon release to the environment. The influence of aging on the speciation and chemical stability of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles in kaolin suspensions was examined in batch reactors for up to 18 months. Silver nanoparticles remained unchanged in sodium nitrate suspensions; however, silver chloride was identified with the metallic silver nanoparticles in sodium chloride suspensions and may be attributed to an in situ silver chloride surface coating. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were rapidly converted via destabilization/dissolution mechanisms to Zn{sup 2+} inner-sphere sorption complexes within 1 day of reaction and these sorption complexes were maintained through the 12 month aging processes. Chemical and physical alteration of nanomaterials in the environment must be examined to understand fate, mobility, and toxicology.

Scheckel, Kirk G.; Luxton, Todd P.; El Badawy, Amro M.; Impellitteri, Christopher A.; Tolaymat, Thabet M. (EPA); (UCIN)

2010-07-23

384

l-Tryptophan l-tryptophanium chloride.  

PubMed

l-Tryptophan l-tryptophanium chloride is a new salt with (A?A(+)) type dimeric cation. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system (space group P21, Z=2). The asymmetric unit contains one zwitterionic l-tryptophan molecule, one l-tryptophanium cation and one chloride anion. The dimeric cation is formed by a OH?O hydrogen bond with the O?O distance equal to 2.5556(18)Å. The infrared and Raman spectra of the crystal are studied and compared with the spectra of l-tryptophanium chloride. PMID:25448973

Ghazaryan, V V; Fleck, M; Petrosyan, A M

2015-02-01

385

L-Tryptophan L-tryptophanium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L-Tryptophan L-tryptophanium chloride is a new salt with (A⋯A+) type dimeric cation. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system (space group P21, Z = 2). The asymmetric unit contains one zwitterionic L-tryptophan molecule, one L-tryptophanium cation and one chloride anion. The dimeric cation is formed by a Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond with the O⋯O distance equal to 2.5556(18) Å. The infrared and Raman spectra of the crystal are studied and compared with the spectra of L-tryptophanium chloride.

Ghazaryan, V. V.; Fleck, M.; Petrosyan, A. M.

2015-02-01

386

Acinetobacter baumannii Response to Host-Mediated Zinc Limitation Requires the Transcriptional Regulator Zur  

PubMed Central

Acinetobacter baumannii is a leading cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care units, and the increasing rates of antibiotic resistance make treating these infections challenging. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop new antimicrobials to treat A. baumannii infections. One potential therapeutic option is to target bacterial systems involved in maintaining appropriate metal homeostasis, processes that are critical for the growth of pathogens within the host. The A. baumannii inner membrane zinc transporter ZnuABC is required for growth under low-zinc conditions and for A. baumannii pathogenesis. The expression of znuABC is regulated by the transcriptional repressor Zur. To investigate the role of Zur during the A. baumannii response to zinc limitation, a zur deletion mutant was generated, and transcriptional changes were analyzed using RNA sequencing. A number of Zur-regulated genes were identified that exhibit increased expression both when zur is absent and under low-zinc conditions, and Zur binds to predicted Zur box sequences of several genes affected by zinc levels or the zur mutation. Furthermore, the zur mutant is impaired for growth in the presence of both high and low zinc levels compared to wild-type A. baumannii. Finally, the zur mutant exhibits a defect in dissemination in a mouse model of A. baumannii pneumonia, establishing zinc sensing as a critical process during A. baumannii infection. These results define Zur-regulated genes within A. baumannii and demonstrate a requirement for Zur in the A. baumannii response to the various zinc levels experienced within the vertebrate host. PMID:24816603

Mortensen, Brittany L.; Rathi, Subodh; Chazin, Walter J.

2014-01-01

387

ZINC AND GLUTAMINE IMPROVE BRAIN DEVELOPMENT IN SUCKLING MICE SUBJECTED TO EARLY POST-NATAL MALNUTRITION  

PubMed Central

Objective The effect of zinc and glutamine on brain development was investigated during the lactation period in Swiss mice. Methods Malnutrition was induced by clustering the litter size from 6–7 pups/dam (nourished control) to 12–14 pups/dam (undernourished control) following birth. Undernourished groups received daily supplementation with glutamine by subcutaneous injections starting at day 2 and continuing until day 14. Glutamine (100 mM, 40–80?l) was used for morphological and behavioral studies. Zinc acetate was added in the drinking water (500 mg/L) to the lactating dams. Synaptophysin (SYN) and myelin basic protein (MBP) brain expressions were evaluated by immunoblot. Zinc serum and brain levels and hippocampal neurotransmitters were also evaluated. Results Zinc with or without glutamine improved weight gain as compared to untreated, undernourished controls. In addition, zinc supplementation improved cliff avoidance and head position during swim behaviors especially on days 9 and 10. Using design-based stereological methods, we found a significant increase in the volume of CA1 neuronal cells in undernourished control mice, which was not seen in mice receiving zinc or glutamine alone or in combination. Undernourished mice given glutamine showed increased CA1 layer volume as compared with the other groups, consistent with the trend toward increased number of neurons. Brain zinc levels were increased in the nourished and undernourished-glutamine treated mice as compared to the undernourished controls on day 7. Undernourished glutamine-treated mice showed increased hippocampal GABA and SYN levels on day 14. Conclusion We conclude that glutamine or zinc protects against malnutrition-induced brain developmental impairments. PMID:20371167

Ladd, Fernando V.L.; Ladd, Aliny A.B.L.; Ribeiro, Antônio Augusto C.M.; Costa, Samuel B.C.; Coutinho, Bruna P.; Feitosa, George André S.; de Andrade, Geanne M.; de Castro-Costa, Carlos Maurício; Magalhães, Carlos Emanuel C.; Castro, Ibraim C.; Oliveira, Bruna B.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Lima, Aldo Ângelo M.; Oriá, Reinaldo B.

2009-01-01

388

Low-Resistivity Zinc Selenide for Heterojunctions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetron reactive sputtering enables doping of this semiconductor. Proposed method of reactive sputtering combined with doping shows potential for yielding low-resistivity zinc selenide films. Zinc selenide attractive material for forming heterojunctions with other semiconductor compounds as zinc phosphide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide. Semiconductor junctions promising for future optoelectronic devices, including solar cells and electroluminescent displays. Resistivities of zinc selenide layers deposited by evaporation or chemical vapor deposition too high to form practical heterojunctions.

Stirn, R. J.

1986-01-01

389

Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors  

DOEpatents

Varistors and/or resistors are described that include doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

1993-07-27

390

Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors  

DOEpatents

Varistors and/or resistors that includes doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01

391

Phenomics of Cardiac Chloride Channels  

PubMed Central

Forward genetic studies have identified several chloride (Cl?) channel genes, including CFTR, ClC-2, ClC-3, CLCA, Bestrophin, and Ano1, in the heart. Recent reverse genetic studies using gene targeting and transgenic techniques to delineate the functional role of cardiac Cl? channels have shown that Cl? channels may contribute to cardiac arrhythmogenesis, myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure, and cardioprotection against ischemia reperfusion. The study of physiological or pathophysiological phenotypes of cardiac Cl? channels, however, is complicated by the compensatory changes in the animals in response to the targeted genetic manipulation. Alternatively, tissue-specific conditional or inducible knockout or knockin animal models may be more valuable in the phenotypic studies of specific Cl? channels by limiting the effect of compensation on the phenotype. The integrated function of Cl? channels may involve multiprotein complexes of the Cl? channel subproteome. Similar phenotypes can be attained from alternative protein pathways within cellular networks, which are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The phenomics approach, which characterizes phenotypes as a whole phenome and systematically studies the molecular changes that give rise to particular phenotypes achieved by modifying the genotype under the scope of genome/proteome/phenome, may provide more complete understanding of the integrated function of each cardiac Cl? channel in the context of health and disease. PMID:23720326

Duan, Dayue Darrel

2014-01-01

392

Zinc supplementation therapy improves the outcome of patients with chronic hepatitis C  

PubMed Central

We administered zinc supplementation therapy over three years to patients with chronic hepatitis C and reported and that the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotaransferase (ALT) levels decreased, and platelet counts increased, significantly in the group with increased serum zinc concentrations. We are continuing this treatment to clarify the long-term consequences and report here the changes in serum zinc concentrations over seven years and compare the cumulative incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We administered polaprezinc to 32 patients, randomly selected for zinc therapy (treatment group), while another 30 formed the control group. We measured the serum zinc and albumin concentrations and conducted a prospective study to determine long-term outcomes. The changes and rates of change of serum zinc concentrations after seven years were 76.7 ± 18.2 µg/dl and +0.302 ± 0.30% in the treatment group and 56.7 ± 12.4 µg/dl and +0.033 ± 0.21% in the control group and had increased significantly (p = 0.0002, p = 0.0036). Progression of liver disease seemed to vary, depending on serum albumin concentrations. In the group with baseline serum albumin concentrations of 4.0 g/dl or more, the change and rate of change of serum zinc concentrations increased significantly, and the cumulative incidence of HCC tended to decrease, in the treated group. According to multivariate analysis, the factors that contribute to a reduction in the incidence of HCC are zinc therapy (risk ratio: 0.113, 95% CI: 0.015–0.870, p = 0.0362), and platelet counts (0.766, 0.594–0.989, 0.0409). Zinc supplementation therapy seems to improve liver pathology and reduce the incidence of HCC. PMID:23170044

Matsumura, Hiroshi; Nirei, Kazushige; Nakamura, Hitomi; Arakawa, Yasuo; Higuchi, Teruhisa; Hayashi, Jyunpei; Yamagami, Hiroaki; Matsuoka, Syunichi; Ogawa, Masahiro; Nakajima, Noriko; Tanaka, Naohide; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko

2012-01-01

393

Zinc supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to malabsorption of macro- and micronutrients. Symptomatic zinc deficiency has been reported in CF but little is known about zinc homeostasis in children with CF. Zinc supplementation (Zn suppl) is increasingly common in children with CF but it is not without theoretcial r...

