Sample records for zinc chloride treated

  1. Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA); Rosenhoover, William A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1981-01-01

    In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

  2. Electrodeposition of zinc from a Lewis acidic zinc chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Feng Lin; I.-Wen Sun

    1999-01-01

    The electrodeposition of zinc on glassy carbon and nickel substrates was investigated in the 50.0–50.0 mol% zinc chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt. The electrodeposition of zinc on both electrodes required a nucleation overpotential. Analysis of the chronoamperometric current–time transients suggested that the electrodeposition of zinc on both substrates involved instantaneous three-dimensional nucleation with mixed diffusion and kinetic controlled growth of the

  3. Materials for Conoco zinc chloride hydrocracking process

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, V.B.; Keiser, J.R.; DeVan, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Use of zinc chloride to augment hydrogenation of coal and yield a high-octane gasoline product is the most significant feature of a coal liquefaction process being developed by Conoco Coal Development Company. The zinc chloride catalyst is regenerated in a fluidized sand bed, where the spent melt is mixed with air and hydrogen chloride at about 1000/sup 0/C. Recovery is completed at 370/sup 0/C in a condenser, where the zinc chloride is collected and the oxygen and sulfur are separated as H/sub 2/O and SO/sub 2/. The economic viability of the entire process is highly dependent on almost complete recovery of the zinc chloride. The severe environmental conditions of this recovery process cause unique materials problems. Although high-temperature oxidation and sulfidation are being studied in related programs, suitable materials to resist their combined effects along with those of chlorides have not yet been specifically addressed. Common engineering materials, such as the austenitic stainless steels and many nickel-base alloys, are unsuitable because of their inability to tolerate the elevated temperatures and sulfidation, respectively. The objectives of this task are to screen various metallic and ceramic materials for resistance to the zinc chloride recovery system environment and to determine the nature of the attack by exposing coupons to the simulated environment in the laboratory.

  4. Selective removal of iron contaminations from zinc-chloride melts by cementation with zinc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Devilee; A. van Sandwijk; M. A. Reuter

    1999-01-01

    An investigation into the cementation of iron chloride from a zinc-chloride melt at 400 °C has been carried out with zinc powder. The variables studied include preparation of the chloride melt and the amount of zinc added. The effect of lead, copper, and cadmium on cementation of iron has also been investigated. According to the results, it is possible to

  5. Hydrocracking with molten zinc chloride catalyst containing 2-12% ferrous chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA); Bagshaw, Gary H. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. by contacting the feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten zinc chloride catalyst and thereafter separating at least a major portion of the hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten zinc chloride catalyst, an improvement comprising: adjusting the FeCl.sub.2 content of the molten zinc chloride to from about 2 to about 12 mol percent based on the mixture of ferrous chloride and molten zinc chloride.

  6. Zinc-chloride battery technology - Status 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan, J. W.; Carr, P.; Warde, C. J.; Henriksen, G. L.

    Zinc-chloride batteries are presently under development at Energy Development Associates (EDA) for load-leveling, electric-vehicle, and specialty applications. A 500-kWh battery system has been built at Detroit Edison's Charlotte substation near downtown Detroit. Following shakedown testing, this system will be installed at the Battery Energy Storage Test (BEST) Facility in Hillsborough, New Jersey, in July 1983. Data is presented also for a prototype 50-kWh battery which has successfully operated through 150 cycles. EDA has built and tested three 4-passenger automobiles. The maximum range achieved on a single charge was 200 miles at 40 mph. Recently, the electric-vehicle battery program at EDA has focused on commercial vehicles. Two vans, each powered with a 45-kWh zinc-chloride battery, have been built and track tested. These vehicles, which carry a payload of 1,000 pounds, have a top speed of 55 mph and an operational range in excess of 80 miles. In the specialty battery area, two 6-kWh 12-V reserve batteries have been built and tested. This type of battery offers the prospect of long shelf life and an energy density in excess of 100 Wh/lb.

  7. Selective removal of iron contaminations from zinc-chloride melts by cementation with zinc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Devilee; A. Van Sandwijk; M. A. Reuter

    1999-01-01

    An investigation into the cementation of iron chloride from a zinc-chloride melt at 400 °C has been carried out with zinc\\u000a powder. The variables studied include preparation of the chloride melt and the amount of zinc added. The effect of lead, copper,\\u000a and cadmium on cementation of iron has also been investigated. According to the results, it is possible to

  8. Dynamics of vitreous and molten zinc chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.L.; Susman, S.; Volin, K.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Wright, A.C. (Reading Univ. (United Kingdom). J.J. Thomson Physical Lab.)

    1991-09-01

    The dynamics of vitreous and molten zinc chloride have been studied with inelastic neutron scattering at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source. The results are analyzed in terms of the scattering function S(Q,E) and the effective vibrational density of states G(E). The vibrational spectra of both glass and liquid are dominated by broad features centered at 15 and 35 MeV which are identified with F{sub 2} modes of ZnCl{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} tetrahedra. The other two normal modes are not observed because of inadequate resolution and broadening and overlap resulting from coupling between tetrahedra. The behavior of ZnCl{sub 2} is contrasted with other tetrahedrally coordinated glasses that have been studied with the same technique. 15 refs,. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Electrodeposition behavior of nickel and nickel–zinc alloys from the zinc chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride low temperature molten salt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi-Ping Gou; I.-Wen Sun

    2008-01-01

    The electrodeposition of nickel and nickel–zinc alloys was investigated at polycrystalline tungsten electrode in the zinc chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt. Although nickel(II) chloride dissolved easily into the pure chloride-rich 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic melt, metallic nickel could not be obtained by electrochemical reduction of this solution. The addition of zinc chloride to this solution shifted the reduction of nickel(II) to more

  10. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  11. Development of the zinc-chloride battery for mobile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-12-01

    A zinc-chloride battery system for mobile application was built and tested in an assigned vehicle. It is shown that the preproduction battery in a specifically designed four passenger vehicle, can reach consistently more than 150 miles at speeds of above 40 mph. Further efforts can be expected to achieve a zinc chloride battery with a range of more than 200 miles at the same or greater speeds.

  12. The Limiting Phenomena at the Anode of the Electrowinning of Zinc from Zinc Chloride in a Molten Chloride Electrolyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Lans

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the possibilities and technological viability for the electrowinning of zinc from zinc chloride. This research contributes to development of an alternative process, because it provides:\\u000aâ¢\\u0009A clear understanding and overview of the present zinc industry and future developments.\\u000aâ¢\\u0009A thorough literature investigation, leading to:\\u000ao\\u0009Understanding the reasons to abandon

  13. Free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes for the transference of zinc chloride from enthylene glycol to water solutions 

    E-print Network

    Lomonte, John Nicholas

    1960-01-01

    hours to convert some of the silver to silver chloride. FIQJRE I, CELL FOR USE WITH UQUID AMALGAM ELECTRODES CHAPTER IV EXPERIMENTAL The anhydrous zinc chloride used in this vork was Mallinckrodt's analytical reagent grade zinc chloride dried...

  14. A-C modulation of a rotating zinc electrode in an acid zinc-chloride solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, D.-T.; Venkatesh, S.

    1981-07-01

    A study has been made of the effect of alternating current (a.c.) on the behavior of a rotating zinc hemispherical electrode in an acid zinc-chloride solution. It was found that a.c. shifted the rest potential of the zinc electrode toward the negative direction and caused a change in the shape of the cathodic polarization curve. Visual observation under a scanning electron microscope revealed that a.c. initiated pitting corrosion when the electrode was polarized in the anodic direction. For the cathodic deposition reaction, a.c. greatly increased the rate of nucleation and produced a more uniform deposit on the zinc electrode. The result was substantiated with the numerical computation of a three-dimensional nucleation model.

  15. Electrodeposition of cobalt and zinc?cobalt alloys from a lewis acidic zinc chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Po-Yu Chen; I-Wen Sun

    2001-01-01

    The electrodeposition of cobalt and zinc?cobalt alloys on nickel, tungsten, copper, and glassy carbon electrodes was investigated in 40.0–60.0 mole percent (mol%) zinc chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt containing cobalt(II) at 80°C. At potentials positive of 0.15 V (vs. Zn), cobalt deposition on nickel occurs via three-dimensional instantaneous nucleation with diffusion controlled growth of the nuclei. At potentials between 0.1 and

  16. Protective effect of zinc chloride against cobalt chloride-induced cytotoxicity on vero cells: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Gürbay, Aylin

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of cobalt chloride on Vero cells. The cultured cells were incubated with different concentrations of cobalt chloride ranging from 0.5 to 1,000 ?M, and cytotoxicity was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and resazurin assays. Possible protective effects of vitamin E, coenzyme Q(10), and zinc chloride were also tested in this system. A gradual decrease in cell proliferation was observed at concentrations ~? 200 ?M in incubation periods of 24, 48, 72, and 96 h with MTT assay. Exposure of cells to 500 and 1,000 ?M cobalt chloride caused significant decrease in cell survival. A biphasic survival profile of cells was observed at 1-25 ?M concentration range following 96 h of incubation. With resazurin assay, cytotoxicity profile of CoCl(2) was found comparable to the results of MTT assay, particularly at high concentrations and long incubation periods. Dose-dependent cytotoxicity was noted following exposure of cells to ? 250 ?M of CoCl(2) for 24 h and ? 100 ?M concentrations of CoCl(2) for 48-96 h. Pretreatment of cells with ZnCl(2) for 4 or 24 h provided significant protection against cobalt chloride-induced cytotoxicity when measured with MTT assay. However, vitamin E or coenzyme Q(10) was not protective. CoCl(2) had dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects in Vero cells. Preventive effect of ZnCl(2) against CoCl(2)-induced cytotoxicity should be considered in detail to define exact mechanism of toxicity in Vero cells. PMID:22281816

  17. Effect of zinc chloride on the growth and characterization of L-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate semiorganic NLO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrivel, S.; Anandan, P.; Kanagasabapathy, K.; Bhattacharya, Suman; Gopinath, S.; Rajasekaran, R.

    2013-06-01

    Single crystals of zinc doped L-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate were successfully grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation method at room temperature for different molar concentration of zinc chloride. The structural properties of grown crystals have been studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction studies and Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis. The incorporation of the dopant (zinc chloride) into L-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate crystal lattice has been confirmed by EDAX analysis. UV-Vis spectral analyses showed that the doped crystals have lower UV cut-off wavelength at 200 nm combined with very good transparency about 85% in a very wide range. The second harmonic generation efficiency test has been carried out and results are discussed. The 0.2 and 0.4 mol Zinc chloride doped crystals were thermally stable up to 208.9 °C and 211.9 °C respectively. The electrical properties have been studied by dielectric constant studies. All results are compared with the results of pure L-PCCM crystals.

  18. Effect of zinc chloride on the growth and characterization of L-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate semiorganic NLO single crystals.

    PubMed

    Vetrivel, S; Anandan, P; Kanagasabapathy, K; Bhattacharya, Suman; Gopinath, S; Rajasekaran, R

    2013-06-01

    Single crystals of zinc doped L-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate were successfully grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation method at room temperature for different molar concentration of zinc chloride. The structural properties of grown crystals have been studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction studies and Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis. The incorporation of the dopant (zinc chloride) into L-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate crystal lattice has been confirmed by EDAX analysis. UV-Vis spectral analyses showed that the doped crystals have lower UV cut-off wavelength at 200 nm combined with very good transparency about 85% in a very wide range. The second harmonic generation efficiency test has been carried out and results are discussed. The 0.2 and 0.4 mol Zinc chloride doped crystals were thermally stable up to 208.9 °C and 211.9 °C respectively. The electrical properties have been studied by dielectric constant studies. All results are compared with the results of pure L-PCCM crystals. PMID:23583849

  19. Synthesis and characterization of zinc chloride containing poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Seok; Kuang, Jia; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Lim, Youn-Mook; Jeong, Sung-In; Shin, Young-Min; Seob Khil, Myung; Nho, Young-Chang

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the characterization of zinc chloride incorporated into a poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) hydrogel prepared by gamma-ray irradiation was investigated. Zinc chloride powder with different concentrations was dissolved in the PAAc solution, and it was crosslinked with gamma-ray irradiation. The effects of various parameters such as zinc ion concentration and irradiation doses on characteristics of the hydrogel formed were investigated in detail for obtaining an antibacterial wound dressing. In addition, the gel content, pH-sensitive (pH 4 or 7) swelling ratio, and UV-vis absorption spectra of the zinc particles in the hydrogels were characterized. Moreover, antibacterial properties of these new materials against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains were observed on solid growth media. The antibacterial tests indicated that the zinc chloride containing PAAc hydrogels have good antibacterial activity.

  20. Evaluating the effects of zinc chloride as a preservative in cracked table olive packing.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Romero-Gil, V; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2011-12-01

    This survey studies the influence of different zinc chloride concentrations (0.050, 0.075, and 0.100%, wt/vol) on the shelf life of "Aceituna Aloreña de Málaga" table olives. The Enterobacteriaceae population significantly (P ? 0.05) decreased in treatments containing 0.050 and 0.100% ZnCl(2), and those with 0.075% ZnCl(2) had also lower average counts than those observed under the usual packaging conditions (0.12% potassium sorbate). Lactic acid bacteria increased for treatments with 0.050 and 0.075% ZnCl(2), but in the presence of 0.100% they practically disappeared at the end of the shelf life period (?3 months). With respect to yeasts, populations of these microorganisms significantly decreased with the first two concentrations (0.050 and 0.075%) but showed a slight increase in the presence of 0.100% of ZnCl(2), although remaining markedly below populations observed with potassium sorbate packing. The use of this chloride salt also led to products with higher concentrations of sugars in brine because of its selective microbial inhibition. Finally, olives treated with 0.075% ZnCl(2) showed an improved sensory profile. PMID:22186060

  1. Effect of n-tetradecanol on the extraction of iron(III), cobalt(II), and zinc(II) chlorides with tri-n-dodecylammonium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Ochkin, A.V.; Kudrov, A.N.; Ospoprivivatelev, A.A.

    1986-05-01

    Equations are proposed to describe the reduction in the partition coefficients of metal chlorides in amine extractant systems following the addition of alcohols. The equations include two empirical factors: solvation parameters for amine chloride and the compound undergoing extraction. These parameters can be found from independent data. The equations have been used to describe the extraction of micro amounts of iron(III), cobalt(II), and zinc(II) chlorides by tridodecylammonium chloride in the presence of n-tetradecanol.

  2. Nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of benzylic zinc reagents with aromatic bromides, chlorides and tosylates.

    PubMed

    Schade, Matthias A; Metzger, Albrecht; Hug, Stephan; Knochel, Paul

    2008-07-14

    Benzylic zinc reagents prepared by direct insertion of zinc to benzylic chlorides in the presence of LiCl undergo smooth cross-coupling reactions with aromatic chlorides, bromides and tosylates using Ni(acac)(2) and PPh(3) as a catalyst system. PMID:18688343

  3. Use of zinc acetate to treat copper toxicosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Brewer, G J; Dick, R D; Schall, W; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, V; Mullaney, T P; Pace, C; Lindgren, J; Thomas, M; Padgett, G

    1992-08-15

    Zinc acetate was used for the treatment and prophylaxis of hepatic copper toxicosis in 3 Bedlington Terriers and 3 West Highland White Terriers. Two dogs of each breed were treated for 2 years, and 1 of each breed for 1 year. A dosage of 200 mg of elemental zinc per day was required to achieve therapeutic objectives related to copper, which included a doubling of plasma zinc concentration to 200 micrograms/dl and a suppression of oral 64 copper absorption. The dosage was later reduced to 50 to 100 mg/day to avoid an excessive increase in plasma zinc concentration. The preliminary clinical results were good. Three dogs had mild to moderate active liver disease and high liver copper concentrations at the time of initiation of zinc administration. Biopsy of the liver 2 years later revealed a reduction in hepatitis and copper concentrations. One other dog without active hepatitis also had a reduction in hepatic copper concentrations over a 2-year period. All 6 dogs have done well clinically. On the basis of these findings, we believe zinc acetate to be an effective and nontoxic treatment for copper toxicosis in dogs. PMID:1517130

  4. Investigating the Effect of Zinc Chloride to Control External Bleeding in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Saeed; Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Tabatabaei, Fatemeh; Farokhi, Shima

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite all progresses in surgical science, bleeding caused by traffic accidents is still a challenge for surgeons to save patients’ lives. Therefore, introducing an effective method to control external bleeding is an important research priority. Objectives: This study aimed to compare haemostatic effect of zinc chloride and simple suturing to control external bleeding. Materials and Methods: In this animal model study, 60 male Wistar rats were used. An incision (two cm in length and half a cm in depth) was made on shaved back of rats. The hemostasis time was measured once using zinc chloride with different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 25%, and 50%) and then using simple suturing. Skin tissue was assessed for pathological changes. Due to abnormal distribution of variables in Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: In all the groups, complete hemostasis occurred. Hemostasis times of different concentrations of zinc chloride were significantly less than that of the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Zinc chloride was effective to control external bleeding in rats. PMID:25699284

  5. Modeling Zinc and Sodium Chloride Migration in Vadose Zone Soils Beneath Stormwater Infiltration Devices

    E-print Network

    Clark, Shirley E.

    Modeling Zinc and Sodium Chloride Migration in Vadose Zone Soils Beneath Stormwater Infiltration in stormwater runoff and a decrease in groundwater recharge. Stormwater runoff contains pollutants (nutrients to the degradation of surface waters below stormwater pipe outfalls. Infiltrating stormwater has been shown

  6. The influence of zinc chloride and zinc oxide nanoparticles on air-time survival in freshwater mussels.

    PubMed

    Gagné, François; Auclair, Joëlle; Peyrot, Caroline; Wilkinson, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cumulative effects of exposure to either dissolved zinc or nanozinc oxide (nanoZnO) and air-time survival in freshwater mussels. Mussels were exposed to each forms of zinc for 96h then placed in air to determine survival time. A sub-group of mussels before and after 7days of exposure to air were kept aside for the determination of the following biomarkers: arachidonate-dependent cyclooxygenase (COX) and peroxidase (inflammation and oxidative stress), lipid metabolism (total lipids, esterases activity, HO-glycerol, acetyl CoA and phospholipase A2) and lipid damage (lipid peroxidation [LPO]). The results showed that air-time survival was decreased from a mean value of 18.5days to a mean value of 12days in mussels exposed to 2.5mg/L of nanoZnO although it was not lethal based on shell opening at concentrations below 50mg/L after 96h. In mussels exposed to zinc only, the median lethal concentration was estimated at 16mg/L (10-25 95% CI). The air-time survival did not significantly change in mussels exposed to the same concentration of dissolved Zn. Significant weight losses were observed at 0.5mg/L of nanoZnO and at 2.5mg/L for dissolved zinc chloride, and were also significantly correlated with air-time survival (r=0.53; p<0.01). Air exposure significantly increased COX activity in control mussels and in mussels exposed to 0.5mg/L of nanoZnO and zinc chloride. The data also suggested fatty acid breakdown and ?-oxidation. Mussels exposed to contaminants are more susceptible to prolonged exposure to air during low water levels. PMID:25957733

  7. Spray pyrolysis deposition of ZnO thin films on FTO coated substrates from zinc acetate and zinc chloride precursor solution at different growth temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ü. Alver; A. Kudret; S. Tekerek

    2011-01-01

    ZnO thin films were fabricated using zinc chloride and zinc acetate precursors by the spray pyrolysis technique on FTO coated glass substrates. The ZnO films were grown in different deposition temperature ranges varying from 400 to 550°C. Influences of substrate temperature and zinc precursors on crystal structure, morphology and optical property of the ZnO thin films were investigated. XRD patterns

  8. Embryotoxicity of benzalkonium chloride in vaginally treated rats.

    PubMed

    Buttar, H S

    1985-12-01

    The effects of the spermicide benzalkonium chloride (BKC) were studied on the conceptus of rat. Single doses (0, 25, 50, 100 or 200 mg kg-1) of aqueous solutions of BKC were administered intravaginally (1 ml kg-1) on gestational day 1. The vulval metallic clips, used to prevent leakage of the solution, were removed 24 h post-treatment. Fetuses were obtained and examined for malformations on day 21 of gestation. slight to copious amounts of vaginal discharge and vaginitis were noticed in rats treated with the two largest doses of BKC. A dose-related increase in resorptions and fetal death, reduction in litter size and weight were observed in BKC-treated dams. The conceptus loss seemed to occur both before and after implantation. BKC did not cause any discernible visceral malformations, although minor sternal defects occurred in fetuses exposed to 100 and 200 mg kg-1 of the spermicide. These results suggest that single vaginal application of BKC is embryo- and fetocidal in the rat at a dose about 143 times higher than that recommended for controlling conception in women. PMID:4078221

  9. Effect of calcium chloride on pH and availability of zinc and phosphorus in three calcareous soils 

    E-print Network

    Podisuk, Varangkana

    1976-01-01

    EFFECT OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE ON pH AND AVAILABILITY OF ZINC AND PHOSPHORUS IN THREE CALCAREOUS SOILS A Thesis by Varangkana Podisuk Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AEM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May l976 Major Subject: Soil Chemistry EFFECT OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE ON pH AND AVAILABILITY OF ZINC AND PHOSPHORUS IN THREE CALCAREOUS SOILS A Thesis by Varangkana Podisuk Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman...

  10. Effect of calcium chloride on pH and availability of zinc and phosphorus in three calcareous soils

    E-print Network

    Podisuk, Varangkana

    1976-01-01

    EFFECT OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE ON pH AND AVAILABILITY OF ZINC AND PHOSPHORUS IN THREE CALCAREOUS SOILS A Thesis by Varangkana Podisuk Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AEM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May l976 Major Subject: Soil Chemistry EFFECT OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE ON pH AND AVAILABILITY OF ZINC AND PHOSPHORUS IN THREE CALCAREOUS SOILS A Thesis by Varangkana Podisuk Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman...

  11. Preparation of activated carbons from bituminous coals with zinc chloride activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsisheng Teng; Tien-Sheng Yeh

    1998-01-01

    Activated carbons were prepared by chemical activation from two Australian bituminous coals in this study. The preparation process consisted of zinc chloride impregnation followed by carbonization in nitrogen. The carbonization temperature ranges from 400 to 700 C. Experimental results reveal that an acid-washing process following the carbonization with ZnClâ is necessary for preparing high-porosity carbons. Surface area, pore volume, and

  12. Cellular responses in primary epidermal cultures from rainbow trout exposed to zinc chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon NiShuilleabhaina; Nora M. O'Brien; John O' Halloran; Frank N. A. M. van Pelt; Michael Kilemade; Maria Davoren

    In this study, we examined the effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) (0-200 mg\\/L) on primary epidermal cultures from Oncorhynchus mykiss. Increases in the rate and amount of mucus released were detected post-exposure, as was a dose-dependent increase in the synthesis of acidic glycoproteins. The cytotoxicity of ZnCl2 to the cultures was significantly increased (Pp0:05) when exposures were conducted in serum-free

  13. Cellular responses in primary epidermal cultures from rainbow trout exposed to zinc chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Ní Shúilleabháin; Carmel Mothersill; David Sheehan; Nora M. O’Brien; John O’ Halloran; Michael Kilemade; Maria Davoren

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) (0–200mg\\/L) on primary epidermal cultures from Oncorhynchus mykiss. Increases in the rate and amount of mucus released were detected post-exposure, as was a dose-dependent increase in the synthesis of acidic glycoproteins. The cytotoxicity of ZnCl2 to the cultures was significantly increased (P?0.05) when exposures were conducted in serum-free medium

  14. Spectrophotometric extractive titrations-IV Determination of zinc in germanium dioxide and germanium chloride.

    PubMed

    Galík, A

    1967-07-01

    A simple and selective determination of zinc in germanium chloride and germanium dioxide is described. The sample is dissolved in sodium potassium tartrate solution and zinc is titrated spectrophotometrically at 532 mug( with a dithizone solution in carbon tetrachloride without discarding the organic phase. Interfering ions such as Bi(III), Cu(II), Cd(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Sn(II), Fe(II), Fe(III), Mn(II) and T1(I) are masked with bis(2-hydroxyethyl)dithiocarbamate. The detection limit is 3-23 x 10(-5)% of zinc and this may be lowered by taking a larger sample and by performing the analysis in a closed system. A simplified technique, consisting of the simultaneous titration of the sample and blank, is described. PMID:18960156

  15. Crystal growth, structure and characterizations of a new semiorganic nonlinear optical material-{beta}-Alanine zinc chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Anbuchezhiyan, M. [Department of Physics, Valliammai Engineering College, S.R.M. Nagar, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India)] [Department of Physics, Valliammai Engineering College, S.R.M. Nagar, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India); Ponnusamy, S., E-mail: suruponnus@gmail.com [Centre for Material Science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Kanchipuram, Chennai 603203 (India); Muthamizhchelvan, C. [Centre for Material Science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Kanchipuram, Chennai 603203 (India)] [Centre for Material Science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Kanchipuram, Chennai 603203 (India); Sivakumar, K. [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)] [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2010-08-15

    The title compound, {beta}-alanine zinc chloride-a new semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. Single crystals of {beta}-alanine zinc chloride have been subjected to X-ray diffraction analysis to determine the crystal structure. The powder X-ray diffractogram of the crystal has also been recorded. The amount of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen in the crystals was also estimated. Fourier Transform Infrared and Raman spectral measurements have been carried out on the grown crystals in order to identify the functional groups. The presence of hydrogen and carbon in the {beta}-alanine zinc chloride was confirmed by using proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analyses. The percentage of zinc in the crystal was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Optical behavior such as ultraviolet-vis-near infrared transmittance spectrum and second harmonic generation has been investigated. The mechanical strength and thermal behavior of the grown crystal have been analyzed.

  16. Effect of water vapor on the thermal decomposition process of zinc hydroxide chloride and crystal growth of zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Onda, Ayumu [Research Laboratory of Hydrothermal Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kochi University, 2-5-1 Akebono-cho, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Yanagisawa, Kazumichi, E-mail: yanagi@kochi-u.ac.j [Research Laboratory of Hydrothermal Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kochi University, 2-5-1 Akebono-cho, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Kishi, Akira; Masuda, Yasuaki [Rigaku Corporation, 3-9-12 Matsubara-cho, Akishima-shi, Tokyo 196-8666 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Thermal decomposition process of zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC), Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O, prepared by a hydrothermal slow-cooling method has been investigated by simultaneous X-ray diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry (XRD-DSC) and thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) in a humidity-controlled atmosphere. ZHC was decomposed to ZnO through {beta}-Zn(OH)Cl as the intermediate phase, leaving amorphous hydrated ZnCl{sub 2}. In humid N{sub 2} with P{sub H{sub 2O}}=4.5 and 10 kPa, the hydrolysis of residual ZnCl{sub 2} was accelerated and the theoretical amount of ZnO was obtained at lower temperatures than in dry N{sub 2}, whereas significant weight loss was caused by vaporization of residual ZnCl{sub 2} in dry N{sub 2}. ZnO formed by calcinations in a stagnant air atmosphere had the same morphology of the original ZHC crystals and consisted of the c-axis oriented column-like particle arrays. On the other hand, preferred orientation of ZnO was inhibited in the case of calcinations in 100% water vapor. A detailed thermal decomposition process of ZHC and the effect of water vapor on the crystal growth of ZnO are discussed. -- Graphical abstract: Thermal decomposition process of zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC), Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O, has been investigated by novel thermal analyses with three different water vapor partial pressures. In the water vapor atmosphere, the formation of ZnO was completed at lower temperatures than in dry. Display Omitted highlights: > We examine the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride in water vapor. > Water vapor had no effects on its thermal decomposition up to 230 {sup o}C. > Water vapor accelerated the decomposition of the residual ZnCl{sub 2} in ZnO. > Without water vapor, a large amount of ZnCl{sub 2} evaporated to form the c-axis oriented ZnO.

  17. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) thin films deposited on glass substrates by chemical spray starting from zinc pentanedionate and aluminum chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. de la L. Olvera; A. Maldonado; J. Vega-Pérez; O. Solorza-Feria

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO:Al) were deposited on sodalime glass substrates by the chemical spray technique, starting from zinc pentanedionate and aluminum chloride. The effect of the substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical properties was studied. A constant [Al]\\/[Zn]=3at.% ratio was used. As the substrate temperature increases, the electrical resistance decreases, reaching a minimum value, in

  18. Idiopathic bladder hyperactivity treated with Ditropan (oxybutynin chloride)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Nagy; A. Hamvas; D. Frang

    1990-01-01

    Ditropan (oxybutynin chloride), a tertiary amine with slight anticholinergic and marked “papaverine-like” direct spasmolytic\\u000a effects has been administered to 25 patients with idiopathic hyperactive bladder function. The drug reduced voiding frequency\\u000a and abolished urgency. Control cystometry confirmed a significant increase in bladder capacity. Oral dryness was a tolerable\\u000a side effect.

  19. Can zinc(II) ions be doped into the crystal structure of L-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.

    2013-12-01

    The bivalent metals Cd(II) and Zn(II) exhibit different stereochemical requirements for the set of chloride and L-proline ligands, which precludes the doping of Zn(II) ions into the crystal structure of dichloro(L-proline)cadmium(II) hydrate also referred to as L-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate (L-PCCM). Hence, the reported claim of growth of zinc doped L-PCCM crystals namely Zn(0.4mol):LPCCM and Zn(0.2mol):LPCCM by Vetrivel et al. (S. Vetrivel, P. Anandan, K. Kanagasabapathy, S. Bhattacharya, S. Gopinath, R. Rajasekaran, Effect of zinc chloride on the growth and characterization of L-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate semiorganic NLO single crystals, Spectrochim. Acta 110A (2013) 317-323), is untenable.

  20. Can zinc(II) ions be doped into the crystal structure of L-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate?

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R

    2013-12-01

    The bivalent metals Cd(II) and Zn(II) exhibit different stereochemical requirements for the set of chloride and L-proline ligands, which precludes the doping of Zn(II) ions into the crystal structure of dichloro(l-proline)cadmium(II) hydrate also referred to as L-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate (L-PCCM). Hence, the reported claim of growth of zinc doped L-PCCM crystals namely Zn(0.4 mol):LPCCM and Zn(0.2 mol):LPCCM by Vetrivel et al. (S. Vetrivel, P. Anandan, K. Kanagasabapathy, S. Bhattacharya, S. Gopinath, R. Rajasekaran, Effect of zinc chloride on the growth and characterization of l-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate semiorganic NLO single crystals, Spectrochim. Acta 110A (2013) 317-323), is untenable. PMID:23932703

  1. A Contributive Study on the Stripping of Zinc(II) from Loaded TBP Using an Ammonia\\/Ammonium Chloride Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivo V. Mishonov; Krzysztof Alejski; Jan Szymanowski

    2004-01-01

    The stripping of zinc(II) from undiluted and 80 v\\/v% TBP in low aromatic kerosene by means of ammonia\\/ammonium chloride solution has been studied. It was found that the equilibrium in the system was reached within 2–3 min of vigorous shaking of aqueous and organic phases. The stripping isotherms for zinc, when using undiluted or 80% TBP and 10% or 1.8% hydrochloric

  2. Nucleation and growth of polytypic-layered crystals from the network liquid zinc chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Mark

    2003-06-01

    The liquid to solid crystallization for zinc (II) chloride is studied by molecular dynamics computer simulation. The transition is unusual in that it involves a change from a three-dimensional network liquid structure to a pseudo-two-dimensional layered crystal. The crystallization events are observed from four distinct liquid starting configurations and are identified by reference to the time evolution of the system energetics and Bragg peaks associated with the cation layering. Order parameters and molecular graphics are applied to understand the transitions at an atomistic length scale. Mechanisms are presented for the initial layer growth, the coherent joining of the layered crystallites, and the destruction of high-energy grain boundaries. The growth kinetics are analyzed by defining times for catastrophic and critical nucleation. The final crystal structures are shown to have essentially random anion close-packed stacking sequences consistent with the large number of experimentally observed polytypic structures. The formation of grain boundary stacking faults is also observed.

  3. Leaching of lead from zinc leach residue in acidic calcium chloride aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Le; Mu, Wen-ning; Shen, Hong-tao; Liu, Shao-ming; Zhai, Yu-chun

    2015-05-01

    A process with potentially reduced environmental impacts and occupational hazards of lead-bearing zinc plant residue was studied to achieve a higher recovery of lead via a cost-effective and environmentally friendly process. This paper describes an optimization study on the leaching of lead from zinc leach residue using acidic calcium chloride aqueous solution. Six main process conditions, i.e., the solution pH value, stirring rate, concentration of CaCl2 aqueous solution, liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, leaching temperature, and leaching time, were investigated. The microstructure and components of the residue and tailing were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). On the basis of experimental results, the optimum reaction conditions were determined to be a solution pH value of 1, a stirring rate of 500 r·min-1, a CaCl2 aqueous solution concentration of 400 g·L-1, a liquid-to-solid mass ratio of 7:1, a leaching temperature of 80°C, and a leaching time of 45 min. The leaching rate of lead under these conditions reached 93.79%, with an iron dissolution rate of 19.28%. Silica did not take part in the chemical reaction during the leaching process and was accumulated in the residue.

  4. Zinc contamination from brass upon heat treating a superconducting magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.W.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1994-07-01

    Theoretical calculations predicted that zinc outgassing from brass spacers during a planned heat treatment would likely damage a lab-scale superconducting magnet. This specter was reinforced by a simulated heat treatment, the samples of which were analyzed by gravimetry, metallography, and microprobe chemical analysis. It was found that zinc escaping from the brass could diffuse 80 {mu}m into copper electrical conductors and degrade their conductivity. To avoid this, steel was temporarily substituted for the brass during the heat treatment process.

  5. Zinc poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... other materials to make industrial items such as paint, dyes, and more. These combination substances can be ... Compounds used to make paint, rubber, dyes, wood preservatives, and ... Zinc chloride Zinc oxide (relatively nonharmful) Zinc ...

  6. A new approach to difficult Fischer synthesis: the use of zinc chloride catalyst in triethylene glycol under controlled microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lipi?ska, Teodozja M; Czarnocki, Stefan J

    2006-02-01

    [reaction: see text]. Application of triethylene glycol with catalytic quantity of zinc chloride (ZnCl2/TEG) is described as a new and efficient reaction medium for a difficult Fischer synthesis, leading to sensitive indoles. Transformation of the 3-acetyl-1-methylthiocycloalka[c]pyridine phenylhydrazones and p-methoxyphenylhydrazones into the 2-(2-pyridyl)indoles and 5-methoxy-2-(2-pyridyl)indoles, which are the synthons in our total synthesis of the sempervirine-type alkaloids, is carried out under controlled microwave irradiation in dry zinc chloride solution (0.16 M) in TEG. This protocol produces indoles from acetophenone or cyclohexanone via their phenylhydrazones in excellent yields. PMID:16435836

  7. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of zinc oxide particles starting from chloride precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Chun-Chieh [Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chou, Yu-Hsien [Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI-South Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan 709, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI-South Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan 709, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Chung-Ming [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, LungHwa University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan 306, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, LungHwa University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan 306, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Yih-Ming [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Ta-His, Tao-Yuan 335, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Ta-His, Tao-Yuan 335, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ger, Ming-Der, E-mail: mingderger@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Ta-His, Tao-Yuan 335, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Ta-His, Tao-Yuan 335, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shu, Youn-Yuen, E-mail: shuyy@nknucc.nknu.edu.tw [Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan, ROC (China)] [Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic of the mechanism for ZnO nanoparticles obtained by the calcination. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocrystalline ZnO particles were successfully prepared by a microwave-assisted method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sponge-like morphology of ZnO change to a net-like structure after thermal treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PL spectra exhibited a nearband-edge emission at 393 nm. -- Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) was synthesized using a microwave assisted hydrothermal (MAH) process based on chloride/urea/water solution and under 800 W irradiation for 5 min. In the bath, Zn{sup 2+} ions reacted with the complex carbonate and hydroxide ions to form zinc carbonate hydroxide hydrate (Zn{sub 4}CO{sub 3}(OH){sub 6}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O), and the conversion from Zn{sub 4}CO{sub 3}(OH){sub 6}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O to ZnO was synchronously achieved by a MAH process. The as-prepared ZnO has a sponge-like morphology. However, the initial sponge-like morphology of ZnO could change to a net-like structure after thermal treatment, and compact nano-scale ZnO particles were finally obtained when the period of thermal treatment increased to 30 min. Pure ZnO nanoparticles was obtained from calcination of loose sponge-like ZnO particles at 500 Degree-Sign C. The analysis of optical properties of these ZnO nanoparticles showed that the intensity of 393 nm emission increased with the calcination temperature because the defects were reduced and the crystallinity was improved.

  8. Separation of iron(III), copper(II) and zinc(II) from a mixed sulphate\\/chloride solution using TBP, LIX 84I and Cyanex 923

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sarangi; P. K. Parhi; E. Padhan; A. K. Palai; K. C. Nathsarma; K. H. Park

    2007-01-01

    Separation of iron(III), copper(II) and zinc(II) from a mixed sulphate\\/chloride leach liquor bearing 11.8kg\\/m3 iron, 24.8kg\\/m3 copper, 0.23kg\\/m3 zinc, 3.8kg\\/m3 cobalt, 35.2kg\\/m3 nickel, 176.3kg\\/m3 chloride and 48.9kg\\/m3 sulphate was carried out using solvent extraction. Iron, copper and zinc extraction studies were carried out using TBP, LIX 84I and Cyanex 923 in kerosene, respectively. The extraction studies were carried out for

  9. An in vivo study of the gastrointestinal absorption site for zinc chloride in mice.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, J A; Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B

    1998-03-01

    The experimental model presented below enables quantitation of the uptake of zinc (Zn++) into gastrointestinal mucosal cells in vivo using gamma-counting of 65Zn. Experiments were performed in mice fed their normal diet under natural physiological conditions. The in vivo site(s) of significant zinc absorption may thereby be identified. Absorption of zinc was extensive during the first hour after administration of a single oral dose of ZnCl2. Apparently, absorption continued during at least eight hours postdosage, and probably continued for 48 hours. The intestinal mucosal labelling profile for zinc did not depend on dose size or the mode of administration (single oral doses or in drinking water). The duodenum and ileum were important sites for rapid zinc absorption. A continuous, slower absorption of zinc may take place in the jejunum. The stomach, caecum and colon appeared to be insignificant sites of zinc absorption. The transit time for zinc was very short as large quantities of zinc passed through the small intestine within one hour. In contrast to other studies, the intestinal labelling profile or the extent of zinc absorption were not changed in mice that received Tetraethylthiuram disulfide (TTD) in their food. PMID:9638608

  10. Susceptibility of different bacterial species isolated from food animals to copper sulphate, zinc chloride and antimicrobial substances used for disinfection.

    PubMed

    Aarestrup, Frank M; Hasman, Henrik

    2004-05-20

    A total of 569 different bacterial isolates (156 Salmonella, 202 E. coli, 43 S. aureus, 38 S. hyicus, 52 E. faecalis, 78 E. faecium) were tested for susceptibility to copper sulphate, benzalkonium chloride, hydrogen peroxide and chlorhexidine using MIC determinations. A total of 442 isolates were also tested for susceptibility to formaldehyde and 177 isolates for susceptibility to zinc chloride. Enterococcal isolates formed a bimodal distribution of MICs to copper sulphate, whereas the other bacterial species formed one large population. Otherwise the isolates formed one large population of susceptibilities to the different antimicrobial agents. Large variations were observed in the susceptibility of the different bacterial species to the different compounds. Staphylococci were in general very susceptible to all antimicrobial compounds tested. The Salmonella isolates were in general less susceptible to copper sulphate, benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine followed by E. coli and the Gram-positive species. The opposite was the case for zinc chloride. All isolates were very susceptible to H(2)O(2) with MICs ranging from 0.002 to 0.016%, and to formaldehyde with MICs at 0.003 and 0.006%. This study showed that Danish bacterial isolates from livestock so far have not or have only to a limited degree developed resistance to antimicrobial compounds commonly used for disinfection. Acquired copper resistance was only found in enterococci. There were large differences in the intrinsic susceptibility of the different bacterial species to these compounds, and Salmonella especially seems intrinsically less susceptible than the other bacterial species, which might have human health implications. PMID:15135516

  11. Lewis acidity dependency of the electrochemical window of zinc chloride–1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-I Hsiu; Jing-Fang Huang; I-Wen Sun; Cheng-Hui Yuan; Jantaie Shiea

    2002-01-01

    Negative ion fast atom bombardment mass spectra (FAB-MS) recorded for ZnCl2–1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (ZnCl2–EMIC) ionic liquids with various compositions indicate that various Lewis acidic chlorozincate clusters (ZnCl3?, Zn2Cl5? and Zn3Cl7?) are present in ZnCl2–EMIC ionic liquids depending on the percentage of ZnCl2 used in preparing the ionic liquids; higher ZnCl2 percentage favors the larger clusters. Cyclic voltammetry reveals that the potential

  12. Solvent extraction separation of zinc and cadmium from nickel and cobalt using Aliquat 336, a strong base anion exchanger, in the chloride and thiocyanate forms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Berend Wassink; David Dreisinger; Jane Howard

    2000-01-01

    Zinc and cadmium solvent extraction separation from cobalt and nickel was studied using 30% Aliquat 336 in either the chloride (R4NCl) or thiocyanate (R4NSCN) forms, and in a mixed aromatic-aliphatic diluent. With NaCl solutions good separation was achieved using R4NCl. Separation improved with decreasing NaCl concentration, but was still effective with 200 g\\/L NaCl. Zinc and cadmium loaded principally as

  13. Electrodeposition of zinc–tin alloys from deep eutectic solvents based on choline chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P. Abbott; Glen Capper; Katy J. McKenzie; Karl S. Ryder

    2007-01-01

    Here we describe the electrolytic deposition of Zn, Sn and Zn\\/Sn alloys from a solution of the metal chloride salts separately in urea and ethylene glycol\\/choline chloride based ionic liquids. We show that the deposition kinetics and thermodynamics differ from the aqueous processes and that qualitatively different phases, compositions and morphologies are obtained for the metal coatings in the different

  14. ZINC

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the available information on zinc as it relates to its effects on man and his environment. Zinc is found in most soils, but some areas are deficient in it. Metallurgic operations contribute to zinc contamination in air, water and soil. Trace amounts of zinc...

  15. STUDIES OF MICROMORPHOLOGY AND CURRENT EFFICIENCY OF ZINC ELECTRODEPOSITED FROM FLOWING CHLORIDE ELECTROLYTES

    E-print Network

    Mc Vay, L.

    2011-01-01

    Battery Systems Purpose and Scope of this Study .. Literature Review .review of existing knowledge, Surface Technology, 24, 193-217 (1985). Extended abstracts: Seventh Battery andprimary battery systems. zinc electrodes, see For a review

  16. Gastrointestinal side effects in children with Wilson's disease treated with zinc sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Wiernicka, Anna; Ja?czyk, Wojciech; D?dalski, Maciej; Avsar, Yesim; Schmidt, Hartmut; Socha, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the side effects of a zinc sulphate therapy in a cohort of Polish pediatric patients with Wilson’s disease. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 53 pediatric patients with Wilson’s disease treated at the Children’s Memorial Health Institute in Warsaw, Poland between the years 1996 and 2011 with zinc sulphate. Patients were diagnosed with Wilson’s disease according to the scoring system of Ferenci, with 49 cases confirmed by mutation analysis. Data about the dosage scheme of zinc sulphate, side effects and efficacy and toxicity of the treatment were collected and recorded in the patient’s medical chart at each visit to the hospital. RESULTS: Mean age of diagnosis for the entire cohort was 10 years (range, 2.5-17 years). Duration of treatment with zinc sulfate was 83.3 wk (range, 8-344 wk). Side effects, all of gastrointestinal origin, were observed in 21 patients (40% - 9 males and 12 females), irrespective of the duration of therapy. Thirteen out of 21 patients were over the age of 10 years. The most common ATP7B mutation was p.H1069Q. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, performed in 7 patients (33.3%) suffering from persistent and severe abdominal pain, revealed gastrointestinal ulcerations or erosions with negative Helicobacter pylori tests in all subjects investigated. The above mentioned 7 patients were treated with proton pump inhibitors. Three of those experienced resolution of symptoms, whereas proton-pump inhibitors failed to alleviate symptoms of the remaining four children and conversion of therapy to D-penicillamine was needed. CONCLUSION: Zinc sulphate appears to cause significant gastrointestinal side effects, which children on therapy for Wilson’s disease should be closely monitored for. PMID:23885147

  17. Structure and resistivity of heat-treated polycrystalline zinc sulfide prepared by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Susumu; Iwata, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Yasushi

    1993-11-01

    Polycrystalline zinc sulfide (CVD-ZnS) was prepared by chemical vapor deposition using zinc vapor and H 2S as gas sources. In order to decrease the resistivity, CVD-ZnS was heat treated at 1273 K for 36-345.6 ks in a sealed quartz tube containing Zn-10 wt% Al alloy. The resistivity of the heat treated piece was decreased to about 10 2 ? cm. A metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) type diode fabricated from the heat-treated piece emitted in both forward and reverse bias. Because of thermal diffusion of Al into ZnS, the structure of the heat-treated CVD-ZnS changes along the direction perpendicular to the large surface area. Both the electrical conduction region and the light emitting region exist in a particular region parallel to the large surface area of the piece, which is considered to consist of ?-ZnS with a content of below 2 at% Al. The actual resistivity of the heat-treated piece is smaller because the real thickness of the region contributing to electrical conduction is thinner than taken for resistivity calculations.

