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Sample records for zinc chloride treated

  1. Hydrometallurgical extraction of zinc from CaO treated EAF dust in ammonium chloride solution.

    PubMed

    Miki, Takahiro; Chairaksa-Fujimoto, Romchat; Maruyama, Katsuya; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2016-01-25

    Zinc in Electric Arc Furnace dust or EAF dust mainly exists as ZnFe2O4 and ZnO. While ZnO can be simply dissolved into either an acidic or alkaline solution, it is difficult to dissolve ZnFe2O4. In our previous work, we introduced a process called "CaO treatment", a preliminary pyrometallurgical process designed to transform the ZnFe2O4 in the EAF dust into ZnO and Ca2Fe2O5. The halogens and others heavy metals were favorably vaporized during CaO treatment with no essential evaporation loss of zinc and iron, leaving CaO treated dust which consisted mainly of ZnO and Ca2Fe2O5 and no problematic ZnFe2O4 compound. In this work, the selective leaching of zinc over iron and calcium in the CaO treated dust was investigated using an NH4Cl solution. The effects of temperature, reaction time and NH4Cl concentration on dissolution behavior were examined. While most of the zinc in the CaO treated dust was extracted after 2h at 70°C with 2M NH4Cl, only about 20% of calcium was leached in NH4Cl solution. However, the iron did not dissolve and remained as Ca2Fe2O5 in residue. It was confirmed that zinc can be effectively recovered using NH4Cl solution. PMID:26448494

  2. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b)...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  8. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  9. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  15. Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA); Rosenhoover, William A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1981-01-01

    In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

  16. Xylan hydrolysis in zinc chloride solution

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, N.J.; Xu, Q.; Chen, L.F

    1995-12-31

    Xylan is the major component of hemicellulose, which consists of up to one-third of the lignocellulosic biomass. When the zinc chloride solution was used as a pretreatment agent to facilitate cellulose hydrolysis, hemicellulose was hydrolyzed during the pretreatment stage. In this study, xylan was used as a model to study the hydrolysis of hemicellulose in zinc chloride solution. The degradation of xylose that is released from xylan was reduced by the formation of zinc-xylose complex. The xylose yield was > 90% (w/w) at 70{degrees}C. The yield and rate of hydrolysis were a function of temperature and the concentration of zinc chloride. The ratio of zinc chloride can be decreased from 9 to 1.3 (w/w). At this ratio, 76% of xylose yield was obtained. When wheat straw was pretreated with a concentrated zinc chloride solution, the hemicellulose hydrolysate contained only xylose and trace amounts of arabinose and oligosaccharides. With this approach, the hemicellulose hydrolysate can be separated from cellulose residue, which would be hydrolyzed subsequently to glucose by acid or enzymes to produce glucose. This production scheme provided a method to produce glucose and xylose in different streams, which can be fermented in separated fermenters.

  17. Hydrocracking with molten zinc chloride catalyst containing 2-12% ferrous chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA); Bagshaw, Gary H. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. by contacting the feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten zinc chloride catalyst and thereafter separating at least a major portion of the hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten zinc chloride catalyst, an improvement comprising: adjusting the FeCl.sub.2 content of the molten zinc chloride to from about 2 to about 12 mol percent based on the mixture of ferrous chloride and molten zinc chloride.

  18. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. 415.670...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. The...

  19. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. 415.670...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. The...

  20. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. 415.670...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. The...

  1. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. 415.670...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. The...

  2. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. 415.670...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. The...

  3. Selective removal of iron contaminations from zinc-chloride melts by cementation with zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Devilee, R.A.; Sandwijk, A. van; Reuter, M.A.

    1999-08-01

    An investigation into the cementation of iron chloride from a zinc-chloride melt at 400 C has been carried out with zinc powder. The variables studies include preparation of the chloride melt and the amount of zinc added. The effect of lead, copper, and cadmium on cementation of iron has also been investigated. According to the results, it is possible to reduce the iron concentration in zinc-chloride melts to 20 ppm with a small excess of zinc. The preparation of the melt proved to be very important. Insufficient purification of the melt with respect to oxides, hydroxides, and water resulted in a low reaction rate and high residual iron concentration.

  4. Dynamics of vitreous and molten zinc chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.L.; Susman, S.; Volin, K.J. ); Wright, A.C. . J.J. Thomson Physical Lab.)

    1991-09-01

    The dynamics of vitreous and molten zinc chloride have been studied with inelastic neutron scattering at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source. The results are analyzed in terms of the scattering function S(Q,E) and the effective vibrational density of states G(E). The vibrational spectra of both glass and liquid are dominated by broad features centered at 15 and 35 MeV which are identified with F{sub 2} modes of ZnCl{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} tetrahedra. The other two normal modes are not observed because of inadequate resolution and broadening and overlap resulting from coupling between tetrahedra. The behavior of ZnCl{sub 2} is contrasted with other tetrahedrally coordinated glasses that have been studied with the same technique. 15 refs,. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. SUBSTITUTING CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental and economic implications of substituting zinc chloride electroplating for cadmium cyanide electroplating were evaluated. he process substitution was successful in achieving product quality to satisfy the customer requirements for corrosion resistance. orrosion ...

  6. Intercalation studies of zinc hydroxide chloride: Ammonia and amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal

    2012-01-15

    Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) is a layered hydroxide salt with formula Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O. It was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time and results were compared with intercalation products of the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate and a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide. Ammonia was intercalated into ZHC, while no significant intercalation occurred in ZHN. Aspartic acid intercalation was only achieved by co-precipitation at pH=10 with ZHC and pH=8 with zinc hydroxide nitrate. Higher pH resistance in ZHC favored total deprotonation of both carboxylic groups of the Asp molecule. ZHC conferred more thermal protection against Asp combustion presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 Degree-Sign C while the exothermic event in ZHN was 366 Degree-Sign C and in the LDH at 276 Degree-Sign C. - Graphical abstract: The zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) with formula Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O was tested as intercalation matrix. In comparison with the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) and layered double hydroxides (LDH), ZHC was the best matrix for thermal protection of Asp combustion, presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 Degree-Sign C, while the highest exothermic event in ZHN was at 366 Degree-Sign C, and in the LDH it was at 276 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZHC has higher chemical and thermal stability than zinc hydroxide nitrate and LDH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NH{sub 3} molecules can be intercalated into ZHC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amino group of amino acids limits the intercalation by ion-exchange.

  7. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride... of pollutants into treatment works which are publicly owned resulting from the production of...

  8. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride... of pollutants into treatment works which are publicly owned resulting from the production of...

  9. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride... of pollutants into treatment works which are publicly owned resulting from the production of...

  10. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride... of pollutants into treatment works which are publicly owned resulting from the production of...

  11. 40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the zinc... CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride... of pollutants into treatment works which are publicly owned resulting from the production of...

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of zinc in PMA-treated human gingival fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangwoo; Jeon, Sangmi; Hui, Zheng; Kim, Young; Im, Yeonggwan; Lim, Wonbong; Kim, Changsu; Choi, Hongran; Kim, Okjoon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Abnormal cellular immune response has been considered to be responsible for oral lesions in recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Zinc has been known to be an essential nutrient metal that is necessary for a broad range of biological activities including antioxidant, immune mediator, and anti-inflammatory drugs in oral mucosal disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of zinc in a phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-treated inflammatory model on human gingival fibroblast cells (hGFs). Study Design: Cells were pre-treated with zinc chloride, followed by PMA in hGFs. The effects were assessed on cell viability, cyclooxygenease-1,2(COX-1/2) protein expression, PGE2 release, ROS production and cytokine release, Results: The effects were assessed on cell viability, COX1/2 protein expression, PGE2 release, ROS production, cytokine release. The results showed that, in the presence of PMA, zinc treatment leads to reduce the production of ROS, which results in decrease of COX-2 expression and PGE2 release. Conclusions: Thus, we suggest that zinc treatment leads to the mitigation of oral inflammation and may prove to be an alternative treatment for recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Key words:Zinc, inflammatory response, cytokines, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, gingival fibroblasts cells. PMID:25662537

  13. Zinc recovery by ultrasound acid leaching of double kiln treated electric arc furnace dust

    SciTech Connect

    Barrera Godinez, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The need to convert 70,000 tons a year of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust into an environmentally safe or recyclable product has encouraged studies to reclaim zinc from this waste material. Successful characterization of a double-kiln calcine, produced from EAF dust, has shown that the calcine pellets consisted mainly of zinc oxide plates with some iron oxide particles. Preliminary leaching tests using hydrochloric and sulfuric acids indicated that this calcine is suitable for selective ultrasound leaching of zinc. A factorially designed screening test using hydrochloric acid showed that ultrasound significantly lowered iron dissolution and increased zinc dissolution, thus enhancing the selective leaching of zinc. Ultrasound, temperature, air bubbling rate and acidity increased the sulfuric acid selectivity, while fluorosilicic acid was not selective. Reactor characterization through ultrasonic field measurements led to the selection of reactor and ultrasound bath, which were utilized to enhance the selectivity of a laboratory scale sulfuric acid leaching of a double-kiln treated electric arc furnace dust. Results indicated that ultrasonic leaching of this calcine is a satisfactory technique to selectively separate zinc from iron. After further iron removal by precipitation and cementation of nickel, it was possible to electrowin zinc from the leach liquor under common industrial conditions, with current efficiencies from 86% through 92% being observed. Calcine washing showed that a substantial chloride removal is possible, but fluoride ion in the electrolyte caused deposit sticking during electrowinning.

  14. Effects of crocin and zinc chloride on blood levels of zinc and metabolic and oxidative parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Ghasemsoltani-Momtaz, Behnaz; Erfanparast, Amir; Gholamalipour, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Crocin is one of constituents of saffron and has antioxidant property. Zinc chloride is one of the common compounds of zinc with antioxidant activity. The present study was aimed to investigate separate and combined treatment effects of crocin and zinc chloride on blood levels of zinc and metabolic and oxidative parameters in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 50 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ) and was confirmed by blood glucose levels higher than 250 mg/dL. After confirmation of diabetes, injections (i.p.) of crocin and zinc chloride were performed for six weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood levels of zinc, glucose, insulin, malodialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. ? Results: Crocin (25 and 50 mg/kg) and zinc chloride (5 mg/kg) significantly recovered the decreased levels of zinc, insulin, and TAC and improved the increased levels of glucose and MDA in STZ-induced diabetic rats. In a combination treatment performed with an ineffective dose of crocin (12.5 mg/kg) and a low dose of zinc chloride (1.25 mg/kg), improving effects were observed on the above-mentioned biochemical parameters.? Conclusion: The results indicated that separate and combined treatments with crocin and zinc chloride produced improving effects on the blood levels of zinc, glucose, insulin, MDA and TAC in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:26468459

  15. Using a Vadose Zone Model to Predict the Migration Depth of Zinc and Sodium Chloride in Soils beneath Stormwater Infiltration Devices

    E-print Network

    Clark, Shirley E.

    1 Using a Vadose Zone Model to Predict the Migration Depth of Zinc and Sodium Chloride in Soils. For this research, zinc and sodium chloride were chosen as the pollutants of interest because of their stormwater penetration depth of zinc and sodium chloride. High and low values for the factors were selected from

  16. Copper and zinc in CCl/sub 4/ treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Loyke, H.F.

    1984-04-01

    The role of two trace metals, copper and zinc, are important in maintaining blood pressure and the effect of carbon tetrachloride (CCl/sub 4/) has been found to be a depressor. Experimental renal hypertension has been reduced to normotension after multiple subcutaneous injections of CCl/sub 4/. By dose adjustment, the degree of liver damage has been reduced to a level of mild to moderate degree of fatty metamorphosis of the liver. It is possible that the depressor effect could be mediated by imbalance of copper and/or zinc. In the present study, copper and zinc levels were determined following CCl/sub 4/ treatment. The present work used normotensive rats treated for periods, which, in hypertensive animals, caused the blood pressure to fall.

  17. Zinc chloride aqueous solution as a solvent for starch.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meiying; Shang, Xiaoqin; Liu, Peng; Xie, Fengwei; Chen, Xiaodong; Sun, Yongyi; Wan, Junyan

    2016-01-20

    It is important to obtain starch-based homogeneous systems for starch modification. Regarding this, an important key point is to find cheap, low-cost and low-toxicity solvents to allow complete dissolution of starch and its easy regeneration. This study reveals that a ZnCl2 aqueous solution is a good non-derivatizing solvent for starch at 50°C, and can completely dissolve starch granules. The possible formation of a "zinc-starch complex" might account for the dissolution; and the degradation of starch, which was caused by the H(+) inZnCl2 aqueous solution, could not contribute to full dissolution. From polarized light microscopic observation combined with the solution turbidity results, it was found that the lowest ZnCl2 concentration for full dissolution was 29.6wt.% at 50°C, with the dissolving time being 4h. Using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), solid state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), it was revealed that ZnCl2 solution had no chemical reaction with starch glucosides, but only weakened starch hydrogen bonding and converted the crystalline regions to amorphous regions. In addition, as shown by intrinsic viscosity and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), ZnCl2 solution caused degradation of starch macromolecules, which was more serious with a higher concentration of ZnCl2 solution. PMID:26572355

  18. Studies of micromorphology and current efficiency of zinc electrodeposited from flowing chloride electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Vay, L.; Muller, R.H.; Tobias, C.W.

    1986-05-01

    Results of a study of the micromorphology and current efficiency of zinc electrodeposited from flowing, acidic chloride solutions are reported. The effects of six variables were examined: flow rate, current density, zinc and hydrogen ion concentration, concentrations of nickel, iron and cadmium impurity ions, and the nature of the substrate. The development of micromorphology was studied in-situ by means of videomicrography and ex-situ by means of scanning electron microscopy. This investigation focused on the formation of grooved deposits, which are found under a wide range of deposition conditions. The major conclusions of this study are: the most important variable determining whether grooved deposits form is the interfacial concentration; large protrusions orient themselves parallel to the flow direction with the orientation starting upstream and progressing downstream; large protrusions become ridges due to growth of the highest current density portions of the electrode under mass transport control. The current efficiency was measured using EDTA titration and weight measurements. The fraction of the current taken by zinc deposition increased with zinc concentration, ranging up to 100%, and decreased with pH. The efficiency of zinc deposition was affected by the flow rate and the substrate employed. Impurities lowered the current efficiency.

  19. Crystal growth, structure and characterizations of a new semiorganic nonlinear optical material-{beta}-Alanine zinc chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Anbuchezhiyan, M.; Ponnusamy, S.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.; Sivakumar, K.

    2010-08-15

    The title compound, {beta}-alanine zinc chloride-a new semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. Single crystals of {beta}-alanine zinc chloride have been subjected to X-ray diffraction analysis to determine the crystal structure. The powder X-ray diffractogram of the crystal has also been recorded. The amount of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen in the crystals was also estimated. Fourier Transform Infrared and Raman spectral measurements have been carried out on the grown crystals in order to identify the functional groups. The presence of hydrogen and carbon in the {beta}-alanine zinc chloride was confirmed by using proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analyses. The percentage of zinc in the crystal was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Optical behavior such as ultraviolet-vis-near infrared transmittance spectrum and second harmonic generation has been investigated. The mechanical strength and thermal behavior of the grown crystal have been analyzed.

  20. Determination of the Optimum Conditions for Leaching of Zinc Cathode Melting Furnace Slag in Ammonium Chloride Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnajady, Bahram; Babaeidehkordi, Amin; Moghaddam, Javad

    2014-04-01

    This research is part of a continuing effort to leach zinc from zinc cathode melting furnace slags (ZCMFSs) to produce zinc oxide. The slag with an assay of 68.05 pct Zn was used in ammonium chloride leaching for zinc extraction. In this paper, the effects of influential factors on extraction efficiency of Zn from a ZCMFS were investigated. The Taguchi's method based on orthogonal array (OA) design has been used to arrange the experimental runs in order to maximize zinc extraction from a slag. The softwares named Excel and Design-Expert 7 have been used to design experiments and subsequent analysis. OA L 25 (55) consisting of five parameters, each with five levels, was employed to evaluate the effects of reaction time ( t = 10, 30, 50, 70, 90 minutes), reaction temperature [ T = 313, 323, 333, 343, 353 (40, 50, 60, 70, 80) K (°C)], pulp density ( S/ L = 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 g/L), stirring speed ( R = 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 rpm), and ammonium chloride concentration ( C = 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 pctwt), on zinc extraction percent. Statistical analysis, ANOVA, was also employed to determine the relationship between experimental conditions and yield levels. The results showed that the significant parameters affecting leaching of slag were ammonium chloride concentration and pulp density, and increasing pulp density reduced leaching efficiency of zinc. However, increasing ammonium chloride concentration promoted the extraction of zinc. The optimum conditions for this study were found to be t 4: 70 minutes, T 5: 353 K (80 °C), ( S/ L)2: 40 g/L, R 3: 500 rpm, and C 4: 25 pctwt. Under these conditions, the dissolution percentage of Zn in ammonium chloride media was 94.61 pct.

  1. [Preparation and optimum process of walnut peel activated carbon by zinc chloride as activating agent].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-hong; Wang, Xing-wei; Zhao, Bo; Lü, Jun-fang; Kang, Ni-na; Zhang, Yao-jun

    2014-12-01

    Walnut peel as raw material, zinc chloride was used as activating agent for preparation walnut peel activated carbon in the muffle furnace in this experiment, using orthogonal design. Yield, the specific surface area and iodine number of walnut peel activated carbon were determined at all designed experimental conditions and the optimum technological condition of preparation was obtained. By analysis of aperture, infrared spectra and the content of acidic group in surface with Boehm, walnut peel activated carbon of prepared at the optimum condition was characterized. The results showed the optimum technological parameters of preparation: activation temperature (600 °C), activation time (1 h), the concentration of zinc chloride (50%), the particle size (60 mesh). The specific surface area of walnut peel activated carbon obtained at optimum condition was mounting to 1258.05 m2 · g(-1), the ratio of medium porous 32.18%. Therefore, walnut peel can be used in the preparation of the high-quality activated carbon of large surface area. Agricultural wastes, as walnut peel, not only were implemented recycle, but also didn't make any pollution. Meanwhile, a cheap adsorbent was provided and it was of great significance to open a new source of activated carbon. PMID:25881437

  2. Zinc poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Compounds used to make paint, rubber, dyes, wood preservatives, and ointments Rust prevention coatings Vitamin and mineral supplements Zinc chloride Zinc oxide (relatively nonharmful) Zinc acetate Zinc sulfate Heated or burned galvanized metal ( ...

  3. Utility cycle testing of a 500-kWh zinc chloride battery at the Battery Energy Storage Test (BEST) Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyman, E. A.

    1985-10-01

    A 500-kWh zinc chloride battery test system completed an entire schedule of 80 simulated utility and customer application cycles - the most diverse and severe known to be successfully performed by any advanced battery system. Encouraged by these results, researchers plan to have a 2-MW demonstration battery system ready for testing in 1986.

  4. Effect of Chloride Precursors on the Stability of Solution-Processed Indium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Hee; Park, Sung Min; Yang, Jung Il; Cho, Dong Kyu; Woo, Sang Hyun; Lim, Yoo Sung; Kuk Kim, Dae; Yi, Moonsuk

    2013-10-01

    In this experiment, solution-processed indium zinc oxide (IZO) films were prepared by spin-coating the films as an active layer in thin-film transistors (TFTs). These films were coated with nitrate and a mixture of acetate- and chloride-based precursors to allow the IZO films to contain indium and zinc components. The solution-processed IZO-based TFT fabricated using a zinc acetate precursor for the IZO films exhibited a mobility of 2.83 cm2 V-1 s-1, an on/off current ratio of ˜1×105, and a subthreshold swing value of 2.48 V/dec. The IZO-TFT with the zinc chloride precursor exhibited a mobility of 4.37 cm2 V-1 s-1, an on/off current ratio of ˜1×103, and a subthreshold swing value of 6.44 V/dec. In comparison, the IZO-TFT with a mixture of zinc acetate and chloride precursors exhibited a mobility of 1.45 cm2 V-1 s-1, an on/off current ratio of ˜1×105, and a subthreshold swing value of 1.83 V/dec. The first two devices suffered from a large threshold voltage (Vth) shift, >7 and >6 V, respectively, after a gate voltage of 20 V was applied for 2 h. In contrast, the device fabricated using the mixed precursors showed a higher stability, shifting about 1.7 V under the same stress conditions.

  5. The protective and therapeutic effects of zinc chloride and desferrioxamine on skin exposed to nitrogen mustard.

    PubMed

    Karayilano?lu, Turan; Gunhan, Omer; Kenar, Levent; Kurt, Bulent

    2003-08-01

    The nitrogen mustard (HN2), which contains chloroethyl groups, is a potent inhibitor of DNA synthesis and cell growth. It also has vesicant properties. Due to these damaging effects of HN2 on the skin, zinc chloride (ZnCl2) and desferrioxamine were used in the form of ointment for treatment and prevention of the histopathological destruction of skin of guinea pigs. According to results of the histopathological study, both ZnCl2 and desferrioxamine had therapeutic and protective effects for HN2-induced skin damage at moderate levels. Taking into consideration the alkylating effect of HN2 on the skin, our results suggest that ZnCl2 and desferrioxamine may be used in the prevention of nuclear damage and for handling the burns caused by the HN2. PMID:12943035

  6. Leaching of lead from zinc leach residue in acidic calcium chloride aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Le; Mu, Wen-ning; Shen, Hong-tao; Liu, Shao-ming; Zhai, Yu-chun

    2015-05-01

    A process with potentially reduced environmental impacts and occupational hazards of lead-bearing zinc plant residue was studied to achieve a higher recovery of lead via a cost-effective and environmentally friendly process. This paper describes an optimization study on the leaching of lead from zinc leach residue using acidic calcium chloride aqueous solution. Six main process conditions, i.e., the solution pH value, stirring rate, concentration of CaCl2 aqueous solution, liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, leaching temperature, and leaching time, were investigated. The microstructure and components of the residue and tailing were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). On the basis of experimental results, the optimum reaction conditions were determined to be a solution pH value of 1, a stirring rate of 500 r·min-1, a CaCl2 aqueous solution concentration of 400 g·L-1, a liquid-to-solid mass ratio of 7:1, a leaching temperature of 80°C, and a leaching time of 45 min. The leaching rate of lead under these conditions reached 93.79%, with an iron dissolution rate of 19.28%. Silica did not take part in the chemical reaction during the leaching process and was accumulated in the residue.

  7. Zinc contamination from brass upon heat treating a superconducting magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.W.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1994-07-01

    Theoretical calculations predicted that zinc outgassing from brass spacers during a planned heat treatment would likely damage a lab-scale superconducting magnet. This specter was reinforced by a simulated heat treatment, the samples of which were analyzed by gravimetry, metallography, and microprobe chemical analysis. It was found that zinc escaping from the brass could diffuse 80 {mu}m into copper electrical conductors and degrade their conductivity. To avoid this, steel was temporarily substituted for the brass during the heat treatment process.

  8. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of zinc oxide particles starting from chloride precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Chun-Chieh; Chou, Yu-Hsien; Liu, Chung-Ming; Liu, Yih-Ming; Ger, Ming-Der; Shu, Youn-Yuen

    2012-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic of the mechanism for ZnO nanoparticles obtained by the calcination. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocrystalline ZnO particles were successfully prepared by a microwave-assisted method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sponge-like morphology of ZnO change to a net-like structure after thermal treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PL spectra exhibited a nearband-edge emission at 393 nm. -- Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) was synthesized using a microwave assisted hydrothermal (MAH) process based on chloride/urea/water solution and under 800 W irradiation for 5 min. In the bath, Zn{sup 2+} ions reacted with the complex carbonate and hydroxide ions to form zinc carbonate hydroxide hydrate (Zn{sub 4}CO{sub 3}(OH){sub 6}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O), and the conversion from Zn{sub 4}CO{sub 3}(OH){sub 6}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O to ZnO was synchronously achieved by a MAH process. The as-prepared ZnO has a sponge-like morphology. However, the initial sponge-like morphology of ZnO could change to a net-like structure after thermal treatment, and compact nano-scale ZnO particles were finally obtained when the period of thermal treatment increased to 30 min. Pure ZnO nanoparticles was obtained from calcination of loose sponge-like ZnO particles at 500 Degree-Sign C. The analysis of optical properties of these ZnO nanoparticles showed that the intensity of 393 nm emission increased with the calcination temperature because the defects were reduced and the crystallinity was improved.

  9. Zinc Chloride and Lead Acetate-Induced Passive Avoidance Memory Retention Deficits Reversed by Nicotine and Bucladesine in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tabrizian, Kaveh; Yazdani, Abdolmajid; Baheri, Behnam; Payandemehr, Borna; Sanati, Mehdi; Hashemzaei, Mahmoud; Miri, Abdolhossein; Zandkarimi, Majid; Belaran, Maryam; Fanoudi, Sahar; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    It is very important to investigate the neurotoxic effects of metals on learning and memory processes. In this study, we tried to investigate the effects and time course properties of oral administration of zinc chloride (25, 50, and 75 mg/kg, for 2 weeks), lead acetate (250, 750, 1,500, and 2,500 ppm for 4, 6 and 8 weeks), and their possible mechanisms on a model of memory function. For this matter, we examined the intra-peritoneal injections of nicotine (0.25, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mg/kg) and bucladesine (50, 100, 300, and 600 nM/mouse) for 4 days alone and in combination with mentioned metals in the step-through passive avoidance task. Control animals received saline, drinking water, saline, and DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide)/deionized water (1:9), respectively. At the end of each part of studies, animals were trained for 1 day in step-through task. The avoidance memory retention alterations were evaluated 24 and 48 h later in singular and combinational studies. Zinc chloride (75 mg/kg) oral gavage for 2 weeks decreased latency times compared to control animals. Also, lead acetate (750 ppm oral administrations for 8 weeks) caused significant lead blood levels and induced avoidance memory retention impairments. Four-days intra-peritoneal injection of nicotine (1 mg/kg) increased latency time compared to control animals. Finally, findings of this research showed that treatment with intra-peritoneal injections of nicotine (1 mg/kg) and/or bucladesine (600 nM/mouse) reversed zinc chloride- and lead acetate-induced avoidance memory retention impairments. Taken together, these results showed the probable role of cholinergic system and protein kinase A pathways in zinc chloride- and lead acetate-induced avoidance memory alterations. PMID:26066527

  10. Synthesis of layered zinc hydroxide chlorides in the presence of Al(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Tatsuo . E-mail: ishikawa@cc.osaka-kyoiku.ac.jp; Matsumoto, Kumi; Kandori, Kazuhiko; Nakayama, Takenori

    2006-04-15

    Zinc hydroxide chloride particles were synthesized by hydrolysis of ZnCl{sub 2} solutions dissolving AlCl{sub 3} at different atomic Al/Zn ratios from 0 to 1.0 and characterized by various techniques. Increasing Al/Zn ratio changed the crystal phases of the products as ZnO{sup {yields}}ZnO+ZHC (Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O){sup {yields}}ZHC{sup {yields}}LDH (layered double hydroxides, Zn-Al-Cl) and the particle morphology as agglomerates (ZnO){sup {yields}}fine particles (ZnO){sup {yields}}plates (ZHC)+rods (ZnO){sup {yields}}plates (ZHC){sup {yields}}plates (LDH). The atomic Cl/Zn ratios of LDH particles formed at Al/Zn{>=}0.3 were ca. 0.3 despite the increase of Al/Zn ratio, being due to the intercalation of CO{sub 3} {sup 2-} into the LDH crystal. The OH{sup -} content of LDH estimated by TG was reduced by the deprotonation of OH{sup -} to counteract the excess positive charge produced by replacing Zn(II) with Al(III). ZHC exhibited a high adsorption selectivity of H{sub 2}O.

  11. Effect of Fluid Flow on Zinc Electrodeposits from Acid Chloride Electrolytes. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelmassir, A. A.

    1982-01-01

    Zinc was deposited potentiostatically from acid chloride baths. Once bath chemistry and electrochemistry were controlled, the study was focused on convective mass transfer at horizontal electrodes and its effect on cell performance. A laser schlieren imaging technique allowed in situ observations of flow patterns and their correlation with current transients. Convection was turbulent and mass transfer as a function of Rayleigh number was well correlated by: Sh = 0.14 R to the 1/3 power. Similarly, convection initiation time was correlated by DT/d squared = 38 Ra to the -2/3 power. Time scale of fluctuations was about half the initiation time. Taking the boundary layer thickness as a characteristic length, a critical Rayleigh number for the onset of convection was deduced: Ra sub CR = 5000. Placing the anode on the top of the cathode completely changed the flow pattern but kept the I-t curves identical whereas the use of a cathode grid doubled the limiting current. A well defined plateau in the current voltage curves suggested that hydrogen evolution has been successfully inhibited. Finally, long time deposition showed that convection at horizontal electrodes increased the induction time for dentrite growth by at least a factor of 2 with respect to a vertical wire.