394

Zinc Toxicity: Does It Exist&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc is an indispensable trace element and is a constituent of more than 200 enzymes. It can assure the stability of biological molecules such as DNA, or biological structures such as membranes or ribosomes. It is not surprising, therefore, that, compared with zinc toxicity, zinc deficiency is a much more frequent risk. Few acute toxic effects have been ascribed to

A. Léonard; G. B. Gerber

1989-01-01

395

Acquired Zinc Deficiency in an Adult Female  

PubMed Central

Acrodermatitis enteropathica is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of zinc absorption. Acquired cases are reported occasionally in patients with eating disorders or Crohn's disease. We report a 24-year-old housewife with acquired isolated severe zinc deficiency with no other comorbidities to highlight the rare occurrence of isolated nutritional zinc deficiency in an otherwise normal patient. PMID:23248371

Saritha, Mohanan; Gupta, Divya; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Thappa, Devinder M; Rajesh, Nachiappa G

2012-01-01

396

21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food...Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a) Specifications. Type A medicated articles containing bacitracin zinc equivalent to 10, 25, 40, or 50...

2014-04-01

397

Regulation of zinc transporters by dietary zinc supplement in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc is essential for cell growth and is a co-factor for more than 300 enzymes, representing over 50 different enzyme classes.\\u000a Two gene families have been identified involved in zinc homeostasis. ZnT transporters reduce intracellular zinc while ZIP\\u000a transporters increase intracellular zinc. Previous studies have shown that zinc concentration in breast cancer tissues is\\u000a higher than that in normal breast

Daoxu Sun; Lianying Zhang; Yongsheng Wang; Xiaolei Wang; Xiaoyan Hu; Fu-ai Cui; Feng Kong

2007-01-01

398

Immunoregulatory actions of melatonin and zinc during chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection.  

PubMed

After one century of the discovery of Chagas' disease and the development of an efficient drug with amplitude of actions both in the acute and chronic phase is still a challenge. Alternative immune modulators have been exhaustively used. For that purpose, melatonin and zinc were administered during chronic Trypanosoma cruzi-infected Wistar rats and several endpoints were assessed. Melatonin has a remarkable functional versatility, being associated with important antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. The cross-talk between zinc and the immune system includes its ability to influence the production and signaling of numerous inflammatory cytokines in a variety of cell types. Our study showed that zinc triggered a decrease in the generation of IFN-? for TCD4(+) cells. Reduced percentage of CD4(+) T cells producing TNF-? was observed in control melatonin or zinc-and-melatonin-treated animals as compared with untreated rats. On the other hand, a significant increase in the percentage of IL-4 from CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes producers was observed 60 days after infection, for all zinc-treated animals, whether infected or not. Melatonin and zinc therapies increased the percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes IL-10 producers. CD4(+) CD25(high) Foxp3(+) T cells were also elevated in zinc- and melatonin-treated animals. The modulation of the immune system influenced by these molecules affected cytokine production and the inflammatory process during chronic T. cruzi infection. Elucidation of the interplay between cytokine balance and the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease is extremely relevant not only for the comprehension of the immune mechanisms and clinical forms but, most importantly, also for the implementation of efficient and adequate therapies. PMID:25611919

Brazão, Vânia; Santello, Fabricia Helena; Filipin, Marina Del Vecchio; Azevedo, Angela Palamin; Toldo, Míriam Paula Alonso; de Morais, Fabiana Rossetto; Prado, José Clóvis do

2015-03-01

399

Crystallization in heat-treated fluorochlorozirconate glasses  

PubMed Central

Crystallization phenomena of fluorochlorozirconate glasses were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and inelastic neutron scattering. The precipitation of barium chloride nanoparticles from the glass matrix upon heat treatment was found to be suppressed when re-melting the glass with a reducing agent but not if the agent was present in the initial synthesis. Addition of small amounts of oxide to the predominantly fluoride melt was found to maintain the presence of nanoparticles but not to induce the predicted phase transition of the barium chloride nanoparticles from hexagonal to orthorhombic structure. Inelastic neutron scattering performed on an ‘as-made’ glass and a heat-treated glass showed an increase in ‘hardness’, consistent with a more ordered structure. PMID:19789720

Johnson, JA; Weber, JKR; Kolesnikov, AI; Schweizer, S

2009-01-01

400

Lab-on-a-Chip Sensor with Evaporated Bismuth Film Electrode for Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Zinc  

PubMed Central

In this work, we report on the development of a lab-on-a-chip electrochemical sensor that uses an evaporated bismuth electrode to detect zinc using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The microscale electrochemical cell consists of a bismuth working electrode, an integrated silver/silver chloride reference electrode, and a gold auxiliary electrode. The sensor demonstrated linear response in 0.1 M acetate buffer at pH 6 with zinc concentrations ranging from 1 ?M to 30 ?M and a calculated detection limit of 60 nM. The sensor was also able to successfully detect zinc in a bovine serum extract and the results were verified with independent AAS measurements. These results demonstrate the advantageous qualities of this lab-on-a-chip electrochemical sensor for clinical applications, which include a small sample volume (?L scale), reduced cost, short response time and high accuracy at low concentrations of analyte. PMID:24436575

Kang, Wenjing; Pei, Xing; Yue, Wei; Bange, Adam; Heineman, William R.; Papautsky, Ian

2013-01-01

401

Study of zinc oxide ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The authors determined the elemental and phase composition of zinc oxide ceramic (ZOC) by emission spectral (ESA), x-ray phase (XPA), and micro x-ray spectral (MXSA) analysis as well as by the method of electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). They studied the microstructure on metallographic and scanning electron microscopes using MXSA and ESCA data. Samples of ZOC were synthesized in the system of oxides Zn, Bi, Sb, Co, Mn, Sn, Si, Ni, Mg, Cr and B. The authors found that several mechanisms are responsible for the changes in the parameters of varistors based on zinc oxide ceramic, each of whose contribution depends on the operating conditions of the varistor.

Petvkhov, A.P.; Fedotova, O.I.; Rumyantseva, I.A.; Teslenko, S.P.

1986-01-01

402

Flame retardancy of radiation cross-linked poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) used as an insulating material for wire and cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various formulations of radiation cross-linked poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) were prepared to improve the flame retardancy for wire and cable insulation applications. Limiting oxygen index (LOI) was used to characterize the flammability of the developed formulations. The effect of different plasticizers, dioctyl phthalate (DOP), di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) and tri-2-ethylhexyl trimellitate (TOTM) and different flame-retardant fillers, Sb2O3, zinc borate, Al(OH)3 and Mg(OH)2

A. A Basfar

2002-01-01

403

Effect of various combinations of flame-retardant fillers on flammability of radiation cross-linked poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various formulations of radiation cross-linked poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) were prepared to improve the flame retardancy for wire and cable insulation applications. Limiting oxygen index (LOI) was used to characterize the flammability of the developed formulations. The effect of different plasticizers, dioctyl phthalate (DOP), di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) and tri-2-ethylhexyl trimellitate (TOTM) and various combinations of different flame-retardant additives, namely Sb2O3, zinc

A. A Basfar

2003-01-01

404

The alkaline zinc electrode as a mixed potential system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cathodic and anodic processes for the alkaline zinc electrode in 0.01 molar zincate electrolyte (9 molar hydroxide) were investigated. Cyclic voltammograms and current-voltage curves were obtained by supplying pulses through a potentiostat to a zinc rotating disk electrode. The data are interpreted by treating the system as one with a mixed potential; the processes are termed The zincate and corrosion reactions. The relative proportions of the two processes vary with the supplied potential. For the cathodic region, the cathodic corrosion process predominates at higher potentials while both processes occur simultaneously at a lower potential (i.e., 50 mV). For the anodic region, the anodic zincate process predominates at higher potentials while the anodic corrosion process is dominant at lower potential (i.e., 50 mV) if H2 is present.

Fielder, W. L.

1979-01-01

405

Sulfate and chloride concentrations in Texas aquifers.  

PubMed

Median sulfate and chloride concentrations in groundwater were calculated for 244 Texas counties from measurements at 8236 water wells. The data were mapped and analyzed with a geographic information system (GIS). Concentration clusters for both solutes were highest in north-central, west, and south Texas. Thirty-four counties had median sulfate levels above the secondary standard of 250 mg/L, and 31 counties registered median chloride concentrations above 250 mg/L. County median concentrations ranged from < 1.5 to 1,953 mg/L for sulfate, and from 6 to 1,275 mg/L for chloride. Various factors contribute to high sulfate and chloride levels in Texas aquifers, including mineral constitutents of aquifers, seepage of saline water from nearby formations, coastal saltwater intrusion, irrigation return flow, and oil/gas production. Ten counties in central and northeast Texas lack data and warrant additional monitoring. PMID:11345739

Hudak, P F

2000-08-01

406

Qualitative Determination of Nitrate with Triphenylbenzylphosphonium Chloride.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses two procedures for the identification of nitrate, the standard test ("Brown Ring" test) and a new procedure using triphenylbenzylphosphonium chloride (TPBPC). Effectiveness of both procedures is compared, with the TPBPC test proving to be more sensitive and accurate. (JM)

Berry, Donna A.; Cole, Jerry J.

1984-01-01

407

The hidden hand of chloride in hypertension.  