  18. Zinc improves the immune function and the proliferation of lymphocytes in Cadmium-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Iftekhar; Bashandy, Samir; Taha, Nael Abu; Mahmood, Amer; Alomar, Suliman; Alhazza, Iibrahim; Mashaly, Ashraf; Rady, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Cadmium (Cd) exposure and the treatment with Zinc (Zn) on immune functions of splenocytes and cultured lymphocytes of rats were studied. The exposure of rats to Cd was at a dose of 2.2 mg/kg CdCl2, injected subcutaneously four times weekly for 2 months. Rats were supplemented with Zn (2.2 mg/kg ZnCl2, injected subcutaneously four times weekly for 2 months) one hour prior to Cd exposure. Spleens were removed and splenocytes were isolated and cultured. The proliferation capacity of lymphocytes and their homing to the spleen were studied. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted from stimulated lymphocytes in order to analyse gene expressions using RT-PCR. Accordingly, proliferation of lymphocytes was found to be suppressed in Cd-treated rats, both in vivo and in vitro. Zinc served to activate the proliferation of B and T lymphocytes in Cd-treated rats both in vivo and in vitro. Antigen-activated lymphocytes showed that Cd impaired the mRNA expression of CD68, Ccl22 and CXCL10. Zinc was not found to restore mRNA expression of these genes to the normal levels. Zinc was found to decrease the MDA level with replenishment of activity of key antioxidant enzymes and proteins in Cd-pre-treated animals significantly. Moreover, the histopathological examination of spleen samples also agreed with the molecular, immunological and redox findings. Hence, Zn is able to restore the normal structure, redox status and immunity in Cd-induced damage in the rat model system.

  19. Ultrasonic, densitometric and pH study of quasi-binary aqueous system of zinc chloride and hexamethyl-phosphoramide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golebiewski, Z.; Miecznik, P.; Mielcarek, S.

    2005-10-01

    The speed of sound, c, the densities, ? , and heat capacity, C_p, of quasi binary aqueous system of zinc chloride and hexamethylphosphortriamide (HMPA) were measured. From these data, various thermodynamical parameters such as molar volume, V_m, adiabatic compressibility, K_S,m, and their excess functions have been calculated. To express the concentration of the ternary solution as a mole fraction, the initial solution with the ratio electrolyte/water and amide/water = 1/137.5 were prepared. The x2 0 of mole fraction corresponds to a pure aqueous of HMPA, and x2 = 1 to aqueous of ZnCl{2}. The composition dependence of excess functions reveals a strong interaction between the components, leading to the formation of molecular complexes.

  20. Near-unity quantum yields from chloride treated CdTe colloidal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Page, Robert C; Espinobarro-Velazquez, Daniel; Leontiadou, Marina A; Smith, Charles; Lewis, Edward A; Haigh, Sarah J; Li, Chen; Radtke, Hanna; Pengpad, Atip; Bondino, Federica; Magnano, Elena; Pis, Igor; Flavell, Wendy R; O'Brien, Paul; Binks, David J

    2015-04-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are promising materials for novel light sources and solar energy conversion. However, trap states associated with the CQD surface can produce non-radiative charge recombination that significantly reduces device performance. Here a facile post-synthetic treatment of CdTe CQDs is demonstrated that uses chloride ions to achieve near-complete suppression of surface trapping, resulting in an increase of photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) from ca. 5% to up to 97.2 ± 2.5%. The effect of the treatment is characterised by absorption and PL spectroscopy, PL decay, scanning transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This process also dramatically improves the air-stability of the CQDs: before treatment the PL is largely quenched after 1 hour of air-exposure, whilst the treated samples showed a PL QY of nearly 50% after more than 12 hours. PMID:25348200

  1. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-274-1879, evaluation of zinc chloride smoke-generating devices, International Association of Fire Fighters, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect

    Zey, J.N.; Richardson, F.

    1988-03-01

    An assessment was made of hazards to fire fighters of using different zinc-chloride smoke generating devices, manufactured by the Superior Signal Company, Inc., New Jersey. used in fire-fighter-training exercises, zinc compounds, hydrochloric acid and over 50 chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected in smoke clouds. The concentration of hydrochloric acid ranged as high as 420 mg/m/sup 3/. Zinc chloride concentrations ranged from 11 to 498 mg/m/sup 3/. A telephone survey was conducted of 62 different fire fighting training organizations around the United States to obtain information they might have on use of similar devices. A literature search revealed that there had been severe adverse health effects, including death, resulting from exposure to a dense smoke cloud from a zinc-chloride smoke-generating device. Individuals who were adversely affected were not wearing respiratory protective gear or had malfunctioning gear. Symptoms of exposure included sore throat, difficulty breathing, joint pain, chills and fever, headache, and generalized fatigue. The authors conclude that no smoke-generating device should be considered safe and nontoxic, and that measures should be taken to reduce exposures to smoke clouds from such devices. Alternative methods to distort vision in fire-fighting training exercises should be considered.

  2. Effect of polyaluminium chloride on phosphorus removal in constructed wetlands treated with swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G B; Forbes, Dean A; Hunt, P G; Cyrus, Johnsely S

    2011-01-01

    Total phosphorus (TP) removal in aged constructed wetlands poses a challenge, especially when treated with swine wastewater with high concentrations of phosphorus (P). Our earlier studies with anaerobic lagoon swine wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands showed a decline in P removal (45-22%) with increased years of operation. These particular wetlands have been treated with swine wastewater every year since the first application in 1997. Preliminary lab-scale studies were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) in the removal of phosphate-P (PO4-P) from swine wastewater. The experimental objective was to increase the phosphorus treatment efficiency in constructed wetland by adding PAC as a precipitating agent. PAC was added by continuous injection to each wetland system at a rate of 3 L day(-1) (1:5 dilution of concentrated PAC). Swine wastewater was added from an anaerobic lagoon to four constructed wetland cells (11m wide x 40m long) at TP loads of 5.4-6.1 kg ha(-1) day(-1) in two experimental periods, September to November of 2008 and 2009. Treatment efficiency of two wetland systems: marsh-pond-marsh (M-P-M) and continuous marsh (CM) was compared. The wetlands were planted with cattails (Typha latifolia L.) and bulrushes (Scirpus americanus). In 2008, PAC treatment showed an increase of 27.5 and 40.8% of TP removal over control in M-P-M and CM respectively. Similar trend was also observed in the following year. PAC as a flocculant and precipitating agent showed potential to enhance TP removal in constructed wetlands treated with swine wastewater. PMID:22049722

  3. Zinc

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  4. Microcalorimetry of Adsorption of Water Vapor on Sodium Chloride which has been Treated in Electric Discharges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry M. Papeel

    1959-01-01

    By use of a microcalorimeter of the Calvet type, measurements of the heats of adsorption of water vapor on sodium chloride of large specific surface have been made, after submitting the salt to an electrodeless high-frequency discharge. The results are compared with those previously obtained when working with normal sodium chloride. It is established that the adsorption process is much

  5. Zinc

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and loss of appetite. Weight loss, problems with wound healing, decreased ability to taste food, and lower alertness ... the health problems discussed below. Immune system and wound healing The body's immune system needs zinc to do ...

  6. Unidirectional growth of <0 0 1> triglycine zinc chloride crystal by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravinth, K.; Senthil Pandian, M.; Ramasamy, P.

    2015-03-01

    Bulk nonlinear optical single crystal of triglycine zinc chloride (TGZC) of size 15 mm diameter and 50 mm length was successfully grown from solution by unidirectional growth method of Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR). The growth conditions were optimized and a maximum growth rate of 1.5 mm per day was realized. The crystal system and lattice parameters were confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction studies. The structural perfection of the SR method grown crystal has been analyzed by high resolution X-ray diffraction measurement. The UV-Vis-NIR studies show that the cutoff wavelength is around 240 nm. The dielectric measurements were carried out to determine the dielectric behavior for the crystal. The observations are made in the frequency range 1 kHz-2 MHz at the temperature range of 43-150 °C. The fluorescence spectra of grown TGZC single crystals exhibit emission peak at 485 nm. The microhardness measurements were used to analyze the mechanical strength of the grown TGZC crystal. The SHG efficiency of TGZC was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder method.

  7. Anti-Malondialdehyde Antibodies in MRL+\\/+ Mice Treated with Trichloroethene and Dichloroacetyl Chloride: Possible Role of Lipid Peroxidation in Autoimmunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Firoze Khan; Xiaohong Wu; G. A. S. Ansari

    2001-01-01

    Trichloroethene (TCE) and one of its metabolites dichloroacetyl chloride (DCAC) are known to induce\\/accelerate autoimmune (AI) response in MRL+\\/+ mice as evident from anti-nuclear, anti-ssDNA, anti-cardiolipin, and DCAC-specific antibodies in the serum (Khan et al., Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 134, 155–160, 1995). In the present study, we measured anti-malondialdehyde antibodies (AMDA) in the serum of TCE- or DCAC-treated mice in order

  8. Effect of n-tetradecanol on the extraction of iron(III), cobalt(II), and zinc(II) chlorides with tri-n-dodecylammonium chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Ochkin; A. N. Kudrov; A. A. Ospoprivivatelev

    1986-01-01

    Equations are proposed to describe the reduction in the partition coefficients of metal chlorides in amine extractant systems following the addition of alcohols. The equations include two empirical factors: solvation parameters for amine chloride and the compound undergoing extraction. These parameters can be found from independent data. The equations have been used to describe the extraction of micro amounts of

  9. Effects of copper sulfate, tri-basic copper chloride, and zinc oxide on weanling pig performance.

    PubMed

    Shelton, N W; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L; Goodband, R D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Hill, G M

    2011-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary Cu and Zn on weanling pig performance. Diets were fed in 2 phases: phase 1 from d 0 to 14 postweaning and phase 2 from d 14 to 28 in Exp. 1 and 2 and d 14 to 42 in Exp. 3. The trace mineral premix, included in all diets, provided 165 mg/kg of Zn from ZnSO(4) and 16.5 mg/kg of Cu from CuSO(4). In Exp. 1, treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with main effects of added Cu from tri-basic copper chloride (TBCC; 0 or 150 mg/kg) and added Zn from ZnO (0, 1,500, or 3,000 mg/kg from d 0 to 14 and 0, 1,000, or 2,000 mg/kg from d 14 to 28). No Cu × Zn interactions were observed (P > 0.10). Adding TBCC or Zn increased (P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI during each phase. In Exp. 2, treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with main effects of added Zn from ZnO (0 or 3,000 mg/kg from d 0 to 14 and 0 or 2,000 mg/kg from d 14 to 28) and Cu (control, 125 mg/kg of Cu from TBCC, or 125 mg/kg of Cu from CuSO(4)). No Cu × Zn interactions (P > 0.10) were observed for any performance data. Adding ZnO improved (P < 0.02) ADG and ADFI from d 0 to 14 and overall. From d 0 to 28, supplementing CuSO(4) increased (P < 0.02) ADG, ADFI, and G:F, and TBCC improved (P = 0.006) ADG. In Exp. 3, the 6 dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with main effects of added Cu from CuSO(4) (0 or 125 mg/kg) and added Zn from ZnO (0 or 3,000 mg/kg from d 0 to 14 and 0 or 2,000 mg/kg from d 14 to 42). The final 2 treatments were feeding added ZnO alone or in combination with CuSO(4) from d 0 to 14 and adding CuSO(4) from d 14 to 42. Adding ZnO increased (P < 0.04) ADG, ADFI, and G:F from d 0 to 14 and ADG from d 0 to 42. Dietary CuSO(4) increased (P < 0.004) ADG and ADFI from d 14 to 42 and d 0 to 42. From d 28 to 42, a trend for a Cu × Zn interaction was observed (P = 0.06) for ADG. This interaction was reflective of the numeric decrease in ADG for pigs when Cu and Zn were used in combination compared with each used alone. Also, numerical advantages were observed when supplementing Zn from d 0 to 14 and Cu from d 14 to 42 compared with all other Cu and Zn regimens. These 3 experiments show the advantages of including both Cu and Zn in the diet for 28 d postweaning; however, as evident in Exp. 3, when 3,000 mg/kg of Zn was added early and 125 mg/kg of Cu was added late, performance was similar or numerically greater than when both were used for 42 d. PMID:21454861

  10. Comparative toxicity of a zinc salt, zinc powder and zinc oxide to Eisenia fetida, Enchytraeus albidus and Folsomia candida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koen Lock; Colin R. Janssen

    2003-01-01

    The pore water zinc concentration and the calcium chloride extracted zinc fraction are higher in the soils spiked with a zinc salt (ZnCl2) compared to soils spiked with zinc oxide or zinc powder. Based on total zinc concentrations in the soil, the acute toxicity of zinc salt to the compost worm Eisenia fetida, the potworm Enchytraeus albidus and the springtail

  11. The Pro-Antioxidant Role of Zinc Supplementation in Cadmium-Treated Choroid Plexus 

    E-print Network

    Francis Stuart, Samantha D.

    2014-05-06

    choline transport, and suggested zinc (Zn) supplementation might abate both oxidative stress and modulation of transport. The objective of this thesis was to elucidate how Zn, a nutritive mineral normally accumulated by CP, attenuated oxidative stress. I...

  12. Microbiological and chemical quality of ground beef treated with sodium lactate and sodium chloride during refrigerated storage

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Kh. I.; Samejima, K.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of sodium lactate (NaL) and sodium chloride (NaCl), either alone (30 g/kg) or in combination (20+20 g/kg), on the microbiological and chemical quality of raw ground beef during vacuum-packaged storage at 2°C were investigated. The results showed that addition of NaL alone or in combination with NaCl significantly delayed the proliferation of aerobic plate counts, psychrotrophic counts, lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae and extended the shelf life of the product up to 15 and 21 days, respectively, versus 8 days only for control. Over the storage time (21 days), NaL maintained the ground beef at almost constant pH, while the pH of control or NaCl-treated samples significantly decreased. Lipid oxidation (TBA value) was not affected by addition of NaL. At storage day 21 however, TBA values of both NaL-treated (0.309) and control (0.318) samples were significantly lower than those of samples treated with NaCl (0.463). The combination of NaCl with NaL significantly reduced the oxidative changes caused by NaCl (0.384 versus 0.463). Therefore, NaL alone or in combination with NaCl could be utilized successfully to reduce the microbial growth, maintain the chemical quality, and extend the shelf life of ground beef during refrigerated storage. PMID:17330155

  13. Enhanced reactivation of nitrous acid treated adenovirus is not associated with enhanced mutagenesis in pretreated with heavy metals HeLa cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Piperakis

    1995-01-01

    The reversion of frequency of an adenovirus 2 temperature-sensitive growth mutant treated with different doses of nitrous acid was determined after infection of control. UV-irradiated, cadmium chloride and zinc chloride treated HeLa cells. No enhanced mutagenesis was observed.

  14. Zinc-histidine complex protects cultured cortical neurons against oxidative stress-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert J; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Goni, Faisal M; Rice-Evans, Catherine A

    2004-11-23

    The levels of zinc in the brain are directly affected by dietary zinc and deficiency has been associated with alcohol withdrawal seizures, excitotoxicity, impaired learning and memory and an accelerated rate of dysfunction in aged brain. Although zinc is essential for a healthy nervous system, high concentrations of zinc are neurotoxic, thus it is important to identify the most effective forms of zinc for treatment of conditions of the central nervous system. Accumulating evidence suggests that zinc-histidine complex (Zn(His)(2)) has greater biological potency and enhanced bioavailability compared with other zinc salts and also has antioxidant potential. Therefore, in this study we investigated the ability of zinc-histidine to protect cultured cortical neurons against hydrogen peroxide-induced damage. Pre-treating neurons for 18 h with subtoxic concentrations of zinc-histidine (5-25 microM) improved neuronal viability and strongly inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced (75 microM, 30 min) cell damage as assessed by MTT turnover and morphological analysis 24h later. Low concentrations of zinc-histidine were more neuroprotective than zinc chloride. There was evidence of an anti-apoptotic mechanism of action as zinc-histidine inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced caspase-3 activation and c-jun-N-terminal kinase phosphorylation. In summary, zinc supplementation with zinc-histidine protects cultured neurons against oxidative insults and inhibits apoptosis which suggests that zinc-histidine may be beneficial in the treatment of diseases of the CNS associated with zinc deficiency. PMID:15519738

  15. Investigation of optical and electrical properties of L-Cystein doped zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) crystal for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anis, Mohd; Shaikh, R. N.; Shirsat, M. D.; Hussaini, S. S.

    2014-08-01

    The single crystal of L-Cystein doped zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) has been grown by slow evaporation technique. The optical study revealed that the doped ZTC crystal has high transmission with lowest cut off wavelength of 306 nm. The optical band gap was found to be 4.2 eV. The transition band gaps were studied using the photoluminescence spectrum. The incorporation of L-Cystein in ZTC was estimated qualitatively by FT-IR analysis. The presence of dopant was confirmed by energy diffraction X-ray analysis (EDAX) analysis. The lower dielectric characteristics of doped ZTC crystal were scrutinized by dielectric measurements. The high thermal stability of grown crystal was ascertained by TG/DTA analysis. The Second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency measured using Nd-YAG laser is 1.96 times that of pure ZTC.

  16. Sex and age mortality responses in zinc acetate-treated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, G.R.; Cole, B.S.; Lovelace, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    In regard to trace metal treatment or exposure, a number of variables are known to affect the expression of toxicity concerning its time course and degree. For example, known variables are route of administration, anionic component of the test substance, and sex and age of the recipient animal. Concerning the latter, little, if any, data have been reported dealing with sex- and age-related responses to excess zinc in mammalian systems. The primary purpose of the short communication presented here focuses on the determination of median lethal dose in sexually immature, i.e., juvenile, and adult female and male mice following a single zinc acetate insult. In addition, variation of lethality responses was examined with the age and sex groups to a divided treatment of a lethal dosage of zinc acetate, the injections of which were separated by various intervals.

  17. Investigation of processes to treat zinc-ferrite regeneration offgases in high temperature desulfurization of coal gases

    SciTech Connect

    Woodland, L. R.

    1988-08-01

    A bench-scale test program has been performed to evaluate the effect of critical operating variables on sulfur dioxide removal efficiency for two candidate throwaway'' desulfurization processes for treating zinc-ferrite reactor regeneration offgas. These two throwaway'' processes, dual-alkali wet scrubbing and spray dryer desulfurization, generate a gypsum waste sludge environmentally acceptable for disposal. They have seen extensive commercial application in flue gas desulfurization, but have not been evaluated for such high levels of removal efficiency and such high inlet sulfur dioxide concentrations as would be required for this application. 13 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viets, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Interferences commonly encountered in the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc at crustal abundance levels are effectively eliminated using a rapid, sensitive, organic extraction technique. A potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid digestion solubilizes the metals not tightly bound in the silicate lattice of rocks, soils, and stream sediments. The six metals are selectively extracted into a 10% Aliquat 336-MIBK organic phase in the presence of ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. Metals in the organic extract are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to the 0.02-ppm level for silver, cadmium, copper, and zinc and to the 0.2-ppm level for bismuth and lead with a maximum relative standard deviation of 18.8% for known reference samples. An additional hydrofluoric acid digestion may be used to determine metals substituted in the silicate lattice.

  19. Distribution of nickel, zinc, and copper in rat organs after oral administration of nickel(II) chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Cempel; Katarzyna Janicka

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of Ni administered as NiCl2 · 6H2O in the drinking water (300 and 1200 ppm Ni for 90 d) was studied using male Wistar rats. Next, the effect of Ni on the concentration\\u000a of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in selected organs and serum was measured. The metals were analyzed in the liver, kidney, lung,\\u000a spleen, brain, and

  20. Foliar Damage, Ion Content, and Mortality Rate of Five Common Roadside Tree Species Treated with Soil Applications of Magnesium Chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Betsy A. Goodrich; William R. Jacobi

    Sensitivity to magnesium chloride (MgCl2) was assessed on five common roadside tree species by maintaining soil concentrations at 0-, 400-, 800-, or 1,600-ppm chloride\\u000a via MgCl2 solution over four growing seasons. Evaluations of growth, leaf retention, foliar damage, and ion concentrations were conducted.\\u000a Water potentials were measured on two species. Foliar chloride and magnesium concentrations were positively correlated with\\u000a foliar

  1. Effect of [gamma]-irradiation and temperature on the structure of metal chloride treated poly(acrylamide)

    SciTech Connect

    Moharram, M.A.; Rabie, S.M.; Daghistani, A.Y. (National Research Center and Middle Eastern Regional Center for the Arab Countries, Cario (Egypt))

    1993-10-15

    The gamma-induced changes in the structure of poly (acrylamide) (PAAm) treated with metal chlorides were investigated by following the corresponding variations in their ultraviolet spectra. Careful examination of UV spectra revealed that irradiation of the specimens results in the appearance of an absorption peak at 275 nm whose intensity depends on the applied dose and the nature of the metal ions. This band is ascribed to the formation of the carbonyl group. The results indicate that the dependence of the intensities of the band at 275 nm on the nature of the metal used provides strong evidence for the formation of metal polymer complexes. It was found that the pretreatment of PAAm with the appropriate concentration of ZnCl[sub 2], CoCl[sub 2], or NiCl[sub 2] reduces the effects of heating and the oxidation effects of [gamma]-irradiation. These results show that these metal ions can be used as stabilizers against thermal degradation of PAAm in the temperature range up to 160 C.

  2. An experimental study of zinc chloride speciation from 300 to 600 °C and 0.5 to 2.0 kbar in buffered hydrothermal solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cygan, G.L.; Hemley, J.J.; d'Angelo, W. M.

    1994-01-01

    The solubility of sphalerite (ZnS) was measured in KCl-HCl-H2O solutions at 300-600??C and 0.5-2.0 kbar. The silicate assemblage K-feldspar-muscovite (or andalusite)-quartz was used to buffer the solution to acid conditions, resulting in the total solubility reaction 2K+ + KAl2AlSi3O10(OH)2 + 6SiO2 + ZnS + nCl- = ZnCln(2-n) + 3KAlSi3O8 + H2S. (muscovite) (quartz) (sphalerite) (K-feldspar) A computer retrieval technique was used to derive average chloride ligand numbers for chlorozinc species at 0.25-2.0 molal total chloride. This technique mathematically solves for the average ligand number using a series of pertinent chemical relations at P and T. Mono- and di-chlorozinc species were found to predominate throughout the pressure-temperature-composition range investigated. The logarithms of the first and second dissociation constants for ZnCl20 were evaluated over the P-T range; for example, at 1 kbar, the values -0.41 and -1.42 were computed for the logarithm of the first dissociation constant, while -7.62 and -10.57 were computed for the logarithm of the second dissociation constant, for 400 and 500??C, respectively. Results are compared to past studies conducted at subcritical conditions and differ in that we find no evidence for more highly coordinated chloro-zinc species except possibly for ZnCl3- at 600??C, 1 and 2 kbar. Our results are consistent with electrostatic theory, which favors lower charged to neutral molecules in low dielectric-constant media. ?? 1994.

  3. Effect of post-treatment processing on copper migration from Douglas-fir lumber treated with ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate.

    PubMed

    Ye, Min; Morrell, Jeffrey J

    2015-04-01

    Migration of heavy metals into aquatic environments has become a concern in some regions of the world. Many wood preservatives are copper based systems that have the potential to migrate from the wood and into the surrounding environment. Some wood treaters have developed "best management practices" (BMPs) that are designed to reduce the risk of migration, but there are few comparative studies assessing the efficacy of these processes. The potential for using various heating combinations to limit copper migration was assessed using ammoniacal coper zinc arsenate treated Douglas-fir lumber. Kiln drying and air drying both proved to be the most effective methods for limiting copper migration, while post-treatment steaming or hot water immersion produced more variable results. The results should provide guidance for improving the BMP processes. PMID:25659940

  4. Zinc complexation in chloride-rich hydrothermal fluids (25-600 °C): A thermodynamic model derived from ab initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Yuan; Sherman, David M.; Liu, Weihua; Etschmann, Barbara; Testemale, Denis; Brugger, Joël

    2015-02-01

    The solubility of zinc minerals in hydrothermal fluids is enhanced by chloride complexation of Zn2+. Thermodynamic models of these complexation reactions are central to models of Zn transport and ore formation. However, existing thermodynamic models, derived from solubility measurements, are inconsistent with spectroscopic measurements of Zn speciation. Here, we used ab initio molecular dynamics simulations (with the PBE exchange-correlation functional) to predict the speciation of Zn-Cl complexes from 25 to 600 °C. We also obtained in situ XAS measurements of Zn-Cl solutions at 30-600 °C. Qualitatively, the simulations reproduced the main features derived from in situ XANES and EXAFS measurements: octahedral to tetrahedral transition with increasing temperature and salinity, stability of ZnCl42- at high chloride concentration up to ?500 °C, and increasing stability of the trigonal planar [ZnCl3]- complex at high temperature. Having confirmed the dominant species, we directly determined the stability constants for the Zn-Cl complexes using thermodynamic integration along constrained Zn-Cl distances in a series of MD simulations. We corrected our stability constants to infinite dilution using the b-dot model for the activity coefficients of the solute species. In order to compare the ab initio results with experiments, we need to re-model the existing solubility data using the species we identified in our MD simulations. The stability constants derived from refitting published experimental data are in reasonable agreement with those we obtained using ab initio MD simulations. Our new thermodynamic model accurately predicts the experimentally observed changes in ZnO(s) and ZnCO3(s) solubility as a function of chloride concentration from 200 (Psat) to 600 °C (2000 bar). This study demonstrates that metal speciation and geologically useful stability constants can be derived for species in hydrothermal fluids from ab initio MD simulations even at the generalized gradient approximation for exchange-correlation. We caution, however, that simulations are mostly reliable at high T where ligand exchange is fast enough to yield thermodynamic averages over the timescales of the simulations.

  5. Sum frequency generation and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopic studies on plasma-treated plasticized polyvinyl chloride films.

    PubMed

    Hankett, Jeanne M; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Zhan

    2012-03-13

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a widely used polymer to which various phthalates are extensively applied as plasticizers. PVC materials are often treated with plasma to vary the hydrophobicity or for cleaning purposes, but little is known of the nature of the surface molecular structures after treatment. This research characterizes molecular surface structures of PVC and bis-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)-plasticized PVC films in air before annealing, after annealing, and after exposure to air-generated glow discharge plasma using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. In addition, we compare the vibrational molecular signatures on the surfaces of PVC with DEHP (at a variety of percent loadings) to those of the bulk detected using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements have been used to analyze PVC surfaces to supplement SFG data. Our results indicate that DEHP was found on the surfaces of PVC films even at low weight percentages (5 wt %) and that DEHP segregates on surfaces after annealing. The treatment of these films with glow discharge plasma resulted in surface-sensitive reactions involving the removal of chlorine atoms, the addition of oxygen atoms, and C-H bond rearrangement. CARS data demonstrate that the bulk of our films remained undisturbed during the plasma treatment. For the first time, we probed the molecular structure of the surface and the bulk of a PVC material using combined SFG and CARS studies on the same sample in exactly the same environment. In addition, the methodology used in this research can be applied to characterize various plasticizers in a wide variety of polymer systems to understand their surface and bulk structures before and after systematic applications of heat, plasma, or other treatments. PMID:22309397

  6. Exploring zinc coordination in novel zinc battery electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Kar, Mega; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R

    2014-06-14

    The coordination of zinc ions by tetraglyme has been investigated here to support the development of novel electrolytes for rechargeable zinc batteries. Zn(2+) reduction is electrochemically reversible from tetraglyme. The spectroscopic data, molar conductivity and thermal behavior as a function of zinc composition, between mole ratios [80?:?20] and [50?:?50] [tetraglyme?:?zinc chloride], all suggest that strong interactions take place between chloro-zinc complexes and tetraglyme. Varying the concentration of zinc chloride produces a range of zinc-chloro species (ZnClx)(2-x) in solution, which hinder full interaction between the zinc ion and tetraglyme. Both the [70?:?30] and [50?:?50] mixtures are promising electrolyte candidates for reversible zinc batteries, such as the zinc-air device. PMID:24760367

  7. The microbial community of a passive biochemical reactor treating arsenic, zinc, and sulfate-rich seepage.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Susan Anne; Khoshnoodi, Maryam; Rezadehbashi, Maryam; Taupp, Marcus; Hallam, Steven; Mattes, Al; Sanei, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Sulfidogenic biochemical reactors (BCRs) for metal removal that use complex organic carbon have been shown to be effective in laboratory studies, but their performance in the field is highly variable. Successful operation depends on the types of microorganisms supported by the organic matrix, and factors affecting the community composition are unknown. A molecular survey of a field-based BCR that had been removing zinc and arsenic for over 6?years revealed that the microbial community was dominated by methanogens related to Methanocorpusculum sp. and Methanosarcina sp., which co-occurred with Bacteroidetes environmental groups, such as Vadin HA17, in places where the organic matter was more degraded. The metabolic potential for organic matter decomposition by Ruminococcaceae was prevalent in samples with more pyrolyzable carbon. Rhodobium- and Hyphomicrobium-related genera within the Rhizobiales order that have the metabolic potential for dark hydrogen fermentation and methylotrophy, and unclassified Comamonadaceae were the dominant Proteobacteria. The unclassified environmental group Sh765B-TzT-29 was an important Delta-Proteobacteria group in this BCR that co-occurred with the dominant Rhizobiales operational taxonomic units. Organic matter degradation is one driver for shifting the microbial community composition and therefore possibly the performance of these bioreactors over time. PMID:25798439

  8. The Microbial Community of a Passive Biochemical Reactor Treating Arsenic, Zinc, and Sulfate-Rich Seepage

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Susan Anne; Khoshnoodi, Maryam; Rezadehbashi, Maryam; Taupp, Marcus; Hallam, Steven; Mattes, Al; Sanei, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Sulfidogenic biochemical reactors (BCRs) for metal removal that use complex organic carbon have been shown to be effective in laboratory studies, but their performance in the field is highly variable. Successful operation depends on the types of microorganisms supported by the organic matrix, and factors affecting the community composition are unknown. A molecular survey of a field-based BCR that had been removing zinc and arsenic for over 6?years revealed that the microbial community was dominated by methanogens related to Methanocorpusculum sp. and Methanosarcina sp., which co-occurred with Bacteroidetes environmental groups, such as Vadin HA17, in places where the organic matter was more degraded. The metabolic potential for organic matter decomposition by Ruminococcaceae was prevalent in samples with more pyrolyzable carbon. Rhodobium- and Hyphomicrobium-related genera within the Rhizobiales order that have the metabolic potential for dark hydrogen fermentation and methylotrophy, and unclassified Comamonadaceae were the dominant Proteobacteria. The unclassified environmental group Sh765B-TzT-29 was an important Delta-Proteobacteria group in this BCR that co-occurred with the dominant Rhizobiales operational taxonomic units. Organic matter degradation is one driver for shifting the microbial community composition and therefore possibly the performance of these bioreactors over time. PMID:25798439

  9. Morphological analysis of the pancreas and liver in diabetic KK-A(y) mice treated with zinc and oxovanadium complexes.

    PubMed

    Moroki, Takayasu; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Tsubura, Airo; Yasui, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    The relationship between biometals, such as zinc (Zn(2+)), vanadium, copper, cobalt, and magnesium ions, and diabetes therapy has been recognized for several years. In particular, the antidiabetic activities of Zn(2+) and oxovanadium (VO(2+)) complexes have been measured using biochemical approaches. In the present study, diabetic KK-A(y) mice were treated with bis(1-oxy-2-pyridine-thiolato)Zn(2+) (Zn(opt)2) and bis(1-oxy-2-pyridine-thiolato)VO(2+) (VO(opt)2) for 4 weeks, and the antidiabetic activities of these metal complexes were evaluated using biochemical and morphological methods. Additionally, zinc gluconate (Zn(glc)2) and bis(ethylmaltolato)VO(2+) (VO(emal)2) were used as reference compounds. Pancreatic islet cells were smaller, and there was a tendency towards a lower islet cell area ratio in Zn(opt)2-treated mice compared with nontreated KK-A(y) mice. Furthermore, plasma insulin concentrations were significantly reduced to 27.2% of insulin concentrations in nontreated KK-A(y) mice. These results suggest that Zn(opt)2 administration provides morphological and biochemical improvements in hyperinsulinaemia. In contrast, in mice that received Zn(glc)2 and VO(2+) complexes, the islet cell size and islet cell area ratio did not differ from those in nontreated controls. Zn(opt)2- and VO(opt)2-treated mice exhibited significantly lower fat deposition and fat deposition area ratio in the liver (63.6% and 65.8% of nontreated KK-A(y) mice, respectively) compared to those observed in nontreated KK-A(y) mice. The differences in morphological improvements of the pancreas and liver owing to Zn(opt)2 or VO(opt)2 treatment may be explained by differences in the sites of actions of Zn(2+) and VO(2+) complexes in different organs in KK-A(y) mice. In conclusion, Zn(opt)2 exhibited superior antidiabetic effects over those of VO(opt)2, and this was owing to greater amelioration of the morphological parameters of the liver and pancreas. PMID:24905743

  10. Reactivity of metallothioneins of frog Rana ridibunda treated by copper and zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Falfushynska, H I; Romanchuk, L D; Stoliar, O B

    2010-01-01

    The metal-buffering and stress proteins metallothioneins (MTs) of frog are characterised by unusually high content of copper as for vertebrate animals and instability that was shown in our previous studies. They easily lost copper and especially zinc under unfavourable conditions. The aim of this study was to examine the reactivity of SH groups in the MTs from the liver of frog Rana ridibunda after the effect of Cu2+ (0.01 mg/l) and Zn2+ (0.1 mg/l) ions on the organism during 14 days. The alpha- and beta-domains of MTs with molecular weights of about 4 kDa were separated by the size-exclusion chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Unlike higher vertebrates, frogs demonstrated higher reactivity of alpha-domain than beta-domain with the Ellman's reagent (DTNB). The signs of partial oxidations in beta-domain included the creation of by-products with molecular weight about 12 kDa, low reactivity of SH-groups, and typical of -S-S-bonds peculiarities of UV-spectra. The effect of both metal ions on frog provoked the elevation of SH-groups reactivity in a-domain with the appearance of by-product with molecular weight of 16 kDa and its reduction in beta-domain. The incubation of MTs of control animals with 0.5 and 5.0 mM of H2O2 did not affect its chromatographic characteristics. In the frogs loaded by Cu2+ and Zn2+ the effect of 5.0 mM H2O2 on MTs provoked the release of 4 kDa product. So the alpha-domain is responsible for the increased release of metals from injured MTs in frogs, whereas extremely high oxidizability of beta-domain makes its participation in the exchange of metals elusive and provokes the aggregation of MTs. PMID:21323122

  11. A study of the kinetics and fate of zinc-65 and iron-59 mobilized from labeled ghosts by reticulocyte lysates of normal and cadmium-treated rabbits 

    E-print Network

    McAleese, Kathryn Noel

    1976-01-01

    A STUDY OF THE KINETICS AND FATE OF ZINC ? 65 AND IRON-59 MOBILIZED FROM LABELED GHOSTS BY RETICULOCYTE LYSATES OF NORMAL AND CADMIUM-TREATED RABBITS A Thesis by KATHRYN NOEL McALEESE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University... in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject: Biochemistry A STUDY OF THE KINETICS AND FATE OF ZINC-65 AND IRON-59 MOBILIZED FROM LABELED GHOSTS BY RETICULOCYTE LYSATES OF NORMAL AND CAIRIUM...

  12. Treating photodamage of the décolletage area with a novel copper zinc malonate complex plus hydroquinone and tretinoin.

    PubMed

    Leyden, James J; Parr, Lisa

    2010-03-01

    There has been a proliferation of treatments for facial rejuvenation but, curiously, the use of such treatments on other areas of the body has not been widely investigated. The clinical effects of treating photodamaged skin of the neck and anterior chest area (décolletage) with a proprietary copper zinc malonate lotion and a proprietary 4% hydroquinone cream (twice daily), plus tretinoin cream (once daily), were evaluated in 42 females in a 24-week investigator-blind randomized study. Treatment was associated with early and significant (P< or =0.05) improvements in mean scores on an overall integrated assessment of photodamage (from week 4 onward) and for multiple signs of photodamage--tactile roughness (from week 2 onward); mottled hyperpigmentation, lentigines and fine wrinkling (from week 4 onward); laxity (from week 8 onward); and crepiness and coarse wrinkling (from week 12 onward). Treatment was generally well tolerated and 94% of subjects were satisfied or very satisfied with the overall improvement in their décolletage at week 24. PMID:20232582

  13. Acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3 prime -dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol to juvenile grass shrimp and killifish

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.T.; Fisher, D.J. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Shady Side, MD (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The acute toxicity of several compounds was investigated while performing a toxicity evaluation of a complex chemical effluent. The tests were conducted for one or more of the following reasons: (1) data were not available for the chemical; (2) data were not available for the species; or (3) data were not available for the juvenile life stage of the species. Forty-eight hour acute toxicity tests were run on juvenile grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and juvenile killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to the following compounds: cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3{prime}-dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride (dichloromethane) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

  14. Effects of Zinc-Treated Soybean Meal on Ruminal Fermentation and Intestinal Amino Acid Flows in Steers Fed Corn Silage-Based Diets1i2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deana L. Hancock

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of feeding zinc-treated soybean meal (Zn-SBM) on ruminal fermentation patterns and duodenal AA flows in steers fed diets based on corn silage and corn. Six steers (385 kg) fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design experiment with 14-d periods.

  15. Fate and effect of benzalkonium chlorides in a continuous-flow biological nitrogen removal system treating poultry processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hajaya, Malek G; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2012-08-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are used for sanitation in many poultry processing facilities. This work investigated the fate and effect of a mixture of benzalkonium chlorides (BACs), a class of QACs widely used in commercial antimicrobial formulations, on the biological nitrogen removal (BNR) processes. A laboratory-scale BNR system was operated continuously for 670 days, fed with poultry processing wastewater amended with a mixture of BACs. Initially, the nitrogen removal efficiency deteriorated at a BAC feed concentration of 5 mg/L due to the complete inhibition of nitrification. However, after 27 days of operation, the system recovered and achieved 100% ammonia removal. High nitrogen removal efficiency was achieved even after the feed BAC concentration was stepwise increased up to 120 mg/L. Batch nitrification assays performed before, during, and after BAC exposure, showed that rapid microbial acclimation and BAC biodegradation contributed to the recovery of nitrification achieving efficient and stable long-term BNR system operation. PMID:22705509

  16. Visualization of calcium and zinc ions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells treated with PEFs (pulse electric fields) by laser confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Urszula, Pankiewicz; Jerzy, Jamroz; Sujka, Monika; Kowalski, Rados?aw

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to visualize the areas of increased concentration of calcium and zinc ions inside Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with the use of confocal microscopy and to make an attempt to asses semi-quantitatively their concentration within the limits of the cells. Semi-quantitative analysis revealed that fluorescence inside cells from control samples was three-times lower than that observed for cells from the sample enriched with calcium. Differences in distribution of fluorescence intensity between cells originated from the samples enriched with zinc and control samples were also observed. On the basis of the optical sections, the 3D reconstructions of ion-rich areas distribution in the cell were made. The obtained results showed that confocal microscopy is a useful technique for visualization of the areas in S. cerevisiae cells which contain higher amount of calcium and zinc and it may be also used for semi-quantitative analysis. PMID:26041158

  17. New Process of Pellets-Metallized Sintering Process (PMSP) to Treat Zinc-Bearing Dust from Iron and Steel Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Tiejun; Zhu, Deqing

    2015-02-01

    An innovative process of pellets-metallized sintering process (PMSP) to prepare pre-reduced ironmaking burden using zinc-bearing dust has been developed. The pre-reduced sinter product, assaying 60.53 pct Fe with the metallization degree of 45.23 pct, and the Zn and Pb content of 0.18 and 0.02 pct with the removal rate of 92.78 and 96.37 pct were obtained at the productivity of 0.471 t m-2 h-1 and tumble index of 81.31 pct. PMSP has opened a new way to utilize the zinc-bearing dust efficiently.

  18. Determination of Antibody to Pneumococcal Polysaccharides with Chromic Chloride-Treated Human Red Blood Cells and Indirect Hemagglutination

    PubMed Central

    Ammann, Arthur J.; Pelger, Robert J.

    1972-01-01

    A method is described for the quantitation of serum antibody to type-specific pneumococcal polysaccharide. The method uses highly purified pneumococcal polysaccharide coated onto human O+ red blood cells by the chromic chloride technique. Each of 14 pneumococcal polysaccharide types was individually coated onto red blood cells and used to determine the antibody response following primary immunization. The method was found to be sensitive, detecting antibody titer increases of several hundred to a thousand-fold. The presence of high preimmunization antibody titers did not obscure the detection of antibody titer increases. The method detected antibody of both the immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G class when quantitated after ultracentrifugation and sucrose density gradient separation. By using serum samples obtained from volunteers immunized with a single pneumococcal polysaccharide, the method was standardized resulting in an ability to compare samples taken at different times and obtained from different sources. The method appears to be simple, reproducible, and inexpensive and can be utilized to determine the antibody response following immunization in large population studies. PMID:4404827

  19. Efficient organic Schottky junction solar cells with a platinum chloride-treated PEDOT:PSS interfacial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Kyeongil; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Kim, Seok-Soon; Kim, Dong-Yu; Na, Seok-In

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate highly efficient organic-based Schottky junction solar cells (OSJSCs) obtained by poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) modification with solution-processed platinum chloride (PtCl4) treatment. The effect of PtCl4 on PEDOT:PSS properties and device performances of solar cells was investigated. Kelvin probe and 4-point probe studies demonstrated that PtCl4 decreased the PEDOT:PSS sheet-resistance and increased the PEDOT:PSS work-function, thereby inducing an improved built-in potential and interface resistance. As a result, with the aid of the PtCl4 treatment, the Schottky junction device had a high power conversion efficiency of 3%, which was more than 20% higher than the reference OSJSCs with no PtCl4, indicating that PtCl4 can be a promising PEDOT:PSS modifier for raising the cell-performances of Schottky-junction based organic solar cells.

  20. Orthorhombic tris(glycine) zinc chloride Gly3?ZnCl2 – a new semi-organic many-phonon SRS crystal manifesting different nonlinear-laser (?(3)+?(2)) interactions under one-micron picosecond pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminskii, A. A.; Bohatý, L.; Becker, P.; Eichler, H. J.; Rhee, H.; Hanuza, J.

    2009-12-01

    Nonlinear-laser properties of crystals of non-centrosymmetric orthorhombic semi-organic tris(glycine) zinc chloride Gly3?ZnCl2 are reported in this paper. Under one-micron picosecond pumping many-phonon high-order SRS, a more than two-octaves Stokes and anti-Stokes lasing frequency comb, ``Cherenkov''-type SHG, THG, and several cascaded parametric self-sum-frequency generation processes were observed. All recorded Raman-induced laser wavelengths were identified and attributed to the ?(3)-promoting vibration modes of the crystal. A brief review of nonlinear-laser properties of known SRS-active heterodesmic semi-organic crystals with partially ionic bonding character between structural units is given as well.

  1. Effect of Ammonium, Potassium, and Sodium Cations and Phosphate, Nitrate, and Chloride Anions on Zinc Sorption and Lability in Selected Acid and Calcareous Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim Jian Wang; Dustin L. Harrell

    2005-01-01

    capacity (CEC) (McBride, 1989). The interactions be- tween Zn and Fe or Al oxides through the formation Zinc availability and mobility in soils is controlled by its interaction of a covalent bond with surface aquo and\\/or hydroxo with the soil matrix and amendments. Contradicting evidence has been reported for factors influencing Zn behavior in soils. This study groups have been

  2. Vinyl Chloride

    Cancer.gov

    Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas that burns easily. It does not occur naturally and must be produced industrially for its commercial uses. Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC); PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials. Vinyl chloride is also produced as a combustion product in tobacco smoke.

  3. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Jr., Philip N. (Kensington, CA)

    1989-01-01

    An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

  4. Characterization of poly(vinyl chloride) aged in a bromine containing electrolyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Jr. Arnold; A. Leo; M. Tarjani

    1988-01-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is being considered for use as a flow frame material in a developmental zinc\\/bromine battery. The choice of PVC was based on its low cost and the ease with which it can be molded into complex parts. The electrolyte used in this battery is a highly corrosive mixture of bromine, zinc bromide, zinc chloride, potassium bromide, potassium

  5. Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tong; Hao, Han; Hao, Wen-Ting; Yi, Shu-Min; Li, Xue-Peng; Li, Jian-Rong

    2014-01-01

    To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L-1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the cell walls; thus, the electrolyte is leaked from cells. PMID:24572014

  6. Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tong; Hao, Han; Hao, Wen-ting; Yi, Shu-min; Li, Xue-peng; Li, Jian-rong

    2014-02-01

    To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L-1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the cell walls; thus, the electrolyte is leaked from cells.