  12. Cellulose aerogels prepared from an aqueous zinc chloride salt hydrate melt.

    PubMed

    Schestakow, Maria; Karadagli, Ilknur; Ratke, Lorenz

    2016-02-10

    Monolithic cellulose aerogels are prepared using a salt hydrate melt based on cheap zinc chloride tetrahydrate (ZnCl2·4H2O) that can be washed out of the wet gel-body by using common solvents such as water, ethanol, isopropanol or acetone. Cellulose aerogels with concentrations of 1-5wt.% cellulose were produced. These aerogels are characterized with respect to shrinkage, density and surface area as well as mechanical properties and micro-structure via SEM. Cellulose aerogels regenerated in acetone show a specific surface area of around 340m(2)g(-1) being 60% higher than those regenerated in water. The onset of irreversible plastic deformation under compressive load is around 0.8MPa for acetone-regenerated aerogels and thus a factor of two larger compared to ethanol regenerated ones. The Young's modulus depends almost linearly on the cellulose concentration which is observed for all regenerative fluids with the exception of water. The results achieved are presented in light of the polarity and ability of solvation of ZnCl2·4H2O in the regenerative fluids used. PMID:26686174

  13. Biosorption of Zinc from Aqueous Solution Using Chemically Treated Rice Husk

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ru; Zhao, Jiaying; Zhang, Yingchao; Wong, Po-keung; Ma, Fang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, adsorption of zinc onto the adsorbent (untreated rice husk and NaOH-treated rice husk) was examined. During the removal process, batch technique was used, and the effects of pH and contact time were investigated. Langmuir isotherm was applied in order to determine the efficiency of NaOH-treated rice husk used as an adsorbent. The zinc adsorption was fast, and equilibrium was attained within 30?min. The maximum removal ratios of zinc for untreated rice husk and NaOH-treated rice husk after 1.5?h were 52.3% and 95.2%, respectively, with initial zinc concentration of 25?mg/L and optimum pH of 4.0. Data obtained from batch adsorption experiments fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model. Maximum adsorption capacity of zinc onto untreated rice husk and NaOH-treated rice husk was 12.41?mg/g, and 20.08?mg/g respectively, at adsorbent dosage of 1?g/L at 25°C. The nature of functional groups (i.e., amino, carboxyl, and hydroxyl) and metal ion interactions was examined by the FT-IR technique. It was concluded that the NaOH-treated rice husk had stronger adsorption capacity for Zn2+ compared with the untreated rice husk. The NaOH-treated rice husk is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly adsorbent for Zn2+ removal from aqueous solutions. PMID:23841065

  14. Mathematical modeling of a zinc/bromine flow cell and a lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, T.I.

    1988-01-01

    Three mathematical models are presented, one for the secondary zinc/bromine flow cell and two for the lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell. The objectives in this modeling work are to aid in understanding the physical phenomena affecting cell performance, determine methods of improving cell performance and safety, and reduce the experimental efforts needed to develop these electrochemical systems. The zinc/bromine cell model is the first such model to include a porous layer on the bromine electrode and to predict discharge behavior. The model is used to solve simultaneously the component material balances and the electroneutrality condition for the unknowns, species concentrations and the solution potential. Two models are presented for the lithium/thionyl chloride cell. The first model is a detailed one-dimensional model which is used to solve simultaneously the component material balances, Ohm's law relations, and current balance. The independent design criteria are identified from the model development. The second model presented here is a two-dimensional thermal model for the spirally would configuration of the lithium/thionyl chloride cell. This is the first model to address the effects of the spiral geometry on heat transfer in the cell.

  15. Hyponatremia due to Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency Successfully Treated by Dexamethasone with Sodium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Kazama, Itsuro; Tamada, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 60 Final Diagnosis: Hyponatremia due to secondary adrenal insufficiency Symptoms: prolonged general fatigue and anorexia Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Successfully treated by dexamethasone with sodium chloride Specialty: Nephrology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Patients who were surgically treated for Cushing’s syndrome postoperatively surrender to “primary” adrenal insufficiency. However, the preoperative over-secretion of cortisol or the postoperative administration of excessive glucocorticoids can cause “secondary” adrenal insufficiency, in which the prevalence of hyponatremia is usually lower than that of primary adrenal insufficiency. Case Report: A 60-year-old woman with a past medical history of Cushing’s syndrome developed hyponatremia with symptoms of acute glucocorticoid deficiency, such as prolonged general fatigue and anorexia, after upper respiratory tract infection. A decrease in the serum cortisol level and the lack of increase in the ACTH level, despite the increased demand for cortisol, enabled a diagnosis of “secondary” adrenal insufficiency. Although the initial fluid replacement therapy was not effective, co-administration of dexamethasone and sodium chloride quickly resolved her symptoms and ameliorated the refractory hyponatremia. Conclusions: In this case, the hypothalamic-pituitary axis of the patient was thought to have become suppressed long after the surgical treatment for Cushing’s syndrome. This case suggested a mechanism of refractory hyponatremia caused by secondary adrenal insufficiency, for which the administration of dexamethasone and sodium chloride exerted additional therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26319655

  16. Effects of sublethal exposure to zinc chloride on the reproduction of the water flea, Moina irrasa (cladocera)

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, E.

    1997-03-01

    As a result of industrial activities, aquatic ecosystems have been contaminated increasingly by metals. Such occurrences pose a threat to aquatic organisms in particular and to the whole ecosystem in general. Because of their importance as part of the food chains in the freshwater ecosystem, as well as their high vulnerability to metal contaminants, the cladoceran crustaceans have attracted attention by toxicologists. The acute toxicity of metals to cladocerans has been well documented by. However, most of the investigations in chronic toxicity deal with metals not essential for life such as mercury and cadmium. It is well known that exposure to mercury and cadmium can generally render inhibitory effects. However, the effects of sublethal exposure of cladocerans to metals such as zinc and selenium, which are essential for life at trace level, are not as well known. As one of the major metal contaminants in freshwater ecosystems, zinc is of ecotoxicological interest. The effects of sublethal zinc exposure, especially at low concentrations, on the reproduction of cladocerans are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to a wide range of sublethal concentrations of zinc chloride on the reproduction of Moina irrasa, a cladoceran commonly found in the freshwaters of the Yangtze delta of China. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Development of nanoporous structure in carbons by chemical activation with zinc chloride.

    PubMed

    Rajbhandari, Rinita; Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Pokharel, Bhadra Prasad; Pradhananga, Raja Ram

    2013-04-01

    Series of activated carbons (ACs) have been prepared from Lapsi (Choerospondias axillaris) seed powder (LSP) by chemical activation with zinc chloride (ZnCI2) and the effects of ZnCl2 impregnation ratio, carbonization time, and precursor sources on the structure and properties of ACs have been systematically investigated. Carbonization was carried out at 400 degrees C and the ratio of LSP and ZnCI2 was varied from LSP:ZnCl2 = 1:0.25 (AC-0.25), 1:0.50 (AC-0.50) 1:1 (AC-1), 1:2 (AC-2), and 1:4 (AC-4). The ACs were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman scattering, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Surface properties (effective surface areas, pore volumes, and pore size distributions) were studied by nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements. The electrochemical and vapor sensing properties were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method, respectively. All the ACs are amorphous materials containing oxygenated surface functional groups and having nanoporous (microporous and mesoporous) structures. We found that surface properties depend on the LSP:ZnCI2 ratio, carbonization time, and also on the precursor type. The effective surface area increased significantly with increasing LSP:ZnCI2 ratio from 1:0.25 to 1:0.5 and then remain apparently constant. However, total pore volume increased continuously with ZnCI2 ratio. Increase in the carbonization time above 4 h decreased both the surface area and pore volume. ACs prepared from bamboo and coconut shell showed better surface properties compared to AC prepared from sugarcane; surface area and pore volume of the former systems are nearly double of the later system. AC derived from LSP (AC-4) showed excellent electrochemical performance giving specific capacitance value of 328 F/g in 1 M H2SO4 solution demonstrating the potential use of this material for supercapacitor electrodes. Our ACs showed good capability of molecule sensing of toxic solvent vapors such as carbon tetrachloride and pyridine. PMID:23763136

  18. Analysis of antibacterial efficacy of plasma-treated sodium chloride solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsch, Mareike A. C.; Mann, Miriam; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the change of chemical composition of sodium chloride solutions (NaCl, 0.85%) induced by non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment and subsequent effects on bacteria (Escherichia coli) are investigated. Besides acidification caused by APP, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitrite (\\text{NO}2- ), and nitrate (\\text{NO}3- ) are generated as stable end-products of various chemical reactions in APP-treated liquids. Inactivation kinetics and reduction factors were recorded for E. coli (K12). Almost identical antimicrobial effects were observed with both direct APP exposure to bacteria suspension and exposure of APP-treated liquids to bacteria (indirect treatment). Consequently, main bactericidal effects are caused by chemical reactions which are mediated via the liquid phase. Moreover, APP-treated liquids have shown long-term activity (30?min) that possibly correlates with the ratio of \\text{NO}2- /H2O2. Therefore, \\text{NO}2- and H2O2 are identified as key agents for antimicrobial short- and long-term effects, respectively. The antimicrobial stability observed is strongly dependent on the used treatment regime and correlates additionally with the altered chemical composition of APP-treated liquids. Besides these effects, it was also shown that bacteria do not acquire resistance to such APP-treated solutions.

  19. ZINC

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the available information on zinc as it relates to its effects on man and his environment. Zinc is found in most soils, but some areas are deficient in it. Metallurgic operations contribute to zinc contamination in air, water and soil. Trace amounts of zinc...

  20. Near-Unity Quantum Yields from Chloride Treated CdTe Colloidal Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Page, Robert C; Espinobarro-Velazquez, Daniel; Leontiadou, Marina A; Smith, Charles; Lewis, Edward A; Haigh, Sarah J; Li, Chen; Radtke, Hanna; Pengpad, Atip; Bondino, Federica; Magnano, Elena; Pis, Igor; Flavell, Wendy R; O'Brien, Paul; Binks, David J

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are promising materials for novel light sources and solar energy conversion. However, trap states associated with the CQD surface can produce non-radiative charge recombination that significantly reduces device performance. Here a facile post-synthetic treatment of CdTe CQDs is demonstrated that uses chloride ions to achieve near-complete suppression of surface trapping, resulting in an increase of photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) from ca. 5% to up to 97.2 ± 2.5%. The effect of the treatment is characterised by absorption and PL spectroscopy, PL decay, scanning transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This process also dramatically improves the air-stability of the CQDs: before treatment the PL is largely quenched after 1 hour of air-exposure, whilst the treated samples showed a PL QY of nearly 50% after more than 12 hours. PMID:25348200

  1. Zinc

    MedlinePLUS

    ... very small amounts of zinc are necessary for human health. Zinc is used for treatment and prevention ... for the proper growth and maintenance of the human body. It is found in several systems and ...

  2. Aging of adhesive interfaces treated with benzalkonium chloride and benzalkonium methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Camila; Pashley, David H

    2015-04-01

    Inhibition of endogenous dentin matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) within incompletely infiltrated hybrid layers can contribute to the preservation of resin-dentin bonds. This study evaluated the bond stability of interfaces treated with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and benzalkonium methacrylate (MBAC), and the inhibitory properties of these compounds on dentin MMP activity. Single-component adhesive ALL-BOND UNIVERSAL, modified with BAC or MBAC at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0%, was used for microtensile bond strength (?TBS) evaluation after 24 h, 6 months, and 1 yr. Beams produced from human dentin were treated with 37% phosphoric acid, dipped in 0.5% BAC, 1.0% BAC, or water (control) for 60 s, and then incubated in SensoLyte generic MMP substrate to determine MMP activity. A significant decrease in the ?TBS after 6 months and 1 yr was observed for the control group only. No significant differences among groups were shown at 24 h. After 6 months and 1 yr, the control group demonstrated significantly lower ?TBS than all treatment groups. When applied for 60 s, 0.5% BAC inhibited total MMP activity by 31%, and 1.0% BAC inhibited total MMP activity by 54%. Both BAC and MBAC contributed to the preservation of resin-dentin bonds, probably because of their inhibitory properties of endogenous dentin proteinases. PMID:25639285

  3. Preservation of resin-dentin interfaces treated with benzalkonium chloride adhesive blends.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Camila; Ortiz, Pilar A; Pashley, David H

    2015-04-01

    Reducing collagen degradation within hybrid layers may contribute to the preservation of adhesive interfaces. This study evaluated the stability of resin-dentin interfaces treated with benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-modified adhesive blends and assessed collagen degradation in dentin matrices treated with BAC. The etch-and-rinse adhesive, Adper Single Bond Plus, modified with 0.5% and 1.0% BAC, was evaluated for microtensile bond strength (?TBS) and nanoleakage (NL) after 24 h and 1 yr. Thirty completely demineralized dentin beams from human molars were dipped for 60 s in deionized water (DW; control), or in 0.5% or 1.0% BAC, and then incubated in simulated body fluid (SBF). Collagen degradation was assessed by quantification of the dry mass loss and the amount of hydroxyproline (HYP) released from hydrolyzed specimens after 1 or 4 wk. Although all groups demonstrated a significant increase in NL after 1 yr, adhesive modified with 0.5% BAC showed stable bond strength after 1 yr (9% decrease) relative to the control (44% decrease). Significantly less HYP release and dry mass loss were observed for both 0.5% and 1.0% BAC relative to the control. This in vitro study demonstrates that BAC contributes to the preservation of resin-dentin bonds for up to 1 yr by reducing collagen degradation. PMID:25691079

  4. Removal of Fluorides and Chlorides from Zinc Oxide Fumes by Microwave Sulfating Roasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Libo; Chen, Guo; Peng, Jinhui; Zhou, Liexing; Yin, Shaohua; Liu, Chenhui

    2015-10-01

    Dechlorination and defluorination from zinc oxide dust by microwave sulfating roasting was investigated in this study. According to proposed reactions in the process, detailed experiments were systematically conducted to study the effect of roasting temperature, holding time, air and steam flow rates on the efficiency of the removal of F and Cl. The results show that 92.3% of F and 90.5% of Cl in the fume could be purified when the condition of the roasting temperature of 650 °C, holding time at 60 min, air flow of 300 L/h and steam flow of 8 ml/min was optimized. Our investigation indicates that microwave sulfating roasting could be a promising new way for the dechlorination and defluorination from zinc oxide dust.

  5. Chemical Precipitation Synthesis of Ferric Chloride Doped Zinc Sulphide Nanoparticles and Their Characterization Studies

    E-print Network

    Theivasanthi, T; Alagar, M; 10.7598/cst2013.207

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles of Ferric Chloride doped ZnS has been synthesized by simple chemical precipitation method and characterized by XRD, SEM, UV-Vis analysis, Differential Thermal Analysis, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. XRD patterns of the samples reveal particle size, specific surface area and the formation of cubic structure. The SEM images show that the cauliflower likes structure. Optical band gap values have been obtained from UV-Vis absorption spectra. It has also been found that energy band gap (Eg) increases with the increase in molar concentration of reactant solution. Thermal analysis measurement of the prepared sample shows that the thermal stability of pure ZnS is decreased due to increase in Ferric Chloride concentration. Undoped ZnS is more thermal stable when compared to FeCl3 doped ZnS.

  6. Structural characterization of zinc(II) chloride in aqueous solution and in the protic ionic liquid ethyl ammonium nitrate by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, Paola; Zitolo, Andrea; Ceccacci, Francesca; Caminiti, Ruggero; Aquilanti, Giuliana

    2011-10-01

    Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the species and structures existing in a series of ZnCl2-H2O-NaCl solutions with different chloride/zinc ratios and in a solution of ZnCl2 in the protic ionic liquid ethyl ammonium nitrate (EAN). The average coordination numbers and distances of zinc species were determined from the analysis of the EXAFS data. In aqueous solution the number of chloride ions tightly bounded to Zn2+ is significantly related to the chloride/zinc ratio, and no inner complex formation between Zn2+ and Cl- ions has been detected for low ZnCl2 concentration (0.1 and 0.2 M). Conversely, in the same concentration range (0.13 M) the ZnCl2 species do not dissociate in EAN and the Zn2+ first coordination shell has two chloride ions and is completed by two oxygen atoms of the nitrate anion. The results of this investigation show that notwithstanding the existence of similar characteristics between EAN and water, the solvation properties of the two solvents are markedly different.

  7. Zinc

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's food guidance system, ChooseMyPlate . Where can I find ... on food sources of zinc: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for zinc ( ...

  8. Unidirectional growth of ?001? triglycine zinc chloride crystal by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Aravinth, K; Senthil Pandian, M; Ramasamy, P

    2015-03-01

    Bulk nonlinear optical single crystal of triglycine zinc chloride (TGZC) of size 15mm diameter and 50mm length was successfully grown from solution by unidirectional growth method of Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR). The growth conditions were optimized and a maximum growth rate of 1.5mm per day was realized. The crystal system and lattice parameters were confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction studies. The structural perfection of the SR method grown crystal has been analyzed by high resolution X-ray diffraction measurement. The UV-Vis-NIR studies show that the cutoff wavelength is around 240nm. The dielectric measurements were carried out to determine the dielectric behavior for the crystal. The observations are made in the frequency range 1kHz-2MHz at the temperature range of 43-150°C. The fluorescence spectra of grown TGZC single crystals exhibit emission peak at 485nm. The microhardness measurements were used to analyze the mechanical strength of the grown TGZC crystal. The SHG efficiency of TGZC was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder method. PMID:25468436

  9. Characteristics of activated carbon prepared from pistachio-nut shell by zinc chloride activation under nitrogen and vacuum conditions.

    PubMed

    Lua, Aik Chong; Yang, Ting

    2005-10-15

    Activated carbons with well-developed pore structures were prepared from pistachio-nut shells by chemical activation using zinc chloride under both nitrogen atmosphere and vacuum conditions. The effects of preparation parameters on the carbon pore structure were studied in order to optimize these parameters. It was found that under vacuum conditions, the characteristics of the activated carbons produced are better than those under nitrogen atmosphere. The impregnation ratio, the activation temperature, and the activation hold time are the important parameters that influence the characteristics of the activated carbons. The optimum experimental conditions for preparing predominantly microporous activated carbons with high pore surface area and micropore volume are an impregnation ratio of 0.75, an activation temperature of 400 degrees C, and a hold time of 1 h. Under these conditions, the BET surface areas of the carbons activated under nitrogen atmosphere and vacuum conditions were 1635.37 and 1647.16 m2/g, respectively. However, at a ZnCl2 impregnation ratio of 1.5, a furnace temperature of 500 degrees C, and a hold time of 2 h, the predominantly mesoporous activated carbon prepared under vacuum condition had a BET surface area of 2527 m2/g. Fourier transform infrared spectra were used to detect changes in the surface functional groups of the samples during the different preparation stages. PMID:16002081

  10. Zinc

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diarrhea , eye and skin sores and loss of appetite. Weight loss, problems with wound healing, decreased ability ... too much zinc include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, stomach cramps, diarrhea, and headaches. When people take ...

  11. Zinc

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lower respiratory infections. It is also used for malaria and other diseases caused by parasites. Some people ... decrease the risk for upper respiratory tract infections. Malaria. Taking zinc by mouth does not seem to ...

  12. A global view of gene expression in lithium and zinc treated sea urchin embryos: new components of gene regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    Poustka, Albert J; Kühn, Alexander; Groth, Detlef; Weise, Vesna; Yaguchi, Shunsuke; Burke, Robert D; Herwig, Ralf; Lehrach, Hans; Panopoulou, Georgia

    2007-01-01

    Background The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus has recently been sequenced because it is a major model system for the study of gene regulatory networks. Embryonic expression patterns for most genes are unknown, however. Results Using large-scale screens on arrays carrying 50% to 70% of all genes, we identified novel territory-specific markers. Our strategy was based on computational selection of genes that are differentially expressed in lithium-treated embryos, which form excess endomesoderm, and in zinc-treated embryos, in which endomesoderm specification is blocked. Whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) analysis of 700 genes indicates that the apical organ region is eliminated in lithium-treated embryos. Conversely, apical and specifically neural markers are expressed more broadly in zinc-treated embryos, whereas endomesoderm signaling is severely reduced. Strikingly, the number of serotonergic neurons is amplified by at least tenfold in zinc-treated embryos. WISH analysis further indicates that there is crosstalk between the Wnt (wingless int), Notch, and fibroblast growth factor signaling pathways in secondary mesoderm cell specification and differentiation, similar to signaling cascades that function during development of presomitic mesoderm in mouse embryogenesis. We provide differential expression data for more than 4,000 genes and WISH patterns of more than 250 genes, and more than 2,400 annotated WISH images. Conclusion Our work provides tissue-specific expression patterns for a large fraction of the sea urchin genes that have not yet been included in existing regulatory networks and await functional integration. Furthermore, we noted neuron-inducing activity of zinc on embryonic development; this is the first observation of such activity in any organism. PMID:17506889

  13. Zinc prevents the structural and functional properties of free radical treated-insulin.

    PubMed

    Faure, P; Lafond, J L; Coudray, C; Rossini, E; Halimi, S; Favier, A; Blache, D

    1994-12-14

    We have previously reported that zinc deficiency could increase in vivo lipid peroxidation and decrease rat insulin sensitivity. In the present paper, we address the hypothesis of the role of zinc on insulin molecule in relation to free radical damage. From native recombinant human insulin, we prepared a zinc-depleted insulin. Both preparations were subjected to controlled free radical attack by incubation in the presence of 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH). To obtain minimally oxidized insulin, the oxidation process was monitored by measuring the intrinsic fluorescence of the insulin preparations. For 2.5 mM of AAPH, the autofluorescence of zinc-depleted insulin markedly decreased as compared to that of native insulin. These data are in favor of conformational changes of the insulin molecule which were further studied by quenching of fluorescence by means of potassium iodide. Using the euglycaemic hyperinsulinic glucose clamp technique in rats, the in vivo activities of the different insulin preparations, showed that oxidized zinc-depleted insulin had a marked reduced activity as compared to oxidized native insulin. From our results, we suggest that structural modification of the insulin molecule took place after zinc depletion and free radical treatment. Moreover, zinc depletion appeared to increase the susceptibility of insulin to free radicals. PMID:7811700

  14. Increased lipid peroxidation in tissues of nickel chloride-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.; Marzouk, A.; Hopfer, S.M.; Zaharia, O.; Reid, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    Parenteral administration of nickel chloride (NiCl/sub 2/) to rats enhanced lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney, and lung as measured by the thiobarbituric acid reaction for malondialdehyde (MDA) and related chromogens in fresh tissue homogenates. After sc injection of NiCl/sub 2/ (0.75 mmol per kg body wt), MDA concentrations in liver and kidney became significantly increased by nine h and reached peak values at 48 h. For example, in nine rats killed 48 h after the NiCl/sub 2/ injection, hepatic MDA concentrations averaged 2.5 +/- 1.0 ..mu.. mol per g dry wt (P < 0.001 versus 0.5 +/- 0.3 ..mu.. mol per g in 30 controls). Dose-effect relationships for lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney were observed with NiCl/sub 2/ dosages ranging from 0.12 to 0.75 mmol per kg, sc. Intrarenal administration of a carcinogenic nickel compound, nickel subsulfide (Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/, 0.36 mmol per kg body wt), did not affect MDA concentrations in the injected kidneys of rats killed one to 20 days post-injection. The results of this study implicate lipid peroxidation as a molecular mechanism for cell injury in acute NiCl/sub 2/ poisoning, but they do not furnish any evidence that lipid peroxidation is involved in the initiation of nickel carcinogenesis. 46 references, 4 tables.

  15. A Teach-Discover-Treat Application of ZincPharmer: An Online Interactive Pharmacophore Modeling and Virtual Screening Tool

    PubMed Central

    Koes, David Ryan; Pabon, Nicolas A.; Deng, Xiaoyi; Phillips, Margaret A.; Camacho, Carlos J.

    2015-01-01

    The 2012 Teach-Discover-Treat (TDT) community-wide experiment provided a unique opportunity to test prospective virtual screening protocols targeting the anti-malarial target dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH). Facilitated by ZincPharmer, an open access online interactive pharmacophore search of the ZINC database, the experience resulted in the development of a novel classification scheme that successfully predicted the bound structure of a non-triazolopyrimidine inhibitor, as well as an overall hit rate of 27% of tested active compounds from multiple novel chemical scaffolds. The general approach entailed exhaustively building and screening sparse pharmacophore models comprising of a minimum of three features for each bound ligand in all available DHODH co-crystals and iteratively adding features that increased the number of known binders returned by the query. Collectively, the TDT experiment provided a unique opportunity to teach computational methods of drug discovery, develop innovative methodologies and prospectively discover new compounds active against DHODH. PMID:26258606

  16. Application of zinc chloride precipitation method for rapid isolation and concentration of infectious Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. lytic bacteriophages from surface water and plant and soil extracts.

    PubMed

    Czajkowski, Robert; Ozymko, Zofia; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    This is the first report describing precipitation of bacteriophage particles with zinc chloride as a method of choice to isolate infectious lytic bacteriophages against Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. from environmental samples. The isolated bacteriophages are ready to use to study various (ecological) aspects of bacteria-bacteriophage interactions. The method comprises the well-known precipitation of phages from aqueous extracts of the test material by addition of ZnCl2, resuscitation of bacteriophage particles in Ringer's buffer to remove the ZnCl2 excess and a soft agar overlay assay with the host bacterium to isolate infectious individual phage plaques. The method requires neither an enrichment step nor other steps (e. g., PEG precipitation, ultrafiltration, or ultracentrifugation) commonly used in other procedures and results in isolation of active viable bacteriophage particles. PMID:26099750

  17. Hydrothermally Treated Chitosan Hydrogel Loaded with Copper and Zinc Particles as a Potential Micronutrient-Based Antimicrobial Feed Additive

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Parthiban; Santra, Swadeshmukul

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale use of antibiotics in food animal farms as growth promoters is considered as one of the driving factors behind increasing incidence of microbial resistance. Several alternatives are under investigation to reduce the amount of total antibiotics used in order to avoid any potential transmission of drug resistant microbes to humans through food chain. Copper sulfate and zinc oxide salts are used as feed supplement as they exhibit antimicrobial properties in addition to being micronutrients. However, higher dosage of copper and zinc (often needed for growth promoting effect) to animals is not advisable because of potential environmental toxicity arising from excreta. Innovative strategies are needed to utilize the complete potential of trace minerals as growth promoting feed supplements. To this end, we describe here the development and preliminary characterization of hydrothermally treated chitosan as a delivery vehicle for copper and zinc nanoparticles that could act as a micronutrient-based antimicrobial feed supplement. Material characterization studies showed that hydrothermal treatment makes a chitosan hydrogel that rearranged to capture the copper and zinc metal particles. Systemic antimicrobial assays showed that this chitosan biopolymer matrix embedded with copper (57.6??g/ml) and zinc (800??g/ml) reduced the load of model gut bacteria (target organisms of growth promoting antibiotics), such as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Lactobacillus fermentum under in vitro conditions. Particularly, the chitosan/copper/zinc hydrogel exhibited significantly higher antimicrobial effect against L. fermentum, one of the primary targets of antibiotic growth promoters. Additionally, the chitosan matrix ameliorated the cytotoxicity levels of metal supplements when screened against a murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and in TE-71, a murine thymic epithelial cell line. In this proof-of-concept study, we show that by using chitosan as a delivery platform, micronutrient-based metal feed additives could be used to minimize the undesirable levels of microbial population without causing significant cytotoxic effect under in vitro conditions. These findings provide the platform for further studies in target animal models to quantify the required physiological concentrations of copper and zinc when delivered via a chitosan hydrogel platform to elicit a growth promoting effect without causing any toxicity. PMID:26664989

  18. Evaluation of Novel Design Strategies for Developing Zinc Finger Nucleases Tools for Treating Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Christian; Sherman, William; Pallis, Jani; Bajwa, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) are associated with cell death and apoptosis by binding at countless undesired locations. This cytotoxicity is associated with the binding ability of engineered zinc finger domains to bind dissimilar DNA sequences with high affinity. In general, binding preferences of transcription factors are associated with significant degenerated diversity and complexity which convolutes the design and engineering of precise DNA binding domains. Evolutionary success of natural zinc finger proteins, however, evinces that nature created specific evolutionary traits and strategies, such as modularity and rank-specific recognition to cope with binding complexity that are critical for creating clinical viable tools to precisely modify the human genome. Our findings indicate preservation of general modularity and significant alteration of the rank-specific binding preferences of the three-finger binding domain of transcription factor SP1 when exchanging amino acids in the 2nd finger. PMID:24808958

  19. Evaluation of Novel Design Strategies for Developing Zinc Finger Nucleases Tools for Treating Human Diseases

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bach, Christian; Sherman, William; Pallis, Jani; Patra, Prabir; Bajwa, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) are associated with cell death and apoptosis by binding at countless undesired locations. This cytotoxicity is associated with the binding ability of engineered zinc finger domains to bind dissimilar DNA sequences with high affinity. In general, binding preferences of transcription factors are associated with significant degenerated diversity and complexity which convolutes the design and engineering of precise DNA binding domains. Evolutionary success of natural zinc finger proteins, however, evinces that nature created specific evolutionary traits and strategies, such as modularity and rank-specific recognition to cope with binding complexity that are critical for creating clinical viable toolsmore »to precisely modify the human genome. Our findings indicate preservation of general modularity and significant alteration of the rank-specific binding preferences of the three-finger binding domain of transcription factor SP1 when exchanging amino acids in the 2nd finger.« less

  20. Sex and age mortality responses in zinc acetate-treated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, G.R.; Cole, B.S.; Lovelace, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    In regard to trace metal treatment or exposure, a number of variables are known to affect the expression of toxicity concerning its time course and degree. For example, known variables are route of administration, anionic component of the test substance, and sex and age of the recipient animal. Concerning the latter, little, if any, data have been reported dealing with sex- and age-related responses to excess zinc in mammalian systems. The primary purpose of the short communication presented here focuses on the determination of median lethal dose in sexually immature, i.e., juvenile, and adult female and male mice following a single zinc acetate insult. In addition, variation of lethality responses was examined with the age and sex groups to a divided treatment of a lethal dosage of zinc acetate, the injections of which were separated by various intervals.

  1. Dye adsorption by calcium chloride treated beech sawdust in batch and fixed-bed systems.

    PubMed

    Batzias, F A; Sidiras, D K

    2004-10-18

    Batch and column kinetics of methylene blue and red basic 22 adsorption on CaCl(2) treated beech sawdust was investigated, using untreated beech sawdust as control, in order to explore its potential use as a low-cost adsorbent for wastewater dye removal. The adsorption capacity, estimated according to Freundlich's model, and the adsorption capacity coefficient values, determined using the Bohart and Adams' bed depth service model indicate that CaCl(2) treatment enhanced the adsorption properties of the original material. PMID:15511588

  2. Investigation of processes to treat zinc-ferrite regeneration offgases in high temperature desulfurization of coal gases

    SciTech Connect

    Woodland, L. R.