PubMed

Among the environmental factors that affect blood pressure, dietary sodium chloride has been studied the most, and there is general consensus that increased sodium chloride intake increases blood pressure. There is accruing evidence that chloride may have a role in blood pressure regulation which may perhaps be even more important than that of Na(+). Though more than 85 % of Na(+) is consumed as sodium chloride, there is evidence that Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations do not go necessarily hand in hand since they may originate from different sources. Hence, elucidating the role of Cl(-) as an independent player in blood pressure regulation will have clinical and public health implications in addition to advancing our understanding of electrolyte-mediated blood pressure regulation. In this review, we describe the evidence that support an independent role for Cl(-) on hypertension and cardiovascular health. PMID:25619794

McCallum, Linsay; Lip, Stefanie; Padmanabhan, Sandosh

2015-03-01

408

Pongamia pinnata modulates the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats.  

PubMed

The effect of Pongamia pinnata (an indigenous plant used in Ayurvedic Medicine in India) leaf extract (PPEt) on circulatory lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status was evaluated in ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in the circulation of ammonium chloride-treated rats was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). PPEt-administered rats experienced a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation with a simultaneous elevation in antioxidant levels. Our results indicate that PPEt modulates these changes by reversing the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance during ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemia and this could be due to its (i) antihyperammonemic effect by means of detoxifying excess ammonia, urea and creatinine and (ii) antioxidant property. The exact mechanism has to be still investigated and isolation of active constituents is required. PMID:16671965

Essa, M Mohamed; Subramanian, P

2006-06-01

409

An Introduction to Chemistry: Dissolving Sodium Chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens at the molecular level when a compound dissolves in water? This interactive animation explores how negative and positive ions in sodium chloride (table salt) collide with water molecules and become separated from each other to become a solution. The model does an effective job of depicting how the water molecules disrupt the attraction between the positive sodium ions and the negative chloride ions, and then become stabilized by attractions to the atoms in the water molecule.

Bishop, Mark

2011-05-02

410

Copper chloride cathode for a secondary battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Higher energy and power densities are achieved in a secondary battery based on molten sodium and a solid, ceramic separator such as a beta alumina and a molten catholyte such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a copper chloride cathode. The higher cell voltage of copper chloride provides higher energy densities and the higher power density results from increased conductivity resulting from formation of copper as discharge proceeds.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (inventor); Bankston, Clyde P. (inventor)

1990-01-01

411

Methyl chloride via oxhydrochlorination of methane  

SciTech Connect

Dow Corning is developing a route from methane to methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination (OHC) chemistry with joint support from the Gas Research Institute and the Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center. Dow Corning is the world`s largest producer of methyl chloride and uses it as an intermediate in the production of silicone materials. Other uses include production of higher hydrocarbons, methyl cellulose, quaternary ammonium salts and herbicides. The objective of this project is to demonstrate and develop a route to methyl chloride with reduced variable cost by using methane instead of methanol raw materials. Methyl chloride is currently produced from methanol, but U.S. demand is typically higher than available domestic supply, resulting in fluctuating prices. OHC technology utilizes domestic natural gas as a feedstock, which allows a lower-cost source of methyl chloride which is independent of methanol. In addition to other uses of methyl chloride, OHC could be a key step in a gas-to-liquid fuels process. These uses could divert significant methanol demand to methane. A stable and selective catalyst has been developed in the laboratory and evaluated in a purpose-built demonstration unit. Materials of construction issues have been resolved and the unit has been run under a range of conditions to evaluate catalyst performance and stability. Many technological advances have been made, especially in the areas of catalyst development, online FTIR analysis of the product stream, and recovery of methyl chloride product via an absorber/stripper system. Significant technological hurdles still remain including heat transfer, catalysts scaleup, orthogonality in modeling, and scaleable absorption data. Economics of the oxyhydrochlorination process have been evaluated an found to be unfavorable due to high capital and utility costs. Future efforts will focus on improved methane conversion at high methyl chloride selectivity.

Jarvis, R.F. Jr.

1997-12-31

412

Structure of complexes between aluminum chloride and other chlorides, 2: Alkali-(chloroaluminates). Gaseous complexes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural chemistry of complexes between aluminum chloride and other metal chlorides is important both for practice and theory. Condensed-phase as well as vapor-phase complexes are of interest. Structural information on such complexes is reviewed. The first emphasis is given to the molten state because of its practical importance. Aluminum chloride forms volatile complexes with other metal chlorides and these vapor-phase complexes are dealt with in the second part. Finally, the variations in molecular shape and geometrical parameters are summarized.

Hargittai, M.

1980-01-01

413

[The efficacy of dequalinium chloride/benzalkonium chloride as well as medicinal plants on the gingiva].  

PubMed

A comparative study involving 50 patients of both genders was conducted in order to determine the effect of dequalinium chloride/benzalconium chloride mouthrinse (Dequonal), and of a preparation of herbal essences (Parodontax) on gingival health. Each of the mouthrinses was used during four weeks by a group of 25 patients who were instructed to abstain from any other oral hygiene measure during this period. Approximal plaque index, sulcus bleeding index and saliva pH were significantly enhanced by both preparations. A slightly better effect shown by dequalinium chloride/benzalconium chloride was not significant. PMID:9272987

Gruber, I; Bork, T

1991-01-01

414

Berberine chloride improved synaptic plasticity in STZ induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Previous studies indicated that diabetes affects synaptic transmission in the hippocampus, leading to impairments of synaptic plasticity and defects in learning and memory. Although berberine treatment ameliorates memory impairment and improves synaptic plasticity in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats, it is not clear if the effects are pre- or post-synaptic or both. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of berberine chloride on short-term plasticity in inhibitory interneurons in the dentate gyrus of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Experimental groups included: The control, control berberine treated (100 mg/kg), diabetic and diabetic berberine treated (50,100 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks) groups. The paired pulse paradigm was used to stimulate the perforant pathway and field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSP) were recorded in dentate gyrus (DG). In comparison with control, paired pulse facilitation in the diabetic group was significantly increased (P?treated and diabetes berberine treated (50 and 100 mg/kg) groups as compared to the control group. The present results suggest that the pre-synaptic component of synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus is affected under diabetic conditions and that berberine prevents this effect. PMID:23640014

Moghaddam, Hamid Kalalian; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Roghani, Mehrdad; Goshadrou, Fatemeh; Ronaghi, Abdolaziz

2013-09-01

415

RESEARCH ARTICLE Increasing chloride concentrations in Lake Constance  

E-print Network

for the year 2006, we estimated total chloride imports to the catchment at 101 kt year-1 . Road deicing salts Chloride Á Budget Á Road deicing salt Introduction Sodium chloride (NaCl) is used widely and in large streams, Trowbridge et al. (2010) showed that [90% of the chloride originated from road salt. Imported

Wehrli, Bernhard

416

Failure of effervescent zinc acetate lozenges to alter the course of upper respiratory tract infections in Australian adults.  

PubMed Central

Effervescent lozenges containing 10 mg of zinc acetate were evaluated as a treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in a double-blind randomized trial by using a placebo which was indistinguishable to most observers in taste and appearance from the active material. Of the 70 treatment courses used by 55 individuals in 34 families, 63 (33 zinc and 30 placebo) were considered evaluable, in that the volunteer used the medication at least four times daily for at least 3 days, the average utilization being 5.4 days at an average dose of six lozenges daily. Six users of zinc reported nausea (versus no placebo users), and eight reported an unpleasant taste or aftertaste (versus one placebo user). No benefit was observed among the users of zinc acetate. The mean duration of symptoms in users of the zinc was 12.1 days, compared with 7.7 days in those who used the placebo. Nor was any beneficial effect of zinc evident among the four zinc-treated versus the two placebo-treated individuals from whom rhinovirus was grown. PMID:3307620

Douglas, R M; Miles, H B; Moore, B W; Ryan, P; Pinnock, C B

1987-01-01

417

Effects of soil type, prepercolation, and ageing on bioaccumulation and toxicity of zinc for the springtail Folsomia candida  

SciTech Connect

Soil properties are a major influence on the bioavailability and toxicity of metals and represent one of the important factors that complicate the extrapolation of results from laboratory tests to field situations. The influence of soil characteristics and way of contamination on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of zinc was investigated for the springtail Folsomia candida, and the applicability of chemical extraction techniques for the prediction of zinc uptake and toxicity was evaluated. Bioaccumulation of zinc in F. candida was related to water-soluble zinc concentrations, and uptake was dependent on the test soil used. Effects of zinc for F. candida could not be fully explained by bioaccumulation. This indicates that the existence of a fixed internal threshold concentration of zinc above which physiological functions are impaired is not likely for F. candida. In freshly contaminated soils, zinc toxicity was related to organic matter and clay content of the soil; however, the use of these soils overestimated the effects of zinc for F. candida by a factor of 5 to 8 compared to a test soil that was subjected to ageing under field conditions for 1.5 years. Equilibration of the zinc contamination by percolating the soils with water before use in the toxicity experiment strongly reduced the difference in zinc toxicity between laboratory-treated and aged soils. Water-soluble concentrations are most appropriate to predict effects of zinc on reproduction of F. candida in soils with unknown contamination histories. For laboratory toxicity tests, it is recommended to percolate soils with water after contamination and to include an equilibration period prior to use to achieve a more realistic exposure situation.