  7. Synthesis, structure, and properties of nanocrystalline zinc by pulsed-current electrodeposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khaled Mohamed Saber Abdel-Hamid Youssef

    2003-01-01

    Square-wave cathodic current electrodeposition was used to produce for the first time nanocrystalline zinc electrodeposits from both zinc chloride and zinc sulfate-based electrolytes. The influence of pulse electrodeposition parameters and polyacrylamide and thiourea additions on the grain size, surface morphology, and preferred orientation of zinc deposits was determined. The microstructure and surface morphology of the zinc electrodeposits were studied by

  8. Synthesis, characterization and thermodynamics of complex formation of some new Schiff base ligands with some transition metal ions and the adduct formation of zinc Schiff base complexes with some organotin chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Mozaffar; Asadi, Zahra; Torabi, Susan; Lotfi, Najmeh

    Four new complexes, [M(Salpyr)] where Salpyr = N,N'-bis(Salicylidene)-2,3- and 3,4-diiminopyridine and M = Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and UV-vis spectrophotometry. UV-vis spectrophotometric study of the adduct formation of the zinc(II) complexes, [Zn(2,3-Salpyr)] and [Zn(3,4-Salpyr)], as donor with R2SnCl2 (R = methyl, phenyl, n-butyl), PhSnCl3 and Bu3SnCl as acceptors has been investigated in methanol, as solvent. The formation constants and the thermodynamic free energies were measured using UV-vis spectrophotometry. Titration of the organotin chlorides with Zn(II) complexes at various temperatures (T = 283-313 K) leads to 1:1 adduct formation. The results show that the formation constants were decreased by increasing the temperature. The trend of the reaction of RnSnCl4-n as acceptors toward given zinc complexes was as follows: PhSnCl3 > Me2SnCl2 > Ph2SnCl2 > Bu2SnCl2 > Bu3SnCl By considering the formation constants and the ?G° of the complex formation for the Schiff base as donor and the M(II) as acceptor, the following conclusion was drawn: the formation constant for a given Schiff base changes according to the following trend: Ni > Cu > Co > Zn > Mn

  9. Zinc movement in sewage-sludge-treated soils as influenced by soil properties, irrigation water quality, and soil moisture level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, J.E.; Lund, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A soil column study was conducted to assess the movement of Zn in sewage-sludge-amended soils. Varables investigated were soil properties, irrigation water quality, and soil moisture level. Bulk samples of the surface layer of six soil series were packed into columns, 10.2 cm in diameter and 110 cm in length. An anaerobically digested municipal sewage sludge was incorporated into the top 20 cm of each column at a rate of 300 mg ha-1. The columns were maintained at moisture levels of saturation and unsaturation and were leached with two waters of different quality. At the termination of leaching, the columns were cut open and the soil was sectioned and analyzed. Zinc movement was evaluated by mass balance accounting and correlation and regression analysis. Zinc movement in the unsaturated columns ranged from 3 to 30 cm, with a mean of 10 cm. The difference in irrigation water quality did not have an effect on Zn movement. Most of the Zn applied to the unsaturated columns remained in the sludge-amended soil layer (96.1 to 99.6%, with a mean of 98.1%). The major portion of Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer accumulated in the 0- to 3-cm depth (35.7 to 100%, with a mean of 73.6%). The mean final soil pH values decreased in the order: saturated columns = sludge-amended soil layer > untreated soils > unsaturated columns. Total Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer was correlated negatively at P = 0.001 with final pH (r = -0.85). Depth of Zn movement was correlated negatively at P = 0.001 with final pH (r = -0.91). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the final pH accounted for 72% of the variation in the total amounts of Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer of the unsaturated columns and accounted for 82% of the variation in the depth of Zn movement among the unsaturated columns. A significant correlation was not found between Zn and organic carbon in soil solutions, but a negative correlation significant at P = 0.001 was found between pH and Zn (r = -0.61).

  10. Reactions of 2-pyridylphenylacetonitrile and 1,2-dicyano-1,2-diphenyl-1,2-di(2-pyridyl)ethane with cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) chlorides and copper(II) bromide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José R. Masaguer; María Antonia Mendiola; Cristina Molleda

    1985-01-01

    2-Pyridylphenylacetonitrile (ppa) is oxidized by copper(II) halides in 1,2-dichloroethane to 1,2-dicyano-1,2-diphenyl-1,2-di(2-pyridyl)ethane (dcppe), yielding 4:1 complexes of dcppe with copper(II) dihalide, [CuX2(dcppe)4] (green). Nickel(II) and zinc(II) chlorides react with ppa giving complexes of a general formula [MCl2(ppa)2].

  11. Oral zinc therapy for zinc deficiency-related telogen effluvium.

    PubMed

    Karashima, Tadashi; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Hamada, Takahiro; Ono, Fumitake; Ishii, Norito; Abe, Toshifumi; Ohyama, Bungo; Nakama, Takekuni; Dainichi, Teruki; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Zinc is crucial for maintaining human body homeostasis and is one of the major components of hormones, signal molecules, and enzymes. Zinc deficiency is caused by insufficient uptake of zinc from food, or caused by malabsorption syndromes, increased gastrointestinal and urinary losses, and administration of various medications. In order to test whether oral zinc administration can successfully improve zinc deficiency-related alopecia, we treated five patients with zinc deficiency-related telogen effluvium with oral zinc administration in the form of polaprezinc (Promac®). In all patients, hair loss was cured or improved. The administration of zinc for zinc deficiency-related alopecia may recover appropriate activities of metalloenzymes, hedgehog signaling, and immunomodulation, all of which are required for normal control of hair growth cycle. PMID:22741940

  12. Tris(1,10-phenanthroline-?2 N,N?)zinc(II) chloride 2-phenyl-4-selenazole-5-car­box­yl­ate decahydrate

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jin-Bei; Lv, Xin; Chen, Ji-Fei; Zhou, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Guo-Liang

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title salt, [Zn(C12H8N2)3](C10H6NO2Se)Cl·10H2O, contains a [Zn(phen)3]2+ cation (phen is 1,10-phenanthroline), uncoordinated chloride and 2-phenyl-4-selenazole-5-carboxyl­ate anions and ten uncoord­in­ated water mol­ecules. The central ZnII ion is six-coordinated by six N atoms from three phen ligands in a distorted octa­hedral geometry. An extensive O—H?O, O—H?N and O—H?Cl hydrogen-bonding network stabilizes the crystal structure. PMID:21522857

  13. Innovative uses for zinc in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yoon Soo; Hill, Nikki D; Bibi, Yuval; Dreiher, Jacob; Cohen, Arnon D

    2010-07-01

    Severe zinc deficiency states, such as acrodermatitis enteropathica, are associated with a variety of skin manifestations, such as perioral, acral, and perineal dermatitis. These syndromes can be reversed with systemic zinc repletion. In addition to skin pathologies that are clearly zinc-dependent, many dermatologic conditions (eg, dandruff, acne, and diaper rash) have been associated and treated with zinc. Success rates for treatment with zinc vary greatly depending on the disease, mode of administration, and precise zinc preparation used. With the exception of systemic zinc deficiency states, there is little evidence that convincingly demonstrates the efficacy of zinc as a reliable first-line treatment for most dermatologic conditions. However, zinc may be considered as an adjunctive treatment modality. Further research is needed to establish the indications for zinc treatment in dermatology, optimal mode of zinc delivery, and best type of zinc compound to be used. PMID:20510767

  14. Zinc recovery via the flame reactor process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Pusateri; C. O. Bounds; L. W. Lherbier

    1988-01-01

    A major objective of the zinc industry for the 1990s will be to maintain high zinc recovery while eliminating the disposal of copious quantities of hazardous iron residues. The flame reactor process has demonstrated the potential of meeting this objective by either treating the residues or smelting zinc directly. The process has been proven commercially viable for treating flue dusts

  15. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  16. Method of preparing zinc orthotitanate pigment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, D. W.; Harada, Y.; Logan, W. R.; Gilligan, J. E. (inventors)

    1977-01-01

    Zinc orthotitanate suitable for use as a pigment for spacecraft thermal control coatings is prepared by heating a slightly zinc deficient reaction mixture of precipitated oxalates of zinc and titanium. The reaction mixture can be formed by coprecipitation of zinc and titanium oxalates from chloride solution or by mixing separately precipitated oxalates. The mixture is first heated to 400 to 600 C to remove volatiles and is then rapidly heated at 900 to 1200 C. Zinc orthotitanate produced by this method exhibits the very fine particle size needed for thermal control coatings as well as stability in a space environment.

  17. Effect of mercuric chloride and methylmercury chloride exposure on tissue concentrations of six essential minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Bogden, J.D.; Kemp, F.W.; Troiano, R.A.; Jortner, B.S.; Timpone, C.; Giuliani, D.

    1980-04-01

    There are few data on the effects of mercury exposure on tissue concentrations of essential minerals. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to mercuric chloride and methylmercury chloride administered via the drinking water. Subsequently, the kidneys, spleen, liver, and brain were analyzed for mercury, calcium, copper, magnesium, manganese, iron, and zinc by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Significant differences from controls were found for brain copper, kidney copper, and kidney zinc in the mercuric chloride-exposed animals; and for brain iron, kidney copper, kidney iron, kidney magnesium, spleen magnesium, and liver manganese in the methylmercury chloride-exposed rats. There was a fivefold higher mean kidney copper concentration in the mercuric chloride-exposed group; this may be related to the induction of renal metallothionein synthesis by mercury. Increased kidney copper may be a manifestation of heavy metal-induced renal toxicity. Both inorganic and methylmercury exposure produce significant changes in tissue concentrations of some essential minerals.

  18. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for imaging of copper, zinc, and platinum in thin sections of a kidney from a mouse treated with cis-platin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoriy, Myroslav; Matusch, Andreas; Spruss, Thilo; Becker, J. Sabine

    2007-02-01

    Platinum complexes are used for the treatment of several types of cancer. High platinum concentrations in the target tissue and low concentrations in dose-limiting tissue structures such as renal tubules are desirable to assure selective toxicity. Microlocal analysis of platinum distribution in tissue sections may thus contribute to the optimization of platinum therapy. Scanning laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to produce images of element distribution in 14-[mu]m thin sections of kidney tissue from a mouse treated with cis-platin 60 min prior to victimization. The sample surface was scanned (raster area 300 mm2) with a focused laser beam (wavelength 266 nm, diameter of laser crater 50 [mu]m, inter line distance 50 [mu]m and laser power density 3 x 109 W cm-2) in a cooled laser ablation chamber (about -15 [degree sign]C) developed for these measurements. The laser ablation system was coupled to a double-focusing sector field ICP-MS. Ion intensities of 63Cu+, 64Zn+, and 196Pt+ were measured within the tissue by LA-ICP-MS. Matrix-matched laboratory standards served for calibration of analytical data. The mass spectrometric analysis yielded an inhomogeneous distribution for Cu, Zn, and Pt in thin kidney sections. Copper was enriched in the capsule and outer cortex, zinc in the inner cortex and the platinum concentration followed a centripetal gradient with clear medullar enrichment. Thus, scanning LA-ICP-MS may be a useful tool in the preclinical development of new and less nephrotoxic platinum complexes.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF SYNERGISTIC HEAT STABILIZERS FOR PVC FROM ZINC BORATE-ZINC PHOSPHATE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cem Aykut Erdo?du; Sevdiye Atakul; Devrim Balköse; Semra Ülkü

    2008-01-01

    The importance of flame-retardant and smoke-suppressed poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) compositions is increasing gradually in the polymer industry since PVC releases smoke and toxic gases (hydrogen chloride, HCl) during heating at temperatures above 140°C with the result of dehydrochlorination reaction. In this study, the synergistic effects of zinc borate (ZB)-zinc phosphate (ZP) on the thermal stability of PVC were investigated using

  20. Effect of resveratrol and zinc on intracellular zinc status in normal human prostate epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the influence of resveratrol on cellular zinc status, normal human prostate epithelial (NHPrE) cells were treated with 6 levels of resveratrol (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 microM) and 4 levels of zinc [0, 4, 16, and 32 microM for zinc-deficient (ZD), zinc-normal (ZN), zinc-adequate (ZA), an...

  1. Zinc deficiency anemia and effects of zinc therapy in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Tatsuo; Horike, Hideyuki; Fujiki, Shigeatsu; Kitada, Shingo; Sasaki, Tamaki; Kashihara, Naoki

    2009-06-01

    Quantitative adjuvant zinc therapy using polaprezinc was performed to examine the correlation between zinc concentration and anemia in maintenance hemodialysis patients to propose appropriate treatment. Anemia and serum zinc concentration were measured in 117 patients with chronic renal failure receiving outpatient maintenance hemodialysis at Tsuyama Chuo Kinen Hospital. Two bags of polaprezinc (containing zinc 34 mg/day) were administered to 58 patients with lower than normal zinc levels (Zn < 80 mg/dl) as adjuvant zinc therapy to assess anemia improvement. Zinc concentration and all anemia parameters showed significant positive correlation, indicating that anemia improves in patients with high serum zinc levels. Regarding the effects of adjuvant zinc therapy for improving anemia, hemoglobin levels were found to increase significantly to the highest value at 3 weeks. During treatment, the dosage of erythropoietin was reduced significantly from baseline at all assessment points. No zinc poisoning from therapy was seen, but two patients had diarrhea (1.9%). Zinc-treated patients required iron therapy due to the development of iron deficiency. Most maintenance hemodialysis patients suffer from zinc deficiency anemia, and zinc-based polaprezinc has been confirmed to be an effective and safe adjuvant zinc treatment. Most patients diagnosed as refractory anemia with no response to erythropoietin also suffer from zinc deficiency anemia, many of whom are expected to benefit from zinc therapy to improve their anemia. Possible zinc deficiency anemia should be considered in the treatment of refractory anemia with no response to erythropoietin. PMID:19527468

  2. Polyfluoroalkanesulfenyl chlorides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Yu Sizov; Aleksei F Kolomiets; Alexandr V Fokin

    1992-01-01

    Data appearing since 1975 are correlated for the methods of synthesis of polyfluoroalkanesulfenyl chlorides, their reactions with O-, S-, N-, P- and C-nucleophiles, with unsaturated aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds, for their behaviour in oxidation and heterocyclisation reactions and in free radical conversions. The bibliography includes 214 references.

  3. Carbonation and electrochemical chloride extraction from concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Ihekwaba; B. B. Hope; C. M. Hansson

    1996-01-01

    Chloride ingress into steel reinforced concrete (r.c.), and the subsequent application of electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) are shown to be considerably retarded by the presence of a carbonation front. Four concrete blocks each reinforced with two layers of steel mats in two different configurations were electrochemically treated. One block of each type was initially carbonated to a depth of about

  4. Zinc recovery via the flame reactor process

    SciTech Connect

    Pusateri, J.F.; Bounds, C.O.; Lherbier, L.W.

    1988-08-01

    A major objective of the zinc industry for the 1990s will be to maintain high zinc recovery while eliminating the disposal of copious quantities of hazardous iron residues. The flame reactor process has demonstrated the potential of meeting this objective by either treating the residues or smelting zinc directly. The process has been proven commercially viable for treating flue dusts generated during electric arc furnace steelmaking. Zinc, lead and cadmium are recovered from the dust as a crude oxide for recycle while a nonhazardous slag is produced for sale. Similar products are efficiently produced from electrolytic zinc plant neutral leach and iron precipitation residues. In addition, the reactor shows promise of fulfilling its original objective of being a low-energy primary zinc smelter by fuming and condensing zinc from roasted concentrates.

  5. Some properties of zinc/bromine battery electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathro, K. J.; Cedzynska, K.; Constable, D. C.

    The diffusion coefficients for bromine in zinc bromide solutions containing n-ethyl n-methylmorpholinium bromide have been determined over a range of temperatures and reagent concentrations relevant to zinc/bromine battery electrolytes. Some data were obtained also for potassium chloride-containing electrolytes. Values for solution resistivity and kinematic viscosity are also reported.

  6. Zinc reverses malathion-induced impairment in antioxidant defenses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeferson L. Franco; Thais Posser; Jacó J. Mattos; Rafael Trevisan; Patricia S. Brocardo; Ana Lúcia S. Rodrigues; Rodrigo B. Leal; Marcelo Farina; Maria R. F. Marques; Afonso C. D. Bainy; Alcir L. Dafre

    2009-01-01

    Malathion toxicity has been related to the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and induction of oxidative stress, while zinc has been shown to possess neuroprotective effects in experimental and clinical studies. In the present study the effect of zinc chloride (zinc) was addressed in adult male Wistar rats following a long-term treatment (30 days, 300mg\\/L in tap water ad libitum) against an

  7. Zinc-silylene complexes.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Sebastian; Köppe, Ralf; Gamer, Michael T; Roesky, Peter W

    2014-10-01

    Reactions of the chlorosilylene [PhC(N(t)Bu)2]SiCl (SiCl) and the aryl and alkyl zincorganyls Zn(C5Me5)2, ZnPh2 and ZnEt2 resulted in the first Zn-silylene complexes. In all reactions the chlorine atom of the silylene and organic groups of the zinc atom are exchanged. By using Zn(C5Me5)2 and ZnPh2 one of the newly formed silylene coordinates to the zinc atom to give [PhC(N(t)Bu)2(?(1)-C5Me5)Si-Zn(?(2)-C5Me5)Cl] and [PhC(N(t)Bu)2PhSi-ZnPh(?-Cl)]2, respectively. In contrast, the reaction of SiCl with ZnEt2 resulted due the reduced steric demand of the silylene in the disilylene complex [PhC(N(t)Bu)2SiEt]2ZnCl2, in which both ethyl-moieties are exchanged by chlorides and two newly formed ethyl-silylenes coordinate to the zinc atom. PMID:25126653

  8. Flame Retardancy Behavior of Zinc Borate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youming Yang; Xichang Shi; Ruirong Zhao

    1999-01-01

    The effect of boron chloride formation from zinc borate in burn ing PVC was elucidated. By thermodynamic calculation, experiment, and infra red spectrum analysis, the conditions for boron halide formation when PVC was burned were addressed. It is found that when boron halide is produced, the B2O3 glass layer is destroyed and boron is volatilized, which is unfavorable to flame

  9. The Solanum lycopersicum Zinc Finger2 Cysteine-2/Histidine-2 Repressor-Like Transcription Factor Regulates Development and Tolerance to Salinity in Tomato and Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Hichri, Imène; Muhovski, Yordan; Žižková, Eva; Dobrev, Petre I.; Franco-Zorrilla, Jose Manuel; Solano, Roberto; Lopez-Vidriero, Irene; Motyka, Vaclav; Lutts, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    The zinc finger superfamily includes transcription factors that regulate multiple aspects of plant development and were recently shown to regulate abiotic stress tolerance. Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Zinc Finger2 [SIZF2]) is a cysteine-2/histidine-2-type zinc finger transcription factor bearing an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression domain and binding to the ACGTCAGTG sequence containing two AGT core motifs. SlZF2 is ubiquitously expressed during plant development, and is rapidly induced by sodium chloride, drought, and potassium chloride treatments. Its ectopic expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tomato impaired development and influenced leaf and flower shape, while causing a general stress visible by anthocyanin and malonyldialdehyde accumulation. SlZF2 enhanced salt sensitivity in Arabidopsis, whereas SlZF2 delayed senescence and improved tomato salt tolerance, particularly by maintaining photosynthesis and increasing polyamine biosynthesis, in salt-treated hydroponic cultures (125 mm sodium chloride, 20 d). SlZF2 may be involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis/signaling, because SlZF2 is rapidly induced by ABA treatment and 35S::SlZF2 tomatoes accumulate more ABA than wild-type plants. Transcriptome analysis of 35S::SlZF2 revealed that SlZF2 both increased and reduced expression of a comparable number of genes involved in various physiological processes such as photosynthesis, polyamine biosynthesis, and hormone (notably ABA) biosynthesis/signaling. Involvement of these different metabolic pathways in salt stress tolerance is discussed. PMID:24567191

  10. The electrodeposition of metals and alloys from the room-temperature aluminum chloride 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride molten salt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Robert Pitner

    1997-01-01

    The electrochemistry of cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc was investigated in the room-temperature Lewis acidic aluminum chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride molten salt (AlClsb3-MeEtimCl). Concentrated solutions of Co(II), Cu(I), Ni(II), and Zn(II) were produced by anodization of the respective metal, and each of these metals could be electrodeposited from these solutions. Bulk deposits were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and

  11. Spectrophotometric studies and applications for the determination of Ni2+ in zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Xiaoping; Li, Helin; Zhao, Wenzhen; Li, Dejun

    The absorption properties of zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte were studied by visible spectrophotometer. The results show that the relationship between the absorbance of the zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte and Ni2+ concentration in the electrolyte obeys Beer's law at 660 nm. In addition, other components except Ni2+ in the zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte such as zinc chloride, ammonium chloride, potassium chloride and boric acid have no obvious effect on the absorbance of zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte. Based on these properties, a new method is developed to determine Ni2+ concentration in zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte. Comparing with other methods, this method is simple, direct and accurate. Moreover, the whole testing process does not consume any reagent and dilution, and after testing, the electrolyte samples can be reused without any pollution to the environment.

  12. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Cuong D.; Gopalsamy, Geetha L.; Mortimer, Elissa K.; Young, Graeme P.

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease. PMID:26035248

  13. The germination and development of seedlings from seeds treated with growth regulators: (2-chloroethyl) trimethylammonium chloride, succinic acid 2,2 dimethylhydrazide and 2,3-dihydro-5-6-diphenyl-1,4 oxathiin

    E-print Network

    Kamp, Marihelen

    1976-01-01

    effectively on geraniums and a few other retardants. Only in isolated instances have growth retarding com- pounds been used as soil amendments. 2, 4-dichlorobenzyl- tributylphosphonium chloride (CBBP) used as a soil amendment on petunia, salvia, and phlox...

  14. Behavior and products of mechano-chemical dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride and poly (vinylidene chloride).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao; Zeng, Zigao; Xiao, Songwen

    2008-02-28

    The mechano-chemical (MC) dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) was performed by mechanical milling PVC/PVDC powder with zinc powder in a planetary ball mill, and the products of dechlorination were characterized by Infrared spectra (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The experimental results show that PVC/PVDC can be easily dechlorinated by milling with zinc powder, and formed various kinds of inorganic and organic products. Inorganic compounds included Zn2OCl(2).2H2O, Zn5(OH)8Cl2.H2O etc., and organic products involved diamond-like carbon, carbyne fragment, polyacetylene etc. Organic products formed following the paths of dechlorination, dehydrochlorination, crosslink, and oxidation. The mechano-chemical dechlorination process of PVC/PVDC may be an effective approach for carbyne synthesizing in the appropriate condition. PMID:17604907

  15. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  16. Influence of thermal annealing in air on the electro-optic characteristics of chemical bath deposited non-stoichiometric cadmium zinc selenide thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. Sharma; J. C. Garg

    1990-01-01

    Non-stoichiometric thin films of cadmium zinc selenide were grown onto glass substrates by the chemical bath deposition technique from elemental selenium, sodium sulphite, cadmium chloride, zinc chloride, deionised water and ammonia. As-deposited films were annealed at different temperatures up to 600 K. From their deposition temperature in air, their electrical conductivity, optical properties and microstructure were evaluated. The electrical conductivity

  17. Atmospheric Corrosion and Precipitation Runoff From Zinc and Zinc Alloys Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Matthes, S.A.; Cramer, S.D.; Bullard, S.J.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Holcomb, G.R.

    2003-03-16

    The long-term atmospheric corrosion performance of rolled zinc and three thermal-sprayed (TS) zinc materials (Zn, Zn-15Al, and Al-12Zn-0.2In) was characterized by measuring corrosion product concentrations in precipitation runoff at coastal marine and inland sites. Corrosion rates and average zinc concentrations in the runoff were greater at the site having higher annual rainfall. Higher chloride concentrations did not seem to affect either the corrosion rates or the zinc concentrations in the runoff at the coastal site compared to those of the inland site. Zinc runoff concentrations were higher for TS Zn than rolled zinc due to the greater surface area of the thermal-sprayed surface. Average cumulative zinc runoff losses for the two sites were: 64 {micro}mol Zn/L for TS Zn, 37 {micro}mol Zn/L for rolled Zn, 24 {micro}mol Zn/L for TS Zn-15Al, and 1.8 {micro}mol Zn/L for TS Al-12Zn-0.2In. Cumulative zinc runoff losses were directly related both to the precipitation rate and to the availability of Zn in metal surfaces, a consequence of surface roughness and surface chemistry properties of the metal.

  18. Benzotriazole as an inhibitor of brass corrosion in chloride solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosec, Tadeja; Milošev, Ingrid; Pihlar, Boris

    2007-09-01

    The current research explores the formation of protective layers on copper, zinc and copper-zinc (Cu-10Zn and Cu-40Zn) alloys in chloride solution containing benzotriazole (BTAH), by use of electrochemical techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrochemical reactions and surface products formed at the open circuit potential and as a function of the potential range are discussed. The addition of benzotriazole to aerated, near neutral 0.5 M NaCl solution affects the dissolution of copper, zinc, Cu-10Zn and Cu-40Zn alloys. The research also compares the inhibition efficiency and Gibbs adsorption energies of the investigated process. Benzotriazole, generally known as an inhibitor of copper corrosion is also shown to be an efficient inhibitor for copper-zinc alloys and zinc metal. The surface layer formed on alloys in BTAH-inhibited solution comprised both oxide and polymer components, namely Cu 2O and ZnO oxides, and Cu(I)-BTA and Zn(II)-BTA polymers. The formation of this mixed copper-zinc oxide polymer surface film provides an effective barrier against corrosion of both metal components in chloride solution.

  19. [Block-impregnation technic for the histological demonstration of chloride ions].

    PubMed

    László, S; Jenö, J

    1976-07-01

    Authors worked out a new method for the histological demonstration of chloride ions by modifying old techniques. Unfixed, fresh tissue pieces are treated with silver nitrat, then embedded in paraffin. Chloride ions present in the tissue react with silvernitrate, thus forming silver chloride. Silver salts of other anions present in the tissue can be eliminated with weak solution of nitric acid, thus silver precipitate formed by reduction of silver chloride indicate only the localization of chloride ions. This method seems to be suitable for the demonstration of chlorid ions in the parietal cells of the stomach and for the lokalization of reabsorbed chloride ions in the renal tubules. PMID:781525

  20. Mass-Dependent and Mass-Independent Isotope Effects of Zinc in a Redox Reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiyuki Fujii; Fre?de?ric Moynier; Akihiro Uehara; Minori Abe; Qing-Zhu Yin; Takayuki Nagai; Hajimu Yamana

    2009-01-01

    We report the isotope fractionation of zinc (Zn) associated with a redox reaction between Zn0 and Zn(II). Zn isotopes were found fractionated in pyrometallurgical biphase extraction between liquid zinc and molten chloride. The isotopic composition of Zn in the molten chloride phase was analyzed by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and reported as mZn\\/64Zn (m = 66, 67,

  1. Zinc and immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ananda S. Prasad

    1998-01-01

    Nutritional deficiency of zinc is widespread throughout the developing countries and a conditioned deficiency of zinc is known to occur in many diseased states. Zinc is known to play an important role in the immune system and zinc deficient subjects may experience increased susceptibility to a variety of pathogens. We have studied the effects of a mild deficiency of zinc

  2. Factors affecting threshold chloride for reinforcement corrosion in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, S.E. [Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)] [Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Rasheeduzzafar; Al-Musallam, A.; Al-Gahtani, A.S. [King Fahd Univ., of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)] [King Fahd Univ., of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-10-01

    Three cements with variable C{sub 3}A contents were mixed with different levels of chloride, alkali and sulfate contents to study the effect of these parameters on pore solution composition. Effect of exposure temperature was also studied by curing the chloride-treated specimens at 20 and 70 C. Pore solution was extracted using a high pressure pore solution extrusion device and analyzed for chloride and hydroxyl ion concentrations. Threshold chloride for onset of reinforcement corrosion was computed using threshold [Cl{sup {minus}}/OH{sup {minus}}] ratio of 0.3. The results showed that C{sub 3}A content and exposure temperature have very strong influence on threshold chloride content. Alkali content of cement has marginal effect whereas presence of sulfates along with chlorides has moderate effect on the threshold chloride content.

  3. Effect of Zinc and Aluminum Ions in Breadmaking 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keswara Rao Vadlamani; Paul A. Seib

    1999-01-01

    Cereal Chem. 76(3):355-360 Zinc and aluminum ions as chloride or sulfate salts at 50-500 ppm metal ion (flour basis) had no detrimental effect on fermentation of yeast- leavened dough. Increased mixing times (?10-50%) due to addition of aqueous solutions of zinc (250-500 ppm) or aluminum (150-250 ppm) ions to a bread formula was overcome by withholding salt un til the

  4. Poly[[?-chlorido-?-[2-(2,4-di­fluoro­phen­yl)-1,3-bis­(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propan-2-ol-?2 N 4:N 4?]-zinc] chloride dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Gang-Hong; Tang, Jin-Niu; Xu, Shi-Hua; Huang, Zhong-Jing; Mo, Bo-Fa

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, {[ZnCl(C13H12F2N6O)2]Cl·2H2O}n, is a two-dimensional coordination polymer. The ZnII atom is six-coordinated by four N atoms from four 2-(2,4-di­fluoro­phen­yl)-1,3-bis­(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propan-2-ol (HFlu) ligands and by two Cl atoms in a distorted octa­hedral geometry. Two Cl atoms bridge two ZnII atoms, forming a centrosymmetric dinuclear unit. The HFlu ligands connect the dinuclear units into a 44 net parallel to (001) when the dinuclear unit is considered as a node. O—H?O and O—H?Cl hydrogen bonds link the cationic layer, free chloride anions and lattice water mol­ecules. Intra­layer ?–? inter­actions between the triazole rings are observed [centroid–centroid distance = 3.716?(6)?Å]. PMID:24454018

  5. Bacitracin zinc overdose

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Small amounts of bacitracin zinc are dissolved in petroleum jelly to create antibiotic ointments. Bacitracin zinc overdose ... 1-800-222-1222. See also: Bacitracin overdose Petroleum jelly overdose Zinc oxide overdose

  6. Enhanced zinc consumption causes memory deficits and increased brain levels of zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flinn, J.M.; Hunter, D.; Linkous, D.H.; Lanzirotti, A.; Smith, L.N.; Brightwell, J.; Jones, B.F.

    2005-01-01

    Zinc deficiency has been shown to impair cognitive functioning, but little work has been done on the effects of elevated zinc. This research examined the effect on memory of raising Sprague-Dawley rats on enhanced levels of zinc (10 ppm ZnCO3; 0.153 mM) in the drinking water for periods of 3 or 9 months, both pre- and postnatally. Controls were raised on lab water. Memory was tested in a series of Morris Water Maze (MWM) experiments, and zinc-treated rats were found to have impairments in both reference and working memory. They were significantly slower to find a stationary platform and showed greater thigmotaxicity, a measure of anxiety. On a working memory task, where the platform was moved each day, zinc-treated animals had longer latencies over both trials and days, swam further from the platform, and showed greater thigmotaxicity. On trials using an Atlantis platform, which remained in one place but was lowered on probe trials, the zinc-treated animals had significantly fewer platform crossings, spent less time in the target quadrant, and did not swim as close to the platform position. They had significantly greater latency on nonprobe trials. Microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (??SXRF) confirmed that brain zinc levels were increased by adding ZnCO 3 to the drinking water. These data show that long-term dietary administration of zinc can lead to impairments in cognitive function. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Selective real-time nitric oxide detection by functionalized zinc oxide This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-print Network

    Selective real-time nitric oxide detection by functionalized zinc oxide This article has been) doi:10.1088/0022-3727/42/15/155105 Selective real-time nitric oxide detection by functionalized zinc chloride (haemin)-functionalized Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) is used for nitric oxide (NO) sensing at room

  8. Induction of type 1 interferon receptor by zinc in U937 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeaki Nagamine; Kastuyuki Nakajima; Hisashi Takada; Yoshitaka Sekine; Kazuhiro Suzuki

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether zinc enhances interferon (IFN)-? activity in U937 cells. Type 1 IFN2 receptor (IFNAR2) protein in U937 cells was measured by flow cytometry. After 24h of exposure to zinc chloride or polaprezinc (a chelate of zinc and l-carnosine) at concentrations ranging from 50 to 200?M, histograms showing anti-IFNAR2 antibody-positive cells shifted to a higher FITC

  9. Comparative in vitro toxicity of seven zinc-salts towards neuronal PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Pavlica, Sanja; Gaunitz, Frank; Gebhardt, Rolf

    2009-06-01

    Currently much attention has been given to the neurotoxicity of zinc, yet little is known about the influence of the counterions present. Therefore, we investigated the influence of different Zn(2+)-salts (concentrations range 0.05-0.3 mM) on cell viability, ATP and glutathione concentration and caspase activation in differentiated PC12 cells as a model for neuronal cells. Generally, at concentrations of 0.05 mM most Zn(2+)-salts were not cytotoxic except for zinc-citrate. At concentrations between 0.1 and 0.3 mM Zn(2+) a significant decrease in GSH and ATP levels preceded cell death induced by all salts, except of zinc-histidinate. Zinc-citrate and zinc-sulphate turned out to be the most toxic salts particularly at low concentrations. Analyses of caspase 3/7 activity showed that dependent on the concentration and the type of the salt used cell death may show more or less signs of both, necrosis and apoptosis. Interestingly, the uptake of Zn(2+) from zinc-sulphate and zinc-citrate was significantly higher than that of other salts, implicating a correlation between uptake and toxicity. In conclusion, Zn(2+)-salts could be divided into three categories with high (zinc-citrate, zinc-sulphate), moderate (zinc-orotate, zinc-acetate, zinc-chloride(,) zinc-gluconate) and low cytotoxicity (zinc-histidinate). PMID:19306923

  10. Chemical enhancement of metallized zinc anode performance

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J. [J.E. Bennett Consultants, Inc., Chardon, OH (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Galvanic current delivered to reinforced concrete by a metallized zinc anode was studied relative to the humidity of its environment and periodic direct wetting. Current decreased quickly at low humidity to values unlikely to meet accepted cathodic protection criteria, but could be easily restored by direct wetting of the anode. Thirteen chemicals were screened for their ability to enhance galvanic current. Such chemicals, when applied to the exterior surface of the anode, are easily transported by capillary action to the anode-concrete interface where they serve to maintain the interface conductive and the zinc electrochemically active. The most effective chemicals were potassium and lithium bromide, acetate, chloride and nitrate, which increased galvanic current by a factor of 2--15, depending on relative humidity and chloride contamination of the concrete. This new technique is expected to greatly expand the number of concrete structures which can be protected by simple galvanic cathodic protection, The use of lithium-based chemicals together with metallized zinc anode is also proposed for mitigation of existing problems due to ASR. In this case, lithium which prevents or inhibits expansion due to ASR can be readily injected into the concrete. A new process, electrochemical maintenance of concrete (EMC), is also proposed to benefit reinforced concrete structures suffering from chloride-induced corrosion.

  11. The management of Frey's syndrome with aluminium chloride hexahydrate antiperspirant.

    PubMed Central

    Black, M. J.; Gunn, A.

    1990-01-01

    Nine patients suffering from gustatory sweating (Frey's syndrome) following parotidectomy have been treated by topical applications of aluminium chloride hexahydrate. Treatment has successfully controlled gustatory sweating using application intervals varying from 1 to 50 days. Images Figure 1 PMID:2301903

  12. Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for missile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planchat, J. P.; Descroix, J. P.; Sarre, G.

    A comparative performance study has been conducted for silver-zinc, thionyl chloride, and thermal batteries designed for such missile applications as ICBM guidance system power supplies. Attention is given to each of the three candidates' conformity to requirements concerning mechanical configuration, electrochemical design, electrolyte reservoir, external case, and gas generator. The silver-zinc and Li-SOCl2 candidates employ similar cell configurations and yield comparable performance. The thermal battery is found to be incapable of meeting battery case temperature-related requirements.

  13. Phosphonium chloride for thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Development of systems for storage of thermal energy is discussed. Application of phosphonium chloride for heat storage through reversible dissociation is described. Chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties of phosphonium chloride are analyzed and dangers in using phosphonium chloride are explained.

  14. Is Zinc a Neuromodulator?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alan R. Kay (University of Iowa; Department of Biology REV)

    2008-05-13

    This review, with 3 figures and 57 references, describes the evidence that the cation Zn2+ acts as a modulator of synaptic activity. Beginning with a discussion of the criteria that zinc would have to meet in order to be classified as a neuromodulator and the use of chelators for intercepting zinc in the synaptic cleft, the authors then consider different models for zinc’s action at synapses, ranging from free diffusion of zinc to bound zinc in the extracellular space and a possible action within synaptic vesicles. The article wraps up with suggested experimental approaches that may help resolve the questions surrounding the role of zinc in the central nervous system.

  15. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    1996-01-01

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

  16. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  17. Study of chloride ion migration in reinforced concrete under cathodic protection. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Orlova, N.V.; Westall, J.C.; Rehani, M.; Koretsky, M.D.

    1999-09-01

    The migration of chloride ions in concrete with steel reinforcement was investigated. Mortar blocks (15 cm x 15 cm x 17 cm) of various composition (water to cement ratio, chloride ion content) were cast with an iron mesh cathode imbedded along one face and a thermally sprayed zinc anode applied to the opposite face. Current densities of 0.033 and 0.066 A (sq m) were applied to the blocks over a period of one year at constant temperature and humidity. The zinc face was covered with a pond of saturated calcium hydroxide to prevent polarization of the zinc-concrete interface. Over the course of polarization, potential vs. time curves were recorded and samples of mortar were extracted for determination of chloride concentration.

  18. The practical realisation of zinc–iron CMA coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D Jensen; D. R Gabe; G. D Wilcox

    1998-01-01

    A detailed study of the production opportunities for composition modulated alloy electrodeposits by pulsed current techniques with Zinc-Iron alloys is reported. It is shown that by using a chloride solution, with the additional capability of variable agitation rates, a full range of alloy compositions is possible with nanometre layering attainable using single or double bath methods. Furthermore, by the use

  19. Involvement of glutathione, ERK1\\/2 phosphorylation and BDNF expression in the antidepressant-like effect of zinc in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeferson L. Franco; Thaís Posser; Patrícia S. Brocardo; Rafael Trevisan; Marcela Uliano-Silva; Nelson H. Gabilan; Adair R. S. Santos; Rodrigo B. Leal; Ana L. S. Rodrigues; Marcelo Farina; Alcir L. Dafre

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the antidepressant-like effect of zinc chloride (zinc) administered acutely during 7 days (i.p. route), or chronically during 30 days (oral route) in the forced swimming test (FST) in rats. It was also investigated whether the antidepressant-like effect of zinc is associated with changes in the glutathione antioxidant system in the Wistar rat brain. Animals receiving a single zinc

  20. Sensitivity enhancement of ninhydrin-treated latent fingerprints by enzymes and metal salts.

    PubMed

    Everse, K E; Menzel, E R

    1986-04-01

    Lyophilized Sigma Type III trypsin has been applied to latent prints two weeks to two months old. This trypsin preparation eliminates the background problems that had been encountered with old prints in a previous study. Zinc chloride treatment of latent prints previously exposed to ninhydrin enhances their detectability upon laser examination. However, it has been reported that the zinc chloride reaction occasionally fails to occur. Accordingly, we have investigated the optimization of this reaction. We find that high humidity and elevated temperature, particularly the former, are needed. Cadmium nitrate, although it produces weaker fluorescence than zinc chloride, may at times be useful. Reaction conditions are much the same as those for zinc chloride. PMID:3711825

  1. Hepatocellular copper toxicity and its attenuation by zinc.

    PubMed Central

    Schilsky, M L; Blank, R R; Czaja, M J; Zern, M A; Scheinberg, I H; Stockert, R J; Sternlieb, I

    1989-01-01

    We studied the mechanisms by which excess copper exerts, and zinc mitigates, toxic effects on HepG2 cells. Survival and cell growth were reduced in media containing greater than 500 microM copper chloride for 48 h; LD50 was 750 microM. At 1,000 microM copper for 1 h, there was a general reduction of protein synthesis, and no recognizable changes in cellular ultrastructure. Incubation of cells with 200 microM zinc acetate before exposure to copper, raised the LD50 for confluent cells to 1,250 microM copper chloride, improved protein synthesis, and increased synthesis of a 10-kD protein, apparently metallothionein. The mitigation, by zinc, of copper's toxicity may in part be mediated through induction of this protein in the hepatocyte. Images PMID:2478589

  2. Inorganic complexation of Zinc (II) in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, J. K., Jr.; Byrne, R. H.

    1990-03-01

    Formation constants for zinc complexation by bicarbonate, carbonate, and oxalate, on the molal concentration scale, were determined through observation of aqueous/tributyl phosphate distribution equilibria. At 25°C in our 0.68 molal ionic strength mixtures (0.55 m NaCl plus 0.13 m NaClO 4-NaHCO 3) we obtained the following results: H?' 1 = [ZnHCO 3+][Zn 2+] -1[HCO 3-] t-1 log H?' 1 = 0.85 ± 0.04 ?' 1 = [ZnCO 30][Zn 2+] -1[CO 32-] t-1 log ?' 1 = 3.30 ± 0.08 Ox?' 1 = [ZnC 2O 40][Zn 2+] -1[C 2O 42-] t-1 log Ox?' 1 = 3.58 ± 0.03 where [ ] denotes the concentration of each indicated chemical species, and [HCO 3-] t, [CO 32-] t, and [C 2O 42-] t are the total (free plus ion paired) concentrations of bicarbonate, carbonate, and oxalate. Our analyses in chloride media provide additionally an assessment of the conditional complexation constant of zinc with chloride ion: Cl? 1 = [ZnCl +][Zn 2+] -1[Cl -] -1; log Cl? 1 = -0.4 ±0.1 Our results indicate that in seawater ( S = 35%., 25°C, carbonate alkalinity = 2.09 × 10 -3 eq 1 -1, pH 8.2) approximately 64% of total inorganic zinc exists as the free ion, 14% is complexed with chloride, 10% is complexed with carbonate, and complexation with hydroxide, sulfate, and bicarbonate account for approximately 6, 5, and 1% of the total inorganic zinc, respectively.

  3. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration?20?g/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. PMID:25439135

  4. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  5. The development of a micropatterned electrode for studies of zinc electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect

    Sutija, D.P.; Muller, R.H.; Tobias, C.W.

    1986-12-01

    A micropatterned electrode was prepared for the study of electrocrystallization. Using microphotolithography, in conjunction with evaporation and pulse electrodeposition of thin films, a set of artificially roughened electrodes with hemispherical surface features five microns in diameter was developed. Voltammetric studies were conducted to determine the best electrode material. Gold, platinum, and various carbon surfaces were evaluated for zinc nucleation density and hydrogen overpotential. Surface homogeneity was examined by both light and scanning electron microscopy. Gold was determined to possess the best combination of material properties: chemical inertness, low melting point, and a high work function allowing underpotential deposition of zinc which reduces the rate of hydrogen evolution. Stripping coulometry was employed to determine zinc limiting currents, and evaluate effective diffusion coefficients in concentrated zinc chloride solutions. Although the method worked well for dilute zinc chloride and copper sulfate solutions, it failed at higher current densities; the emergence of surface roughness obscured actual limiting current plateaus.

  6. Zinc might protect oxidative changes in the retina and pancreas at the early stage of diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Moustafa, Sohair A. [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt)]. E-mail: Sohabdulla@hotmail.com

    2004-12-01

    It is well documented that oxidative stress is a basic mechanism behind the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The current study was undertaken to elucidate the possible role of zinc as an antioxidant and a biological membrane stabilizer in the protection against (DR). Male Wistar rats weighing 250 {+-} 50 g were made diabetic by injection with a single ip dose of alloxan (100 mg/kg). Another group of rats was simultaneously treated with alloxan (100 mg/kg) and a single ip dose of zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}) (5 mg/kg). Blood and tissue samples were collected at 24, 48, and 72 h post-treatment in both groups. Diabetic state was confirmed by the determination of plasma glucose levels (significantly elevated at any time of the experiment when compared with controls receiving vehicle). Plasma insulin was significantly increased 24 h after treatment in both alloxan and alloxan plus ZnCl{sub 2}-treated groups, and then decreased markedly 48 and 72 h post treatment in both groups. Alloxan treatment depleted both retinal and liver glutathione contents. The decrease in retinal and liver GSH in alloxan-treated rats was accompanied with a sustained increase in their thiobarbituric acid (TBA) content. Simultaneous treatment of rats with alloxan and ZnCl{sub 2} blunted the sustained increment in plasma glucose induced by alloxan. The combined administration of alloxan and zinc reversed the depleting effect on retinal and hepatic GSH in alloxan-treated rats and reduced the elevations in TBA content of both retinas and livers. At variance with many other antioxidants the current results clearly indicate the beneficial effects of Zn in both controlling hyperglycemia and the protection of the retina against oxidative stress in diabetes which may help set a new direction toward the development of effective treatments of DR.

  7. Zinc and Diarrheal Disease - Control Status and Future Perspectives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diarrhea is a public health problem world-wide. Although elimination of exposure to infectious pathogens is the primary means to combat this debilitating malady, use of oral zinc supplementation has been used to prevent and treat acute diarrhea in children. Evidence suggests that supplemental zinc...