    1988-08-01

    A bench-scale test program has been performed to evaluate the effect of critical operating variables on sulfur dioxide removal efficiency for two candidate throwaway'' desulfurization processes for treating zinc-ferrite reactor regeneration offgas. These two throwaway'' processes, dual-alkali wet scrubbing and spray dryer desulfurization, generate a gypsum waste sludge environmentally acceptable for disposal. They have seen extensive commercial application in flue gas desulfurization, but have not been evaluated for such high levels of removal efficiency and such high inlet sulfur dioxide concentrations as would be required for this application. 13 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viets, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Interferences commonly encountered in the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc at crustal abundance levels are effectively eliminated using a rapid, sensitive, organic extraction technique. A potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid digestion solubilizes the metals not tightly bound in the silicate lattice of rocks, soils, and stream sediments. The six metals are selectively extracted into a 10% Aliquat 336-MIBK organic phase in the presence of ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. Metals in the organic extract are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to the 0.02-ppm level for silver, cadmium, copper, and zinc and to the 0.2-ppm level for bismuth and lead with a maximum relative standard deviation of 18.8% for known reference samples. An additional hydrofluoric acid digestion may be used to determine metals substituted in the silicate lattice.

  4. An experimental study of zinc chloride speciation from 300 to 600 °C and 0.5 to 2.0 kbar in buffered hydrothermal solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cygan, G.L.; Hemley, J.J.; d'Angelo, W. M.

    1994-01-01

    The solubility of sphalerite (ZnS) was measured in KCl-HCl-H2O solutions at 300-600??C and 0.5-2.0 kbar. The silicate assemblage K-feldspar-muscovite (or andalusite)-quartz was used to buffer the solution to acid conditions, resulting in the total solubility reaction 2K+ + KAl2AlSi3O10(OH)2 + 6SiO2 + ZnS + nCl- = ZnCln(2-n) + 3KAlSi3O8 + H2S. (muscovite) (quartz) (sphalerite) (K-feldspar) A computer retrieval technique was used to derive average chloride ligand numbers for chlorozinc species at 0.25-2.0 molal total chloride. This technique mathematically solves for the average ligand number using a series of pertinent chemical relations at P and T. Mono- and di-chlorozinc species were found to predominate throughout the pressure-temperature-composition range investigated. The logarithms of the first and second dissociation constants for ZnCl20 were evaluated over the P-T range; for example, at 1 kbar, the values -0.41 and -1.42 were computed for the logarithm of the first dissociation constant, while -7.62 and -10.57 were computed for the logarithm of the second dissociation constant, for 400 and 500??C, respectively. Results are compared to past studies conducted at subcritical conditions and differ in that we find no evidence for more highly coordinated chloro-zinc species except possibly for ZnCl3- at 600??C, 1 and 2 kbar. Our results are consistent with electrostatic theory, which favors lower charged to neutral molecules in low dielectric-constant media. ?? 1994.

  5. Total zinc in zinc battery plates by EDTA titration

    SciTech Connect

    Hammersley, V.L.

    1995-07-01

    At present, zinc battery plate electrodes are analyzed for zinc oxide, zinc chloride, zinc fluoride, zinc carbonate, zinc oxychloride, total zinc, zinc as the metal, and trace metals. A variety of methods are used to determine each of these components. The amount of zinc in each of the zinc compounds is determined by multiplying the percent of the compound by the ratio of the molecular weights of zinc to the zinc compound. This percent zinc is subtracted from percent total zinc and the operation is performed for every zinc compound determined. The remaining zinc value after these subtractions represents zinc as the metal. Zinc metal is the charged state on the anode. Percent total zinc is required in all these calculations. The importance of these components cannot be overemphasized. The presence, or absence, of certain components in the zinc electrode can influence its behavior in a zinc-silver oxide primary battery. Passivation layers, tendency to dendritic growth, corrosion rates, voltage rise times, current density, porosity, surface area, electrochemical capacity, and other considerations make it imperative that the chemical composition of the zinc electrode be known. The focus of this project was to evaluate the present method for total zinc and to develop a better method.

  6. Effect of post-treatment processing on copper migration from Douglas-fir lumber treated with ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate.

    PubMed

    Ye, Min; Morrell, Jeffrey J

    2015-04-01

    Migration of heavy metals into aquatic environments has become a concern in some regions of the world. Many wood preservatives are copper based systems that have the potential to migrate from the wood and into the surrounding environment. Some wood treaters have developed "best management practices" (BMPs) that are designed to reduce the risk of migration, but there are few comparative studies assessing the efficacy of these processes. The potential for using various heating combinations to limit copper migration was assessed using ammoniacal coper zinc arsenate treated Douglas-fir lumber. Kiln drying and air drying both proved to be the most effective methods for limiting copper migration, while post-treatment steaming or hot water immersion produced more variable results. The results should provide guidance for improving the BMP processes. PMID:25659940

  7. Surface topography and structure of laser-treated high-purity zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butt, M. Z.; Ali, Dilawar; Aftab, Muzamil; Usman Tanveer, M.

    2015-09-01

    We irradiated 99.995% pure zinc specimens in a vacuum with 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 nanosecond visible laser shots. SEM images of irradiated specimens were analyzed using Gwyddion 2.29 software. The average length of surface microcones formed at the periphery of the ablated area increases linearly from 30 to 56 ?m on the increase in number of laser shots from 50 to 100. Nano-size droplets (16-40 nm) are formed in the vicinity of ablated area; the greater the number of droplets, the smaller is their mean diameter. XRD patterns of un-irradiated and irradiated specimens reveal changes in the intensity of diffracted peaks on laser irradiation. Harris analysis was done to determine texture coefficient; crystallographic planes (002) and (004) get preferentially oriented on laser irradiation. Williamson-Hall analysis was carried out to evaluate the structural parameters, namely crystallite size, dislocation line density, and microstrain.

  8. Separation and recovery of metals from zinc-treated superalloy scrap. Report of Investigations/1989

    SciTech Connect

    Laverty, P.D.; Atkinson, G.B.; Desmond, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines treated mixed and contaminated superalloy scrap by pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods to separate and recover metal values. Best results were obtained by leaching Zn-treated or atomized scrap with HC1-02 at 95 C and 50 psig O{sub 2}. This resulted in dissolving approximately 98% of the Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn while rejecting over 98% of the Mo, Nb, Ta, Ti, W, and Zr as an insoluble refractory residue. Chlorine was successfully substituted for HC1 to leach Zn-treated scrap but unsuccessful for leaching atomized scrap. The leaching solution was treated by pH adjustment and hydrothermal precipitation at 200 C for 4 h to remove Al, Cr, Fe, and other contaminants as a filterable precipitate. Recovery of Co and Ni would be accomplished by solvent extraction and electrowinning. Chromium recovery as a ferroally was demonstrated.

  9. The Microbial Community of a Passive Biochemical Reactor Treating Arsenic, Zinc, and Sulfate-Rich Seepage

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Susan Anne; Khoshnoodi, Maryam; Rezadehbashi, Maryam; Taupp, Marcus; Hallam, Steven; Mattes, Al; Sanei, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Sulfidogenic biochemical reactors (BCRs) for metal removal that use complex organic carbon have been shown to be effective in laboratory studies, but their performance in the field is highly variable. Successful operation depends on the types of microorganisms supported by the organic matrix, and factors affecting the community composition are unknown. A molecular survey of a field-based BCR that had been removing zinc and arsenic for over 6?years revealed that the microbial community was dominated by methanogens related to Methanocorpusculum sp. and Methanosarcina sp., which co-occurred with Bacteroidetes environmental groups, such as Vadin HA17, in places where the organic matter was more degraded. The metabolic potential for organic matter decomposition by Ruminococcaceae was prevalent in samples with more pyrolyzable carbon. Rhodobium- and Hyphomicrobium-related genera within the Rhizobiales order that have the metabolic potential for dark hydrogen fermentation and methylotrophy, and unclassified Comamonadaceae were the dominant Proteobacteria. The unclassified environmental group Sh765B-TzT-29 was an important Delta-Proteobacteria group in this BCR that co-occurred with the dominant Rhizobiales operational taxonomic units. Organic matter degradation is one driver for shifting the microbial community composition and therefore possibly the performance of these bioreactors over time. PMID:25798439

  10. The microbial community of a passive biochemical reactor treating arsenic, zinc, and sulfate-rich seepage.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Susan Anne; Khoshnoodi, Maryam; Rezadehbashi, Maryam; Taupp, Marcus; Hallam, Steven; Mattes, Al; Sanei, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Sulfidogenic biochemical reactors (BCRs) for metal removal that use complex organic carbon have been shown to be effective in laboratory studies, but their performance in the field is highly variable. Successful operation depends on the types of microorganisms supported by the organic matrix, and factors affecting the community composition are unknown. A molecular survey of a field-based BCR that had been removing zinc and arsenic for over 6?years revealed that the microbial community was dominated by methanogens related to Methanocorpusculum sp. and Methanosarcina sp., which co-occurred with Bacteroidetes environmental groups, such as Vadin HA17, in places where the organic matter was more degraded. The metabolic potential for organic matter decomposition by Ruminococcaceae was prevalent in samples with more pyrolyzable carbon. Rhodobium- and Hyphomicrobium-related genera within the Rhizobiales order that have the metabolic potential for dark hydrogen fermentation and methylotrophy, and unclassified Comamonadaceae were the dominant Proteobacteria. The unclassified environmental group Sh765B-TzT-29 was an important Delta-Proteobacteria group in this BCR that co-occurred with the dominant Rhizobiales operational taxonomic units. Organic matter degradation is one driver for shifting the microbial community composition and therefore possibly the performance of these bioreactors over time. PMID:25798439

  11. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1989-06-27

    This patent describes an improved zinc electrode for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed.

  12. Coplanar amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor with He plasma treated heavily doped layer

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Ho-young; Lee, Bok-young; Lee, Young-jang; Lee, Jung-il; Yang, Myoung-su; Kang, In-byeong; Mativenga, Mallory; Jang, Jin

    2014-01-13

    We report thermally stable coplanar amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with heavily doped n{sup +} a-IGZO source/drain regions. Doping is through He plasma treatment in which the resistivity of the a-IGZO decreases from 2.98 ??cm to 2.79?×?10{sup ?3} ??cm after treatment, and then it increases to 7.92?×?10{sup ?2} ??cm after annealing at 300?°C. From the analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the concentration of oxygen vacancies in He plasma treated n{sup +}a-IGZO does not change much after thermal annealing at 300?°C, indicating thermally stable n{sup +} a-IGZO, even for TFTs with channel length L?=?4??m. Field-effect mobility of the coplanar a-IGZO TFTs with He plasma treatment changes from 10.7 to 9.2?cm{sup 2}/V?s after annealing at 300?°C, but the performance of the a-IGZO TFT with Ar or H{sub 2} plasma treatment degrades significantly after 300?°C annealing.

  13. Performance traits and immune response of broiler chicks treated with zinc and ascorbic acid supplementation during cyclic heat stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Naila; Naz, Shabana; Khan, Ajab; Khan, Sarzamin; Khan, Rifat Ullah

    2014-12-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of zinc (Zn) and ascorbic acid (AA) in heat-stressed broilers. A total of 160-day-old broiler chicks of approximately the same weight and appearance were divided into four treatment groups (control, T1, T2, and T3). Control group was fed a standard diet without any supplementation. T1 was supplemented with Zn at the rate of 60 mg/kg of feed, T2 was supplemented with 300 mg/kg of feed AA, and T3 was supplemented with combination of Zn and AA. From week 3 to 5, heat stress environment was provided at the rate of 12 h at 25 °C, 3 h at 25 to 34 °C, 6 h at 34 °C, and 3 h at 34 to 25 °C daily. The results revealed that feed intake, body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and weight of thymus, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius improved significantly ( P < 0.05) in T3 compared to the other treatments. Antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bursal disease (IBD), and infectious bronchitis (IB) increased significantly ( P < 0.05) in T2 and T3 groups. However, total leucocytes count, lymphocytes, and monocytes increased ( P < 0.05) in all treated groups compared to control. The results indicated that the supplementation of Zn or AA alone or in combination improved the performance and immune status of broilers reared under heat stress.

  14. Zinc oxide overdose

    MedlinePLUS

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products, including certain creams and ointments used to prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally ...

  15. Acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3 prime -dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol to juvenile grass shrimp and killifish

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.T.; Fisher, D.J. )

    1990-05-01

    The acute toxicity of several compounds was investigated while performing a toxicity evaluation of a complex chemical effluent. The tests were conducted for one or more of the following reasons: (1) data were not available for the chemical; (2) data were not available for the species; or (3) data were not available for the juvenile life stage of the species. Forty-eight hour acute toxicity tests were run on juvenile grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and juvenile killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to the following compounds: cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3{prime}-dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride (dichloromethane) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

  16. The effects of dimercaptosuccinic acid on the excretion and distribution of mercury in rats and mice treated with mercuric chloride and methylmercury chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Magos, L

    1976-01-01

    1 All five rats in a group survived if dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a water soluble derivative of 2,3-dimercaptopropanol (BAL), was given in doses of 10-40 mg/kg intraperitoneally 30 min, 4 and 24 h after administration of 2.4 mg/kg Hg as HgCl2, whereas three out of a group of five died if DMSA was not given. DMSA 20 mg/kg increased urinary excretion and decreased the body burden significantly more than 10 mg/kg DMSA, but further doubling of the dose had only marginal effects. 2 DMSA was able to reduce body burden and increase urinary excretion of Hg when intraperitoneal treatment started eight days after the subcutaneous administration of HgCl2. 3 DMSA was effective in decreasing body burden and the brain concentration of Hg in rats dosed orally with methylmercury (MeHgCl) when intraperitoneal treatment started with 40 mg/kg DMSA 24 h after Hg. Increase in the urinary excretion of mercury was responsible for the decrease in body burden. 4 DMSA was effective when given in the drinking water of rats or mice both against inorganic Hg and MeHgCl. In mice treated intraperitoneally with MeHgCl, DMSA 19.5 mug/ml in the drinking water caused a significant decrease in the body burden and increase in the excretion of Hg. 5 DMSA was about four times more efficient than D-penicillamine in decreasing the body burden of Hg. As their toxicity is in the same range, the higher efficiency of DMSA offers a larger margin of safety for the mobilization of Hg. PMID:1260228

  17. A preliminary report on zinc-induced resistance to nitrogen mustard toxicity in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Shackelford, M.E.; Tobey, R.A.

    1988-12-01

    Previous studies with cultured human normal fibroblasts indicated that treatment of cells with zinc before exposure to alkylating agents enhanced cell survival by seven- to nine-fold. To establish whether a similar zinc-induced protective response could be elicited in vivo, a set of preliminary experiments was carried out in which Balb/cJ mice were treated with zinc chloride (2 mg/kg body weight) or saline by intraperitoneal (ip) injection at 48, 36, 24, and 12 h before ip administration of 4 mg/kg of the alkylating agent nitrogen mustard. Of the animals that received saline before nitrogen mustard, 57% were killed compared with only 20% in the group treated with zinc before administration of the alkylating agent. These results (which almost certainly were achieved with less than optimal induction conditions) provide evidence for the existence, in vivo, of a zinc-inducible process that reduces alkylating agent lethality. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Visualization of calcium and zinc ions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells treated with PEFs (pulse electric fields) by laser confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Urszula, Pankiewicz; Jerzy, Jamroz; Sujka, Monika; Kowalski, Rados?aw

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to visualize the areas of increased concentration of calcium and zinc ions inside Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with the use of confocal microscopy and to make an attempt to asses semi-quantitatively their concentration within the limits of the cells. Semi-quantitative analysis revealed that fluorescence inside cells from control samples was three-times lower than that observed for cells from the sample enriched with calcium. Differences in distribution of fluorescence intensity between cells originated from the samples enriched with zinc and control samples were also observed. On the basis of the optical sections, the 3D reconstructions of ion-rich areas distribution in the cell were made. The obtained results showed that confocal microscopy is a useful technique for visualization of the areas in S. cerevisiae cells which contain higher amount of calcium and zinc and it may be also used for semi-quantitative analysis. PMID:26041158

  19. Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a zinc or titanium promoted palladium-zirconium catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly (Orlando, FL); Rossin, Joseph A. (Columbus, OH); Knapke, Michael J. (Columbus, OH)

    2011-08-02

    A process and system (18) for reducing NO.sub.x in a gas using hydrogen as a reducing agent is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream (29) with a catalyst system (38) comprising sulfated zirconia washcoat particles (41), palladium, a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a promoter (45) comprising at least one of titanium, zinc, or a mixture thereof. The presence of zinc or titanium increases the resistance of the catalyst system to a sulfur and water-containing gas stream.

  20. Effect of sodium chloride on glassy and crystalline transitions of wheat starch treated with high hydrostatic pressure: Prediction of solute-induced barostability from nonmonotonic solute-induced thermostability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat starch was high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)-treated in various sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations (0 to near-saturation), in order to explore the effects of salt on glassy and crystalline transitions of starch during the treatment, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For wheat st...

  1. Efficacy of oral potassium chloride administration in treating lactating dairy cows with experimentally induced hypokalemia, hypochloremia, and alkalemia.

    PubMed

    Constable, P D; Hiew, M W H; Tinkler, S; Townsend, J

    2014-03-01

    Hypokalemia occurs commonly in lactating dairy cows. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) whether a 24-h oral KCl dose of 0.4 g/kg of body weight (BW) was effective and safe in hypokalemic cattle; (2) whether potassium was best administered as 2 large doses or multiple smaller doses over a 24-h period; and (3) the effect of oral KCl administration on plasma Mg concentration and urine Mg excretion in fasted lactating dairy cattle. Plasma K and Cl concentrations were decreased, and blood pH increased, in 15 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows by administering 2 intramuscular (i.m.) 10-mg injections of isoflupredone acetate 24h apart followed by 2 i.m. injections of furosemide (1mg/kg of BW) 8h apart and by decreasing feed intake. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups with 5 cows/group: untreated control (group C); oral administration of KCl at 0.05 g/kg of BW 8 times at 3-h intervals (group K3); and oral administration of KCl at 0.2g/kg of BW twice at 12-h intervals (group K12). A 24-h KCl dose rate of 0.4 g/kg of BW increased plasma and milk K concentration and plasma Cl concentration, and corrected the metabolic alkalosis and alkalemia, with no clinically significant difference between 2 large doses (group K12) or multiple small doses (group K3) of KCl over 24 h. Oral KCl administration decreased peripheral fat mobilization in cattle with experimentally induced hypokalemia, as measured by changes in plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration, and slightly augmented the fasting-induced decrease in plasma Mg concentration. Our findings support recommendations for a 24-h oral KCl dose of 0.4 g/kg of BW for treating moderately hypokalemic cattle. Additional Mg may need to be administered to inappetant lactating dairy cattle being treated with oral KCl to minimize K-induced decreases in magnesium absorption. PMID:24377802

  2. Vinyl Chloride

    Cancer.gov

    Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas that burns easily. It does not occur naturally and must be produced industrially for its commercial uses. Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC); PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials. Vinyl chloride is also produced as a combustion product in tobacco smoke.

  3. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Jr., Philip N. (Kensington, CA)

    1989-01-01

    An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

  4. Realization of write-once-read-many-times memory device with O2 plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Chen, T. P.; Li, X. D.; Liu, Z.; Wong, J. I.; Liu, Y.; Leong, K. C.

    2014-01-01

    A write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices based on O2 plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films has been demonstrated. The device has a simple Al/IGZO/Al structure. The device has a normally OFF state with a very high resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2 V is ˜109 ? for a device with the radius of 50 ?m) as a result of the O2 plasma treatment on the IGZO thin films. The device could be switched to an ON state with a low resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2 V is ˜103 ? for the radius of 50 ?m) by applying a voltage pulse (e.g., 10 V/1 ?s). The WORM device has good data-retention and reading-endurance capabilities.

  5. Realization of write-once-read-many-times memory device with O{sub 2} plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, P. Chen, T. P. Li, X. D.; Wong, J. I.; Liu, Z.; Liu, Y.; Leong, K. C.

    2014-01-20

    A write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices based on O{sub 2} plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films has been demonstrated. The device has a simple Al/IGZO/Al structure. The device has a normally OFF state with a very high resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2?V is ?10{sup 9} ? for a device with the radius of 50??m) as a result of the O{sub 2} plasma treatment on the IGZO thin films. The device could be switched to an ON state with a low resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2?V is ?10{sup 3} ? for the radius of 50??m) by applying a voltage pulse (e.g., 10?V/1??s). The WORM device has good data-retention and reading-endurance capabilities.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and thermodynamics of complex formation of some new Schiff base ligands with some transition metal ions and the adduct formation of zinc Schiff base complexes with some organotin chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Mozaffar; Asadi, Zahra; Torabi, Susan; Lotfi, Najmeh

    Four new complexes, [M(Salpyr)] where Salpyr = N,N'-bis(Salicylidene)-2,3- and 3,4-diiminopyridine and M = Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and UV-vis spectrophotometry. UV-vis spectrophotometric study of the adduct formation of the zinc(II) complexes, [Zn(2,3-Salpyr)] and [Zn(3,4-Salpyr)], as donor with R2SnCl2 (R = methyl, phenyl, n-butyl), PhSnCl3 and Bu3SnCl as acceptors has been investigated in methanol, as solvent. The formation constants and the thermodynamic free energies were measured using UV-vis spectrophotometry. Titration of the organotin chlorides with Zn(II) complexes at various temperatures (T = 283-313 K) leads to 1:1 adduct formation. The results show that the formation constants were decreased by increasing the temperature. The trend of the reaction of RnSnCl4-n as acceptors toward given zinc complexes was as follows: PhSnCl3 > Me2SnCl2 > Ph2SnCl2 > Bu2SnCl2 > Bu3SnCl By considering the formation constants and the ?G° of the complex formation for the Schiff base as donor and the M(II) as acceptor, the following conclusion was drawn: the formation constant for a given Schiff base changes according to the following trend: Ni > Cu > Co > Zn > Mn

  7. Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L?1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the cell walls; thus, the electrolyte is leaked from cells. PMID:24572014

  8. Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tong; Hao, Han; Hao, Wen-ting; Yi, Shu-min; Li, Xue-peng; Li, Jian-rong

    2014-02-01

    To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L-1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the cell walls; thus, the electrolyte is leaked from cells.

  9. Zinc movement in sewage-sludge-treated soils as influenced by soil properties, irrigation water quality, and soil moisture level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, J.E.; Lund, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A soil column study was conducted to assess the movement of Zn in sewage-sludge-amended soils. Varables investigated were soil properties, irrigation water quality, and soil moisture level. Bulk samples of the surface layer of six soil series were packed into columns, 10.2 cm in diameter and 110 cm in length. An anaerobically digested municipal sewage sludge was incorporated into the top 20 cm of each column at a rate of 300 mg ha-1. The columns were maintained at moisture levels of saturation and unsaturation and were leached with two waters of different quality. At the termination of leaching, the columns were cut open and the soil was sectioned and analyzed. Zinc movement was evaluated by mass balance accounting and correlation and regression analysis. Zinc movement in the unsaturated columns ranged from 3 to 30 cm, with a mean of 10 cm. The difference in irrigation water quality did not have an effect on Zn movement. Most of the Zn applied to the unsaturated columns remained in the sludge-amended soil layer (96.1 to 99.6%, with a mean of 98.1%). The major portion of Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer accumulated in the 0- to 3-cm depth (35.7 to 100%, with a mean of 73.6%). The mean final soil pH values decreased in the order: saturated columns = sludge-amended soil layer > untreated soils > unsaturated columns. Total Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer was correlated negatively at P = 0.001 with final pH (r = -0.85). Depth of Zn movement was correlated negatively at P = 0.001 with final pH (r = -0.91). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the final pH accounted for 72% of the variation in the total amounts of Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer of the unsaturated columns and accounted for 82% of the variation in the depth of Zn movement among the unsaturated columns. A significant correlation was not found between Zn and organic carbon in soil solutions, but a negative correlation significant at P = 0.001 was found between pH and Zn (r = -0.61).

  10. Effects of non-toxic zinc exposure on human epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Emri, Eszter; Miko, Edit; Bai, Péter; Boros, Gábor; Nagy, Georgina; Rózsa, Dávid; Juhász, Tamás; Heged?s, Csaba; Horkay, Irén; Remenyik, Éva; Emri, Gabriella

    2015-03-01

    Zinc is an essential microelement; its importance to the skin is highlighted by the severe skin symptoms in hereditary or acquired zinc deficiency, by the improvement of several skin conditions using systemic or topical zinc preparations and by the induced intracellular zinc release upon UVB exposure, which is the main harmful environmental factor to the skin. Understanding the molecular background of the role of zinc in skin may help gain insight into the pathology of skin disorders and provide evidence for the therapeutic usefulness of zinc supplementation. Herein, we studied the effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) exposure on the function of HaCaT keratinocytes, and the results showed that a non-toxic elevation in the concentration of extracellular zinc (100 ?M) facilitated cell proliferation and induced significant alterations in the mRNA expression of NOTCH1, IL8, and cyclooxygenase-2. In addition, increased heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) expression and non-toxic generation of superoxide were detected in the first 4 h. Regarding the effects on the UVB-induced toxicity, although the level of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in the keratinocytes pre-treated with zinc for 24 h was reduced 3 h after UVB irradiation, significantly enhanced superoxide generation was observed 10 h after UVB exposure in the zinc pre-exposed cells. The overall survival was unaffected; however, there was a decrease in the percentage of early apoptotic cells and an increase in the percentage of late apoptotic plus necrotic cells. These results suggest that the exposure of human keratinocytes to non-toxic concentrations of ZnCl2 impacts gene expression, cell proliferation and the responses to environmental stress in the skin. It would be important to further examine the role of zinc in skin and further clarify whether this issue can affect our thinking regarding the pathogenesis of skin diseases. PMID:25659595

  11. Accumulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HSP32) in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells treated with sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride or proteasomal inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Music, Ena; Khan, Saad; Khamis, Imran; Heikkila, John J

    2014-11-01

    The present study examined the effect of sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride, heat shock and the proteasomal inhibitors MG132, withaferin A and celastrol on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; also known as HSP32) accumulation in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells. Immunoblot analysis revealed that HO-1 accumulation was not induced by heat shock but was enhanced by sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Immunocytochemistry revealed that these metals induced HO-1 accumulation in a granular pattern primarily in the cytoplasm. Additionally, in 20% of the cells arsenite induced the formation of large HO-1-containing perinuclear structures. In cells recovering from sodium arsenite or cadmium chloride treatment, HO-1 accumulation initially increased to a maximum at 12h followed by a 50% reduction at 48 h. This initial increase in HO-1 levels was likely the result of new synthesis as it was inhibited by cycloheximide. Interestingly, treatment of cells with a mild heat shock enhanced HO-1 accumulation induced by low concentrations of sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride. Finally, we determined that HO-1 accumulation was induced in A6 cells by the proteasomal inhibitors, MG132, withaferin A and celastrol. An examination of heavy metal and proteasomal inhibitor-induced HO-1 accumulation in amphibians is of importance given the presence of toxic heavy metals in aquatic habitats. PMID:25064141

  12. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  13. Method of preparing zinc orthotitanate pigment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, D. W.; Harada, Y.; Logan, W. R.; Gilligan, J. E. (inventors)

    1977-01-01

    Zinc orthotitanate suitable for use as a pigment for spacecraft thermal control coatings is prepared by heating a slightly zinc deficient reaction mixture of precipitated oxalates of zinc and titanium. The reaction mixture can be formed by coprecipitation of zinc and titanium oxalates from chloride solution or by mixing separately precipitated oxalates. The mixture is first heated to 400 to 600 C to remove volatiles and is then rapidly heated at 900 to 1200 C. Zinc orthotitanate produced by this method exhibits the very fine particle size needed for thermal control coatings as well as stability in a space environment.

  14. Zinc Information

    MedlinePLUS

    ... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Zinc Information 5 Tips: Natural Products for the Flu ... Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) ( NEI ) Can Zinc Be Harmful? ( ODS ) Zinc: Quick Facts ( ODS ) Share ...