Smit, C.E.; Van Gestel, C.A.M. [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Ecology and Ecotoxicology

1998-06-01

418

Modulation of Vasodilator Response via the Nitric Oxide Pathway after Acute Methyl Mercury Chloride Exposure in Rats  

PubMed Central

Mercury exposure induces endothelial dysfunction leading to loss of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation due to decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability via increased oxidative stress. Our aim was to investigate whether acute treatment with methyl mercury chloride changes the endothelium-dependent vasodilator response and to explore the possible mechanisms behind the observed effects. Wistar rats were treated with methyl mercury chloride (5?mg/kg, po.). The methyl mercury chloride treatment resulted in an increased aortic vasorelaxant response to acetylcholine (ACh). In methyl-mercury-chloride-exposed rats, the % change in vasorelaxant response of ACh in presence of N?-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; 10?4?M) was significantly increased, and in presence of glybenclamide (10?5?M), the response was similar to that of untreated rats, indicating the involvement of NO and not of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) + catalase treatment increased the NO modulation of vasodilator response in methyl-mercury-chloride-exposed rats. Our results demonstrate an increase in the vascular reactivity to ACh in aorta of rats acutely exposed to methyl mercury chloride. Methyl mercury chloride induces nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and increases the NO production along with inducing oxidative stress without affecting the EDHF pathway. PMID:24024199

Omanwar, S.; Saidullah, B.; Ravi, K.; Fahim, M.

2013-01-01

419

Precipitation of zinc ferrite nanoparticles in the Fe 2O 3–ZnO–SiO 2 glass system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass materials in the ZnO–Fe2O3–SiO2 system, containing zinc ferrite nanoparticles, were prepared by the sol–gel method and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Mössbauer spectroscopy, AC- and DC-magnetization techniques. The gel samples, dried at 130°C, were further heat treated in air at 500 and 800°C. At 500°C zinc ferrite and hematite nanoparticles, with an average size of

M. G. Ferreira da Silva; L. C. J. Pereira; J. C. Waerenborgh

2007-01-01

420

Antiviral drugs from the nucleoside analog family block volume-activated chloride channels.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The antiviral drugs AZT and acyclovir are generally used in the treatment of infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). These substances are known to impede virus replication by premature nucleic acid chain termination. It is not yet clear, however, if this is the sole mechanism responsible for the antiviral and/or the numerous side effects observed in patients treated with these agents. We investigated the swelling-induced chloride current in fibroblasts, which we demonstrated is closely related or identical to a cloned epithelial chloride channel, ICln: This chloride channel can be blocked by nucleotides. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electrophysiological, fluorescence optical, and volume measurements were made to determine the effect of nucleoside analogs on the swelling-dependent chloride current (ICl) in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and in human T cell lymphoma (H9) cells and the cAMP-dependent chloride current in CaCo cells. RESULTS: AZT and acyclovir block the swelling-dependent chloride current and the chloride flux in fibroblasts, and the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and ICl in H9 cells. This immediate effect can be substantially reduced by the simultaneous incubation of the cells with thymidine-5'-diphosphate (TDP) or uridine, both of which are by themselves unable to affect ICl. CONCLUSIONS: We show here a novel molecular mechanism by which antiviral drugs of the nucleoside analog family could lead to impairments of the kidney, bone marrow, gastrointestinal, and neuronal functions, and how these side effects could possibly be restricted by the presence of TDP or uridine. Images FIG. 5 PMID:8521298

Gschwentner, M.; Susanna, A.; Wöll, E.; Ritter, M.; Nagl, U. O.; Schmarda, A.; Laich, A.; Pinggera, G. M.; Ellemunter, H.; Huemer, H.

1995-01-01

421

Rechargeable nickel-zinc batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device proves superiority in having two and one half to three times the energy content of popular lead-zinc or nickel-cadmium batteries. Application to electric utility vehicles improved acceleration rate and nearly doubled driving range between rechargings. Unit contributes substantially toward realization of practical urban electrical automobiles.

Soltis, D. G.

1977-01-01

422

Ab initio study of zinc chloride dication ZnCl2+ in the gas phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our high-level ab initio calculations show that the ZnCl2+ ground state of 2? symmetry is metastable with a bond length of 2.242 Å, an effective dissociation energy of 1.66 eV, and an adiabatic double ionization energy of ZnCl of 26.11 eV. Potential energy curves for 18 ? + S states and ten ? states of ZnCl2+ are presented as well as the associated spectroscopic constants. Tunneling lifetimes, spin-orbit induced predissociation lifetimes and radiative lifetimes for the vibrational levels in the low-lying electronic states of ZnCl2+ are determined and the metastability of the dication is discussed.

Fišer, J.

2014-09-01

423

Zinc chloride mediated degradation of cellulose at 200 °C and identification of the products  

PubMed Central

The effect of ZnCl2 on the degradation of cellulose was studied to develop conditions to produce useful feedstock chemicals directly from cellulosic biomass. Cellulose containing 0.5 mol of ZnCl2/mol of glucose unit of cellulose was found to degrade at 200 °C when heated for more than 60 s in air. The major non gaseous products of the degradation were identified as furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid. The maximum yields for furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural are 8 and 9 % respectively based on glucose unit of cellulose. These yields are reached after 150 s of heating at 200 °C. A cellulose sample containing 0.5 mol of ZnCl2/mol of glucose unit of cellulose and 5.6 equivalents of water when heated for 150 s at 200 °C produced levulinic acid as the only product in 6% yield. The ZnCl2 mediated controlled degradation of cellulose at 200 °C is shown to produce useful feedstock chemicals in low yield. PMID:19540751

Amarasekara, Ananda S.; Ebede, Chidinma C.

2009-01-01

424

Zinc chloride mediated degradation of cellulose at 200 degrees C and identification of the products.  

PubMed

The effect of ZnCl(2) on the degradation of cellulose was studied to develop conditions to produce useful feedstock chemicals directly from cellulosic biomass. Cellulose containing 0.5 mol of ZnCl(2)/mol of glucose unit of cellulose was found to degrade at 200 degrees C when heated for more than 60 s in air. The major non-gaseous products of the degradation were identified as furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid. The maximum yields for furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural are 8% and 9%, respectively, based on glucose unit of cellulose. These yields are reached after 150 s of heating at 200 degrees C. A cellulose sample containing 0.5 mol of ZnCl(2)/mol of glucose unit of cellulose and 5.6 equivalents of water when heated for 150 s at 200 degrees C produced levulinic acid as the only product in 6% yield. The ZnCl(2) mediated controlled degradation of cellulose at 200 degrees C is shown to produce useful feedstock chemicals in low yield. PMID:19540751

Amarasekara, Ananda S; Ebede, Chidinma C

2009-11-01

425

Thermal, UV and FTIR spectral studies of urea–thiourea zinc chloride single crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single crystal of urea–thiourea was grown by slow evaporation of aqueous solution at room temperature. The bright and transparent\\u000a crystals obtained were characterised by TG–DTA, UV and FTIR spectral analyses. A fitting decomposition pattern for the title\\u000a compound was formulated on the TG curve which shows a two stage mass loss between 200 and 750 °C. DTA curve shows exothermic

G. Madhurambal; M. Mariappan; S. C. Mojumdar

2010-01-01

426

ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYSIS IN COAL AND BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION AT PREPYROLYSIS TEMPERATURES  

E-print Network

Hoisture-Free Coal Hydrogen Nitrogen Sulfur Ash Oxygen (bituminous Coal Proximate Analysis, %+ Moisture Ash Volatileand ash content) and Table 1 Operation Conditions and Yields of Major Processes for Conversion of Coal

Onu, Christopher O.

2013-01-01

427

Zinc therapy in dermatology: a review.  

PubMed

Zinc, both in elemental or in its salt forms, has been used as a therapeutic modality for centuries. Topical preparations like zinc oxide, calamine, or zinc pyrithione have been in use as photoprotecting, soothing agents or as active ingredient of antidandruff shampoos. Its use has expanded manifold over the years for a number of dermatological conditions including infections (leishmaniasis, warts), inflammatory dermatoses (acne vulgaris, rosacea), pigmentary disorders (melasma), and neoplasias (basal cell carcinoma). Although the role of oral zinc is well-established in human zinc deficiency syndromes including acrodermatitis enteropathica, it is only in recent years that importance of zinc as a micronutrient essential for infant growth and development has been recognized. The paper reviews various dermatological uses of zinc. PMID:25120566

Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K; Mehta, Karaninder S; Chauhan, Pushpinder S

2014-01-01

428

Zinc-The key to preventing corrosion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Centuries before it was identified as an element, zinc was used to make brass (an alloy of zinc and copper) and for medicinal purposes. Metallic zinc and zinc oxide were produced in India sometime between the 11th and 14th centuries and in China in the 17th century, although the discovery of pure metallic zinc is credited to the German chemist Andreas Marggraf, who isolated the element in 1746. Refined zinc metal is bluish-white when freshly cast; it is hard and brittle at most temperatures and has relatively low melting and boiling points. Zinc alloys readily with other metals and is chemically active. On exposure to air, it develops a thin gray oxide film (patina), which inhibits deeper oxidation (corrosion) of the metal. The metal's resistance to corrosion is an important characteristic in its use.

Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

2011-01-01

429

Zinc Therapy in Dermatology: A Review  

PubMed Central

Zinc, both in elemental or in its salt forms, has been used as a therapeutic modality for centuries. Topical preparations like zinc oxide, calamine, or zinc pyrithione have been in use as photoprotecting, soothing agents or as active ingredient of antidandruff shampoos. Its use has expanded manifold over the years for a number of dermatological conditions including infections (leishmaniasis, warts), inflammatory dermatoses (acne vulgaris, rosacea), pigmentary disorders (melasma), and neoplasias (basal cell carcinoma). Although the role of oral zinc is well-established in human zinc deficiency syndromes including acrodermatitis enteropathica, it is only in recent years that importance of zinc as a micronutrient essential for infant growth and development has been recognized. The paper reviews various dermatological uses of zinc. PMID:25120566

Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

2014-01-01

430

Disrupted calcium homeostasis is involved in elevated zinc ion-induced photoreceptor cell death.  