  8. COPPER AND ZINC DEFICIENCIES TREATMENT BY INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS IN SHEEP

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    COPPER AND ZINC DEFICIENCIES TREATMENT BY INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS IN SHEEP M. LAMAND Claudine LAB in the injection site. Copper per os dosing is efficient for treating deficient animals (Lamand et al., 1969 consuming. Therefore we tried to per- fect a copper and zinc deficiency treatment allowing the injection

  9. Zinc Salts Inactivate Clinical Isolates of Herpes Simplex Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAX ARENS; SHARON TRAVIS

    2000-01-01

    Using a standard plaque assay and clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus (HSV), we have tested the ability of zinc salts to inactivate HSV. Virus was treated by incubation at 37°C with zinc salts in morpholinepropane- sulfonic acid-buffered culture medium and was then diluted and plated onto CV-1 cells for detection and quantitation of remaining infectious virus. Of 10 randomly

  10. Purification and characterization of a low molecular weight zinc binding protein from human placenta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Honey; G. I. Dhall; R. Nath

    1994-01-01

    A low molecular weight, native zinc binding, cytosolic protein (LMZP) has been isolated, purified and characterized from human normal term placenta. Gel filtration of heat treated placental cytosol after sequential acetone precipitation (80% ppt) revealed a major zinc binding protein in the range of low molecular weight. This partially purified zinc binding fraction was further fractionated on DEAE-Sephadex A-25. The

  11. Anthraquinone repellent to reduce take of non-target birds from zinc phosphide rodenticide applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott J. Werner; Shelagh K. Tupper; Susan E. Pettit; James C. Carlson; George M. Linz

    We evaluated anthraquinone as an avian repellent to reduce take of non-target birds from zinc phosphide rodenticide applications. We observed zero mortalities and no overt signs of zinc phosphide toxicosis among 20 Canada geese (Branta canadensis), 24 horned larks (Eremophila alpestris), and 47 ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) offered baits treated with 1% or 2% anthraquinone and 2% zinc phosphide (target

  12. Structural stability in the 4-zinc human insulin hexamer.

    PubMed

    Smith, G D; Swenson, D C; Dodson, E J; Dodson, G G; Reynolds, C D

    1984-11-01

    X-ray studies on human insulins prepared by semisynthetic and biosynthetic methods have recently been undertaken. Human insulin differs from porcine insulin only at the COOH terminus of the B-chain. The present study reports the crystal structure of 4-zinc human insulin, which is used clinically as a slow-acting preparation. The structure has been refined, using 1.85-A resolution data, to a residual of 0.173. The unit cell is rhombohedral, space group R3, with hexagonal cell constants a = 80.953 and c = 37.636 A, and it is nearly isomorphous with that of 4-zinc porcine insulin. As a result of a conformational change of the first eight residues of the B-chain of molecule 1 from an extended conformation observed in the 2-zinc structure to an alpha-helical one, the coordination around one of the zinc ions on the 3-fold axis has changed, an additional zinc ion in a general position is bound by the hexamer, and additional hydrogen-bonded interactions help stabilize dimer and hexamer formation. Unlike the surface of the 2-zinc insulin hexamer, which possesses a shallow depression containing a zinc ion and its coordinating water molecules, the 4-zinc human insulin hexamer contains a zinc and chloride ion at the bottom of an 8-A tunnel produced by three parallel alpha-helices. These alpha-helices shield the zinc ion from the environment, decreasing the rate of dissociation of the hexamer, and provide an explanation for the slow-acting aspect of the 4-zinc crystalline form. PMID:6390430

  13. Structural stability in the 4-zinc human insulin hexamer.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G D; Swenson, D C; Dodson, E J; Dodson, G G; Reynolds, C D

    1984-01-01

    X-ray studies on human insulins prepared by semisynthetic and biosynthetic methods have recently been undertaken. Human insulin differs from porcine insulin only at the COOH terminus of the B-chain. The present study reports the crystal structure of 4-zinc human insulin, which is used clinically as a slow-acting preparation. The structure has been refined, using 1.85-A resolution data, to a residual of 0.173. The unit cell is rhombohedral, space group R3, with hexagonal cell constants a = 80.953 and c = 37.636 A, and it is nearly isomorphous with that of 4-zinc porcine insulin. As a result of a conformational change of the first eight residues of the B-chain of molecule 1 from an extended conformation observed in the 2-zinc structure to an alpha-helical one, the coordination around one of the zinc ions on the 3-fold axis has changed, an additional zinc ion in a general position is bound by the hexamer, and additional hydrogen-bonded interactions help stabilize dimer and hexamer formation. Unlike the surface of the 2-zinc insulin hexamer, which possesses a shallow depression containing a zinc ion and its coordinating water molecules, the 4-zinc human insulin hexamer contains a zinc and chloride ion at the bottom of an 8-A tunnel produced by three parallel alpha-helices. These alpha-helices shield the zinc ion from the environment, decreasing the rate of dissociation of the hexamer, and provide an explanation for the slow-acting aspect of the 4-zinc crystalline form. PMID:6390430

  14. Xenopus laevis oocyte maturation is affected by metal chlorides.

    PubMed

    Marin, Matthieu; Slaby, Sylvain; Marchand, Guillaume; Demuynck, Sylvain; Friscourt, Noémie; Gelaude, Armance; Lemière, Sébastien; Bodart, Jean-François

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have been conducted using Xenopus laevis germ cells as oocytes, though these cells offer many advantages allowing both electrophysiological studies and morphological examination. Our aim was to investigate the effects of metal (cadmium, lead, cobalt and zinc) exposures using cell biology approaches. First, cell survival was evaluated with both phenotypical and electrophysiological approaches. Secondly, the effect of metals on oocyte maturation was assessed with morphological observations and electrophysiological recordings. From survival experiments, our results showed that metal chlorides did not affect cell morphology but strongly depolarized X. laevis oocyte resting potential. In addition, cadmium chloride was able to inhibit progesterone-induced oocyte maturation. By contrast, zinc, but also to a lesser extent cadmium, cobalt and lead, were able to enhance spontaneous oocyte maturation in the absence of progesterone stimulation. Finally, electrophysiological recordings revealed that some metal chlorides (lead, cadmium) exposures could disturb calcium signaling in X. laevis oocyte by modifying calcium-activated chloride currents. Our results demonstrated the high sensitivity of X. laevis oocytes toward exogenous metals such as lead and cadmium. In addition, the cellular events recorded might have a predictive value of effects occurring later on the ability of oocytes to be fertilized. Together, these results suggest a potential use of this cellular lab model as a tool for ecotoxicological assessment of contaminated fresh waters. PMID:25957907

  15. Zinc in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... reduce your risk of becoming sick with the common cold. Starting to take zinc supplements within 24 hours ... 2000. Singh M, Das RR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Feb 16;2: ...

  16. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of three zinc salts: Zinc pantothenate, zinc sulfate and zinc orotate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Andermann; M. Dietz

    1982-01-01

    Summary  In this study the authors compared the pharmacokinetics of three zinc salts after parenteral and oral administration to rabbits:\\u000a zinc sulfate, a soluble mineral salt; zinc pantothenate, a soluble organic salt; and zinc orotate, an insoluble organic salt.\\u000a The results obtained with the two soluble salts were not significantly different (p<0.05). Therefore they appear to be bioequivalent. The plasma concentration

  17. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

  18. Bioavailability of zinc in

    E-print Network

    Machel, Hans

    Bioavailability of zinc in marine systems through time Two geomicrobiologists in our was delayed until the Neoproterozoic (between 1000 and 542 Ma) when zinc became readily available, Australia, Asia and Europe and found consistently high levels of seawater zinc, on the same order

  19. ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METHOD...

  20. Hydrometallurgical extraction of zinc from zinc ferrites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Leclerc; Eric Meux; Jean-Marie Lecuire

    2003-01-01

    The production of steel in electric arc furnaces (EAF) generates a by-product called EAF dusts. Due to the presence of significant amounts of leachable compounds of zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel, EAF dusts are classified as hazardous wastes. The quantity of EAF dust generated per year around the world represents a possible recovery of about 900 t of zinc.

  1. [Effect of methylrosanilinium chloride to MRSA nasal carriers].

    PubMed

    Ogino, J; Murakami, Y; Yamada, T

    1992-03-01

    Since the end of 1987, we have noticed an increasing incidence of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among the inpatients of Yamanashi Medical College Hospital. MRSA strains were identified in 70-80 percent of the specimens obtained from patients with Staphylococcus aureus. From 1988 we performed yearly bacteriological examinations of the nares of medical personnel at Yamanashi Medical College Hospital. We treated nasal carriers with OFLX drop lotion or Povidone-iodine applied to the nares. In 1991 we treated eight nasal carriers, who had been unsuccessfully treated with Povidone-iodine, with 0.01% Methylrosanilinium Chloride ointment which was applied to the nares once a day for two weeks. A post-bacteriological examination again revealed that MRSA vanished from the nares of six nasal carriers. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Methylrosanilinium Chloride was determined by the agar plate dilution method. The 100% MICs of MSSA were 1.0 microgram/ml and of MRSA were 1.0 microgram/ml by Methylrosanilinium Chloride. Moreover we examined the MICs of Methylrosanilinium Chloride against MRSA under the existing 5% Albumin, and consequently the 100% MICs were 4.0 micrograms/ml. Therefore a 0.01% Methylrosanilinium Chloride has sufficient efficacy against MRSA. The reaction of the skin and nasal mucosa to Methylrosanilinium Chloride was examined by using three groups of guinea pigs. 0.1% and 0.01% Methylrosanilinium Chloride ointment and hydrophylic poloid were applied to the nares and skin once a day for two weeks. Post-observation with an opticmicroscope revealed no significant findings. Methylrosanilinium Chloride shows good anti-Staphylococcus aureus ability. Further investigation is needed to determine if Methylrosanilinium Chloride has additional clinical application. PMID:1624827

  2. Investigation of factors influencing chloride extraction efficiency during electrochemical chloride extraction from reinforcing concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Stephen R.

    2005-11-01

    Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) is an accelerated bridge restoration method similar to cathodic protection, but operates at higher current densities and utilizes a temporary installation. Both techniques prolong the life of a bridge by reducing the corrosion rate of the reinforcing bar when properly applied. ECE achieves this by moving chlorides away from the reinforcement and out of the concrete while simultaneously increasing the alkalinity of the electrolyte near the reinforcing steel. Despite the proven success, significant use of ECE has not resulted in part due to an incomplete understanding in the following areas: (1) An estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment when the treated member is again subjected to chlorides; (2) The cause of the decrease in current flow and, therefore, chloride removal rate during treatment; (3) Influence of water-to-cement (w/c) ratio and cover depth on the time required for treatment. This dissertation covers the research that is connected to the last two areas listed above. To begin examining these issues, plain carbon steel reinforcing bars (rebar) were embedded in portland cement concrete slabs of varying water-to-cement (w/c) ratios and cover depths, and then exposed to chlorides. A fraction of these slabs had sodium chloride added as an admixture, with all of the slabs subjected to cyclical ponding with a saturated solution of sodium chloride. ECE was then used to remove the chlorides from these slabs while making electrical measurements in the different layers between the rebar (cathode) and the titanium mat (anode) to follow the progress of the ECE process. During this study, it was revealed that the resistance of the outer concrete surface layer increases during ECE, inevitably restricting current flow, while the resistance of the underlying concrete decreases or remains constant. During ECE treatment, a white residue formed on the surface of the concrete. Analyses of the residue revealed that it contains calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, and other yet unidentified minor components when calcium hydroxide was used as the electrolyte. The surface film can be completely removed mechanically or to some extent inhibited chemically, with both of these processes resulting in an increase in the efficiency of the electrochemical chloride extraction process. In addition, an obvious relationship between the cover depth, water-to-cement ratio, and chloride extraction efficiency does not exist, however, cover depth does influence the current density. The final phase of this study will be presented in a VTRC/FHWA final report. This report will include the results that are presented in this dissertation, in addition to the results from the ongoing research. It will also include an estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment.

  3. Recent trends and current practices for secondary processing of zinc and lead. Part II: zinc recovery from secondary sources.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Kamala Kanta; Agrawal, Archana; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2004-08-01

    Almost all metallurgical processes are associated with the generation of wastes and residues that may be hazardous or non-hazardous in nature depending upon the criteria specified by institutions such as the US Environment Protection Agency, etc. Wastes containing heavy and toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, copper, mercury, zinc, etc., that are present beyond permissible limits deemed to be treated or disposed of, and non-hazardous wastes can be utilized for metal recovery or safe disposal. Zinc is in growing demand all over the world. In India, a major amount of zinc is imported and therefore processing of zinc secondaries will assist in satisfying the gap between demand and supply to some extent. This report mainly focuses on the current practices and recent trends on the secondary processing of zinc. Attempts made by various laboratories to develop ecofriendly processes for the recovery of zinc from secondary raw materials are also described and discussed. PMID:15462332

  4. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    SciTech Connect

    Slaathaug, E.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

  5. Selenium supplementation modulates zinc levels and antioxidant values in blood and tissues of diabetic rats fed zinc-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Fatmi, Wided; Kechrid, Zine; Naz?ro?lu, Mustafa; Flores-Arce, Manuel

    2013-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated to a reduction of antioxidant defenses that leads to oxidative stress and complications in diabetic individuals. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of selenium on blood biochemical parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities, and tissue zinc levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats fed a zinc-deficient diet. The rats were divided into two groups; the first group was fed a zinc-sufficient diet, while the second group was fed a zinc-deficient diet. Half of each group was treated orally with 0.5 mg/kg sodium selenite. Tissue and blood samples were taken from all animals after 28 days of treatment. At the end of the experiment, the body weight gain and food intake of the zinc-deficient diabetic animals were lower than that of zinc-adequate diabetic animals. Inadequate dietary zinc intake increased glucose, lipids, triglycerides, urea, and liver lipid peroxidation levels. In contrast, serum protein, reduced glutathione, plasma zinc and tissue levels were decreased. A zinc-deficient diet led also to an increase in serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, and liver glutathione-S-transferase and to a decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase activity and glutathione peroxidase. Selenium treatment ameliorated all the values approximately to their normal levels. In conclusion, selenium supplementation presumably acting as an antioxidant led to an improvement of insulin activity, significantly reducing the severity of zinc deficiency in diabetes. PMID:23354544

  6. Thermal treatment for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries.

    PubMed

    Belardi, G; Lavecchia, R; Medici, F; Piga, L

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this paper is the recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn, after preliminary physical treatment followed by removal of mercury. Separation of the metals has been carried out on the basis of their different boiling points, being 357°C and 906°C the boiling point of mercury and zinc and 1564°C the melting point of Mn(2)O(3). Characterization by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA and X-ray powder diffraction of the mixture has been carried out after comminution sieving and shaking table treatment to remove the anodic collectors and most of chlorides contained in the mixture. The mixture has been roasted at various temperatures and resident times in a flow of air to set the best conditions to remove mercury that were 400°C and 10 min. After that, the flow of air has been turned into a nitrogen one (inert atmosphere) and the temperatures raised, thus permitting the zinc oxide to be reduced to metallic zinc by the carbon present in the original mixture and recovered after volatilization as a high grade concentrate, while manganese was left in the residue. The recovery and the grade of the two metals, at 1000°C and 30 min residence time, were 84% and 100% for zinc and 85% and 63% for manganese, respectively. The recovery of zinc increased to 99% with a grade of 97% at 1200°C and 30 min residence time, while the recovery and grade of manganese were 86% and 87%, respectively, at that temperature. Moreover, the chlorinated compounds that could form by the combustion of the plastics contained in the spent batteries, are destroyed at the temperature required by the process. PMID:22677015

  7. Appearance of infused zinc ( sup 70 Zn) and oral zinc ( sup 68 Zn) in breast milk

    SciTech Connect

    Moser-Veillon, P.B.; Patterson, K.Y.; Mangels, A.R.; Wallace, G.F.; Veillon, C. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States) Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States) Perkin-Elmer Corp., Rockville, MD (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to monitor the appearance of a simultaneous intravenous (IV) dose and oral dose of stable isotopes, {sup 70}Zn and {sup 68}Zn, respectively, in breast milk. Three lactating subjects, 2-3 months postpartum were fed a controlled diet which contained an average of 7.8 mg Zn/day. Subjects collected milk samples at the beginning of each feeding for a 24 hour period on the fifth day of the controlled diet. On day 7 of the controlled diet, a 160 ug IV dose of {sup 70}Zn as zinc chloride in saline was infused into each subject. The subjects also received 2 mg of {sup 68 }Zn as zinc chloride in 50 ml of orange juice. Following the stable isotope doses, subjects collected milk samples at the beginning of each feeding for 48 hours, weighing their infants before and after each feeding. The amount of natural Zn, {sup 70}Zn and {sup 68}Zn tracers in the milk was measured by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The cumulative {sup 70}Zn excretion into breast milk over 48 hours was approximately 1% of the infused dose and the cumulative {sup 68}Zn excretion was smaller still. Thus, only a small fraction of a physiological IV or oral dose of zinc comes out in the milk. The small fraction of {sup 70}Zn and {sup 68}Zn appearing in the milk suggests that circulating zinc and dietary zinc are not rapidly or directly incorporated into breast milk in appreciable amounts.

  8. Zinc Extraction from Zinc Plants Residue Using Selective Alkaline Leaching and Electrowinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtari, Pedram; Pourghahramani, Parviz

    2015-03-01

    Annually, a great amount of zinc plants residue is produced in Iran. One of them is hot filter cake (known as HFC) which can be used as a secondary resource of zinc, cobalt and manganese. Unfortunately, despite its heavy metal content, the HFC is not treated. For the first time, zinc was selectively leached from HFC employing alkaline leaching. Secondly, leaching was optimized to achieve maximum recovery using this method. Effects of factors like NaOH concentration (C = 3, 5, 7 and 9 M), temperature (T = 50, 70, 90 and 105 °C), solid/liquid ratio (weight/volume, S/L = 1/10 and 1/5 W/V) and stirring speed (R = 500 and 800 rpm) were studied on HFC leaching. L16 orthogonal array (OA, two factors in four levels and two factors in two levels) was applied to determine the optimum condition and the most significant factor affecting the overall zinc extraction. As a result, maximum zinc extraction was 83.4 %. Afterwards, a rough test was conducted for zinc electrowinning from alkaline solution according to the common condition available in literature by which pure zinc powder (99.96 %) was successfully obtained.

  9. Process for producing zeolite adsorbent and process for treating radioactive liquid waste with the zeolite adsorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Motojima, K.; Kawamura, F.

    1984-05-15

    Zeolite is contacted with an aqueous solution containing at least one of copper, nickel, cobalt, manganese and zinc salts, preferably copper and nickel salts, particularly preferably copper salt, in such a form as sulfate, nitrate, or chloride, thereby adsorbing the metal on the zeolite in its pores by ion exchange, then the zeolite is treated with a water-soluble ferrocyanide compound, for example, potassium ferrocyanide, thereby forming metal ferrocyanide on the zeolite in its pores. Then, the zeolite is subjected to ageing treatment, thereby producing a zeolite adsorbent impregnated with metal ferrocyanide in the pores of zeolite. The adsorbent can selectively recover cesium with a high percent cesium removal from a radioactive liquid waste containing at least radioactive cesium, for example, a radioactive liquid waste containing cesium and such coexisting ions as sodium, magnesium, calcium and carbonate ions at the same time at a high concentration. The zeolite adsorbent has a stable adsorbability for a prolonged time.

  10. Phosphorescent Sensor for Biological Mobile Zinc

    PubMed Central

    You, Youngmin; Lee, Sumin; Kim, Taehee; Ohkubo, Kei; Chae, Weon-Sik; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Jhon, Gil-Ja; Nam, Wonwoo; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    A new phosphorescent zinc sensor (ZIrF) was constructed based on an Ir(III) complex bearing two 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine (dfppy) cyclometalating ligands and a neutral 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligand. A zinc-specific di(2-picolyl)amino (DPA) receptor was introduced at the 4-position of the phen ligand via a methylene linker. The cationic Ir(III) complex exhibited dual phosphorescence bands in CH3CN solutions originating from blue and yellow emission of the dfppy and phen ligands, respectively. Zinc coordination selectively enhanced the latter, affording a phosphorescence ratiometric response. Electrochemical techniques, quantum chemical calculations, and steady-state and femtosecond spectroscopy were employed to establish a photophysical mechanism for this phosphorescence response. The studies revealed that zinc coordination perturbs nonemissive processes of photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) and intraligand charge transfer (ILCT) transition occurring between DPA and phen. ZIrF can detect zinc ions in a reversible and selective manner in buffered solution (pH 7.0, 25 mM PIPES) with Kd = 11 nM and pKa = 4.16. Enhanced signal-to-noise ratios were achieved by time-gated acquisition of long-lived phosphorescence signals. The sensor was applied to image biological free zinc ions in live A549 cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy. A fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope (FLIM) detected an increase in photoluminescence lifetime for zinc-treated A549 cells as compared to controls. ZIrF is the first successful phosphorescent sensor that detects zinc ions in biological samples. PMID:22023085

  11. Molecular Structure of Thionyl chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-10-01

    Thionyl chloride is a slightly yellowish liquid with an intense odor and low viscosity. It reacts with lithium to produce lithium chloride and is a good solvent for most organic compounds. Other uses of thionyl chloride include as an intermediate for the production of pharmaceutically active ingredients, as an electrolyte in lithium batteries, and in crop protection.

  12. Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

  13. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  14. Intracellular Distribution of Zinc and Zinc65 in Calves Receiving High but Nontoxic Amounts of Zinc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Kincaid; W. J. Miller; R. P. Gentry; M. W. Neathery; D. L. Hampton

    1976-01-01

    The zinc homeostatic control break- down in cattle fed a high but nontoxic amount of zinc was investigated. Liver copper was decreased by the 600 ppm added dietary zinc indicating altered cop- per metabolism. However, duodenal copper, liver and duodenal iron and man- ganese were not affected. Zinc-65 in blood was reduced 90% by the high dietary zinc 48 h

  15. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of three zinc salts: zinc pantothenate, zinc sulfate and zinc orotate.

    PubMed

    Andermann, G; Dietz, M

    1982-01-01

    In this study the authors compared the pharmacokinetics of three zinc salts after parenteral and oral administration to rabbits: zinc sulfate, a soluble mineral salt; zinc pantothenate, a soluble organic salt; and zinc orotate, an insoluble organic salt. The results obtained with the two soluble salts were not significantly different (p less than 0.05). Therefore they appear to be bioequivalent. The plasma concentration curve for zinc orotate shows a faster distribution (alpha) and elimination phase (beta) after parenteral administration, and a slower absorption phase (Ka) after oral administration, when compared with that of the other two salts. It was shown that the dissolution behaviour of these zinc salts in water does not correlate with the parameters found in vivo. PMID:7173277

  16. Cohesion and polymorphism in solid rubidium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyper, N. C.; Kirkland, A. I.; Harding, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    The cohesive energetics of three phases of solid cubic rubidium chloride, the zinc blende structured 4:4 phase, the 6:6 sodium chloride polymorph and the 8:8 phase with the cesium chloride structure, are computed using a non-empirical fully ionic model. The rearrangement energies needed to convert free anions to their optimal states in-crystal, two-body inter-ionic potentials, plus the further contributions arising from electron correlation, are reported. The 'optimal' anion-anion potentials, computed by using at each geometry the optimal wavefunction, are compared with the 'frozen' potential using the same wavefunction at all geometries. The lattice energy of the 4:4 structure is predicted to be some 40 kJ mol-1 smaller than that of either the 6:6 or the 8:8 phases. Introduction of the Axilrod-Teller triple dipole dispersion interactions and the vibrational zero point energy predicts the 8:8 phase to lie 3.2 kJ mol-1 lower in energy than the 6:6 structure. This is both consistent with radius ratio arguments and supported by two separate experiments that strongly suggest that the 8:8 phase is favoured over the 6:6 structure at low temperatures even though the latter is more stable at ambient temperatures. A shell model description is presented for the ion-induced dipole interactions that arise both in small clusters and in crystals encapsulated in nanotubes. The elastic constants and entropy at 300 K predicted for the 6:6 phase from this model by using the GULP program agree well with experiment. A smaller entropy is predicted for the 8:8 structure.

  17. Zinc in Entamoeba invadens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. S.; Sattilaro, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and dithizone staining of trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba invadens demonstrate that these cells have a high concentration of zinc (approximately one picogram per cell or 1% of their dry weight). In the cysts of this organism, the zinc is confined to the chromatoid bodies, which previous work has shown to contain crystals of ribosomes. The chemical state and function of this zinc are unknown.

  18. Chloride channels as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (?-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery. PMID:19153558

  19. Zinc: An Essential Micronutrient

    PubMed Central

    SAPER, ROBERT B.; RASH, REBECCA

    2009-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient for human metabolism that catalyzes more than 100 enzymes, facilitates protein folding, and helps regulate gene expression. Patients with malnutrition, alcoholism, inflammatory bowel disease, and malabsorption syndromes are at an increased risk of zinc deficiency. Symptoms of zinc deficiency are nonspecific, including growth retardation, diarrhea, alopecia, glossitis, nail dystrophy, decreased immunity, and hypogonadism in males. In developing countries, zinc supplementation may be effective for the prevention of upper respiratory infection and diarrhea, and as an adjunct treatment for diarrhea in malnourished children. Zinc in combination with antioxidants may be modestly effective in slowing the progression of intermediate and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Zinc is an effective treatment for Wilson disease. Current data do not support zinc supplementation as effective for upper respiratory infection, wound healing, or human immunodeficiency virus. Zinc is well tolerated at recommended dosages. Adverse effects of long-term high-dose zinc use include suppressed immunity, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, anemia, copper deficiency, and possible genitourinary complications. PMID:20141096

  20. Zinc oxide hexagram whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. X.; Sun, X. W.; Dong, Z. L.; Zhu, G. P.; Cui, Y. P.

    2006-02-01

    Through vapor-phase transport method, zinc oxide hexagram whiskers with uniform size and morphology were fabricated by heating a mixture source of zinc oxide, indium oxide, and graphite powders in air. Each whisker presented a hexagonal disk core closed by six equivalent surfaces of {101¯0} and was surrounded by side nanorods grown along the diagonal of the core disk in the 6-symmetric directions of ±[112¯0], ±[21¯1¯0], and ±[12¯10]. Based on the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, the growth process of the zinc oxide hexagrams were discussed by considering the thermal dynamic properties of zinc oxide and indium oxide.

  1. Chloride and Salinity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-07-15

    This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  2. Precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, S.A.; Miller, W.E.; Willit, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Precipitation of actinides, lanthanides, and fission products as nitrides from molten chloride melts is being investigated for use as a final cleanup step in treating radioactive salt wastes generated by electrometallurgical processing of spent nuclear fuel. The radioactive components (eg, fission products) need to be removed to reduce the volume of high-level waste that requires disposal. To extract the fission products from the salt, a nitride precipitation process is being developed. The salt waste is first contacted with a molten metal; after equilibrium is reached, a nitride is added to the metal phase. The insoluble nitrides can be recovered and converted to a borosilicate glass after air oxidation. For a bench-scale experimental setup, a crucible was designed to contact the salt and metal phases. Solubility tests were performed with candidate nitrides and metal nitrides for which there are no solubility data. Experiments were performed to assess feasibility of precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts.

  3. A sensitive fluorescence technique using dansyl chloride to assess hair damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUKHVINDER S. SANDHU; CLARENCE R. ROBBINS

    1989-01-01

    A simple and sensitive procedure amenable to visual or spectrofluorometric quantitation has been developed to detect certain types of hair damage. We have found that hair treated with the fluorescent dye 1-dimeth- ylamino-naphthalene-5-sulfonyl chloride (dansyl chloride) acquires fluorescence under ultraviolet light. The fluorescence intensity is a function of the amount of dansyl chloride binding to the hair and can be

  4. Diagnostic study of the roughness surface effect of zirconium on the third-order nonlinear-optical properties of thin films based on zinc oxide nanomaterials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Bahedi; M. Addou; M. El Jouad; Z. Sofiani; M. Alaoui Lamrani; T. El Habbani; N. Fellahi; S. Bayoud; L. Dghoughi; B. Sahraoui; Z. Essaïdi

    2009-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and zirconium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Zr) thin films were deposited by reactive chemical pulverization spray pyrolysis technique on heated glass substrates at 500°C using zinc and zirconium chlorides as precursors. Effects of zirconium doping agent and surface roughness on the nonlinear optical properties were investigated in detail using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and third harmonic generation (THG)

  5. Effect of Zinc, Zinc Oxide and Zinc Borate on the Flammability of Polycarbonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramazan Benrashid; Gordon L. Nelson; Donald J. Ferm; Leland W. Chew

    1995-01-01

    Polycarbonate was blended with zinc, zinc borate (2ZnO·3B2O 3·3.5H2O) and zinc oxide. Blends made of zinc\\/polycarbonate and especially zinc borate\\/polycarbonate show major improvement in oxygen index values. Ohio State University (OSU) heat release studies show reduction in heat release only for zinc borate\\/polycarbonate blends compared to virgin polycarbonate. No improvement in smoke suppression was observed from NBS Smoke Chamber studies

  6. Thermal treatment for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Belardi, G. [Institute for Environmental Engineering and Geosciences (CNR) Area della Ricerca CNR, via Salaria km 29,300, Monterotondo, 00016 Rome (Italy); Lavecchia, R.; Medici, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, via Eudossiana 84, 00184 Rome (Italy); Piga, L., E-mail: luigi.piga@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, via Eudossiana 84, 00184 Rome (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We separated Zn from Mn in zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries after removal of Hg. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost total removal of Hg is achieved at low temperature in air. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen atmosphere is needed to reduce zinc and to permit its volatilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high grade Zn concentrate was obtained with a high recovery at 1000-1200 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grade of Mn in the residue was enhanced with complete recovery. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is the recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn, after preliminary physical treatment followed by removal of mercury. Separation of the metals has been carried out on the basis of their different boiling points, being 357 Degree-Sign C and 906 Degree-Sign C the boiling point of mercury and zinc and 1564 Degree-Sign C the melting point of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Characterization by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA and X-ray powder diffraction of the mixture has been carried out after comminution sieving and shaking table treatment to remove the anodic collectors and most of chlorides contained in the mixture. The mixture has been roasted at various temperatures and resident times in a flow of air to set the best conditions to remove mercury that were 400 Degree-Sign C and 10 min. After that, the flow of air has been turned into a nitrogen one (inert atmosphere) and the temperatures raised, thus permitting the zinc oxide to be reduced to metallic zinc by the carbon present in the original mixture and recovered after volatilization as a high grade concentrate, while manganese was left in the residue. The recovery and the grade of the two metals, at 1000 Degree-Sign C and 30 min residence time, were 84% and 100% for zinc and 85% and 63% for manganese, respectively. The recovery of zinc increased to 99% with a grade of 97% at 1200 Degree-Sign C and 30 min residence time, while the recovery and grade of manganese were 86% and 87%, respectively, at that temperature. Moreover, the chlorinated compounds that could form by the combustion of the plastics contained in the spent batteries, are destroyed at the temperature required by the process.

  7. Zinc oxide hexagram whiskers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. X. Xu; X. W. Sun; Z. L. Dong; G. P. Zhu; Y. P. Cui

    2006-01-01

    Through vapor-phase transport method, zinc oxide hexagram whiskers with uniform size and morphology were fabricated by heating a mixture source of zinc oxide, indium oxide, and graphite powders in air. Each whisker presented a hexagonal disk core closed by six equivalent surfaces of {1010} and was surrounded by side nanorods grown along the diagonal of the core disk in the

  8. Mechanism of zinc homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Oberleas, D

    1996-06-01

    Homeostatic equilibrium of a nutrient is characteristic of a healthy body. For zinc, phytate has been shown to alter that equilibrium in several monogastric species including man. The pancreas is an important organ in the maintenance of zinc homeostasis. Elevated calcium has been shown to be a synergistic agent in affecting the rate of onset and rate of homeostatic change. In the studies described, rats were depleted of zinc to differing extents, zinc was injected intraperitoneally to label the endogenous zinc pool. Phytate- and nonphytate-containing protein diets were fed and feces were collected. Feces were counted for radioactivity. The ratios of radioactivity (phytate:nonphytate) indicated that the major effect of phytate was on the endogenous secreted pool. Evidence is included to indicate that two, pancreatic labile pools of zinc are secreted, one is stable complexes not affected by phytate and two, a labile pool of zinc readily available for complexation. A mathematical model is included that fits all nutritional models for zinc homeostasis. PMID:8676101

  9. Cleavage in zinc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Kamdar

    1971-01-01

    It is known that cleavage cracks initiate and propagate in the same (0001) plane in zinc crystals. This suggested that if\\u000a conditions are ideal for brittle fracture then ?I, the energy to iniate a cleavage crack in the (0001) plane in zinc should be the same as ?p that to propagate the crack in the same plane. If fracture is

  10. Recovery of zinc from Cd–Ni zinc plant residues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Sadegh Safarzadeh; Davood Moradkhani; Pedram Ashtari

    2009-01-01

    As the scope of the present work, zinc which is engaged in Cd–Ni zinc plant residues has been successfully recovered. While zinc contained in Cd–Ni filtercake has a considerable economic value, cadmium present in the material is one of the major sources of cadmium contamination of the environment. A novel hydrometallurgical technique was utilized for the separation of zinc from

  11. Novel zinc alginate hydrogels prepared by internal setting method with intrinsic antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Straccia, Maria Cristina; d'Ayala, Giovanna Gomez; Romano, Ida; Laurienzo, Paola

    2015-07-10

    In this paper, a controlled gelation of alginate was performed for the first time using ZnCO3 and GDL. Uniform and transparent gels were obtained and investigated as potential wound dressings. Homogeneity, water content, swelling capability, water evaporation rate, stability in normal saline solution, mechanical properties and antibacterial activity were assessed as a function of zinc concentration. Gelation rate increased at increasing zinc content, while a decrease in water uptake and an improvement of stability were found. Release of zinc in physiological environments showed that concentration of zinc released in solution lies below the cytotoxicity level. Hydrogels showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. The hydrogel with highest zinc content was stabilized with calcium by immersion in a calcium chloride solution. The resulting hydrogel preserved homogeneity and antibacterial activity. Furthermore, it showed even an improvement of stability and mechanical properties, which makes it suitable as long-lasting wound dressing. PMID:25857965

  12. Zinc enrichment of whole potato tuber by vacuum impregnation.

    PubMed

    Erihemu; Hironaka, Kazunori; Koaze, Hiroshi; Oda, Yuji; Shimada, Kenichiro

    2015-04-01

    Zinc is a nutritionally essential truce element, and thus zinc deficiency (ZD) severely affects human health. More than 25% of the world's population is at risk of ZD. This study was initiated to examine the use of the vacuum impregnation (VI) technique for enriching zinc content of whole potatoes; the effect of vacuum time, restoration time, steam-cooking and storage at 4 °C on the zinc content of VI whole potatoes was evaluated. Whole potato tubers were immersed in a 9 g/100 g zinc (zinc gluconate) solution. Vacuum pressure of 1,000 Pa was applied for 0-120 min, and atmospheric pressure restoration for 0-4 h. Experimental results showed that the zinc content of VI potatoes increased with vacuum and restoration time. Moreover, VI-cooked unpeeled or peeled potatoes had 63-94 times and 47-75 times higher zinc contents than un-VI-cooked unpeeled or peeled potatoes, respectively. The world daily potato consumption (86 g) of the VI-cooked unpeeled and peeled potatoes provided adult men with 130-148% and 100-135% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of zinc, respectively. Also, the daily potato consumption of the unpeeled and peeled potatoes supplied adult women with 178-203% and 137-185% of the RDA level, respectively. In addition, the VI potatoes had 40 times higher zinc contents through 30 days of storage at 4 °C, compared with un-VI-treated potatoes. This study indicated that VI treatment of whole potatoes was useful for enriching the zinc content. PMID:25829619

  13. Intracellular distribution of zinc and zinc-65 in calves receiving high but nontoxic amounts of zinc.

    PubMed

    Kincaid, R L; Miller, W J; Gentry, R P; Neathery, M W; Hampton, D L

    1976-03-01

    The zinc homeostatic control breakdown in cattle fed a high but nontoxic amount of zinc was investigated. Liver copper was decreased by the 600 ppm added dietary zinc indicating altered copper metabolism. However, duodenal copper, liver and duodenal iron and manganese were not affected. Zinc-65 in blood was reduced 90% by the high dietary zinc 48 h following oral zinc-65 dosing. The 600 ppm supplemental zinc increased zinc by 500% in liver, 20 times in pancreas and kidney, and 100% in the duodenum. The increased liver and duodenal zinc was confined largely to the soluble cell fraction. This concentrating of excess tissue zinc in the soluble fraction may be an adaptive mechanism which detoxifies large quantities of zinc and prevents disruption of normal cellular activity. PMID:1262572

  14. Molecular Structure of Ferric chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-27

    Ferric chloride is a corrosive chemical, thus, it is used to deodorize sewage and industrial waste by partially reducing to ferrous chloride. It is also employed as an engraving reagent on metal surfaces. Other applications include its use as a flocculating agent in water treatment. Ferric chloride is a hazardous chemical that irritates the skin and eyes and is toxic if ingested, however it can be used as a reagent in pharmaceutical preparations.

  15. Chloride channels as drug targets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis J. V. Galietta; Alan S. Verkman

    2008-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human

  16. The Pharmacology of the Insulinomimetic Effect of Zinc Complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiromu Sakurai; Yusuke Adachi

    2005-01-01

    In developing new insulinomimetic zinc(II) complexes with different coordination structures and with a blood glucose-lowering effect to treat type 2 diabetic animals, we found a potent bis(maltolato)zinc(ll) complex, Zn(mal)2. Using the complex as the leading compound, we examined the in vitro and in vivo structure-activity relationships of Zn(mal)2 and its related complexes in respect to the inhibition of free fatty

  17. Effect of polaprezinc on taste disorders in zinc-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Hiroki; Yoshinaga, Koji; Eta, Runa; Emori, Yutaka; Kawasaki, Daisuke; Iino, Yuka; Sawada, Miwa; Kuroda, Hiroyuki; Takei, Mineo

    2006-01-01

    The effect of polaprezinc, a chelate compound consisting of zinc ion and L-carnosine, on abnormalities of taste sensation induced by feeding a zinc-deficient diet to rats was examined by using the two-bottle preference test (quinine hydrochloride as a bitter taste and sodium chloride as a salty taste). Rats were fed either a zinc-deficient or a zinc-sufficient diet. The zinc-deficient diet increased the preference for both taste solutions, while polaprezinc (at doses of 3 and 10 mg/kg) restored the altered taste preferences. We also evaluated the proliferation of taste bud cells using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). The BrdU incorporation into taste bud cells was significantly reduced in rats fed a zinc-deficient diet compared with rats fed a zinc-sufficient diet (from 50.8% to 45.0%, p<0.05) and this reduction was reversed by polaprezinc at doses of 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg, increasing to 50.2%, 53.5%, and 52.5%, respectively. These findings indicate that zinc deficiency induces the delayed of proliferation of taste bud cells, while polaprezinc improves cell proliferation. In conclusion, polaprezinc had a therapeutic effect in a rat model of abnormal taste sensation. Its mechanism of action was suggested to involve improvement of the decrease in taste bud cell proliferation caused by zinc deficiency. PMID:17473379

  18. Additive Screen HTTM -HR2-138 Scoring Sheet 1. (A1) 0.1 M Barium Chloride

    E-print Network

    Hill, Chris

    9. (A9) 0.1 M Yttrium Chloride 10. (A10) 0.1 M Zinc Chloride 11. (A11) 0.1 M Ferric (III) Chloride) 15% w/v 1,2,3-Heptanetriol 69. (F9) 20% w/v Benzamidine HCl 70. (F10) 5% w/v n-Dodecyl-N,N-dimethylamine-N-oxide/v Trimethylamine N-oxide 74. (G2) 30% w/v 1,6 Hexanediol 75. (G3) 30% v/v 2-Methyl-2,4-pentanediol 76. (G4) 50% w

  19. Small and intermediate conductance chloride channels in HT 29 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. Hansen; B. Roch; K. Kunzelmann; R. Kubitz; R. Greger

    1993-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that intermediate conductance outwardly rectifying chloride channels (ICOR) are blocked by cytosolic inhibitor (C. I.) found in the cytosol of human placenta and epithelial cells. C. I. also reduced the baseline current in excised membrane patches of HT29 cells. In the present study, this effect of C. I. was characterized further. Heat treated human placental

  20. Relationship between free chloride and total chloride contents in concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. U. Mohammed; H. Hamada

    2003-01-01

    Linear relationships between free chloride and total chloride contents in concrete are proposed based on the results of several long-term exposure tests under marine environment for various cements, such as ordinary portland cement (OPC), high early strength portland cement (HES), moderate heat portland cement (MH), calcium aluminate cement (AL), slag cements of Types A (SCA) and B (SCB), and fly

  1. The secondary alkaline zinc electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

    1991-02-01

    The worldwide studies conducted between 1975 and 1990 with the aim of improving cell lifetimes of secondary alkaline zinc electrodes are overviewed. Attention is given the design features and characteristics of various secondary alkaline zinc cells, including four types of zinc/nickel oxide cell designs (vented static-electrolyte, sealed static-electrolyte, vibrating-electrode, and flowing-electrolyte); two types of zinc/air cells (mechanically rechargeable consolidated-electrode and mechanically rechargeable particulate-electrode); zinc/silver oxide battery; zinc/manganese dioxide cell; and zinc/ferric cyanide battery. Particular consideration is given to recent research in the fields of cell thermodynamics, zinc electrodeposition, zinc electrodissolution, zinc corrosion, electrolyte properties, mathematical and phenomenological models, osmotic pumping, nonuniform current distribution, and cell cycle-life perforamnce.

  2. Physiological Requirements for Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Hambidge, K. Michael; Miller, Leland V.; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2015-01-01

    The estimates of zinc physiological requirements by the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG) in 2004 were conspicuously low in comparison with those estimated by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 2001. The objective of this review is to explore the reasons for this gap and to reflect on lessons learned. All estimates of inevitable losses of endogenous zinc, especially intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc, were reviewed. An error in zinc menstrual losses, as well as a minor error in the linear regression of endogenous fecal zinc (EFZ) vs. total daily zinc absorption (TAZ) by IOM, were corrected. The review revealed an error by IZiNCG in selecting two data points for the linear regression of EFZ on TAZ. A second major reason for the “gap” is attributable to weighting of the data in the regression analysis by number of subjects per study by IZiNCG. Adjusting for these factors, together with use of the same reference data for body weights, resulted in satisfactory agreement between the two estimates of physiological requirements. The lessons to be learned from this review are discussed together with suggestions for future action by IOM as well as a constructive role for IZiNCG. PMID:22002220

  3. Inhibitory Effect of Zinc on Human Prostatic Carcinoma Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ji-Yong; Liu, Yi-Yan; Zou, Jing; Franklin, Renty B.; Costello, Leslie C.; Feng, Pei

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Normal human prostate accumulates the highest levels of zinc of any soft tissue in the body. In contrast, the zinc level in prostate cancer is markedly decreased from the level detected in nonprostate tissues. Despite these relationships, the possible role of zinc in the growth of normal and malignant prostate has not been determined. METHODS Growth inhibition and various regulatory responses were investigated in two human prostate carcinoma cell lines (LNCaP and PC-3), treated with or without zinc. RESULTS Incubation of the prostate carcinoma cell lines with physiological levels of zinc resulted in the marked inhibition of cell growth. A lower 50% inhibition of cell growth (IC50) value for zinc (about 100 ng/ml) was detected in LNCaP cells, which are androgen-responsive, whereas androgen-independent PC-3 cells exhibited a higher IC50 for zinc (about 700 ng/ml). Incubation with 1 ?g/ml zinc resulted in maximum inhibition of growth in both cell lines. These inhibitory effects of zinc correlated well with the accumulation of zinc in the cells. Simultaneously, cell flow cytometric analyses revealed a dramatic increase of the cell population in G2/M phase, in both LNCaP (2.3-fold vs. control) and PC-3 (1.9-fold vs. control), and a decreased proportion of cells in S phase (LNCaP, ?51.4%; PC-3, ?23%), indicating a G2/M phase arrest. The cell growth inhibition and G2/M arrest in these cells were accompanied by an increase in apoptosis, as demonstrated by the characteristic cell morphology and further confirmed by cellular DNA fragmentation. The specificity of zinc-induced apoptosis was identified by ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA)-chelation, which abolished the zinc effect on cellular DNA fragmentation. The zinc-induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis were accompanied by increased mRNA levels of p21Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1 in both LNCaP (p53+/+) and PC-3 (p53?/?) cells. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that zinc inhibits human prostatic carcinoma cell growth, possibly due to induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. There now exists strong evidence that the loss of a unique capability to retain high levels of zinc is an important factor in the development and progression of malignant prostate cells. PMID:10398282

  4. Determination of Zinc Pyrithione in Hair Care Products by Normal Phase Liquid Chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Fenn; M. T. Alexander

    1988-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method is described for the determination of zinc pyrithione (ZPT) in shampoos, hair conditioners and hair dressings. The method involves simultaneous transchelation to the cupric complex and extraction into methylene chloride. The cupric complex is then separated by normal phase liquid chromatography and detected by UV absorbance at 254 nm. A slight modification of the chromatographic conditions

  5. Storage effects on ninhydrin-developed fingerprints enhanced by zinc complexation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Liberti; G. Calabrò; M. Chiarotti

    1995-01-01

    A study has been made of the effects of storage on the fluorescence of latent fingermarks on paper developed with ninhydrin and zinc chloride. Exposure to sunlight or xenon arc light causes fading of the marks but the presence of moisture or high humidity results in the loss of fluorescence and the formation of a red non-fluorescent compound.

  6. The effect of chloride ion concentration gradients on the initiation of localized corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, M.J.; Brown, R. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1994-12-31

    It has been established that for steel reinforced concrete roads treated with deicing salts or exposed to a marine environment, chloride ions are introduced at the surface of the concrete structure. Two models were discussed in which chloride ion concentration gradients would form in a steel reinforced concrete structure. Electrochemical testing to investigate the models was conducted on plain carbon steel specimens in a simulated concrete environment of saturated calcium hydroxide solution with varying concentrations of sodium chloride. The varying chloride ion concentrations promoted open circuit potential shifts. These potential shifts may lead to galvanic corrosion effects depending on the chloride ion concentration gradients in the structure.