  15. Evidence that Human Prostate Cancer is a ZIP1-Deficient Malignancy that could be Effectively Treated with a Zinc Ionophore (Clioquinol) Approach

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Leslie C; Franklin, Renty B; Zou, Jing; Naslund, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research, no efficacious chemotherapy exists for the treatment of prostate cancer. Malignant prostate zinc levels are markedly decreased in all cases of prostate cancer compared to normal/benign prostate. ZIP1 zinc transporter down regulation decreases zinc to prevent its cytotoxic effects. Thus, prostate cancer is a “ZIP1-deficient” malignancy. A zinc ionophore (e.g. Clioquinol) treatment to increase malignant zinc levels is a plausible treatment of prostate cancer. However, skepticism within the clinical/biomedical research community impedes significant progress leading to such a zinc treatment. This report reviews the clinical and experimental background, and presents new experimental data showing Clioquinol suppression of prostate malignancy; which provides strong support for a zinc ionophore treatment for prostate cancer. Evaluation of often-raised opposing issues is presented. These considerations lead to the conclusion that the compelling evidence dictates that a zinc-treatment approach for prostate cancer should be pursued with additional research leading to clinical trials. PMID:26273543

  16. Studies on zinc in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Agren, M S

    1990-01-01

    Topical zinc is widely used in wound treatment although the beneficial effect of zinc has only been documented in zinc-deficient patients who were given zinc orally. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of topically applied zinc on leg ulcer healing and examine its effect on some mechanisms in wound healing using standardized animal models. Additionally, absorption of zinc into wounds and intact skin treated topically with zinc was studied. In a double-blind trial involving 37 leg ulcer patients with low serum zinc levels, topical zinc oxide promoted cleansing and re-epithelialization. Infections and deteriorations of ulcers were less common in zinc oxide treated patients. Re-epithelialization, an important mechanism in the closure of leg ulcers, was enhanced with zinc oxide applied topically on partial-thickness wounds in pigs with normal zinc status. Zinc sulfate at three different concentrations did not, however, result in this beneficial effect on the resurfacing of wounds. The inflammatory reaction was diminished in zinc treated wounds except when a high zinc sulfate concentration was applied. Bacterial growth and concomitant diseases such as diabetes can complicate wound healing. In normal rats, bacterial growth in full-thickness wounds was reduced with topical zinc oxide but not in hyperglycemic diabetic rats. The anti-bacterial mechanism of zinc oxide seemed to be more indirect and to be mediated via local defense systems rather than being directly toxic to the bacteria. Healing of 21-day-old skin incisions was impaired in zinc deficiency, as measured by a significantly decreased wound breaking strength in zinc-deficient rats compared with that of pair-fed controls. The decreased breaking strength did not seem to be due to differences in collagen concentration of the wounds. Zinc oxide was slowly but continuously solubilized when applied on open wounds in rats. On the other hand, with zinc sulfate, the zinc concentrations, either locally or systemically, did not maintain a constant level for the 48-hour post-operative treatment period as they did with zinc oxide. Zinc absorption in and through normal human forearm skin was demonstrated after treatment with a zinc oxide medicated occlusive dressing by increased zinc levels in epidermis, interstitial fluid and dermis compared with the non-zinc control dressing. In conclusion, topical zinc may stimulate leg ulcer healing by enhancing re-epithelialization, decreasing inflammation and bacterial growth. When zinc is applied on wounds it not only corrects a local zinc deficit but also acts pharmacologically.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2275309

  17. Effect of resveratrol and zinc on intracellular zinc status in normal human prostate epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the influence of resveratrol on cellular zinc status, normal human prostate epithelial (NHPrE) cells were treated with 6 levels of resveratrol (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 microM) and 4 levels of zinc [0, 4, 16, and 32 microM for zinc-deficient (ZD), zinc-normal (ZN), zinc-adequate (ZA), an...

  18. Hydrogen chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrogen chloride ; CASRN 7647 - 01 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  19. Ethyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 00 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  20. Mepiquat chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mepiquat chloride ; CASRN 24307 - 26 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  1. Allyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl chloride ; CASRN 107 - 05 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  2. Acetyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 36 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  3. Benzyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzyl chloride ; CASRN 100 - 44 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  4. Vinyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635R - 00 / 004 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF VINYL CHLORIDE ( CAS No . 75 - 01 - 4 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) May 2000 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S

  5. Methyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R01 / 003 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL CHLORIDE ( CAS No . 74 - 87 - 3 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2001 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.

  6. The effect of topical zinc absorption from wounds on growth and the wound healing process in zinc-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Hallmans, G; Lasek, J

    1985-01-01

    An experiment with local application of zinc oxide from a zinc tape to wounds was performed on 80 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Tapes with or without zinc oxide were applied on excisional wounds of both zinc-deficient and zinc-sufficient animals. The reduction in wound area was more pronounced in zinc-tape-treated animals given both a zinc-deficient and zinc-sufficient diet. The operative trauma had a negative effect on the animals' growth rate, although the state of zinc deficiency in the operated rats could be relieved by the local application of zinc. The results of the present study indicate that topically absorbed zinc from wounds promotes both the early wound healing phase and growth in both zinc-deficient and zinc-sufficient rats. PMID:4070979

  7. 46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings... Materials § 148.330 Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings. (a) The shipper must inform the cognizant Coast Guard Captain of the Port in advance of any cargo transfer operations involving zinc...

  8. 46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings... Materials § 148.330 Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings. (a) The shipper must inform the cognizant Coast Guard Captain of the Port in advance of any cargo transfer operations involving zinc...

  9. 46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings... Materials § 148.330 Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings. (a) The shipper must inform the cognizant Coast Guard Captain of the Port in advance of any cargo transfer operations involving zinc...

  10. 46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings... Materials § 148.330 Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings. (a) The shipper must inform the cognizant Coast Guard Captain of the Port in advance of any cargo transfer operations involving zinc...

  11. The zinc ionophore clioquinol reverses autophagy arrest in chloroquine-treated ARPE-19 cells and in APP/mutant presenilin-1-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Bo-Ra; Lee, Sook-Jeong; Cho, Kyung Sook; Yoon, Young Hee; Koh, Jae-Young

    2015-12-01

    Arrested autophagy may contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Because we found that chloroquine (CQ) causes arrested autophagy but clioquinol (ClioQ), a zinc ionophore, activates autophagic flux, in the present study, we examined whether ClioQ can overcome arrested autophagy induced by CQ or mutant presenilin-1 (mPS1). CQ induced vacuole formation and cell death in adult retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells, but co-treatment with ClioQ attenuated CQ-associated toxicity in a zinc-dependent manner. Increases in lysosome dilation and blockage of autophagic flux by CQ were also markedly attenuated by ClioQ treatment. Interestingly, CQ increased lysosomal pH in amyloid precursor protein (APP)/mPS1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary 7W?E9 (CHO-7W?E9) cell line, and ClioQ partially re-acidified lysosomes. Furthermore, accumulation of amyloid-? (A?) oligomers in CHO-7W?E9 cells was markedly attenuated by ClioQ. Moreover, intracellular accumulation of exogenously applied fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated A?1-42 was also increased by CQ but was returned to control levels by ClioQ. These results suggest that modulation of lysosomal functions by manipulating lysosomal zinc levels may be a useful strategy for clearing intracellular A? oligomers. PMID:26453000

  12. Recovery of metal values from zinc solder dross

    SciTech Connect

    Barakat, M.A.

    1999-07-01

    Zinc solder dross containing 14.8% Sn, 16.3% Pb, 0.41% Al and 64.5% Zn was leached with 3% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 45 C for 1 h. Zinc and aluminum went into solution, whereas lead and tin remained with the residue. Aluminum was selectively precipitated as calcium aluminum carbonate by treating the sulfate leachate with limestone at pH 4.8. Zinc sulfate solution was either evaporated to obtain zinc sulfate crystals or precipitated as basic zinc carbonate at pH 6.8. The undissolved lead and tin were leached with 5 M hot hydrochloric acid. The major part of lead chloride ({approx_equal} 73%) was separated by cooling the leached products down to room temperature. From the soluble fraction, tin was recovered as hydrated tin oxide by alkylation with caustic soda at pH 2,4, while the remaining lead was separated at pH 8.5 as lead hydroxide. A process flowsheet had been suggested which involved two-stage hydrometallurgical treatment. Parameters affecting the recovery efficiency of the suggested method such as temperature, time, pH and acid: solid stoichiometric ratio were investigated. Results obtained revealed that the optimum leaching conditions were achieved by using 20 ml of 3% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} acid/g dross for 1 h at 45 C. Recovery efficiency of the metal salts was 99.1, 99.4, 99.6 and 99.5% for Zn, Al, Pb and Sn respectively. Recover efficiency was related to the solubility of the concerned salts under the given experimental conditions.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of amylose-zinc inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhigang; Zou, Jinfeng; Chen, Haiming; Cheng, Weiwei; Fu, Xiong; Xiao, Zhigang

    2016-02-10

    Amylose-zinc inclusion complexes were synthesized using zinc chloride and amylose, which is obtained by completely debranching potato starch using pullulanase. Based on the zinc content (W-Zn) and zinc conversion (C-Zn), the reaction parameters, such as reaction time, reaction temperature, pH value and amount of zinc chloride added, were evaluated. The W-Zn and C-Zn of the zinc-loaded amylose, which was prepared under optimal conditions, were 128mg/g and 82.05%, respectively. The Raman spectra showed that amylose formed a special single helix structure after complexing with zinc. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results showed that starch and zinc could formate the inclusion complexes. Moreover, the formation of amylose-zinc inclusion complexes was confirmed by the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and (13)C CP/MAS NMR, which suggests that zinc was mainly coordinated to the oxygen atoms of the glucose unit, 6-CH2OH. Thermal properties of the complexes were influenced by the zincatation process. This approach not only enlarged the number of fields for amylose use but also exhibited the extensive potential applications for zinc nutrition fortifier research. The study suggested that potato amylose might be a good carrier of zinc for nutritional supplementation purposes. PMID:26686135

  14. Zinc in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... good source of zinc. Beef, pork, and lamb contain more zinc than fish. The dark meat of ... most multivitamin and mineral supplements. These supplements may contain zinc gluconate, zinc sulfate, or zinc acetate. It ...

  15. Zinc as an appetite stimulator - the possible role of zinc in the progression of diseases such as cachexia and sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hajime; Asakawa, Akihiro; Li, Jiang B; Tsai, Minglun; Amitani, Haruka; Ohinata, Kousaku; Komai, Michio; Inui, Akio

    2011-09-01

    Zinc is required by humans and animals for many physiological functions, such as growth, immune function, and reproduction. Zinc deficiency induces a number of physiological problems, including anorexia, growth retardation, dermatitis, taste disorder, and hypogonadism. Although it is clear that zinc deficiency produces specific and profound anorexia in experimental animals, the connection between zinc deficiency and anorexia is less certain. We were the first to show that orally, but not intraperitoneally, administered zinc rapidly stimulates food intake through orexigenic peptides coupled to the afferent vagus nerve using rats during early-stage zinc deficiency without decreased zinc concentrations in plasma and tissues. We confirmed that a zinc-sufficient diet containing zinc chloride acutely stimulated food intake after short-term zinc deprivation. We also found that orally administered zinc sulfate increased the expression of NPY and orexin mRNA after administration. Using vagotomized rats, we tested whether the increase in food intake after oral administration of zinc was mediated by the vagus nerve. In sham-operated rats, the oral administration of zinc stimulated food intake, whereas zinc and saline administrations did not exhibit differing effects in vagotomized rats. We conclude that zinc stimulates food intake in short-term zinc-deficient rats through the afferent vagus nerve with subsequent effects on hypothalamic peptides associated with food intake regulation. In this review, we describe recent research investigating the roles of zinc as an appetite stimulator in food intake regulation, along with research about hypothalamus, ghrelin, leptin and zinc receptor, and clinical application about anorexia nervosa, cachexia and sarcopenia. The article also presents some promising patents on zinc. PMID:21846317

  16. Kinetics of the reduction of the zinc oxide in zinc ferrite with iron

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, J.R.; Pickles, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust, which can be considered as a by-product of the steel recycling process, contains significant quantities of recoverable zinc and iron, as well as hazardous elements such as cadmium, lead and chromium, which can be leached by ground water. The zinc in the EAF dust is found almost entirely in the form of either zinc oxide or zinc ferrite, the latter accounting for 20 to 50 percent of the total zinc. It is important that an efficient process be developed which renders the dust inert, while reclaiming the valuable metals to off-set processing costs. During the conventional carbothermic reduction processes, iron is formed, and this iron can participate in the reduction of the zinc oxide in zinc ferrite. In the present work, the reduction of the zinc oxide in zinc ferrite by iron according to the following reaction: ZnO{sup {sm_bullet}}Fe{sub 2}O{sub (s.s.)} + 2 Fe{sub (s)} = Zn{sub (g)} + 4 FeO{sub (s)} was studied in an argon atmosphere using a thermogravimetric technique. First, a thermodynamic analysis was performed using the F*A*C*T computational system. Then, the effects of briquette aspect ratio (l/d), temperature, zinc ferrite particle size, amount of iron added, as well as additions such as lime, sodium chloride, and calcium fluoride were investigated.

  17. Pro-inflammatory responses of RAW264.7 macrophages when treated with ultralow concentrations of silver, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Giovanni, Marcella; Yue, Junqi; Zhang, Lifeng; Xie, Jianping; Ong, Choon Nam; Leong, David Tai

    2015-10-30

    To cellular systems, nanoparticles are considered as foreign particles. Upon particles and cells contact, innate immune system responds by activating the inflammatory pathway. However, excessive inflammation had been linked to various diseases ranging from allergic responses to cancer. Common nanoparticles, namely silver, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide exist in the environment as well as in consumer products at ultralow level of 10(-6)-10(-3) ?g mL(-1). However, so far the risks of such low NPs concentrations remain unexplored. Therefore, we attempted to screen the pro-inflammatory responses after ultralow concentration treatments of the three nanoparticles on RAW264.7 macrophages, which are a part of the immune system, at both cellular and gene levels. Even though cytotoxicity was only observed at nanoparticles concentrations as high as 10 ?g mL(-1), through the level of NF-?B and upregulation of pro-inflammatory genes, we observed activation of the induction of genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines starting already at 10(-7) ?g mL(-1). This calls for more thorough characterization of nanoparticles in the environment as well as in consumer products to ascertain the health and safety of the consumers and living systems in general. PMID:25956645

  18. The Solanum lycopersicum Zinc Finger2 Cysteine-2/Histidine-2 Repressor-Like Transcription Factor Regulates Development and Tolerance to Salinity in Tomato and Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Hichri, Imène; Muhovski, Yordan; Žižková, Eva; Dobrev, Petre I.; Franco-Zorrilla, Jose Manuel; Solano, Roberto; Lopez-Vidriero, Irene; Motyka, Vaclav; Lutts, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    The zinc finger superfamily includes transcription factors that regulate multiple aspects of plant development and were recently shown to regulate abiotic stress tolerance. Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Zinc Finger2 [SIZF2]) is a cysteine-2/histidine-2-type zinc finger transcription factor bearing an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression domain and binding to the ACGTCAGTG sequence containing two AGT core motifs. SlZF2 is ubiquitously expressed during plant development, and is rapidly induced by sodium chloride, drought, and potassium chloride treatments. Its ectopic expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tomato impaired development and influenced leaf and flower shape, while causing a general stress visible by anthocyanin and malonyldialdehyde accumulation. SlZF2 enhanced salt sensitivity in Arabidopsis, whereas SlZF2 delayed senescence and improved tomato salt tolerance, particularly by maintaining photosynthesis and increasing polyamine biosynthesis, in salt-treated hydroponic cultures (125 mm sodium chloride, 20 d). SlZF2 may be involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis/signaling, because SlZF2 is rapidly induced by ABA treatment and 35S::SlZF2 tomatoes accumulate more ABA than wild-type plants. Transcriptome analysis of 35S::SlZF2 revealed that SlZF2 both increased and reduced expression of a comparable number of genes involved in various physiological processes such as photosynthesis, polyamine biosynthesis, and hormone (notably ABA) biosynthesis/signaling. Involvement of these different metabolic pathways in salt stress tolerance is discussed. PMID:24567191

  19. The Solanum lycopersicum Zinc Finger2 cysteine-2/histidine-2 repressor-like transcription factor regulates development and tolerance to salinity in tomato and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hichri, Imène; Muhovski, Yordan; Žižkova, Eva; Dobrev, Petre I; Franco-Zorrilla, Jose Manuel; Solano, Roberto; Lopez-Vidriero, Irene; Motyka, Vaclav; Lutts, Stanley

    2014-04-01

    The zinc finger superfamily includes transcription factors that regulate multiple aspects of plant development and were recently shown to regulate abiotic stress tolerance. Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Zinc Finger2 [SIZF2]) is a cysteine-2/histidine-2-type zinc finger transcription factor bearing an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression domain and binding to the ACGTCAGTG sequence containing two AGT core motifs. SlZF2 is ubiquitously expressed during plant development, and is rapidly induced by sodium chloride, drought, and potassium chloride treatments. Its ectopic expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tomato impaired development and influenced leaf and flower shape, while causing a general stress visible by anthocyanin and malonyldialdehyde accumulation. SlZF2 enhanced salt sensitivity in Arabidopsis, whereas SlZF2 delayed senescence and improved tomato salt tolerance, particularly by maintaining photosynthesis and increasing polyamine biosynthesis, in salt-treated hydroponic cultures (125 mm sodium chloride, 20 d). SlZF2 may be involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis/signaling, because SlZF2 is rapidly induced by ABA treatment and 35S::SlZF2 tomatoes accumulate more ABA than wild-type plants. Transcriptome analysis of 35S::SlZF2 revealed that SlZF2 both increased and reduced expression of a comparable number of genes involved in various physiological processes such as photosynthesis, polyamine biosynthesis, and hormone (notably ABA) biosynthesis/signaling. Involvement of these different metabolic pathways in salt stress tolerance is discussed. PMID:24567191

  20. Spectrophotometric studies and applications for the determination of Ni²+ in zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xiaoping; Li, Helin; Zhao, Wenzhen; Li, Dejun

    2012-09-01

    The absorption properties of zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte were studied by visible spectrophotometer. The results show that the relationship between the absorbance of the zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte and Ni(2+) concentration in the electrolyte obeys Beer's law at 660 nm. In addition, other components except Ni(2+) in the zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte such as zinc chloride, ammonium chloride, potassium chloride and boric acid have no obvious effect on the absorbance of zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte. Based on these properties, a new method is developed to determine Ni(2+) concentration in zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte. Comparing with other methods, this method is simple, direct and accurate. Moreover, the whole testing process does not consume any reagent and dilution, and after testing, the electrolyte samples can be reused without any pollution to the environment. PMID:22591796

  1. Preparation of Solid, Substituted Allylic Zinc Reagents and Their Reactions with Electrophiles.

    PubMed

    Ellwart, Mario; Knochel, Paul

    2015-09-01

    The treatment of various allylic chlorides or bromides with zinc dust in the presence of lithium chloride and magnesium pivalate (Mg(OCOtBu)2) in THF affords allylic zinc reagents which, after evaporation of the solvent, produce solid zinc reagents that display excellent thermal stability. These allylic reagents undergo Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with PEPPSI-IPent, as well as highly regioselective and diastereoselective additions to aryl ketones and aldehydes. Acylation with various acid chlorides regioselectively produces the corresponding homoallylic ketones, with the new C-C bond always being formed on the most hindered carbon of the allylic system. PMID:26189654

  2. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Cuong D.; Gopalsamy, Geetha L.; Mortimer, Elissa K.; Young, Graeme P.

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease. PMID:26035248

  3. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  4. Proof of concept of a zinc-silver battery for the extraction of energy from a concentration difference.

    E-print Network

    Carati, Andrea

    Proof of concept of a zinc-silver battery for the extraction of energy from a concentration. In this paper, we propose such an electrochemical cell, working with water solutions of zinc chloride. The cell contains two electrodes, made respectively of zinc and silver covered by silver chlo- ride. The operation

  5. Chloride - urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    The urine chloride test measures the amount of chloride in a certain volume of urine. ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested in the lab. If needed, the health care provider may ask you to collect your urine ...

  6. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different ... poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric chloride. This is for information only and not for ...

  7. Chloride in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... found in table salt or sea salt as sodium chloride. It is also found in many vegetables. Foods ... Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 2004.

  8. Zinc phosphide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc phoshide ; CASRN 1314 - 84 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  9. Zinc cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc cyanide ; CASRN 557 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  10. Zinc interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most common and probably the most harmful micronutrient deficiency of commercial pecan enterprises is zinc deficiency. A review is presented of how orchard nutrient element management practices potentially influence tree Zn nutrition. Findings provide background information on how to reduce th...

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel RING zinc-finger protein gene up-regulated under in vitro salt stress in cassava.

    PubMed

    dos Reis, Sávio Pinho; Tavares, Liliane de Souza Conceição; Costa, Carinne de Nazaré Monteiro; Brígida, Aílton Borges Santa; de Souza, Cláudia Regina Batista

    2012-06-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the world's most important food crops. It is cultivated mainly in developing countries of tropics, since its root is a major source of calories for low-income people due to its high productivity and resistance to many abiotic and biotic factors. A previous study has identified a partial cDNA sequence coding for a putative RING zinc finger in cassava storage root. The RING zinc finger protein is a specialized type of zinc finger protein found in many organisms. Here, we isolated the full-length cDNA sequence coding for M. esculenta RZF (MeRZF) protein by a combination of 5' and 3' RACE assays. BLAST analysis showed that its deduced amino acid sequence has a high level of similarity to plant proteins of RZF family. MeRZF protein contains a signature sequence motif for a RING zinc finger at its C-terminal region. In addition, this protein showed a histidine residue at the fifth coordination site, likely belonging to the RING-H2 subgroup, as confirmed by our phylogenetic analysis. There is also a transmembrane domain in its N-terminal region. Finally, semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays showed that MeRZF expression is increased in detached leaves treated with sodium chloride. Here, we report the first evidence of a RING zinc finger gene of cassava showing potential role in response to salt stress. PMID:22307786

  12. Bacitracin zinc overdose

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Small amounts of bacitracin zinc are dissolved in petroleum jelly to create antibiotic ointments. Bacitracin zinc overdose ... 1-800-222-1222. See also: Bacitracin overdose Petroleum jelly overdose Zinc oxide overdose

  13. Enhanced zinc consumption causes memory deficits and increased brain levels of zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flinn, J.M.; Hunter, D.; Linkous, D.H.; Lanzirotti, A.; Smith, L.N.; Brightwell, J.; Jones, B.F.

    2005-01-01

    Zinc deficiency has been shown to impair cognitive functioning, but little work has been done on the effects of elevated zinc. This research examined the effect on memory of raising Sprague-Dawley rats on enhanced levels of zinc (10 ppm ZnCO3; 0.153 mM) in the drinking water for periods of 3 or 9 months, both pre- and postnatally. Controls were raised on lab water. Memory was tested in a series of Morris Water Maze (MWM) experiments, and zinc-treated rats were found to have impairments in both reference and working memory. They were significantly slower to find a stationary platform and showed greater thigmotaxicity, a measure of anxiety. On a working memory task, where the platform was moved each day, zinc-treated animals had longer latencies over both trials and days, swam further from the platform, and showed greater thigmotaxicity. On trials using an Atlantis platform, which remained in one place but was lowered on probe trials, the zinc-treated animals had significantly fewer platform crossings, spent less time in the target quadrant, and did not swim as close to the platform position. They had significantly greater latency on nonprobe trials. Microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (??SXRF) confirmed that brain zinc levels were increased by adding ZnCO 3 to the drinking water. These data show that long-term dietary administration of zinc can lead to impairments in cognitive function. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Phosphonium chloride for thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Development of systems for storage of thermal energy is discussed. Application of phosphonium chloride for heat storage through reversible dissociation is described. Chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties of phosphonium chloride are analyzed and dangers in using phosphonium chloride are explained.

  15. Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for missile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planchat, J. P.; Descroix, J. P.; Sarre, G.

    A comparative performance study has been conducted for silver-zinc, thionyl chloride, and thermal batteries designed for such missile applications as ICBM guidance system power supplies. Attention is given to each of the three candidates' conformity to requirements concerning mechanical configuration, electrochemical design, electrolyte reservoir, external case, and gas generator. The silver-zinc and Li-SOCl2 candidates employ similar cell configurations and yield comparable performance. The thermal battery is found to be incapable of meeting battery case temperature-related requirements.

  16. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  17. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    1996-01-01

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

  18. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  19. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration?20?g/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. PMID:25439135

  20. The development of a micropatterned electrode for studies of zinc electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect

    Sutija, D.P.; Muller, R.H.; Tobias, C.W.

    1986-12-01

    A micropatterned electrode was prepared for the study of electrocrystallization. Using microphotolithography, in conjunction with evaporation and pulse electrodeposition of thin films, a set of artificially roughened electrodes with hemispherical surface features five microns in diameter was developed. Voltammetric studies were conducted to determine the best electrode material. Gold, platinum, and various carbon surfaces were evaluated for zinc nucleation density and hydrogen overpotential. Surface homogeneity was examined by both light and scanning electron microscopy. Gold was determined to possess the best combination of material properties: chemical inertness, low melting point, and a high work function allowing underpotential deposition of zinc which reduces the rate of hydrogen evolution. Stripping coulometry was employed to determine zinc limiting currents, and evaluate effective diffusion coefficients in concentrated zinc chloride solutions. Although the method worked well for dilute zinc chloride and copper sulfate solutions, it failed at higher current densities; the emergence of surface roughness obscured actual limiting current plateaus.

  1. Zinc might protect oxidative changes in the retina and pancreas at the early stage of diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Moustafa, Sohair A. . E-mail: Sohabdulla@hotmail.com

    2004-12-01

    It is well documented that oxidative stress is a basic mechanism behind the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The current study was undertaken to elucidate the possible role of zinc as an antioxidant and a biological membrane stabilizer in the protection against (DR). Male Wistar rats weighing 250 {+-} 50 g were made diabetic by injection with a single ip dose of alloxan (100 mg/kg). Another group of rats was simultaneously treated with alloxan (100 mg/kg) and a single ip dose of zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}) (5 mg/kg). Blood and tissue samples were collected at 24, 48, and 72 h post-treatment in both groups. Diabetic state was confirmed by the determination of plasma glucose levels (significantly elevated at any time of the experiment when compared with controls receiving vehicle). Plasma insulin was significantly increased 24 h after treatment in both alloxan and alloxan plus ZnCl{sub 2}-treated groups, and then decreased markedly 48 and 72 h post treatment in both groups. Alloxan treatment depleted both retinal and liver glutathione contents. The decrease in retinal and liver GSH in alloxan-treated rats was accompanied with a sustained increase in their thiobarbituric acid (TBA) content. Simultaneous treatment of rats with alloxan and ZnCl{sub 2} blunted the sustained increment in plasma glucose induced by alloxan. The combined administration of alloxan and zinc reversed the depleting effect on retinal and hepatic GSH in alloxan-treated rats and reduced the elevations in TBA content of both retinas and livers. At variance with many other antioxidants the current results clearly indicate the beneficial effects of Zn in both controlling hyperglycemia and the protection of the retina against oxidative stress in diabetes which may help set a new direction toward the development of effective treatments of DR.

  2. Disturbed zinc homeostasis in diabetic patients by in vitro and in vivo analysis of insulinomimetic activity of zinc.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Judith; Rosenkranz, Eva; Overbeck, Silke; Warmuth, Sabine; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Giacconi, Robertina; Weiskirchen, Ralf; Karges, Wolfram; Rink, Lothar

    2012-11-01

    Disturbances of zinc homeostasis have been observed in several diseases, including diabetes mellitus. To further characterize the association between zinc and diabetes, we recruited 75 patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and 75 nondiabetic sex-/age-matched control subjects in order to analyze differences concerning human zinc transporter 8 (hZnT-8) expression, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes of hZnT-8 as well as metallothionein 1A and serum/intracellular zinc. Furthermore, we investigated the relation between insulin and zinc homeostasis in type 2 diabetic subjects and consolidated our results by in vitro analysis of the effect of insulin on cellular zinc status and by analysis of the modulation of insulin signal transduction by intracellular zinc homeostasis. Concerning the expression of hZnT-8 and the SNPs analyzed, we did not observe any differences between diabetic and control subjects. Serum zinc was significantly lower in diabetic patients compared to controls, and intracellular zinc showed the same tendency. Interestingly, type 2 diabetes patients treated with insulin displayed lower serum zinc compared to those not injecting insulin. In vitro analyses showed that insulin leads to an increase in intracellular zinc and that insulin signaling was enhanced by elevated intracellular zinc concentrations. In conclusion, we show that type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients suffer from zinc deficiency, and our results indicate that zinc supplementation may qualify as a potential treatment adjunct in type 2 diabetes by promoting insulin signaling, especially in zinc-deficient subjects. PMID:22402369

  3. A Novel Low-Cost Sodium-Zinc Chloride Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-02-28

    The sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) battery has been considered as one of the most attractive energy storage systems for stationary and transportation applications. Even though Na-NiCl2 battery has been widely investigated, there is still a need to develop a more economical system to make this technology more attractive for commercialization. In the present work, a novel low-cost Na-ZnCl2 battery with a thin planar ??-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE) was proposed, and its electrochemical reactions and battery performance were investigated. Compared to the Na-NiCl2 chemistry, the ZnCl2-based chemistry was more complicated, in which multiple electrochemical reactions including liquid-phase formation occurred at temperatures above 253°C. During the first stage of charge, NaCl reacted with Zn to form Na in the anode and Na2ZnCl4 in the cathode. Once all the residual NaCl was consumed, further charging led to the formation of a NaCl-ZnCl2 liquid phase. At the end of charge, the liquid phase reacted with Zn to produce solid ZnCl2. To identify the effects of liquid-phase formation on electrochemical performance, button cells were assembled and tested at 280°C and 240°C. At 280°C where the liquid phase formed during cycling, cells revealed quite stable cyclability. On the other hand, more rapid increase in polarization was observed at 240°C where only solid-state electrochemical reactions occurred. SEM analysis indicated that the stable performance at 280°C was due to the suppressed growth of Zn and NaCl particles, which were generated from the liquid phase during discharge of each cycle.

  4. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    SciTech Connect

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

  5. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

  6. Investigation of factors influencing chloride extraction efficiency during electrochemical chloride extraction from reinforcing concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Stephen R.