PubMed

Zinc (Zn), the second abundant trace element in living organisms, plays an important role in regulating cell metabolism, signaling, proliferation, gene expression and apoptosis. Meanwhile, the overload of Zn will disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis via impairing mitochondrial function. However, the specific molecular mechanism underlying zinc-induced calcium regulation remains poorly understood. In the present study, using zinc chloride (ZnCl2) as a stressor, we investigated the effect of exogenous Zn(2+) in regulating murine photoreceptor cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell cycle distribution and calcium homeostasis as well as plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) isoforms (PMCA1 and PMCA2, i.e., ATP2B1, ATP2B2) expression. We found that the exogenous Zn(2+) in the exposure range (31.25-125.0 ?mol/L) results in the overgeneration of ROS, cell cycle arrest at G2/M phases, elevation of cytosolic [Ca(2+)], inactivation of Ca(2+)-ATPase and reduction of both PMCA1 and PMCA2 in 661 W cells, and thus induces cell death. In conclusion, ZnCl2 exposure can elevate the cytosolic [Ca(2+)], disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis, further initiate Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathway in 661 W cells, and finally cause cell death. Our results will facilitate the understanding of cell death induced by the zinc ion-mediated calcium homeostasis disruption. PMID:25051343

Guo, Dadong; Du, Yuxiang; Wu, Qiuxin; Jiang, Wenjun; Bi, Hongsheng

2014-10-15

431

(4,6-Dimethyl-2-sulfanylidenepyrimidin-1-ium) trichlorido(thiourea-?S)zinc(II).  

PubMed

The title compound, (C6H9N2S)[ZnCl3{SC(NH2)2}], exists as a zincate where the zinc(II) centre is coordinated by three chloride ligands and a thiourea ligand to form the anion. The organic cation adopts the protonated 4,6-dimethyl-2-sulfanylidenepyrimidin-1-ium (L) form of 4,6-dimethylpyrimidine-2(1H)-thione. Two short N-H···Cl hydrogen bonds involving the pyrimidine H atoms and the [ZnCl3L](-) anion form a crystallographically centrosymmetric dimeric unit consisting of two anions and two cations. The packing structure is completed by longer-range hydrogen bonds donated by the thiourea NH2 groups to chloride ligand hydrogen-bond acceptors. PMID:23579712

Fu, Wei-Wei; Chen, Man-Sheng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Fu-Xing

2013-04-01

432

Anionexchange and thermal change of layered zinc hydroxides formed in the presence of Al(III)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc hydroxide chloride particles of ZHC (simonkolleite, Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) and layered double hydroxides (LDH, Zn–Al–Cl) were prepared by hydrolysis of ZnCl2 solutions dissolving AlCl3 at Al\\/Zn=0.1 and 0.6 in atomic ratio, respectively. The anion-exchange and thermal change of ZHC and LDH were investigated by XRD, TEM, FTIR, analysis of Zn, Al, and Cl and gas adsorption of N2, H2O, and CCl4.

Tatsuo Ishikawa; Kumi Matsumoto; Kazuhiko Kandori; Takenori Nakayama

2007-01-01

433

Hydrolytic reaction by zinc finger mutant peptides: successful redesign of structural zinc sites into catalytic zinc sites.  

PubMed

To redesign a metal site originally required for the stabilization of a folded protein structure into a functional metal site, we constructed a series of zinc finger mutant peptides such as zf(CCHG) and zf(GCHH), in which one zinc-coordinating residue is substituted into a noncoordinating one. The mutant peptides having water bound to the zinc ion catalyzed the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl acetate as well as the enantioselective hydrolysis of amino acid esters. All the zinc complexes of the mutant peptides showed hydrolytic activity, depending on their peptide sequences. In contrast, the zinc complex of the wild-type, zf(CCHH), and zinc ion alone exhibited no hydrolytic ability. These results clearly indicate that the catalytic abilities are predominantly attributed to the zinc center in the zinc complexes of the mutant peptides. Kinetic studies of the mutant peptides demonstrated that the catalytic hydrolysis is affected by the electron-donating ability of the protein ligands and the coordination environment. In addition, the pH dependence of the hydrolysis strongly suggests that the zinc-coordinated hydroxide ion participates the catalytic reaction. This report is the first successful study of catalytically active zinc finger peptides. PMID:14989663

Nomura, Akiko; Sugiura, Yukio

2004-03-01

434

Influence of phytase, EDTA, and polyphenols on zinc absorption in adults from porridges fortified with zinc sulfate or zinc oxide.  

PubMed

Fortification of cereal staples with zinc is recommended to combat zinc deficiency. To optimize zinc absorption, strategies are needed to overcome the inhibitory effect of phytic acid (PA) and perhaps polyphenols. Five zinc absorption studies were conducted in young adults consuming maize or sorghum porridges fortified with 2 mg zinc as zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) or zinc oxide (ZnO) and containing combinations of PA or polyphenols as potential inhibitors and EDTA and phytase as potential enhancers. Fractional absorption of zinc (FAZ) was measured by using the double isotopic tracer ratio method. Adding phytase to the maize porridge immediately before consumption or using phytase for dephytinization during meal preparation both increased FAZ by >80% (both P < 0.001). Adding Na2EDTA at an EDTA:zinc molar ratio of 1:1 increased FAZ from maize porridge fortified with ZnSO4 by 30% (P = 0.01) but had no influence at higher EDTA ratios or on absorption from ZnO. FAZ was slightly higher from ZnSO4 than from ZnO (P = 0.02). Sorghum polyphenols had no effect on FAZ from dephytinized sorghum porridges but decreased FAZ by 20% from PA-rich sorghum porridges (P < 0.02). The combined inhibitory effect of polyphenols and PA was overcome by EDTA. In conclusion, ZnSO4 was better absorbed than ZnO, phytase used to degrade PA during digestion or during food preparation substantially increased zinc absorption from zinc-fortified cereals, EDTA at a 1:1 molar ratio modestly enhanced zinc absorption from ZnSO4-fortified cereals but not ZnO-fortified cereals, and sorghum polyphenols inhibited zinc absorption in the presence, but not absence, of PA. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01210794. PMID:24966411

Brni?, Marica; Wegmüller, Rita; Zeder, Christophe; Senti, Gabriela; Hurrell, Richard F

2014-09-01

435

Zinc toxicosis in a free-flying trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator) was observed near it mill pond in Picher, Oklahoma. USA. It became weakened and emaciated after about 1 mo, was captured with little resistance, and taken into captivity for medical care. Serum chemistry results were consistent with hepatic, renal, and muscular damage. Serum zinc concentration was elevated at 11.2 parts per million (ppm). The swan was treated for suspected heavy-metal poisoning, but died overnight. Gross postmortem findings were emaciation and pectoral muscle atrophy. Histopathologic lesions in the pancreas included mild diffuse disruption of acinar architecture, severe diffuse depletion or absence of zymogen granules, occasional apoptotic bodies ics in acinar epithelial cells, and mild interstitial and capsular fibrosis. Zinc concentration in pancreas was 3,200 ppm wet weight, and was similar to that reported in the pancreases of waterfowl known to be killed by zinc toxicity. Zinc concentrations in liver (154 ppm) and kidneys (145 ppm) also were elevated. Acute tubular necrosis of the collecting tubules of the kidneys was also possibly due to zinc toxicity. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first confirmed case of zinc poisoning in a trumpeter swan associated with mining wastes..

Carpenter, J.W.; Andrews, G.A.; Beyer, W.N.

2004-01-01

436

Zinc toxicosis in a free-flying trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator).  

PubMed

A trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator) was observed near a mill pond in Picher, Oklahoma, USA. It became weakened and emaciated after about 1 mo, was captured with little resistance, and taken into captivity for medical care. Serum chemistry results were consistent with hepatic, renal, and muscular damage. Serum zinc concentration was elevated at 11.2 parts per million (ppm). The swan was treated for suspected heavy-metal poisoning, but died overnight. Gross postmortem findings were emaciation and pectoral muscle atrophy. Histopathologic lesions in the pancreas included mild diffuse disruption of acinar architecture, severe diffuse depletion or absence of zymogen granules, occasional apoptotic bodies in acinar epithelial cells, and mild interstitial and capsular fibrosis. Zinc concentration in pancreas was 3,200 ppm wet weight, and was similar to that reported in the pancreases of waterfowl known to be killed by zinc toxicity. Zinc concentrations in liver (154 ppm) and kidneys (145 ppm) also were elevated. Acute tubular necrosis of the collecting tubules of the kidneys was also possibly due to zinc toxicity. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first confirmed case of zinc poisoning in a trumpeter swan associated with mining wastes. PMID:15650098

Carpenter, James W; Andrews, Gordon A; Beyer, W Nelson

2004-10-01

437

Nitric oxide mediated zinc release contributes to hypoxic regulation of pulmonary vascular tone  

PubMed Central

The metal binding protein, metallothionein (MT) is a target for NO causing release of bound zinc that affects myogenic reflex in systemic resistance vessels. Here, we investigate a role for NO-induced zinc release in pulmonary vasoregulation. We show that acute hypoxia causes reversible constriction of intra-acinar arteries (<40 ?M) in isolated perfused mouse lung (IPL). We further demonstrate that isolated pulmonary (but not aortic) endothelial cells constrict in hypoxia. Hypoxia also causes NO-dependent increases in labile zinc in mouse lung endothelial cells and endothelium of IPL. The latter observation is dependent upon MT as it is not apparent in IPL of MT?/? mice. Data from NO-sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based reporters support hypoxia-induced NO production in pulmonary endothelium. Furthermore, hypoxic constriction is blunted in IPL of MT?/? mice; and in wild-type mice, or rats, treated with the zinc chelator, N,N,N?,N?-Tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)-ethylenediamine (TPEN), suggesting a role for chelatable zinc in modulating HPV. Finally, the NO donor, DETAnonoate causes further vasoconstriction in hypoxic IPL in which NO vasodilatory pathways are inhibited. Collectively, these data suggest that zinc thiolate signaling is a component of the effects of acute hypoxia mediated NO biosynthesis and this pathway may contribute to constriction in the pulmonary vasculature. PMID:18483408

Bernal, Paula J.; Leelavanichkul, Karanee; Bauer, Eileen; Cao, Rong; Wilson, Annette; Wasserloos, Karla J.; Watkins, Simon C.; Pitt, Bruce R.; St. Croix, Claudette M.