  7. Inhibitory zinc sites in enzymes.

    PubMed

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Several pathways increase the concentrations of cellular free zinc(II) ions. Such fluctuations suggest that zinc(II) ions are signalling ions used for the regulation of proteins. One function is the inhibition of enzymes. It is quite common that enzymes bind zinc(II) ions with micro- or nanomolar affinities in their active sites that contain catalytic dyads or triads with a combination of glutamate (aspartate), histidine and cysteine residues, which are all typical zinc-binding ligands. However, for such binding to be physiologically significant, the binding constants must be compatible with the cellular availability of zinc(II) ions. The affinity of inhibitory zinc(II) ions for receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase ? is particularly high (K i = 21 pM, pH 7.4), indicating that some enzymes bind zinc almost as strongly as zinc metalloenzymes. The competitive pattern of zinc inhibition for this phosphatase implicates its active site cysteine and nearby residues in the coordination of zinc. Quantitative biophysical data on both affinities of proteins for zinc and cellular zinc(II) ion concentrations provide the basis for examining the physiological significance of inhibitory zinc-binding sites in proteins and the role of zinc(II) ions in cellular signalling. Regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions add a significant level of complexity to biological control of metabolism and signal transduction and embody a new paradigm for the role of transition metal ions in cell biology. PMID:23456096

  8. Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for high rate extended mission applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peabody, Mark; Brown, Robert A.

    An effort has been made to develop technology for lithium-thionyl chloride batteries whose emission times will extend beyond 20 min and whose power levels will be in excess of 1800 W, using the requirements for an existing silver-zinc battery's electrical requirements as a baseline. The target design encompasses separate 31- and 76-V sections; the design goal was the reduction of battery weight to 50 percent that of the present silver/zinc cell. A cell has been achieved whose mission can be conducted without container heat losses.

  9. Extraction of zinc oxide from electric arc furnace dust. Solubilities of zinc chloride and zinc oxide in aqueous ammonium chloride solutions from 303–363 K

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Mitra; G. M. Acosta; J. Khan; R. L. Smith Jr

    1997-01-01

    Through our waste minimization studies in the SC 33\\/50 Technical Assistance Program (SC TAP), we found the Burrows process as modified by Myerson [1] to be attractive for South Carolina industry because of its low capital cost and its simplicity. However, many thermo?dynamic properties are not available for practical application of the process. Therefore, our objective was to determine key

  10. Acute toxicity of nano- and micro-scale zinc powder in healthy adult mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bing Wang; Wei-Yue Feng; Tian-Cheng Wang; Guang Jia; Meng Wang; Jun-Wen Shi; Fang Zhang; Yu-Liang Zhao; Zhi-Fang Chai

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the acute toxicity of oral exposure to nanoscale zinc powder in mice. The healthy adult male and female mice were gastrointestinally administered at a dose of 5g\\/kg body weight with two size particles, nanoscale zinc (N-Zn) and microscale zinc (M-Zn) powder, while one group mice treated with sodium carboxy methyl cellulose was

  11. Polyfluoro-tert-alkylsulfenyl chlorides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Yu. Sizov; A. F. Kolomiets; A. V. Fokin

    1988-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkylsulfenyl chlorides with tert-alkyl groups were obtained and these compounds were found to be similar to sulfenyl chlorides with primary polyfluoroalkyl groups in electrophilic addition at the C=C bond and are distinguished only in somewhat reduced reactivity.

  12. Molecular Structure of Picryl chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-09-20

    Picryl chloride is ranked as one of the 100 most commonly found explosive and shock sensitive materials. It is made by reacting 2,4,6 trinitrophenol with thionyl chloride. This highly reactive compound is known to be hazardous and toxic, and to cause liver injury in mice. It is often used as a sensitization agent in mice when their cells undergo hypersensitivity studies.

  13. Modelling chloride diffusion in concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. A. Thomas; Phil B. Bamforth

    1999-01-01

    Data from long-term field and laboratory studies of concrete exposed to chloride environments were analyzed using a chloride transport model developed at the University of Toronto. The results show that the incorporation of fly ash and slag may have little impact on transport properties determined at early ages (e.g., 28 days), but can lead to order of magnitude improvements in

  14. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  15. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  16. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  17. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  18. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the...

  19. Chloride thresholds in marine concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-04-01

    This paper reports results from an ongoing study of the performance of fly ash concrete in marine exposure. Reinforced concrete specimens exposed to tidal conditions were retrieved at ages ranging from 1 to 4 years. Steel reinforcement mass losses are compared with chloride contents at the location of the bar for concrete specimens of various strength grades and with a range of fly ash levels. The maximum level of chloride that could be tolerated without significant mass loss due to corrosion was found to vary with fly ash content. This threshold chloride level decreased with increasing fly ash content; values obtained were 0.70%, 0.65%, 0.50% and 0.20% acid-soluble chloride (by mass of cementitious material) for concrete with 0%, 15%, 30% and 50% ash, respectively. Despite the lower threshold values, fly ash concrete was found to provide better protection to the steel under these conditions, due to its increased resistance to chloride ion penetration.

  20. Biocidal effects of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on the bioluminescent bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taran, M. V.; Starodub, N. F.; Katsev, A. M.; Guidotti, M.; Khranovskyy, V. D.; Babanin, A. A.; Melnychuk, M. D.

    2013-11-01

    The effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles in combination with alginate on bioluminescent Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1 bacteria was investigated. Silver nanoparticles were found to be more toxic than zinc oxide nanoparticles on bioluminescent bacteria. The nanoparticles and their ions released results in the same effect, however, it was absent in combination with alginate. The effective inhibiting concentration (EC50) for silver nanoparticles was found about 0.3 - 0.4 ?g mL-1, which was up to two times larger then for zinc oxide nanoparticles. The absence of sodium chloride in the tested media prevented the formation of colloidal particles of larger size and the effective inhibition concentrations of metal derivatives were lower than in the presence of sodium chloride.

  1. Study of serum copper and zinc in cases of hyperemesis gravidarum.

    PubMed

    el Tabbakh, G; Darwish, E; el Sebaie, F; Galal, S; el Maradny, E; Loutfi, I

    1989-07-01

    The dehydration, electrolyte and metabolic changes which occur in hyperemesis gravidarum are well recognized. The aim of this paper was to study the changes in serum copper and zinc and their correlation with the changes in serum electrolytes that occur in patients with hyperemesis gravidarum. Serum copper, zinc, sodium and potassium and urinary chloride were measured in 30 patients suffering from hyperemesis gravidarum and compared to the levels in 10 normal pregnant women in their first trimester. There was no significant change in serum copper or zinc in patients with hyperemesis compared to normal pregnant women. Also, there was no significant correlation between the changes in the level of these trace elements and the decrease which occurred in serum sodium and potassium and urinary chloride. PMID:2569416

  2. Clear Zinc Pyrithione Preparations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TERRY GERSTEIN

    Synopsis--ZINC PYRITHIONE, also kn,own as zinc pyridine-2-thiol-l-oxide, has been es- tablished as an effective ANTISEBORRHEIC AGENT. Because of its limited aqueous solubility it is currently being marketed as a suspension in hair-cleansing and hair-grooming preparations. A method has been developed in which clear, aqueous (as well as nonaqueous) products can be prepared. The method is based upon the COMPLEXATION of

  3. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely...

  4. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely...

  5. Bioavailability of zinc from zinc-histidine complexes. I Comparison with zinc sulfate in healthy men1'2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Freudemann; Eckart K; Hubertus Wietholtz; Birgit Steiert; Erwin L; Dieter H; Wolfgang Gerok

    Zinc supplementation is beneficial in some clinical conditions. Histidine has been shown to improve zinc absorption in animals. To test its influence on zinc absorption in humans, we studied the bioavailability of zinc from zinc-histidine complexes as compared to zinc sulfate in 10 healthy volunteers. Ingestion of zinc coplexed with histidine at a ratio of 1:2 or 1:12 increased serum-zinc

  6. Zinc protects against shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli by acting on host tissues as well as on bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Zinc supplements can treat or prevent enteric infections and diarrheal disease. Many articles on zinc in bacteria, however, highlight the essential nature of this metal for bacterial growth and virulence, suggesting that zinc should make infections worse, not better. To address this paradox, we tested whether zinc might have protective effects on intestinal epithelium as well as on the pathogen. Results Using polarized monolayers of T84 cells we found that zinc protected against damage induced by hydrogen peroxide, as measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance. Zinc also reduced peroxide-induced translocation of Shiga toxin (Stx) across T84 monolayers from the apical to basolateral side. Zinc was superior to other divalent metals to (iron, manganese, and nickel) in protecting against peroxide-induced epithelial damage, while copper also showed a protective effect. The SOS bacterial stress response pathway is a powerful regulator of Stx production in STEC. We examined whether zinc’s known inhibitory effects on Stx might be mediated by blocking the SOS response. Zinc reduced expression of recA, a reliable marker of the SOS. Zinc was more potent and more efficacious than other metals tested in inhibiting recA expression induced by hydrogen peroxide, xanthine oxidase, or the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. The close correlation between zinc’s effects on recA/SOS and on Stx suggested that inhibition of the SOS response is one mechanism by which zinc protects against STEC infection. Conclusions Zinc’s ability to protect against enteric bacterial pathogens may be the result of its combined effects on host tissues as well as inhibition of virulence in some pathogens. Research focused solely on the effects of zinc on pathogenic microbes may give an incomplete picture by failing to account for protective effects of zinc on host epithelia. PMID:24903402

  7. Zinc resistance of Staphylococcus aureus of animal origin is strongly associated with methicillin resistance.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Lina M; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2011-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of zinc and copper resistances in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from swine and veal calves in a global strain collection. The test population consisted of 476 porcine MRSA isolates from ten European countries, 18 porcine MRSA isolates from Canada and seven MRSA from China, 92 MRSA and 60 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates from veal calves in the Netherlands and 88 porcine MSSA isolates from four European countries. Most porcine MRSA (n=454) and all bovine MRSA belonged to clonal complex (CC) 398 whereas 37 of the pig MRSA from Europe and the seven Chinese isolates belonged to other CCs and 3 isolates were not classified into a CC. All isolates were tested for susceptibility to zinc chloride and copper sulphate using agar dilution and tested by PCR for the czrC gene encoding zinc resistance. Phenotypic zinc resistance (MIC>2mM) was observed in 74% (n=324) and 42% (n=39) of European MRSA CC398 from pigs and veal calves, respectively, and in 44% of the Canadian isolates (n=8), but not among the Chinese isolates. Almost all (99%) zinc-resistant MRSA carried czrC. Of the 37 European non-CC398 MRSA, 62% were resistant to zinc, but only 46% of them carried czrC. The MICs of the MSSA isolates to zinc chloride ranged from 1 to 4mM and none carried czrC. The MICs of copper sulphate were associated neither with methicillin resistance nor with the detection of czrC. This study showed that zinc resistance and the czrC gene are widespread among CC398 MRSA isolates. This suggests that the use of zinc in feed might have contributed to the emergence of MRSA. PMID:21411247

  8. Selenium redox biochemistry of zinc–sulfur coordination sites in proteins and enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Claus; Maret, Wolfgang; Vallee, Bert L.

    1999-01-01

    Selenium has been increasingly recognized as an essential element in biology and medicine. Its biochemistry resembles that of sulfur, yet differs from it by virtue of both redox potentials and stabilities of its oxidation states. Selenium can substitute for the more ubiquitous sulfur of cysteine and as such plays an important role in more than a dozen selenoproteins. We have chosen to examine zinc–sulfur centers as possible targets of selenium redox biochemistry. Selenium compounds release zinc from zinc/thiolate-coordination environments, thereby affecting the cellular thiol redox state and the distribution of zinc and likely of other metal ions. Aromatic selenium compounds are excellent spectroscopic probes of the otherwise relatively unstable functional selenium groups. Zinc-coordinated thiolates, e.g., metallothionein (MT), and uncoordinated thiolates, e.g., glutathione, react with benzeneseleninic acid (oxidation state +2), benzeneselenenyl chloride (oxidation state 0) and selenocystamine (oxidation state ?1). Benzeneseleninic acid and benzeneselenenyl chloride react very rapidly with MT and titrate substoichiometrically and with a 1:1 stoichiometry, respectively. Selenium compounds also catalyze the release of zinc from MT in peroxidation and thiol/disulfide-interchange reactions. The selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase catalytically oxidizes MT and releases zinc in the presence of t-butyl hydroperoxide, suggesting that this type of redox chemistry may be employed in biology for the control of metal metabolism. Moreover, selenium compounds are likely targets for zinc/thiolate coordination centers in vivo, because the reactions are only partially suppressed by excess glutathione. This specificity and the potential to undergo catalytic reactions at low concentrations suggests that zinc release is a significant aspect of the therapeutic antioxidant actions of selenium compounds in antiinflammatory and anticarcinogenic agents. PMID:10051568

  9. Zinc Supplementation Improves the Outcome of Chronic Hepatitis C and Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Shunichi; Matsumura, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hitomi; Oshiro, Shu; Arakawa, Yasuo; Hayashi, Junpei; Sekine, Naoki; Nirei, Kazushige; Yamagami, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Masahiro; Nakajima, Noriko; Amaki, Shuichi; Tanaka, Naohide; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    We treated patients with C-viral chronic hepatitis (CH) and liver cirrhosis (LC) with polaprezinc and determined prospectively the effect on long-term outcome. 62 patients were enrolled. Of these, 32 were administered 1.0 g polaprezinc and the remainder were not administered polaprezinc. We measured the serum zinc concentrations using conventional atomic absorption spectrometry and conducted a prospective study to determine the long-term outcome of the polaprezinc therapy. Changes of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in the polaprezinc administration group were significantly lower than those of the untreated group. The decrease in platelet count was clearly less than that of the untreated group. The factors that inhibited increases in serum zinc concentrations following administration of polaprezinc included low serum zinc concentration states. Furthermore, the reductions of AST and ALT levels in the low zinc group were significantly greater than those of the high zinc group. When the patients who were administered polaprezinc were divided into two groups whose zinc concentrations increased (zinc responders) or remained stable or decreased (zinc non-responders), the zinc responders had a clearly lower cumulative incidence of HCC than the zinc non-responders. We conclude zinc supplementation improved the long-term outcome in C-viral CH and LC patients. PMID:19902019

  10. Zinc supplementation improves the outcome of chronic hepatitis C and liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Shunichi; Matsumura, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hitomi; Oshiro, Shu; Arakawa, Yasuo; Hayashi, Junpei; Sekine, Naoki; Nirei, Kazushige; Yamagami, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Masahiro; Nakajima, Noriko; Amaki, Shuichi; Tanaka, Naohide; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko

    2009-11-01

    We treated patients with C-viral chronic hepatitis (CH) and liver cirrhosis (LC) with polaprezinc and determined prospectively the effect on long-term outcome. 62 patients were enrolled. Of these, 32 were administered 1.0 g polaprezinc and the remainder were not administered polaprezinc. We measured the serum zinc concentrations using conventional atomic absorption spectrometry and conducted a prospective study to determine the long-term outcome of the polaprezinc therapy. Changes of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in the polaprezinc administration group were significantly lower than those of the untreated group. The decrease in platelet count was clearly less than that of the untreated group. The factors that inhibited increases in serum zinc concentrations following administration of polaprezinc included low serum zinc concentration states. Furthermore, the reductions of AST and ALT levels in the low zinc group were significantly greater than those of the high zinc group. When the patients who were administered polaprezinc were divided into two groups whose zinc concentrations increased (zinc responders) or remained stable or decreased (zinc non-responders), the zinc responders had a clearly lower cumulative incidence of HCC than the zinc non-responders. We conclude zinc supplementation improved the long-term outcome in C-viral CH and LC patients. PMID:19902019

  11. Review on the Recent Developments in the Solvent Extraction of Zinc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akash Deep; Jorge M. R. de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Solvent extraction (SX) of zinc is useful for the recovery of high purity zinc from the leaching solutions of its sulphide minerals, several low?grade ores, and secondary materials. The technique is fast, environmentally sustainable, and can be tailored to treat aqueous solutions of diverse compositions. It is particularly useful in the cases where the level of contamination is high and

  12. Protective role of aspirin, vitamin C, and zinc and their effects on zinc status in the DMH-induced colon carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Christudoss, Pamela; Selvakumar, Ratnasamy; Pulimood, Anna Benjamin; Fleming, Jude Joseph; Mathew, George

    2013-01-01

    Chemoprotection refers to the use of specific natural or synthetic chemical agents to suppress or prevent the progression to cancer. The purpose of this study is to assess the protective effect of aspirin, vitamin C or zinc in a dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) colon carcinoma model in rats and to investigate the effect of these supplements on changes associated with colonic zinc status. Rats were randomly divided into three groups, group 1 (aspirin), group 2 (vitamin C) and group 3 (zinc), each being subdivided into two groups and given subcutaneous injection of DMH (30 mg/kg body wt) twice a week for 3 months and sacrificed at 4 months (A-precancer model) and 6 months (B-cancer model). Groups 1, 2, 3 were simultaneously given aspirin, vitamin C, or zinc supplement respectively from the beginning till the end of the study. It was observed that 87.5% of rats co-treated with aspirin or vitamin C showed normal colonic histology, along with a significant decrease in colonic tissue zinc at both time points. Rats co-treated with zinc showed 100% reduction in tumor incidence with no significant change in colonic tissue zinc. Plasma zinc, colonic CuZnSOD (copper-zinc superoxide dismutase) and alkaline phosphatase activity showed no significant changes in all 3 cotreated groups. These results suggest that aspirin, vitamin C or zinc given separately, exert a chemoprotective effect against chemically induced DMH colonic preneoplastic progression and colonic carcinogenesis in rats. The inhibitory effects are associated with maintaining the colonic tissue zinc levels and zinc enzymes at near normal without significant changes. PMID:24083715

  13. Suppression of zinc dendrites in zinc electrode power cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damjanovic, A.; Diggle, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    Addition of various tetraalkyl quarternary ammonium salts, to alkaline zincate electrolyte of cell, prevents formation of zinc dendrites during charging of zinc electrode. Electrode capacity is not impaired and elimination of dendrites prolongs cell life.

  14. Metal lanolin fatty acid as novel thermal stabilizers for rigid poly(vinyl chloride)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong GUO; Yuying ZHENG; Shangchang QIU; Anran ZENG; Baoming LI

    2011-01-01

    The synergistic stabilization effect of different metal lanolin fatty acids as natural-based thermal stabilizers for poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) including calcium lanolin fatty acid (Calan2), zinc lanolin fatty acid (Znlan2) and lanthanum lanolin fatty acid (Lalan3) were studied through Congo red testing, color measurements, FTIR analyses and thermal behavior in this paper. The results showed that Lalan3\\/Calan2\\/Znlan2 stabilizers exhibited more excellent

  15. Chromium and zinc contamination of parenteral nutrient solution components commonly used in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Hak, E B; Storm, M C; Helms, R A

    1998-01-15

    Chromium and zinc contamination of components of parenteral nutrient (PN) solutions used in infants and children was studied. Solutions of amino acids, L-cysteine hydrochloride, dextrose, electrolytes, minerals, vitamins, multiple trace elements, and individual trace elements were obtained. A variety of manufacturers, lots, and expiration dates were represented when possible. The solutions were analyzed for chromium and zinc by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In all amino acid products, chromium concentration was below the limit of detection and zinc concentration ranged from 0.06 to 4.97 mg/L. In the L-cysteine hydrochloride products, chromium was measurable in only two lots (0.11 and 0.23 mg/L); zinc was measurable in all lots (32-86 mg/L). Sodium and potassium salts of chloride and acetate had chromium concentrations of 0.02-0.23 mg/L and zinc concentrations of 0.35-0.56 mg/L. Phosphate salts contained chromium 0.39-0.44 mg/L and zinc 0.91-2.33 mg/L. In calcium gluconate, zinc concentration was 0.28-2.38 mg/L. In four lots of multiple trace elements, chromium was 92-104% and zinc was 100-113.5% of the labeled amount. A PN solution for a < 10-kg infant compounded from the components assayed would provide up to an additional 0.7 microgram of chromium per kilogram and 200 micrograms of zinc per kilogram. Zinc and chromium contaminants were detected in many of the products that are common components of PN solutions for infants and children; the contamination may be sufficient to result in the administration of zinc and chromium in amounts exceeding current recommendations. PMID:9465979

  16. Inhibition of vaccinia virus growth by zinc ions: effects on early RNA and thymidine kinase synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Zaslavsky, V

    1979-01-01

    Accumulation of thymidine kinase activity in vaccinia virus-infected cells was severely inhibited by zinc ions if the drug was added within 1 h postinfection. If added later, zinc ions had no effect on the enzyme synthesis. A fraction of RNA which is normally synthesized in infected cells, was missing from a proper part of the gradient if the cells were treated with zinc ions within 1 h postinfection (as has been shown by cosedimentation of pulse-labeled RNAs in isokinetic gradients). It is suggested that a transcriptional (or posttranscriptional) step is involved in zinc-caused inhibition of vaccinia virus growth. PMID:430599

  17. Synthesis, structure, and properties of nanocrystalline zinc by pulsed-current electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Khaled Mohamed Saber Abdel-Hamid

    Square-wave cathodic current electrodeposition was used to produce for the first time nanocrystalline zinc electrodeposits from both zinc chloride and zinc sulfate-based electrolytes. The influence of pulse electrodeposition parameters and polyacrylamide and thiourea additions on the grain size, surface morphology, and preferred orientation of zinc deposits was determined. The microstructure and surface morphology of the zinc electrodeposits were studied by SEM, FESEM, and AFM. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the preferred orientation of these deposits. The grain size of zinc deposits decreased gradually with increasing current on-time at constant current off-time and peak current density. An increase in the current off-time at constant current on-time and peak current density resulted in grain growth. A progressive decrease of the grain size was observed with increasing peak current density at constant current on-time and off-time. Nanocrystalline zinc (50 nm) was obtained from the chloride-based electrolyte at on-time of 5 ms, off-time of 9 ms and a peak current density of 1000 mA/cm2. Nanocrystalline zinc with an average grain size of 38 nm was obtained from sulfate-based electrolyte at on-time of 7 ms, off-time of 9 ms and at peak current density of 1200 mA/cm2. The hardness of nanocrystalline zinc increases from 5 to 8 times higher than that of pure polycrystalline zinc (0.29 GPa). Calorimetric investigations using DSC show two exothermic peaks. The first peak (peak temperature of 429 K) was attributed to the release of internal lattice strain. Abnormal grain growth was observed by the AFM and the second peak from the DSC scan, which begins at 576 K with a peak temperature of 608 K. Potentiodynamic and alternating current impedance testing of nanocrystalline zinc deposits show that the corrosion current density of nanocrystalline zinc was about 60% lower than that of electrogalvanized (EG) steel, 90 muA/cm 2 and 229 muA/cm2, respectively. The passive film formed on the nanocrystalline zinc surface seems to be a dominating factor for the corrosion behavior observed.

  18. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1980-01-01

    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  19. Characterization of poly(vinyl chloride) aged in a bromine containing electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Leo, A.; Tarjani, M.

    1988-01-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is being considered for use as a flow frame material in a developmental zinc/bromine battery. The choice of PVC was based on its low cost and the ease with which it can be molded into complex parts. The electrolyte used in this battery is a highly corrosive mixture of bromine, zinc bromide, zinc chloride, potassium bromide, potassium chloride and a quaternary amine salt. The quaternary salt serves to reduce the concentration of free bromine in the electrolyte by virtue of its complexing capability. It is well known that aqueous bromine is capable of oxidizing organic compounds. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of a bromine electrolyte on two PVC formulations, PVC-1 and PVC-4. PVC-1 is the designation given to one of B.F. Goodrich's commercial formulations and is the present baseline material for the flow frame. PVC-4 is an experimental B.F. Goodrich formulation that was developed especially for battery applications. We sought answers to such questions as (1) does oxidation and/or bromination take place. (2) does bromine penetrate into the sample and, if so, how far. (3) how are the mechanical and morphological properties affected. and (4) are there differences in stability between PVC-1 and PVC-4. To accelerate the aging processes we aged the PVC samples at an elevated temperature in an electrolyte which did not contain any complexing agent. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Imaging mobile zinc in biology

    E-print Network

    Tomat, Elisa

    Trafficking and regulation of mobile zinc pools influence cellular functions and pathological conditions in multiple organs, including brain, pancreas, and prostate. The quest for a dynamic description of zinc distribution ...

  1. Electrodeposition of PtZn in a Lewis acidic ZnCl 2–1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing-Fang Huang; I-Wen Sun

    2004-01-01

    The electrodeposition of PtZn from a Lewis acidic 40–60mol% zinc chloride–1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid containing PtCl2 was investigated at polycrystalline tungsten substrates at 90°C. Cyclic voltammetric data indicates that Pt(II) was reduced at a potential slightly more positive than Zn(II) was. The Pt–Zn electrodeposits exhibited multiple anodic stripping waves. The Zn-dominant deposits were stripped at a potential less positive than

  2. An XAFS study of nickel chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; G Cheek; K Pandya; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Nickel chloride was studied with cyclic voltammetry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Acidic melts display metal stripping peaks which are not observed in the basic melt. EXAFS analysis shows that the nickel is tetrahedrally coordinated with chloride ions in the basic solution. In the acidic solution the nickel is coordinated by six chloride ions that are also associated with aluminum ions.

  3. The secondary alkaline zinc electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank R. McLarnon; Elton J. Cairns

    1991-01-01

    The worldwide studies conducted between 1975 and 1990 with the aim of improving cell lifetimes of secondary alkaline zinc electrodes are overviewed. Attention is given the design features and characteristics of various secondary alkaline zinc cells, including four types of zinc\\/nickel oxide cell designs (vented static-electrolyte, sealed static-electrolyte, vibrating-electrode, and flowing-electrolyte); two types of zinc\\/air cells (mechanically rechargeable consolidated-electrode and

  4. Psychological stress induced hippocampus zinc dyshomeostasis and depression-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Dou, Xiao; Tian, Xue; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Huang, Junlong; Shen, Zhilei; Li, Hongxia; Wang, Xiaoli; Mo, Fengfeng; Wang, Wanyin; Wang, Shi; Shen, Hui

    2014-10-15

    There are strong evidences showed that psychological stress (PS) could result in depression. Recently, many attentions were paid to the roles of corticosterone (CORT) and zinc dyshomeostasis in the development of depression. In this study, we investigated the zinc level in rat hippocampus after exposure to PS and accompanied behavior change. Male SD rats were randomly divided into the control and PS groups. Each group had two subgroups: 7-d group and 14-d group. A communication box was used to produce the PS model in rats. Compared to control group, the PS-treated group showed decreased total zinc levels and increased free zinc levels observed by TSQ staining in hippocampus. Meanwhile, there were significant decreases in mRNA expressions of zinc transporters including ZnT1, ZnT3 and ZIP1 and metallothionein (MT) contents in hippocampus. Moreover, the increased immobility time in forced swim test (FST), lower movement time and total movement distance and longer immobile time in spontaneous activity test were demonstrated in rats after PS exposure. These results suggested that the depression-like behavior in PS-treated rats might be correlated with zinc dyshomeostasis including decreased zinc contents and increased free zinc in hippocampus which was related to changes in zinc transporters and MT expressions. PMID:25092572

  5. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Allen M. (Newark, DE); Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE); Masi, James V. (Wilbraham, MA); Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Hall, Robert B. (Newark, DE)

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  6. New method to measure the rapid chloride migration coefficient of chloride-contaminated concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Lay; S. Liebl; H. Hilbig; P. Schießl

    2004-01-01

    The apparent chloride diffusion coefficient, Dapp, which is obtained by fitting chloride profiles as the result of time-consuming immersion tests can be substituted in a model on chloride ingress by the rapid chloride migration (RCM) coefficient of concrete, DRCM, which is determined under electrically accelerated conditions. Until now, it was not possible to measure DRCM of chloride-contaminated concrete, as already

  7. Some aspects of a non-linear effect of zinc ions on the histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells.

    PubMed

    Harisch, G; Kretschmer, M

    1987-01-01

    Addition of zinc-chloride or zinc-orotate to the lavage medium successfully influences the histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. The effect of these zinc compounds is not doses-linear. 20 and 30 mg/l ZnCl2 cause a rather strong, 0.5, 5 and 10 mg/l ZnCl2 a weak depression in the release of histamine. An increase in the histamine release is caused by 40 mg/l ZnCl2. A similar, likewise non-doses-linear effect, can be observed with zinc-orotate. Concentrations of 10 and 30 mg/l zinc-orotate cause a decrease of the release; 0.05, 0.1, 1 and 60 mg/l have only minimal effects; an addition of 90 mg/l leads to an increase in the histamine release. Related to the Zn2+ ion the effect of zinc-chloride and zinc-orotate is not equivalent. PMID:2436270

  8. Chloride channels in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-ping; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Dayue Darrel

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles, including proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain, ie, stroke. Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Cl?) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke. At least three Cl? channel genes are expressed in VSMCs: 1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1), which may encode the calcium-activated Cl? channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Cl? channel and Cl?/H+ antiporter, which is closely related to the volume-regulated Cl? channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which encodes the PKA- and PKC-activated Cl? channels. Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization, vasoconstriction, and inhibition of VSMC proliferation. Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs. Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension. In addition, Cl? current mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death. This review focuses on the functional roles of Cl? channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Cl? channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke. PMID:23103617

  9. Copper and zinc recycling from copper alloys` spent pickling solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Roman-Moguel, G.J.; Plascencia, G.; Perez, J.

    1995-12-31

    The precipitation of copper and zinc as cements from a copper alloys` spent pickling solution has been studied at laboratory and pilot scale, with the objective of designing an economic process to recover both metals and render a solution to be either recycled to the pickling process or treated in a standard fashion and produce a non-hazardous sludge. The sulfuric acid spent pickling solution already containing copper and zinc was used first to dissolve another solid residue originated in the copper alloys foundry to neutralize part of the acidity. The resulting enriched solution was treated separately with two reductants: sodium borohydride and iron powder varying pH and excess of reductant under constant agitation. Under the best conditions, precipitation of over 95 percent of zinc and copper was achieved together with the reduction of lead and cadmium contents respectively. A process for the combined residues treatment is proposed.

  10. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

    1998-02-03

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750 to about 950 C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 microns, and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 micron. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  11. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Raghubir P. (Durham, NC); Gangwal, Santosh K. (Durham, NC); Jain, Suresh C. (Germantown, MD)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 .mu., and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 .mu.. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  12. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; York, D.

    1981-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of interstellar zinc toward 10 stars are examined. It is found that zinc is at most only slightly depleted in the interstellar medium; its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. The local interstellar medium has abundances that apparently are homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc, and this result is important for understanding the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood. The intrinsic errors in detecting weak interstellar lines are analyzed and suggestions are made as to how this error limit may be lowered to 5 mA per target observation.

  13. Zinc Phosphide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Do?an, Erdal; Güzel, Abdulmenap; Çiftçi, Taner; Aycan, ?lker; Çetin, Bedri; Kavak, Gönül Ölmez

    2014-01-01

    Zinc phosphide has been used widely as a rodenticide. Upon ingestion, it gets converted to phosphine gas in the body, which is subsequently absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach and the intestines and gets captured by the liver and the lungs. Phosphine gas produces various metabolic and nonmetabolic toxic effects. Clinical symptoms are circulatory collapse, hypotension, shock symptoms, myocarditis, pericarditis, acute pulmonary edema, and congestive heart failure. In this case presentation, we aim to present the intensive care process and treatment resistance of a patient who ingested zinc phosphide for suicide purposes. PMID:25101186

  14. Autophagy Mediates Astrocyte Death During Zinc-Potentiated Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Pan, Rong; Timmins, Graham S; Liu, Wenlan; Liu, Ke Jian

    2015-07-01

    Pathological release of excess zinc ions and the resultant increase in intracellular zinc has been implicated in ischemic brain cell death, although the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Since zinc promotes the formation of the autophagic signal, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and increases autophagy, a known mechanism of cell death, we hypothesized that autophagy is involved in zinc-induced hypoxic cell death. To study this hypothesis, we determined the effect of zinc on autophagy and ROS generation in C8-D1A astrocytes subjected to hypoxia and rexoygenation (H/R), simulating ischemic stroke. C8-D1A astrocytes subjected to 3-h hypoxia and 18-h reoxygenation exhibited dramatically increased autophagy and astrocyte cell death in the presence of 100 ?M zinc. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy decreased zinc-potentiated H/R-induced cell death, while scavenging ROS reduced both autophagy and cell death caused by zinc-potentiated H/R. These data indicate that zinc-potentiated increases in ROS lead to over-exuberant autophagy and increased cell death in H/R-treated astrocytes. Furthermore, our elucidation of this novel mechanism indicates that modulation of autophagy, ROS, and zinc levels may be useful targets in decreasing brain damage during stroke. PMID:25758719

  15. CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-11-30

    Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

  16. Incidence of cancer among vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride workers.

    PubMed Central

    Heldaas, S S; Langård, S L; Andersen, A

    1984-01-01

    The results of a follow up study of the incidence of cancer and the mortality in a cohort of 454 male workers producing vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride are presented. The study population was restricted to employees with more than one year's work experience in the study plant between 1950 and 1969 and the cohort was followed up from 1953 to the end of 1979. Twenty three new cases of cancer were observed compared with 20.2 expected; one case of liver angiosarcoma was found. Five cases of lung cancer were found (2.8 expected) and four cases of malignant melanoma of the skin were observed (0.8 expected). The possibility of a causal relationship between exposure to vinyl chloride and the development of malignant melanomas is discussed. PMID:6691932

  17. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  18. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-12-14

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  19. Serosal zinc attenuate serotonin and vasoactive intestinal peptide induced secretion in piglet small intestinal epithelium in vitro.

    PubMed

    Carlson, D; Sehested, J; Feng, Z; Poulsen, H D

    2008-01-01

    This study addressed the mechanisms by which dietary zinc affects diarrhoea and aimed to study possible interactions between zinc status and the presence of zinc in vitro on secretagogue-induced secretion from piglet intestinal epithelium in Ussing chambers. In addition, it was studied from which side of the epithelium zinc would perform an effect and if copper caused similar effects. Twenty-four piglets (28 days of age) were weaned and fed diets containing 100 or 2500 mg zinc/kg (as ZnO) for 5 or 6 days (12 piglets per group). Intestinal epithelium underwent the following 5 treatments: zinc at the mucosal side (M(Zn)), zinc at the serosal side (S(Zn)), zinc at both sides (MS(Zn)), copper at both sides (MS(Cu)) or water at both sides (control). Provoked secretion in terms of short circuit responses to serotonin (5-HT) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were measured. Zinc at the serosal or both sides of the epithelium reduced the 5-HT induced secretion (P<0.001); however, due to interactions (P=0.05) the effect of zinc in vitro was only present in the ZnO(100) group. The secretion caused by VIP was not affected by the diet (P=0.33), but zinc at the serosal side or both sides reduced the response to VIP (P<0.001). Copper reduced the 5-HT and VIP induced secretion to a larger extent than zinc. However, copper also disturbed intestinal barrier function as demonstrated by increased transepithelial conductance and increased short circuit current, which was unaffected by zinc. In conclusion, zinc at the serosal side of piglet small intestinal epithelium attenuated 5-HT and VIP induced secretion in vitro. These in vitro studies indicate that in vivo there will be no positive acute effect of increasing luminal Zn concentration on secretagogue-induced chloride secretion and that zinc status at the serosal side of the epithelium has to be increased to reduce secretagogue-induced chloride secretion and thereby diarrhoea. PMID:17997116

  20. The atmospheric corrosion of zinc in the presence of NaCl: The influence of carbon dioxide and temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Lindstroem; Jan-Erik Svensson; Lars-Gunnar Johansson

    2000-01-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of zinc has been studied at 4, 22, and 38 C. The samples were exposed to synthetic air with careful control of COâ concentration, relative humidity, and flow conditions. The relative humidity was 95%, and the concentrations of COâ were <1 and 350 ppm, respectively. Sodium chloride was added before the exposures (0, 14, and 70 μg\\/cm²).

  1. Induction of type 1 interferon receptor by zinc in U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Takeaki; Nakajima, Kastuyuki; Takada, Hisashi; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2009-06-01

    This study aims to determine whether zinc enhances interferon (IFN)-alpha activity in U937 cells. Type 1 IFN2 receptor (IFNAR2) protein in U937 cells was measured by flow cytometry. After 24h of exposure to zinc chloride or polaprezinc (a chelate of zinc and L-carnosine) at concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 microM, histograms showing anti-IFNAR2 antibody-positive cells shifted to a higher FITC intensity. Zinc chloride and polaprezinc increased IFNAR2 mRNA levels approximately 30% and 40%, respectively, compared to the control. L-carnosine alone did not alter IFNAR2 mRNA or protein levels. Cellular levels of 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS) were markedly increased by IFN-alpha, and the increase was significantly accelerated by polaprezinc. However, polaprezinc alone did not increase 2'-5'OAS levels. The finding suggests that zinc, especially polaprezinc, enhances the expression of INFAR2 in U937 cells, thereby inducing production of the anti-viral protein 2'-5'OAS. PMID:19362011

  2. Zinc supplementation in public health.

    PubMed

    Penny, Mary Edith

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is necessary for physiological processes including defense against infections. Zinc deficiency is responsible for 4% of global child morbidity and mortality. Zinc supplements given for 10-14 days together with low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution (Lo-ORS) are recommended for the treatment of childhood diarrhea. In children aged ? 6 months, daily zinc supplements reduce the duration of acute diarrhea episodes by 12 h and persistent diarrhea by 17 h. Zinc supplements could reduce diarrhea mortality in children aged 12-59 months by an estimated 23%; they are very safe but are associated with an increase in vomiting especially with the first dose. Heterogeneity between the results of trials is not understood but may be related to dose and the etiology of the diarrhea infection. Integration of zinc and Lo-ORS into national programs is underway but slowly, procurement problems are being overcome and the greatest challenge is changing health provider and caregiver attitudes to diarrhea management. Fewer trials have been conducted of zinc adjunct therapy in severe respiratory tract infections and there is as yet insufficient evidence to recommend addition of zinc to antibiotic therapy. Daily zinc supplements for all children >12 months of age in zinc deficient populations are estimated to reduce diarrhea incidence by 11-23%. The greatest impact is in reducing multiple episodes of diarrhea. The effect on duration of diarrheal episodes is less clear, but there may be up to 9% reduction. Zinc is also efficacious in reducing dysentery and persistent diarrhea. Zinc supplements may also prevent pneumonia by about 19%, but heterogeneity across studies has not yet been explained. When analyses are restricted to better quality studies using CHERG (Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group) methodology, zinc supplements are estimated to reduce diarrheal deaths by 13% and pneumonia deaths by 20%. National-level programs to combat childhood zinc deficiency should be accelerated. PMID:23689111

  3. Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

    2012-10-30

    The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. PMID:22947185

  4. Effects of Different Medical Treatments on Serum Copper, Selenium and Zinc Levels in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suleyman Önal; Mustafa Naz?ro?lu; Mesut Çolak; Vedat Bulut; Manuel F. Flores-Arce

    The aim of the present study was to measure the changes in serum selenium, zinc, and copper in patients being treated for\\u000a rheumatoid arthritis. Thirty-two patients and 52 healthy controls were included in the study. The copper level was higher\\u000a and those of selenium and zinc were lower in the patients relative to controls. Treatment with methotrexate elevated the zinc

  5. LABORATORY DECAY RESISTANCE OF PRESERVATIVE-TREATED RED ALDER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Mitchof; J. J. Morrell

    Alder represents an abundant but underutilized resource that has little natural resistance to decay. Treated alder might be used for stakes, posts, or other nonstructural applications. The performance of alder treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA), copper 8 quinolinolate, zinc naphthenate (ZN), or thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB) was assessed in soil block tests. CCA provided the best protection, and ZN and TCMTB

  6. Influence of zinc on growth and development and on energy intakes of children with chronic renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Hagan, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    This investigation assessed whether zinc acetate supplementation (2 mg/kg BW, maximum 40 mg/ka/child) in Children with End Stage Renal Disease, improved energy intakes and, in turn, growth and development. Height, weight, mid-arm circumference, triceps fatfold, hand wrist radiographs, and Tanner Staging measurements were taken at the beginning of the study, prior to zinc supplementation, and at the end of the study period. Clinical analyses for serum sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and CO/sub 2/ were routinely completed monthly. Simultaneously, plasma zinc and copper and erythrocyte zinc and 3 day food diaries were completed. Mean growth velocity in males was 4.07 +/- 2.02 cm/yr (non-supplemented), 2.98 +/- 2.33 cm/yr (supplemented) and in females, 3.88 +/- 0.73 cm/yr (non-supplemented), 3.28 +/- 2.10 cm/yr (supplemented). There were no significant differences between the supplemented and non-zinc supplemented males or females in growth velocity. Bone maturation as determined through hand wrist radiographs, improved in 4 of 6 zinc supplemented subjects. Before zinc supplementation, 50%, 92%, and 42% of the subjects met 67% of their RDA for age and sex for energy, protein, and zinc, respectively. After zinc acetate supplementation, the percentage of subjects meeting 67% of the RDA for energy, protein, and dietary zinc were 67%, 100%, and 67%, respectively. There was a trend toward increased dietary energy, protein, and zinc intake with zinc acetate supplementation.

  7. Concrete surface treatment: Effect of exposure temperature on chloride diffusion resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.R.; Dhir, R.K.; Gill, J.P. (Univ. of Dundee (United Kingdom))

    1995-01-01

    An investigation is reported on the influence of exposure temperature on the chloride diffusion properties of 7 widely used surface treatment systems for concrete. The variation in dry film thickness, based on the manufacturers recommended application rate, is measured. Chloride diffusion is determined for both treated concrete and standardized sintered glass substrates. It is shown that while all surface treatment systems perform best at low and medium exposure temperatures, the chloride flux through treatments applied to concrete and sintered glass substrates differs greatly. Based on this study, a tentative classification of the surface treatment systems for different exposure temperatures has been developed.

  8. Recovery of zinc from hyperaccumulator plants: Sedum plumbizincicola

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    Hyperaccumulator biomass harvested after heavy?metal phytoremediation must be considered as hazardous waste that should be contained or treated appropriately before disposal or reuse. As a potential method to detoxify the biomass and to convert this material to a suitable fertilizer or mulch, leaching of heavy metals from Sedum plumbizincicola biomass was studied by using ammonia–ammonium chloride solution as a leaching

  9. [Transient zinc deficiency in preterm infants].

    PubMed

    Benedix, F; Hermann, U; Brod, C; Metzler, G; Sönnichsen, C; Röcken, M; Schaller, M

    2008-07-01

    Zinc is an essential element and necessary for various cellular functions. Preterm infants may have a negative zinc balance and are therefore especially susceptible for symptomatic zinc deficiency. We report on a preterm child with distinct clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency confirmed by histology and laboratory analysis who quickly healed with oral zinc therapy. PMID:17924083

  10. Zinc homeostasis and neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element, whose importance to the function of the central nervous system (CNS) is increasingly being appreciated. Alterations in zinc dyshomeostasis has been suggested as a key factor in the development of several neuropsychiatric disorders. In the CNS, zinc occurs in two forms: the first being tightly bound to proteins and, secondly, the free, cytoplasmic, or extracellular form found in presynaptic vesicles. Under normal conditions, zinc released from the synaptic vesicles modulates both ionotropic and metabotropic post-synaptic receptors. While under clinical conditions such as traumatic brain injury, stroke or epilepsy, the excess influx of zinc into neurons has been found to result in neurotoxicity and damage to postsynaptic neurons. On the other hand, a growing body of evidence suggests that a deficiency, rather than an excess, of zinc leads to an increased risk for the development of neurological disorders. Indeed, zinc deficiency has been shown to affect neurogenesis and increase neuronal apoptosis, which can lead to learning and memory deficits. Altered zinc homeostasis is also suggested as a risk factor for depression, Alzheimer's disease (AD), aging, and other neurodegenerative disorders. Under normal CNS physiology, homeostatic controls are put in place to avoid the accumulation of excess zinc or its deficiency. This cellular zinc homeostasis results from the actions of a coordinated regulation effected by different proteins involved in the uptake, excretion and intracellular storage/trafficking of zinc. These proteins include membranous transporters (ZnT and Zip) and metallothioneins (MT) which control intracellular zinc levels. Interestingly, alterations in ZnT and MT have been recently reported in both aging and AD. This paper provides an overview of both clinical and experimental evidence that implicates a dysfunction in zinc homeostasis in the pathophysiology of depression, AD, and aging. PMID:23882214

  11. Zinc hydroxide sulphate and its transformation to crystalline zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael B; McDonagh, Andrew M

    2013-10-28

    The thermal transformation of zinc hydroxide sulphate hydrate to zinc oxide has been examined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and surface area measurements. By collecting X-ray diffraction data in situ, we found that the dehydration of zinc hydroxide sulphate pentahydrate proceeded in discrete steps to form anhydrous zinc hydroxide sulphate. This compound then decomposed to a mixture of zinc oxide and a compound tentatively identified as Zn3(OH)2(SO4)2 at ~235 °C. At ~360 °C, the final dehydroxylation occurred with the formation of zinc oxy-sulphate, Zn3O(SO4)2, which then decomposed to ZnO at about ~800 °C. Interruption of the dehydration process can be used to synthesize the intermediate compounds. PMID:23963063

  12. Effect of high amounts of dietary zinc and age upon tissue zinc in young chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Kincaid; W. J. Miller; L. S. Jensen; D. L. Hampton; M. W. Neathery; R. P. Gentry

    1976-01-01

    Weight gains of young broiler chicks were not reduced by up to 2400 ppm added zinc fed to four weeks of age. Tissue zinc was not changed significantly by 600 or 1200 ppm supplement dietary zinc, but at 2400 ppm added zinc, blood, kidney, and liver zinc were significantly elevated (P < 0.05). In the heart, zinc was not affected

  13. Development of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for Centaur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Frank, Harvey; Lutwack, Ralph

    1988-01-01

    Lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary cells and batteries have received considerable attention over the last several years because of their high theoretical specific energy and energy density. The objective was to develop a 300 wh/kg cell capable of safe operation at C/2 rate and active storage life for 5 to 10 years. This technology would replace other primary cell technologies in NASA applications mainly the silver zinc (AgZn) batteries presently in use. The LiSOCl2 system exceeds the capabilities of the AgZn in terms of specific energy of 300 wh/kg (compared with 100 wh/kg for AgZn), active storage life of 10 to 20 times the 3 to 6 months active storage and has a significantly lower projected cost.