    2005-11-01

    Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) is an accelerated bridge restoration method similar to cathodic protection, but operates at higher current densities and utilizes a temporary installation. Both techniques prolong the life of a bridge by reducing the corrosion rate of the reinforcing bar when properly applied. ECE achieves this by moving chlorides away from the reinforcement and out of the concrete while simultaneously increasing the alkalinity of the electrolyte near the reinforcing steel. Despite the proven success, significant use of ECE has not resulted in part due to an incomplete understanding in the following areas: (1) An estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment when the treated member is again subjected to chlorides; (2) The cause of the decrease in current flow and, therefore, chloride removal rate during treatment; (3) Influence of water-to-cement (w/c) ratio and cover depth on the time required for treatment. This dissertation covers the research that is connected to the last two areas listed above. To begin examining these issues, plain carbon steel reinforcing bars (rebar) were embedded in portland cement concrete slabs of varying water-to-cement (w/c) ratios and cover depths, and then exposed to chlorides. A fraction of these slabs had sodium chloride added as an admixture, with all of the slabs subjected to cyclical ponding with a saturated solution of sodium chloride. ECE was then used to remove the chlorides from these slabs while making electrical measurements in the different layers between the rebar (cathode) and the titanium mat (anode) to follow the progress of the ECE process. During this study, it was revealed that the resistance of the outer concrete surface layer increases during ECE, inevitably restricting current flow, while the resistance of the underlying concrete decreases or remains constant. During ECE treatment, a white residue formed on the surface of the concrete. Analyses of the residue revealed that it contains calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, and other yet unidentified minor components when calcium hydroxide was used as the electrolyte. The surface film can be completely removed mechanically or to some extent inhibited chemically, with both of these processes resulting in an increase in the efficiency of the electrochemical chloride extraction process. In addition, an obvious relationship between the cover depth, water-to-cement ratio, and chloride extraction efficiency does not exist, however, cover depth does influence the current density. The final phase of this study will be presented in a VTRC/FHWA final report. This report will include the results that are presented in this dissertation, in addition to the results from the ongoing research. It will also include an estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment.

  7. Determination of chloride in geological samples by ion chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, S.A.; Gent, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    Samples of silicate rocks are prepared by sodium carbonate fusion and then treated by ion chromatography. The method was tested for geological standards with chloride concentration between 0.003 and 3%. Observed chloride concentrations comparedd favorably with literature values. The relative standard deviation and detection limit for the method were 8% and 7 ppm, respectively. Up to 30 determination per 24-hour period were possible. ?? 1983.

  8. ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition, and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention, and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METH...

  9. A Chemical Stain for Identifying Arsenic-Treated Wood

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    ) and Modified Stannous Chloride Stain (bottom) on New Wood at Reaction Time 5 Hours Figure II.4 Stannous Chloride Stain Progression of Color Change for New 4.0 kg/m3 (top) and 40 kg/m3 (bottom) CCA-Treated Wood.10 Graph of Ash pH vs. Average Percent CCA-Treated Wood Figure II.11 Stannous Chloride Stain Arsenic

  10. PHOTOOXIDATION OF ALLYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The photooxidation of allyl chloride was studied by irradiation either in 100-L Teflon bags or in a 22.7-cu m Teflon smog chamber in the presence of added NOx. In the absence of added hydrocarbons, the reaction involves a Cl atom chain, which leads to a highly reactive system. A ...

  11. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: POLYVINYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes data on air emissions from the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry. PVC is manufactured by 20 companies at 35 plants. Each plant uses one or more of four possible polymerization processes: (1) suspension polymerization, (2) emulsion polymerization, (3) bulk p...

  12. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G. (Cambridge, MA)

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

  13. Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

  14. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 1974, Vol. 20, pp. 501-504, Pergamon Press. Printed in Great Britain EFFECT OF CHLORIDE AND BENZOATE ANIONS

    E-print Network

    Govindjee

    Britain EFFECT OF CHLORIDE AND BENZOATE ANIONS ON THE DELAYED LIGHT EMISSION IN DCMU-TREATED SPINACH, UrbanaIII.61801,U.S.A. (Receioed 14November 1973;accepted 29April 1974) Abstract-Chloride anions, when

  15. Intraprostatic injection of neutralized zinc in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fahim, M.S.; Wang, M.; Sutcu, M.F.; Fahim, Z.; Safron, J.A.; Ganjam, V.K. Xian Medical University )

    1991-03-11

    Zinc has been implicated in steroid endocrinology of the prostate gland. The conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by 5{alpha}-reductase enzyme is believed to express androgenic responses in the prostate. To note the effect of neutralized zinc on the prostate, 50 sexually mature rats, weighing 325 {plus minus} 20 grams, were divided into 5 groups as follows: (1) control, (2) sham, (3) castrated, (4) injected intraprostatically with 10 mg. neutralized zinc, and (5) injected intraprostatically with 20 mg. neutralized zinc. Results in the treated groups indicated significant reduction of prostate weights, 12% and 53% and histologically normal prostate; no significant change in weight and histological structure of testes, epididymides, and seminal vesicles; significant reduction in 5{alpha}-reductase activity and total protein and DNA concentrations in prostate tissue; and no significant effect on progeny of treated animals. These results suggest that direct application of neutralized zinc to the prostate offers a new modality for treatment of prostatitis without affecting spermatogenesis and testosterone production.

  16. Monitoring personnel exposure to vinyl chloride, vinylidene chloride and methyl chloride in an industrial work environment.

    PubMed

    Severs, L W; Skory, L K

    1975-09-01

    Pittsburgh PCB 12 times 30 activated carbon is found to be the most suitable of the commerically available carbons tested for personnel sampling of vinyl chloride, vinylidene chloride, and methyl chloride. The carbon is desorbed with CS2 at dry ice temperature or with a thermal desorption technique. PMID:1180218

  17. Zinc Extraction from Zinc Plants Residue Using Selective Alkaline Leaching and Electrowinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtari, Pedram; Pourghahramani, Parviz

    2015-10-01

    Annually, a great amount of zinc plants residue is produced in Iran. One of them is hot filter cake (known as HFC) which can be used as a secondary resource of zinc, cobalt and manganese. Unfortunately, despite its heavy metal content, the HFC is not treated. For the first time, zinc was selectively leached from HFC employing alkaline leaching. Secondly, leaching was optimized to achieve maximum recovery using this method. Effects of factors like NaOH concentration (C = 3, 5, 7 and 9 M), temperature (T = 50, 70, 90 and 105 °C), solid/liquid ratio (weight/volume, S/L = 1/10 and 1/5 W/V) and stirring speed (R = 500 and 800 rpm) were studied on HFC leaching. L16 orthogonal array (OA, two factors in four levels and two factors in two levels) was applied to determine the optimum condition and the most significant factor affecting the overall zinc extraction. As a result, maximum zinc extraction was 83.4 %. Afterwards, a rough test was conducted for zinc electrowinning from alkaline solution according to the common condition available in literature by which pure zinc powder (99.96 %) was successfully obtained.

  18. Phosphorescent Sensor for Biological Mobile Zinc

    PubMed Central

    You, Youngmin; Lee, Sumin; Kim, Taehee; Ohkubo, Kei; Chae, Weon-Sik; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Jhon, Gil-Ja; Nam, Wonwoo; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    A new phosphorescent zinc sensor (ZIrF) was constructed based on an Ir(III) complex bearing two 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine (dfppy) cyclometalating ligands and a neutral 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligand. A zinc-specific di(2-picolyl)amino (DPA) receptor was introduced at the 4-position of the phen ligand via a methylene linker. The cationic Ir(III) complex exhibited dual phosphorescence bands in CH3CN solutions originating from blue and yellow emission of the dfppy and phen ligands, respectively. Zinc coordination selectively enhanced the latter, affording a phosphorescence ratiometric response. Electrochemical techniques, quantum chemical calculations, and steady-state and femtosecond spectroscopy were employed to establish a photophysical mechanism for this phosphorescence response. The studies revealed that zinc coordination perturbs nonemissive processes of photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) and intraligand charge transfer (ILCT) transition occurring between DPA and phen. ZIrF can detect zinc ions in a reversible and selective manner in buffered solution (pH 7.0, 25 mM PIPES) with Kd = 11 nM and pKa = 4.16. Enhanced signal-to-noise ratios were achieved by time-gated acquisition of long-lived phosphorescence signals. The sensor was applied to image biological free zinc ions in live A549 cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy. A fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope (FLIM) detected an increase in photoluminescence lifetime for zinc-treated A549 cells as compared to controls. ZIrF is the first successful phosphorescent sensor that detects zinc ions in biological samples. PMID:22023085

  19. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  20. Nickel-zinc cell

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.A.

    1982-11-09

    A long-lived, nickel-zinc cell is disclosed which is characterized by a zinc electrode having a copper grid and an active material comprising zinc-rich particles, calcium-rich particles and an entanglement of cellulose fibers for irrigating the mix and supporting Cazincate formation and persistance. Lead compounds may be added for improved turn around efficiency and reduced H/sub 2/O loss.

  1. Zinc-halogen battery

    SciTech Connect

    Watakabe, Y.; Fujisaki, F.; Fujiwara, K.; Shimizu, Sh.

    1984-09-25

    A zinc-halogen battery having a negative electrode of zinc electrode, a positive electrode of halogen electrode, and an electrolyte of aqueous solution containing a zinc halide as a main component thereof, which is characterized in that said electrolyte contains T1 and/or T1 compound and further at least one additive selected from the group consisting of Mo, W, Sn, Pb, Bi and the compounds thereof, if necessary, with addition of In and/or In compound.

  2. Zinc in Entamoeba invadens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. S.; Sattilaro, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and dithizone staining of trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba invadens demonstrate that these cells have a high concentration of zinc (approximately one picogram per cell or 1% of their dry weight). In the cysts of this organism, the zinc is confined to the chromatoid bodies, which previous work has shown to contain crystals of ribosomes. The chemical state and function of this zinc are unknown.

  3. Zinc: An Essential Micronutrient

    PubMed Central

    SAPER, ROBERT B.; RASH, REBECCA

    2009-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient for human metabolism that catalyzes more than 100 enzymes, facilitates protein folding, and helps regulate gene expression. Patients with malnutrition, alcoholism, inflammatory bowel disease, and malabsorption syndromes are at an increased risk of zinc deficiency. Symptoms of zinc deficiency are nonspecific, including growth retardation, diarrhea, alopecia, glossitis, nail dystrophy, decreased immunity, and hypogonadism in males. In developing countries, zinc supplementation may be effective for the prevention of upper respiratory infection and diarrhea, and as an adjunct treatment for diarrhea in malnourished children. Zinc in combination with antioxidants may be modestly effective in slowing the progression of intermediate and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Zinc is an effective treatment for Wilson disease. Current data do not support zinc supplementation as effective for upper respiratory infection, wound healing, or human immunodeficiency virus. Zinc is well tolerated at recommended dosages. Adverse effects of long-term high-dose zinc use include suppressed immunity, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, anemia, copper deficiency, and possible genitourinary complications. PMID:20141096

  4. 76 FR 51992 - Determination That PENTETATE ZINC TRISODIUM (Zinc Trisodium Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ...FDA-2010-P-0630] Determination That PENTETATE ZINC TRISODIUM (Zinc Trisodium Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate) Solution...Administration (FDA) has determined that PENTETATE ZINC TRISODIUM (zinc trisodium...

  5. Oxomemazine hydro-chloride.

    PubMed

    Siddegowda, M S; Butcher, Ray J; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H S; Ramesh, A R

    2011-08-01

    IN THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 3-(5,5-dioxo-phen-othia-zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl-propanaminium chloride], C(18)H(23)N(2)O(2)S(+)·Cl(-), the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia-zine unit is 30.5?(2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H?Cl and C-H?Cl hydrogen bonds and C-H?? inter-actions. PMID:22090928

  6. Oxomemazine hydro­chloride

    PubMed Central

    Siddegowda, M. S.; Butcher, Ray J.; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H. S.; Ramesh, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound [systematic name: 3-(5,5-dioxo­phen­othia­zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl­propanaminium chloride], C18H23N2O2S+·Cl?, the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia­zine unit is 30.5?(2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H?Cl and C—H?Cl hydrogen bonds and C—H?? inter­actions. PMID:22090928

  7. Surface scanning techniques to locate and study defects in painted zinc and zinc alloy coated steels

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, H.S.; Aldykiewicz, A.J. Jr.; Thierry, D.; Simpson, T.C.

    1995-02-01

    Current density and impedance mapping measurements have been used to locate and monitor corrosion and defects on painted surfaces in solution. Measurements are reported for painted zinc and aluminum-zinc alloy coated steel surfaces. When scratched, current density mapping showed corrosion of the metal coating started at localized sites in both dilute chloride and sulfate solutions. Different scribing techniques were tested exposing only the metal coating and both the coating and the underlying steel. Effect of roll forming was investigated. Current density mapping located corrosion susceptible defects on painted roll formed materials that were not readily discernible optically. Scanning ac mapping showed that artificially formed defects were readily observed. Local impedance variations with frequency were measured for simulated defects and defect free areas of painted surfaces. Variations in paint thickness and the presence of defects were detected using the ac techniques.

  8. Thermal treatment for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Belardi, G.; Lavecchia, R.; Medici, F.; Piga, L.

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We separated Zn from Mn in zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries after removal of Hg. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost total removal of Hg is achieved at low temperature in air. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen atmosphere is needed to reduce zinc and to permit its volatilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high grade Zn concentrate was obtained with a high recovery at 1000-1200 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grade of Mn in the residue was enhanced with complete recovery. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is the recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn, after preliminary physical treatment followed by removal of mercury. Separation of the metals has been carried out on the basis of their different boiling points, being 357 Degree-Sign C and 906 Degree-Sign C the boiling point of mercury and zinc and 1564 Degree-Sign C the melting point of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Characterization by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA and X-ray powder diffraction of the mixture has been carried out after comminution sieving and shaking table treatment to remove the anodic collectors and most of chlorides contained in the mixture. The mixture has been roasted at various temperatures and resident times in a flow of air to set the best conditions to remove mercury that were 400 Degree-Sign C and 10 min. After that, the flow of air has been turned into a nitrogen one (inert atmosphere) and the temperatures raised, thus permitting the zinc oxide to be reduced to metallic zinc by the carbon present in the original mixture and recovered after volatilization as a high grade concentrate, while manganese was left in the residue. The recovery and the grade of the two metals, at 1000 Degree-Sign C and 30 min residence time, were 84% and 100% for zinc and 85% and 63% for manganese, respectively. The recovery of zinc increased to 99% with a grade of 97% at 1200 Degree-Sign C and 30 min residence time, while the recovery and grade of manganese were 86% and 87%, respectively, at that temperature. Moreover, the chlorinated compounds that could form by the combustion of the plastics contained in the spent batteries, are destroyed at the temperature required by the process.

  9. Chloride-Anion-Templated Synthesis of a Strapped-Porphyrin-Containing Catenane Host System

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Asha; Langton, Matthew J; Kilah, Nathan L; Thompson, Amber L; Beer, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis, structure and anion-recognition properties of a new strapped-porphyrin-containing [2]catenane anion host system are described. The assembly of the catenane is directed by discrete chloride anion templation acting in synergy with secondary aromatic donor–acceptor and coordinative pyridine–zinc interactions. The [2]catenane incorporates a three-dimensional, hydrogen-bond-donating anion-binding pocket; solid-state structural analysis of the catenane?chloride complex reveals that the chloride anion is encapsulated within the catenane’s interlocked binding cavity through six convergent CH????Cl and NH???Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions and solution-phase 1H?NMR titration experiments demonstrate that this complementary hydrogen-bonding arrangement facilitates the selective recognition of chloride over larger halide anions in DMSO solution. PMID:26508679

  10. Chloride-Anion-Templated Synthesis of a Strapped-Porphyrin-Containing Catenane Host System.

    PubMed

    Brown, Asha; Langton, Matthew J; Kilah, Nathan L; Thompson, Amber L; Beer, Paul D

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis, structure and anion-recognition properties of a new strapped-porphyrin-containing [2]catenane anion host system are described. The assembly of the catenane is directed by discrete chloride anion templation acting in synergy with secondary aromatic donor-acceptor and coordinative pyridine-zinc interactions. The [2]catenane incorporates a three-dimensional, hydrogen-bond-donating anion-binding pocket; solid-state structural analysis of the catenane?chloride complex reveals that the chloride anion is encapsulated within the catenane's interlocked binding cavity through six convergent CH????Cl and NH???Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions and solution-phase (1) H?NMR titration experiments demonstrate that this complementary hydrogen-bonding arrangement facilitates the selective recognition of chloride over larger halide anions in DMSO solution. PMID:26508679

  11. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride... hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride... hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride... hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food... GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The...

  15. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vacuole in Zinc Storage and Intracellular Zinc Distribution? ‡

    PubMed Central

    Simm, Claudia; Lahner, Brett; Salt, David; LeFurgey, Ann; Ingram, Peter; Yandell, Brian; Eide, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicated that the vacuole is a major site of zinc storage in the cell. However, these studies did not address the absolute level of zinc that was stored in the vacuole nor did they examine the abundances of stored zinc in other compartments of the cell. In this report, we describe an analysis of the cellular distribution of zinc by use of both an organellar fractionation method and an electron probe X-ray microanalysis. With these methods, we determined that zinc levels in the vacuole vary with zinc status and can rise to almost 100 mM zinc (i.e., 7 × 108 atoms of vacuolar zinc per cell). Moreover, this zinc can be mobilized effectively to supply the needs of as many as eight generations of progeny cells under zinc starvation conditions. While the Zrc1 and Cot1 zinc transporters are essential for zinc uptake into the vacuole under steady-state growth conditions, additional transporters help mediate zinc uptake into the vacuole during “zinc shock,” when zinc-limited cells are resupplied with zinc. In addition, we found that other compartments of the cell do not provide significant stores of zinc. In particular, zinc accumulation in mitochondria is low and is homeostatically regulated independently of vacuolar zinc storage. Finally, we observed a strong correlation between zinc status and the levels of magnesium and phosphorus accumulated in cells. Our results implicate zinc as a major determinant of the ability of the cell to store these other important nutrients. PMID:17526722

  16. Antibiotic bonding to polytetrafluoroethylene with tridodecylmethylammonium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.A.; Alcid, D.V.; Greco, R.S.

    1982-09-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) treated with the cationic surfactant, triodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDMAC), binds /sup 14/C-penicillin (1.5 to 2 mg antibiotic/cm graft), whereas untreated PTFE or PTFE treated with anionic detergents shows little binding of antibiotic. TDMAC-treated PTFE concomitantly binds penicillin and heparin, generating a surface that potentially can resist both infection and thrombosis. The retention of these biologically active molecules is not due to passive entrapment in the PTFE but reflects an ionic interaction between the anionic ligands and surface-bound TDMAC. Penicillin bound to PTFE is not removed by exhaustive washing in aqueous buffers but is slowly released in the presence of plasma or when the PTFE is placed in a muscle pouch in the rat. Muscle tissue adjacent to the treated PTFE shows elevated levels of antibiotic following implantation. PTFE treated with TDMAC and placed in a muscle pouch binds /sup 14/C-penicillin when it is locally irrigated with antibiotic or when penicillin is administered intravenously. Thus, the TDMAC surface treated either in vitro or in vivo with penicillin provides an effective in situ source for the timed release of antibiotic.

  17. ZINC-AIR MICROBATTERY WITH ELECTRODE ARRAY OF ZINC MICROPOSTS

    E-print Network

    Kim, Chang-Jin "CJ"

    ZINC-AIR MICROBATTERY WITH ELECTRODE ARRAY OF ZINC MICROPOSTS Fardad Chamran1 , Hong-Seok Min2 development of a high performance MEMS-fabricated zinc-air microbattery. The key feature of this battery is the 3-dimensional architecture of the zinc electrode, which consists of an array of high aspect ratio

  18. Subacute Zinc Administration and L-NAME Caused an Increase of NO, Zinc, Lipoperoxidation, and Caspase-3 during a Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia Process in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Alvarez, Victor Manuel; Lopez-Moreno, Patricia; Soto-Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Rubio, Hector; Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Piña-Leyva, Celia; Torres-Soto, Maricela; Gomez-Villalobos, María de Jesus; Hernandez-Baltazar, Daniel; Eguibar, José Ramon; Ugarte, Araceli; Cebada, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Zinc or L-NAME administration has been shown to be protector agents, decreasing oxidative stress and cell death. However, the treatment with zinc and L-NAME by intraperitoneal injection has not been studied. The aim of our work was to study the effect of zinc and L-NAME administration on nitrosative stress and cell death. Male Wistar rats were treated with ZnCl2 (2.5?mg/kg each 24?h, for 4 days) and N-?-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, 10?mg/kg) on the day 5 (1 hour before a common carotid-artery occlusion (CCAO)). The temporoparietal cortex and hippocampus were dissected, and zinc, nitrites, and lipoperoxidation were assayed at different times. Cell death was assayed by histopathology using hematoxylin-eosin staining and caspase-3 active by immunostaining. The subacute administration of zinc before CCAO decreases the levels of zinc, nitrites, lipoperoxidation, and cell death in the late phase of the ischemia. L-NAME administration in the rats treated with zinc showed an increase of zinc levels in the early phase and increase of zinc, nitrites, and lipoperoxidation levels, cell death by necrosis, and the apoptosis in the late phase. These results suggest that the use of these two therapeutic strategies increased the injury caused by the CCAO, unlike the alone administration of zinc. PMID:23997853

  19. Examples Class 2 Calcium Chloride

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    Examples Class 2 Calcium Chloride The orthorhombic unit cell of CaCl2 has a = 0.624 nm, b = 0 of this structure on (001). Figure 1: The structure projection for cal- cium chloride 1. What is the Bravais lattice

  20. Effect of metal chlorides on thermal degradation of (waste) polycarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.-J. . E-mail: sjchiu@ns1.mit.edu.tw; Chen, S.-H.; Tsai, C.-T.

    2006-07-01

    In this study, we investigated how to treat (waste) polycarbonate efficiently to reduce its degraded residue. The study was carried out in an isothermal reactor under continuous nitrogen flow at atmospheric pressure to pyrolyze polycarbonate (PC) alone and in the presence of metal chloride. Some metal chlorides were shown to be catalytic active for the degradation of PC at 400 deg. C, which increased degradation conversion from 8.5% to more than 58.3%. Among those active metal chlorides, ZnCl{sub 2} and SnCl{sub 2} can produce higher liquid product yields. Effects such as particle size of PC, temperature, the weight ratio of metal chloride/PC, and degradation time on the degradation conversion of PC without and with these two most active metal chlorides were studied. Results of the liquid product analysis by GC/MS demonstrated the product composition of PC degradation over the metal chlorides is much simpler than that of degradation alone. The main liquid product is phenol, p-isopropylphenol, diphenyl carbonate, and bisphenol A for all cases.

  1. Amelioration of bromobenzene hepatotoxicity in the male rat by zinc.

    PubMed

    McMillan, D A; Schnell, R C

    1985-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the role of zinc in the prevention of bromobenzene hepatoxicity in male rats. Bromobenzene (BB) (7.5 mmol/kg, ip) produced a marked hepatotoxicity as evidenced by increases in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and a marked depression in hepatic glutathione (GSH) content 24 hr after administration. The administration of zinc (92 mumol Zn/kg, ip, at 48 and 24 hr prior to the bromobenzene) ameliorated the bromobenzene elevations in plasma AST (25%) and plasma ALT (50%) but did not alter the decreases in hepatic GSH. Following administration of [14C]BB, the radioactive label was distributed primarily in the cytosolic and lipid fractions derived from liver homogenates. Furthermore, the subcellular distribution of [14C]BB was not altered by zinc pretreatment. The extent of covalent binding of [14C]BB metabolites to hepatic tissue was significantly depressed in zinc-treated rats. Zinc induced the hepatic levels of metallothionein but [14C]BB did not bind to this sulfhydryl rich protein. Further experiments showed that zinc treatment depressed cytochrome P-450 content, the activity of NADPH cytochrome c reductase, and the metabolism of aniline, but not that of ethylmorphine. These studies suggest that the hepatoprotective effect of zinc against bromobenzene toxicity does not involve altered binding of the reactive toxic metabolite to glutathione or metallothionein, but it may be mediated by the inhibitory effect of zinc on the microsomal cytochrome P-450-dependent drug metabolizing system. PMID:3988000

  2. Chloride concentrations in human hepatic cytosol and mitochondria are a function of age.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Stephan C; Rowland-Faux, Laura; Stacpoole, Peter W; James, Margaret O

    2015-04-10

    We recently reported that, in a concentration-dependent manner, chloride protects hepatic glutathione transferase zeta 1 from inactivation by dichloroacetate, an investigational drug used in treating various acquired and congenital metabolic diseases. Despite the importance of chloride ions in normal physiology, and decades of study of chloride transport across membranes, the literature lacks information on chloride concentrations in animal tissues other than blood. In this study we measured chloride concentrations in human liver samples from male and female donors aged 1 day to 84 years (n = 97). Because glutathione transferase zeta 1 is present in cytosol and, to a lesser extent, in mitochondria, we measured chloride in these fractions by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis following conversion of the free chloride to pentafluorobenzylchloride. We found that chloride concentration decreased with age in hepatic cytosol but increased in liver mitochondria. In addition, chloride concentrations in cytosol, (105.2 ± 62.4 mM; range: 24.7-365.7 mM) were strikingly higher than those in mitochondria (4.2 ± 3.8 mM; range 0.9-22.2 mM). These results suggest a possible explanation for clinical observations seen in patients treated with dichloroacetate, whereby children metabolize the drug more rapidly than adults following repeated doses, and also provide information that may influence our understanding of normal liver physiology. PMID:25748576

  3. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food and Drugs...and Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following...

  4. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food and Drugs...and Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following...

  5. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375 Food and...Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No. 123-93-5) may be...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food...Chemical Preservatives § 582.3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food and Drugs...and Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of...

  10. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375 Food and...Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No. 123-03-05) may be...

  11. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375 Food and...Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No. 123-93-5) may be...

  12. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food and Drugs...and Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food...Chemical Preservatives § 582.3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance...

  15. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of...

  16. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. 173.400 Section 173.400 Food and...Additives § 173.400 Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride may be safely used in food in accordance...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ...731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis...the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to...4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No....

  19. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2009-04-01 true Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. 173.400 Section 173.400 Food and...Additives § 173.400 Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride may be safely used in food in accordance...

  1. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food and Drugs...and Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following...

  2. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of...

  3. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375 Food and...Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No. 123-93-5) may be...

  4. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International...the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China...the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead...

  5. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. 173.400 Section 173.400 Food and...Additives § 173.400 Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride may be safely used in food in accordance...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food...Chemical Preservatives § 582.3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375 Food and...Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No. 123-03-05) may be...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. 173.400 Section 173.400 Food and...Additives § 173.400 Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride may be safely used in food in accordance...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food...Chemical Preservatives § 582.3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. 173.400 Section 173.400 Food and...Additives § 173.400 Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride may be safely used in food in accordance...

  17. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food...Chemical Preservatives § 582.3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance...

  18. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  19. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  20. Designing Hydrolytic Zinc Metalloenzymes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential element required for the function of more than 300 enzymes spanning all classes. Despite years of dedicated study, questions regarding the connections between primary and secondary metal ligands and protein structure and function remain unanswered, despite numerous mechanistic, structural, biochemical, and synthetic model studies. Protein design is a powerful strategy for reproducing native metal sites that may be applied to answering some of these questions and subsequently generating novel zinc enzymes. From examination of the earliest design studies introducing simple Zn(II)-binding sites into de novo and natural protein scaffolds to current studies involving the preparation of efficient hydrolytic zinc sites, it is increasingly likely that protein design will achieve reaction rates previously thought possible only for native enzymes. This Current Topic will review the design and redesign of Zn(II)-binding sites in de novo-designed proteins and native protein scaffolds toward the preparation of catalytic hydrolytic sites. After discussing the preparation of Zn(II)-binding sites in various scaffolds, we will describe relevant examples for reengineering existing zinc sites to generate new or altered catalytic activities. Then, we will describe our work on the preparation of a de novo-designed hydrolytic zinc site in detail and present comparisons to related designed zinc sites. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the significant progress being made toward building zinc metalloenzymes from the bottom up. PMID:24506795

  1. Oral zinc supplementation restore high molecular weight seminal zinc binding protein to normal value in Iraqi infertile men

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Zinc in human seminal plasma is divided into three types of ligands which are high (HMW), intermediate (IMW), and low molecular weight ligands (LMW). The present study was aimed to study the effect of Zn supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen along with Zinc Binding Protein levels in the seminal plasma in asthenozoospermic patients. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 37 fertile and 37 asthenozoospermic infertile men with matched age. The subfertile group was treated with zinc sulfate, every participant took two capsules per day for three months (each one 220mg). Semen samples were obtained (before and after zinc sulfate supplementation). After liquefaction seminal fluid at room temperature, routine semen analyses were performed. For determination of the amount of zinc binding proteins, the gel filtration of seminal plasma on Sephadex G-75 was performed. All the fractions were investigated for protein and for zinc concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Evaluation of chromatograms was made directly from the zinc concentration in each fraction. Results A significant high molecular weight zinc binding ligands percentage (HMW-Zn %) was observed in seminal plasma of fertile males compared with subfertile males. However, seminal low molecular weight ligands (LMW-Zn) have opposite behavior. The mean value of semen volume, progressive sperm motility percentage and total normal sperm count were increased after zinc sulfate supplementation. Conclusions Zinc supplementation restores HMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to normal value. Zinc supplementation elevates LMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to more than normal value. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01612403 PMID:23145537

  2. Clioquinol Synergistically Augments Rescue by Zinc Supplementation in a Mouse Model of Acrodermatitis Enteropathica

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Jim; De Lisle, Robert C.; Finkelstein, David; Adlard, Paul A.; Bush, Ashley I.; Andrews, Glen K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Zinc deficiency due to poor nutrition or genetic mutations in zinc transporters is a global health problem and approaches to providing effective dietary zinc supplementation while avoiding potential toxic side effects are needed. Methods/Principal Findings Conditional knockout of the intestinal zinc transporter Zip4 (Slc39a4) in mice creates a model of the lethal human genetic disease acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE). This knockout leads to acute zinc deficiency resulting in rapid weight loss, disrupted intestine integrity and eventually lethality, and therefore provides a model system in which to examine novel approaches to zinc supplementation. We examined the efficacy of dietary clioquinol (CQ), a well characterized zinc chelator/ionophore, in rescuing the Zip4intest KO phenotype. By 8 days after initiation of the knockout neither dietary CQ nor zinc supplementation in the drinking water was found to be effective at improving this phenotype. In contrast, dietary CQ in conjunction with zinc supplementation was highly effective. Dietary CQ with zinc supplementation rapidly restored intestine stem cell division and differentiation of secretory and the absorptive cells. These changes were accompanied by rapid growth and dramatically increased longevity in the majority of mice, as well as the apparent restoration of the homeostasis of several essential metals in the liver. Conclusions These studies suggest that oral CQ (or other 8-hydroxyquinolines) coupled with zinc supplementation could provide a facile approach toward treating zinc deficiency in humans by stimulating stem cell proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:24015258

  3. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  4. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  5. Aluminum doped zinc oxide for organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Murdoch, G. B.; Hinds, S.; Sargent, E. H.; Tsang, S. W.; Mordoukhovski, L.; Lu, Z. H.

    2009-05-25

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) was grown via magnetron sputtering as a low-cost alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO) for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Postdeposition ozone treatment resulted in devices with lower series resistance, increased open-circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency double that of devices fabricated on untreated AZO. Furthermore, cells fabricated using ozone treated AZO and standard ITO displayed comparable performance.

  6. Zinc deficiency during in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes causes meiotic block and developmental failure.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yubyeol; Yoon, Junchul David; Cai, Lian; Hwang, Seon-Ung; Kim, Eunhye; Zheng, Zhong; Jeung, Euibae; Lee, Eunsong; Hyun, Sang-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of zinc deficiency during in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine oocytes. Zinc deficiency was induced by administering the membrane?permeable zinc chelator N,N,N',N'?tetrakis?(2?pyridylmethyl)?ethylendiamine (TPEN). First, the effects of zinc deficiency during IVM on a TPEN?treated group and a TPEN+zinc-treated group compared with a control group were assessed. The oocyte maturation rates and subsequent embryonic developmental competence of the TPEN+zinc?treated oocytes were similar to those of the control oocytes (metaphase II [MII] rate, 93.0 and 92.7%, respectively, and blastocyst [BL] formation rate, 42.0 and 40.0%, respectively). These results were significantly different from those obtained for the TPEN?treated oocytes (MII rate, 0.61%; BL formation rate, 0%). Although the TPEN?treated oocytes were arrested at metaphase I (MI), the distribution of microtubules was normal. However, microfilament formation was abnormal in the TPEN?treated oocytes. Furthermore, the effect of a temporary zinc deficiency during IVM on oocyte maturation and subsequent embryonic development was assessed. TPEN (10 µM) was added to the IVM medium for 0, 7, 15 or 22 h. The 0 h?treated oocytes showed an 83.9% MII rate, while the 7 h?treated oocytes had a significantly lower MII rate (44.8%). Most of the 15- and 22 h?treated oocytes were arrested at MI (MI rate: 98.0 and 97.2%, respectively; MII rate, 0% in both groups). Reductions in the BL formation were dependent on the TPEN treatment duration (29.3, 9.2, 0, and 0% after 0, 7, 15 and 22 h, respectively). In conclusion, zinc is an essential element for successful oocyte maturation and embryonic development in pigs. Zinc deficiency caused a meiotic block and had lasting effects on early embryonic development. PMID:26238161

  7. 76 FR 51992 - Determination That PENTETATE ZINC TRISODIUM (Zinc Trisodium Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That PENTETATE ZINC TRISODIUM (Zinc Trisodium... Administration (FDA) has determined that PENTETATE ZINC TRISODIUM (zinc trisodium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate... PENTETATE ZINC TRISODIUM (Zn-DTPA) solution for intravenous or inhalation administration (EQ 1 g base/5...

  8. Biocidal effects of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on the bioluminescent bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taran, M. V.; Starodub, N. F.; Katsev, A. M.; Guidotti, M.; Khranovskyy, V. D.; Babanin, A. A.; Melnychuk, M. D.

    2013-11-01

    The effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles in combination with alginate on bioluminescent Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1 bacteria was investigated. Silver nanoparticles were found to be more toxic than zinc oxide nanoparticles on bioluminescent bacteria. The nanoparticles and their ions released results in the same effect, however, it was absent in combination with alginate. The effective inhibiting concentration (EC50) for silver nanoparticles was found about 0.3 - 0.4 ?g mL-1, which was up to two times larger then for zinc oxide nanoparticles. The absence of sodium chloride in the tested media prevented the formation of colloidal particles of larger size and the effective inhibition concentrations of metal derivatives were lower than in the presence of sodium chloride.

  9. Lightweight zinc electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrando, William A.

    1994-02-01

    This document describes a light weight zinc electrode made of a sintered mat of copper metal coated graphite fibers, a composite material of zinc active material, and a hydrogel dispersed in a solid, impervious, inert polymer matrix. The composite material surrounds the individual copper metal coated graphite fibers of the sintered mat which support the composite material and provide paths of electrical conductivity throughout the composite material.

  10. Zinc pyrithione impairs zinc homeostasis and upregulates stress response gene expression in reconstructed human epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Lamore, Sarah D.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc ion homeostasis plays an important role in human cutaneous biology where it is involved in epidermal differentiation and barrier function, inflammatory and antimicrobial regulation, and wound healing. Zinc-based compounds designed for topical delivery therefore represent an important class of cutaneous therapeutics. Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) is an FDA-approved microbicidal agent used worldwide in over-the-counter topical antimicrobials, and has also been examined as an investigational therapeutic targeting psoriasis and UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia. Recently, we have demonstrated that cultured primary human skin keratinocytes display an exquisite sensitivity to nanomolar ZnPT concentrations causing induction of heat shock response gene expression and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-dependent cell death (Cell Stress Chaperones 15:309–322, 2010). Here we demonstrate that ZnPT causes rapid accumulation of intracellular zinc in primary keratinocytes as observed by quantitative fluorescence microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and that PARP activation, energy crisis, and genomic impairment are all antagonized by zinc chelation. In epidermal reconstructs (EpiDerm™) exposed to topical ZnPT (0.1–2% in Vanicream™), ICP-MS demonstrated rapid zinc accumulation, and expression array analysis demonstrated upregulation of stress response genes encoding metallothionein-2A (MT2A), heat shock proteins (HSPA6, HSPA1A, HSPB5, HSPA1L, DNAJA1, HSPH1, HSPD1, HSPE1), antioxidants (SOD2, GSTM3, HMOX1), and the cell cycle inhibitor p21 (CDKN1A). IHC analysis of ZnPT-treated EpiDerm™ confirmed upregulation of Hsp70 and TUNEL-positivity. Taken together our data demonstrate that ZnPT impairs zinc ion homeostasis and upregulates stress response gene expression in primary keratinocytes and reconstructed human epidermis, activities that may underlie therapeutic and toxicological effects of this topical drug. PMID:21424779

  11. Zinc pyrithione impairs zinc homeostasis and upregulates stress response gene expression in reconstructed human epidermis.

    PubMed

    Lamore, Sarah D; Wondrak, Georg T

    2011-10-01

    Zinc ion homeostasis plays an important role in human cutaneous biology where it is involved in epidermal differentiation and barrier function, inflammatory and antimicrobial regulation, and wound healing. Zinc-based compounds designed for topical delivery therefore represent an important class of cutaneous therapeutics. Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) is an FDA-approved microbicidal agent used worldwide in over-the-counter topical antimicrobials, and has also been examined as an investigational therapeutic targeting psoriasis and UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia. Recently, we have demonstrated that cultured primary human skin keratinocytes display an exquisite sensitivity to nanomolar ZnPT concentrations causing induction of heat shock response gene expression and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-dependent cell death (Cell Stress Chaperones 15:309-322, 2010). Here we demonstrate that ZnPT causes rapid accumulation of intracellular zinc in primary keratinocytes as observed by quantitative fluorescence microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and that PARP activation, energy crisis, and genomic impairment are all antagonized by zinc chelation. In epidermal reconstructs (EpiDerm™) exposed to topical ZnPT (0.1-2% in Vanicream™), ICP-MS demonstrated rapid zinc accumulation, and expression array analysis demonstrated upregulation of stress response genes encoding metallothionein-2A (MT2A), heat shock proteins (HSPA6, HSPA1A, HSPB5, HSPA1L, DNAJA1, HSPH1, HSPD1, HSPE1), antioxidants (SOD2, GSTM3, HMOX1), and the cell cycle inhibitor p21 (CDKN1A). IHC analysis of ZnPT-treated EpiDerm™ confirmed upregulation of Hsp70 and TUNEL-positivity. Taken together our data demonstrate that ZnPT impairs zinc ion homeostasis and upregulates stress response gene expression in primary keratinocytes and reconstructed human epidermis, activities that may underlie therapeutic and toxicological effects of this topical drug. PMID:21424779

  12. Reflectance measurements of cotton leaf senescence altered by mepiquat chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Escobar, D. E.; Rodriguez, R. R. (principal investigators)

    1982-01-01

    Spectrophotometric reflectance measurements were made on plant-attached leaves to evaluate growth chamber-grown cotton leaf (Gossypium hirsutum L.) senescence (chlorophyll degradation as criterion) that was delayed by mepiquat chloride (1,1-dimethylpiperidinium chloride) rates of 0, 10, 40, 70, and 100 g a.i./ha. Mepiquat chloride (MC increased both chlorophyll and leaf water contents as compared with that of untreated leaves. Reflectance was inversely and linearly correlated (r = -0.873**) with eater content at the 1.65 micrometer wavelength and was inversely correlated (r = -0.812**) with chlorophyll concentration at the 0.55 micrometer wavelength but best fit a quadratic equation. Either wavelength measurement might be useful to remotely detect cotton leaf senescence or fields of MC-treated cotton plants.

  13. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1980-01-01

    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  14. Endogenous Zinc in Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the pantheon of signal ions in biology and medicine. However, the number of biological functions, health implications and pharmacological targets that are emerging for zinc indicate that it might turn out to be 'the calcium of the twenty-first century'. Here neurobiological roles of endogenous zinc is summarized. PMID:20396459

  15. Endogenous zinc in neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Koh, Jae-Yong

    2005-10-01

    The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the pantheon of signal ions in biology and medicine. However, the number of biological functions, health implications and pharmacological targets that are emerging for zinc indicate that it might turn out to be 'the calcium of the twenty-first century'. Here neurobiological roles of endogenous zinc is summarized. PMID:20396459

  16. An XAFS study of nickel chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; G Cheek; K Pandya; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Nickel chloride was studied with cyclic voltammetry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Acidic melts display metal stripping peaks which are not observed in the basic melt. EXAFS analysis shows that the nickel is tetrahedrally coordinated with chloride ions in the basic solution. In the acidic solution the nickel is coordinated by six chloride ions that are also associated with aluminum ions.

  17. Zinc protects against shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli by acting on host tissues as well as on bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Zinc supplements can treat or prevent enteric infections and diarrheal disease. Many articles on zinc in bacteria, however, highlight the essential nature of this metal for bacterial growth and virulence, suggesting that zinc should make infections worse, not better. To address this paradox, we tested whether zinc might have protective effects on intestinal epithelium as well as on the pathogen. Results Using polarized monolayers of T84 cells we found that zinc protected against damage induced by hydrogen peroxide, as measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance. Zinc also reduced peroxide-induced translocation of Shiga toxin (Stx) across T84 monolayers from the apical to basolateral side. Zinc was superior to other divalent metals to (iron, manganese, and nickel) in protecting against peroxide-induced epithelial damage, while copper also showed a protective effect. The SOS bacterial stress response pathway is a powerful regulator of Stx production in STEC. We examined whether zinc’s known inhibitory effects on Stx might be mediated by blocking the SOS response. Zinc reduced expression of recA, a reliable marker of the SOS. Zinc was more potent and more efficacious than other metals tested in inhibiting recA expression induced by hydrogen peroxide, xanthine oxidase, or the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. The close correlation between zinc’s effects on recA/SOS and on Stx suggested that inhibition of the SOS response is one mechanism by which zinc protects against STEC infection. Conclusions Zinc’s ability to protect against enteric bacterial pathogens may be the result of its combined effects on host tissues as well as inhibition of virulence in some pathogens. Research focused solely on the effects of zinc on pathogenic microbes may give an incomplete picture by failing to account for protective effects of zinc on host epithelia. PMID:24903402

  18. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution....

  19. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution....

  2. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7) is a white... manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant formula in accordance with section 412(g)...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution....

  5. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution....

  6. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium...

  8. Alkaline noncyanide zinc plating with reuse of recovered chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Peden, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    A metal finishing process can create environmental problems because it uses chemicals that are not only toxic but also resistant to degradation or decomposition. A study was undertaken at a zinc electroplating operation to achieve zero discharge of wastewater and total recycle of recovered precipitates. The first step in this project was to change an existing zinc cyanide (CN) plating line to one that used an alkaline noncyanide (ANC) zinc bath. The project then investigated a closed-loop system to treat plating rinsewater from the ANC zinc plating line so the plating chemicals were recovered and the water purified. The goal was to return both the recovered zinc hydroxide and the clean water to the plating line for continued use. The replacement of this single CN line with an ANC line resulted in an annual savings to P H Plating of $14,000 from the elimination of the need to pretreat the plating line rinsewater to oxidize cyanide. The addition of the recovery/recycle system increased the company's savings to $62,000/year. The reuse of 30% of the recovered zinc hydroxide and 70% of the treated rinsewater reduced annual water usage and wastewater discharge by 841,911 gallons and reduced the amount of sludge disposed annually by 14 cubic yards. The payback period for the recovery/recycle system is slightly less than 18 months.

  9. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ONE STYLE OF DENVER AGITATOR IN LOWER RIGHT CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  10. Role of zinc in maternal and child mental health1234

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Zea, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Mental health problems in women, children, and adolescents are a significant public health issue. Given current barriers to the effective treatment of these problems, researchers are looking to the field of nutrition for potential alternatives to better understand and address mental health issues. The purpose of this article was to review current evidence on the relation between zinc and mental health disorders with a focus on 2 mental health problems that commonly affect women and children: depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A literature search of the databases Medline and PsychInfo was conducted with the use of key terms. The review included articles from 1975 to May 2008, but focused on articles published in recent years. Relations between zinc concentrations and behavior in animals; the relation between zinc deficiency, depression, and ADHD in patient and community samples; and the potential biological mechanisms for these relations were explored. The data support a relation between low concentrations of zinc and mental health problems, especially in at-risk populations. Evidence for the potential use of zinc in treating mental health problems comes mainly from patient populations and is strongest when zinc is given in combination with pharmacologic treatment. Less conclusive evidence exists for the effectiveness of zinc alone or in general community samples. Recommendations for further research in this area are provided. PMID:19176735

  11. Imaging mobile zinc in biology

    E-print Network

    Tomat, Elisa

    Trafficking and regulation of mobile zinc pools influence cellular functions and pathological conditions in multiple organs, including brain, pancreas, and prostate. The quest for a dynamic description of zinc distribution ...

  12. CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-11-30

    Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

  13. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Raghubir P. (Durham, NC); Gangwal, Santosh K. (Durham, NC); Jain, Suresh C. (Germantown, MD)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 .mu., and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 .mu.. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  14. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

    1998-02-03

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750 to about 950 C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 microns, and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 micron. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  15. History of zinc in agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, over 20 years would past before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure a parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it wa...

  16. Zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.

    1995-12-31

    The zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte is unusual in that supersaturated zincate solutions can form during discharge and spongy or mossy zinc deposits can form on charge at low overvoltages. The effect of additives on regular pasted ZnO electrodes and calcium zincate electrodes is discussed. The paper also reports on in situ x-ray absorption (XAS) results on mossy zinc deposits.

  17. Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

  18. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Allen M. (Newark, DE); Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE); Masi, James V. (Wilbraham, MA); Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Hall, Robert B. (Newark, DE)

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  19. Zinc Phosphide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Do?an, Erdal; Güzel, Abdulmenap; Çiftçi, Taner; Aycan, ?lker; Çetin, Bedri; Kavak, Gönül Ölmez

    2014-01-01

    Zinc phosphide has been used widely as a rodenticide. Upon ingestion, it gets converted to phosphine gas in the body, which is subsequently absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach and the intestines and gets captured by the liver and the lungs. Phosphine gas produces various metabolic and nonmetabolic toxic effects. Clinical symptoms are circulatory collapse, hypotension, shock symptoms, myocarditis, pericarditis, acute pulmonary edema, and congestive heart failure. In this case presentation, we aim to present the intensive care process and treatment resistance of a patient who ingested zinc phosphide for suicide purposes. PMID:25101186

  20. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; York, D.

    1981-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of interstellar zinc toward 10 stars are examined. It is found that zinc is at most only slightly depleted in the interstellar medium; its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. The local interstellar medium has abundances that apparently are homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc, and this result is important for understanding the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood. The intrinsic errors in detecting weak interstellar lines are analyzed and suggestions are made as to how this error limit may be lowered to 5 mA per target observation.

  1. Copper and zinc recycling from copper alloys` spent pickling solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Roman-Moguel, G.J.; Plascencia, G.; Perez, J.

    1995-12-31

    The precipitation of copper and zinc as cements from a copper alloys` spent pickling solution has been studied at laboratory and pilot scale, with the objective of designing an economic process to recover both metals and render a solution to be either recycled to the pickling process or treated in a standard fashion and produce a non-hazardous sludge. The sulfuric acid spent pickling solution already containing copper and zinc was used first to dissolve another solid residue originated in the copper alloys foundry to neutralize part of the acidity. The resulting enriched solution was treated separately with two reductants: sodium borohydride and iron powder varying pH and excess of reductant under constant agitation. Under the best conditions, precipitation of over 95 percent of zinc and copper was achieved together with the reduction of lead and cadmium contents respectively. A process for the combined residues treatment is proposed.

  2. Metal chloride precursor synthesization of Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cell materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Min Yen; Huang, Yu-Fong; Huang, Cheng-Liang; Yang, Chyi-Da; Wuu, Dong-Sing; Lei, Po-Hsun

    2014-07-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films with kesterite structures were prepared by directly sol-gel synthesizing spin-coated precursors on soda-lime-glass (SLG) substrates. The CZTS precursors were prepared by using solutions of copper (II) chloride, zinc (II) chloride, tin (IV) chloride, and thiourea. The ratio of SnCl4 in the precursors was found to play a critical role in the synthesization of CZTS. CZTS phases of SnS and SnS2 were observed in the synthesized films as prepared using precursors with a close to stoichiometric ratio of CuCl2:ZnCl2:SnCl4:CH4N2S = 4:1:1:8, where SnCl4 was 1 mol/l. The amounts of the educed SnS and SnS2 phases observed in the SEM images could be readily reduced by decreasing the volume of SnCl4 in the mixed solution. With decreasing amount of SnCl4 from 1 mol/l, the as prepared CZTS reveals a significant improvement in its crystalline properties. In this work, CZTS with an average absorption coefficient and an optical energy gap of over 104 cm-1 and ~1.5 eV, respectively, was obtained using precursors of copper (II) chloride, zinc (II) chloride, tin (IV) chloride, and thiourea mixed in a ratio of 2:1:0.25:8, and it had good crystallinity revealing a Cu-poor composition.

  3. Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc absorption, turnover and distribution in rats fed diet marginal and adequate in zinc

    SciTech Connect

    King, A.B.; Schwartz, R.

    1987-04-01

    Ethambutol, (CH/sub 3/CH/sub 2/-CH(CH/sub 2/OH)-NH-CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/ (EMB), is an oral antituberculous agent that is administered therapeutically over extended time periods. It has chelating properties and may affect mineral metabolism. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats received 0, 400 or 600 mg EMB per kilogram body weight daily by gavage for 30 d. They were fed a casein-based diet with either adequate (49 ppm) or marginal (11 ppm) zinc. Both adequate-Zn (AZn) and marginal-Zn (MZn) rats receiving EMB showed alopecia and dose-dependent reductions in feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency. None of these changes was seen in rats fed the MZn diet without EMB. Serum and tissue zinc levels were similar in rats not receiving EMB, regardless of the dietary zinc level. Serum zinc was consistently lower in AZn and MZn rats receiving EMB than in rats without EMB. Apparent zinc absorption, measured by /sup 65/Zn balance, was higher in AZn rats receiving EMB than in AZn rats without EMB. Thus, changes in absorption could not account for lower serum zinc levels in EMB-treated rats. However, /sup 65/Zn turnover was also higher in EMB groups. This suggests that EMB may have increased urinary zinc losses resulting in reduced circulating zinc and a consequent increase in zinc absorption.

  4. Development of a ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Aqueous Chloride and Copper Chloride Obaidur Rahaman,

    E-print Network

    Goddard III, William A.

    Development of a ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Aqueous Chloride and Copper Chloride Obaidur-derived energies for condensed-phase copper-chloride clusters as well as chloride/water and copper-chloride with the DFT-derived values. We have performed MD simulations on chloride/water and copper-chloride

  5. Creep Resistant Zinc Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Frank E. Goodwin

    2002-12-31

    This report covers the development of Hot Chamber Die Castable Zinc Alloys with High Creep Strengths. This project commenced in 2000, with the primary objective of developing a hot chamber zinc die-casting alloy, capable of satisfactory service at 140 C. The core objectives of the development program were to: (1) fill in missing alloy data areas and develop a more complete empirical model of the influence of alloy composition on creep strength and other selected properties, and (2) based on the results from this model, examine promising alloy composition areas, for further development and for meeting the property combination targets, with the view to designing an optimized alloy composition. The target properties identified by ILZRO for an improved creep resistant zinc die-casting alloy were identified as follows: (1) temperature capability of 1470 C; (2) creep stress of 31 MPa (4500 psi); (3) exposure time of 1000 hours; and (4) maximum creep elongation under these conditions of 1%. The project was broadly divided into three tasks: (1) Task 1--General and Modeling, covering Experimental design of a first batch of alloys, alloy preparation and characterization. (2) Task 2--Refinement and Optimization, covering Experimental design of a second batch of alloys. (3) Task 3--Creep Testing and Technology transfer, covering the finalization of testing and the transfer of technology to the Zinc industry should have at least one improved alloy result from this work.

  6. Zinc and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 05 / 002 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF ZINC AND COMPOUNDS ( CAS No . 7440 - 66 - 6 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) July 2005 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington D.C . DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordanc

  7. Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

  8. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  9. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-12-14

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  10. Experimental phasing using zinc anomalous scattering

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Sun-Shin; An, Young Jun; Jeong, Chang-Sook; Kim, Min-Kyu; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Oh, Byung-Ha

    2012-01-01

    Zinc is a suitable metal for anomalous dispersion phasing methods in protein crystallography. Structure determination using zinc anomalous scattering has been almost exclusively limited to proteins with intrinsically bound zinc(s). Here, it is reported that multiple zinc ions can easily be charged onto the surface of proteins with no intrinsic zinc-binding site by using zinc-containing solutions. Zn derivatization of protein surfaces appears to be a largely unnoticed but promising method of protein structure determination. PMID:22948927

  11. Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes for cathodic protection of steel-reinforced concrete bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; McGill, Galen E.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are being used in Oregon in impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for reinforced concrete bridges. The U.S. Department of Energy, Albany Research Center, is collaborating with the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) to evaluate the long-term performance and service life of these anodes. Laboratory studies were conducted on concrete slabs coated with 0.5 mm (20 mil) thick, thermal-sprayed zinc anodes. The slabs were electrochemically aged at an accelerated rate using an anode current density of 0.032 A/m2 (3mA/ft2). Half the slabs were preheated before thermal-spraying with zinc; the other half were unheated. Electrochemical aging resulted in the formation at the zinc-concrete interface of a thin, low pH zone (relative to cement paste) consisting primarily of ZnO and Zn(OH)2, and in a second zone of calcium and zinc aluminates and silicates formed by secondary mineralization. Both zones contained elevated concentrations of sulfate and chloride ions. The original bond strength of the zinc coating decreased due to the loss of mechanical bond to the concrete with the initial passage of electrical charge (aging). Additional charge led to an increase in bond strength to a maximum as the result of secondary mineralization of zinc dissolution products with the cement paste. Further charge led to a decrease in bond strength and ultimately coating disbondment as the interfacial reaction zones continued to thicken. This occurred at an effective service life of 27 years at the 0.0022 A/m2 (0.2 mA/ft2) current density typically used by ODOT in ICCP systems for coastal bridges. Zinc coating failure under tensile stress was primarily cohesive within the thickening reaction zones at the zinc-concrete interface. There was no difference between the bond strength of zinc coatings on preheated and unheated concrete surfaces after long service times.

  12. Study on Durability and Stability of an Aqueous Electrolyte Solution for Zinc Bromide Hybrid Flow Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Donghyeon; Jeon, Joonhyeon

    2015-01-01

    Zinc-bromine flow battery using aqueous electrolyte has advantages of cost effective and high energy density, but there still remains a problem improving stability and durability of electrolyte materials during long-time cell operation. This paper focuses on providing a homogeneous aqueous solution for durability and stability of zinc bromide electrolyte. For performance experiments of conventional and proposed electrolyte solutions, detailed cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements (at a scan rate of 20 mV s-1 in the range of -1.5 V~1.5 V) are carried out for 40 cycles and five kinds of electrolytes containing which has one of additives, such as (conventionally) zinc chloride, potassium chloride, (newly) lithium perchlorate, sodium perchlorate and zeolite-Y are compared with the 2.0 M ZnBr2 electrolyte, respectively. Experimental results show that using the proposed three additives provides higher anodic and cathodic peak current density of electrolytes than using other two conventional additives, and can lead to improved chemical reversibility of zinc bromide electrolyte. Especially, the solution of which the zeolite-Y added, shows enhanced electrochemical stability of zinc bromide electrolyte. Consequently, proposed electrolytes have a significant advantage in comparison with conventional electrolytes on higher stability and durability.

  13. Treating Infertility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A common problem that leads to male infertility, varicocele , sometimes can be treated with surgery. How are ... contains and nourishes the developing fetus during pregnancy. Varicocele: Varicose veins in the scrotum. If you have ...

  14. Treating Meningitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Treating meningitis Steven Karceski, MD WHAT DID THE AUTHORS STUDY? ... study, “ Dexamethasone and long-term survival in bacterial meningitis, ” Dr. Fritz and his colleagues carefully evaluated 2 ...

  15. Sweat Chloride as A Biomarker of CFTR Activity: Proof of Concept and Ivacaftor Clinical Trial Data

    PubMed Central

    Accurso, Frank J.; Van Goor, Fredrick; Zha, Jiuhong; Stone, Anne J.; Dong, Qunming; Ordonez, Claudia L.; Rowe, Steven M.; Clancy, John Paul; Konstan, Michael W.; Hoch, Heather E.; Heltshe, Sonya L.; Ramsey, Bonnie W.; Campbell, Preston W.; Ashlock, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined data from a Phase 2 trial {NCT00457821 } of ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator, in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with a G551D mutation to evaluate standardized approaches to sweat chloride measurement and to explore the use of sweat chloride and nasal potential difference (NPD) to estimate CFTR activity. Methods Sweat chloride and NPD were secondary endpoints in this placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Standardization of sweat collection, processing, and analysis was employed for the first time.. Sweat chloride and chloride ion transport (NPD) were integrated into a model of CFTR activity. Results Within-patient sweat chloride determinations showed sufficient precision to detect differences between dose-groups and assess ivacaftor treatment effects. Analysis of changes in sweat chloride and NPD demonstrated that patients treated with ivacaftor achieved CFTR activity equivalent to approximately 35%–40% of normal. Conclusions Sweat chloride is useful in multicenter trials as a biomarker of CFTR activity and to test the effect of CFTR potentiators. PMID:24660233

  16. Antimicrobial Effect of Calcium Chloride Alone and Combined with Lactic Acid Injected into Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Alahakoon, Amali U.; Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Sun Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Chicken breast meat was injected with calcium chloride alone and in combination with lactic acid (0.01% and 0.002%, respectively). The inhibitory effects of the treatments on microbial growth were determined in the injected chicken breast meat stored at 4°C under aerobic packaging condition for 0, 3, and 7 d. Calcium chloride combined with 0.002% and 0.01% lactic acid reduced microbial counts by 0.14 and 1.08 Log CFU/g, respectively, however, calcium chloride alone was unable to inhibit microbial growth. Calcium chloride combined with 0.01% lactic acid was the most effective antimicrobial treatment and resulted in the highest initial redness value. Calcium chloride alone and combined with lactic acid suppressed changes in pH and the Hunter color values during storage. However, injection of calcium chloride and lactic acid had adverse effects on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics. The higher TBARS values were observed in samples treated with calcium chloride and lactic acid when compared to control over the storage period. Addition of calcium chloride and lactic acid resulted in lower sensory scores for parameters tested, except odor and color, compared to control samples. Therefore, the formulation should be improved in order to overcome such defects prior to industrial application.

  17. Acute changes in cellular zinc alters zinc uptake rates prior to zinc transporter gene expression in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Holland, Tai C; Killilea, David W; Shenvi, Swapna V; King, Janet C

    2015-12-01

    A coordinated network of zinc transporters and binding proteins tightly regulate cellular zinc levels. Canonical responses to zinc availability are thought to be mediated by changes in gene expression of key zinc transporters. We investigated the temporal relationships of actual zinc uptake with patterns of gene expression in membrane-bound zinc transporters in the human immortalized T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line. Cellular zinc levels were elevated or reduced with exogenous zinc sulfate or N,N,N',N-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), respectively. Excess zinc resulted in a rapid 44 % decrease in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of metallothionein (positive control) increased, as well as the zinc exporter, ZnT1; however, the expression of zinc importers did not change during this time period. Zinc chelation with TPEN resulted in a rapid twofold increase in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of ZnT1 decreased, while again the expression of zinc importers did not change. Overall, zinc transporter gene expression kinetics did not match actual changes in cellular zinc uptake with exogenous zinc or TPEN treatments. This suggests zinc transporter regulation may be the initial response to changes in zinc within Jurkat cells. PMID:26420239

  18. Synthesis, Characterization, and Size Control of Zinc Sulfide Nanoparticles Capped by Poly(ethylene glycol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allehyani, S. H. A.; Seoudi, R.; Said, D. A.; Lashin, A. R.; Abouelsayed, A.

    2015-11-01

    Zinc sulfide nanoparticles with controllable size were synthesized by chemical precipitation. Results from transmission electron microscopy and x-ray powder diffraction showed the samples were grown with the cubic phase. Particle size was varied by varying the molar ratio of zinc chloride to sodium sulfide in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol). The optical band gap was calculated on the basis of ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and ranged from 4.13 to 4.31 eV depending on particle size. Surface passivation and adsorption of poly (ethylene glycol) on the nanoparticles was explained on the basis of Fourier-transform infrared measurements.

  19. CHEMILUMINESCENT MONITOR FOR VINYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A monitor for vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) in ambient air was constructed using commercially available components of a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a chemiluminescence ozone analyzer slightly modified to make it suitable for use as a GC detector. The specificity for VCM is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations...EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations...EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1152 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1152 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

  8. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1152 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations...CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations...CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations...CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations...EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations...EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1152 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations...CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations...CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations...EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1152 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

  2. Development of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for Centaur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Frank, Harvey; Lutwack, Ralph

    1988-01-01

    Lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary cells and batteries have received considerable attention over the last several years because of their high theoretical specific energy and energy density. The objective was to develop a 300 wh/kg cell capable of safe operation at C/2 rate and active storage life for 5 to 10 years. This technology would replace other primary cell technologies in NASA applications mainly the silver zinc (AgZn) batteries presently in use. The LiSOCl2 system exceeds the capabilities of the AgZn in terms of specific energy of 300 wh/kg (compared with 100 wh/kg for AgZn), active storage life of 10 to 20 times the 3 to 6 months active storage and has a significantly lower projected cost.

  3. Development of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for Centaur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Frank, Harvey; Lutwack, Ralph

    1987-01-01

    Lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary cells and batteries have received considerable attention over the last several years because of their high theoretical specific energy and energy density. The objective was to develop a 300 wh/kg cell capable of safe operation at C/2 rate and active storage life for 5 to 10 years. This technology would replace other primary cell technologies in NASA applications mainly the silver zinc (AgZn) batteries presently in use. The LiSOCl2 system exceeds the capabilities of the AgZn in terms of specific energy of 300 wh/kg (compared with 100 wh/kg for AgZn), active storage life of 10 to 20 times the 3 to 6 months active storage and has a significantly lower projected cost.

  4. Development of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for Centaur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Frank, Harvey; Lutwack, Ralph

    1987-09-01

    Lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary cells and batteries have received considerable attention over the last several years because of their high theoretical specific energy and energy density. The objective was to develop a 300 wh/kg cell capable of safe operation at C/2 rate and active storage life for 5 to 10 years. This technology would replace other primary cell technologies in NASA applications mainly the silver zinc (AgZn) batteries presently in use. The LiSOCl2 system exceeds the capabilities of the AgZn in terms of specific energy of 300 wh/kg (compared with 100 wh/kg for AgZn), active storage life of 10 to 20 times the 3 to 6 months active storage and has a significantly lower projected cost.

  5. Experimental phasing using zinc anomalous scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Sun-Shin; An, Young Jun; Jeong, Chang-Sook; Kim, Min-Kyu; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Oh, Byung-Ha

    2012-09-01

    The surface of proteins can be charged with zinc ions and the anomalous signals from these zinc ions can be used for structure determination of proteins. Zinc is a suitable metal for anomalous dispersion phasing methods in protein crystallography. Structure determination using zinc anomalous scattering has been almost exclusively limited to proteins with intrinsically bound zinc(s). Here, it is reported that multiple zinc ions can easily be charged onto the surface of proteins with no intrinsic zinc-binding site by using zinc-containing solutions. Zn derivatization of protein surfaces appears to be a largely unnoticed but promising method of protein structure determination.

  6. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  7. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  8. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M. (Stanford, CA); Muller, Jochen A. (Baltimore, MD); Rosner, Bettina M. (Berlin, DE); Von Abendroth, Gregory (Nannhein, DE); Meshulam-Simon, Galit (Los Altos, CA); McCarty, Perry L (Stanford, CA)

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  9. Influence of zinc on growth and development and on energy intakes of children with chronic renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Hagan, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    This investigation assessed whether zinc acetate supplementation (2 mg/kg BW, maximum 40 mg/ka/child) in Children with End Stage Renal Disease, improved energy intakes and, in turn, growth and development. Height, weight, mid-arm circumference, triceps fatfold, hand wrist radiographs, and Tanner Staging measurements were taken at the beginning of the study, prior to zinc supplementation, and at the end of the study period. Clinical analyses for serum sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and CO/sub 2/ were routinely completed monthly. Simultaneously, plasma zinc and copper and erythrocyte zinc and 3 day food diaries were completed. Mean growth velocity in males was 4.07 +/- 2.02 cm/yr (non-supplemented), 2.98 +/- 2.33 cm/yr (supplemented) and in females, 3.88 +/- 0.73 cm/yr (non-supplemented), 3.28 +/- 2.10 cm/yr (supplemented). There were no significant differences between the supplemented and non-zinc supplemented males or females in growth velocity. Bone maturation as determined through hand wrist radiographs, improved in 4 of 6 zinc supplemented subjects. Before zinc supplementation, 50%, 92%, and 42% of the subjects met 67% of their RDA for age and sex for energy, protein, and zinc, respectively. After zinc acetate supplementation, the percentage of subjects meeting 67% of the RDA for energy, protein, and dietary zinc were 67%, 100%, and 67%, respectively. There was a trend toward increased dietary energy, protein, and zinc intake with zinc acetate supplementation.

  10. Ion exchange in a zeolite-molten chloride system

    SciTech Connect

    Woodman, R.H.; Pereira, C.

    1997-07-01

    Electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel results in a secondary waste stream of radioactive fission products dissolved in chloride salt. Disposal plans include a waste form that can incorporate chloride forms featuring one or more zeolites consolidated with sintered glass. A candidate method for incorporating fission products in the zeolites is passing the contaminated salt over a zeolite column for ion exchange. To date, the molten chloride ion-exchange properties of four zeolites have been investigated for this process: zeolite A, IE95{reg_sign}, clinoptilolite, and mordenite. Of these, zeolite A has been the most promising. Treating zeolite 4A, the sodium form of zeolite A , with the solvent salt for the waste stream-lithium-potassium chloride of eutectic melting composition, is expected to provide a material with favorable ion-exchange properties for the treatment of the waste salt. The authors constructed a pilot-plant system for the ion-exchange column. Initial results indicate that there is a direct relationship between the two operating variable of interest, temperature, and initial sodium concentration. Also, the mass ratio has been about 3--5 to bring the sodium concentration of the effluent below 1 mol%.

  11. The influence of selected antihypertensive drugs on zinc, copper, and iron status in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdanski, Pawe?; Jakubowski, Hieronim

    2014-09-01

    Mineral homeostasis in hypertensive patients may be affected by hypotensive drugs. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of selected antihypertensive drugs on mineral homeostasis in a rat model of hypertension. Eight-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were treated with perindopril, metoprolol, indapamide, amlodipine, or no drug for 45 days. In another experiment, the SHRs were treated with indapamide or amlodipine in the presence of zinc and copper gluconate supplement. Lipids, glucose, and insulin levels along with superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were assayed in serum. Iron, zinc, and copper concentrations in serum, erythrocytes, and tissues were determined using the flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Blood pressure was measured using a tail-cuff plethysmograph. Treatment with indapamide and amlodipine was found to significantly lower zinc levels in serum, erythrocytes, livers, and spleens of the SHRs, as well as copper levels in the kidneys, compared with the control no-drug group. A markedly higher concentration of glucose was found in the indapamide-treated rats. Supplementing the indapamide-treated SHRs with zinc and copper gluconate resulted in a significant decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and also lowered serum glucose and triglyceride concentrations and HOMA (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance) values. The results show that indapamide and amlodipine disturb zinc and copper homeostasis in SHRs. Supplementation with zinc and copper restores mineral homeostasis in SHRs treated with indapamide and amlodipine, and also corrects metabolic imbalances while improving the antihypertensive efficiency of indapamide. PMID:24927993

  12. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  14. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  15. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  16. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  17. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2, CAS...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  18. Chloride Channels: Often Enigmatic, Rarely Predictable

    E-print Network

    Chloride Channels: Often Enigmatic, Rarely Predictable Charity Duran,1 Christopher H. Thompson,2C: 9-gene family of chloride channels Transporter: a protein that uses energy of one ion to transport another ion uphill A SHORT HISTORY OF CHLORIDE IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS Not long ago, Cl- channels were

  19. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2, CAS...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely...

  3. interdisciplinary Effects of cadmium chloride on mouse

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    interdisciplinary Effects of cadmium chloride on mouse inner medullary collecting duct cells Eun of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was evaluated on renal inner medullary collecting duct cells (mIMCD3). The 24 hr sensitive to CdCl2 exposure. KEY WORDS: cadmium chloride; cytotoxicity; kidney; mIMCD3 cells Correspondence

  4. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food and...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12 ·6H2 O, CAS Reg. No....

  6. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and...Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food and...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12 ·6H2 O, CAS Reg. No....

  8. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and...Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food and...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7)...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food and...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12 ·6H2 O, CAS Reg. No....

  11. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and...Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in...

  12. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and...Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food and...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7)...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food and...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7)...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2 ·4H2 O, CAS Reg. No....

  16. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and...Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food and...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7)...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food and...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12 ·6H2 O, CAS Reg. No....

  19. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7786-30-3) is a... prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  4. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely...

  5. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must...

  6. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must...

  7. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in asparagus packed...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride....

  10. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must...

  11. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O,...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O,...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT... GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2, CAS Reg. No. 7773-01-5) is a...

  18. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13 . 6H2 0, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1)...

  8. Kinetics of cobalt cementation on zinc powder

    SciTech Connect

    Polcaro, A.M.; Palmas, S.; Dernini, S.

    1995-09-01

    The cementation process may be considered an interesting method to treat dilute solutions containing metal ions. The aim of the process may be either the removal of pollutant metals or the recovery of economically valuable metals such as Ag from spent photographic liquors. The kinetics of cobalt cementation on Zn powder from zinc sulfate concentrated solutions in the presence of copper and antimony ions was investigated in stirred tank reactors. The composition of the solutions was in the range usually utilized in industrial zinc electrowinning plants. The results showed that the reaction occurs by means of the formation of crystallization nuclei of noble metals on the zinc powder, followed by the cementation of cobalt ions on these newly-formed nuclei. Mass transfer to the reaction surface is shown to be the controlling step in copper and antimony reduction, and an equation correlating mass transfer coefficients has been determined. A kinetic equation, which interprets the influence of stirring speed and solution composition on cobalt cementation, has also been proposed.

  9. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, D. G.; Jura, M.

    1982-01-01

    IUE observations toward 10 stars have shown that zinc is not depleted in the interstellar medium by more than a factor of two, suggesting that its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. A result pertinent to the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood is that the local interstellar medium has abundances that appear to be homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc.

  10. An XAFS Study of Tantalum Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride/ aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Tantalum chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs). Anhydrous Ta2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic solution than in the acidic solution and the X-ray absorption data shows that the coordination shell of chlorides around the tantalum is larger in the basic solution. In the acidic solution, tantalum has five chlorides in its coordination shell while in the basic solution; the tantalum is coordinated by seven chlorides. This indicates that the Lewis acidity of the tantalum chloride causes the Ta to coordinate differently in the acidic and the basic solutions.

  11. [Why must we manufacture vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride?].

    PubMed

    Bauer, H

    1976-09-16

    The manufacture of PVC is necessary for supplying the demands of modern society, for maintaining the equilibrium in the chemical industry such as the manufacture of caustic soda solution-chlorine by means of rocksalt electrolysis, and for the safe disposal of chlorine for environmental reasons. The manufacture of vinyl chloride and dichloroethane is illustrated. The conventional processing of PVC into consumer goods, after treatment of rigid and plasticized PVC compounds or granulate, is demonstrated. PMID:976919

  12. Treating Sludges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Julian

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are some of the ways to handle municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge presented at the 1978 American Chemical Society meeting. Suggestions include removing toxic materials, recovering metals, and disposing treated sewage sludge onto farm land. Arguments for and against land use are also given. (MA)

  13. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Pinakin M.

    1993-01-01

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

  14. Biocompatibility of a novel zinc stent with a closed-cell-design.

    PubMed

    Hiebl, Bernhard; Nennig, Ernst; Schiestel, Stefanie; Kovacs, Adalbert; Jung, Friedrich; Fischer, Harald

    2015-09-01

    Biomaterials made of zinc have been widely described to be antioxidative, hypothrombogenic, antiinflammatory and antiproliferative. Additionally in vivo zinc is toxic only in high concentrations and can completely be metabolized in vivo. Due to these properties zinc based vascular stents might be able to reduce the rate of restenosis in comparison to bare metal stents and zinc stents might be also able to limit the foreign body reaction. In the presented study we tested the biocompatibility and degradability of a stent made of zinc and characterized by a closed-cell-design to achieve high opening force and to increase stent stiffness. After 100 days of enzymatic and hydrolytic degradation in 15?ml blood serum (fetal calf serum) a significant loss of weight (1.72 wt% ) was measured. Zinc was compared to other metals in terms of degradation rates. After six weeks of incubation in physiologic sodium chloride solution zinc showed the slowest degradation time, 6 times less than stainless steel and 4 times less than magnesium. In the tests for cytotoxic effects the degraded zinc stent caused no changes in the LDH-release and cell membrane integrity (3T3 cells, mouse fibroblasts) respectively, in the cell activity/proliferation (MTS assay) and in the morphological characteristics of the cells and cell layers in comparison to the control material (polystyrene). Based on these results the tested zinc stent proved to be non-cytotoxic and to be characterized by degradation characteristics which might be advantageous in comparison to magnesium and stainless steel. PMID:26519227

  15. Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, D.R.; Friedman, I.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 ?? 1010 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park. ?? 1985.

  16. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  17. Sodium-aluminum chloride cells

    SciTech Connect

    Granstaff, S.M. Jr.; Auborn, J.J.; Hooper, A.

    1981-01-01

    Secondary cells using solid electrolytes, with molten sodium anodes and having cathodes composed of sulfur compounds and aluminum chloride have been cycled for over 800 deep cycles on a 2.7 volt plateau at moderate temperatures (150-200/degree/C). At these temperatures and operating in a basic solution, the cells avoid the corrosion problems of other higher temperature or acidic solution sodium-sulfur cells. 14 refs.

  18. The role of chlorides and alkalis in high temperature coal gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Feitelberg, A.S.; Ayala, R.E.; Hurley, J.P.; Toman, D.

    1994-12-31

    Reusable zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbents are being developed for high temperature (1,000 F) coal gas desulfurization applications. Bench scale and pilot scale tests reveal that zinc-based sorbents chemisorb HCl present in low Btu fuel. Volatile chlorides (ZnCl{sub 2} and HCl) are released when the sorbents are regenerated in a higher-temperature oxidizing atmosphere. As a result of these chloride/sorbent interactions, solid ZnSO{sub 4} and ZnCl{sub 2} deposit in downstream process equipment and degrade process operability. The HCI concentration in coal gas can be reduced to about 1 ppmv with sodium bicarbonate, which decomposes in hot coal gas and reacts with HCl to form solid sodium chloride. Models and laboratory scale tests indicate these low HCl concentrations can be achieved with reasonable reactor sizes. Equilibrium calculations and pilot plant measurements show that contacting hot coal gas with large quantities of sodium bicarbonate will result in fuel vapor phase sodium levels that are well below gas turbine limits.

  19. Suicidal poisoning with barium chloride.

    PubMed

    Jourdan, S; Bertoni, M; Sergio, P; Michele, P; Rossi, M

    2001-06-15

    A 49-year-old male pharmacist suffering from depression phoned the emergency services telling of how he had ingested barium chloride. He was found semicomatose in bed and resuscitation attempts were to no avail and he died at the scene. A white plastic container labelled "Barium chloride... Poison", and a book with a writing on a blank page... "give sulphate... SO(4)" were found. At autopsy, 1l of whitish-yellow fluid was found in the stomach. Autopsy barium levels were: blood 9.9mg/l; bile 8.8mg/l; urine 6.3mg/l; gastric 10.0g/l. Cause of death was given as cardiorespiratory arrest due to barium chloride poisoning. The issue of barium toxicity in a variety of itatrogenic and non itatrogenic situation is discussed together with the two only other cases of suicidal barium ingestion, and the feasibility of early intervention at the scene by an emergency team. PMID:11376995

  20. Intraluminal zinc bioavailability - effect of amino acids on zinc solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, F.A.; Nelson, L.S. Jr.; Brushmiller, J.G.

    1986-03-01

    Human and bovine milks and simple solutions modeled after milks (milk models) have been used in the development of an intraluminal system involves subjecting a food, i.e., milk, to the pH range encountered in the digestive tract, and measuring the amount of soluble minerals at various pH's. With this system the authors have demonstrated that co-precipitation of zinc with calcium phosphate is a key factor modulating the solubility of zinc in milks and in milk models. Since a mineral must be soluble in order to be bioavailable, and since free amino acids have been suggested to increase the solubility of zinc by adding various amino acids. Of the amino acids, aspartate, glutamate, histidine, and phosphoserine, only histidine (10 mM) increased the solubility of zinc in a milk model, albeit slightly. Supplementation of bovine milk with 10 mM histidine also resulted in a slight increase in zinc solubility. No increase in zinc solubility was observed at a physiologic histidine level. Free amino acids at physiologic concentrations do not increase zinc solubility in milks, and therefore, do not seem to contribute to zinc bioavailability.

  1. Uptake and partitioning of zinc in Lemnaceae.

    PubMed

    Lahive, Elma; O'Callaghan, Michael J A; Jansen, Marcel A K; O'Halloran, John

    2011-11-01

    Macrophytes provide food and shelter for aquatic invertebrates and fish, while also acting as reservoirs for nutrients and trace elements. Zinc accumulation has been reported for various Lemnaceae species. However, comparative accumulation across species and the link between zinc accumulation and toxicity are poorly understood. Morphological distribution and cellular storage, in either bound or soluble form, are important for zinc tolerance. This study shows differences in the uptake and accumulation of zinc by three duckweed species. Landoltia punctata and Lemna minor generally accumulated more zinc than Lemna gibba. L. minor, but not L. gibba or L. punctata, accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in roots compared to fronds when exposed to high levels of zinc. The proportion of zinc stored in the bound form relative to the soluble-form was higher in L. minor. L. punctata accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in fronds compared to roots and increased the proportion of zinc it stored in the soluble form, when exposed to high zinc levels. L. gibba is the only species that significantly accumulated zinc at low concentrations, and was zinc-sensitive. Overall, internal zinc concentrations showed no consistent correlation with toxic effect. We conclude that relationships between zinc toxicity and uptake and accumulation are species specific reflecting, among others, zinc distribution and storage. Differences in zinc distribution and storage are also likely to have implications for zinc bioavailability and trophic mobility. PMID:21755349

  2. Stress responses of human dermal fibroblasts exposed to zinc pyrithione.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Emil; Cervinka, Miroslav

    2011-07-28

    Zinc pyrithione is used as a topical agent in a range of medicinal and cosmetic applications. Despite its extensive use and reported beneficial effects in treatment of various dermal problems, its potential toxicity towards skin cells remains relatively underexplored. In this work we investigated effects of nM zinc pyrithione on cell stress response pathways of primary human skin fibroblasts during 24h of exposure. We demonstrate that zinc pyrithione-induced cytotoxity in dermal fibroblasts is dose-dependent and it associates with increased intracellular zinc concentrations and activated stress response pathways including p53 and stress kinase p38. Higher zinc pyrithione concentrations (500nM and above) stimulate oxidative stress and moderate DNA damage which occur in the presence of activated p38 kinase. Cells further upregulate the expression of p53 which increases its transcriptional activity while mitogenic signaling exemplified by mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) expression is suppressed and these steps lead to mitochondrial, caspase-dependent apoptosis. Conversely, lower zinc concentrations (125nM) fail to induce oxidative stress and significant DNA damage; however, treated cells still activate p38 and upregulate the expression and transcriptional activity of p53 and its target gene p21 as well as the expression of p16 in the presence of active mTOR pathway and a changed DNA methylation pattern. The end result is premature senescence phenotype. Specific pharmacological inhibitors as well as gene knockdown technology prove that an interaction between p38, p53 and mTOR might be responsible for these observed endpoints. Taken together, exposure of dermal fibroblasts to varying concentrations of zinc pyrithione may result in either cell death-apoptosis or cellular premature senescence which attests to the ability of this compound to affect this type of cells in an in vitro model system. PMID:21557991

  3. Lithium chloride protects retinal neurocytes from nutrient deprivation by promoting DNA non-homologous end-joining

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang Jing; Li Fan; Liu Xuan; Liu Zhiping; Lin Jianxian; Ge Yihong; Kaminski, Joseph M.; Summers, James Bradley; Wang Zhichong; Ge Jian Yu Keming

    2009-03-13

    Lithium chloride is a therapeutic agent for treatment of bipolar affective disorders. Increasing numbers of studies have indicated that lithium has neuroprotective effects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of lithium have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate whether lithium chloride produces neuroprotective function by improving DNA repair pathway in retinal neurocyte. In vitro, the primary cultured retinal neurocytes (85.7% are MAP-2 positive cells) were treated with lithium chloride, then cultured with serum-free media to simulate the nutrient deprived state resulting from ischemic insult. The neurite outgrowth of the cultured cells increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner when exposed to different levels of lithium chloride. Genomic DNA electrophoresis demonstrated greater DNA integrity of retinal neurocytes when treated with lithium chloride as compared to the control. Moreover, mRNA and protein levels of Ligase IV (involved in DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway) in retinal neurocytes increased with lithium chloride. The end joining activity assay was performed to determine the role of lithium on NHEJ in the presence of extract from retinal neurocytes. The rejoining levels in retinal neurocytes treated with lithium were significantly increased as compared to the control. Furthermore, XRCC4, the Ligase IV partner, and the transcriptional factor, CREB and CTCF, were up-regulated in retinal cells after treating with 1.0 mM lithium chloride. Therefore, our data suggest that lithium chloride protects the retinal neural cells from nutrient deprivation in vitro, which may be similar to the mechanism of cell death in glaucoma. The improvement in DNA repair pathway involving in Ligase IV might have an important role in lithium neuroprotection. This study provides new insights into the neural protective mechanisms of lithium chloride.

  4. A zinc paste primary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, R.; McCarron, R.; Brilmyer, G.

    1983-03-01

    It is pointed out that zinc/air batteries could, in principle, be used to power electric vehicles. One concept for enhancing the practical performance of this battery system involves the separation of energy density factors from power density factors. This concept can be implemented by employing the active negative plate material in the form of a zinc slurry, which is circulated from a reservoir through the negative electrode compartment. An extension of this fuel cell-battery concept is related to the utilization of the active material as a pumpable paste rather than as a slurry. The present investigation is concerned with preliminary experiments on formulating and characterizing pumpable zinc/zinc oxide pastes in the context of a primary zinc/oxygen battery. A 'paste' is defined as a thick viscous mass of solid, uniformly and semipermanently dispersed in a liquid phase. Attention is given to the physical basis for predicting which solid/liquid mixtures will provide pumpable pastes.

  5. Rambutan peels promoted biomimetic synthesis of bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Yuvakkumar, R; Suresh, J; Saravanakumar, B; Joseph Nathanael, A; Hong, Sun Ig; Rajendran, V

    2015-02-25

    A naturally occurring rambutan peel waste was employed to synthesis bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains. Rambutan peels has the ability of ligating zinc ions as a natural ligation agent resulting in zinc oxide nanochains formation due to its extended polyphenolic system over incubation period. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanochains was confirmed employing transmission electron microscopy studies. About 60% and ?40% cell viability was lost and 50% and 10% morphological change was observed in 7 and 4 days incubated ZnO treated cells compared with control. Moreover, 50% and 55% of cell death was observed at 24 and 48 h incubation with 7 days treated ZnO cells and hence alters and disturbs the growth of cancer cells and could be used for liver cancer cell treatment. PMID:25228035

  6. Oxidative stress by Haemonchus contortus in lambs: Influence of treatment with zinc edetate.

    PubMed

    Pivoto, Felipe Lamberti; Torbitz, Vanessa Dorneles; Aires, Adelina Rodrigues; da Rocha, José Francisco Xavier; Severo, Marcelo Machado; Grando, Thirssa Heleno; Peiter, Mateus; Moresco, Rafael Noal; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Leal, Marta Lizandra do Rego

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of zinc edetate on the oxidative stress of lambs infected by Haemonchus contortus. Twenty-four lambs were allocated into four groups: Group I - uninfected animals; Group II - uninfected animals treated subcutaneously with zinc edetate; Group III - animals infected by H. contortus and Group IV - animals infected and treated. The oxidative stress index (OSI) and the eggs per gram of feces (EPG) were assessed after 10, 17, 24, 31 and 38days post-infection. Based on the EPG and the quantity of adult H. contortus, the infection did not differ between groups III and IV. Zinc edetate reduced the OSI in Group IV in relation to Group I after 24days post-infection, and in relation to group III after 31days post-infection. Treatment with zinc edetate could help reduce the oxidative stress induced by H. contortus in lambs. PMID:26412513

  7. Rambutan peels promoted biomimetic synthesis of bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuvakkumar, R.; Suresh, J.; Saravanakumar, B.; Joseph Nathanael, A.; Hong, Sun Ig; Rajendran, V.

    2015-02-01

    A naturally occurring rambutan peel waste was employed to synthesis bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains. Rambutan peels has the ability of ligating zinc ions as a natural ligation agent resulting in zinc oxide nanochains formation due to its extended polyphenolic system over incubation period. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanochains was confirmed employing transmission electron microscopy studies. About 60% and ?40% cell viability was lost and 50% and 10% morphological change was observed in 7 and 4 days incubated ZnO treated cells compared with control. Moreover, 50% and 55% of cell death was observed at 24 and 48 h incubation with 7 days treated ZnO cells and hence alters and disturbs the growth of cancer cells and could be used for liver cancer cell treatment.

  8. An XAFS Study of Niobium chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Niobium chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Although anhydrous Nb2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic melt than in the acidic melt, the EXAFS data shows that the coordination shell around the niobium does not change in the different ionic liquids. Both the acidic and basic melts show a coordination of five chlorides in the first shell. This indicates that in this series of ionic liquids, the Nb2Cl10 breaks up into two NbCl5 entities in both the acidic and the basic melts.

  9. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-zinc(II) and -copper(II) complexes induce apoptosis in tumor cells by inhibiting the proteasomal activity

    SciTech Connect

    Milacic, Vesna; Chen Di; Giovagnini, Lorena; Diez, Alejandro; Fregona, Dolores; Dou, Q. Ping

    2008-08-15

    Zinc and copper are trace elements essential for proper folding, stabilization and catalytic activity of many metalloenzymes in living organisms. However, disturbed zinc and copper homeostasis is reported in many types of cancer. We have previously demonstrated that copper complexes induced proteasome inhibition and apoptosis in cultured human cancer cells. In the current study we hypothesized that zinc complexes could also inhibit the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity responsible for subsequent apoptosis induction. We first showed that zinc(II) chloride was able to inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of a purified 20S proteasome with an IC{sub 50} value of 13.8 {mu}M, which was less potent than copper(II) chloride (IC{sub 50} 5.3 {mu}M). We then compared the potencies of a pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PyDT)-zinc(II) complex and a PyDT-copper(II) complex to inhibit cellular proteasomal activity, suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in various human breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Consistently, zinc complex was less potent than copper complex in inhibiting the proteasome and inducing apoptosis. Additionally, zinc and copper complexes appear to use somewhat different mechanisms to kill tumor cells. Zinc complexes were able to activate calpain-, but not caspase-3-dependent pathway, while copper complexes were able to induce activation of both proteases. Furthermore, the potencies of these PyDT-metal complexes depend on the nature of metals and also on the ratio of PyDT to the metal ion within the complex, which probably affects their stability and availability for interacting with and inhibiting the proteasome in tumor cells.

  10. Metal chloride cathode for a battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Bankston, C. Perry (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method of fabricating a rechargeable battery is disclosed which includes a positive electrode which contains a chloride of a selected metal when the electrode is in its active state. The improvement comprises fabricating the positive electrode by: providing a porous matrix composed of a metal; providing a solution of the chloride of the selected metal; and impregnating the matrix with the chloride from the solution.

  11. Analysis of Absorption Spectra of Zinc Porphyrin, Zinc meso-Tetraphenylporphyrin, and Halogenated Derivatives

    E-print Network

    Mukamel, Shaul

    Analysis of Absorption Spectra of Zinc Porphyrin, Zinc meso-Tetraphenylporphyrin, and HalogenatedVed: January 10, 2002; In Final Form: August 13, 2002 The absorption spectra of zinc porphyrin, zinc meso- ties.2 Zinc octahalogenated meso-tetraphenylporphyrins (ZnT- PPX8) have been synthesized3

  12. Clioquinol induces autophagy in cultured astrocytes and neurons by acting as a zinc ionophore.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Ha; Lee, Sook-Jeong; Byun, Hyae-Ran; Kim, Yunha; Oh, Young J; Koh, Jae-Young; Hwang, Jung Jin

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that clioquinol, an antibiotic with an anti-amyloid effect, acts as a zinc ionophore under physiological conditions. Because increases in labile zinc may induce autophagy, we examined whether clioquinol induces autophagy in cultured astrocytes in a zinc-dependent manner. Within 1h of exposure to 0.1-10 ?M clioquinol, the levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II, a marker of autophagy, began to increase in astrocytes. Confocal live-cell imaging of GFP-LC3-transfected astrocytes showed the formation of LC3(+) autophagic vacuoles (AVs), providing a further indication that clioquinol induced autophagy. Addition of 3-methyladenine or small-interfering RNA against autophagy-related gene 6 (ATG6/Beclin-1) blocked clioquinol-induced increases in LC3-II. FluoZin-3 fluorescence microscopy showed that, like the zinc ionophore pyrithione, clioquinol increased intracellular zinc levels in the cytosol and AVs in an extracellular zinc-dependent manner. Zinc chelation with N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN) reduced, and addition of zinc increased the levels of LC3-II and LC3(+) puncta, indicating that zinc influx plays a key role therein. Moreover, astrocytes and SH-SY5Y cells expressing mutant huntingtin (mHttQ74) accumulated less aggregates when treated with clioquinol, and this effect was reversed by TPEN. These results indicate that clioquinol-induced autophagy is likely to be physiologically functional. The present study demonstrates that clioquinol induces autophagy in a zinc-dependent manner and contributes to clearance of aggregated proteins in astrocytes and neurons. Hence, in addition to its metal-chelating effect in and around amyloid beta (A?) plaques, clioquinol may contribute to the reduction of A? loads by activating autophagy by increasing or normalizing intracellular zinc levels in brain cells. PMID:21220021

  13. Effect of zinc supplements in the attenuated cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in hyperlipidemic rat heart.

    PubMed

    Kansal, Sunil Kumar; Jyoti, Uma; Sharma, Samridhi; Kaura, Arun; Deshmukh, Rahul; Goyal, Sandeep

    2015-06-01

    Hyperlipidemia is regarded as independent risk factor in the development of ischemic heart disease, and it can increase the myocardial susceptibility to ischemia-/reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury. Hyperlipidemia attenuates the cardioprotective response of ischemic preconditioning (IPC). The present study investigated the effect of zinc supplements in the attenuated cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in hyperlipidemic rat hearts. Hyperlipidemia was induced in rat by feeding high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks then the serum lipid profile was observed. In experiment, the isolated Langendorff rat heart preparation was subjected to 4 cycles of ischemic preconditioning (IPC), then 30 min of ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size was elaborated morphologically by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and biochemically by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) release from coronary effluent and left ventricular collagen content. However, the effect of zinc supplement, i.e., zinc pyrithione (10 ?M) perfused during reperfusion for 120 min, significantly abrogated the attenuated cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in hyperlipidemic rat heart whereas administration of chelator of this zinc ionophore, i.e., N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylene diamine (TPEN; 10 ?M), perfused during reperfusion 2 min before the perfusion of zinc pyrithione abrogated the cardioprotective effect of zinc supplement during experiment in hyperlipidemic rat heart. Thus, the administration of zinc supplements limits the infarct size, LDH, and CK-MB and enhanced the collagen level which suggests that the attenuated cardioprotective effect of IPC in hyperlipidemic rat is due to zinc loss during reperfusion caused by ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:25743572

  14. Effect of Supplementation with Zinc and Other Micronutrients on Malaria in Tanzanian Children: A Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Veenemans, Jacobien; Milligan, Paul; Prentice, Andrew M.; Schouten, Laura R. A.; Inja, Nienke; van der Heijden, Aafke C.; de Boer, Linsey C. C.; Jansen, Esther J. S.; Koopmans, Anna E.; Enthoven, Wendy T. M.; Kraaijenhagen, Rob J.; Demir, Ayse Y.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Mbugi, Erasto V.; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Verhoef, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Background It is uncertain to what extent oral supplementation with zinc can reduce episodes of malaria in endemic areas. Protection may depend on other nutrients. We measured the effect of supplementation with zinc and other nutrients on malaria rates. Methods and Findings In a 2×2 factorial trial, 612 rural Tanzanian children aged 6–60 months in an area with intense malaria transmission and with height-for-age z-score??1.5 SD were randomized to receive daily oral supplementation with either zinc alone (10 mg), multi-nutrients without zinc, multi-nutrients with zinc, or placebo. Intervention group was indicated by colour code, but neither participants, researchers, nor field staff knew who received what intervention. Those with Plasmodium infection at baseline were treated with artemether-lumefantrine. The primary outcome, an episode of malaria, was assessed among children reported sick at a primary care clinic, and pre-defined as current Plasmodium infection with an inflammatory response, shown by axillary temperature ?37.5°C or whole blood C-reactive protein concentration ?8 mg/L. Nutritional indicators were assessed at baseline and at 251 days (median; 95% reference range: 191–296 days). In the primary intention-to-treat analysis, we adjusted for pre-specified baseline factors, using Cox regression models that accounted for multiple episodes per child. 592 children completed the study. The primary analysis included 1,572 malaria episodes during 526 child-years of observation (median follow-up: 331 days). Malaria incidence in groups receiving zinc, multi-nutrients without zinc, multi-nutrients with zinc and placebo was 2.89/child-year, 2.95/child-year, 3.26/child-year, and 2.87/child-year, respectively. There was no evidence that multi-nutrients influenced the effect of zinc (or vice versa). Neither zinc nor multi-nutrients influenced malaria rates (marginal analysis; adjusted HR, 95% CI: 1.04, 0.93–1.18 and 1.10, 0.97–1.24 respectively). The prevalence of zinc deficiency (plasma zinc concentration <9.9 µmol/L) was high at baseline (67% overall; 60% in those without inflammation) and strongly reduced by zinc supplementation. Conclusions We found no evidence from this trial that zinc supplementation protected against malaria. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00623857 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. PMID:22131908

  15. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications ...milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate neutralized to pH...

  16. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. ...milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate neutralized to pH...

  17. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications ...milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate neutralized to pH...

  18. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications ...milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate neutralized to pH...

  19. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc...

  20. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc...

  1. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc...

  2. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc...

  3. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc...

  4. Fabrication Of Metal Chloride Cathodes By Sintering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Di Stefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

    1992-01-01

    Transition-metal chloride cathodes for use in high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries prepared by sintering transition-metal powders mixed with sodium chloride. Need for difficult and dangerous chlorination process eliminated. Proportions of transition metal and sodium chloride in mixture adjusted to suit specific requirements. Cathodes integral to sodium/metal-chloride batteries, which have advantages over sodium/sulfur batteries including energy densities, increased safety, reduced material and thermal-management problems, and ease of operation and assembly. Being evaluated for supplying electrical power during peak demand and electric vehicles.

  5. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject...

  6. Production of chlorine from chloride salts

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A. (Kennewick, WA)

    1981-01-01

    A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

  7. Trace elements in foods of children from Cameroon: a focus on zinc and phytate content.

    PubMed

    Kana Sop, M Modestine; Gouado, Inocent; Mananga, Marlyne-Josephine; Djeukeu Asongni, William; Amvam Zollo, Paul Henri; Oberleas, Donald; Tetanye, Ekoe

    2012-06-01

    In developing countries, complementary foods are based on local cereal porridges. These foods are poor in trace elements, with a high risk of inducing micronutrient deficiencies-the primary cause of mortality in children under the age of five. Inappropriate feeding of complementary foods is the major factor creating malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies in Cameroon children, as well as in other developing countries. This study determined the zinc and phytate content of 30 complementary foods that were based on maize or Irish potatoes. The foods were blended or treated by dehusking, fermentation and germination. Zinc was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and phytates by high pressure-liquid chromatography; then phytates/zinc molar ratios were calculated. Concentrations (mg/100g dry matter) ranged, respectively, from 0.20 to 2.58 (0.12 ± 0.67) for zinc and from 0.00 to 6.04 (1.87 ± 1.7) for phytates. The phytate/zinc ratio varied from 0.00 to 51.62 (11.12 ± 11.53). It appears that germination and fermentation reduced the level of phytates: however, zinc levels in the samples did not change significantly. The traditional, local complementary foods were not only poor in zinc, but contained very high levels of phytates. These phytates have the potential to considerately reduce the acid extraction of zinc, and could impair its bioavailability. PMID:22673825

  8. National Scale-up of Zinc Promotion in Nepal: Results from a Post-project Population-based Survey

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Vicki M.; Paudel, Mahesh; Banke, Kathryn K.

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund recommend using a new oral rehydration solution (ORS) plus zinc supplementation for 10-14 days for the treatment of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. The Social Marketing Plus for Diarrhoeal Disease Control: Point of Use Water Disinfection and Zinc Treatment (POUZN) project in Nepal was one of the first zinc-promotion projects to move beyond pilot efforts into a scaled-up programme with national-level reach. This study used data from a survey conducted in 26 districts in Nepal in 2008 to examine zinc-use behaviour, knowledge, and beliefs of caregivers of children aged less than six years, other diarrhoea-treatment practices, and recollection of project communication messages. The results of the survey indicated that, by six months following the onset of a zinc-promotion campaign, the majority (67.5%) of children (n=289), aged less than six years, with diarrhoea were treated with ORS, and 15.4% were treated with zinc. Over half (53.1%) of all caregivers (n=3,550) interviewed had heard about zinc products; most (97.1%) of those who had heard of zinc knew that zinc should be used for the treatment of diarrhoea. Zinc-related knowledge and behaviours were positively associated with recall of communication messages. Children whose caregivers recalled the mass-media message that zinc should be used for 10 days [odds ratio (OR)=2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.85-2.19] and whose caregivers perceived that zinc is easy to obtain (OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.49-2.09) were more likely to be treated with zinc for 10 days, along with ORS. The findings demonstrated that mass media play an important role in increasing caregivers’ knowledge about zinc and encouraging trial and correct use. Future efforts should also focus on understanding the factors that motivate providers to continue recommending antibiotics and antidiarrhoeals instead of zinc. These findings are being used for informing the design and implementation of zinc programmes in other developing countries with a high prevalence of diarrhoea. PMID:21766556

  9. Zinc-bromine battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Lew; Vanschalwijk, Walter; Albert, George; Tarjanyi, Mike; Leo, Anthony; Lott, Stephen

    1990-05-01

    This report describes development activities on the zinc-bromine battery system conducted by Energy Research Corporation (ERC). The project was a cost-shared program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and managed through Sandia. The project began in September 1985 and ran through January 1990. The zinc-bromine battery has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional energy storage options for many applications. The low cost of the battery reactants and the potential for long life make the system an attractive candidate for bulk energy storage applications, such as utility load leveling. The battery stores energy by the electrolysis of an aqueous zinc bromide salt to zinc metal and dissolved bromine. Zinc is plated as a layer on the electrode surface while bromine is dissolved in the electrolyte and carried out of the stack. The bromine is then extracted from the electrolyte with an organic complexing agent in the positive electrolyte storage tank. On discharge the zinc and bromine are consumed, regenerating the zinc bromide salt.

  10. Iron control in zinc pressure leach processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buban, K. R.; Collins, M. J.; Masters, I. M.

    1999-12-01

    The occurrence of zinc in sulfide ore deposits is generally accompanied by various iron minerals. Hence, even the most efficient concentrators generally produce a zinc concentrate with significant iron content. The efficient recovery of zinc metal from zinc concentrates requires the rejection of iron residue in a form that minimizes the zinc entrainment. Careful control of the iron precipitation step is important, so that the iron residue produced is amenable to efficient liquid-solid separation in order to obtain high zinc recoveries. In hydrometallurgical zinc processes, the coprecipitation of minor impurities along with iron precipitation is also important in producing zinc-sulfate solution from which high-purity zinc cathode can be electrowon. The integration of Dynatec’s zinc pressure leach process with existing roast-leach-electrowin plants employing various methods of iron rejection is briefly described in this article, along with the application of two-stage pressure leaching in stand-alone processes.

  11. Irreversible gettering of thionyl chloride

    SciTech Connect

    LeRoy Whinnery; Steve Goods; George Buffleben; Tim Sheppodd

    1999-11-01

    The authors have successfully demonstrated the irreversible gettering of SOCl{sub 2} by ZnO/ASZMTEDA carbon over a modest temperature range. While thionyl chloride decomposition was slow below {minus}20 C, lower temperatures are expected to be less of a problem than at higher temperatures. The approximately 30 cc of thionyl chloride in a typical D-cell would require 50 g of ZnO and 107 g of ASZMTEDA carbon. Fortunately, since it is unlikely to happen at all, it is common practice to assume only one cell will fail (leak) in a given battery pack. So, one charge of getter can protect the whole battery pack. In summary, ZnO/ASZMTEDA carbon fulfills all of the requirements of an ideal getter including: irreversible binding or reaction with SOCl{sub 2}, high volumetric uptake capacity, high efficiency, non-volatile, air stable, insensitive to poisoning, non-toxic, cheap, non-corrosive, and the gettering product is not a liquid or oil that could block further flow or accessibility. Future work in this area includes incorporation of the ZnO and carbon into a structural open-celled porous monolith, as well as, gettering for other types of batteries (e.g., Li/MnO{sub 2}).

  12. Probing the role of chloride in Photosystem II from Thermosynechococcus elongatus by exchanging chloride for iodide

    E-print Network

    quinones, 3­4 calcium ions, one of which in the Mn4CaO5 clus- ter, 3 chloride ions, among these three onlyProbing the role of chloride in Photosystem II from Thermosynechococcus elongatus by exchanging chloride for iodide Alain Boussac a, , Naoko Ishida a , Miwa Sugiura b,c , Fabrice Rappaport d a i

  13. Cyanuric chloride derivatives for cotton textile treatment--synthesis, analysis, and flammability testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a series of experiments, two cyanuric chloride derivatives were synthesized in good yields and analyzed by 1H, 13C, and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as high performance liquid and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Cotton fabric was treated with these compounds and teste...

  14. Racemization of Isobornyl Chloride via Carbocations: A Nonclassical Look at a Classic Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rzepa, Henry S.; Allan, Charlotte S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of carbonium ions as intermediates in chemical reaction mechanisms derives from the early work of Julius Stieglitz and the more famous Hans Meerwein, the latter studying the racemization of isobornyl chloride when treated with Lewis acids. This review analyzes how key mechanistic concepts for this reaction evolved and gives the…

  15. 21 CFR 862.1170 - Chloride test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloride test system. 862.1170 Section 862.1170....1170 Chloride test system. (a) Identification. A chloride test system is a device intended to measure the level of chloride in plasma, serum, sweat, and urine. Chloride measurements are used in...

  16. Activation by zinc of the human gastrin gene promoter in colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Kathryn M; Laval, Marie; Estacio, Ortis; Hudson, Damien F; Kalitsis, Paul; Shulkes, Arthur; Baldwin, Graham S; Patel, Oneel

    2015-10-01

    Over-expression of growth factors can contribute to the development and progression of cancer, and gastrins in particular have been implicated in accelerating the development of gastrointestinal cancers. Previously our group showed that hypoxia, cobalt chloride (a hypoxia mimetic) and zinc chloride could activate the expression of the gastrin gene in vitro. To characterise activation of the gastrin promoter by zinc ions further in vivo, TALEN technology was used to engineer a luciferase reporter construct into the endogenous human gastrin gene promoter in SW480 colon cancer cells. Gastrin promoter activity in the resultant Gast(luc) SW480 colon cancer cells was then measured by bioluminescence in cell culture and in tumour xenografts in SCID mice. Activation of intracellular signalling pathways was assessed by Western blotting. Activation of the gastrin promoter by zinc ions was concentration dependent in vitro and in vivo. Zinc ions significantly stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (MAPK pathway) but not of Akt (PI3K pathway). We conclude that the endogenous gastrin promoter is responsive to zinc ions, likely via activation of the MAPK pathway. PMID:26404630

  17. XAFS Studies of Ni Ta and Nb Chlorides in the Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl Imidazolium Chloride / Aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    W OGrady; D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek

    2011-12-31

    The structures of anhydrous nickel, niobium, and tantalum chlorides have been investigated in situ in acidic and basic ionic liquids (ILs) of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (EMIC)/AlCl{sub 3} with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The coordination of NiCl{sub 2} changes from tetrahedral in basic solution to octahedral in acidic solution. The NiCl{sub 2} is a strong Lewis acid in that it can induce the AlCl{sub 3} to share its chlorides in the highly acidic IL, forming a structure with six near Cl{sup -} ions and eight further distant Al ions which share the chloride ions surrounding the Ni{sup 2+}. When Nb{sub 2}Cl{sub 10}, a dimer, is added to the acidic or basic solution, the dimer breaks apart and forms two species. In the acid solution, two trigonal bipyramids are formed with five equal chloride distances, while in the basic solution, a square pyramid with four chlorides forming a square base and one shorter axial chloride bond. Ta{sub 2}Cl{sub 10} is also a dimer and divides into half in the acidic solution and forms two trigonal bipyramids. In the basic solution, the dimer breaks apart but the species formed is sufficiently acidic that it attracts two additional chloride ions and forms a seven coordinated tantalum species.

  18. [Zinc and porphyria cutanea tarda].

    PubMed

    Amantea, A; D'Alessandro Gandolfo, L; Fonseca, G; Topi, G

    1982-09-01

    In 30 patients affected by Porphyria Cutanea Tarda we determined: plasmatic, erythrocytary and urinary zinc (by atomic absorption spectrophotometry); total porphyrins in plasma and in urines, coproporphyrins and protoporphyrins in erythrocytes (by spectrophotometric methods); haptoglobin, hemopexin, alpha 2-macroglobulin and albumin (by immunological methods). The results obtained were compared with those of normal subjects. In addition, the variables under consideration were statistically analyzed to bring out possible correlations (both simple and partial). The most interesting result (besides the documentation of an increase in the urinary and plasmatic zinc in porphyric patients) was the finding of correlations between plasmatic zinc, plasmatic porphyrins and alpha 2-macroglobulin. PMID:6191352

  19. Preparation of viscosifiers for zinc salt workover and completion brines

    SciTech Connect

    Guilbeau, K.G.; Mccrary, J.L.; Mosier, B.

    1982-09-21

    Viscosifiers, for addition to high zinc salt brines, used as oil well workover and completion fluids, are prepared from polysaccharide gums or gelatin by treatment with formaldehyde and/or an aliphatic dialdehyde containing from 2 to 6 carbons. The treated viscosifiers have improved dispersibility and give increased viscosity effects in the brines. Preferably, the viscosifiers are prepared from carrageenan, locust bean gum, hydroxyethyl cellulose, or gelatin by treatment with a mixture of formaldehyde and glyoxal.

  20. Preparation of viscosifiers for zinc salt workover and completion brines

    SciTech Connect

    Mosier, B.; Guilbeau, K.G.; McCrary, J.L.

    1983-11-15

    Viscosifiers for addition to high zinc salt brines, used as oil well workover and completion fluids, are prepared from natural polysaccharide gums by treatment with a basic nitrogen reagent, such as a quaternary ammonium compound, hexamethylene tetramine, or dimethylol urea. The treated viscosifiers have improved dispersibility and give increased viscosity effects in the brines. Preferably, the viscosifiers are prepared from carrageenan or locust bean gums.

  1. Recent Developments in Silver/Zinc Rechargeable Cell Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Harlan L.

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses silver/zinc cell casing configurations and test results examining discharge capacity and silver migration comparisons. The following recommendations were proposed: 1) Use silver-treated cellophane instead of clear cellophane; 2) Use split wrap for cellophane whenever possible; and 3) Strongly consider use of sausage casing with PVA film in the following configuration: 1-mil (tubular) SC/1-mil PVA film/2.3-mil plain or 6-mil fiber-reinforced SC tubular.

  2. Comparing polyaluminum chloride and ferric chloride for antimony removal.

    PubMed

    Kang, Meea; Kamei, Tasuku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2003-10-01

    Antimony has been one of the contaminants required to be regulated, however, only limited information has been collected to date regarding antimony removal by polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride (FC). Accordingly, the possible use of coagulation by PACl or FC for antimony removal was investigated. Jar tests were used to determine the effects of solution pH, coagulant dosage, and pre-chlorination on the removal of various antimony species. Although high-efficiency antimony removal by aluminum coagulation has been expected because antimony is similar to arsenic in that both antimony and arsenic are a kind of metalloid in group V of the periodic chart, this study indicated: (1) removal density (arsenic or antimony removed per mg coagulant) for antimony by PACl was about one forty-fifth as low as observed for As(V); (2) although the removal of both Sb(III) and Sb(V) by coagulation with FC was much higher than that of PACl, a high coagulant dose of 10.5mg of FeL(-1) at optimal pH of 5.0 was still not sufficient to meet the standard antimony level of 2 microg as SbL(-1) for drinking water when around 6 microg as SbL(-1) were initially present. Consequently, investigation of a more appropriate treatment process is necessary to develop economical Sb reduction; (3) although previous studies concluded that As(V) is more effectively removed than As(III), this study showed that the removal of Sb(III) by coagulation with FC was much more pronounced than that of Sb(V); (4) oxidation of Sb(III) with chlorine decreased the ability of FC to remove antimony. Accordingly, natural water containing Sb(III) under anoxic condition should be coagulated without pre-oxidation. PMID:12946899

  3. Polarization and charge transfer in the hydration of chloride ions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Zhen; Rogers, David M.; Beck, Thomas L.

    2010-01-07

    A theoretical study of the structural and electronic properties of the chloride ion and water molecules in the first hydration shell is presented. The calculations are performed on an ensemble of configurations obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of a single chloride ion in bulk water. The simulations utilize the polarizable AMOEBA force field for trajectory generation and MP2-level calculations are performed to examine the electronic structure properties of the ions and surrounding waters in the external field of more distant waters. The ChelpG method is employed to explore the effective charges and dipoles on the chloride ions and first-shell waters. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) is further utilized to examine charge transfer from the anion to surrounding water molecules. The clusters extracted from the AMOEBA simulations exhibit high probabilities of anisotropic solvation for chloride ions in bulk water. From the QTAIM analysis, 0.2 elementary charges are transferred from the ion to the first-shell water molecules. The default AMOEBA model overestimates the average dipole moment magnitude of the ion compared to the quantum mechanical value. The average magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first shell treated at the MP2-level, with the more distant waters handled with an AMOEBA effective charge model, is 2.67 D. This value is close to the AMOEBA result for first-shell waters (2.72 D) and is slightly reduced from the bulk AMOEBA value (2.78 D). The magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first solvation shell is most strongly affected by the local water-water interactions and hydrogen bonds with the second solvation shell, rather than by interactions with the ion.

  4. Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride

    SciTech Connect

    Ravnsbaek, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

    2011-07-15

    The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH{sub 4}, forming Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.9}Cl{sub 0.1}, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH{sub 4} is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.43}Cl{sub 0.57}. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH{sub 4} into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements. - Graphical Abstract: Dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. Dissolution is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples. Sample compositions and dissolution mechanism are studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction data. Highlights: > Studies of dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other. > Solid state diffusion facilitated by mechanical and thermal treatments. > Dissolution is more efficiently induced by heating than by mechanical treatment. > Mechanism for dissolution studied by Rietveld refinement of in situ SR-PXD data.

  5. CHLORIDE RESPONSE OF SPRING WHEAT VARIETIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the research reported here was to measure the chloride response of different small grain varieties under controlled environments. Three greenhouse experiments were conducted in which nutrient solutions containing different levels of chloride were applied to different varieties of h...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section are identical to those set forth at 29 CFR 1910.1052. ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section are identical to those set forth at 29 CFR 1910.1052. ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  9. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to those set forth at 29 CFR 1910.1052. ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to those set forth at 29 CFR 1910.1052. ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride....

  15. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section are identical to those set forth at 29 CFR 1910.1052. ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section are identical to those set forth at 29 CFR 1910.1052. ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section are identical to those set forth at 29 CFR 1910.1052. ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to those set forth at 29 CFR 1910.1052. ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to those set forth at 29 CFR 1910.1052. ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to those set forth at 29 CFR 1910.1052. ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  7. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Commission found that the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (74 FR 31757... Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... chloride from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full...

  8. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Chloride Vinyl Chloride is a Cancer-Suspect Agent (5) Containers...Flammable Gas Under Pressure Cancer Suspect Agent or (ii) In...with the additional legend: Cancer-Suspect Agent applied near...examination for albumin, red blood cells, and exfoliative abnormal...

  9. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CHLORIDE VINYL CHLORIDE IS A CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT (5...FLAMMABLE GAS UNDER PRESSURE CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT (ii) In...near the label or placard: CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT (6) No...examination for albumin, red blood cells, and exfoliative abnormal...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CHLORIDE VINYL CHLORIDE IS A CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT (5...FLAMMABLE GAS UNDER PRESSURE CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT (ii) In...near the label or placard: CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT (6) No...examination for albumin, red blood cells, and exfoliative abnormal...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CHLORIDE VINYL CHLORIDE IS A CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT (5...FLAMMABLE GAS UNDER PRESSURE CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT (ii) In...near the label or placard: CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT (6) No...examination for albumin, red blood cells, and exfoliative abnormal...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Chloride Vinyl Chloride is a Cancer-Suspect Agent (5) Containers...Flammable Gas Under Pressure Cancer Suspect Agent or (ii) In...with the additional legend: Cancer-Suspect Agent applied near...examination for albumin, red blood cells, and exfoliative abnormal...

  13. Process for synthesis of beryllium chloride dietherate

    DOEpatents

    Bergeron, Charles (Baton Rouge, LA); Bullard, John E. (Kendall Park, NJ); Morgan, Evan (Lynchburg, VA)

    1991-01-01

    A low temperature method of producing beryllium chloride dietherate through the addition of hydrogen chloride gas to a mixture of beryllium metal in ether in a reaction vessel is described. A reflux condenser provides an exit for hydrogen produced form the reaction. A distillation condenser later replaces the reflux condenser for purifying the resultant product.

  14. Depleted zinc: Properties, application, production.

    PubMed

    Borisevich, V D; Pavlov, A V; Okhotina, I A

    2009-01-01

    The addition of ZnO, depleted in the Zn-64 isotope, to the water of boiling water nuclear reactors lessens the accumulation of Co-60 on the reactor interior surfaces, reduces radioactive wastes and increases the reactor service-life because of the inhibitory action of zinc on inter-granular stress corrosion cracking. To the same effect depleted zinc in the form of acetate dihydrate is used in pressurized water reactors. Gas centrifuge isotope separation method is applied for production of depleted zinc on the industrial scale. More than 20 years of depleted zinc application history demonstrates its benefits for reduction of NPP personnel radiation exposure and combating construction materials corrosion. PMID:19318263

  15. Recovery of soluble chloride salts from the wastewater generated during the washing process of municipal solid wastes incineration fly ash.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hailong; Erzat, Aris; Liu, Yangsheng

    2014-01-01

    Water washing is widely used as the pretreatment method to treat municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, which facilitates the further solidification/stabilization treatment or resource recovery of the fly ash. The wastewater generated during the washing process is a kind of hydrosaline solution, usually containing high concentrations of alkali chlorides and sulphates, which cause serious pollution to environment. However, these salts can be recycled as resources instead of discharge. This paper explored an effective and practical recovery method to separate sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride salts individually from the hydrosaline water. In laboratory experiments, a simulating hydrosaline solution was prepared according to composition of the waste washing water. First, in the three-step evaporation-crystallization process, pure sodium chloride and solid mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides were obtained separately, and the remaining solution contained potassium and calcium chlorides (solution A). And then, the solid mixture was fully dissolved into water (solution B obtained). Finally, ethanol was added into solutions A and B to change the solubility of sodium, potassium, and calcium chlorides within the mixed solvent of water and ethanol. During the ethanol-adding precipitation process, each salt was separated individually, and the purity of the raw production in laboratory experiments reached about 90%. The ethanol can be recycled by distillation and reused as the solvent. Therefore, this technology may bring both environmental and economic benefits. PMID:25176491

  16. Alterations in zinc binding capacity, free zinc levels and total serum zinc in a porcine model of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Hoeger, Janine; Simon, Tim-Philipp; Doemming, Sabine; Thiele, Christoph; Marx, Gernot; Schuerholz, Tobias; Haase, Hajo

    2015-08-01

    Zinc is crucial for immune function. In addition, the redistribution of zinc and other nutrients due to infection is an integral part of the host immune response to limit availability to pathogens. However, the major zinc binding protein albumin is down regulated during the acute phase response, implicating a decrease in zinc binding capacity. A prospective animal study with eight female German landrace pigs was conducted to investigate alterations in zinc binding capacity, total serum zinc and free zinc levels in the initial phase of sepsis. Sepsis was induced by instillation of autologous feces via midline laparotomy. Total serum zinc declined significantly after 1 h (10.89 ± 0.42 µM vs. 7.67 ± 0.41 µM, p < 0.001), total serum copper and iron reached a significant reduction at 4 h. Urinary excretion of zinc declined in line with total serum zinc. In comparison to total serum zinc, free zinc levels declined to a lesser, though significant, extent. Zinc binding capacity of serum decreased over time, whereby free zinc levels after addition of zinc correlated negatively with total serum protein and albumin levels. In addition IL-6 and TNF-? concentrations were measured and increased significantly 2 h after induction of sepsis. Hence, total serum zinc was the first marker of inflammation in our experiment, and might therefore be a promising biomarker for the early diagnosis of sepsis. Furthermore the observation of a substantially different serum free zinc homeostasis during sepsis provides valuable information for a potential therapeutic zinc supplementation, which has to take buffering capacity by serum proteins into account. PMID:25940830

  17. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used...

  18. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250 ...Special Use Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1170 - Chloride test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chloride test system. 862.1170 Section 862...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1170 Chloride test system. (a) Identification. A chloride test system is a device intended to...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1740 - Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. 154...Requirements § 154.1740 Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. When a vessel is carrying vinyl chloride, the master shall ensure that:...