2009-01-01

438

Molecular Structure of Ferrous chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It has been discovered that high levels of exposure to this chemical substance may lead to iron build-up in the body, which can cause nausea, stomach pain, and vomiting. Due to its corrosiveness, it is used as a resource for treating sewage, mixing metals (metallurgy), and textile dyeing. Also it is used in pharmaceutical preparations to prevent oxidation and degradation of easily oxidizable active ingredients in the compounds. Also it is used in pharmaceutical preparations to prevent oxidation and degradation of easily oxidizable active ingredients in the compounds.

2002-08-27

439

Thermoluminescence of ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride (10?30gcm?3) have been irradiated by X- and ?-rays at 77K, then progressively rewarmed to room temperature. During that phase, their thermoluminescence has been studied and it was found that, despite their dilution beyond the Avogadro number, the emitted light was specific of the original salts dissolved initially.

Louis Rey

2003-01-01

440

Iron, copper, and nickel behavior in buffered, neutral aluminum chloride:1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride molten salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron, copper, and nickel electrodes were examined as possible metal\\/metal(II) chloride cathodes for the room temperature sodium\\/metal chloride battery in a molten salt composed of sodium chloride (NaCl), aluminum chloride (AlClâ), and 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (MEIC). The iron electrode was investigated in basic, neutral-like, and acidic MEIC:AlClâ melts. The solubility and the kinetics of the reduction of Fe(II) was a function

Stephen Pye; J. Winnick; P. A. Kohl

1997-01-01

441

Acquired perforating calcific collagenosis after topical calcium chloride exposure.  

PubMed

A 24-year-old healthy man presented with a 6-week history of numerous umbilicated coalescing erythematous papules with some scale and crust on his anterior medial thighs. The eruption began 1 to 2 weeks after he spilled calcium chloride rock salts on his pants while salting the sidewalk during a snow storm. The salts dissolved and remained in contact with his skin for at least 4 hours until he was able to change clothes. A skin biopsy shows thick and thin collagen fibers with partial calcification in the papillary and upper reticular dermis associated with a sparse infiltrate of neutrophils, lymphocytes and mononuclear histiocytes. There are foci of transepidermal elimination of calcified fibers with adjacent epidermal hyperplasia and ortho- and parakeratosis. Von Kossa stain highlights calcification of the fibers, and trichrome stain confirms the fibers are collagen. A Verhoeff-van Gieson stain shows no abnormality of elastic fibers. The patient was treated with topical betametasone diproprionate cream twice daily for 3 weeks, as well as a short course of oral levofloxacin and topical gentamicin cream. The lesions resolved over 3 weeks with residual scarring. We report a unique case of acquired perforating calcific collagenosis secondary to topical calcium chloride exposure. PMID:19614988

Patel, Rishi R; Zirvi, Monib; Walters, Ruth F; Kamino, Hideko

2010-05-01

442

Regulation of nitrogenase activity by ammonium chloride in Azospirillum spp.  

PubMed Central

Ammonium chloride (greater than or equal to 0.05 mM) effectively and reversibly inhibited the nitrogenase activity of Azospirillum brasilense, Azospirillum lipoferum and Azospirillum amazonense. The glutamine synthetase inhibitor L-methionine-DL- sulfoximine abolished this "switch-off" in A. lipoferum and A. brasilense, but not in A. amazonense. Azaserine, an inhibitor of glutamate synthase, inhibited nitrogenase activity itself. This provides further evidence for glutamine as a metabolite of regulatory importance in the NH4+ switch-off phenomenon. In A. brasilense and A. lipoferum, a transition period before the complete inhibition of nitrogenase activity after the addition of 1 mM ammonium chloride was observed. The in vitro nitrogenase activity also was decreased after treatment with ammonium. During sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, a second dinitrogenase reductase (Fe protein) subunit appeared, which migrated in coincidence with the modified subunit of the inactive Fe protein of the nitrogenase of Rhodospirillum rubrum. After the addition of ammonium 32P was incorporated into this subunit of the Fe protein of A. brasilense. In A. amazonense, the inhibition of nitrogenase activity by ammonium was only partial, and no transition period could be observed. The in vitro nitrogenase activity of ammonium-treated cells was not decreased, and no evidence for a modified Fe protein subunit was found. Nitrogenase extracts of A. amazonense were active and had an Fe protein that migrated as a close double band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Images PMID:3081492

Hartmann, A; Fu, H; Burris, R H

1986-01-01

443

Intestinal zinc transport: influence of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, insulin and arachidonic acid  

SciTech Connect

The influence of arachidonic acid (AA) on the zinc flux rates of jejunal segments, isolated from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats injected with saline or with insulin, was investigated using an Ussing chamber technique. Although the zinc flux rates from mucose-to-serosa (J/sub ms/) of normal rats were inhibited by addition of 5 ..mu..M AA to the jejunal segment bathing medium, AA had no effect on the J/sub ms/ of diabetic rats either with or without insulin treatment. Induction of diabetes also significantly reduces J/sub ms/, but 3 day insulin treatment did not reverse this effect. Addition of AA to the serosal side did not significantly alter the zinc flux rate from serosa-to-mucosa (J/sub sm/) in either control, diabetic or diabetic rats treated with insulin. The net zinc absorption rate (J/sub net/) of jejunal segments was decreased in diabetic rats compared to controls, but normalization of blood glucose with 3 day insulin treatment did not increase J/sub net/. Addition of AA was associated with a tendency to increase zinc uptake capacity. This change reached statistical significance in insulin treated diabetic rats. Short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) for diabetic rats was increased compared to controls but addition of AA to the mucosal side bathing medium decreased I/sub sc/ in all groups. 32 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Song, M.K.; Mooradian, A.D.

1988-01-01

444

Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense ??-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

2014-12-01

445

Assessing the protective qualities of treated and untreated concrete surfaces under cyclic wetting and drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyclic wetting and drying characteristics of treated and untreated concrete substrates were studied. During the absorption cycle, specimens were exposed to both water and sodium chloride solution. The testing programme used relatively simple, non-destructive methods to quantify the efficacy of the treated surface; in particular, cumulative volume gain and surface resistivity measurements. Destructive testing was used to investigate the

W. J. McCarter

1996-01-01

446

The Accumulation of Zinc by the Mosquito  

PubMed Central

The zinc content of mosquitoes in various developmental stages was determined by spectrographic and microchemical analysis and use of zinc65 and found to be five to ten times higher than other trace elements. Also the concentration of zinc in the mosquito was much greater than in other insects of different biological orders. Over 90 per cent of this element was localized in the Malpighian tubules at a concentration of 32 µg zinc per mg dry weight. The non-dialyzable form of zinc is loosely bound, for it was dissociated upon dialysis against ethylenediamine tetraacetate. The uptake of this trace element was correlated during larval growth with weight increase and required the presence of food particles. Furthermore, this uptake was different from that of cobalt which was not accumulated when offered as an inorganic salt or as vitamin B12. Zinc was not detectable in pooled egg masses, and once embodied by the larvae, was retained under fasting conditions and at a constant level throughout the pupal stage and as long as 14 days' adult life. Supplementation of the media with EDTA caused a marked inhibition of growth that could be completely reversed by the addition of zinc or zinc plus lead. The resultant pupae, however, contained less than 5 per cent of the normal amount of zinc and were essentially zinc-free; yet their rate of growth and gross appearance were normal. PMID:13928523

Lang, Calvin A.

1963-01-01

447

Zinc and the modulation of redox homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Zinc, a redox inactive metal, has been long viewed as a component of the antioxidant network, and growing evidence points to its involvement in redox-regulated signaling. These actions are exerted through several mechanisms based on the unique chemical and functional properties of zinc. Overall, zinc contributes to maintain the cell redox balance through different mechanisms including: i) the regulation of oxidant production and metal-induced oxidative damage; ii) the dynamic association of zinc with sulfur in protein cysteine clusters, from which the metal can be released by nitric oxide, peroxides, oxidized glutathione and other thiol oxidant species; iii) zinc-mediated induction of the zinc-binding protein metallothionein, which releases the metal under oxidative conditions and act per se scavenging oxidants; iv) the involvement of zinc in the regulation of glutathione metabolism and of the overall protein thiol redox status; and v) a direct or indirect regulation of redox signaling. Findings of oxidative stress, altered redox signaling, and associated cell/tissue disfunction in cell and animal models of zinc deficiency, stress the relevant role of zinc in the preservation of cell redox homeostasis. However, while the participation of zinc in antioxidant protection, redox sensing, and redox-regulated signaling is accepted, the involved molecules, targets and mechanisms are still partially known and the subject of active research. PMID:22960578

Oteiza, Patricia I.