  14. Development of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for Centaur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Frank, Harvey; Lutwack, Ralph

    1987-09-01

    Lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary cells and batteries have received considerable attention over the last several years because of their high theoretical specific energy and energy density. The objective was to develop a 300 wh/kg cell capable of safe operation at C/2 rate and active storage life for 5 to 10 years. This technology would replace other primary cell technologies in NASA applications mainly the silver zinc (AgZn) batteries presently in use. The LiSOCl2 system exceeds the capabilities of the AgZn in terms of specific energy of 300 wh/kg (compared with 100 wh/kg for AgZn), active storage life of 10 to 20 times the 3 to 6 months active storage and has a significantly lower projected cost.

  15. Development of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for Centaur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Frank, Harvey; Lutwack, Ralph

    1987-01-01

    Lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary cells and batteries have received considerable attention over the last several years because of their high theoretical specific energy and energy density. The objective was to develop a 300 wh/kg cell capable of safe operation at C/2 rate and active storage life for 5 to 10 years. This technology would replace other primary cell technologies in NASA applications mainly the silver zinc (AgZn) batteries presently in use. The LiSOCl2 system exceeds the capabilities of the AgZn in terms of specific energy of 300 wh/kg (compared with 100 wh/kg for AgZn), active storage life of 10 to 20 times the 3 to 6 months active storage and has a significantly lower projected cost.

  16. Cloning and occurrence of czrC, a gene conferring cadmium and zinc resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 isolates.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, L M; Hasman, H; Stegger, M; Andersen, P S; Skov, R; Fluit, A C; Ito, T; Aarestrup, F M

    2010-09-01

    We recently reported a phenotypic association between reduced susceptibility to zinc and methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus CC398 isolates from Danish swine (F. M. Aarestrup, L. M. Cavaco, and H. Hasman, Vet. Microbiol. 142:455-457, 2009). The aim of this study was to identify the genetic determinant causing zinc resistance in CC398 and examine its prevalence in isolates of animal and human origin. Based on the sequence of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) CC398 strain SO385, a putative metal resistance gene was identified in strain 171 and cloned in S. aureus RN4220. Furthermore, 81 MRSA and 48 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains, isolated from pigs (31 and 28) and from humans (50 and 20) in Denmark, were tested for susceptibility to zinc chloride and for the presence of a putative resistance determinant, czrC, by PCR. The cloning of czrC confirmed that the zinc chloride and cadmium acetate MICs for isogenic constructs carrying this gene were increased compared to those for S. aureus RN4220. No difference in susceptibility to sodium arsenate, copper sulfate, or silver nitrate was observed. Seventy-four percent (n = 23) of the animal isolates and 48% (n = 24) of the human MRSA isolates of CC398 were resistant to zinc chloride and positive for czrC. All 48 MSSA strains from both human and pig origins were found to be susceptible to zinc chloride and negative for czrC. Our findings showed that czrC is encoding zinc and cadmium resistance in CC398 MRSA isolates, and that it is widespread both in humans and animals. Thus, resistance to heavy metals such as zinc and cadmium may play a role in the coselection of methicillin resistance in S. aureus. PMID:20585119

  17. Partial molar volumes of uni-univalent electrolytes in methanol + water; 1: Lithium chloride, sodium chloride, and potassium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Takenaka, Nobuo; Takemura, Takeshi; Sakurai, Masao (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Research Inst. for Electronic Science)

    1994-04-01

    Densities of methanol + water + lithium chloride, + sodium chloride, and + potassium chloride were measured at 15, 25, 35, and 45 C. The apparent molar volumes of the electrolytes in these mixtures were calculated, and the apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution, the partial molar volumes, and partial molar thermal expansivities were evaluated.

  18. Effects of low chloride intake on performance, clinical characteristics, and chloride, sodium, potassium, and nitrogen metabolism in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Burkhalter, D L; Neathery, M W; Miller, W J; Whitlock, R H; Allen, J C

    1979-12-01

    Young male Holstein calves were fed either a control (.5% chloride) or a low-chloride (.038% chloride) practical diet for 7 wk. Both groups received low-chloride (.00038% chloride) well water. Feeding the low-chloride diet did not produce definite clinical symptoms of chloride deficiency. Neither body weight gains, feed intake, feed digestibility, nor body retention of chloride, sodium, potassium, or nitrogen were effected adversely. Although the chloride intake of the low-chloride calves was only one-sixteenth that of controls, body chloride retention was similar for the two groups. The similar retention of body chloride was due to effective homeostatic mechanisms in which urinary chloride excretion was reduced by 95% in the low-chloride calves. Low-chloride calves consumed more water and excreted more urine than control calves. Although the exact minimum chloride requirement for growth in calves was not established, .038% chloride was adequate for normal growth for the 7 wk. PMID:541461

  19. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures...Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then reacted with...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures...Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then reacted with...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures...Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then reacted with...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures...Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then reacted with...

  3. Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Chloride Sweat Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test Print A A A ...

  4. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in...

  10. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in...

  11. Influence of zinc on soluble carbohydrate and free amino acid levels in rapeseed plants regenerated in vitro in the presence of zinc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asma Ben Ghnaya; Annick Hourmant; Stéphane Cerantola; Nelly Kervarec; Jean Yves Cabon; Michel Branchard; Gilbert Charles

    2010-01-01

    To gain more insight into the impact of zinc on the primary metabolites in rapeseed, plants were regenerated in vitro in the\\u000a presence of zinc (0.1–1 mM), acclimatized, transferred to a greenhouse, and treated with 2 mM ZnSO4. The main metabolites, including soluble carbohydrates and free amino acids, were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance\\u000a spectroscopy, and further confirmed by spectrophotometry and enzymatic

  12. CHEMILUMINESCENT MONITOR FOR VINYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A monitor for vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) in ambient air was constructed using commercially available components of a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a chemiluminescence ozone analyzer slightly modified to make it suitable for use as a GC detector. The specificity for VCM is...

  13. Zinc oxide hexagram microrods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guo Xing-Yuan; Ding Zhan-Hui; Zhou Jing; Xu Da-Peng

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) microrods were grown by the floating zone method, the as-grown ZnO microrods have uniform size. Scanning electron microscope image reveals that the ZnO microrods are grown with a hexagonal structure, well faceted ends and side surfaces. Most of ZnO microrods have diameters of about 20-30Jlm and lengths of about 1-2 mm. Polarizing microscopy image of ZnO microrods

  14. The effect of heat treatment on selective separation of nickel from Cd–Ni zinc plant residues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Sadegh Safarzadeh; Davood Moradkhani

    2010-01-01

    Addressed is the effect of heat treatment on the dissolution behavior of zinc, cadmium and nickel from Cd–Ni zinc plant residues. The proposal was considered for possible positive effect of heat treatment on the separation of nickel present in the residue, due to some phase transformations. The leaching experiments were carried out with the heat-treated residues at identical leaching conditions.

  15. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M. (Stanford, CA); Muller, Jochen A. (Baltimore, MD); Rosner, Bettina M. (Berlin, DE); Von Abendroth, Gregory (Nannhein, DE); Meshulam-Simon, Galit (Los Altos, CA); McCarty, Perry L (Stanford, CA)

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  16. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  17. Developing chloride resisting concrete using PFA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Dhir; M. A. K. El-Mohr; T. D. Dyer

    1997-01-01

    PFA concrete mixes were designed to optimise resistance to chloride ingress. Chloride binding capacity, intrinsic permeability and their concomitant influence on the coefficient of chloride diffusion have been investigated. PFA replacements up to 67% and exposure concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mole\\/litre were used. Chloride binding capacity was found to increase with increasing PFA replacement up to 50%

  18. Commercial zinc-air batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Cretzmeyer; H. R. Espig; R. S. Melrose

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented indicating that zinc-air cells have twice the capacity of mercury and silver cells. Discharge and decay mechanisms are considered in detail and design data presented which allow optimization of any zinc-air cell for maximum capacity and tolerance to environmental conditions. Performance details for zinc-air button cells are compared with the three most common mercury and

  19. Lead, zinc, and their alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, F.E. [International Lead Zinc Research Organization Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Recent advances in the technology and applications of lead and its alloys include improved batteries for electric vehicles, and lead-containing dampers that impart earthquake resistance to buildings and highway structures. For zinc, notable accomplishments include further development of zinc-coated steels for automotive and construction applications, and development of an extrusion process for zinc over steel pipe in the oil production industry.

  20. Zinc--2004 84. Referencesthatincludeasectionmark()arefoundintheinternet

    E-print Network

    Zinc--2004 84. Referencesthatincludeasectionmark(§)arefoundintheinternet Referencescitedsection. Zinc ByJohnD.Jorgenson Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Samir Hakim, statistical§ ). Aprocesstorecoverzincfromelectricarcfurnacedustwas developedandtestedbytheBritishfirmZinc

  1. Effects of age and zinc supplementation on transport properties in the jejunum of piglets.

    PubMed

    Gefeller, E M; Martens, H; Aschenbach, J R; Klingspor, S; Twardziok, S; Wrede, P; Pieper, R; Lodemann, U

    2015-06-01

    Zinc is effective in the prevention and treatment of post-weaning diarrhoea and in promoting piglet growth. Its effects on the absorption of nutrients and the secretory capacity of the intestinal epithelium are controversial. We investigated the effects of age, dietary pharmacological zinc supplementation and acute zinc exposure in vitro on small-intestinal transport properties of weaned piglets. We further examined whether the effect of zinc on secretory responses depended on the pathway by which chloride secretion is activated. A total of 96 piglets were weaned at 26 days of age and allocated to diets containing three different levels of zinc oxide (50, 150 and 2500 ppm). At the age of 32, 39, 46 and 53 days, piglets were killed, and isolated epithelia from the mid-jejunum were used for intestinal transport studies in conventional Ussing chambers, with 23 ?m ZnSO4 being added to the serosal side for testing acute effects. Absorptive transport was stimulated by mucosal addition of d-glucose or l-glutamine. Secretion was activated by serosal addition of prostaglandin E2 , carbachol or by mucosal application of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (Stp ). Jejunal transport properties showed significant age-dependent alterations (p < 0.03). Both absorptive and secretory responses were highest in the youngest piglets (32 d). The dietary zinc supplementation had no significant influence on jejunal absorptive and secretory responses. However, the pre-treatment of epithelia with ZnSO4 in vitro led to a small but significant decrease in both absorptive and secretory capacities (p < 0.05), with an exception for carbachol (p = 0.07). The results showed that, in piglets, chronic supplementation with zinc did not sustainably influence the jejunal transport properties in the post-weaning phase. Because transport properties are influenced by the addition of zinc in vitro, we suggest that possible epithelial effects of zinc depend on the acute presence of this ion. PMID:25039419

  2. Nicotine aerosol generation from thermally reversible zinc halide complexes using the Staccato system.

    PubMed

    Simis, Kathleen; Lei, Mingzu; Lu, Amy Tsai; Sharma, Krishnamohan C V; Hale, Ron L; Timmons, Ryan; Cassella, Jim

    2008-09-01

    Application of the Staccato system to liquid drugs presents unique technological challenges. Liquids, such as nicotine, do not form physically stable films on vaporization substrates. We identified two thermally reversible zinc halides (ZnCl2 and ZnBr2) that complex with nicotine in a 1:2 mol ratio (zinc halide: nicotine) that can be coated as a solid film. Feasibility studies indicated that the chloride complex liberates a higher fraction of nicotine upon heating whereas the nicotine aerosol purity for both complexes was approximately 99%. Using a multidose Staccato device previously used in a Phase I clinical trial, we demonstrated that highly pure nicotine aerosol can be reliably generated from the chloride complex with the following qualities: aerosol purity approximately 99%, single emitted dose approximately 117 microg, particle fraction approximately 57%, and mean particle size approximately 0.8 microm. These results were supported by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. PMID:18800254

  3. New uses for calcium chloride solution as a mounting medium.

    PubMed

    Herr, J M

    1992-01-01

    Fresh cross sections of stems (Psilotum nudum, Coleus blumei, and Pelargonium peltatum) and roots (Setcreasea purpurea) 120 microns thick were fixed in FPA50 (formalin: propionic acid: 50% ethanol, 5:5:90, v/v) for 24 hr and stored in 70% ethanol. The sections were transferred to water and then to 1% phloroglucin in 20% calcium chloride solution plus either hydrochloric, nitric, or lactic acid in the following ratios of phloroglucin-CaCl2 solution:acid: 25:4, 20:2, or 15:5. The sections were mounted on slides either in one of the three mixtures or in fresh 20% calcium chloride solution. A rapid reaction of the acid-phloroglucin with lignin produced a deep red color in tracheary elements and an orange-red color in sclerenchyma. Fixed and stored leaf pieces from Nymphaea odorata were autoclaved in lactic acid, washed in two changes of 95% ethanol, transferred to water, and treated with the three acid-phloroglucin-calcium chloride mixtures. The abundant astrosclereids stained an orange-red color similar to that of sclerenchyma in the sections. In addition, a new method is reported for specifically staining lignified tissues. When sections or leaf pieces are stained in aqueous 0.05% toluidine blue O, then placed in 20% calcium chloride solution, all tissues destain except those with lignified or partially lignified cell walls. Thus, toluidine blue O applied as described becomes a reliable specific test for lignin comparable to the acid-phloroglucin test. PMID:1377501

  4. Homogeneity of potassium chloride in small volume intravenous containers.

    PubMed

    Drew, D; Schumann, D

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether potassium chloride as an additive is distributed homogeneously throughout small volume parenteral solutions and whether the pattern of electrolyte distribution is identical for two types of delivery systems. The effect of purposeful mixing after addition of potassium chloride was also studied. Thirty-one registered nurses prepared two supplementary intravenous solutions consisting of 10mEq potassium chloride in 50ml of 5% dextrose solution. One solution was prepared in a soft polyvinyl chloride minibag (Viaflex, Baxter-Travenol), the other in a semirigid plastic burette (Buretrol, Baxter-Travenol). The solutions were discharged through a volumetric pump (IMED) and four aliquots were taken at regular intervals. Samples were chemically analyzed by flame photometry to determine the potassium concentration in each solution layer of the container. For each container type, there were significant differences in the potassium concentrations among the layers of solution. The pattern of distribution also differed significantly between the two containers. The strata in the minibag showed smaller variations in potassium concentration than did corresponding layers in the burette. Some single sample concentrations from burettes exceeded the expected concentration of 200mEq/L by 105mEq. Nurses manipulated the two types of containers differently. Thirty of 31 minibags were mechanically mixed, but only 11 of 31 burettes were treated in this way. When the effect of mixing was considered, solutions in mixed containers were essentially no different from those not agitated after addition of the electrolyte. PMID:3640346

  5. The Effect of Zinc Supplementation of Lactating Rats on Short-Term and Long-Term Memory of Their Male Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Mohammad; EhsaniVostacolaee, Simin; Moazedi, Ali Ahmad; Nosrati, Anahita

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this study the effect of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) administration on the short-term and long-term memory of rats were assessed. Methods: We enrolled six groups of adult female and control group of eight Wistar rats in each group. One group was control group with free access to food and water, and five groups drunk zinc chloride in different doses (20, 30, 50, 70 and 100 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for two weeks during lactation .One month after birth, a shuttle box used to short- term and long-term memory and the latency in entering the dark chamber as well. Results: This experiment showed that maternal 70 mg/kg dietary zinc during lactation influenced the working memory of rats’ offspring in all groups. Rats received 100 mg/kg/day zinc during lactation so they had significant impairment in working memory (short-term) of their offspring (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in reference (long-term) memory of all groups. Conclusion: Drug consumption below70 mg/kg/day zinc chloride during lactation had no effect. While enhanced 100 mg/ kg/ day zinc in lactating rats could cause short-term memory impairment. PMID:24688973

  6. Electrochemical chloride removal from concrete prisms containing chloride penetrated from sea water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rob B. Polder

    1996-01-01

    Electrochemical chloride removal tests were carried out in the laboratory of reinforced concrete prisms containing chloride due to 16 years' submersion in the North Sea. After 39 days of treatment using current densities of about 1 and 4 Am2 steel surface, about 40% to 70% of the initial chloride was removed from the concrete on average. The chloride contents close

  7. Analysis of the isotope effect in the hydrogen exchange reaction between pyridinium chloride and hydrogen chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Szydlowski; M. Zielinski

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope exchange between pyridinium chloride and gaseous hydrogen chloride has been studied both experimentally and theoretically over the temperature range of 273 to 353 K. The experimental fractionation factor obtained shows some dependence on the composition of the substrates. This phenomenon can be accounted for by specific interactions in pyridinium chloride + hydrogen chloride system. The calculated fractionation factor

  8. Treating Syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Colby, W. David

    1992-01-01

    Background information on treating syphilis indicates that some currently recommended approaches to therapy are not optimal. There is no perfect drug schedule available, but penicillin remains the drug of choice. The author's recommendations for treatment and follow up are presented. PMID:21221354

  9. Treating Sludges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Julian

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are some of the ways to handle municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge presented at the 1978 American Chemical Society meeting. Suggestions include removing toxic materials, recovering metals, and disposing treated sewage sludge onto farm land. Arguments for and against land use are also given. (MA)

  10. Design and synthesis of novel perfluoroalkyl-containing zinc pyrithione biocide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Ying Sun; Xiao-Long Qiu; Wei-Dong Meng; Feng-Ling Qing

    2006-01-01

    Novel perfluoroalkyl-containing zinc pyrithione biocide 2 was designed and synthesized in six steps. Reaction of 4-methyl-pyridine with C8F17(CH2)3I in the presence of LDA followed by further oxidization of the resultant pyridine derivative 6 gave the pyridine N-oxide 9. Treatment of 9 with phosphorous oxychloride afforded the desirable chloride 12. Oxidization of compound 12 with H2O2 gave N-oxide 14, which was

  11. Electrical and gas sensing properties of self-aligned copper-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yogesh S. Sonawane; K. G. Kanade; B. B. Kale; R. C. Aiyer

    2008-01-01

    Electrical and gas sensing properties of nanocrystalline ZnO:Cu, having Cu Xwt% (X=0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) in ZnO, in the form of pellet were investigated. Copper chloride and zinc acetate were used as precursors along with oxalic acid as a precipitating reagent in methanol. Material characterization was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron

  12. Inhibition of soluble and microsomal epoxide hydrolase by zinc and other metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison J. Draper; Bruce D. Hammock

    1999-01-01

    21 were weak inhibitors of both mEH and sEH (less than 50 % inhibition by 1 mM metal). Six anions (acetate, bromide, chloride, nitrate, perchlorate, and sulfate) were tested and found to have no effect on the inhibition of sEH or mEH by cations. The kinetics and type of inhibition for zinc inhibition of sEH and mEH were examined for

  13. Worker exposure to vinyl chloride and poly(vinyl chloride).

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J H

    1981-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in early 1974 began industrial hygiene studies of vinyl chloride exposed workers. Three VC monomer plants, three VC polymerization plants, and seven PVC fabrication plants were surveyed. V polymerization plant workers and workers in one job category in VC monomer plants were exposed to average levels above 1 ppm. The highest average exposure was 22 ppm. NIOSH health hazard evaluation studies since these initial surveys have primarily shown nondetectable levels of vinyl chloride. A NIOSH control technology study in 1977 showed that exposure levels in VC polymerization plants had been drastically reduced but exposure levels above 1 ppm were still found in several cases. PMID:7333231

  14. An XAFS Study of Tantalum Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride/ aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Tantalum chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs). Anhydrous Ta2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic solution than in the acidic solution and the X-ray absorption data shows that the coordination shell of chlorides around the tantalum is larger in the basic solution. In the acidic solution, tantalum has five chlorides in its coordination shell while in the basic solution; the tantalum is coordinated by seven chlorides. This indicates that the Lewis acidity of the tantalum chloride causes the Ta to coordinate differently in the acidic and the basic solutions.

  15. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Pinakin M.

    1993-03-01

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

  16. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Pinakin M.

    1993-01-01

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

  17. Factors influencing electrochemical removal of chloride from concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. W. Vassie

    1996-01-01

    Electrochemical chloride removal was studied using prisms made from concrete containing various levels of chlorides derived from sodium chloride added during mixing. The amount of chloride removed during the treatment was assessed by analysing the anolyte. Chloride removal increased with increasing applied potential, number of reinforcing bars at a particular depth and initial chloride content of the concrete. A greater

  18. Zinc deficiency regulates hippocampal gene expression and impairs neuronal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gower-Winter, Shannon D.; Corniola, Rikki S.; Morgan, Thomas J.; Levenson, Cathy W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Proliferating adult stem cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus have the capacity not only to divide, but also to differentiate into neurons and integrate into the hippocampal circuitry. The present study identifies several hippocampal genes putatively regulated by zinc and tests the hypothesis that zinc deficiency impairs neuronal stem cell differentiation. Methods Genes that regulate neurogenic processes were identified using microarray analysis of hippocampal mRNA isolated from adult rats fed zinc-adequate or zinc-deficient (ZD) diets. We directly tested our hypothesis with cultured human neuronal precursor cells (NT2), stimulated to differentiate into post-mitotic neurons by retinoic acid (RA), along with immunocytochemistry and western analysis. Results Microarray analysis revealed the regulation of genes involved in cellular proliferation. This analysis also identified a number of genes known to be involved in neuronal differentiation, including the nuclear RA receptor, retinoid X receptor (RXR), doublecortin, and a transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) binding protein (P < 0.05). Zinc deficiency significantly reduced RA-induced expression of the neuronal marker proteins doublecortin and ?-tubulin type III (TuJ1) to 40% of control levels (P < 0.01). This impairment of differentiation may be partially mediated by alterations in TGF-? signaling. The TGF-? type II receptor, responsible for binding TGF-? during neuronal differentiation, was increased 14-fold in NT2 cells treated with RA (P < 0.001). However, this increase was decreased by 60% in ZD RA-treated cells (P < 0.001). Discussion This research identifies target genes that are involved in governing neurogenesis under ZD conditions and suggests an important role for TGF-? and the trace metal zinc in regulating neuronal differentiation. PMID:23582512

  19. Effects of Low Chloride Intake on Performance, Clinical Characteristics, and Chloride, Sodium, Potassium, and Nitrogen Metabolism in Dairy Calves1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Burkhalter; M. W. Neathery; W. J. Miller; R. H. Whitlock; J. C. Allen

    1979-01-01

    Young male Holstein calves were fed either a control (.5% chloride) or a low-chloride (.038% chloride) practical diet for 7 wk. Both groups received low-chloride (.00038% chloride) well water. Feeding the low-chloride diet did not produce definite clinical symptoms of chloride deficiency. Neither body weight gains, feed intake, feed digestibility, nor body retention of chloride, sodium, potassium, or nitrogen were

  20. Effects of annealing on properties of ZnO thin films prepared by electrochemical deposition in chloride medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Lupan; T. Pauporté; L. Chow; B. Viana; F. Pellé; L. K. Ono; B. Roldan Cuenya; H. Heinrich

    2010-01-01

    The development of cost-effective and low-temperature synthesis techniques for the growth of high-quality zinc oxide thin films is paramount for fabrication of ZnO-based optoelectronic devices, especially ultraviolet (UV)-light-emitting diodes, lasers and detectors. We demonstrate that the properties, especially UV emission, observed at room temperature, of electrodeposited ZnO thin films from chloride medium (at 70°C) on fluor-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates

  1. Passivity and Corrosion of Cu– x Zn ( x  = 10–40 wt%) Alloys in Borate Buffer Containing Chloride Ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kosec. Miki?; I. Milošev; B. Pihlar

    2005-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of Cu–xZn alloys and of Cu and Zn metals was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry in borate buffer, pH = 9.2, with and without the addition of chloride ions in the range from 0.01 m to 1 m. In general, the shape of voltammograms of four Cu–xZn alloys with 10 – 40 wt.% of zinc resembles that of copper more than

  2. Diagnostic study of the roughness surface effect of zirconium on the third-order nonlinear-optical properties of thin films based on zinc oxide nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahedi, K.; Addou, M.; El Jouad, M.; Sofiani, Z.; Alaoui Lamrani, M.; El Habbani, T.; Fellahi, N.; Bayoud, S.; Dghoughi, L.; Sahraoui, B.; Essaïdi, Z.

    2009-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and zirconium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Zr) thin films were deposited by reactive chemical pulverization spray pyrolysis technique on heated glass substrates at 500 °C using zinc and zirconium chlorides as precursors. Effects of zirconium doping agent and surface roughness on the nonlinear optical properties were investigated in detail using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and third harmonic generation (THG) technique. The best value of nonlinear optical susceptibility ?(3) was obtained from the doped films with less roughness. A strong third order nonlinear optical susceptibility ?(3) = 20.12 × 10 -12 (esu) of the studied films was found for the 3% doped sample.

  3. [Municipal wastewater treatment using a composite flocculant made of polyaluminum chloride and polydimethyldiallyammonium chloride].

    PubMed

    Lu, Lei; Gao, Bao-yu; Xu, Chun-hua; Yue, Qin-yan; Cao, Bai-chuan; Xu, Shi-ping; Li, Wei-wei

    2007-09-01

    A composite flocculant (denoted JYF-1), made of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and polydimethyldiallyammonium chloride (PDMDAAC), was used in jar-tests to simulate the chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) for municipal wastewater. Removal of particles, organic compounds, nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater was investigated, and the effects of pH and surface overflow rate (SOR) on flocculation were also examined. Electrical charge and distribution of particles in wastewater were analyzed before and after flocculation. Furthermore, the flocculation mechanism and application of JYF-1 in CEPT were discussed. The results demonstrate that JYF-1 performs better than PAC under a wide pH and SOR range. When 8 mg x L(-1) JYF-1 is added, 76.72% COD and 64.31% soluble COD (SCOD) can be removed. About 90% soluble TP (STP), 80% TP and 20% TN can be removed by addition of 12 mg x L(-1) JYF-1. After flocculation, the BOD/COD ratio increases from 0.23 to 0.53, which indicates the biodegradation ability of wastewater is improved. It can be concluded that JYF-1 is a high-efficiency low-cost flocculant, which can improve outlet water quality and produce less sludge without changing the existing equipments and treating process in sewage plants. PMID:17990553

  4. Developing chloride resisting concrete using PFA

    SciTech Connect

    Dhir, R.K.; El-Mohr, M.A.K.; Dyer, T.D. [Univ. of Dundee (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering] [Univ. of Dundee (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-11-01

    PFA concrete mixes were designed to optimize resistance to chloride ingress. Chloride binding capacity, intrinsic permeability and their concomitant influence on the coefficient of chloride diffusion have been investigated. PFA replacements up to 67% and exposure concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mole/liter were used. Chloride binding capacity was found to increase with increasing PFA replacement up to 50% and to then decline. It increased with chloride exposure concentration as well as water/binder ratio. The coefficient of chloride diffusion of concrete samples was found to be dependent on both the intrinsic permeability of the concrete and the ability of its cement matrix to bind chlorides.

  5. Antimicrobial effect of zinc pyrithione

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GENJI IMOKAWA; HARUO SHIMIZU

    Synopsis The antimicrobial effect of zinc pyrithione has been studied with healthy scalps in relation to its ANTIDANDRUFF effect. Use of zinc pyrithione-containing shampoo sharply reduced the CORNEOCYTE COUNTS, while the similarly active antimicrobial agent, Irgasan DP-300 © had no effect on the corneocyte counts. Quantitative estimation of scalp microorganisms revealed that corresponding to the decrease in dandruff, Pityrospbrum ovale

  6. Inhibition of intestinal chloride secretion by proanthocyanidins from Guazuma ulmifolia.

    PubMed

    Hör, M; Rimpler, H; Heinrich, M

    1995-06-01

    The antisecretory activity of Guazuma ulmifolia bark was examined in rabbit distal colon mounted in an Ussing chamber. Chloride secretion was stimulated by cholera toxin and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Guazuma ulmifolia extract (GUE) completely inhibited cholera toxin-induced secretion if the extract was added to the mucosal bath prior to the toxin. Adding the extract after administration of the toxin had no effect on secretion. GUE did not inhibit PGE2-induced chloride secretion. These results indicate an indirect antisecretory mechanism. SDS-PAGE analysis of cholera toxin treated with GUE confirmed this presumption. GUE specifically interacted with the A subunit of the toxin. Preliminary phytochemical examinations showed that the most active fraction contains procyanidins with a degree of polymerisation higher than 8. PMID:7617760

  7. Rambutan peels promoted biomimetic synthesis of bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Yuvakkumar, R; Suresh, J; Saravanakumar, B; Joseph Nathanael, A; Hong, Sun Ig; Rajendran, V

    2015-02-25

    A naturally occurring rambutan peel waste was employed to synthesis bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains. Rambutan peels has the ability of ligating zinc ions as a natural ligation agent resulting in zinc oxide nanochains formation due to its extended polyphenolic system over incubation period. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanochains was confirmed employing transmission electron microscopy studies. About 60% and ?40% cell viability was lost and 50% and 10% morphological change was observed in 7 and 4 days incubated ZnO treated cells compared with control. Moreover, 50% and 55% of cell death was observed at 24 and 48 h incubation with 7 days treated ZnO cells and hence alters and disturbs the growth of cancer cells and could be used for liver cancer cell treatment. PMID:25228035

  8. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-zinc(II) and -copper(II) complexes induce apoptosis in tumor cells by inhibiting the proteasomal activity

    SciTech Connect

    Milacic, Vesna; Chen Di [Prevention Program, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Giovagnini, Lorena [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, via Marzolo 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Diez, Alejandro [Department of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Fregona, Dolores [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, via Marzolo 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Dou, Q. Ping [Prevention Program, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States)], E-mail: doup@karmanos.org

    2008-08-15

    Zinc and copper are trace elements essential for proper folding, stabilization and catalytic activity of many metalloenzymes in living organisms. However, disturbed zinc and copper homeostasis is reported in many types of cancer. We have previously demonstrated that copper complexes induced proteasome inhibition and apoptosis in cultured human cancer cells. In the current study we hypothesized that zinc complexes could also inhibit the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity responsible for subsequent apoptosis induction. We first showed that zinc(II) chloride was able to inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of a purified 20S proteasome with an IC{sub 50} value of 13.8 {mu}M, which was less potent than copper(II) chloride (IC{sub 50} 5.3 {mu}M). We then compared the potencies of a pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PyDT)-zinc(II) complex and a PyDT-copper(II) complex to inhibit cellular proteasomal activity, suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in various human breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Consistently, zinc complex was less potent than copper complex in inhibiting the proteasome and inducing apoptosis. Additionally, zinc and copper complexes appear to use somewhat different mechanisms to kill tumor cells. Zinc complexes were able to activate calpain-, but not caspase-3-dependent pathway, while copper complexes were able to induce activation of both proteases. Furthermore, the potencies of these PyDT-metal complexes depend on the nature of metals and also on the ratio of PyDT to the metal ion within the complex, which probably affects their stability and availability for interacting with and inhibiting the proteasome in tumor cells.

  9. Lithium chloride protects retinal neurocytes from nutrient deprivation by promoting DNA non-homologous end-joining

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang Jing; Li Fan; Liu Xuan; Liu Zhiping; Lin Jianxian [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Ge Yihong [Department of Stomatology, the Southern Medical University (China); Kaminski, Joseph M. [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation, University of South Alabama (United States); Summers, James Bradley [Department of Radiology, University of South Alabama (United States); Wang Zhichong [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Ge Jian [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)], E-mail: gejian@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Yu Keming [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)], E-mail: yukeming@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2009-03-13

    Lithium chloride is a therapeutic agent for treatment of bipolar affective disorders. Increasing numbers of studies have indicated that lithium has neuroprotective effects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of lithium have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate whether lithium chloride produces neuroprotective function by improving DNA repair pathway in retinal neurocyte. In vitro, the primary cultured retinal neurocytes (85.7% are MAP-2 positive cells) were treated with lithium chloride, then cultured with serum-free media to simulate the nutrient deprived state resulting from ischemic insult. The neurite outgrowth of the cultured cells increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner when exposed to different levels of lithium chloride. Genomic DNA electrophoresis demonstrated greater DNA integrity of retinal neurocytes when treated with lithium chloride as compared to the control. Moreover, mRNA and protein levels of Ligase IV (involved in DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway) in retinal neurocytes increased with lithium chloride. The end joining activity assay was performed to determine the role of lithium on NHEJ in the presence of extract from retinal neurocytes. The rejoining levels in retinal neurocytes treated with lithium were significantly increased as compared to the control. Furthermore, XRCC4, the Ligase IV partner, and the transcriptional factor, CREB and CTCF, were up-regulated in retinal cells after treating with 1.0 mM lithium chloride. Therefore, our data suggest that lithium chloride protects the retinal neural cells from nutrient deprivation in vitro, which may be similar to the mechanism of cell death in glaucoma. The improvement in DNA repair pathway involving in Ligase IV might have an important role in lithium neuroprotection. This study provides new insights into the neural protective mechanisms of lithium chloride.

  10. Effect of Zinc Phosphide Rodenticide on Prairie Dog Colony Expansion as Determined From Aerial Photography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANIEL W. URESK; GREG L. SCHENBECK

    Aerial photography (1:16,000) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc phosphide in reducing area expansion of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies over a 5-year period in western South Dakota. Untreated prairie dog colonies increased 65 % in area, compared to a 1% increase on treated colonies (P = 0.11). Zinc phosphide, applied at 3-year intervals, was effective in

  11. Failure of zinc gluconate in treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D S; Helzner, E C; Nuttall, C E; Collins, M; Rofman, B A; Ginsberg, D; Goswick, C B; Magner, A

    1989-01-01

    Zinc is a trace metal with in vitro activity against rhinovirus, the major etiologic agent in acute upper respiratory tract infections (URIs). A previous trial of zinc gluconate supported its efficacy in treating URIs, but the effectiveness of blinding was uncertain. We conducted a prospective randomized trial of zinc gluconate versus a taste-matched placebo of sucrose octaacetate. Lozenges containing either 23 mg of elemental zinc or placebo were taken every 2 h. Eleven URI symptoms were rated daily on a scale of 0 (not present) to 3 (severe). Duration of illness, reflected in the proportion of subjects remaining symptomatic on each day, was not significantly reduced (maximum difference of 12.6% on day 7, P = 0.09; 95% confidence interval, -6 to 31%) by either treatment. Severity of illness, assessed by using a summed severity score, was reduced incrementally by 7 to 8% on days 5 to 7 (P = 0.02) in subjects taking zinc. Adverse effects, mostly nausea and altered taste, were reported by 50% of subjects taking zinc. We conclude that while zinc gluconate may produce a small reduction in overall severity of symptoms, this is not clinically significant. Given the additional high incidence of adverse effects, zinc gluconate cannot be recommended for use in the treatment of acute URIs. PMID:2665639

  12. Failure of zinc gluconate in treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Smith, D S; Helzner, E C; Nuttall, C E; Collins, M; Rofman, B A; Ginsberg, D; Goswick, C B; Magner, A

    1989-05-01

    Zinc is a trace metal with in vitro activity against rhinovirus, the major etiologic agent in acute upper respiratory tract infections (URIs). A previous trial of zinc gluconate supported its efficacy in treating URIs, but the effectiveness of blinding was uncertain. We conducted a prospective randomized trial of zinc gluconate versus a taste-matched placebo of sucrose octaacetate. Lozenges containing either 23 mg of elemental zinc or placebo were taken every 2 h. Eleven URI symptoms were rated daily on a scale of 0 (not present) to 3 (severe). Duration of illness, reflected in the proportion of subjects remaining symptomatic on each day, was not significantly reduced (maximum difference of 12.6% on day 7, P = 0.09; 95% confidence interval, -6 to 31%) by either treatment. Severity of illness, assessed by using a summed severity score, was reduced incrementally by 7 to 8% on days 5 to 7 (P = 0.02) in subjects taking zinc. Adverse effects, mostly nausea and altered taste, were reported by 50% of subjects taking zinc. We conclude that while zinc gluconate may produce a small reduction in overall severity of symptoms, this is not clinically significant. Given the additional high incidence of adverse effects, zinc gluconate cannot be recommended for use in the treatment of acute URIs. PMID:2665639

  13. Zinc metabolism and homeostasis: The application of tracer techniques to human zinc physiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy F. Krebs; K. Michael Hambidge

    2001-01-01

    Tracer kinetic techniques based on zinc stable isotopes have a vital role in advancing knowledge of human zinc physiology and homeostasis. These techniques have demonstrated the complexity of zinc metabolism, and have been critical to estimating the size and interrelationships of those pools of zinc that exchange rapidly with zinc in plasma and which are likely to be especially important

  14. Effect of high dietary zinc upon zinc metabolism and intracellular distribution in cows and calves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Kincaid; W. J. Miller; P. R. Fowler; R. P. Gentry; D. L. Hampton; M. W. Neathery

    1976-01-01

    Changes in the metabolism of zinc were investigated in mature nonlactating Holstein cows and 4-mo old calves fed high but nontoxic amounts of dietary zinc. Increasing dietary zinc of calves from 42 to 642 ppm elevated the zinc content of liver and pancreas 600% and 1400%, respectively. The elevated zinc in liver and pancreas involved a substantial increase in all

  15. Extension Bulletin E-1813, August 1989 (Reprint) Guidelines for Use of Chemically Treated Wood

    E-print Network

    , tri- butyl-tin oxide, tetrachlorophenol and zinc naphthenates. Penta-treated and CCA-treated wood Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 Arsenate (CCA)-TreatedWood The arsenical preservative structures are commonly built in such environments on livestock farms, preserved wood is frequently used

  16. ZINC HYDROLYSIS IN AN AEROSOL QUARTZ REACTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Burg

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This work is about the use of a two-step thermochemical cycle to convert solar energy into chemical energy and fuel. Metals act here as energy carriers, in this case zinc. The first step reduces zinc oxide into zinc and oxygen by dissociation through solar irradiation. In the present study, the second exothermic step is investigated, where zinc is evaporated

  17. Aspergillus niger absorbs copper and zinc from swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Price, M S; Classen, J J; Payne, G A

    2001-03-01

    Wastewater from swine confined-housing operations contains elevated levels of copper and zinc due to their abundance in feed. These metals may accumulate to phytotoxic levels in some agricultural soils of North Carolina due to land application of treated swine effluent. We evaluated fungi for their ability to remove these metals from wastewater and found Aspergillus niger best suited for this purpose. A. niger was able to grow on plates amended with copper at a level five times that inhibitory to the growth of Saccharomyes cerevisiae. We also found evidence for internal absorption as the mechanism used by A. niger to detoxify its environment of copper, a property of the fungus that has not been previously exploited for metal bioremediation. In this report, we show that A. niger is capable of removing 91% of the copper and 70% of the zinc from treated swine effluent. PMID:11211074

  18. An XAFS Study of Niobium chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Niobium chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Although anhydrous Nb2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic melt than in the acidic melt, the EXAFS data shows that the coordination shell around the niobium does not change in the different ionic liquids. Both the acidic and basic melts show a coordination of five chlorides in the first shell. This indicates that in this series of ionic liquids, the Nb2Cl10 breaks up into two NbCl5 entities in both the acidic and the basic melts.

  19. Zinc-bromine battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Lew; Vanschalwijk, Walter; Albert, George; Tarjanyi, Mike; Leo, Anthony; Lott, Stephen

    1990-05-01

    This report describes development activities on the zinc-bromine battery system conducted by Energy Research Corporation (ERC). The project was a cost-shared program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and managed through Sandia. The project began in September 1985 and ran through January 1990. The zinc-bromine battery has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional energy storage options for many applications. The low cost of the battery reactants and the potential for long life make the system an attractive candidate for bulk energy storage applications, such as utility load leveling. The battery stores energy by the electrolysis of an aqueous zinc bromide salt to zinc metal and dissolved bromine. Zinc is plated as a layer on the electrode surface while bromine is dissolved in the electrolyte and carried out of the stack. The bromine is then extracted from the electrolyte with an organic complexing agent in the positive electrolyte storage tank. On discharge the zinc and bromine are consumed, regenerating the zinc bromide salt.

  20. Zinc Bells Rang in Jerusalem!

    PubMed Central

    Hershfinkel, Michal; Aizenman, Elias; Andrews, Glen; Sekler, Israel

    2010-01-01

    “Oh, Jerusalem of gold, and of light, and of bronze…” goes the popular song. But it was another metal that towered above the Jerusalem landscape during the meeting of the International Society for Zinc Biology (ISZB; http://www.iszb.org/), held at Mishkenot Sha’ananim, a whisper away from the Old City walls. More than 100 scientists gathered on 1 to 5 December 2009 to discuss their research on the biology of this metal. Zinc is a double-edged sword. Zinc supplementation accelerates wound healing and growth and promotes an effective immune response. On the other hand, zinc deficiency leads to growth retardation and impaired learning and memory function, and has been linked to mood disorders. At the cellular level, however, uncontrolled increases in zinc concentrations can lead to neuronal cell death and may be involved in neurodegenerative disorders. Through regulation of various intracellular signaling pathways, zinc can accelerate cell growth and possibly contribute to cancer. However, despite the physiological and clinical importance of this metal, research on the molecular basis of these effects is still in its infancy. The 2009 ISZB meeting provided a venue for investigators working on various zinc-related issues to share their thoughts and ideas and to promote the growth of this field. PMID:20606213

  1. Treatment of Wilson's disease with zinc. XVIII. Initial treatment of the hepatic decompensation presentation with trientine and zinc.

    PubMed

    Askari, Fred K; Greenson, Joel; Dick, Robert D; Johnson, Virginia D; Brewer, George J

    2003-12-01

    We have treated 9 patients who presented with hepatic decompensation resulting from Wilson's disease with a combination of trientine and zinc, generally for at least 4 months, followed by transition to zinc maintenance therapy. All of these patients had hypoalbuminemia, all but 1 had hyperbilirubinemia, and 7 had ascites. All of these patients would have been candidates for liver transplantation on the basis of their initial Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) scores. The minimal listing criteria for transplant candidates is a score greater than 7. Eight of the 9 patients had demonstrated a CTP score of 10 or higher. The other scoring system that has been used in Wilson's disease to determine need for transplantation is the prognostic index of Nazer, in which a score over 6 indicates that the patient is unlikely to survive without a transplant if treated with penicillamine. Two of our patients had Nazer scores higher than 6. With our medical therapy, all 9 of these patients have recovered normal liver function as reflected by normalization of their CTP scores to 5. Because of coexisting neurologic disease, 1 of our 9 patients was initiated on a neurologic protocol and by chance randomized to receive tetrathiomolybdate (TM) and zinc after 2 weeks of trientine/zinc treatment. This patient's liver function recovered much more rapidly than did that of the other 8 patients, all of whom were treated with trientine/zinc, suggesting that TM therapy offers a further advantage. In summary, we were able to take 9 patients who presented with liver failure -8 of whom had CTP scores indicating a potential need for liver transplantation and 2 of whom had Nazer prognostic scores indicating that they were not likely to survive if treated only with penicillamine - and treat them medically, with recovery in all 9. We believe the trientine/zinc combination therapy should be the standard for initial treatment of liver failure in Wilson's disease because its efficacy is equal or slightly superior to that of penicillamine and because it has a much lower incidence of side effects. Moreover, TM warrants study to determine whether therapy for hepatic Wilson's disease can be further improved. PMID:14713890

  2. Sodiumand silver phosphate glasses doped with chlorides of Fe, Mn and Zn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Das; V. Srivastava

    2007-01-01

    A number of samples of sodium and silver phosphate glasses doped with\\u000a various compositions of some transition metals viz. iron, manganese and zinc\\u000a chlorides alongwith undoped samples of sodium and silver phosphate glasses\\u000a were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, IR spectral, electrical\\u000a conductivity and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The glass transition\\u000a temperature (T\\u000a g)\\u000a and crystallization temperature (T\\u000a c)

  3. Efficacy of Cetylpyridinium Chloride against Listeria monocytogenes and Its Influence on Color and Texture of Cooked Roast Beef

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. SINGH; H. THIPPAREDDI; R. K. PHEBUS; J. L. MARSDEN; T. J. HERALD; A. L. NUTSCH

    Sliced (cut) and exterior (intact) surfaces of restructured cooked roast beef were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes, treated with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC; immersion in 500 ml of 1% solution for 1 min), individually vacuum packaged, and stored for 42 days at 0 or 48C. Noninoculated samples were similarly treated, packaged, and stored to determine effects on quality (color and firmness) and

  4. Preparation of viscosifiers for zinc salt workover and completion brines

    SciTech Connect

    Guilbeau, K.G.; Mccrary, J.L.; Mosier, B.

    1982-09-21

    Viscosifiers, for addition to high zinc salt brines, used as oil well workover and completion fluids, are prepared from polysaccharide gums or gelatin by treatment with formaldehyde and/or an aliphatic dialdehyde containing from 2 to 6 carbons. The treated viscosifiers have improved dispersibility and give increased viscosity effects in the brines. Preferably, the viscosifiers are prepared from carrageenan, locust bean gum, hydroxyethyl cellulose, or gelatin by treatment with a mixture of formaldehyde and glyoxal.

  5. Preparation and characterization of zinc aluminosilicate transparent glass-ceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hou Zhaoxia; Zhang Yongming; Zhang Hongbo; Su Chunhui

    2006-01-01

    Zinc aluminosilicate glosses containing Li2 O, ZnO, Al2O3 and SiO2 were prepared by conventional melting and quenching technique, and subsequently converted to transparent glass-ceramics by\\u000a controlled nucleation and crystallization. The glass was melted in a platinum crucible at 1 600 °C for 2 h and then two-step\\u000a heat treated for the nucleation and the crystal growth. The nucleation and crystallization

  6. Metal chloride cathode for a battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Bankston, C. Perry (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method of fabricating a rechargeable battery is disclosed which includes a positive electrode which contains a chloride of a selected metal when the electrode is in its active state. The improvement comprises fabricating the positive electrode by: providing a porous matrix composed of a metal; providing a solution of the chloride of the selected metal; and impregnating the matrix with the chloride from the solution.

  7. Indium-111 chloride imaging with ununited fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Sayle, B.A.; Fawcett, H.D.; Yudt, W.M.; Wang, S.C.; Mader, J.T.; Cierny, G. 3d.

    1987-03-01

    Twenty patients with ununited fractures and a suspicion of infection had In-111 chloride imaging. Surgically obtained cultures were positive for infection in 12 and negative in eight patients. In-111 chloride images were positive in all 12 patients with infection but also were positive in six of the patients with negative cultures. It is not possible to differentiate infected from noninfected ununited fractures by In-111 chloride imaging.

  8. Molecular Structure of Sodium chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-15

    Sodium chloride, or simply (table) salt, is found in the mineral Halite (rock salt) but also in seawater, sweat, etc. It is used in industry and in our everyday life, for seasoning and perserving food or for winter road maintenance. Seawater contains a lot of salt, on average of 2.6% NaCl, or 26 million metric tons per cubic kilometer. In rock salt the NaCl content typically ranges between 95% and 99% NaCl, and mechanically evaporated salt and solar salt normally exceed 99% NaCl.

  9. Chloride Transporting CLC Proteins1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusch, Michael

    In the early 1980s, Chris Miller and colleagues described a curious "double-barreled" chloride channel from the electric organ of Torpedo fish reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers (Miller and White, 1980). Single-channel openings occurred in "bursts" separated by long closures. A single burst was characterized by the presence of two open conductance levels of equal size and the gating (i.e., openings and closings) during a burst could be almost perfectly described as a superposition of two identical and independent conductances that switched between open and closed states with voltage-dependent rates ? and ? (Hanke and Miller, 1983) (Fig. 8.1).

  10. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall...joints are not permitted for pipe diameters exceeding 2 inches. Brazed joints are prohibited. (c) Each cargo tank shall be...

  11. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, O.M.; Hansen, P.F.; Coats, A.M.; Glasser, F.P.

    1999-09-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature). The measurements are modelled on Fick's law modified by a term for chloride binding. Inclusion of chloride binding significantly improves the profile shape of the modelled ingress profiles. The presence of fine aggregate and formation of interfacial transition zones at paste-aggregate boundaries does not significantly affect diffusion rates.

  12. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2003, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-print Network

    188 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2003, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about refined zinc metal of commercial grade in 2003. Of zinc metal consumed, about 75% was used in Illinois

  13. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2000, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-print Network

    186 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2000, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about zinc metal of commercial grade in 2000. Of zinc metal consumed, about 75% was used in Illinois, Indiana

  14. Zinc and Health: Current Status and Future Directions Zinc Transport in the Brain: Routes of Zinc Influx and Efflux in Neurons1,2

    E-print Network

    Zinc and Health: Current Status and Future Directions Zinc Transport in the Brain: Routes of Zinc of the routes of entry and exit for zinc in different tissues and cell types have shown that zinc can use and that mediate extracellular zinc toxicity and (3) a plasma membrane transporter potentially present in all

  15. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2005, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-print Network

    190 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2005, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about refined zinc metal of commercial grade in 2005. Of zinc metal consumed, about 75% was used in Illinois

  16. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 1999, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-print Network

    190 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 1999, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about%. Three primary and eight secondary smelters refined zinc metal of commercial grade in 1999. Of zinc metal

  17. Chlorination of (Phebox)Ir(mesityl)(OAc) by Thionyl Chloride.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Meng; Goldman, Alan S

    2015-01-01

    Pincer (Phebox)Ir(mesityl)(OAc) (2) (Phebox = 3,5-dimethylphenyl-2,6-bis(oxazolinyl)) complex, formed by benzylic C-H activation of mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene) using (Phebox)Ir(OAc)2OH2 (1), was treated with thionyl chloride to rapidly form 1-(chloromethyl)-3,5-dimethylbenzene in 50% yield at 23 °C. A green species was obtained at the end of reaction, which decomposed during flash column chromatography to form (Phebox)IrCl2OH2 in 87% yield. PMID:26039335

  18. Zinc metabolism and homeostasis in rats fed a wide range of high dietary zinc levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Ansari; W. J. Miller; M. W. Neathery; J. W. Lassiter; R. P. Gentry; R. L. Kincaid

    1976-01-01

    Zinc metabolism and homeostasis were studied in young growing rats fed a 38 ppM zinc diet with added zinc levels ranging from 0 to 8400 ppM for 21 days. High dietary zinc did not cause toxicity symptoms. Stable zinc in feces increased linearly with dietary zinc intake but fecal ⁶⁵Zn, from a single oral dose, did not increase above the

  19. Effect of Zinc and Zinc Borate on Fire Properties of Modified Polyphenylene Oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Benrashid; G. L. Nelson; Donald J. Ferm

    1993-01-01

    Modified polyphenylene oxide resin (m-PPO) (virgin) and m-PPO flame retarded with triaryl phosphate (FR m-PPO) were blended with zinc borate, zinc, and zinc\\/zinc borate. Both virgin and FR m-PPO containing zinc borate showed a marked reduction in smoke production (flaming and non- flaming-NBS Smoke Chamber). In FR m-PPO a reduction in oxygen index values was seen for zinc borate, except

  20. Potentiometric titration of chloride in plant tissue extracts using the chloride ion electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. LaCroix; D. R. Keeney; L. M. Walsh

    1970-01-01

    Use of the chloride specific ion electrode to determine chloride in plants was evaluted. Direct potentiometric determination of chloride by the electrode resulted in unreproducible and extremely high chloride values. However, use of this electrode to indicate the end point in titration of the tissue?extract mixture with AgNO3 gave results nearly identical to those obtained by the Mohr procedure. The

  1. Racemization of Isobornyl Chloride via Carbocations: A Nonclassical Look at a Classic Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rzepa, Henry S.; Allan, Charlotte S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of carbonium ions as intermediates in chemical reaction mechanisms derives from the early work of Julius Stieglitz and the more famous Hans Meerwein, the latter studying the racemization of isobornyl chloride when treated with Lewis acids. This review analyzes how key mechanistic concepts for this reaction evolved and gives the…

  2. Evaluation of an innovative polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ultrafiltration membrane for wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuezhi Zhang; Yongsheng Chen; A. H. Konsowa; Xiaoshan Zhu; John C. Crittenden

    2009-01-01

    The use of ultrafiltration (UF) employing a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane (LH3-1060-V) as pretreatment for a reverse osmosis (RO) system treating secondary water effluent at the Scottsdale Water Campus was investigated. Membrane fouling tendency was evaluated, foulants were characterized, and chemical cleaning was optimized. Feed and permeate water qualities were indexed to address the effect of UF as a pretreatment

  3. Regulation of biokinetics of (65)Zn by curcumin and zinc in experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Kinnri; Dhawan, Devinder K

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of curcumin and zinc on the biokinetics and biodistribution of (65)Zn during colon carcinogenesis. Male wistar rats were divided into five groups, namely normal control, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) treated, DMH + curcumin treated, DMH + zinc treated, and DMH + curcumin + zinc treated. Weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (30 mg/kg body weight) for 16 weeks initiated colon carcinogenesis. Curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight orally) and ZnSO4 (227 mg/L in drinking water) were supplemented for 16 weeks. This study revealed a significant depression in the fast (Tb1) and slow component (Tb2) of biological half-life of (65)Zn in the whole body of DMH-treated rats, whereas liver showed a significant elevation in these components. Further, DMH treatment showed a significant increase in the uptake values of (65)Zn in colon, small intestine, and kidneys. Subcellular distribution depicted a significant increase in (65)Zn uptake values in mitochondrial, microsomal, and postmicrosomal fractions of colon. However, curcumin and zinc supplementation when given separately or in combination reversed the trends and restored the uptake values close to normal range. Our study concludes that curcumin and zinc supplementation during colon carcinogenesis shall prove to be efficacious in regulating the altered zinc metabolism. PMID:25226565

  4. Durability of Adhesive Bonds to Zinc-Coated Steels: Effects of Corrosive Environments on Lap Shear Strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Holubka; W. Chun; R. A. Dickie

    1989-01-01

    The effects of corrosive environments on adhesive bonds to electro-galvanized, zinc\\/aluminum alloy coated, coated electro-galvanized, and cold-rolled steels have been investigated. Bonds prepared using a rubber-modified dicyandiamide-cured epoxy adhesive, an epoxy-modified poly(vinyl chloride)-based adhesive, an acrylic-modified poly(vinyl chloride)-based adhesive a one-part urethane adhesive, and a two-component epoxy-modified acrylic adhesive were exposed under no-load conditions to constant high humidity or cyclic

  5. Effect of Cadmium Chloride on Metallothionein Levels in Carp

    PubMed Central

    Kovarova, Jana; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech; Harustiakova, Danka; Celechovska, Olga; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2009-01-01

    Due to anthropogenic activities, heavy metals still represent a threat for various trophic levels. If aquatic animals are exposed to heavy metals, we can obviously observe considerable toxicity. It is well known that organisms treated with heavy metals synthesize low molecular mass compounds rich in cysteine. In this work the effects of cadmium chloride (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mg/L) on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was investigated. We determined cadmium content in tissue of muscle, liver and kidney by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization and content of metallothionein (MT) in the same tissues by the Brdicka reaction. Electrochemical methods can be considered as suitable and sensitive tools for MT determination in carp tissues. Results of our study showed a gradually enhancing of cadmium content in muscle with time and dose of cadmium chloride in water. MT levels in liver reached both high levels (above 130 ng/g) in fish exposed to 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/L and low level (to 50 ng/g) in fish exposed to 10 and 12.5 mg/L of cadmium chloride. This finding confirms that the synthesis of metallothioneins and binding capacity of these proteins is restricted. PMID:22408554

  6. Chloride Analysis of RFSA Second Campaign Dissolver Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, H.P.

    2001-05-17

    The dissolver solution from the second RFSA campaign was analyzed for chloride using the recently-developed turbidimetric method. Prior to chloride removal in head end, the solution contained 1625 ppm chloride. After chloride removal with Hg(I) and prior to feeding to solvent extraction, the solution contained only 75 ppm chloride. This report discusses those analysis results.

  7. Chemistry of Metal Chloride Complexes in Aprotic Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. K. Felker; A. D. Kelmers

    1983-01-01

    A study of metal chloride solubility in aprotic solvents has been initiated. These solvent systems have very low hydrogen ion activities and thus allow chloride ion activities which are much higher than those attainable in water. The high chloride ion activities can be generated by the dissolution of soluble salts, such as calcium chloride or sodium chloride, in the aprotic

  8. Numerical Modeling of Electrochemical Chloride Removal from Concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q Sa’id-Shawqi; C Arya; P. R Vassie

    1998-01-01

    A numerical model of electrochemical chloride removal from concrete (desalination) based on the Nernst-Planck and the Laplace equations is proposed. The model relies on experimentally derived chloride transport number profiles. It is shown that the model can make realistic predictions of both the chloride removed and the chloride remaining in concrete made with admixed sodium chloride.

  9. Depleted zinc: Properties, application, production.

    PubMed

    Borisevich, V D; Pavlov, A V; Okhotina, I A

    2009-01-01

    The addition of ZnO, depleted in the Zn-64 isotope, to the water of boiling water nuclear reactors lessens the accumulation of Co-60 on the reactor interior surfaces, reduces radioactive wastes and increases the reactor service-life because of the inhibitory action of zinc on inter-granular stress corrosion cracking. To the same effect depleted zinc in the form of acetate dihydrate is used in pressurized water reactors. Gas centrifuge isotope separation method is applied for production of depleted zinc on the industrial scale. More than 20 years of depleted zinc application history demonstrates its benefits for reduction of NPP personnel radiation exposure and combating construction materials corrosion. PMID:19318263

  10. Enrofloxacin hydro­chloride dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Calderón, Jorge E.; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Sumano, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H23FN3O3 +·Cl?·2H2O [systematic name: 4-(3-carb­oxy-1-cyclo­propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-di­hydro­quin­o­lin-7-yl)-1-ethyl­piperazin-1-ium chloride dihydrate], consists of two independent monocations of the protonated enrofloxacin, two chloride anions and four water mol­ecules. In the cations, the piperazinium rings adopt chair conformations and the dihedral angles between the cyclo­propyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring system are 56.55?(2) and 51.11?(2)°. An intra­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bond is observed in each cation. In the crystal, the components are connected via O—H?Cl, N—H?Cl and O—H?O hydrogen bonds, and a ?–? inter­action between the benzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.6726?(13)?Å], resulting in a three-dimensional array. PMID:24826167

  11. Chloride Deficiency in Holstein Calves from a Low Chloride Diet and Removal of Abomasal Contents1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Neathery; D. M. Blackmon; W. J. Miller; Shelia Heinmiller; Susan McGuire; J. M. Tarabula; R. P. Gentry; J. C. Allen

    1981-01-01

    Chloride deficiency signs were pro- duced in young Holstein calves by a low chloride diet (.063% chlorine) and daily removal of chloride in abomasal contents. General clinical signs included anorexia, weight loss, lethargy, mild polydipsia, and mild polyuria. In latter stages of the deficiency, severe eye defects (scleral injection, sunken eyes, scaliness around eyes) and reduced respiration rate became evident.

  12. Chemical reactions during the preparation of P and NPK fertilizers from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ashes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Vogel; Christian Adam; Burkhard Peplinski; Stephan Wellendorf

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper we show how P and NPK fertilizers can be prepared from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ashes (SSA) and which chemical reactions occur during these post-treatment steps. The SSA used for this investigation was treated thermochemically at a temperature of 1,000°C in a rotary kiln after the addition of calcium chloride hydrate or magnesium chloride hydrate to

  13. Alterations in zinc binding capacity, free zinc levels and total serum zinc in a porcine model of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Hoeger, Janine; Simon, Tim-Philipp; Doemming, Sabine; Thiele, Christoph; Marx, Gernot; Schuerholz, Tobias; Haase, Hajo

    2015-08-01

    Zinc is crucial for immune function. In addition, the redistribution of zinc and other nutrients due to infection is an integral part of the host immune response to limit availability to pathogens. However, the major zinc binding protein albumin is down regulated during the acute phase response, implicating a decrease in zinc binding capacity. A prospective animal study with eight female German landrace pigs was conducted to investigate alterations in zinc binding capacity, total serum zinc and free zinc levels in the initial phase of sepsis. Sepsis was induced by instillation of autologous feces via midline laparotomy. Total serum zinc declined significantly after 1 h (10.89 ± 0.42 µM vs. 7.67 ± 0.41 µM, p < 0.001), total serum copper and iron reached a significant reduction at 4 h. Urinary excretion of zinc declined in line with total serum zinc. In comparison to total serum zinc, free zinc levels declined to a lesser, though significant, extent. Zinc binding capacity of serum decreased over time, whereby free zinc levels after addition of zinc correlated negatively with total serum protein and albumin levels. In addition IL-6 and TNF-? concentrations were measured and increased significantly 2 h after induction of sepsis. Hence, total serum zinc was the first marker of inflammation in our experiment, and might therefore be a promising biomarker for the early diagnosis of sepsis. Furthermore the observation of a substantially different serum free zinc homeostasis during sepsis provides valuable information for a potential therapeutic zinc supplementation, which has to take buffering capacity by serum proteins into account. PMID:25940830

  14. Central administration of zinc increases renal sodium and potassium excretion in rats.

    PubMed

    De Castro-e-Silva, E; Luz, C P; Marinho, C A; Castro, L; Sarmento, C; Gonzalez, V; Oliveira, P; Nascimento, T; Santana, P; Lima, A K; Fregoneze, J B

    1999-10-23

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of acute third ventricle injections of zinc on the brain control of renal sodium and potassium excretion. Adult Wistar male rats received third ventricle injections of zinc acetate in three different doses (0.03, 0.3 and 3.0 nmol/rat). Third ventricle administration of zinc acetate provoked a significant intensification of natriuresis and kaliuresis as compared to sodium acetate-treated controls. When rats were pretreated with losartan, a selective angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonist (10.8 nmol/rat into the third ventricle 10 min before central zinc injection) the increase in both natriuresis and kaliuresis was abolished. Furthermore, pretreatment with gadolinium, a calcium channel blocker (0.3 nmol/rat into the third ventricle 20 min before central zinc injection), also blunted the increase in renal sodium and potassium excretion seen in animals receiving zinc alone. In a group of rats receiving the same water load used in the previous experiments, the injection of zinc acetate into the third ventricle (3.0 nmol/rat) did not modify arterial blood pressure. It is suggested that zinc in the central nervous system may be involved in the control of renal sodium and potassium excretion by a mechanism unrelated to blood pressure increase. It is also shown that both natriuretic and kaliuretic actions of zinc depend on AT1 receptor activation. Whatever should be the mechanism(s) related to the central effects of zinc here evidenced, the functional integrity of calcium channels is required. PMID:10536196

  15. Zinc oxide nanoparticles on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakopoulos, K.; Boukos, N.; Travlos, A.

    2006-01-01

    Self-assembled ZnO nanoparticles are grown by electron beam evaporation of Zn on silicon oxide and silicon substrates and subsequent annealing in oxygen. Characterization by TEM and EELS shows that the nanoparticles can be zinc oxide single crystals grown with their c-axis perpendicular to the substrate; their distribution, size and crystallinity depend on the deposition parameters of zinc and the growth substrate. We discuss the effect of these parameters on the morphology of the resulting material.

  16. Effect of folic acid on zinc absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, L.; Keating, S.; King, J.C.; Stokstad, E.L.R.

    1986-03-05

    The effect of folic acid on zinc uptake was studied in the human and in the rat. The serum zinc response to a 25 mg oral dose or zinc was measured with and without a 10 mg dose of folic acid. Serum zinc levels were measured prior to the oral dose of zinc and at hourly intervals up to 4 hours after the dose. When zinc was given along, the increases in serum zinc from baseline at hours 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 92, 118, 92 and 66 ..mu..g/dl, respectively. When both zinc and folic acid were given, the increases in serum zinc at hours 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 100, 140, 110 and 75 ..mu..g/dl, respectively. When the increases in serum zinc were plotted against time, there was no significant difference between the areas under the two curves. The everted jejunal sac from the rat was used to study the effect of folate on zinc transport using 100 ..mu..M zinc in the mucosal buffer. The addition of folic acid at levels up to 10/sup -3/M had no significant effect on zinc transport to the serosal side solution or on uptake by the intestinal mucosa. This in vivo study with humans and in vitro study with rat intestine does not support a direct adverse effect of folic acid on zinc absorption.

  17. The preparation of zinc silicate/ZnO particles and their use as an efficient UV absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Podbrscek, Peter [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)] [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drazic, Goran [Department for Nanostructured Materials, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)] [Department for Nanostructured Materials, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Anzlovar, Alojz [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia) [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Center of Excellence for Polymer Materials and Technologies, Tehnoloski Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Orel, Zorica Crnjak, E-mail: zorica.crnjak.orel@ki.si [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Center of Excellence for Polymer Materials and Technologies, Tehnoloski Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} We used innovative gel-route in order to prepare zinc silicate/ZnO nano-particles. {yields} Continuous reactor was efficient for synthesizing ZnO and zinc silicate/ZnO precursors. {yields} Introduction of Si into reaction mixture influenced on particle size and their photoactivity. {yields} Prepared particles are appropriate for UV absorbers in polymers. -- Abstract: The formation of zinc silicate/ZnO particles synthesized by a two-step method and their incorporation into PMMA is presented. In the first step a segmented-flow tubular reactor was used for the continuous room-temperature preparation of a zinc silicate/Zn(OH){sub 2} gel that was thermally treated after rinsing and drying in the second step. The same preparation procedure was also employed for the synthesis of pure ZnO and pure zinc silicate particles. It was found that the presence of the zinc silicate phase significantly influenced the final particle size, decreased the degree of crystallization and reduced the particles' UV absorption capabilities. The reduced photocatalytic activity of the zinc silicate/ZnO particles indicated that the majority of ZnO crystallites were formed inside the zinc silicate matrix. The nanocomposite prepared from zinc silicate/ZnO particles (0.04 wt.%) and PMMA showed high UV shielding and at the same time sufficient transmittance in the visible-light region.

  18. Recovery of soluble chloride salts from the wastewater generated during the washing process of municipal solid wastes incineration fly ash.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hailong; Erzat, Aris; Liu, Yangsheng

    2014-01-01

    Water washing is widely used as the pretreatment method to treat municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, which facilitates the further solidification/stabilization treatment or resource recovery of the fly ash. The wastewater generated during the washing process is a kind of hydrosaline solution, usually containing high concentrations of alkali chlorides and sulphates, which cause serious pollution to environment. However, these salts can be recycled as resources instead of discharge. This paper explored an effective and practical recovery method to separate sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride salts individually from the hydrosaline water. In laboratory experiments, a simulating hydrosaline solution was prepared according to composition of the waste washing water. First, in the three-step evaporation-crystallization process, pure sodium chloride and solid mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides were obtained separately, and the remaining solution contained potassium and calcium chlorides (solution A). And then, the solid mixture was fully dissolved into water (solution B obtained). Finally, ethanol was added into solutions A and B to change the solubility of sodium, potassium, and calcium chlorides within the mixed solvent of water and ethanol. During the ethanol-adding precipitation process, each salt was separated individually, and the purity of the raw production in laboratory experiments reached about 90%. The ethanol can be recycled by distillation and reused as the solvent. Therefore, this technology may bring both environmental and economic benefits. PMID:25176491

  19. Zinc metabolism and homeostasis in rats fed a wide range of high dietary zinc levels.

    PubMed

    Ansari, M S; Miller, W J; Neathery, M W; Lassiter, J W; Gentry, R P; Kincaid, R L

    1976-06-01

    Zinc metabolism and homeostasis were studied in young growing rats fed a 38 ppm zinc diet with added zinc levels ranging from 0 to 8400 ppm for 21 days. High dietary zinc did not cause toxicity symptoms. Stable zinc in feces increased linearly with dietary zinc intake but fecal 65Zn, from a single oral dose, did not increase above the 1200 ppm dietary level. Stable zinc in liver, kidney, and tibia increased two to three times with 2400 ppm added zinc, but was not further elevated until 8400 ppm was fed. Stable zinc in muscle and heart was not affected appreciably by dietary zinc level. In all tissues, 65Zn retention was drastically reduced with 1200 ppm added dietary zinc. Additional dietary zinc reduced 65Zn in muscle and heart but had little effect on liver and kidney 65Zn. The data indicate that rats have fairly effective homeostatic control mechanisms for tissue zinc below about 7200 ppm dietary zinc. Whereas, with dietary zinc up to about 1200 ppm, decreasing absorption is the main route of homeostatic control, above this level, more rapid zinc turnover rates and increasing endogenous zinc excretion appear to have major importance. PMID:935183

  20. Structural and spectral properties of a zinc(II) coordination polymer: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jin-Ming; Li, Guang-Yue; Li, Yue-Hua; Cui, Guang Hua

    2014-10-01

    A novel 1D zinc(II) coordination polymer [Zn(bbbm)Cl2]n (where bbbm = 1,4-bis(N-benzimidazolyl)butane) was synthetized by ZnCl2 and bbbm ligand under hydrothermal conditions, and its structural and spectral properties were studied by both experimental and theoretical techniques. The center zinc(II) ion displays four-coordinated in a tetrahedral geometry by two chloride anions and two N atoms of distinct bbbm ligands. Adjacent chains are further connected into a 2D layer structure through ?-? stacking interactions. Vibrational frequencies of [Zn(bbbm)Cl2]n have been calculated using DFT/B3LYP/TZVP method, and well reproduced IR data. Furthermore, the vertical excitation energies from time-dependent DFT calculation confirmed that the fluorescent peaks at 385 nm and 450 nm could respectively be assigned to the ? ? ?* transition within the bbbm ligands and ? ? n transition from chloride anion to bbbm ligand.

  1. Targeting zinc homeostasis to combat Aspergillus fumigatus infections

    PubMed Central

    Vicentefranqueira, Rocío; Amich, Jorge; Laskaris, Paris; Ibrahim-Granet, Oumaima; Latgé, Jean P.; Toledo, Héctor; Leal, Fernando; Calera, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is able to invade and grow in the lungs of immunosuppressed individuals and causes invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The concentration of free zinc in living tissues is much lower than that required for optimal fungal growth in vitro because most of it is tightly bound to proteins. To obtain efficiently zinc from a living host A. fumigatus uses the zinc transporters ZrfA, ZrfB, and ZrfC. The ZafA transcriptional regulator induces the expression of all these transporters and is essential for virulence. Thus, ZafA could be targeted therapeutically to inhibit fungal growth. The ZrfC transporter plays the major role in zinc acquisition from the host whereas ZrfA and ZrfB rather have a supplementary role to that of ZrfC. In addition, only ZrfC enables A. fumigatus to overcome the inhibitory effect of calprotectin, which is an antimicrobial Zn/Mn-chelating protein synthesized and released by neutrophils within the fungal abscesses of immunosuppressed non-leucopenic animals. Hence, fungal survival in these animals would be undermined upon blocking therapeutically the function of ZrfC. Therefore, both ZafA and ZrfC have emerged as promising targets for the discovery of new antifungals to treat Aspergillus infections. PMID:25774155

  2. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...114 and 120) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...

  3. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination... The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination...7.0-8.0; total amines, maximum 1 percent...

  4. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination... The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination...7.0-8.0; total amines, maximum 1 percent...

  5. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination... The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination...7.0-8.0; total amines, maximum 1 percent...

  6. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination... The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination...7.0-8.0; total amines, maximum 1 percent...

  7. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination... The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination...7.0-8.0; total amines, maximum 1 percent...

  8. Factors influencing electrochemical removal of chloride from concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Arya, C.; Sa`id-Shawqi, Q. [South Bank Univ., London (United Kingdom). Div. of Civil Engineering] [South Bank Univ., London (United Kingdom). Div. of Civil Engineering; Vassie, P.R.W. [Transport Research Lab., Crowthorne (United Kingdom)] [Transport Research Lab., Crowthorne (United Kingdom)

    1996-06-01

    Electrochemical chloride removal was studied using prisms made from concrete containing various levels of chlorides derived from sodium chloride added during mixing. The amount of chloride removed during the treatment was assessed by analyzing the anolyte. Chloride removal increased with increasing applied potential, number of reinforcing bars at a particular depth and initial chloride content of the concrete. A greater percentage of chloride was removed from prisms where the thickness of the chloride bearing layer of concrete was less than the depth of cover to the reinforcement. Where the thickness of the chloride bearing layer exceeded the cover to the reinforcement, the use of an external cathode significantly increased the total amount of chloride removed. Chloride removal from a face remote from the source of the chloride contamination (soffit desalination) was shown to be feasible.

  9. The protective role of zinc against acute toxicity of depleted uranium in rats.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yuhui; Ren, Jiong; Liu, Jing; Luo, Shenglin; Ma, Ting; Li, Rong; Su, Yongping

    2012-12-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been widely used in both civilian and military activities and contributes to health problems. This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective role of zinc against acute toxicity of DU. Sprague Dawley rats were injected with DU (10 mg/kg, i.p.) to create a toxicity model (DU group). Before and after the injection of DU, zinc sulphate (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered once a day for 2 days. The survival rates at 30 days post DU administration and the effects of zinc at 4 days post DU administration were evaluated. Our data indicate that zinc has obvious protective effects, especially pre-treatment with zinc. Rats pre-treated with zinc had significantly higher survival rates than rats in the DU group, with 60.03% more surviving. In addition, at 4 days post DU administration, the former had lower kidney uranium content, insignificant renal tubular epithelial cell necrosis and less transparent tubes. Meanwhile, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and urine N-acethyl-?-d-glucosaminidase concentrations were significantly decreased; the gene expression levels of metallothionein (MT) in kidney tissues were significantly increased; and catalase levels were increased and malondialdehyde levels were decreased. In conclusion, pre-treatment with zinc significantly alleviated acute toxicity of DU, and the mechanism appeared to be related to the induction of MT synthesis and enhancement of the antioxidant function. PMID:22703381

  10. Diffusion behavior of chloride ions in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, T.; Gjoerv, O.E. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Div. of Building Materials] [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Div. of Building Materials

    1996-06-01

    In the present paper, an analysis of the diffusion behavior of chloride ions in concrete is presented. In concentrated electrolytic aqueous solutions such as seawater or that typically used in laboratory experiments, the effect of ionic interaction may significantly reduce the chemical potential and thus the driving force of the diffusing species. Because of different drift velocities of the cations and chloride ions in the solution, the lagging motion of the cations will also retard the drift velocity of the chlorides. In addition, both the electrical double layer forming on the solid surface and the chemical binding may significantly interfere with the transport of the chloride ions. As a result, the diffusion behavior of the chloride ions in concrete is a more complex and complicated transport process than what can be described by Fick`s law of diffusion.

  11. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-01-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  12. Chloride penetration into concrete structures in the marine atmosphere zone – Relationship between deposition of chlorides on the wet candle and chlorides accumulated into concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Meira; C. Andrade; I. J. Padaratz; C. Alonso; J BORBAJR

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between chlorides from marine aerosol and chlorides accumulated into concrete is discussed in this paper. The experimental programme comprised an environmental characterisation, with climatic and chloride deposition data, and a study of chloride penetration into concrete based on natural exposure of specimens in a marine atmosphere zone. Results show that salt concentration in marine aerosol strongly decreases in

  13. Village-Randomized Clinical Trial of Home Distribution of Zinc for Treatment of Childhood Diarrhea in Rural Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Feikin, Daniel R.; Bigogo, Godfrey; Audi, Allan; Pals, Sherri L.; Aol, George; Mbakaya, Charles; Williamson, John; Breiman, Robert F.; Larson, Charles P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Zinc treatment shortens diarrhea episodes and can prevent future episodes. In rural Africa, most children with diarrhea are not brought to health facilities. In a village-randomized trial in rural Kenya, we assessed if zinc treatment might have a community-level preventive effect on diarrhea incidence if available at home versus only at health facilities. Methods We randomized 16 Kenyan villages (1,903 eligible children) to receive a 10-day course of zinc and two oral rehydration solution (ORS) sachets every two months at home and 17 villages (2,241 eligible children) to receive ORS at home, but zinc at the health–facility only. Children’s caretakers were educated in zinc/ORS use by village workers, both unblinded to intervention arm. We evaluated whether incidence of diarrhea and acute lower respiratory illness (ALRI) reported at biweekly home visits and presenting to clinic were lower in zinc villages, using poisson regression adjusting for baseline disease rates, distance to clinic, and children’s age. Results There were no differences between village groups in diarrhea incidence either reported at the home or presenting to clinic. In zinc villages (1,440 children analyzed), 61.2% of diarrheal episodes were treated with zinc, compared to 5.4% in comparison villages (1,584 children analyzed, p<0.0001). There were no differences in ORS use between zinc (59.6%) and comparison villages (58.8%). Among children with fever or cough without diarrhea, zinc use was low (<0.5%). There was a lower incidence of reported ALRI in zinc villages (adjusted RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46–0.99), but not presenting at clinic. Conclusions In this study, home zinc use to treat diarrhea did not decrease disease rates in the community. However, with proper training, availability of zinc at home could lead to more episodes of pediatric diarrhea being treated with zinc in parts of rural Africa where healthcare utilization is low. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00530829 PMID:24835009

  14. Evaluation of digestion procedures for the determination of iron and zinc in biscuits by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Doner; A. Ege

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation is made of different digestion methods for the determination of iron and zinc in biscuits prior to flame atomic absorption analysis. For the initial studies, microwave digestion was enough (using hydrogen chloride and nitric acid 3:1, v\\/v, at 180°C and 600W) to provide comparable accuracy, precision, digestion time and non-critical handling of reagents to dry-ashing and wet digestion

  15. Controlled growth of superhydrophobic films without any low-surface-energy modification by chemical displacement on zinc substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenguo Xu; Xiaofeng Shi; Shixiang Lu

    2011-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surface was prepared via immersing the clean perpendicular zinc substrate into aqueous copper (II) chloride (CuCl2) solution and followed by anneal under the humid condition. The prepared samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis (EDX). SEM images of the films showed

  16. Spectrofluorimetric determination of thallium in silicate rocks with rhodamine b in the presence of aluminum chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shnepfe, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    A sensitive spectrofluorimetric procedure with rhodamine B in the presence of aluminum chloride is given for determining submicrogram and microgram quantities of thallium in silicate rocks. Samples are decomposed with a mixture of hydrofluoric and nitric acids and then treated with hydrochloric acid. Thallium is extracted as its dithizonate with chloroform from an alkaline medium containing ascorbate, citrate, and cyanide and then back-extracted with dilute nitric acid. After destruction of the organic matter and treatment with bromine, hydrochloric acid, aluminum chloride, and rhodamine B, the {A table is presented}. ?? 1975.

  17. Synchrotron Speciation of Silver and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Aged in a Kaolin Suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Scheckel, Kirk G.; Luxton, Todd P.; El Badawy, Amro M.; Impellitteri, Christopher A.; Tolaymat, Thabet M. (EPA); (UCIN)

    2010-07-23

    Assessments of the environmental fate and mobility of nanoparticles must consider the behavior of nanoparticles in relevant environmental systems that may result in speciation changes over time. Environmental conditions may act on nanoparticles to change their size, shape, and surface chemistry. Changing these basic characteristics of nanoparticles may result in a final reaction product that is significantly different than the initial nanomaterial. As such, basing long-term risk and toxicity on the initial properties of a nanomaterial may lead to erroneous conclusions if nanoparticles change upon release to the environment. The influence of aging on the speciation and chemical stability of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles in kaolin suspensions was examined in batch reactors for up to 18 months. Silver nanoparticles remained unchanged in sodium nitrate suspensions; however, silver chloride was identified with the metallic silver nanoparticles in sodium chloride suspensions and may be attributed to an in situ silver chloride surface coating. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were rapidly converted via destabilization/dissolution mechanisms to Zn{sup 2+} inner-sphere sorption complexes within 1 day of reaction and these sorption complexes were maintained through the 12 month aging processes. Chemical and physical alteration of nanomaterials in the environment must be examined to understand fate, mobility, and toxicology.

  18. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good...

  3. Characterisation of endogenous KRAB zinc finger proteins 

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) zinc finger protein (ZFP) genes comprise one of the largest gene families in the mammalian genome, encoding transcription factors with an N-terminal KRAB domain and C-terminal zinc ...

  4. Effect of high amounts of dietary zinc and age upon tissue zinc in young chicks.

    PubMed

    Kincaid, R L; Miller, W J; Jensen, L S; Hampton, D L; Neathery, M W; Gentry, R P

    1976-09-01

    Weight gains of younger broiler chicks were not reduced by up to 2400 p.p.m. added zinc fed to four weeks of age. Tissue zinc was not changed significantly by 600 or 1200 p.p.m. supplemental dietary zinc, but at 2400 p.p.m. added zinc, blood, kidney, and liver zinc were significantly elevated (P less than 0.05). In the heart, zinc was not affected by the added dietary zinc but increased over time with all diets. Unlike the calf and weanling pig, the metabolism of zinc in the young chick does not appear to change appreciably with increasing maturity. Thus, the homeostatic control mechanisms of the young chick are effective for up to 1200 p.p.m. dietary zinc, but are partially overcome by 2400 p.p.m. added dietary zinc. PMID:995817

  5. Zinc speciation in the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Ellwood

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of zinc and zinc complexation by natural organic ligands in the northeastern part of the Atlantic Ocean were made using cathodic stripping voltammetry with ligand competition. Total zinc concentrations ranged from 0.3 nM in surface waters to 2 nM at 2000 m for open-ocean waters, whilst nearer the English coast, zinc concentrations reached 1.5 nM in the upper water

  6. The mechanism of zinc tolerance in grasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Brookes; J. C. Collins; D. A. Thurman

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism of zinc tolerance in non?tolerant and tolerant clones of Deschampsia caespitosa and Anthoxanthum odoratum has been investigated. Analysis of non?tolerant and tolerant clones of these two grasses showed that the tolerant roots accumulated more zinc than the non?tolerant ones. The zinc contents of the shoots of both clones were similar and contained less zinc than the roots. Compartmental

  7. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    Varistors and/or resistors that includes doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  8. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-07-27

    Varistors and/or resistors are described that include doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  9. Zinc, aging, and immunosenescence: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Ángel Julio Romero

    2015-01-01

    Zinc plays an essential role in many biochemical pathways and participates in several cell functions, including the immune response. This review describes the role of zinc in human health, aging, and immunosenescence. Zinc deficiency is frequent in the elderly and leads to changes similar to those that occur in oxidative inflammatory aging (oxi-inflamm-aging) and immunosenescence. The possible benefits of zinc supplementation to enhance immune function are discussed. PMID:25661703

  10. Zinc supplementation therapy improves the outcome of patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Hiroshi; Nirei, Kazushige; Nakamura, Hitomi; Arakawa, Yasuo; Higuchi, Teruhisa; Hayashi, Jyunpei; Yamagami, Hiroaki; Matsuoka, Syunichi; Ogawa, Masahiro; Nakajima, Noriko; Tanaka, Naohide; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko

    2012-11-01

    We administered zinc supplementation therapy over three years to patients with chronic hepatitis C and reported and that the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotaransferase (ALT) levels decreased, and platelet counts increased, significantly in the group with increased serum zinc concentrations. We are continuing this treatment to clarify the long-term consequences and report here the changes in serum zinc concentrations over seven years and compare the cumulative incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We administered polaprezinc to 32 patients, randomly selected for zinc therapy (treatment group), while another 30 formed the control group. We measured the serum zinc and albumin concentrations and conducted a prospective study to determine long-term outcomes. The changes and rates of change of serum zinc concentrations after seven years were 76.7 ± 18.2 µg/dl and +0.302 ± 0.30% in the treatment group and 56.7 ± 12.4 µg/dl and +0.033 ± 0.21% in the control group and had increased significantly (p = 0.0002, p = 0.0036). Progression of liver disease seemed to vary, depending on serum albumin concentrations. In the group with baseline serum albumin concentrations of 4.0 g/dl or more, the change and rate of change of serum zinc concentrations increased significantly, and the cumulative incidence of HCC tended to decrease, in the treated group. According to multivariate analysis, the factors that contribute to a reduction in the incidence of HCC are zinc therapy (risk ratio: 0.113, 95% CI: 0.015-0.870, p = 0.0362), and platelet counts (0.766, 0.594-0.989, 0.0409). Zinc supplementation therapy seems to improve liver pathology and reduce the incidence of HCC. PMID:23170044

  11. Zinc supplementation therapy improves the outcome of patients with chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Hiroshi; Nirei, Kazushige; Nakamura, Hitomi; Arakawa, Yasuo; Higuchi, Teruhisa; Hayashi, Jyunpei; Yamagami, Hiroaki; Matsuoka, Syunichi; Ogawa, Masahiro; Nakajima, Noriko; Tanaka, Naohide; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    We administered zinc supplementation therapy over three years to patients with chronic hepatitis C and reported and that the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotaransferase (ALT) levels decreased, and platelet counts increased, significantly in the group with increased serum zinc concentrations. We are continuing this treatment to clarify the long-term consequences and report here the changes in serum zinc concentrations over seven years and compare the cumulative incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We administered polaprezinc to 32 patients, randomly selected for zinc therapy (treatment group), while another 30 formed the control group. We measured the serum zinc and albumin concentrations and conducted a prospective study to determine long-term outcomes. The changes and rates of change of serum zinc concentrations after seven years were 76.7 ± 18.2 µg/dl and +0.302 ± 0.30% in the treatment group and 56.7 ± 12.4 µg/dl and +0.033 ± 0.21% in the control group and had increased significantly (p = 0.0002, p = 0.0036). Progression of liver disease seemed to vary, depending on serum albumin concentrations. In the group with baseline serum albumin concentrations of 4.0 g/dl or more, the change and rate of change of serum zinc concentrations increased significantly, and the cumulative incidence of HCC tended to decrease, in the treated group. According to multivariate analysis, the factors that contribute to a reduction in the incidence of HCC are zinc therapy (risk ratio: 0.113, 95% CI: 0.015–0.870, p = 0.0362), and platelet counts (0.766, 0.594–0.989, 0.0409). Zinc supplementation therapy seems to improve liver pathology and reduce the incidence of HCC. PMID:23170044

  12. Cardiovascular alterations in dogs treated with hydralazine.

    PubMed

    Mesfin, G M; Shawaryn, G G; Higgins, M J

    1987-01-01

    Groups of 5 male beagle dogs were treated orally with hydralazine tablets in gelatin capsules at a dose of 12 or 24 mg/kg twice a day (6 hours apart) for 2 consecutive days. Five male dogs treated with empty gelatin capsules served as untreated controls. Clinical findings and heart rate changes during treatment and terminal body weight, hematology, and blood chemistry changes were evaluated. The heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, and thymus of each animal were examined microscopically. Dogs in the 12 mg/kg group ate less than control group. Dogs treated with 24 mg/kg did not eat and vomited. Heart rates in both of the treated groups increased by 60% to 80% within 2 hours of treatment and remained high during the entire treatment period. Significant hematologic change was confined to a slight increase in platelet number of dogs treated with 24 mg/kg. Serum glucose was increased in the hydralazine treated dogs. Conjugated serum bilirubin was increased and serum potassium, chloride and phosphorus were decreased in the 24 mg/kg group. Blood urea nitrogen and serum chloride were slightly increased in dogs treated with 12 mg/kg. Treatment-related pathologic alterations were confined to the heart. Two dogs from each of the hydralazine groups experienced acute localized hemorrhage into the epicardium and subepicardium of the right atrium. The media of the muscular branches of the coronary arteries, especially the left coronary artery, was hemorrhagic in 3 dogs from the 24 mg/kg group. Medial necrosis, when seen, tended to be proportional to the severity of medial hemorrhages. There was no necrosis in the papillary muscles of the heart.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3432940

  13. Lab-on-a-Chip Sensor with Evaporated Bismuth Film Electrode for Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Zinc.

    PubMed

    Kang, Wenjing; Pei, Xing; Yue, Wei; Bange, Adam; Heineman, William R; Papautsky, Ian

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we report on the development of a lab-on-a-chip electrochemical sensor that uses an evaporated bismuth electrode to detect zinc using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The microscale electrochemical cell consists of a bismuth working electrode, an integrated silver/silver chloride reference electrode, and a gold auxiliary electrode. The sensor demonstrated linear response in 0.1 M acetate buffer at pH 6 with zinc concentrations ranging from 1 ?M to 30 ?M and a calculated detection limit of 60 nM. The sensor was also able to successfully detect zinc in a bovine serum extract and the results were verified with independent AAS measurements. These results demonstrate the advantageous qualities of this lab-on-a-chip electrochemical sensor for clinical applications, which include a small sample volume (?L scale), reduced cost, short response time and high accuracy at low concentrations of analyte. PMID:24436575

  14. The transport of chloride in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Levinson, C; Villereal, M L

    1976-06-01

    The steady state transport and distribution of chloride between the intracellular and extracellular phases was investigated when the extracellular chloride concentration was varied by isosmotic replacement with nitrate, bromide and acetate. The results of these experiments show that chloride transport, measured by uptake of 36Cl, is sensitive to the replacement anion. In the presence of nitrate, chloride transport is a linear function of the extracellular chloride concentration. The relationship between chloride transport and extracellular chloride in the presence of bromide is concave upward which suggests that this anion inhibits chloride movement. However, when acetate replaces chloride, the relationship between chloride transport and extracellular chloride is concave downward. The chloride distribution ratio of cells incubated in 145-155mM chloride medium is 0.386 and is not effected by the replacement of chloride with nitrate, bromide or acetate. These findings are consistent with the assertion that chloride transport is composed of two parallel pathways, a diffusional plus a saturating, mediated component. Of the total chloride flux (9.1 mmoles Cl-/kg dry weight per minute) measured in chloride medium (145-155 mM Cl-), the mediated component represents 40% and the diffusional component 60%. PMID:1270521

  15. Performance and Milk Zinc from Low-zinc Intake in Holstein Cows1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Neathery; W. J. Miller; D. M. Blackmon; R. P. Gentry

    1973-01-01

    Following a 1-week standardization pe- riod, a high beet pulp, low-zinc diet ( 16.6 parts per million) was fed with (39.5 parts per million total zinc) and without supplemental zinc as zinc oxide to 10 first-lactation Holstein cows (linearly de- clining phase of lactation) for 6 weeks. The low-zinc diet did not adversely affect milk production, fat-corrected milk, solids- corrected

  16. 21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food...Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a) Specifications. Type A medicated articles containing bacitracin zinc equivalent to 10, 25, 40, or 50...

  17. Reduction of N-nitrosodimethylamine with zero-valent zinc.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Chen, Zhong-lin; Tong, Li-na; Yang, Lei; Shen, Ji-min; Wang, Bin-yuan; Liu, Yue; Liu, Yu; Chen, Qian

    2013-01-01

    N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is known as the disinfection by-product and the pollutant in the source water. Reduction with zero-valent zinc (Zn(0)) was investigated as a potential technology to treat NDMA. The results showed that Zn(0) was effective for NDMA reduction at initial pH 7.0. There were lag period and rapid period during the process, the corresponding zero-order rate constant (k(zero)) was 2.968 ± 0.245 ?g L(-1) h(-1) ([Zn(0)](0) = 10g L(-1)),the mass normalized pseudo-first-order rate (k(M)) was 0.1215 ± 0.0171 L g(-1) h(-1). The reactivity of zinc on NDMA removal was consistent with the zinc corrosion rate. NDMA had little effect on the corrosion of zinc. Lower solution pH benefited the reduction of NDMA with Zn(0). The consumption of the oxygen and the localized acidification should be the cause of the shift from lag to rapid reaction period in the aerobic experiments. 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine, UDMH), dimethylamine (DMA) were detected as the products of NDMA degradation. The nitrogen mass balance at 24 h was 56%, the loss can be due to the formation of ammonium, the degradation of UDMH and other unmeasured products. DMA formed during the degradation of UDMH with Zn(0), the nitrogen loss could be caused by the formation of unmeasured products. Catalytic hydrogenation is proposed to be the mechanism based on the results and the redox properties of zinc and NDMA. One reduction process is: the active hydrogen atoms initially cleave and reduce the N=O bond in NDMA, generating UDMH. Then the N-N bond in UDMH is cleaved to form DMA and ammonium. PMID:23084118

  18. The alkaline zinc electrode as a mixed potential system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielder, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Cathodic and anodic processes for the alkaline zinc electrode in 0.01 molar zincate electrolyte (9 molar hydroxide) were investigated. Cyclic voltammograms and current-voltage curves were obtained by supplying pulses through a potentiostat to a zinc rotating disk electrode. The data are interpreted by treating the system as one with a mixed potential; the processes are termed The zincate and corrosion reactions. The relative proportions of the two processes vary with the supplied potential. For the cathodic region, the cathodic corrosion process predominates at higher potentials while both processes occur simultaneously at a lower potential (i.e., 50 mV). For the anodic region, the anodic zincate process predominates at higher potentials while the anodic corrosion process is dominant at lower potential (i.e., 50 mV) if H2 is present.

  19. Electrochemical fabrication of nanoporous copper films in choline chloride-urea deep eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q B; Abbott, Andrew P; Yang, C

    2015-05-27

    Nanoporous copper films were fabricated by a facile electrochemical alloying/dealloying process without the need of a template. A deep eutectic solvent made from choline chloride (ChCl) and urea was used with zinc oxide as the metal salt. Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterise the electrochemical reduction of zinc and follow Cu-Zn alloy formation on the copper substrate at elevated temperatures from 353 to 393 K. The alloy formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction spectra. 3D, open and bicontinuous nanoporous copper films were obtained by in situ electrochemically etching (dealloying) of the zinc component in the Cu-Zn surface alloys at an appropriate potential (-0.4 V vs. Ag). This dealloying process was found to be highly temperature dependent and surface diffusion controlled, which involved the self-assembly of copper atoms at the alloy/electrolyte interface. Additionally, the effects of the deposition parameters, including deposition temperature, current density as well as total charge density on resulting the microstructure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscope. PMID:25972227

  20. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2002, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-print Network

    190 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2002, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about% of production. Two primary and 13 large- and medium-sized secondary smelters refined zinc metal of commercial

  1. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2001, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-print Network

    188 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2001, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about-fourths of production. Three primary and 12 large- and medium-sized secondary smelters refined zinc metal of commercial

  2. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2004, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-print Network

    188 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2004, based on contained zinc recoverable from concentrate, was about% of total U.S. production. Two primary and 12 large- and medium-sized secondary smelters refined zinc metal

  3. Zn distribution and speciation in zinc-containing steelmaking wastes by synchrotron radiation induced ?-XRF and ?-XANES spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lihua; Huang, Yuying; Lu, Xiaoming

    2013-04-01

    Zinc is an important element in steelmaking industry not only for its impact on environment but also for its hazardous influence to steel production. Collecting information about the chemical association of zinc in zinc-containing steelmaking wastes is fundamental for monitoring its behavior during further treatment. In the work presented here, the spatial distribution, and chemical forms of zinc in accumulated particles of zinc-containing steelmaking wastes, including electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) and basic oxygen furnace OG sludge (BOF OG), have been investigated using synchrotron radiation induced ?-XRF and ?-XANES spectroscopy. Results of ?-XRF analysis showed that zinc distributed in two ways. One was shared with iron and its distribution showed a positive correlation with that of iron. The other was accumulated in some well-defined hot spots with high amount and its distribution showed negative correlation with that of iron. For EAFD, results of ?-XANES spectroscopy indicated that zinc was mainly present in the form of ZnFe2O4 within the whole particles no matter the spots with high or low zinc content. Whereas for BOF OG, ZnFe2O4 was the main constituent in well-defined hot spots while in other regions zinc was mainly in the form of zinc carbonate. These results indicated that chemical reaction between zinc and other components occurred during the formation of accumulated OG sludge particles. If the above findings could be confirmed by more systematic investigations, it will provide valuable information for treating and utilizing these metallurgical residues.

  4. Phenomics of Cardiac Chloride Channels

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Dayue Darrel

    2014-01-01

    Forward genetic studies have identified several chloride (Cl?) channel genes, including CFTR, ClC-2, ClC-3, CLCA, Bestrophin, and Ano1, in the heart. Recent reverse genetic studies using gene targeting and transgenic techniques to delineate the functional role of cardiac Cl? channels have shown that Cl? channels may contribute to cardiac arrhythmogenesis, myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure, and cardioprotection against ischemia reperfusion. The study of physiological or pathophysiological phenotypes of cardiac Cl? channels, however, is complicated by the compensatory changes in the animals in response to the targeted genetic manipulation. Alternatively, tissue-specific conditional or inducible knockout or knockin animal models may be more valuable in the phenotypic studies of specific Cl? channels by limiting the effect of compensation on the phenotype. The integrated function of Cl? channels may involve multiprotein complexes of the Cl? channel subproteome. Similar phenotypes can be attained from alternative protein pathways within cellular networks, which are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The phenomics approach, which characterizes phenotypes as a whole phenome and systematically studies the molecular changes that give rise to particular phenotypes achieved by modifying the genotype under the scope of genome/proteome/phenome, may provide more complete understanding of the integrated function of each cardiac Cl? channel in the context of health and disease. PMID:23720326

  5. Corrosion behaviors of materials in aluminum chloride–1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chien-Hsiung Tseng; Jeng-Kuei Chang; Jhen-Rong Chen; W. T. Tsai; Ming-Jay Deng; I-Wen Sun

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion properties of carbon steel (CS), 304 stainless steel (304 SS), and pure titanium (Ti) are first studied in aluminum chloride–1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid (IL). An active-to-passive transition behavior was clearly observed for CS. The 304 SS exhibited the best stability among the materials; no considerable corrosion was recognized even in this high-chloride environment. In contrast, although Ti resists

  6. Influence of voltage on chloride diffusion coefficients from chloride migration tests

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, P.F.; Hooton, R.D. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-08-01

    A chloride migration test method is described and test results are given for concrete subjected to a range of potential gradients. A method for setting the potential across the sample length using reference electrodes and Luggin capillaries is described. Apparent and effective diffusion coefficients were calculated from chloride break-through time and steady state chloride flux respectively at each potential. Accounting for polarization and IR drop losses is significant particularly at lower applied potentials.

  7. Reductive Dechlorination of the Vinyl Chloride Surrogate

    E-print Network

    Semprini, Lewis

    , microbial transformation of TCE results in the accumulation of vinyl chloride (VC), a known carcinogen with PVC manufacturing. In addition, accumulation of VC, a known carcinogen (2), is sometimes observed

  8. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  9. Microencapsulation of potassium chloride with mastic.

    PubMed

    Georgarakis, M; Gröning, R; Henzler, P

    1987-07-01

    The present investigation deals with the microencapsulation of potassium chloride with mastic. Spherical potassium chloride crystals with a mean particle diameter of approximately 450 microns were used. It could be shown that with a layer of mastic wall material thicker than 21 microns the release of potassium chloride in the in vitro test can be controlled for more than 6 h. The thickness of the wall material over the tested range of 21 to 33 microns has only a limited effect on the kinetics of release of potassium chloride. Increasing the thickness of the layer from 21 to 33 microns merely leads to a reduction of about another 10% in the amount of drug released in 6 h. PMID:3671470

  10. Reactions of polyfluoroalkenylsulfenyl chlorides with carbonyl compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Kovregin; A. Yu. Sizov; A. F. Ermolov; A. F. Kolomiets

    2000-01-01

    Polyfluorinated 1-fluoroalk-1-enylsulfenyl chlorides react with ketones RCOCH2R? to give unsaturated sulfides. The latter undergo smooth cyclization into 2-alkylidene-1,3-oxathioles in the presence of\\u000a BF3NEt3.

  11. Membrane potential, chloride exchange, and chloride conductance in Ehrlich mouse ascites tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, E K; Simonsen, L O; Sjøholm, C

    1979-01-01

    1. The steady-state tracer exchange flux of chloride was measured at 10-150 mM external chloride concentration, substituting either lactate or sucrose for chloride. The chloride flux saturates in both cases with a K 1/2 about 50 and 15 mM, respectively. 2. The inhibitory effect of other monovalent anions on the chloride transport was investigated by measuring the 36Cl- efflux into media where either bromide, nitrate, or thiocyanate had been substituted for part of the chloride. The sequence of increasing affinity for the chloride transport system was found to be: Br- less than Cl- less than SCN- = NO3-. 3. The chloride steady-state exchange flux in the presence of nitrate can be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with nitrate as a competitive inhibitor of the chloride flux. 4. The apparent activation energy (EA) was determined to be 67 +/- 6.2 kJ/mole, and was constant between 7 and 38 degrees C. 5. The membrane potential (Vm) was measured as a function of the concentration of external K+, substituting K+ for Na+. The transference number of K+ (tK) was estimated from the slope of Vm vs. log10 (K+)e, and tCl and tNa were calculated, neglecting current carried by ions other than Cl-, K+, and Na+. The diffusional net flux of K+ was calculated from the steady-state exchange flux of 42K+, assuming the flux ratio equation to be valid. From this value the K+ conductance and the Na+ and Cl- conductances were calculated. The experiments showed that GCl, GNa, and GK are all about 14 muS/cm2. 6. The net (conductive) chloride permeability derived from the chloride conductance was 4 x 10(-8) cm/sec compared with the apparent permeability of 6 x 10(-7) cm/sec as calculated from the chloride tracer exchange flux. These data suggest that about 95% of the chloride transport is mediated by an electrically silent exchange diffusion. 7. Comparable effects of phloretin (0.25 mM) on the net (conductive) permeability and the apparent permeability to chloride (about 80% inhibition) may indicate that the chloride exchange and conductance pathways are not completely separate and distinct modes of transport, but may involve common elements. The reduced chloride permeability in the presence of phloretin is estimated to be two orders of magnitude larger than the ground permeability of the cell membrane. PMID:529133

  12. Reactions of polyfluoroalkylsulfenyl chlorides with phenols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Yu. Sizov; A. F. Kolomiets; A. V. Fokin

    1991-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkylsulfenyl chlorides thiolate phenol and its ortho- and meta-substituted derivatives regiospecifically at the para-position in the absence of a catalyst and of a hydrogen chloride acceptor. Ortho thiolation occurs with significantly greater difficulty in the para-substituted phenols, and is only possible with the strong electron-donor properties of the substituent. Polyfluoroalkylthiolation of phenols is rendered more difficult with the increase in

  13. Copper chloride cathode for a secondary battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (inventor); Bankston, Clyde P. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Higher energy and power densities are achieved in a secondary battery based on molten sodium and a solid, ceramic separator such as a beta alumina and a molten catholyte such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a copper chloride cathode. The higher cell voltage of copper chloride provides higher energy densities and the higher power density results from increased conductivity resulting from formation of copper as discharge proceeds.

  14. Inhibition of epithelial chloride channels by cytosol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kunzelmann; M. Tilmann; Ch. P. Hansen; R. Greger

    1991-01-01

    Chloride channels that have an intermediate conductance and are outwardly rectifying were studied by the patch-clamp technique in cell-excised membrane patches from respiratory epithelial cells in primary culture (REC) of normal and cystic fibrosis tissue, HT29 and T84 human colon carcinoma cells and placenta trophoblast cells (PTC). Chloride channels were immediately activated by the exposure of the cytosolic side of

  15. The 5-(4-Ethynylophenoxy) isophthalic chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B. J. (inventors)

    1986-01-01

    Sulfone-ester polymers containing pendent ethynyl groups and a direct and multistep process for preparing them are disclosed. The multistep process involves the conversion of a pendent bromo group to the ethynyl group while the direct route involves reating hydroxy-terminated sulfone oligomer or polymers with a stoichiometric amount of 5-(4-ethynylphenoxy) isophthaloyl chloride. The 5-(4-ethynylphenoxy) isophthaloyl chloride and the process for preparing it are also disclosed.

  16. Asymmetry of the chloride transport system in human erythrocyte ghosts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus F. Schnell; Elisabeth Besl; Annette Manz

    1978-01-01

    The concentration dependence of the unidirectional chloride flux and the inhibition of the unidirectional chloride flux by sulfate were studied in human red cell ghosts. The concentration dependence of the unidirectional chloride flux and its inhibition by sulfate were asymmetric. The unidirectional chloride flux can be saturated from the inner and from the outer membrane surface. For the inner membrane

  17. Treatment and recycling of zinc hydrometallurgical wastes by self-propagating reactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Orrù; Mariella Sannia; Alberto Cincotti; Giacomo Cao

    1999-01-01

    A novel technique for treating and recycling of a highly toxic solid waste from electrolytic zinc plants, i.e. goethite waste, is proposed. It consists of blending this waste with suitable amount of reducing agents (aluminum or aluminum and silicon) and ferric oxide, and igniting the resulting mixture so that a self-propagating reaction in the form of a combustion wave rapidly

  18. Zinc Finger Tools: custom DNA-binding domains for transcription factors and nucleases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey G. Mandell; Carlos F. Barbas III

    2006-01-01

    Individual zinc finger (ZF) domains that recognize DNA triplets with high specificity and affinity can be used to create designer transcription factors and nucleases that are specific for nearly any site in the genome. These domains can be treated as modular units and assembled to create a polydactyl protein that recognizes extended DNA sequences. Deter- mination of valid target sites

  19. Nickel-catalyzed carboannulation reaction of o-bromobenzyl zinc bromide with unsaturated compounds.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ruixue; Sun, Liangdong; Li, Zhi

    2007-12-01

    A number of indenes have been prepared in good yields by treating o-bromobenzyl zinc bromide 1 with various terminal and internal alkynes in the presence of a nickel catalyst. The nickel-catalyzed carboannulation reaction was successfully extended to the synthesis of indane derivatives by reaction of 1 with acrylates and styrene. PMID:17990889

  20. Zinc Therapy in Dermatology: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc, both in elemental or in its salt forms, has been used as a therapeutic modality for centuries. Topical preparations like zinc oxide, calamine, or zinc pyrithione have been in use as photoprotecting, soothing agents or as active ingredient of antidandruff shampoos. Its use has expanded manifold over the years for a number of dermatological conditions including infections (leishmaniasis, warts), inflammatory dermatoses (acne vulgaris, rosacea), pigmentary disorders (melasma), and neoplasias (basal cell carcinoma). Although the role of oral zinc is well-established in human zinc deficiency syndromes including acrodermatitis enteropathica, it is only in recent years that importance of zinc as a micronutrient essential for infant growth and development has been recognized. The paper reviews various dermatological uses of zinc. PMID:25120566

  1. Aqueous phototransformation of zinc pyrithione

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Sakkas; K. Shibata; Y. Yamaguchi; S. Sugasawa; T. Albanis

    2007-01-01

    The photochemical behavior of the antifouling agent zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) was studied in aqueous media of different composition under simulated solar irradiation using a xenon light source. The influence of important constituents of natural water (dissolved organic matter and nitrate) was also examined using a multivariate kinetic model. It was found that photodegradation proceeds via a pseudo first-order reaction. Kinetic

  2. Identification of the different sources of chlorides in streams by regression analysis using chloride-discharge relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albek

    1999-01-01

    Chloride-discharge relationships at several stations on Turkish streams are investigated, both qualitatively and quantitatively, to identify natural and anthropogenic sources of chloride. Simple expressions are used to distinguish among sources. Linear regression analysis is conducted to estimate parameters of the models. Five groups of stations are distinguished respective to different sources of chloride and change of chloride concentration with stream

  3. Dihydro-orotase from Clostridium oroticum. Purification and reversible removal of essential zinc.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, D W; Bidigare, R R; Mehta, B J; Williams, M I; Sander, E G

    1985-08-15

    A new purification procedure involving five column-chromatography steps is described for dihydro-orotase (L-5,6-dihydro-orotate amidohydrolase, EC 3.5.2.3) from Clostridium oroticum (A.T.C.C. 25750). The native purified enzyme is a dimer of Mr 102 000 and contains 4.0 +/- 0.3 g-atoms of zinc/mol of dimer. These observations agree with those reported previously [Taylor, Taylor, Balch & Gilchrist (1976) J. Bacteriol. 127, 863-873]. It is conclusively demonstrated that dihydro-orotase is a zinc metalloenzyme. Zinc is reversibly removed by treatment with chelators in phosphate buffer at pH 6.5, as demonstrated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and decrease of enzyme activity. The specific activity is linearly dependent on zinc content. Addition of ZnSO4 to the chelator-treated enzyme results in regain of the normal complement of zinc and enzyme activity. Kinetic properties of the reconstituted enzyme are indistinguishable from those of the native enzyme. The amino acid composition of the homogeneous enzyme suggests that the zinc atoms occupy different environments. PMID:2864918

  4. Zinc Transporters in the Mouse Placenta Show a Coordinated Regulatory Response to Changes in Dietary Zinc Intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Helston; S. R. Phillips; J. A. McKay; K. A. Jackson; J. C. Mathers; D. Ford

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if the expression of zinc transporters in the mouse placenta is regulated by dietary zinc, commensurate with regulating the supply of zinc to the fetus. Mice were fed diets differing only in the concentration of zinc (moderately zinc-restricted (ZnR) – 15mgZn\\/kg; zinc-adequate (ZnA) – 50mgZn\\/kg; zinc-supplemented (ZnS) – 150mgZn\\/kg) from the onset

  5. A crystal phase study of zinc hydroxide chloride in electric-arc-furnace dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung-Lee Li; Min-Shing Tsai

    1993-01-01

    Chemical analysis shows that electric-arc-furnace (EAF) dust obtained from 13 steelmaking factories in Taiwan is composed chiefly of Fe (15–37%), Zn (7–28%) and Mn (1.55–3.99%) and that the mineral composition is mainly (Mn, Zn) Fe2O4, ZnO and ZnCl2·4Zn(OH)2·H2O. It was also found that EAF dust exists as irregular agglomerates from 3 to 20 µm in size and are made up

  6. ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYSIS IN COAL AND BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION AT PREPYROLYSIS TEMPERATURES

    E-print Network

    Onu, Christopher O.

    2013-01-01

    Hoisture-Free Coal Hydrogen Nitrogen Sulfur Ash Oxygen (bituminous Coal Proximate Analysis, %+ Moisture Ash Volatileand ash content) and Table 1 Operation Conditions and Yields of Major Processes for Conversion of Coal

  7. Zinc chloride-promoted aryl bromide-alkyne cross-coupling reactions at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Finke, Aaron D; Elleby, Eric C; Boyd, Michael J; Weissman, Haim; Moore, Jeffrey S

    2009-11-20

    Substoichiometric amounts of ZnCl(2) promote the room temperature, Pd/P(t-Bu)(3)-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl bromides with alkynes. Pd(I) dimer 1 is demonstrated to be a particularly active precatalyst for this reaction. The reaction is general for a wide variety of aryl bromides. PMID:19860393

  8. Intestinal zinc transport: influence of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, insulin and arachidonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Song, M.K.; Mooradian, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of arachidonic acid (AA) on the zinc flux rates of jejunal segments, isolated from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats injected with saline or with insulin, was investigated using an Ussing chamber technique. Although the zinc flux rates from mucose-to-serosa (J/sub ms/) of normal rats were inhibited by addition of 5 ..mu..M AA to the jejunal segment bathing medium, AA had no effect on the J/sub ms/ of diabetic rats either with or without insulin treatment. Induction of diabetes also significantly reduces J/sub ms/, but 3 day insulin treatment did not reverse this effect. Addition of AA to the serosal side did not significantly alter the zinc flux rate from serosa-to-mucosa (J/sub sm/) in either control, diabetic or diabetic rats treated with insulin. The net zinc absorption rate (J/sub net/) of jejunal segments was decreased in diabetic rats compared to controls, but normalization of blood glucose with 3 day insulin treatment did not increase J/sub net/. Addition of AA was associated with a tendency to increase zinc uptake capacity. This change reached statistical significance in insulin treated diabetic rats. Short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) for diabetic rats was increased compared to controls but addition of AA to the mucosal side bathing medium decreased I/sub sc/ in all groups. 32 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  9. Therapeutic Restoration of Spinal Inhibition via Druggable Enhancement of Potassium-Chloride Cotransporter KCC2–Mediated Chloride Extrusion in Peripheral Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kahle, Kristopher T.; Khanna, Arjun; Clapham, David E.; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathic pain, typified by the development of spontaneous pain or pain hypersensitivity following injury to the peripheral nervous system, is common, greatly impairs quality of life, and is inadequately treated with available drugs. Maladaptive changes in chloride homeostasis due to a decrease in the functional expression of the potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2 in spinal cord dorsal horn neurons are a major contributor to the central disinhibition of ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptor– and glycine receptor–mediated signaling that characterizes neuropathic pain. A compelling novel analgesic strategy is to restore spinal ionotropic inhibition by enhancing KCC2-mediated chloride extrusion. We review the data on which this theory of alternative analgesia is based, discuss recent high-throughput screens that have searched for small-molecule activators of KCC2, and propose other strategies of KCC2 activation based on recent developments in the basic understanding of KCC2’s functional regulation. Exploiting the chloride-dependent functional plasticity of the ?-aminobutyric acid and glycinergic system by targeting KCC2 may be a tenable method of restoring ionotropic inhibition not only in neuropathic pain but also in other “hyperexcitable” diseases of the nervous system such as seizures and spasticity. PMID:24615367

  10. Comparison of soil zinc extractants for detection of applied zinc and prediction of leaf zinc concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Davis; T. P. Gaines; M. B. Parker

    1995-01-01

    Many soil extractants have been developed for determination of zinc (Zn) availability to plants. The optimum soil Zn extractant should be useful not only for prediction of plant Zn concentration but also for detection of applied Zn levels. The objectives of this study were: i) to compare soil Zn extradants for detecting applied Zn and for predicting peanut leaf Zn

  11. Aquagenic keratoderma treated with tap water iontophoresis.

    PubMed

    Errichetti, Enzo; Piccirillo, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Aquagenic keratoderma (AK) is a rare acquired skin condition characterized by recurrent and transient white papules and plaques associated with a burning sensation, pain, pruritus and/or hyperhidrosis on the palms and more rarely, soles triggered by sweat or contact with water. Often AK cause significant discomfort, thus requiring an appropriate therapy. Topical aluminum-based products are the most commonly used medications, but they are not always effective. We report a case of AK unresponsive to topical 20% of aluminum chloride successfully treated with tap water iontophoresis. PMID:25814730

  12. Aquagenic Keratoderma Treated with Tap Water Iontophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Errichetti, Enzo; Piccirillo, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Aquagenic keratoderma (AK) is a rare acquired skin condition characterized by recurrent and transient white papules and plaques associated with a burning sensation, pain, pruritus and/or hyperhidrosis on the palms and more rarely, soles triggered by sweat or contact with water. Often AK cause significant discomfort, thus requiring an appropriate therapy. Topical aluminum-based products are the most commonly used medications, but they are not always effective. We report a case of AK unresponsive to topical 20% of aluminum chloride successfully treated with tap water iontophoresis. PMID:25814730

  13. Round-Robin test on chloride analysis in concrete—Part I: Analysis of total chloride content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Castellote; C. Andrade

    2001-01-01

    The present paper gives part of the results of a Round Robin Test on chloride analysis in concrete, carried out by the Technical\\u000a Committee TC 178-TMC. In this RRT, the analysis of total chloride, free chloride and the colourimetric determination of the\\u000a front of chlorides in concrete have been tested. This paper reports the results corresponding to total chloride content.

  14. Evaluation of strychnine and zinc phosphide baits to control northern pocket gophers ( Thomomys talpoides) in alfalfa fields in Alberta, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilbert Proulx

    1998-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of Sanex 0.40% strychnine-treated oats, Fairview 0.37% strychnine-treated grains, and United Agri Products 2% zinc phosphide-treated oats to control northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) populations in alfalfa fields in Alberta, Canada. The poison baits were tested during three phenological periods corresponding to the reproduction, summer juvenile dispersal, and early fall mound building activities. Overall, less

  15. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tommasso J.R., Wright, M. I.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  16. Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Generation of waste water containing sodium chloride from cucumber fermentation tank yards could be eliminated if cucumbers were fermented in brines that did not contain this salt. To determine if this is feasible, cucumbers were fermented in brines that contained only calcium chloride to maintain f...

  17. Sources of error in using silver\\/silver chloride electrodes to monitor chloride activity in concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P Atkins; M. A Carter; J. D Scantlebury

    2001-01-01

    The silver\\/silver chloride electrode is discussed as a chloride-monitoring device in concrete rather than as a reference electrode. The effects of temperature, bromide ions, and applied potential fields on the reliability and accuracy of these electrodes are evaluated. The effect of temperature is assessed using a novel mathematical approach and the other two effects are examined experimentally.

  18. CONTROLLED POTENTIAL COULOMETRY IN FUSED LITHIUM CHLORIDE-POTASSIUM CHLORIDE EUTECTIC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Van Norman

    1962-01-01

    Analyses for Zn(II) and Cd(II) in the fused lithium chloride - potassium ; chloride eutectic at 450 deg C were performed by controlled potential coulometric ; stripping of the predeposited metal from a bismuth pool electrode, and Ni(II) was ; determined by controlled potential stripping of the predeposited metal from a ; platinum gauze electrode. Analyses were performed with an

  19. Histidine Protects Against Zinc and Nickel Toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Murphy; Janelle J. Bruinsma; Daniel L. Schneider; Sara Collier; James Guthrie; Asif Chinwalla; J. David Robertson; Elaine R. Mardis; Kerry Kornfeld

    2011-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element involved in a wide range of biological processes and human diseases. Zinc excess is deleterious, and animals require mechanisms to protect against zinc toxicity. To identify genes that modulate zinc tolerance, we performed a forward genetic screen for Caenorhabditis elegans mutants that were resistant to zinc toxicity. Here we demonstrate that mutations of the

  20. ZINC--2001 85.1 By Jozef Plachy

    E-print Network

    ZINC--2001 85.1 ZINC By Jozef Plachy Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Aaron J, international data coordinator. In 2001, domestic zinc mine production, expressed in zinc content of ore and annual average U.S. price, the value of zinc mine production was estimated to be about $774 million

  1. MTF-1-Mediated Repression of the Zinc Transporter Zip10 Is Alleviated by Zinc Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Lichten, Louis A.; Ryu, Moon-Suhn; Guo, Liang; Embury, Jennifer; Cousins, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of cellular zinc uptake is a key process in the overall mechanism governing mammalian zinc homeostasis and how zinc participates in cellular functions. We analyzed the zinc transporters of the Zip family in both the brain and liver of zinc-deficient animals and found a large, significant increase in Zip10 expression. Additionally, Zip10 expression decreased in response to zinc repletion. Moreover, isolated mouse hepatocytes, AML12 hepatocytes, and Neuro 2A cells also respond differentially to zinc availability in vitro. Measurement of Zip10 hnRNA and actinomycin D inhibition studies indicate that Zip10 was transcriptionally regulated by zinc deficiency. Through luciferase promoter constructs and ChIP analysis, binding of MTF-1 to a metal response element located 17 bp downstream of the transcription start site was shown to be necessary for zinc-induced repression of Zip10. Furthermore, zinc-activated MTF-1 causes down-regulation of Zip10 transcription by physically blocking Pol II movement through the gene. Lastly, ZIP10 is localized to the plasma membrane of hepatocytes and neuro 2A cells. Collectively, these results reveal a novel repressive role for MTF-1 in the regulation of the Zip10 zinc transporter expression by pausing Pol II transcription. ZIP10 may have roles in control of zinc homeostasis in specific sites particularly those of the brain and liver. Within that context ZIP10 may act as an important survival mechanism during periods of zinc inadequacy. PMID:21738690

  2. Summary review of health effects associated with zinc and zinc oxide: health issue assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    Zinc is a dense, bluish-white, relatively soft metal used extensively in the galvanizing of iron and steel. Zinc oxide, the most valued of the variety of compounds formed by zinc is used principally in rubber products as an activator in the vulcanization process and in the treatment of burns, infections, and skin diseases. Zinc occurs naturally in the environment; however, zinc may also enter the environment as the result of mining and processing the production of zinc oxide and the manufacture and use of products containing zinc oxide, the combustion of coal and oil, the production of iron and steel, and the incineration of refuse. Humans are mainly exposed to zinc through the ingestion of food (between 8 and 18.6 mg/kg/day) and drink (averaging up to 10 mg/day). Based on annual average airborne zinc concentrations in areas throughout the United States without mines or smelters of generally < 1mg/cu. m., the contribution of zinc from inhaled air represents an insignificant amount of daily zinc exposure, averaging approximately 20 micrograms. The literature on the toxic effects of zinc is limited. The most widely known systemic effect resulting from acute inhalation of freshly formed zinc oxide fumes is a disease called metal fume fever. Metal fume fever occurs in certain occupational settings and the exposure level at which the fever occurs is not known.

  3. Reversible activation of mouse metal response element-binding transcription factor 1 DNA binding involves zinc interaction with the zinc finger domain.

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, T P; Bittel, D; Andrews, G K

    1997-01-01

    The DNA-binding activity of the Zn finger protein metal response element-binding transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) was rapidly induced both in vivo in mouse Hepa cells, canine MDCK, and human HeLa cells after incubation in medium containing zinc and in vitro in whole-cell extracts to which zinc was added. Acquisition of DNA-binding capacity in the presence of free zinc was temperature and time dependent and did not occur at 4 degrees C. In contrast, activated MTF-1 binding to the metal response element occurred at 4 degrees C. After Zn activation, mouse MTF-1 binding activity was more sensitive to EDTA and was stabilized by DNA binding relative to the Zn finger transcription factor Sp1. After dilution of nuclear or whole-cell extracts from Zn-treated cells and incubation at 37 degrees C, mouse MTF-1 DNA-binding activity was no longer detected but could be completely reconstituted by the subsequent readdition of zinc. In vitro-synthesized, recombinant mouse MTF-1 displayed a similar, reversible temperature- and Zn-dependent activation of DNA-binding activity. Analysis of deletion mutants of recombinant MTF-1 suggests that the Zn finger domain is important for the Zn-dependent activation of DNA-binding capacity. Thus, mouse MTF-1 functions as a reversibly activated sensor of free zinc pools in the cell. PMID:9111349

  4. Effects of zinc-desferrioxamine on Plasmodium falciparum in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Chevion, M; Chuang, L; Golenser, J

    1995-01-01

    The zinc-desferrioxamine (Zn-DFO) complex is considered to be more permeative into parasitized erythrocytes than is the metal-free DFO. The former may penetrate the cell and exchange its bound zinc for ferric ions, rendering the iron unavailable for vital parasite functions. The effects of these compounds on the in vitro development of Plasmodium falciparum are compared. The results indicate that Zn-DFO is superior to DFO, especially at concentrations below 20 microM, as shown by decreased levels of hypoxanthine incorporation, lower levels of parasitemia, and interference with the life cycle of the parasite. At low concentrations, DFO even enhanced parasite growth. Such an enhancement was not observed following exposure to Zn-DFO. Experiments in which the compounds were removed from the cultures indicated that parasites treated with Zn-DFO are less likely to recover at a later stage. Since DFO has already been used in humans for the treatment of malaria, its complex with zinc, which is more effective in vitro, should also be examined in vivo. PMID:7486946

  5. Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Viral Response in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C and Beta Thalassemia Major, A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Behnava, Bita; Asgharinia, Mansour; Salimi, Shima; Keshvari, Maryam; Mehrnoush, Leala; Karim, Pegah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Zinc deficiency has been reported in patients with both hepatitis C and beta thalassemia major. Zinc supplementation in addition to antiviral therapy of chronic hepatitis C has been accompanied by some success in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Objective: The aim of the present pilot study is to determine the effect of 30 mg elemental zinc on biochemical and virological response in a population of patients with chronic hepatitis C with beta thalassemia major. Materials and Methods: A prospective, double blind,placebo controlled trial included 40 patients being treated with Pegylated interferon Alfa (Peg IFN-?) and ribavirin. Biochemical and virological parameters and plasma zinc levels were determined before starting treatment. Patients were randomly selected to receive either zinc or a placebo in addition to Peg IFN-? and ribavirin for a period of one year. AST, ALT, sustained viral response (SVR), and zinc levels were measured after treatment.Of the original 40 eligible patients, eight withdrawn from the study and 32 patients completed the study; 16 in the zinc group and 16 in the placebo group. Analysis of the data shows that there is no difference between the two groups in AST, ALT, SVR or zinc level following one year of treatment (p=0.224, p=0.616, p=0.670, p=0.999, respectively). Conclusion:The results of this study indicate that using 30 mg/day elemental zinc did not significantly improve the outcome of treatment in thalassemia patients with chronic hepatitis C. In future studies, we recommend trying higher doses zinc in patients with hepatitis C who had beta thalassemia major. PMID:25653968

  6. Electrochemical chloride extraction: efficiency and side effects

    SciTech Connect

    Orellan, J.C.; Escadeillas, G.; Arliguie, G

    2004-02-01

    Some specimens of reinforced concrete cast with an alkali-resistant aggregate, previously maintained in a solution of NaCl, were subjected to an electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE). The chloride profiles before and after treatment were determined. Likewise, alkali ions profiles before and after treatment were determined. After treatment, some specimens were stored in a controlled atmosphere (60 deg. C and 100% RH) in order to accelerate the alkali-silica reaction, if any. Results of chloride content after treatment show that about 40% of the initial chloride is removed within 7 weeks. About one-half of the chloride close to steel was removed, but at the same time, significant amounts of alkali ions were observed around the steel. Microstructural observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that after treatment, new cementitious phases containing higher concentrations of sodium, aluminum and potassium were formed. Moreover, alkali-silica gel was observed in the specimens stored at 60 deg. C and 100% RH. It may be possible that the ECE accumulates locally high amounts of alkali ions that stimulate the alkali-silica reaction even though the concrete contained nominally inert siliceous aggregates. The specimen expansions were not recorded, but no cracks were observed.

  7. Treatment of automotive wastewater by coagulation-flocculation using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and aluminum sulfate (alum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Abdul Fattah Abu; Halim, Azhar Abdul

    2013-11-01

    A physicochemical treatment (coagulation-flocculation) was applied for automotive wastewater using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and aluminum sulfate (alum) aided by anionic polyacrylamide as flocculant to determine the effectiveness of coagulation method for removal of COD, TSS and heavy metals (Fe, Ni and Zn). The results obtained proved that PAC was comparatively more efficient to FeCl3 and alum. At defined optimum experiment condition (coagulant dose: 70 mg/L, coagulant aid dose: 2 mg/L and pH 7), PAC showed 70% removal for (chemical oxygen demand) COD and 98% of (total suspended solid) TSS. For FeCl3 and alum, the maximum removal for COD were 64% and 54%, meanwhile TSS removal were 91% and 94%. Heavy metals removal using PAC also showed better results in which produced 98% of iron removal, 83% of zinc removal and 63% of nickel removal under optimum condition. The comparison revealed that the use of PAC aided by anionic polyacrylamide produced higher removal for COD, TSS and heavy metals compared to FeCl3 and alum for automotive wastewater treatment.

  8. Influence of bicarbonate on the sensitivity of renin release to sodium chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ole Skøtt; Boye L. Jensen

    1989-01-01

    Juxtaglomerular cells in vitro are sensitive to changes in osmolality, but it is unknown whether volumeregulatory changes in cellular ion fluxes are important for the renin secretory process. The sensitivity of renin release to increases in osmolality by NaCl was therefore tested on superfused rat glomeruli treated with bicarbonate\\/chloride exchange inhibitor (DNDS), NaCl\\/KCl cotransport inhibitor (bumetanide), or Na+\\/H+ antiport inhibitor

  9. Accumulation of polysaccharides under the influence of chlorocholine chloride in Aronia melanocarpa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Stroev; E. G. Martynov

    1979-01-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides (WSPSs) have been isolated from the fruit and leaves ofAronia melanocarpa Elliot (black chokeberry) plants treated with chlorocholine chloride in various concentrations. It has been established that\\u000a they are composed of galacturonic acid and the neutral monosaccharides galactose, glucose, arabinose, xylose, and rhamnose.\\u000a In addition, another two unidentified spots of monosaccharides or their derivatives were found in the

  10. CODEPOSITION OF PLATINUM METALS ON HYDROXIDES OF NONFERROUS METALS AND ELEMENTS UPON NITRATION OF CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Vyazovoy; S. Mamonov; A. Ryumin

    2009-01-01

    In the refining cycle of rhodium, iridium, and ruthenium oxyhydroxide deposits of «nitration hydrox- ides» of non-ferrous metals are formed in the course of treating chloride solutions containing platinum group metals (PGM) with sodium nitrite (1). These materials contain, wt %: 20-30 Cu; 10-16 Fe; 6-10 Te, Se, Sn; 2-6 Pb; 1-4 As, Sb, and 0.3-2 PGM. In the process

  11. Potentiating effects of oxygen in lungs damaged by methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl, cadmium chloride, oleic acid, and antitumor drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Hakkinen; C. C. Morse; F. M. Martin; W. E. Dalbey; W. M. Haschek; H. R. Witschi

    1983-01-01

    The intraperitoneal administration of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) and cyclophosphamide, exposure to an aerosol of cadmium chloride, intravenous administration of oleic acid, and intratracheal instillation of bleomycin to young female BALB\\/c mice or CD\\/CR rats result in acute lung injury. Pulmonary morphology and lung collagen content were examined in animals treated with these chemicals alone or in combination with an

  12. Effects of high but nontoxic dietary zinc on zinc metabolism and adaptations in rats.

    PubMed

    Ansari, M S; Miller, W J; Lassiter, J W; Neathery, M W; Gentry, R P

    1975-11-01

    The effects of feeding a high but nontoxic zinc level to young rats for varied time periods on zinc metabolism and adaptations were investigated. Adding 600 ppm supplemental zinc to a "corn-soy" diet for periods from 7 to 42 days did not materially affect stable zinc level in any tissue studied. However, in every tissue, 65Zn retention from a single oral dose declined sharply with duration of added zinc feeding to 21 days, indicating a continuing adaptation in zinc metabolism for at least this period of time. Likewise, fecal 65Zn excretion increased with length of feeding time on high zinc, indicating a continuing reduction in net absorption for most of the 42-day period. When the data are compared with similar previous cattle studies, it is evident that there are major qualitative differences in zinc metabolism and homeostatic control between rats and cattle. PMID:1208572

  13. Production of nano zinc, zinc sulphide and nanocomplex of magnetite zinc oxide by Brevundimonas diminuta and Pseudomonas stutzeri.

    PubMed

    Mirhendi, Mansoureh; Emtiazi, Giti; Roghanian, Rasoul

    2013-12-01

    ZnO (Zincite) nanoparticle has many industrial applications and is mostly produced by chemical reactions, usually prepared by decomposition of zinc acetate or hot-injection and heating-up method. Synthesis of semi-conductor nanoparticles such as ZnS (Sphalerite) by ultrasonic was previously reported. In this work, high-zinc tolerant bacteria were isolated and used for nano zinc production. Among all isolated microorganisms, a gram negative bacterium which was identified as Brevundimonas diminuta could construct nano magnetite zinc oxide on bacterial surface with 22 nm in size and nano zinc with 48.29 nm in size. A piece of zinc metal was immersed in medium containing of pure culture of B. diminuta. Subsequently, a yellow-white biofilm was formed which was collected from the surface of zinc. It was dried at room temperature. The isolated biofilm was analysed by X-ray diffractometer. Interestingly, the yield of these particles was higher in the light, with pH 7 at 23°C. To the best of the authors knowledge, this is the first report about the production of nano zinc metal and nano zinc oxide that are stable and have anti-bacterial activities with magnetite property. Also ZnS (sized 12 nm) produced by Pseudomonas stutzeri, was studied by photoluminescence and fluorescent microscope. PMID:24206770

  14. Maternal Zinc Intakes and Homeostatic Adjustments during Pregnancy and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Donangelo, Carmen Marino; King, Janet C.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc plays critical roles during embryogenesis, fetal growth, and milk secretion, which increase the zinc need for pregnancy and lactation. Increased needs can be met by increasing the dietary zinc intake, along with making homeostatic adjustments in zinc utilization. Potential homeostatic adjustments include changes in circulating zinc, increased zinc absorption, decreased zinc losses, and changes in whole body zinc kinetics. Although severe zinc deficiency during pregnancy has devastating effects, systematic reviews and meta-analysis of the effect of maternal zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcomes have consistently shown a limited benefit. We hypothesize, therefore, that zinc homeostatic adjustments during pregnancy and lactation improve zinc utilization sufficiently to provide the increased zinc needs in these stages and, therefore, mitigate immediate detrimental effects due to a low zinc intake. The specific questions addressed are the following: How is zinc utilization altered during pregnancy and lactation? Are those homeostatic adjustments influenced by maternal zinc status, dietary zinc, or zinc supplementation? These questions are addressed by critically reviewing results from published human studies on zinc homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation carried out in different populations worldwide. PMID:22852063

  15. The Refuelable Zinc-air Battery: Alternative Techniques for Zinc and Electrolyte Regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J F Cooper; R Krueger

    2006-01-01

    An investigation was conducted into alternative techniques for zinc and electrolyte regeneration and reuse in the refuelable zinc\\/air battery that was developed by LLNL and previously tested on a moving electric bus using cut wire. Mossy zinc was electrodeposited onto a bipolar array of inclined Ni plates with an energy consumption of 1.8 kWh\\/kg. Using a Hâ-depolarized anode, zinc was

  16. Zinc air refuelable battery: alternative zinc fuel morphologies and cell behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Cooper; R. Krueger

    1997-01-01

    Multicell zinc\\/air batteries have been tested previously in the laboratory and as part of the propulsion system of an electric bus; cut zinc wire was used as the anode material. This battery is refueled by a hydraulic transport of 0.5-1 mm zinc particles into hoppers above each cell. We report an investigation concerning alternative zinc fuel morphologies, and energy losses

  17. Chelated zinc reduces the dietary zinc requirement of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tippawan Paripatananont; Richard T. Lovell

    1995-01-01

    The dietary zinc requirements of year-1 channel catfish were determined with an egg-white-based purified diet and with a soybean-meal-based practical diet, each supplemented with serial concentrations of zinc methionine (ZnMet) or zinc sulfate heptahydrate (ZnS). In the egg white diet, supplemental dietary zinc requirements, determined by broken-line regression analysis, for ZnMet and ZnS for maximum weight gain were 5.58 and

  18. Zinc metabolism and homeostasis: the application of tracer techniques to human zinc physiology.

    PubMed

    Krebs, N E; Hambidge, K M

    2001-01-01

    Tracer kinetic techniques based on zinc stable isotopes have a vital role in advancing knowledge of human zinc physiology and homeostasis. These techniques have demonstrated the complexity of zinc metabolism, and have been critical to estimating the size and interrelationships of those pools of zinc that exchange rapidly with zinc in plasma and which are likely to be especially important for zinc dependent biology. This paper presents findings from recent research linking a steady state compartmental model with non-steady state post-prandial sampling from the intestine, utilizing a combination of intestinal intubation/perfusion and stable isotope tracer kinetic techniques. The gastrointestinal tract has a central role in maintaining whole body zinc homeostasis. While the fractional absorption of zinc from a meal depends on the quantity of exogenous zinc and on such dietary factors as phytic acid, the fractional absorption does not appear to be dependent on the size of the rapidly exchanging pool of the host. In contrast, the quantity of endogenous zinc excreted via the intestine is positively correlated with both the amount of absorbed zinc and the zinc 'status' of the host, and thus this process has an equally critical role in maintaining zinc homeostasis. The observed alterations in zinc metabolism in some disease states can be understood in the context of known homeostatic processes. In other conditions, however, such alterations as inflammation-associated hyperzincuria and zinc redistribution, the links between homeostatic perturbation and cellular biology are yet to be explained. Thus the challenge remains for research at the whole body level to carefully characterize zinc distribution and exchange under diverse circumstances, while research at the cellular level must elucidate the regulatory processes and the factors to which they respond. PMID:11831468

  19. Zinc and zinc alloys as protective coatings. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the corrosion protection of materials by means of zinc and zinc coatings, exclusive of electroplating and electrodeposition. Zinc rich paints and metallization are discussed, as well as polymeric coatings based on zinc. Major applications include structural steel work, oil and gas pipes, pipe joints, and offshore structures. Conversion coatings and conversion coating processes are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 199 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Direct analysis of zinc pyrithione using LCMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshitaka Yamaguchi; Akira Kumakura; Shinobu Sugasawa; Hiroya Harino; Yasuhiro Yamada; Kiyoshi Shibata; Tetsuya Senda

    2006-01-01

    Zinc pyrithione has been widely used as one of the booster biocides in antifouling paints on the bottom of vessels. A direct analysis method for zinc pyrithione has been developed using LC-MS without trans-chelation and degradation. The addition of ammonium acetate in mobile water phase was effective in stabilizing zinc pyrithione in HPLC, and the optimal concentration was 20?mM. The