2012-01-01

448

ZINC--1999 85.1 By Jozef Plachy  

E-print Network

ZINC--1999 85.1 ZINC By Jozef Plachy Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Brandon P, international data coordinator. In 1999, domestic zinc mine production, expressed in zinc content of ore in Alaska (table 1). On the basis of recoverable content and annual average U.S. price, the value of zinc

449

ZINC--2001 85.1 By Jozef Plachy  

E-print Network

ZINC--2001 85.1 ZINC By Jozef Plachy Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Aaron J, international data coordinator. In 2001, domestic zinc mine production, expressed in zinc content of ore and annual average U.S. price, the value of zinc mine production was estimated to be about $774 million

450

Alterations in zinc absorption and salivary sediment zinc after a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet.  

PubMed

The effect of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on plasma zinc tolerance tests and plasma and saliva zinc levels was measured in 12 nonvegetarian women. A diet meeting the Recommended Dietary Allowances for all nutrients, including zinc, was fed to the subjects for 22 days. Initial zinc status of subjects was determined by zinc analysis of their diet, hair, plasma, and saliva. Plasma response to an oral load of 50 mg Zn was determined in five subjects before and after the dietary period. Zinc levels of salivary sediment, which consisted primarily of epithelial cells, significantly decreased from initial values of 128 to final levels, of 94 microgram/g. No significant differences were found in zinc levels of plasma or whole mixed saliva. Plasma response to initial zinc tolerance tests were inversely correlated (P < 0.05) to dietary protein levels. Significantly increased plasma zinc uptake and areas under zinc tolerance curves were found after consumption of vegetarian diets compared to diets containing meats. The increased plasma response to a zinc load and decrease in salivary sediment zinc after a vegetarian diet indicate that this diet adversely affects zinc status. PMID:6250397

Freeland-Graves, J H; Ebangit, M L; Hendrikson, P J

1980-08-01

451

Light and electron microscopic study of fetal lung following maternal exposure to methylmercuric chloride.  

PubMed

Varying dose levels of methylmercuric chloride (MMC), 1000 ppm (5 mg through 15 mg/kg of body weight), were administered via an intragastric tube to pregnant ICR Swiss/Webster mice on day 9 of gestation. The animals were killed on gestational day 18 and the fetuses removed. Fetal lung sections were processed for light and electron microscopy. A group of animals treated with physiological saline in a similar manner served as the controls. The fetal lungs from treated animals were hypoplastic and retarded in development. The severity of pulmonary changes increased with the dose-levels of MMC. Vacuolation and lysis of mitochondria were seen in fetal lungs. Mitochondrial damage increased in severity with dose-level of methylmercuric chloride. PMID:2980721

Curle, D C; Ray, M; Persaud, T V

1987-04-01

452

Surface Sulfonation of Polyvinyl Chloride by Plasma for Antithrombogenicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To enhance the blood compatibility of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) film, the film was modified by SO2/O2 gas plasma treatment. The effect of surface sulfonation of PVC treated by various SO2/O2 gas plasma depended on the volume ratio O2/(SO2 + O2). When the volume ratio was 0.5, the effect of sulfonation was the best. Sulfonic acid groups were specifically and efficiently introduced onto the PVC surface, which was proved by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transfer Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The surface microstructure of modified PVC film was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The antithrombogenicity of the samples was determined by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) and plasma recalcification time (PRT) tests and platelet adhesion experiment. The results indicated that the antithrombogenicity of modified PVC was improved remarkably.

Liu, Peng; Chen, Yashao

2004-06-01

453

Evaluation of strychnine and zinc phosphide baits to control northern pocket gophers ( Thomomys talpoides) in alfalfa fields in Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the effectiveness of Sanex 0.40% strychnine-treated oats, Fairview 0.37% strychnine-treated grains, and United Agri Products 2% zinc phosphide-treated oats to control northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) populations in alfalfa fields in Alberta, Canada. The poison baits were tested during three phenological periods corresponding to the reproduction, summer juvenile dispersal, and early fall mound building activities. Overall, less

Gilbert Proulx

1998-01-01

454

Treatment of automotive wastewater by coagulation-flocculation using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and aluminum sulfate (alum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A physicochemical treatment (coagulation-flocculation) was applied for automotive wastewater using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and aluminum sulfate (alum) aided by anionic polyacrylamide as flocculant to determine the effectiveness of coagulation method for removal of COD, TSS and heavy metals (Fe, Ni and Zn). The results obtained proved that PAC was comparatively more efficient to FeCl3 and alum. At defined optimum experiment condition (coagulant dose: 70 mg/L, coagulant aid dose: 2 mg/L and pH 7), PAC showed 70% removal for (chemical oxygen demand) COD and 98% of (total suspended solid) TSS. For FeCl3 and alum, the maximum removal for COD were 64% and 54%, meanwhile TSS removal were 91% and 94%. Heavy metals removal using PAC also showed better results in which produced 98% of iron removal, 83% of zinc removal and 63% of nickel removal under optimum condition. The comparison revealed that the use of PAC aided by anionic polyacrylamide produced higher removal for COD, TSS and heavy metals compared to FeCl3 and alum for automotive wastewater treatment.

Bakar, Abdul Fattah Abu; Halim, Azhar Abdul

2013-11-01

455

Comparison of Intralesional Two Percent Zinc Sulfate and Glucantime Injection in Treatment of Acute Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in developing countries caused by different species of leishmania parasite, and if left untreated, it will result in a deformed scar after a relatively long period. Although various systemic and topical treatments have been proposed for leishmaniasis, pentavalent Antimony compounds remain the first-line treatment for it. Considering the cases with treatment failure, potential side effects and reluctance of patients to receive the drug, there are continuing efforts to find better treatment alternatives. Aim: Comparison of the effect of intralesional 2% zinc sulfate injection with Glucantime in treatment of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 45 patients with clinical diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis and positive direct smear for leishman body were treated by intralesional injection of either 2% zinc sulfate or Glucantime. After simple randomization, in one group the patients were treated with 2 bouts of intralesional 2% zinc sulfate with a 2-week interval, and in the other group they were treated with 6 weekly bouts of intralesional Glucantime. The patients were monitored in two week intervals for 8 weeks. Healing of the lesions was evaluated clinically and by direct smear, and the data were analyzed using SPSS (11.5) software, t-Student, Mann-Whitney and Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) statistical tests. Findings: In the end of study, 34 patients completed the study, 10 of whom received intralesional Glucantime and 24 of whom received intralesional 2% zinc sulfate. The healing rate after 8 weeks was 80% in the group receiving intralesional Glucantime and 33.3% in the one receiving 2% zinc sulfate (P=0.009). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, intralesional injection of 2% zinc sulfate was less effective in treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis than intralesional Glucantime. PMID:22615508

Maleki, Masoud; Karimi, Gholamreza; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Raftari, Somayyeh; Nahidi, Yalda

2012-01-01

456

Water quality improvement through bioretention: lead, copper, and zinc removal.  

PubMed

Intensive automobile use, weathering of building materials, and atmospheric deposition contribute lead, copper, zinc, and other heavy metals to urban and roadway runoff. Bioretention is a low-impact-development best management practice that has the potential to improve stormwater quality from developed areas. The practice represents a soil, sand, organic matter, and vegetation-based storage and infiltration facility used in parking lots and on individual lots to treat runoff. Investigations using pilot-plant laboratory bioretention systems and two existing bioretention facilities documented their effectiveness at removing low levels of lead, copper, and zinc from synthetic stormwater runoff. Removal rates of these metals (based on concentration and total mass) were excellent, reaching close to 100% for all metals under most conditions, with effluent copper and lead levels mostly less than 5 microg/L and zinc less than 25 microg/L. Somewhat less removal was noted for shallow bioretention depths. Runoff pH, duration, intensity, and pollutant concentrations were varied, and all had minimal effect on removal. The two field investigations generally supported the laboratory studies. Overall, excellent removal of dissolved heavy metals can be expected through bioretention infiltration. Although the accumulation of metals is a concern, buildup problems are not anticipated for more than 15 years because of the low metal concentrations expected in runoff. PMID:12683466

Davis, Allen P; Shokouhian, Mohammad; Sharma, Himanshu; Minami, Christie; Winogradoff, Derek

2003-01-01

457

An automatic molecular dispenser of chloride.  

PubMed

The combined activity of the 1.1.1-cryptand and of a dicopper(II) bistren cryptate complex including chloride makes the Cl(-) ion be continuously and slowly delivered to the solution, without any external intervention. The 1.1.1-cryptand slowly releases OH(-) ions, according to a defined kinetics, and each OH(-) ion displaces a Cl(-) ion from the cryptate. Chloride displacement induces a sharp colour change from bright yellow to aquamarine and can be conveniently monitored spectrophotometrically, even in diluted solutions. The 1.1.1-cryptand is the motor of a molecular dispenser (the dicopper(II) cryptate) delivering chloride ion automatically, from the inside of the solution. PMID:23364889

Alibrandi, Giuseppe; Amendola, Valeria; Bergamaschi, Greta; Dollenz, Riccardo; Fabbrizzi, Luigi; Licchelli, Maurizio; Lo Vecchio, Carmelo

2013-03-11

458

Mutagenic and Genotoxic Effects of cis -(Dichloro)tetraammineruthenium(III) Chloride on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemotherapeutic agents play an important role in cancer treatment mostly due their systemic action on human organism allowing\\u000a access to liquid tumors and even metastases. Among these drugs, ruthenium compounds have been showing promising results to\\u000a treat tumors and represent an important development of new antitumor therapy. This study presents the evaluation of cis-(dichloro)tetraammineruthenium(III) chloride, cis-[RuCl2(NH3)4]Cl, genotoxic effects using human

Alessandra de Santana Braga Barbosa Ribeiro; Cláudio Carlos da Silva; Flávia de Castro Pereira; Aliny Pereira de Lima; Cesar Augusto Sam Tiago Vilanova-Costa; Simone Santos Aguiar; Luiz Alfredo Pavanin; Aparecido Divino da Cruz; Elisângela de Paula Silveira-Lacerda

2009-01-01

459

Multi-scale prediction of the effective chloride diffusion coefficient of concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The N-layered spherical inclusion theory is applied to develop a multi-scale model to predict the effective diffusion coefficient of chloride ion in concrete. The model treats concrete as four-phase composite materials consisting of matrix phase, aggregate phase, ITZ (interfacial transition zone) and their homogenization phase. With hardened cement pastes characterized by three parameters such as the porosity, tortuosity and constrictivity,

Guowen Sun; Yunsheng Zhang; Wei Sun; Zhiyong Liu; Caihui Wang

2011-01-01

460

Thymosin ? 4 inhibits benzalkonium chloride-mediated apoptosis in corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thymosin beta-4 (T?4) is known to promote ocular wound healing, to decrease ocular inflammation, and to have anti-apoptotic effects on corneal epithelium. In this study, the effect of T?4 on the survival of human ocular surface epithelial cells exposed to benzalkonium chloride (BAK) was measured. Human conjunctival epithelial cells (HC0597) or human corneal epithelial cells (HCET) were treated with 0%,

Gabriel Sosne; Abdul-Rahman Albeiruti; Brian Hollis; Atif Siddiqi; David Ellenberg; Michelle Kurpakus-Wheater

2006-01-01

461

Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Viral Response in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C and Beta Thalassemia Major, A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Zinc deficiency has been reported in patients with both hepatitis C and beta thalassemia major. Zinc supplementation in addition to antiviral therapy of chronic hepatitis C has been accompanied by some success in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Objective: The aim of the present pilot study is to determine the effect of 30 mg elemental zinc on biochemical and virological response in a population of patients with chronic hepatitis C with beta thalassemia major. Materials and Methods: A prospective, double blind,placebo controlled trial included 40 patients being treated with Pegylated interferon Alfa (Peg IFN-?) and ribavirin. Biochemical and virological parameters and plasma zinc levels were determined before starting treatment. Patients were randomly selected to receive either zinc or a placebo in addition to Peg IFN-? and ribavirin for a period of one year. AST, ALT, sustained viral response (SVR), and zinc levels were measured after treatment.Of the original 40 eligible patients, eight withdrawn from the study and 32 patients completed the study; 16 in the zinc group and 16 in the placebo group. Analysis of the data shows that there is no difference between the two groups in AST, ALT, SVR or zinc level following one year of treatment (p=0.224, p=0.616, p=0.670, p=0.999, respectively). Conclusion:The results of this study indicate that using 30 mg/day elemental zinc did not significantly improve the outcome of treatment in thalassemia patients with chronic hepatitis C. In future studies, we recommend trying higher doses zinc in patients with hepatitis C who had beta thalassemia major. PMID:25653968

Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Behnava, Bita; Asgharinia, Mansour; Salimi, Shima; Keshvari, Maryam; Mehrnoush, Leala; Karim, Pegah

2014-01-01

462

Gold (III) Chloride-Catalyzed 6-endo-trig Oxa-Michael Addition Reactions for Diastereoselective Synthesis of Fused Tetrahydropyranones  

PubMed Central

Alkynones were treated with boron trifluoride diethyl etherate to generate ?-iodoallenolates, which underwent intramolecular aldol reactions to produce cycloalkenyl alcohols. Diastereoselective oxa-Michael ring closure could then be induced by treatment with a catalytic amount of gold(III) chloride, affording highly functionalized tetrahydropyran-containing ring systems. PMID:24032002

Ciesielski, Jennifer; Lebœuf, David; Stern, Harry A.

2013-01-01

463

Long life, rechargeable nickel-zinc battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A production version of the inorganic separator was evaluated for improving the life of the nickel-zinc system. Nickel-zinc cells (7-10 Ah capacities) of different electrode separator configurations were constructed and tested. The nickel-zinc cells using the inorganic separator encasing the zinc electrode, the nickel electrode, or both electrodes had shorter lives than cells using Visking and cellophane separation. Cells with the inorganic separation all fell below 70% of their theoretical capacity within 30 cycles, but the cells constructed with organic separation required 80 cycles. Failure of the cells using the ceramic separator was irreversible capacity degradation due to zinc loss through cracks developed in the inorganic separator. Zinc loss through the separator was minimized with the use of combinations of the inorganic separator with Visking and cellophane. Cells using the combined separation operated 130 duty cycles before degrading to 70% of their theoretical capacity.

Luksha, E.

1974-01-01

464

Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

Parry, J. M.

1978-01-01

465

Cesium chloride-induced torsades de pointes  

PubMed Central

The chloride salt of cesium, a group 1A element, is gaining popularity as an alternative treatment of advanced cancers. Cesium chloride has primarily been used in cardiovascular research for arrhythmogenesis in animals because of its potassium-blocking effects. The present report describes a 45-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer who experienced repeated episodes of torsades de pointes polymorphic ventricular tachycardia after several months of oral cesium therapy. There was a clear temporal relationship between cesium ingestion and the arrhythmia, which later resolved following discontinuation of cesium therapy. Serial cesium plasma and whole blood levels were measured over the ensuing six months and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. PMID:19746253

Wiens, Matthew; Gordon, Wendy; Baulcomb, Daisy; Mattman, Andre; Mock, Tom; Brown, Robert

2009-01-01

466

Measuring Sodium Chloride Contents of Aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amount of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles measured in real time by analyzer that includes mass spectrometer. Analyzer used to determine mass distributions of active agents in therapeutic or diagnostic aerosols derived from saline solutions and in analyzing ocean spray. Aerosol particles composed of sodium chloride introduced into oven, where individually vaporized on hot wall. Vapor molecules thermally dissociated, and some of resulting sodium atoms ionized on wall. Ions leave oven in burst and analyzed by spectrometer, which is set to monitor sodium-ion intensity.

Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

1986-01-01

467

Alkyl Chlorides as Hydrogen Bond Acceptors  

SciTech Connect

To gain an understanding of the role of an alkyl chloride as a hydrogen bond acceptor, geometries and interaction energies were calculated at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory for complexes between ethyl chloride and representative hydrogen donor groups. The results establish that these donors, which include hydrogen cyanide, methanol, nitrobenzene, pyrrole, acetamide, and N-methylurea, form X-H {hor_ellipsis} Cl hydrogen bonds (X = C, N, O) of weak to moderate strength, with {Delta}E values ranging from -2.8 to -5.3 kcal/mol.

Nadas, Janos I [ORNL; Vukovic, Sinisa [ORNL; Hay, Benjamin [ORNL

2012-01-01

468

Chelated zinc reduces the dietary zinc requirement of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dietary zinc requirements of year-1 channel catfish were determined with an egg-white-based purified diet and with a soybean-meal-based practical diet, each supplemented with serial concentrations of zinc methionine (ZnMet) or zinc sulfate heptahydrate (ZnS). In the egg white diet, supplemental dietary zinc requirements, determined by broken-line regression analysis, for ZnMet and ZnS for maximum weight gain were 5.58 and

Tippawan Paripatananont; Richard T. Lovell

1995-01-01

469

Maternal Zinc Intakes and Homeostatic Adjustments during Pregnancy and Lactation  

PubMed Central

Zinc plays critical roles during embryogenesis, fetal growth, and milk secretion, which increase the zinc need for pregnancy and lactation. Increased needs can be met by increasing the dietary zinc intake, along with making homeostatic adjustments in zinc utilization. Potential homeostatic adjustments include changes in circulating zinc, increased zinc absorption, decreased zinc losses, and changes in whole body zinc kinetics. Although severe zinc deficiency during pregnancy has devastating effects, systematic reviews and meta-analysis of the effect of maternal zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcomes have consistently shown a limited benefit. We hypothesize, therefore, that zinc homeostatic adjustments during pregnancy and lactation improve zinc utilization sufficiently to provide the increased zinc needs in these stages and, therefore, mitigate immediate detrimental effects due to a low zinc intake. The specific questions addressed are the following: How is zinc utilization altered during pregnancy and lactation? Are those homeostatic adjustments influenced by maternal zinc status, dietary zinc, or zinc supplementation? These questions are addressed by critically reviewing results from published human studies on zinc homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation carried out in different populations worldwide. PMID:22852063

Donangelo, Carmen Marino; King, Janet C.

2012-01-01

470

40 CFR 415.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production...

2011-07-01

471

40 CFR 415.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production...

2010-07-01

472

40 CFR 415.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory.  

... Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production...

2014-07-01

473

40 CFR 415.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production...

2013-07-01

474

40 CFR 415.10 - Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.10 Applicability; description of the aluminum chloride production...

2012-07-01

475

40 CFR 415.240 - Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.240 Applicability; description of the ammonium chloride production subcategory....

2010-07-01

476

Directed spatial organization of zinc oxide nanostructures  

DOEpatents

A method for controllably forming zinc oxide nanostructures on a surface via an organic template, which is formed using a stamp prepared from pre-defined relief structures, inking the stamp with a solution comprising self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecules,