Note: This page contains sample records for the topic zinc chloride treated from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Removal of Nitrate from Water by Adsorption onto Zinc Chloride Treated Activated Carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption study with untreated and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) treated coconut granular activated carbon (GAC) for nitrate removal from water has been carried out. Untreated coconut GAC was treated with ZnCl2 and carbonized. The optimal conditions were selected by studying the influence of process variables such as chemical ratio and activation temperature. Experimental results reveal that chemical weight ratio of 200%

Amit Bhatnagar; Minkyu Ji; Woosik Jung; Giehyeon Lee; Heejun Suk; Booki Min

2008-01-01

2

Structure of as-deposited and heat-treated iron-zinc coatings from chloride bath  

SciTech Connect

The iron content, phase constitution, and microstructure of electrodeposited iron-zinc alloy (EZA) coatings, deposited from chloride baths, is described for as-deposited and heat-treated conditions of coatings containing bulk iron contents of 6, 8, 10, and 13 w/o. The observed influence of current density upon iron content, which in turn influences the phase constitution and microstructure of the coatings, is reported. The microstructure, composed of non-equilibrium phases that have nanometer grain sizes, is illustrated and described with respect to iron content, crystallography, and morphology. As-deposited {eta} phase coatings undergo transformations through a sequence of metastable phases when heated. The sequence of phase transformations varies with iron content, but the mechanisms of phase transformation from the as-deposited eta phase to the metastable G phase was found to be similar in 6, 8, and 10 w/o Fe coatings. Microstructural, compositional, and crystallographic changes associated with this phase transformation are discussed.

Drewien, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goldstein, J.I.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

1993-09-01

3

Treatment of colored effluent of the textile industry in Bangladesh using zinc chloride treated indigenous activated carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of colored compounds from the textile dyeing effluents of Bangladesh on granulated activated carbons produced from indigenous vegetable sources by chemical activation with zinc chloride was studied. The most important parameters in chemical activation were found be the chemical ratio of ZnCl2 to feed (3:1), carbonization temperature (450–465°C) and activation time (80min). The adsorbances at 511nm (red effluent)

Mohammad Mainul Karim; Ajoy Kumar Das; Sang Hak Lee

2006-01-01

4

Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride  

DOEpatents

In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA); Rosenhoover, William A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1981-01-01

5

Materials for Conoco zinc chloride hydrocracking process  

SciTech Connect

Use of zinc chloride to augment hydrogenation of coal and yield a high-octane gasoline product is the most significant feature of a coal liquefaction process being developed by Conoco Coal Development Company. The zinc chloride catalyst is regenerated in a fluidized sand bed, where the spent melt is mixed with air and hydrogen chloride at about 1000/sup 0/C. Recovery is completed at 370/sup 0/C in a condenser, where the zinc chloride is collected and the oxygen and sulfur are separated as H/sub 2/O and SO/sub 2/. The economic viability of the entire process is highly dependent on almost complete recovery of the zinc chloride. The severe environmental conditions of this recovery process cause unique materials problems. Although high-temperature oxidation and sulfidation are being studied in related programs, suitable materials to resist their combined effects along with those of chlorides have not yet been specifically addressed. Common engineering materials, such as the austenitic stainless steels and many nickel-base alloys, are unsuitable because of their inability to tolerate the elevated temperatures and sulfidation, respectively. The objectives of this task are to screen various metallic and ceramic materials for resistance to the zinc chloride recovery system environment and to determine the nature of the attack by exposing coupons to the simulated environment in the laboratory.

Baylor, V.B.; Keiser, J.R.; DeVan, J.H.

1980-01-01

6

40 CFR 415.670 - Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.670 Applicability; description of the zinc chloride production subcategory....

2013-07-01

7

Dynamics of vitreous and molten zinc chloride  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of vitreous and molten zinc chloride have been studied with inelastic neutron scattering at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source. The results are analyzed in terms of the scattering function S(Q,E) and the effective vibrational density of states G(E). The vibrational spectra of both glass and liquid are dominated by broad features centered at 15 and 35 MeV which are identified with F{sub 2} modes of ZnCl{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} tetrahedra. The other two normal modes are not observed because of inadequate resolution and broadening and overlap resulting from coupling between tetrahedra. The behavior of ZnCl{sub 2} is contrasted with other tetrahedrally coordinated glasses that have been studied with the same technique. 15 refs,. 5 figs., 1 tab.

Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.L.; Susman, S.; Volin, K.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Wright, A.C. (Reading Univ. (United Kingdom). J.J. Thomson Physical Lab.)

1991-09-01

8

SUBSTITUTING CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING  

EPA Science Inventory

The environmental and economic implications of substituting zinc chloride electroplating for cadmium cyanide electroplating were evaluated. he process substitution was successful in achieving product quality to satisfy the customer requirements for corrosion resistance. orrosion ...

9

SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING  

EPA Science Inventory

The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

10

Vapor Pressures of Zinc Chloride and Zinc Bromide and Their Gaseous Dimerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absolute vapor pressures of zinc chloride and zinc bromide have been measured by a quasistatic method. In addition, transpiration experiments have been made to determine the vapor density of the gas. Mass spectrometric observations of the gas over the liquid salts have indicated that the gas consists mainly of zinc halide monomer with some dimer also present. The individual

F. J. Keneshea; Daniel Cubicciotti

1964-01-01

11

The Limiting Phenomena at the Anode of the Electrowinning of Zinc from Zinc Chloride in a Molten Chloride Electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research is to investigate the possibilities and technological viability for the electrowinning of zinc from zinc chloride. This research contributes to development of an alternative process, because it provides:\\u000aâ¢\\u0009A clear understanding and overview of the present zinc industry and future developments.\\u000aâ¢\\u0009A thorough literature investigation, leading to:\\u000ao\\u0009Understanding the reasons to abandon

S. C. Lans

2004-01-01

12

Effect of sodium benzoate on zinc electrodeposition in chloride solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sodium benzoate on the electrodeposition of zinc on carbon steel electrode from acidic chloride solution was\\u000a studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential capacitance (DC), chronoamperometry (CA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM),\\u000a and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A dimensionless graph model was used to analyze the nucleation process of zinc. It is found that\\u000a the sodium benzoate has a blocking

Yeqiang Mo; Qiming Huang; Weishan Li; Shejun Hu; Meiling Huang; Youju Huang

2011-01-01

13

Mercury cementation from chloride solutions using iron, zinc and aluminium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this work was to study the cementation of mercury (HgCl42) in a chloride medium using metallic zinc, iron and aluminium as reducing agents.The reaction order was 1.08±0.05 with respect to mercury concentration. The reaction efficiency is strongly dependent on pH. For each metal in study, an ideal pH was established: 4.0 to 5.0 for zinc, 3.0

A. L. Anacleto; J. R. Carvalho

1996-01-01

14

Recovery of Zinc from Zinc Chloride by Fused-Salt Electrolysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines is developing a leach-electrolysis procedure to produce Special High Grade (SHG) zinc from sulfide concentrate without the generation of sulfur oxide gases. Chlorine-oxygen leaching of the concentrate yields zinc chloride (ZnCl2) which...

F. P. Haver D. E. Shanks D. L. Bixby M. M. Wong

1976-01-01

15

Reductive Coupling of Carbonyl Compounds to Pinacols with Zinc in THF Saturated Aqueous Ammonium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?In the presence of metallic zinc, aldehydes and ketones experience reductive coupling in tetrahydrofuran-saturated aqueous\\u000a ammonium chloride (5:3) to afford the corresponding pinacols in moderate to high yields.

Rahim Hekmatshoar; Issa Yavari; Yahya S. Beheshtiha; Majid M. Heravi

2001-01-01

16

Synthesis and characterization of zinc chloride containing poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel by gamma irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the characterization of zinc chloride incorporated into a poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) hydrogel prepared by gamma-ray irradiation was investigated. Zinc chloride powder with different concentrations was dissolved in the PAAc solution, and it was crosslinked with gamma-ray irradiation. The effects of various parameters such as zinc ion concentration and irradiation doses on characteristics of the hydrogel formed were investigated in detail for obtaining an antibacterial wound dressing. In addition, the gel content, pH-sensitive (pH 4 or 7) swelling ratio, and UV-vis absorption spectra of the zinc particles in the hydrogels were characterized. Moreover, antibacterial properties of these new materials against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains were observed on solid growth media. The antibacterial tests indicated that the zinc chloride containing PAAc hydrogels have good antibacterial activity.

Park, Jong-Seok; Kuang, Jia; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Lim, Youn-Mook; Jeong, Sung-In; Shin, Young-Min; Seob Khil, Myung; Nho, Young-Chang

2013-07-01

17

Crystal growth, structure and characterizations of a new semiorganic nonlinear optical material—?-Alanine zinc chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The title compound, ?-alanine zinc chloride—a new semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. Single crystals of ?-alanine zinc chloride have been subjected to X-ray diffraction analysis to determine the crystal structure. The powder X-ray diffractogram of the crystal has also been recorded. The amount of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen in the crystals was also estimated. Fourier

M. Anbuchezhiyan; S. Ponnusamy; C. Muthamizhchelvan; K. Sivakumar

2010-01-01

18

Zinc recovery by ultrasound acid leaching of double kiln treated electric arc furnace dust  

SciTech Connect

The need to convert 70,000 tons a year of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust into an environmentally safe or recyclable product has encouraged studies to reclaim zinc from this waste material. Successful characterization of a double-kiln calcine, produced from EAF dust, has shown that the calcine pellets consisted mainly of zinc oxide plates with some iron oxide particles. Preliminary leaching tests using hydrochloric and sulfuric acids indicated that this calcine is suitable for selective ultrasound leaching of zinc. A factorially designed screening test using hydrochloric acid showed that ultrasound significantly lowered iron dissolution and increased zinc dissolution, thus enhancing the selective leaching of zinc. Ultrasound, temperature, air bubbling rate and acidity increased the sulfuric acid selectivity, while fluorosilicic acid was not selective. Reactor characterization through ultrasonic field measurements led to the selection of reactor and ultrasound bath, which were utilized to enhance the selectivity of a laboratory scale sulfuric acid leaching of a double-kiln treated electric arc furnace dust. Results indicated that ultrasonic leaching of this calcine is a satisfactory technique to selectively separate zinc from iron. After further iron removal by precipitation and cementation of nickel, it was possible to electrowin zinc from the leach liquor under common industrial conditions, with current efficiencies from 86% through 92% being observed. Calcine washing showed that a substantial chloride removal is possible, but fluoride ion in the electrolyte caused deposit sticking during electrowinning.

Barrera Godinez, J.A.

1989-01-01

19

XPS characterisation of plasma treated and zinc oxide coated PET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At first, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses of reference and carbon dioxide plasma treated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were carried out. Significant chemical modifications were outlined in the treated PET surface in comparison with the reference one. The formation of new oxygenated groups was evidenced. These modifications heighten the level of interactions between the polymer substrate and the deposited coating. In a second stage, zinc oxide thin films were elaborated by r.f. magnetron sputtering from a ceramic target and with a reactive gas (mixture of argon-1% oxygen) under optimised conditions on CO 2 plasma treated PET. The interfacial chemistry between the plasma treated PET and the zinc oxide was also studied by XPS. The line shape changes in the high-resolution core level spectra of carbon C1s, oxygen O1s, and zinc (Zn2p3/2, Zn3p), with the progressive deposition of zinc oxide coatings being recorded. The obtained spectra were fitted to mixed Gaussian-Lorentzian components using XPS CASA software. An interaction scheme between the zinc oxide thin layer and its polymer substrate, in the first stage of deposition, was proposed and checked by corroborating the findings of the different XPS spectra and their decompositions. It suggests the formation of Zn sbnd O sbnd C complexes at the interface, which are promoted by an electron transfer from zinc to oxygen in oxygenated species, mainly alcohol groups, generated by the CO 2 plasma treatment of PET.

Amor, S. Ben; Jacquet, M.; Fioux, P.; Nardin, M.

20

Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil shale ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jordanian oil shale ash was used as an adsorbent for the removal of copper and zinc from aqueous solution. This ash was treated with either hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric or phosphoric acids followed by washing and\\/or neutralization with sodium hydroxide in order to enhance its adsorption capacity. The sample that was treated with nitric acid showed the highest cation exchange capacity

Reyad Shawabkeh; Adnan Al-Harahsheh; Awni Al-Otoom

2004-01-01

21

Use of xylenol orange and cetylpyridinium chloride in rapid spectrophotometric determination of zinc in pharmaceutical products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, rapid, and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of zinc(II) is performed, based on colour reaction between the metal ion and xylenol orange in the presence of surfactant cationic cetylpyridinium chloride. The important analytical parameters and their effects on the reported system are investigated. Zinc(II) reacts with the reagent and surfactant in the ratio 1:2:4 (metal:ligand:surfactant) in the

M Benamor; K Belhamel; M. T Draa

2000-01-01

22

Reliability, availability, and maintainability assessment of a Zinc Chloride Battery System: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

UNIRAM analyses guided the design of an advanced energy storage system for load leveling and management. The study showed that, in comparison with competing technologies that are available approximately 90% of the time, a 2-MW system of zinc chloride batteries would have an availability greater than 98%.

H. P. Himpler; E. J. Erickson

1986-01-01

23

Textural and chemical properties of zinc chloride activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of activation temperature on the textural and chemical properties of the activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells using zinc chloride activation under both inert nitrogen gas atmosphere and vacuum condition were studied. Relatively low temperature of 400°C was beneficial for the development of pore structures. Too high an activation temperature would lead to sintering of volatiles and shrinkage

Ting Yang; Aik Chong Lua

2006-01-01

24

Mechanisms of magnesium chloride interferences on zinc in electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using a dual cavity platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism of interference due to magnesium chloride on the determination of zinc in electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry has been investigated using a dual cavity platform which has two separate cavities instead of one. It allows the analyte and interferent to be introduced at separate locations on the platform without mixing in the condensed phase; therefore, in principle, gas-phase and condensed phase interferences can be distinguished. In the presence of magnesium chloride, zinc chloride is formed both in the condensed phase and upon reaction between analyte species and HCl(g) formed from the hydrolysis of magnesium chloride, and is lost in molecular form during the pyrolysis or early in the atomization steps. At low pyrolysis temperatures, where magnesium chloride is not significantly hydrolysed but rapidly decomposes during the atomization step, expulsion of analyte from the furnace together with matrix gases and/or gas-phase reaction between zinc atoms and chlorine in this step are responsible for signal depression.

Döner, G.; Akman, S.

1996-01-01

25

Growth and characterization of L-Alanine-doped Zinc Thiourea Chloride single crystal (ZTC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single crystal of L-Alanine-doped Zinc Thiourea Chloride (ZTC) was grown by slow evaporation technique. L-Alanine was added in saturated ZTC solution by molar percent. The second-harmonic generation efficiency was studied by Kurtz and Perry powder SHG test for 1, 2, and 3 mole% L-Alanine-doped ZTC and compared with pure ZTC. We observed enhancement in the SHG efficiency of L-Alanine-doped ZTC.

N. R. Dhumane; S. S. Hussaini; V. G. Dongre; P. Ghugare; M. D. Shirsat

2009-01-01

26

Production of Activated Carbon from Date Stones by Using Zinc Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of activated carbon from date stones by chemical activation with zinc chloride (ZnCl2) was experimentally investigated using a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor. The effects of process variables, such as activation time, activation temperature, impregnation ratio, and particle size, on the production and quality of activated carbon were measured in terms of adsorptive capacity by iodine number test. An activation time

F. A. H. Al-Qaessi

2010-01-01

27

The histopathology of rat lung following exposure to zinc oxide/hexachloroethane smoke or installation with zinc chloride followed by treatment with 70% oxygen.  

PubMed Central

The effects of inhaled zinc oxide/hexachloroethane smoke (11,580 mg x min/m3) and intratracheally instilled zinc chloride (2.5 mg/kg body weight) have been studied in rat lung. The effects of subsequent treatment with 70% oxygen have been studied after both procedures. Both the inhalation of the smoke and instillation of zinc chloride produced similar effects that included pulmonary edema, alveolitis and, at a later stage, some fibrosis. After zinc chloride instillation, the pathological changes largely spared the periphery of the lung, while following smoke inhalation they were more diffuse. Subsequent oxygen administration had little effect on the development or progression of the pathological changes. Images FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8.

Brown, R F; Marrs, T C; Rice, P; Masek, L C

1990-01-01

28

Development of the zinc chloride battery for utility applications. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report for a program to develop the zinc-chloride energy storage system for utility load-leveling applications. The program, spanning the past 12 years, has resulted in an extremely satisfactory technical outcome - the successful manufacture and test of a 125-kW/400-kWh production prototype module. All performance goals established for this unit were routinely exceeded, reliability was also exceptional for this first of a kind system. The program to-date has established the zinc-chloride system, with chlorine stored safely as chlorine hydrate, as an excellent battery option for energy storage that is 5 or more years ahead of other advanced battery competitors. A 2-MW production design, based on multiples of the 125-kW module, has been completed and awaits fabrication and demonstration. The zinc-chloride program has been shelved until such time as there is a renewal of interest in this energy storage option by the Utility Industry.

Not Available

1987-01-01

29

Spectrophotometric extractive titrations-IV Determination of zinc in germanium dioxide and germanium chloride.  

PubMed

A simple and selective determination of zinc in germanium chloride and germanium dioxide is described. The sample is dissolved in sodium potassium tartrate solution and zinc is titrated spectrophotometrically at 532 mug( with a dithizone solution in carbon tetrachloride without discarding the organic phase. Interfering ions such as Bi(III), Cu(II), Cd(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Sn(II), Fe(II), Fe(III), Mn(II) and T1(I) are masked with bis(2-hydroxyethyl)dithiocarbamate. The detection limit is 3-23 x 10(-5)% of zinc and this may be lowered by taking a larger sample and by performing the analysis in a closed system. A simplified technique, consisting of the simultaneous titration of the sample and blank, is described. PMID:18960156

Galík, A

1967-07-01

30

The use of rotating electrodes in the electrolysis of molten zinc chloride electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to decrease the resistive losses in molten salt electrowinning cells, it is necessary to reduce the interelectrode spacing. Under stationary conditions, this can only be achieved at the detriment of the current efficiency. However, by rotating 100-mm-diameter electrodes, it was found for plane disc electrodes that at a current density of 10,000 A m-2, a separation of 4 mm, and a rotation speed of 100 rpm, a current efficiency of 75.5 pct for the electrolysis of zinc from a zinc chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride electrolyte was achieved. This was 31 pct above that of the equivalent stationary case. The use of conical electrodes which combined centrifugal and gravitational separation increased the current efficiency to 85.7 pct at a rotation speed of 44 rpm. Increasing the scale of the electrodes to 200 mm in diameter resulted in similar efficiencies. These results and a low temperature study using perspex discs and cones in water indicated that the removal of the anode gas may be the rate-limiting step.

Copham, P. M.; Fray, D. J.

1990-12-01

31

Determination of the Optimum Conditions for Leaching of Zinc Cathode Melting Furnace Slag in Ammonium Chloride Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is part of a continuing effort to leach zinc from zinc cathode melting furnace slags (ZCMFSs) to produce zinc oxide. The slag with an assay of 68.05 pct Zn was used in ammonium chloride leaching for zinc extraction. In this paper, the effects of influential factors on extraction efficiency of Zn from a ZCMFS were investigated. The Taguchi's method based on orthogonal array (OA) design has been used to arrange the experimental runs in order to maximize zinc extraction from a slag. The softwares named Excel and Design-Expert 7 have been used to design experiments and subsequent analysis. OA L 25 (55) consisting of five parameters, each with five levels, was employed to evaluate the effects of reaction time ( t = 10, 30, 50, 70, 90 minutes), reaction temperature [ T = 313, 323, 333, 343, 353 (40, 50, 60, 70, 80) K (°C)], pulp density ( S/ L = 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 g/L), stirring speed ( R = 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 rpm), and ammonium chloride concentration ( C = 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 pctwt), on zinc extraction percent. Statistical analysis, ANOVA, was also employed to determine the relationship between experimental conditions and yield levels. The results showed that the significant parameters affecting leaching of slag were ammonium chloride concentration and pulp density, and increasing pulp density reduced leaching efficiency of zinc. However, increasing ammonium chloride concentration promoted the extraction of zinc. The optimum conditions for this study were found to be t 4: 70 minutes, T 5: 353 K (80 °C), ( S/ L)2: 40 g/L, R 3: 500 rpm, and C 4: 25 pctwt. Under these conditions, the dissolution percentage of Zn in ammonium chloride media was 94.61 pct.

Behnajady, Bahram; Babaeidehkordi, Amin; Moghaddam, Javad

2014-04-01

32

Growth and characterization of L-Alanine-doped Zinc Thiourea Chloride single crystal (ZTC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single crystal of L-Alanine-doped Zinc Thiourea Chloride (ZTC) was grown by slow evaporation technique. L-Alanine was added\\u000a in saturated ZTC solution by molar percent. The second-harmonic generation efficiency was studied by Kurtz and Perry powder\\u000a SHG test for 1, 2, and 3 mole% L-Alanine-doped ZTC and compared with pure ZTC. We observed enhancement in the SHG efficiency\\u000a of L-Alanine-doped ZTC. Higher

N. R. Dhumane; S. S. Hussaini; V. G. Dongre; P. Ghugare; M. D. Shirsat

2009-01-01

33

Synthesis and Characterization of ZnO Nanorods and Nanodisks from Zinc Chloride Aqueous Solution  

PubMed Central

ZnO nanorods and nanodisks were synthesized by solution process using zinc chloride as starting material. The morphology of ZnO crystal changed greatly depending on the concentrations of Zn2+ion and ethylene glycohol (EG) additive in the solution. The effect of thermal treatment on the morphology was investigated. Photocatalytic activities of plate-like Zn5(OH)8Cl2 · H2O and rod-like ZnO were characterized. About 18% of 1 ppm NO could be continuously removed by ZnO particles under UV light irradiation.

2009-01-01

34

Heat Contents of Molten Zinc Chloride and Bromide and the Molecular Constants of the Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat contents of zinc chloride and bromide were measured from room temperature to about 700°C. The heat capacities (cal\\/mole deg) of the solids were: 14.5+5.5×10—3T and 12.6+10.4×10—3T°K; those of the liquid were 24.1 and 27.2 cal\\/mole; and the heats of fusion were 2.45 and 3.74 kcal\\/mole. These thermal data, when combined with the entropies of evaporation of F. J.

Daniel Cubicciotti; Harold Eding

1964-01-01

35

A Contributive Study on the Stripping of Zinc(II) from Loaded TBP Using an Ammonia\\/Ammonium Chloride Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stripping of zinc(II) from undiluted and 80 v\\/v% TBP in low aromatic kerosene by means of ammonia\\/ammonium chloride solution has been studied. It was found that the equilibrium in the system was reached within 2–3 min of vigorous shaking of aqueous and organic phases. The stripping isotherms for zinc, when using undiluted or 80% TBP and 10% or 1.8% hydrochloric

Ivo V. Mishonov; Krzysztof Alejski; Jan Szymanowski

2004-01-01

36

Can zinc(II) ions be doped into the crystal structure of L-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate?  

PubMed

The bivalent metals Cd(II) and Zn(II) exhibit different stereochemical requirements for the set of chloride and L-proline ligands, which precludes the doping of Zn(II) ions into the crystal structure of dichloro(l-proline)cadmium(II) hydrate also referred to as L-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate (L-PCCM). Hence, the reported claim of growth of zinc doped L-PCCM crystals namely Zn(0.4 mol):LPCCM and Zn(0.2 mol):LPCCM by Vetrivel et al. (S. Vetrivel, P. Anandan, K. Kanagasabapathy, S. Bhattacharya, S. Gopinath, R. Rajasekaran, Effect of zinc chloride on the growth and characterization of l-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate semiorganic NLO single crystals, Spectrochim. Acta 110A (2013) 317-323), is untenable. PMID:23932703

Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R

2013-12-01

37

Idiopathic bladder hyperactivity treated with Ditropan (oxybutynin chloride)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ditropan (oxybutynin chloride), a tertiary amine with slight anticholinergic and marked “papaverine-like” direct spasmolytic\\u000a effects has been administered to 25 patients with idiopathic hyperactive bladder function. The drug reduced voiding frequency\\u000a and abolished urgency. Control cystometry confirmed a significant increase in bladder capacity. Oral dryness was a tolerable\\u000a side effect.

F. Nagy; A. Hamvas; D. Frang

1990-01-01

38

Catalytic liquefaction by zinc chloride melts at pre-pyrolysis temperature  

SciTech Connect

Liquid-phase catalysts have proved effective for opening chemical linkages in subbituminous coal and capping the reactive segments with hydrogen atoms or other low-molecular-weight groups. The preferred temperature range is 275 to 325/sup 0/C (530 to 620/sup 0/F), so that the linkages are opened by controlled catalytic action rather than by thermal pyrolysis which requires appreciably higher temperatures. The best catalyst melt compositions used to date are zinc chloride with 10% water together with tetralin, and zinc chloride with 15% methanol and 3% of zinc metal. Useful residence times range from 30 minutes, or less, to as high as 90 minutes. The products of the treatment have predominately low (300) to medium (3000) molecular weights, analogous to syncrudes and solvent-refined coal. Conversions to pyridine-soluble products of 95% or better are achieved with Wyodak Roland Seam coal, and to date as much as 70% of that coal has been recovered as toluene-solubles (oils and asphaltenes). A major benefit of these conversion conditions is the almost complete absence of by-product char or gas. At these lower temperatures the hydrogen pressures used can be less than in conventional liquefaction; for example, 40 atm rather than 100 atm or more. Hydrogen consumption is significantly lower than in conventional liquefaction; the product yield is higher; and simpler procedures are foreseen for product recovery. The research performed so far clearly shows the industrial potential of homogeneous (liquid-phase) catalysts in penetrating and interacting with the mild temperature and pressure of these studies.

Vermeulen, T.; Onu, C.; Joyce, P.J.; Hershkowitz, F.; Grens, E.A.

1980-02-01

39

Characteristics of activated carbon prepared from pistachio-nut shell by zinc chloride activation under nitrogen and vacuum conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbons with well-developed pore structures were prepared from pistachio-nut shells by chemical activation using zinc chloride under both nitrogen atmosphere and vacuum conditions. The effects of preparation parameters on the carbon pore structure were studied in order to optimize these parameters. It was found that under vacuum conditions, the characteristics of the activated carbons produced are better than those

Aik Chong Lua; Ting Yang

2005-01-01

40

Water leaching and magnetic separation for decreasing the chloride level and upgrading the zinc content of EAF steelmaking baghouse dusts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling scrap iron and steel in electric arc furnaces (EAFs) generates very fine metal-containing dusts which can present major environmental problems. This paper describes experimental work on a relatively novel, simple, and inexpensive process for decreasing the chloride content and upgrading the zinc level of dust from an Australian plant, to produce saleable products and environmentally safe waste products for

W. J. Bruckard; K. J. Davey; T. Rodopoulos; J. T. Woodcock; J. Italiano

2005-01-01

41

Optimization of production conditions for activated carbons from Tamarind wood by zinc chloride using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-cost activated carbon was prepared from Tamarind wood an agricultural waste material, by chemical activation with zinc chloride. Activated carbon adsorption is an effective means for reducing organic chemicals, chlorine, heavy metals and unpleasant tastes and odours in effluent or colored substances from gas or liquid streams. Central composite design (CCD) was applied to study the influence of activation

J. N. Sahu; Jyotikusum Acharya; B. C. Meikap

2010-01-01

42

Combinative action of zinc chloride and triethanolamine on improving photosensitivity in red-sensitized dichromated gelatin for optical storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study to ascertain the combinative action of zinc chloride and triethanolamine (TEA) on improving photosensitivity of red-sensitized dichromated gelatin (RSDCG) has been carried out. Firstly, the exposure properties of home-made RSDCG were studied experimentally. Then, zinc chloride, a kind of Louis' acid, was added into the RSDCG to observe its catalytic effect on photo-cross-linking of gelatin molecules in RSDCG. After that, TEA, as a kind of external electron donor in RSDCG photo-chemical reaction, was introduced into RSDCG to make its photosensitivity higher in this study. Finally, the combinative effect of zinc chloride and TEA on the photosensitivity in RSDCG holograms was studied. The results show: (1) Zinc chloride and TEA have obvious combinative effect on improving the photosensitivity of RSDCG. (2) The curve of diffraction efficiency of RSDCG holographic transmission grating versus exposure energy is bell-shaped. (3) The maximum diffraction efficiency of the grating can reach as high as 83% corresponding to the exposure energy about 200 mJ/cm2.

Zhao, Feng; Frietman, Edward E.; Geng, Wanzhen

1998-11-01

43

In vivo assessment of odour retention in an antimicrobial silver chloride-treated polyester textile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether polyester textiles treated with bioactive concentrations of an antimicrobial silver chloride (SC) compound were effective in reducing axillary odour and axillary bacterial populations before and after multiple washes. A polyester knit fabric was treated with two concentrations of a SC formulation (resulting in 30 and 60?ppm of silver) and evaluated at

Rachel H. McQueen; Monika Keelan; Yin Xu; Tannie Mah

2012-01-01

44

Fundamental studies on chlorine behavior as related to zinc electrowinning from aqueous chloride electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements were made on the transport and equilibrium properties of dissolved chlorine in aqueous HC1, HCl-ZnCl2, HCl-MgCl2, and water. These measurements included solubility, absorption rates during bubbling, stripping rates during nitrogen bubbling, and cathodic reduction rates. The solubility of chlorine was found to be affected by speciation into aqueous Cl2, HC1O, and C13 -. With increasing HCl concentration, the solubility of chlorine decreased to a minimum at 0.2 mol dm-3, followed by a slow and linear increase. Metal chloride salts depressed the chlorine solubility approximately in proportion to concentration. Mass transfer of aqueous chlorine was found to support a current of about 100 A m-2 from a chlorine-saturated ZnCl2-HCl solution under typical zinc electrowinning conditions. Comparisons with published zinc electrowinning papers indicate that air sparging would eliminate dissolved chlorine sufficiently to remove the need for diaphragm cell separation of dissolved chlorine, insofar as current inefficiencies due to cathodic chlorine reduction are concerned.

Majima, Hiroshi; Awakura, Yasuhiro; Tsugui, Keisuke; Peters, Ernest

1990-04-01

45

Zinc contamination from brass upon heat treating a superconducting magnet  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical calculations predicted that zinc outgassing from brass spacers during a planned heat treatment would likely damage a lab-scale superconducting magnet. This specter was reinforced by a simulated heat treatment, the samples of which were analyzed by gravimetry, metallography, and microprobe chemical analysis. It was found that zinc escaping from the brass could diffuse 80 {mu}m into copper electrical conductors and degrade their conductivity. To avoid this, steel was temporarily substituted for the brass during the heat treatment process.

Stevens, D.W.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

1994-07-01

46

Zinc chloride-activated jatropha husk carbon for removal of phenol from water by adsorption: equilibrium and kinetic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jatropha curcas is an important plant for production of bio-diesel. Jatropha husk, an agro-industrial solid waste, is used for the production of carbon activated by treatment with zinc chloride (ZnCl2-activated jatropha husk carbon, ZAJHC); the obtained material is applied to adsorb phenol from wastewater. Adsorption kinetics are of second order. Adsorption equilibrium data are analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, and D–R

K. Ramakrishnan; C. Namasivayam

2011-01-01

47

Zinc chloride-catalyzed reactions of oxygen- and sulfur-containing compounds which model structures in coal  

SciTech Connect

Ether structures are believed to play a key role in linking the macromolecular units present in coal. A number of compounds which model the ether and sulfur structures found in coal were subjected to reaction in the presence of zinc chloride. Reactions were carried out in a batch autoclave at temperatures between 136/sup 0/C and 327/sup 0/C and under hydrogen or nitrogen pressure up to 16.8 MPa. Both cyclic and non-cyclic ethers reacted, provided that at least one methylene group was adjacent to the ether oxygen atom. Complete elimination of oxygen to form water was achieved with dibenzyl and cycloaliphatic ethers, but oxygen bonded directly to a phenyl or naphthyl group was converted to an unreactive phenolic hydroxyl group. As for the sulfur compounds, zinc chloride was found to promote removal of sulfur from sulfides and disulfides in which sulfur is bonded to a methylene group, but had no effect on diaryl sulfides, diaryl disulfides, or thiophenic structures. In those cases where sulfur was removed, a significant portion was found to be retained in the ZnCl/sub 2/ phase. The reaction products observed in both cases can be explained in terms of carbonium ion mechanisms similar to those used to explain Friedel-Crafts chemistry. In these mechanisms, the ZnCl/sub 2/ may be active in either a Lewis acid or a Bronsted acid form. Catalytic effects of nickel, zinc and magnesium and also the sulfides of nickel, zinc, iron and molybdenum on the reactions of dibenzyl ether and zinc chloride were also investigated. The presence of the metallic component enhanced the hydrogenolysis of dibenzyl ether, whereas the presence of ZnCl/sub 2/ reduced the activity of the NiS.

Mobley, D.P.

1980-05-01

48

Biosorption of zinc from aqueous solution using chemically treated rice husk.  

PubMed

In this study, adsorption of zinc onto the adsorbent (untreated rice husk and NaOH-treated rice husk) was examined. During the removal process, batch technique was used, and the effects of pH and contact time were investigated. Langmuir isotherm was applied in order to determine the efficiency of NaOH-treated rice husk used as an adsorbent. The zinc adsorption was fast, and equilibrium was attained within 30?min. The maximum removal ratios of zinc for untreated rice husk and NaOH-treated rice husk after 1.5?h were 52.3% and 95.2%, respectively, with initial zinc concentration of 25?mg/L and optimum pH of 4.0. Data obtained from batch adsorption experiments fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model. Maximum adsorption capacity of zinc onto untreated rice husk and NaOH-treated rice husk was 12.41?mg/g, and 20.08?mg/g respectively, at adsorbent dosage of 1?g/L at 25°C. The nature of functional groups (i.e., amino, carboxyl, and hydroxyl) and metal ion interactions was examined by the FT-IR technique. It was concluded that the NaOH-treated rice husk had stronger adsorption capacity for Zn(2+) compared with the untreated rice husk. The NaOH-treated rice husk is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly adsorbent for Zn(2+) removal from aqueous solutions. PMID:23841065

Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Ru; Zhao, Jiaying; Zhang, Yingchao; Wong, Po-Keung; Ma, Fang

2013-01-01

49

Biosorption of Zinc from Aqueous Solution Using Chemically Treated Rice Husk  

PubMed Central

In this study, adsorption of zinc onto the adsorbent (untreated rice husk and NaOH-treated rice husk) was examined. During the removal process, batch technique was used, and the effects of pH and contact time were investigated. Langmuir isotherm was applied in order to determine the efficiency of NaOH-treated rice husk used as an adsorbent. The zinc adsorption was fast, and equilibrium was attained within 30?min. The maximum removal ratios of zinc for untreated rice husk and NaOH-treated rice husk after 1.5?h were 52.3% and 95.2%, respectively, with initial zinc concentration of 25?mg/L and optimum pH of 4.0. Data obtained from batch adsorption experiments fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model. Maximum adsorption capacity of zinc onto untreated rice husk and NaOH-treated rice husk was 12.41?mg/g, and 20.08?mg/g respectively, at adsorbent dosage of 1?g/L at 25°C. The nature of functional groups (i.e., amino, carboxyl, and hydroxyl) and metal ion interactions was examined by the FT-IR technique. It was concluded that the NaOH-treated rice husk had stronger adsorption capacity for Zn2+ compared with the untreated rice husk. The NaOH-treated rice husk is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly adsorbent for Zn2+ removal from aqueous solutions.

Zheng, Ru; Zhao, Jiaying; Zhang, Yingchao; Wong, Po-keung; Ma, Fang

2013-01-01

50

Effect of Fluid Flow on Zinc Electrodeposits from Acid Chloride Electrolytes. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zinc was deposited potentiostatically from acid chloride baths. Once bath chemistry and electrochemistry were controlled, the study was focused on convective mass transfer at horizontal electrodes and its effect on cell performance. A laser schlieren imaging technique allowed in situ observations of flow patterns and their correlation with current transients. Convection was turbulent and mass transfer as a function of Rayleigh number was well correlated by: Sh = 0.14 R to the 1/3 power. Similarly, convection initiation time was correlated by DT/d squared = 38 Ra to the -2/3 power. Time scale of fluctuations was about half the initiation time. Taking the boundary layer thickness as a characteristic length, a critical Rayleigh number for the onset of convection was deduced: Ra sub CR = 5000. Placing the anode on the top of the cathode completely changed the flow pattern but kept the I-t curves identical whereas the use of a cathode grid doubled the limiting current. A well defined plateau in the current voltage curves suggested that hydrogen evolution has been successfully inhibited. Finally, long time deposition showed that convection at horizontal electrodes increased the induction time for dentrite growth by at least a factor of 2 with respect to a vertical wire.

Abdelmassir, A. A.

1982-01-01

51

Nucleation and growth of zinc electrodeposits on a polycrystalline zinc electrode in the presence of chloride ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of the nucleation and growth of zinc on a zinc electrode in 0.11 m ZnCl2 has been studied by the potential step technique. Four supporting electrolytes were used: 0.5 M NaCl, 1 M NaCl, 3 m NaCl and 1 m NaClO4. The current decays to a minimum, after which it rises to a maximum and then decreases again.

M. Sánchez Cruz; F. Alonso; J. M. Palacios

1993-01-01

52

Mercury compounds in the blood of rats treated with ethylmercuric chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylmercuric chloride (EMC) labeled with ²°³Hg was administered to rats, and the chemical nature of the mercury compound which accumulated in the blood was investigated. More than 97% of the total mercury in the blood of the EMC-treated rats was extracted with dithizone as organic mercury dithizonate. The ethylmercury residue in the blood was found to be bound to hemoglobin,

Y. Takeda; T. Kunugi; T. Terao; T. Ukita

1968-01-01

53

Hydrometallurgical recovery of zinc and lead from electric arc furnace dust using mononitrilotriacetate anion and hexahydrated ferric chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to study the feasibility at laboratory-scale of a new hydrometallurgical process for treating electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD). The proposed process is intended to extract zinc and lead from EAFD without destroying the iron oxides matrix. So, this material can be recycled by the steel industry. Independently of the origin of the samples, major

Nathalie Leclerc; Eric Meux; Jean-Marie Lecuire

2002-01-01

54

[Hydroxychinoline- and zinc-treated acrodermatitis enteropathica and electroretinographic findings (author's transl)].  

PubMed

A meanwhile 13 years old boy had to be treated by hydroxychinolines for a severe acrodermatitis enteropathica since his 1st year of life. At the age of 5 years he showed visual deterioration by atrophia optici. Dose reduction and application of different halogen substitutions were tried. Finally, it was daily oral zinc application and continuous control of the serum zinc level which made disappear all cutaneous and mucous symptoms. At an unchanged ophthalmoscopic status, there occurred a slight raise of vision, an enlargement of peripheric campus and a normalization of the electroretinographic potentials. PMID:565433

Mayer, U; Truckenbrodt, H; Rix, R

1978-03-01

55

ZINC  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the available information on zinc as it relates to its effects on man and his environment. Zinc is found in most soils, but some areas are deficient in it. Metallurgic operations contribute to zinc contamination in air, water and soil. Trace amounts of zinc...

56

Zinc Treatment for Stabilizing Lightly Processed Fresh Fruits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Zinc chloride is an effective enzymatic browning inhibitor, and is more effective than calcium compounds in maintaining light color and firm texture of lightly processed fruits and fruit products. The method of this invention comprises treating exposed in...

H. R. Bolin

1988-01-01

57

Zinc  

MedlinePLUS

... viruses . The body also needs zinc to make proteins and DNA , the genetic material in all cells. ... colitis or Crohn's disease . These conditions can both decrease the amount of zinc that the body absorbs ...

58

Utility cycle testing of a 500kWh zinc chloride battery at the Battery Energy Storage Test (BEST) Facility. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 500-kWh zinc chloride battery test system completed an entire schedule of 80 simulated utility and customer application cycles - the most diverse and severe known to be successfully performed by any advanced battery system. Encouraged by these results, researchers plan to have a 2-MW demonstration battery system ready for testing in 1986.

Hyman

1985-01-01

59

Utility cycle testing of a 500-kWh zinc chloride battery at the Battery Energy Storage Test (BEST) Facility. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A 500-kWh zinc chloride battery test system completed an entire schedule of 80 simulated utility and customer application cycles - the most diverse and severe known to be successfully performed by any advanced battery system. Encouraged by these results, researchers plan to have a 2-MW demonstration battery system ready for testing in 1986.

Hyman, E.A.

1985-10-01

60

A Facile and Efficient Trimethylsilylation of Hydroxyl Groups Using Silica-Supported Zinc Chloride and Alumina-Supported Sodium Hydrogensulfate as Recyclable Heterogeneous Catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silica-supported zinc chloride (SiO2-ZnCl2) and novel alumina-supported sodium hydrogensulfate (NaHSO4-Al2O3) as recyclable heterogeneous catalysts have been used for the mild trimethylsilylation of hydroxyl groups under ambient conditions. This procedure also allows for the selective protection of primary and secondary alcohols in the presence of tertiary alcohols.

Hamid Reza Shaterian; Fahimeh Khorami; Razieh Doostmohammadi; Azita Amirzadeh; Majid Ghashang

2009-01-01

61

Hydrometallurgical recovery of zinc and lead from electric arc furnace dust using mononitrilotriacetate anion and hexahydrated ferric chloride.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to study the feasibility at laboratory-scale of a new hydrometallurgical process for treating electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD). The proposed process is intended to extract zinc and lead from EAFD without destroying the iron oxides matrix. So, this material can be recycled by the steel industry. Independently of the origin of the samples, major mineralogical forms present in these wastes are Fe3O4, ZnO, ZnFe2O4 and PbOHCl. The proposed process consists of a hydrometallurgical treatment of wastes based on selective leaching of zinc and lead. Initially, a leaching is carried out utilizing a chelating agent, nitrilotriacetate anion (NTA3-), as the protonated form HNTA2-. Treatment of five EAFD samples for an hour at room temperature with a molar solution of reagent results in total leaching of the ZnO. In all cases the solubilized iron does not exceed 3 wt.%. The recovery of zinc and lead is performed by precipitation of metallic sulfides with a solution of Na2S4 sodium tetrasulfide 2M. These metallic sulfides can be used as metallurgical raw materials and the chelating reagent can be reused in the process after pH adjustment. The results of the normalized leaching test AFNOR X31-210 conducted on the leaching residues, shows that all the samples meet acceptance thresholds for hazardous wastes landfill. However, the residues contain a considerable amount of zinc as ZnFe2O4. The extraction of the zinc element requires the destruction of the ferrite structure. In this process, ZnFe2O4 is treated by FeCl3.6H2O. The reaction consists in a particle O2-/Cl- exchange allowing the recovery of zinc as ZnCl2 and iron as hematite Fe2O3. The separation of these products is accomplished by simple aqueous leaching. All of the zinc is extracted in a 8h treatment at 150 degrees C with a molar ratio FeCl3.6H2O/ZnFe2O4 equal to 10. Ultimate solid residues, which have been concentrated in iron, can be oriented towards the steel industry. PMID:11900917

Leclerc, Nathalie; Meux, Eric; Lecuire, Jean Marie

2002-04-26

62

Life-testing of 1.7 kW h zinc—chloride battery system: Cycles 1 - 1000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 1.7 kW h battery system was built and tested in 1976 as one part of a program to develop the zinc—chloride battery for utility load-leveling. The two volt, multiple-cell battery stack is of particular interest because it embodies many of the design concepts utilized in the present technology at Energy Development Associates (EDA) for both electric vehicle and load-leveling applications, e.g., porous graphite—chlorine electrodes. From early 1977 onwards, cycle-testing of the system was conducted with a data acquisition and control system (DACS). As of June 1979, the system accumulated 1000 charge—discharge cycles. As indicated by the constancy of the voltaic efficiency, the performance deterioration through 1000 cycles was negligible. EDA plans to continue testing through 2500 cycles — the life target for the commercial version of the load-leveling battery.

Blevins, C. M.

63

Synthesis, structures and ring-opening polymerization studies of new zinc chloride and amide complexes supported by amidinate heteroscorpionate ligands.  

PubMed

The reaction of the heteroscorpionate lithium salts [Li(pbpamd)(THF)] [pbpamd = N,N'-diisopropylbis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)acetamidinate] and [Li(tbpamd)(THF)] [tbpamd = N-ethyl-N'-tert-butylbis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)acetamidinate] with 1 equivalent of ZnCl2 in THF affords very high yields of the neutral heteroscorpionate chloride zinc complexes [ZnCl(NNN)] (NNN = pbpamd 1 and tbpamd 2). Compound 1 was used as a convenient starting material for the synthesis of aromatic amide zinc compounds [Zn(NHAr)(pbpamd)], where NHAr = 4-methylphenylamide (NH-4-MeC6H4) 3, 2,4,6-trimethylphenylamide (NH-2,4,6-Me3C6H2) 4 and 2,6-diethylphenylamide (NH-2,6-Et2C6H3) 5, by the reaction of the corresponding aromatic primary amide lithium salts. Alternatively, aliphatic amide derivatives [Zn(NR2)(pbpamd)] (R = SiMe3 6, SiHMe2 7 and iPr 8) were cleanly prepared by reacting the amidine-heteroscorpionate compound Hpbpamd with the corresponding bis(amide) zinc complexes [Zn(NR2)2] (R = SiMe3, SiHMe2 and iPr). The single-crystal X-ray structures of complexes 2, 3 and 6 confirm a 4-coordinate arrangement in all cases, with the zinc metal surrounded in a distorted tetrahedral geometry and the heteroscorpionate ligands arranged in a kappa3 coordination mode. Whereas aliphatic amide heteroscorpionates 6-8 can act as efficient single-component initiators for the ring-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone at room temperature, aromatic amide derivatives were not capable of yielding polymers even at high temperature. Epsilon-caprolactone is polymerized within minutes to give medium-high molecular weight polymers under mild conditions and with narrow polydispersities (M(w)/M(n) = 1.26). Polymer end group analysis shows that the polymerization mediated by aliphatic amide zinc complexes is initiated by amide transfer to the monomer. PMID:19771369

Sánchez-Barba, Luis F; Alonso-Moreno, Carlos; Garcés, Andrés; Fajardo, Mariano; Fernández-Baeza, Juan; Otero, Antonio; Lara-Sánchez, Agustín; Rodríguez, Ana M; López-Solera, Isabel

2009-10-14

64

Effect of lithium chloride on spectral, optical, thermal and mechanical behaviour of bis thiourea zinc acetate crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of pure bis thiourea zinc acetate (BTZA) and lithium chloride (LiCl) doped BTZA have been synthesized and grown successfully from aqueous solutions by slow evaporation technique. The single crystals thus grown were characterized by different techniques such as single crystal XRD, AAS, FT-IR, UV-Vis, TG/DTA and SHG test. The single crystal XRD study proved that the dopant has not changed the structure of the parent crystal. The AAS study confirmed the presence of lithium in the doped crystal. The FTIR study ascertained the metal coordination of lithium chloride doped BTZA through thiourea. The optical behavior of the doped crystal has been examined by UV spectral analysis. Thermal studies TGA & DTA of the doped crystal have been investigated and found that the doped crystal is thermally more stable than the pure crystal. The SHG test using Nd: YAG Laser confirmed the NLO activity of the pure and doped crystal. The obtained results are presented and discussed.

Ruby Nirmala, L.; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J.

2012-11-01

65

Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-274-1879, evaluation of zinc chloride smoke-generating devices, International Association of Fire Fighters, Washington, DC  

SciTech Connect

An assessment was made of hazards to fire fighters of using different zinc-chloride smoke generating devices, manufactured by the Superior Signal Company, Inc., New Jersey. used in fire-fighter-training exercises, zinc compounds, hydrochloric acid and over 50 chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected in smoke clouds. The concentration of hydrochloric acid ranged as high as 420 mg/m/sup 3/. Zinc chloride concentrations ranged from 11 to 498 mg/m/sup 3/. A telephone survey was conducted of 62 different fire fighting training organizations around the United States to obtain information they might have on use of similar devices. A literature search revealed that there had been severe adverse health effects, including death, resulting from exposure to a dense smoke cloud from a zinc-chloride smoke-generating device. Individuals who were adversely affected were not wearing respiratory protective gear or had malfunctioning gear. Symptoms of exposure included sore throat, difficulty breathing, joint pain, chills and fever, headache, and generalized fatigue. The authors conclude that no smoke-generating device should be considered safe and nontoxic, and that measures should be taken to reduce exposures to smoke clouds from such devices. Alternative methods to distort vision in fire-fighting training exercises should be considered.

Zey, J.N.; Richardson, F.

1988-03-01

66

Effect of polyaluminium chloride on phosphorus removal in constructed wetlands treated with swine wastewater.  

PubMed

Total phosphorus (TP) removal in aged constructed wetlands poses a challenge, especially when treated with swine wastewater with high concentrations of phosphorus (P). Our earlier studies with anaerobic lagoon swine wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands showed a decline in P removal (45-22%) with increased years of operation. These particular wetlands have been treated with swine wastewater every year since the first application in 1997. Preliminary lab-scale studies were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) in the removal of phosphate-P (PO4-P) from swine wastewater. The experimental objective was to increase the phosphorus treatment efficiency in constructed wetland by adding PAC as a precipitating agent. PAC was added by continuous injection to each wetland system at a rate of 3 L day(-1) (1:5 dilution of concentrated PAC). Swine wastewater was added from an anaerobic lagoon to four constructed wetland cells (11m wide x 40m long) at TP loads of 5.4-6.1 kg ha(-1) day(-1) in two experimental periods, September to November of 2008 and 2009. Treatment efficiency of two wetland systems: marsh-pond-marsh (M-P-M) and continuous marsh (CM) was compared. The wetlands were planted with cattails (Typha latifolia L.) and bulrushes (Scirpus americanus). In 2008, PAC treatment showed an increase of 27.5 and 40.8% of TP removal over control in M-P-M and CM respectively. Similar trend was also observed in the following year. PAC as a flocculant and precipitating agent showed potential to enhance TP removal in constructed wetlands treated with swine wastewater. PMID:22049722

Reddy, G B; Forbes, Dean A; Hunt, P G; Cyrus, Johnsely S

2011-01-01

67

Experimental study on the combinative action of zinc chloride and triethanolamine on improving photosensitivity in red-sensitized dichromated gelatin 1 This is supported by Heilongjiang Natural Science Foundation of China. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study to ascertain the combinative action of zinc chloride and triethanolamine (TEA) on improving the photosensitivity of red-sensitized dichromated gelatin (RSDCG) has been carried out. Firstly, the exposure properties of home-made RSDCG holographic plates were studied experimentally. Then, zinc chloride was added into the red-sensitized dichromated gelatin to observe its catalytic effect on photo-cross-linking of gelatin molecules in

Feng Zhao; Wanzheng Geng; Lingzhen Jiang; Xiaou Li; Jing Hong

1998-01-01

68

A case of transient zinc deficiency in a breast-fed preterm infant successfully treated with oral zinc supplementation: review of zinc metabolism and related diseases.  

PubMed

A 15-week-old baby girl, born at the 29 week of gestation, presented with a four-week history of demarcated, erythematous, erosive and exudative patches on the perianal, perioral and acral areas. A clinical diagnosis of zinc deficiency was considered. Serum zinc level was decreased (0.5 mg/L; normal 0.70-1.50 mg/L), the mother's serum and milk had normal zinc values. The baby was started an empiric trial of oral zinc supplementation (3 mg zinc gluconate/kg body weight/ day) with complete healing of lesions after two weeks. Treatment was gradually withdrawn at six months of age with no relapse. Transient zinc deficiency due to increased zinc requirements in breast-fed mainly preterm infants is a condition similar to acrodermatitis enteropathica, an autosomal recessive disorder of enteric zinc absorption affecting almost exclusively not breast-fed infants. Early recognition of the disorder and introduction of zinc supplementation rapidly reverses transient zinc deficiency, that probably will become more and more frequent, because of the rising rate of premature infants with breast-feeding only. PMID:19907411

Mandato, F; Rubegni, P; Buonocore, G; Fimiani, M

2009-12-01

69

Highly chemoselective palladium-catalyzed conjugate reduction of. cap alpha. ,. beta. -unsaturated carbonyl compounds with silicon hydrides and zinc chloride cocatalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-component system comprised of a soluble palladium catalyst, hydridosilane, and zinc chloride is capable of efficient conjugate reduction of ..cap alpha..,..beta..-unsaturated ketones and aldehydes. The optimal set of conditions includes diphenylsilane as the most effective hydride donor, any soluble palladium complex in either the O or II oxidation state, when it is stabilized by phosphine ligands, and ZnClâ as

Ehud. Keinan; Noam. Greenspoon

1986-01-01

70

Leukotriene D4 activates a chloride conductance in hepatocytes from lipopolysaccharide-treated rats.  

PubMed Central

Endotoxin (LPS) can cause hepatocellular injury under several circumstances, and leukotrienes have been implicated as a contributing factor. Since ion channel activation has been associated with cytotoxicity, the aim of this study was to determine the circumstances under which LPS and/or leukotrienes activate ionic conductances in hepatocytes. LPS treatment of rats increased Cl- conductance in hepatocytes from 232+/-42 to 1236+/-134 pS/pF. Voltage dependence and inhibitor specificity of this conductance were similar to that of a swelling-activated Cl- conductance, and internal dialysis with nucleoside analogues suggested control by an inhibitory G protein. The lipoxygenase inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid, the specific leukotriene D4 (LTD4) receptor antagonist MK-571, and the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein inhibitor MK-886 all significantly inhibited the conductance. Intracellular dialysis with LTD4 (1.5 microM) elevated intracellular Ca2+ from 143+/-6.5 to 388+/-114 nM within 6 min and stimulated an outwardly rectifying conductance from 642+/-159 to 1669+/-224 pS/pF (n = 9, P < 0.001). In hepatocytes prepared from untreated rats, this concentration of intracellular LTD4 neither raised intracellular Ca2+ nor activated the conductance. The LTD4 response could be induced in normal hepatocytes by culture with either conditioned medium from LPS-treated macrophages or purified TNF-alpha. In conclusion, intracellular LTD4 activates a chloride conductance in hepatocytes isolated from rats treated with LPS or primed in vitro with TNF-alpha. Changes in the hepatocellular accumulation of leukotrienes therefore mediate channel activation and may contribute to liver injury during sepsis and other inflammatory conditions.

Meng, X J; Carruth, M W; Weinman, S A

1997-01-01

71

Zinc and zinc related enzymes in precancerous and cancerous tissue in the colon of dimethyl hydrazine treated rats.  

PubMed

Trace element zinc deficiency or excess is implicated in the development or progression of some cancers. The exact role of zinc in the etiology of colon cancer is unclear. To cast light on this question, an experimental model of colon carcinogenesis was applied here. Six week old rats were given sub cutaneous injections of DMH (30 mg/kg body weight) twice a week for three months and sacrificed after 4 months (precancer model) and 6 months (cancer model). Plasma zinc levels showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) at 4 months and a greater significant decrease at 6 months (p<0.01) as compared with controls. In the large intestine there was a significant decrease in tissue zinc levels (p<0.005) and in CuZnSOD, and alkaline phosphatase activity (p<0.05) in the pre-cancerous model and a greater significant decrease in tissue zinc (p<0.0001), and in CuZnSOD and alkaline phosphatase activity (p<0.001), in the carcinoma model. The tissue zinc levels showed a significant decrease in the small intestine and stomach (p<0.005) and in liver (p<0.05) in the cancer model. 87% of the rats in the precancer group and 92% rats in the cancer group showed histological evidence of precancerous lesions and carcinomas respectively in the colon mucosa. This study suggests that the decrease in plasma zinc, tissue zinc and activity of zinc related enzymes are associated with the development of preneoplastic lesions and these biochemical parameters further decrease with progression to carcinoma in the colon. PMID:22524812

Christudoss, Pamela; Selvakumar, R; Pulimood, Anna B; Fleming, Jude Joseph; Mathew, George

2012-01-01

72

Caretakers' Perception towards Using Zinc to Treat Childhood Diarrhoea in Rural Western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Zinc treatment for diarrhoea can shorten the course and prevent future episodes among children worldwide. However, knowledge and acceptability of zinc among African mothers is unknown. We identified children aged 3 to 59 months, who had diarrhoea within the last three months and participated in a home-based zinc treatment study in rural Kenya. Caretakers of these children were enrolled in two groups; zinc-users and non-users. A structured questionnaire was administered to all caretakers, inquiring about knowledge and appropriate use of zinc. Questions on how much the caretakers were willing to pay for zinc were asked. Proportions were compared using Mantel-Haenszel test, and medians were compared using Wilcoxon Rank Sum test. Among 109 enrolled caretakers, 73 (67%) used zinc, and 36 (33%) did not. Sixty-four (88%) caretakers in zinc-user group reported satisfaction with zinc treatment. Caretakers in the zinc-user group more often correctly identified appropriate zinc treatment (98%-100%) than did those in the non-user group (64?72%, p<0.001). Caretakers in the zinc-user group answered more questions about zinc correctly or favourably (median 10 of 11) compared to those in the non-user group (median 6.3 of 11, p<0.001). Caretakers in the zinc-user group were willing to pay more for a course of zinc in the future than those in the non-user group (median US$ 0.26, p<0.001). Caretakers of children given zinc recently had favourable impressions on the therapy and were willing to pay for it in the future. Active promotion of zinc treatment in clinics and communities in Africa could lead to greater knowledge, acceptance, and demand for zinc.

Bigogo, Godfrey M.; Nyawanda, Bryan O.; Aboud, Frances; Breiman, Robert F.; Larson, Charles P.; Feikin, Daniel R.

2013-01-01

73

Glycosaminoglycan blotting on nitrocellulose membranes treated with cetylpyridinium chloride after agarose-gel electrophoretic separation.  

PubMed

We describe a method for blotting and immobilizing several nonsulfated and sulfated complex polysaccharides on membranes made hydrophilic and positively charged by a cationic detergent after their separation by conventional agarose gel electrophoresis. Nitrocellulose membranes were derivatized with the cationic detergent cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and mixtures of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were capillary-blotted after their separation in agarose gel electrophoresis in barium acetate/1,2-diaminopropane. Single purified species of variously sulfated polysaccharides were transferred onto the derivatized membranes after electrophoresis with an efficiency of 100% and stained with alcian blue (irreversible staining) and toluidine blue (reversible staining) permitting about 0.1 nug threshold of detection. Nonsulfated polyanions, hyaluronic acid, a fructose-containing polysaccharide with a chondroitin backbone purified from Escherichia coli U1-41, and its defructosylated product, were also electrophoretically separated and transferred onto membranes. The limit of detection for desulfated GAGs was about 0.1-0.5 nug after irreversible or reversible staining. GAG extracts from bovine, lung and aorta, and human aorta and urine were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and blotted on CPC-treated nitrocellulose membranes. The polysaccharide composition of these extracts was determined. The membrane stained with toluidine blue (reversible staining) was destained and the same lanes used for immunological detection or other applications. Reversible staining was also applied to recover single species of polysaccharides after electrophoretic separation of mixtures of GAGs and their transfer onto membranes. Single bands were released from the membrane with an efficiency of 70-100% for further biochemical characterization. PMID:12373753

Maccari, Francesca; Volpi, Nicola

2002-09-01

74

Zinc and copper uptake by silver beet grown in secondary treated effluent.  

PubMed

The study was conducted in a hydroponics set-up to determine the suitability of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) contaminated wastewater as a growth medium for edible crops; to identify accumulation of Zn and Cu in different parts of the plants and to understand their effects on plant growth. Silver beet was found to produce adequate yields in the Zn (1.7 mg/L and 2.0mg/L) and Cu (0.35 mg/L and 1.1mg/L) spiked medium but not in the secondary treated domestic effluent. The plants grown in secondary treated effluent showed stunted growth and accumulated Zn and Cu to a high level in their shoots. In all other mediums Zn and Cu accumulated more in the roots. The stunted growth of silver beet in secondary treated wastewater and uptake of Zn in particular was considered to be due to the deficiency of nitrogen and other plant nutrients rather than the effect of heavy metals. The study also revealed that if there was adequate amount of macronutrients available for growth, silver beet could be grown in domestic effluent without the risk of Zn or Cu contamination to the undesired level through hydroponics. PMID:17570659

Nair, Jaya; Levitan, Jason; Oyama, Noraisha

2008-05-01

75

Preparation of activated carbon from dried pods of Prosopis cineraria with zinc chloride activation for the removal of phenol.  

PubMed

Utilization of agrowaste materials for the production of activated carbon, as an excellent adsorbent with large surface area, is well established industrially, for dephenolation of wastewater. In the present work, dried pods of Prosopis cineraria-a novel and low-cost agrowaste material-were used to prepare activated carbons by zinc chloride activation. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to study the effects of various physicochemical parameters such as initial phenol concentration, adsorbent dose, initial solution pH, and temperature. Pseudo-first-order second-order and diffusion kinetic models were used to identify the possible mechanisms of such adsorption process. The Langmuir and Freundlich equations were used to analyze the adsorption equilibrium. Maximum removal efficiency of 86 % was obtained with 25 mg L(-1) of initial phenol concentration. The favorable pH for maximum phenol adsorption was 4.0. Freundlich equation represented the adsorption equilibrium data more ideally than the Langmuir. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained was 78.32 mg g(-1) at a temperature of 30 °C and 25 mg L(-1) initial phenol concentration. The adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. The pseudo-second-order model, an indication of chemisorption mechanism, fitted the experimental data better than the pseudo-first-order Lagergren model. Regeneration of spent activated carbon was carried out using Pseudomonas putida MTCC 2252 as the phenol-degrading microorganism. Maximum regeneration up to 57.5 % was recorded, when loaded phenol concentration was 25 mg L(-1). The data obtained in this study would be useful in designing and fabricating an efficient treatment plant for phenol-rich effluents. PMID:23212266

Nath, Kaushik; Panchani, Suresh; Bhakhar, M S; Chatrola, Sandip

2013-06-01

76

Economic evaluation of zinc and copper use in treating acute diarrhea in children: A randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The therapeutic effects of zinc and copper in reducing diarrheal morbidity have important cost implications. This health services research study evaluated the cost of treating a child with acute diarrhea in the hospital, the impact of micronutrient supplementation on the mean predicted costs and its cost-effectiveness as compared to using only standard oral rehydration solution (ORS), from the patient's

Archana B Patel; Leena A Dhande; Manwar S Rawat

2003-01-01

77

High-performance liquid chromatography determination of residue levels on chicken carcasses treated with cetylpyridinium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) has been found to be effective in reducing contamination of chicken carcasses from a variety of microorganisms, including Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Campylobacter jejuni, Aeromonas hydrophila, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. A procedure has been developed to determine residue levels on chicken carcasses after CPC treatment. For the analysis, chicken carcasses were extracted with 95% ethanol.

Xiang Zhou; Andronica Handie; Hamid Salari; E. Kim Fifer; Philip J Breen; Cesar M Compadre

1999-01-01

78

Role of corticosterone in cleft palate formation in methylmercuric chloride-treated mice  

SciTech Connect

The effect of simultaneous administration of sodium selenite and methylmercuric chloride on plasma corticosterone, and the effect of adrenalectomy and methylmercuric chloride treatment on the incidence of fetal cleft palate in mice were examined. After 6 consecutive days of treatment, methylmercury (as methylmercuric chloride) at 5 mg/kg per day increased plasma corticosterone to approximately twice the concentration observed in the controls. When administered together, selenium (as sodium selenite) at 0.125 to 0.5 mg/kg per day did not affect the increase of plasma corticosterone induced by methylmercuric chloride. Selenite by itself (0.125 to 0.5 mg selenium/kg per day) resulted in an increase of approximately 50% over the controls. Sham opration or adrenalectomy of mice on Day 7 of pregnancy did not result in a significant incidence of cleft palate in the fetuses. However, the administration of methylmercury (5 mg/kg per day) on Days 11, 12, and 13 of gestation to the operated mothers resulted in cleft palate in approximately 30% of the fetuses, regardless of the type of operation. The significance of these findings is discussed.

Chan, K.K.S.; Lee, M.

1981-04-01

79

Rapid Disruption of Cellular Integrity of Zinc-treated Astroglia Is Regulated by p38 MAPK and Ca2+-dependent Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Cultured cortical primary astroglia treated with zinc died while rapidly detached from culture plates, a distinct part of zinc-treated astroglia. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the rapid change in the morphologic integrity of zinc-treated astroglia. Among the early cellular events occurring in zinc-treated astroglia, strong activation of p38 MAPK and JNK was evident. Although inhibitors of p38 (SB203580 and SB202190) or JNK (SP600125) did not protect zinc-insulted astroglia from cell death, the p38 inhibitors, but not the JNK inhibitor, suppressed actin filament and cell morphology disruption. The Ca2+ ionophore, A23187, also suppressed actin filament and cell morphology disruption, but not cell death, of zinc-insulted astroglia. However, A23187 did not inhibit p38 MAPK activation in zinc-treated astroglia. Together these results suggest that zinc influx in astroglia results in rapid loss of the morphologic integrity via mechanisms regulated by p38 kinase and/or Ca2+ signaling.

Im, Joo-Young; Joo, Hyo-Jin

2011-01-01

80

Zinc recovery by ultrasound acid leaching of double kiln treated electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to convert 70,000 tons a year of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust into an environmentally safe or recyclable product has encouraged studies to reclaim zinc from this waste material. Successful characterization of a double-kiln calcine, produced from EAF dust, has shown that the calcine pellets consisted mainly of zinc oxide plates with some iron oxide particles. Preliminary leaching

Barrera Godinez

1989-01-01

81

Zinc  

MedlinePLUS

... attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), blunted sense of taste (hypogeusia), ringing in the ears (tinnitus), severe head ... hypogeusia, a rare condition where the sense of taste is abnormal. Preventing and treating stomach ulcers. Preventing ...

82

Cytochemical localization of mercury in Saccharomyces cerevisiae treated with mercuric chloride  

SciTech Connect

We describe a cytochemical method for localizing mercury at the electron microscopic level in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After addition of a lethal concentration of mercuric chloride to growing yeast cells, mercury was associated with the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane. Little or no mercury was present in the cytoplasm. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) confirmed that the cytochemical reaction, visualized as mercury-silver complexes, was localized in dense bodies consisting of a core of mercury sulfide polymers surrounded by a shell of silver atoms.

Whittaker, S.G.; Smith, D.G.; Foster, J.R.; Rowland, I.R. (University College London (England))

1990-06-01

83

Zinc Chloride Inhibits Human Lens Epithelial Cell Migration and Proliferation Involved in TGF-?1 and TNF-? Signaling Pathways in HLE B-3 Cells.  

PubMed

Zinc is one of the most abundant essential elements in the human body, which is an essential, coenzyme-like component of many enzymes, and is indispensable to their functions. However, high levels of zinc ions can lead to cell damage. In the present study, we explored the effects of high concentrations of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) on lens epithelial cell proliferation and migration and further investigated the effects of different concentrations of ZnCl2 on caspase-9 and caspase-12, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-?1), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?). We found that ZnCl2 could inhibit human lens epithelial (HLE) B-3 cell migration and induce apoptosis/necrosis. In addition, ZnCl2 can efficiently decrease the expressions of caspase-9 and caspase-12, increase the expression of TNF-? at both gene and protein levels, and thus induces cell death. Taken together, our results indicate that ZnCl2 can inhibit HLE B-3 cell migration and proliferation by decreasing the expression of TGF-?1 and increasing the expression of TNF-? and finally lead to HLE B-3 cell death. PMID:24752973

Du, Yuxiang; Guo, Dadong; Wu, Qiuxin; Liu, Dongmei; Bi, Hongsheng

2014-06-01

84

Corrosion resistance of zinc coatings on depleted uranium and uranium alloys  

SciTech Connect

Simulated atmospheric corrosion studies were performed to determine the corrosion protection provided by galvanized zinc coatings on depleted uranium, U-0.75 Ti alloy, and U-6 Nb alloys. The accelerated ASTM tests consisted of exposing the galvanized samples to aqueous and aqueous chloride environments. The test results showed that anodic protection was provided by the electronegative zinc coatings on uranium and uranium alloys. Treating zinc with chromate conversion coatings also provided more protection.

Briggs, J.L.

1985-01-27

85

Technical and economic assessments of electrochemical energy storage systems: Volume 7, Zinc-chloride battery plant description, cost estimate, credible accident and efficiency assessment: Final report for the period September 1978May 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document describes the zinc-chloride battery as the basic unit in the development of a battery load-leveling facility that will accumulate the output of base-load generation during periods of low demand and provide a supply of energy for periods of high demand. The plant is 100 MWh. (DLC)

J. Abraham; G. Binas; J. L. Del Monaco; D. A. Pandya; T. E. Sharp

1985-01-01

86

Evaluation of Novel Design Strategies for Developing Zinc Finger Nucleases Tools for Treating Human Diseases  

PubMed Central

Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) are associated with cell death and apoptosis by binding at countless undesired locations. This cytotoxicity is associated with the binding ability of engineered zinc finger domains to bind dissimilar DNA sequences with high affinity. In general, binding preferences of transcription factors are associated with significant degenerated diversity and complexity which convolutes the design and engineering of precise DNA binding domains. Evolutionary success of natural zinc finger proteins, however, evinces that nature created specific evolutionary traits and strategies, such as modularity and rank-specific recognition to cope with binding complexity that are critical for creating clinical viable tools to precisely modify the human genome. Our findings indicate preservation of general modularity and significant alteration of the rank-specific binding preferences of the three-finger binding domain of transcription factor SP1 when exchanging amino acids in the 2nd finger.

Bach, Christian; Sherman, William; Pallis, Jani; Bajwa, Hassan

2014-01-01

87

Expression changes of apoptotic-related proteins in nerve tissues of rats treated with allyl chloride.  

PubMed

Allyl chloride (AC) is widely used in industries as raw material and has been reported to produce occupational peripheral neuropathies in man chronically exposure to it. Although many studies have been done addressing to it, the mechanisms still remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of neuropathy induced by AC, we measured the contents of glutathione (GSH), Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome c (CytC) and Caspase-3 in a time-dependent manner by biochemical and quantitative immunoblotting techniques in rats' cerebrum and spinal cord after 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks of AC intoxication. The results showed that the levels of Bcl-2 of cerebrum and spinal cord significantly (P<0.05) decreased after 9 and 6 weeks of AC intoxication, respectively, while GSH levels decreased after 12 week. However, the levels of Bax, CytC and Caspase-3 significantly (P<0.05) increased both in cerebrum and spinal cord. Bax levels of cerebrum and spinal cord increased after 12 and 9 weeks of AC administration, respectively. The levels of CytC and Caspase-3 also went up after 9 weeks of AC treatment in cerebrum and 9, 6 weeks in spinal cord, respectively. Thus, subchronic exposure to AC affected the expressions of apoptotic-related proteins in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) tissues and the time dependent changes of these indexes occurred. The regulatory mechanism of apoptosis might be involved and served as one of mechanisms of toxic neuropathy induced by AC. PMID:17194518

Wang, Qing-Shan; Song, Fuyong; Zhao, Xiulan; Hou, Li-yan; Xie, Ke-Qin

2007-02-28

88

Phosphate removal by refined aspen wood fiber treated with carboxymethyl cellulose and ferrous chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass-based filtration media are of interest as an economical means to remove pollutants and nutrients found in stormwater runoff. Refined aspen wood fiber samples treated with iron salt solutions demonstrated limited capacities to remove (ortho)phosphate from test solutions. To provide additional sites for iron complex formation, and thereby impart a greater capacity for phosphate removal, a fiber pretreatment with an

Thomas L. Eberhardt; Soo-Hong Min; James S. Han

2006-01-01

89

Investigation of optical and electrical properties of L-Cystein doped zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) crystal for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The single crystal of L-Cystein doped zinc thiourea chloride (ZTC) has been grown by slow evaporation technique. The optical study revealed that the doped ZTC crystal has high transmission with lowest cut off wavelength of 306 nm. The optical band gap was found to be 4.2 eV. The transition band gaps were studied using the photoluminescence spectrum. The incorporation of L-Cystein in ZTC was estimated qualitatively by FT-IR analysis. The presence of dopant was confirmed by energy diffraction X-ray analysis (EDAX) analysis. The lower dielectric characteristics of doped ZTC crystal were scrutinized by dielectric measurements. The high thermal stability of grown crystal was ascertained by TG/DTA analysis. The Second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency measured using Nd-YAG laser is 1.96 times that of pure ZTC.

Anis, Mohd; Shaikh, R. N.; Shirsat, M. D.; Hussaini, S. S.

2014-08-01

90

Influence of Cs(I)-doping on the spectral, thermal, morphological and optical properties of bis(thiourea)zinc(II) chloride crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of alkali metal caesium(I) doped bis(thiourea)zinc(II) chloride are grown at room temperature by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Powder XRD studies reveal some interesting features in the XRD profiles with changes in intensity patterns in doped specimen due to stress development in the crystal. The incorporation of Cs(I) into the crystal lattice was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Slight shifts in vibrational patterns of doped specimen indicate that the crystal undergoes considerable lattice stress as result of doping. SEM studies of pure and doped samples reveal the external morphology. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal studies reveal the purity of the material and the specimens are stable up to the melting point. The optical studies reveal that absorption is minimum in the visible region and doping influenced the diffuse reflectance spectrum. The band gap energies of the pure and doped specimens were estimated by the application of Kubelka-Munk algorithm.

Meena, K.; Muthu, K.; Meenatchi, V.; Rajasekar, M.; Aditya Prasad, A.; Meenakshisundaram, SP.

91

Antiplaque/antigingivitis efficacy and safety of a cetylpyridinium chloride/zinc gluconate mucoadhesive gel. Results of a 6-month clinical trial.  

PubMed

This article presents the results of a controlled clinical trial evaluating a new at-home treatment to improve gingival health. Designed for overnight application at the gingival margins and in the interproximal spaces, the product is a mucoadhesive gel containing 0.10% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and 0.592% zinc gluconate (ZG). The authors assessed the efficacy and safety of the CPC/ZG gel in adults with low-to-moderate gingival and plaque index scores by comparing clinical and laboratory findings for subjects using the CPC/ZG gel with those for subjects using the control gel (0% CPC and 0.592% ZG). Clinical findings at 3 and 6 months showed statistically significant improvements in two of the three major indices of gingival health in the CPC/ZG group compared with the control group. The performance of the treatment gel was supported by results of microbial analyses of plaque samples. PMID:18795647

Lee, Sean S; Aprecio, Raydolfo M; Zhang, Wu; Arambula, Michele; Wilkins, Kristi B; Stephens, Joni A; Kim, Jay S; Li, Yiming

2008-06-01

92

Development of a combined pyro- and hydrometallurgical route to treat spent zinc–carbon batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of solvent extraction using Cynanex®272 for the recovery of zinc from spent zinc carbon batteries after a prior leaching in hydrochloric acid has been investigated. The elemental analysis of the spent material was carried out by ICP-MS. The major metallic elements are: ZnO (41.30%), Fe2O3 (4.38%), MnO2 (2.69%), Al2O3 (1.01%), CaO (0.36%) and PbO (0.11%). The quantitative leaching

A. A. Baba; A. F. Adekola; R. B. Bale

2009-01-01

93

Zinc Finger Nucleases as tools to understand and treat human diseases  

PubMed Central

Recent work has shown that it is possible to target regulatory elements to DNA sequences of an investigator's choosing, increasing the armamentarium for probing gene function. In this review, we discuss the development and use of designer zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) as sequence specific tools. While the main focus of this review is to discuss the attachment of the FokI nuclease to ZFPs and the ability of the resulting fusion protein (termed zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs)) to genomically manipulate a gene of interest, we will also cover the utility of other functional domains, such as transcriptional activators and repressors, and highlight how these are being used as discovery and therapeutic tools.

2010-01-01

94

Copper and zinc adsorption by sewage sludge?treated soil in southern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal accumulation in soil due to the application of sewage sludge may induce changes in its ionic retention capacity. In this work, sludge application effects on copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) adsorption by the surface horizon of a calcareous soil in Southern Spain have been studied. Sludge from the urban waste water treatment plant in Cordoba was applied at

María José Polo; Rafaela Ordóñez; Juan Vicente Giráldez

1999-01-01

95

Investigation of processes to treat zinc-ferrite regeneration offgases in high temperature desulfurization of coal gases  

SciTech Connect

A bench-scale test program has been performed to evaluate the effect of critical operating variables on sulfur dioxide removal efficiency for two candidate throwaway'' desulfurization processes for treating zinc-ferrite reactor regeneration offgas. These two throwaway'' processes, dual-alkali wet scrubbing and spray dryer desulfurization, generate a gypsum waste sludge environmentally acceptable for disposal. They have seen extensive commercial application in flue gas desulfurization, but have not been evaluated for such high levels of removal efficiency and such high inlet sulfur dioxide concentrations as would be required for this application. 13 figs., 15 tabs.

Woodland, L. R.

1988-08-01

96

Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Interferences commonly encountered in the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc at crustal abundance levels are effectively eliminated using a rapid, sensitive, organic extraction technique. A potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid digestion solubilizes the metals not tightly bound in the silicate lattice of rocks, soils, and stream sediments. The six metals are selectively extracted into a 10% Aliquat 336-MIBK organic phase in the presence of ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. Metals in the organic extract are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to the 0.02-ppm level for silver, cadmium, copper, and zinc and to the 0.2-ppm level for bismuth and lead with a maximum relative standard deviation of 18.8% for known reference samples. An additional hydrofluoric acid digestion may be used to determine metals substituted in the silicate lattice.

Viets, J. G.

1978-01-01

97

Reversal of Hair Loss following Vertical Gastroplasty when Treated with Zinc Sulphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Nutritional complications following surgery for morbid obesity include both vitamin and mineral deficiency. Severe\\u000a cases of zinc deficiency can lead to alopecia, diarrhoea, emotional disorders, weight loss, intercurrent infection, bullous-pustular\\u000a dermatitis and hypogonadism in males. Hair loss may occur after vertical gastroplasty (VG). Methods: Diffuse hair loss occurred\\u000a in 47 out of 130 patients who underwent VG. All patients

Hilary J. Neve; Waqar A. Bhatti; Clare Soulsby; John Kincey; T. Vincent Taylor

1996-01-01

98

Ion Exchange Conceptual Design for Treating Seven Technical Area Sumps with Elevated Levels of Copper and Zinc  

SciTech Connect

Recently a meeting was held to discuss technical support for developing a conceptual design and estimate for installing and operating an in-line ion exchange system to treat seven Technical Area Sumps with elevated levels (high ppb - low ppm) of copper and potentially zinc (copper level is above the outfall limits). These sump waters are currently routed to the A01 outfall, which is permitted by the State of South Carolina. a study of potential treatment options and followup laboratory work done in the summer of 1997 by Larry Oji and John Hage identified two commercially available ion exchange resins, Duolit GT-73 and Chelex 100, for treating waters at these metals concentrations.

Oji, L.N.

1999-02-17

99

Quantitative determination of benzalkonium chloride in treated wood by solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.  

PubMed

Ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ) compound wood preservative is comprised of copper and quaternary ammonium compounds with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) as the active ingredient. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (LC-UV) was developed for quantitative determination of BAC in treated wood. Five species of wood were used, Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis), Yezo spruce (Picea jezoensis), Sakhalin fir (Abies sachalinensis), and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla). BAC used in the present study was composed of 66% C12, 33% C14 and less than 1% C16. BAC was added to each wood species (500 mg) then extracted with HCl-ethanol (20 ml) and quantitatively determined with LC-UV (262 nm). Wood extractives from the heartwood of each species, except western hemlock, interfered with quantitative determination of BAC, but SPE with an Oasis MCX cartridge was effective in preventing this. Using the present methods, BAC homologue peaks were clearly confirmed without interference. Recoveries from wood ranged from 92 to 101% and the limit of quantitation was approximately 240 microg/g wood for the C12 and C14 homologues. PMID:16275285

Miyauchi, Teruhisa; Mori, Mitsunori; Ito, Katsuhiko

2005-11-18

100

Decolourization of anaerobically digested and polyaluminium chloride treated distillery spentwash in a fungal stirred tank aerobic reactor.  

PubMed

Decolourization of anaerobically digested and polyaluminium chloride treated distillery spentwash was studied in a fungal stirred tank aerobic reactor without dilution of wastewater. Aspergillus niger isolate IITB-V8 was used as the fungal inoculum. The main objectives of the study were to optimize the stirrer speed for achieving maximum decolourization and to determine the kinetic parameters. A mathematical model was developed to describe the batch culture kinetics. Volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k (L) a) was obtained using dynamic method. The maximum specific growth rate and growth yield of fungus were determined using Logistic equation and using Luedeking-Piret equation. 150 rpm was found to be optimum stirrer speed for overall decolourization of 87%. At the optimum stirrer speed, volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k (L) a) was 0.4957 min(-1) and the maximum specific growth rate of fungus was 0.224 h(-1). The values of yield coefficient (Y ( x/s)) and maintenance coefficient (m (s)) were found to be 0.48 g cells (g substrate)(-1) and 0.015 g substrate (g cells)(-1) h(-1). PMID:21380734

Singh, S S; Dikshit, A K

2011-11-01

101

An experimental study of zinc chloride speciation from 300 to 600 ??C and 0.5 to 2.0 kbar in buffered hydrothermal solutions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The solubility of sphalerite (ZnS) was measured in KCl-HCl-H2O solutions at 300-600??C and 0.5-2.0 kbar. The silicate assemblage K-feldspar-muscovite (or andalusite)-quartz was used to buffer the solution to acid conditions, resulting in the total solubility reaction 2K+ + KAl2AlSi3O10(OH)2 + 6SiO2 + ZnS + nCl- = ZnCln(2-n) + 3KAlSi3O8 + H2S. (muscovite) (quartz) (sphalerite) (K-feldspar) A computer retrieval technique was used to derive average chloride ligand numbers for chlorozinc species at 0.25-2.0 molal total chloride. This technique mathematically solves for the average ligand number using a series of pertinent chemical relations at P and T. Mono- and di-chlorozinc species were found to predominate throughout the pressure-temperature-composition range investigated. The logarithms of the first and second dissociation constants for ZnCl20 were evaluated over the P-T range; for example, at 1 kbar, the values -0.41 and -1.42 were computed for the logarithm of the first dissociation constant, while -7.62 and -10.57 were computed for the logarithm of the second dissociation constant, for 400 and 500??C, respectively. Results are compared to past studies conducted at subcritical conditions and differ in that we find no evidence for more highly coordinated chloro-zinc species except possibly for ZnCl3- at 600??C, 1 and 2 kbar. Our results are consistent with electrostatic theory, which favors lower charged to neutral molecules in low dielectric-constant media. ?? 1994.

Cygan, G. L.; Hemley, J. J.; d'Angelo, W. M.

1994-01-01

102

Symptomatic copper deficiency in three Wilson's disease patients treated with zinc sulphate.  

PubMed

Wilson's disease (WD) is caused by excess of copper that leads to accumulation of copper mainly in the liver, brain and needs life-long decoppering therapy. However, overtreatment with anti-copper agents may lead to copper deficiency which may cause neurological and hematological symptoms. Copper is an important cofactor for many enzymes. This report describes three WD patients with diagnosed copper deficiency during zinc sulphate (ZS) treatment. After 5-16 years of therapy all patients developed leucopenia. Spinal cord injury was manifested in two of the patients. One of them also presented myopathy. In conclusion, copper deficiency may occur in different time after treatment onset, therefore regular copper metabolism and hematological monitoring is necessary. PMID:24981187

Dzie?yc, Karolina; Litwin, Tomasz; Soba?ska, Anna; Cz?onkowska, Anna

2014-01-01

103

Zinc and copper distribution in swine wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

Swine wastewater contain high levels of metals, such as copper and zinc, which can cause a negative impact on the environment. Anaerobic digestion is a process commonly used to remove carbon, and can act on metal availability (e.g., solubility or oxidation state). The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of anaerobic digestion on total Zn and Cu contents, and their chemical fractioning due to the biodegradation of the effluent over different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The sequential extraction protocol proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR), plus two additional fractions, was the method chosen for this study of Cu and Zn distribution evaluation in swine wastewater. The Zn and Cu concentrations in raw swine manure were 63.58 ± 27.72 mg L(-1) and 8.98 ± 3.99 mg L(-1), respectively. The metal retention capacity of the bioreactor decreased when the HRT was reduced from 17.86 d to 5.32 d. Anaerobic digestion had a direct influence on zinc and copper distribution when raw manure (RM) and digested manure (DM) were compared. The reducible fraction showed a reduction of between 3.17% and 7.84% for Zn and between 2.52% and 11.92% for Cu when DM was compared with RM. However, the metal concentration increased in the oxidizable fraction of DM, viz. from 3.01% to 10.64% for Zn and from 4.49% to 16.71% for Cu, thus demonstrating the effect of anaerobic conditions on metal availability. PMID:24794386

Cestonaro do Amaral, André; Kunz, Airton; Radis Steinmetz, Ricardo Luís; Justi, Karin Cristiane

2014-08-01

104

Highly chemoselective palladium-catalyzed conjugate reduction of. cap alpha. ,. beta. -unsaturated carbonyl compounds with silicon hydrides and zinc chloride cocatalyst  

SciTech Connect

A three-component system comprised of a soluble palladium catalyst, hydridosilane, and zinc chloride is capable of efficient conjugate reduction of ..cap alpha..,..beta..-unsaturated ketones and aldehydes. The optimal set of conditions includes diphenylsilane as the most effective hydride donor, any soluble palladium complex in either the O or II oxidation state, when it is stabilized by phosphine ligands, and ZnCl/sub 2/ as the best Lewis acid cocatalyst. The reaction is very general with respect to a broad range of unsaturated ketones and aldehydes, and it is highly selective for these Michael acceptors, as reduction of ..cap alpha..,..beta..-unsaturated carboxylic acid derivatives is very sluggish under these conditions. When dideuteriodiphenylsilane is used to reduce unsaturated ketones, deuterium is stereoselectivity introduced at the less-hindered fact of the substrate and regioselectively at the ..beta..-position. Conversely, when reductions are carried out in the presence of traces of D/sub 2/O, deuterium incorporation occurs at the ..cap alpha..-position. On the basis of deuterium-incorporation experiments and /sup 1/H NMR studies a catalytic cycle is postulated in which the first step involves reversible coordination of the palladium complex to the electron-deficient olefin and oxidative addition of silicon hydride to form a hydridopalladium olefin complex.

Keinan, E.; Greenspoon, N.

1986-11-12

105

Exploring zinc coordination in novel zinc battery electrolytes.  

PubMed

The coordination of zinc ions by tetraglyme has been investigated here to support the development of novel electrolytes for rechargeable zinc batteries. Zn(2+) reduction is electrochemically reversible from tetraglyme. The spectroscopic data, molar conductivity and thermal behavior as a function of zinc composition, between mole ratios [80?:?20] and [50?:?50] [tetraglyme?:?zinc chloride], all suggest that strong interactions take place between chloro-zinc complexes and tetraglyme. Varying the concentration of zinc chloride produces a range of zinc-chloro species (ZnClx)(2-x) in solution, which hinder full interaction between the zinc ion and tetraglyme. Both the [70?:?30] and [50?:?50] mixtures are promising electrolyte candidates for reversible zinc batteries, such as the zinc-air device. PMID:24760367

Kar, Mega; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R

2014-06-14

106

Extraction chromatography of chloride complexes of osmium (III, IV and VI) on paper treated with tributyl phosphate and amberlite LA-1 hydrochloride.  

PubMed

The complex anions OsCl(6)(2-), OsO(2)Cl(4)(2-) and OsCl(6)(3-) were separated by extraction chromatography on paper treated with tributyl phosphate and developed with hydrochloric acid. The chloride complexes of osmium and ruthenium can also be separated in the system TBP-HCl or Amberlite LA-1 hydrochloride-HCl. PMID:18961995

Przeszlakowski, S; Flieger, A

107

Reactivity of metallothioneins of frog Rana ridibunda treated by copper and zinc ions.  

PubMed

The metal-buffering and stress proteins metallothioneins (MTs) of frog are characterised by unusually high content of copper as for vertebrate animals and instability that was shown in our previous studies. They easily lost copper and especially zinc under unfavourable conditions. The aim of this study was to examine the reactivity of SH groups in the MTs from the liver of frog Rana ridibunda after the effect of Cu2+ (0.01 mg/l) and Zn2+ (0.1 mg/l) ions on the organism during 14 days. The alpha- and beta-domains of MTs with molecular weights of about 4 kDa were separated by the size-exclusion chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Unlike higher vertebrates, frogs demonstrated higher reactivity of alpha-domain than beta-domain with the Ellman's reagent (DTNB). The signs of partial oxidations in beta-domain included the creation of by-products with molecular weight about 12 kDa, low reactivity of SH-groups, and typical of -S-S-bonds peculiarities of UV-spectra. The effect of both metal ions on frog provoked the elevation of SH-groups reactivity in a-domain with the appearance of by-product with molecular weight of 16 kDa and its reduction in beta-domain. The incubation of MTs of control animals with 0.5 and 5.0 mM of H2O2 did not affect its chromatographic characteristics. In the frogs loaded by Cu2+ and Zn2+ the effect of 5.0 mM H2O2 on MTs provoked the release of 4 kDa product. So the alpha-domain is responsible for the increased release of metals from injured MTs in frogs, whereas extremely high oxidizability of beta-domain makes its participation in the exchange of metals elusive and provokes the aggregation of MTs. PMID:21323122

Falfushynska, H I; Romanchuk, L D; Stoliar, O B

2010-01-01

108

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improved zinc electrode for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1989-06-27

109

Batch sorption dynamics and equilibrium for the removal of lead ions from aqueous phase using activated carbon developed from coffee residue activated with zinc chloride.  

PubMed

Lignocellulosic materials are good precursors for the production of activated carbon. In this work, coffee residue has been used as raw material in the preparation of powder activated carbon by the method of chemical activation with zinc chloride for the sorption of Pb(II) from dilute aqueous solutions. The influence of impregnation ratio (ZnCl2/coffee residue) on the physical and chemical properties of the prepared carbons was studied in order to optimize this parameter. The optimum experimental condition for preparing predominantly microporous activated carbons with high pore surface area (890 m2/g) and micropore volume (0.772 cm3/g) is an impregnation ratio of 100%. The developed activated carbon shows substantial capability to sorb lead(II) ions from aqueous solutions and for relative impregnation ratios of 75 and 100%, the maximum uptake is practically the same. Thus, 75% represents the optimal impregnation ratio. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of the main parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of Pb(II), solution pH, ionic strength and temperature. The maximum uptake of lead(II) at 25 degrees C was about 63 mg/g of adsorbent at pH 5.8, initial Pb(II) concentration of 10 mg/L, agitation speed of 200 rpm and ionic strength of 0.005 M. The kinetic data were fitted to the models of pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order, and follow closely the pseudo-second order model. Equilibrium sorption isotherms of Pb(II) were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The Freundlich model gives a better fit than the others. Results from this study suggest that activated carbon produced from coffee residue is an effective adsorbent for the removal of lead from aqueous solutions and that ZnCl2 is a suitable activating agent for the preparation of high-porosity carbons. PMID:19447542

Boudrahem, F; Aissani-Benissad, F; Aït-Amar, H

2009-07-01

110

CHANGES IN HAEMATOLOGICAL INDICES AND PROTEIN CONCENTRATIONS IN TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI INFECTED RATS TREATED WITH HOMIDIUM CHLORIDE AND DIMINAZENE ACETURATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaemia and immunosuppresion have been shown to be a cardinal feature in African try- panosomosis. In this study, we have evaluated and compared the capacity of two registered veterinary trypanocides Novidium® (homidium chloride) and Berenil® (diminazene acetu- rate) to reduce haematological and biochemical lesions in rats experimentally infected with T. brucei. Packed cell volume (PCV), lymphocyte and eosinophil values in

Sulaiman Faoziyat Adenike; Adeyemi Oluyomi Stephen

2010-01-01

111

Performance traits and immune response of broiler chicks treated with zinc and ascorbic acid supplementation during cyclic heat stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of zinc (Zn) and ascorbic acid (AA) in heat-stressed broilers. A total of 160-day-old broiler chicks of approximately the same weight and appearance were divided into four treatment groups (control, T1, T2, and T3). Control group was fed a standard diet without any supplementation. T1 was supplemented with Zn at the rate of 60 mg/kg of feed, T2 was supplemented with 300 mg/kg of feed AA, and T3 was supplemented with combination of Zn and AA. From week 3 to 5, heat stress environment was provided at the rate of 12 h at 25 °C, 3 h at 25 to 34 °C, 6 h at 34 °C, and 3 h at 34 to 25 °C daily. The results revealed that feed intake, body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and weight of thymus, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius improved significantly (P < 0.05) in T3 compared to the other treatments. Antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bursal disease (IBD), and infectious bronchitis (IB) increased significantly (P < 0.05) in T2 and T3 groups. However, total leucocytes count, lymphocytes, and monocytes increased (P < 0.05) in all treated groups compared to control. The results indicated that the supplementation of Zn or AA alone or in combination improved the performance and immune status of broilers reared under heat stress.

Chand, Naila; Naz, Shabana; Khan, Ajab; Khan, Sarzamin; Khan, Rifat Ullah

2014-03-01

112

Antigenotoxic effect of mangiferin and changes in antioxidant enzyme levels of Swiss albino mice treated with cadmium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium is an environmental metal toxin implicated in human diseases. Mangiferin (MGN), a naturally occurring glucosylxanthone, is present in Mangifera indica. In this study, the protective role of MGN against cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced genotoxicity was studied in Swiss albino mice. Mice were administered with single intra-peritoneal (i.p.) optimal dose of MGN (2.5 mg\\/kg b.wt.) before treatment with various concentrations of

E. Kasi Viswanadh; B. Nageshwar Rao; BS Satish Rao

2010-01-01

113

The effects of dimercaptosuccinic acid on the excretion and distribution of mercury in rats and mice treated with mercuric chloride and methylmercury chloride.  

PubMed Central

1 All five rats in a group survived if dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a water soluble derivative of 2,3-dimercaptopropanol (BAL), was given in doses of 10-40 mg/kg intraperitoneally 30 min, 4 and 24 h after administration of 2.4 mg/kg Hg as HgCl2, whereas three out of a group of five died if DMSA was not given. DMSA 20 mg/kg increased urinary excretion and decreased the body burden significantly more than 10 mg/kg DMSA, but further doubling of the dose had only marginal effects. 2 DMSA was able to reduce body burden and increase urinary excretion of Hg when intraperitoneal treatment started eight days after the subcutaneous administration of HgCl2. 3 DMSA was effective in decreasing body burden and the brain concentration of Hg in rats dosed orally with methylmercury (MeHgCl) when intraperitoneal treatment started with 40 mg/kg DMSA 24 h after Hg. Increase in the urinary excretion of mercury was responsible for the decrease in body burden. 4 DMSA was effective when given in the drinking water of rats or mice both against inorganic Hg and MeHgCl. In mice treated intraperitoneally with MeHgCl, DMSA 19.5 mug/ml in the drinking water caused a significant decrease in the body burden and increase in the excretion of Hg. 5 DMSA was about four times more efficient than D-penicillamine in decreasing the body burden of Hg. As their toxicity is in the same range, the higher efficiency of DMSA offers a larger margin of safety for the mobilization of Hg.

Magos, L

1976-01-01

114

Comparative study of modification and degradation of neurofilament proteins in rats subchronically treated with allyl chloride, acrylamide, or 2,5-hexanedione.  

PubMed

Allyl chloride (ALL), acrylamide (ACR), and 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD) are all industrial neurotoxicants and known to produce accumulation of neurofilament (NF) proteins in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. To clarify whether any common mechanisms underlie these neurofilamentous axonopathies, the ability of ALL, ACR, and 2,5-HD to cross-link the NFs and the effects on NF degradation by Ca(2+)-activated neural protease were investigated in spinal cords from rats subchronically treated with these chemicals. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by immunoblot analysis revealed the appearance of high-molecular-weight species of NF triplets immunoreactive to each anti-68K, anti-160K, and anti-200K NF antibody in the 2,5-HD-treated rats, whereas it was not found in those treated with ALL or ACR. A time course study on the degradation of NF proteins conducted by the co-incubation with Ca2+ showed degradation resistance in all three NF subunits from animals treated with 2,5-HD, while no significant alterations in the rate of NF degradation were observed in the ALL- or ACR-treated group. The present results suggest that neurofilament-filled axonopathy induced by ALL or ACR and axonopathy induced by 2,5-HD may not share a common mechanism, though the initial step for the pathogenesis of this chemically induced neurotoxicity is not fully understood at present. PMID:8243417

Nagano, M; Yamamoto, H; Harada, K; Miyamoto, E; Futatsuka, M

1993-11-01

115

Estimate of the Lowest Dose of Diazepam Required to Treat Soman-Induced Convulsions in Rhesus Monkeys Pretreated with Pyridostigmine and Treated with Atropine, Pralidoxime Chloride and Diazepam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to estimate the minimal dose of intramuscularly administered diazepam to limit soman-induced convulsions in rhesus monkeys pretreated with pyridostigmine and treated with atropine and 2-PAM. Eleven rhesus monkeys were pretrea...

J. D. von Bredow N. K. Jaax I. J. Hayward J. V. Wade G. F. Maitland

1992-01-01

116

Enhancing glutathione synthesis can decrease zinc-mediated toxicity.  

PubMed

Zinc toxicity has been linked to cellular glutathione: A decrease in glutathione is followed by an increase in zinc-mediated toxicity. The question arises whether an increase in glutathione synthesis might decrease zinc-mediated cytotoxicity. We incubated five cell lines (hepatoma and lung-derived) with zinc chloride and 2 mmol/l N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) to support glutathione synthesis. In all but one hepatic cell line, the glutathione content was increased by NAC as compared to the D-enantiomere NADC, whereas NADC did not increase GSH content as compared to not treated controls. In both alveolar epithelial cell lines, an increase in zinc tolerance was observed due to NAC as compared to NADC. In native fibroblast-like and the hepatoma cell lines, no changes in zinc tolerance were found due to NAC. In the fibroblast-like cells, zinc tolerance was increased due to NAC only after cellular glutathione had been previously decreased (by lowered cysteine concentrations in the medium). Enhancing glutathione synthesis can antagonize zinc-mediated toxicity in the alveolar epithelial cell lines, whereas some other characteristics than glutathione synthesis might be more important in other cell types. Furthermore, NAC acted as a GSH precursor only at cysteine medium concentrations of 10 micromol/l or below and therefore might be described as a poor cysteine repletor for glutathione synthesis. PMID:18193173

Walther, Udo Ingbert; Walther, Sabine Christine; Mückter, Harald; Fichtl, Burckhard

2008-06-01

117

Zinc and Chlamydia trachomatis  

SciTech Connect

Zinc was noted to have significant effects upon the infection of McCoy cells by each of two strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. With a high or low Chlamydia inoculant, the number of infected cells increased up to 200% utilizing supplemental zinc (up to 1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in the inoculation media compared with standard Chlamydia cultivation media (8 x 10/sup -6/ M zinc). Ferric chloride and calcium chloride did not effect any such changes. Higher concentrations of zinc, after 2 hr of incubation with Chlamydia, significantly decreased the number of inclusions. This direct effect of zinc on the Chlamydia remained constant after further repassage of the Chlamydia without supplemental zinc, suggesting a lethal effect of the zinc. Supplemental zinc (up to 10/sup -4/ M) may prove to be a useful addition to inoculation media to increase the yield of culturing for Chlamydia trachomatis. Similarly, topical or oral zinc preparations used by people may alter their susceptibility to Chamydia trachomatis infections.

Sugarman, B.; Epps, L.R.

1985-07-01

118

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the

Philip N

1989-01-01

119

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improved zinc electrode for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through

P. N. Jr

1989-01-01

120

Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a zinc or titanium promoted palladium-zirconium catalyst  

DOEpatents

A process and system (18) for reducing NO.sub.x in a gas using hydrogen as a reducing agent is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream (29) with a catalyst system (38) comprising sulfated zirconia washcoat particles (41), palladium, a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a promoter (45) comprising at least one of titanium, zinc, or a mixture thereof. The presence of zinc or titanium increases the resistance of the catalyst system to a sulfur and water-containing gas stream.

Sobolevskiy, Anatoly (Orlando, FL); Rossin, Joseph A. (Columbus, OH); Knapke, Michael J. (Columbus, OH)

2011-08-02

121

Role of propolis (bee glue) in improving histopathological changes of the kidney of rat treated with aluminum chloride.  

PubMed

Humans are frequently exposed to aluminum from various food additives, therapeutic treatments and the environment, and it can be potentially toxic. This study is aimed to elucidate the protective effects of propolis against aluminum chloride (AlCl(3) )-induced histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in kidney tissues of rats. Sixty Wistar Albino male rats (average weight 250-300 g) were divided into three equal groups. The first served as a negative control. The second received AlCl(3) (34 mg/kg bw, 1/ 25 LD 50). The third were administered AlCl(3) (34 mg/kg bw, 1/ 25 LD 50) plus propolis (50 mg/kg bw). Doses were given once daily via a gavage for 8 weeks every day. The results showed that shrunken glomeruli, intraglomerular congestion, loss of apical microvilli, degeneration of mitochondria and widened rough endoplasmic reticulum were also observed in the Proximal Convoluted Tubules of these animals. Treatment with propolis ameliorated the harmful effects of AlCl(3) ; this was also proved histopathologically by the noticeable improvement in the renal tissues. There were also significant variations in the expressed of ki-67 and p53 proteins. It can be concluded that propolis may be promising as a natural therapeutic agent in AlCl(3) -induced renal toxicity and oxidative stress in rat kidneys. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2012. PMID:23172825

El-Kenawy, Ayman El-Meghawry; Hussein Osman, Hosam Eldin; Daghestani, Maha Hasan

2012-11-22

122

Composition of Aqueous Extracts of Broiler Litter Treated with Aluminum Sulfate, Ferrous Sulfate, Ferric Chloride and Gypsum  

Microsoft Academic Search

More knowledge on the composition of aqueous extracts of broiler litter amended for Water Soluble P (WSP) reduction would help to understand how amendments work. We measured pH, concentrations of Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Cu, Mn, Zn, Molybdate Reactive P (MRP), and Dissolved Unreactive P (DUP) in water extracts of broiler litter treated with aluminum sulfate (ALS), ferrous sulfate (FES),

ARMANDO S. TASISTRO; DAVID E. KISSEL

2006-01-01

123

Effects of folic acid and amino acids supplementation on zinc intestinal absorption in the progeny of ethanol-treated rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the effects of supplementation with folic acid and amino acids in dams that consumed ethanol\\u000a during gestation and lactation to see whether there is an improvement in the intestinal absorption of zinc in pup rats on\\u000a the 21st day after birth. The rats were randomized into two groups: Ethanol-rats (EG) were administered ethanol during

E. Tavares; O. Carreras; A. Gómez-Tubío; D. Murillo; M. L. Murillo

2000-01-01

124

Effect of Ammonium, Potassium, and Sodium Cations and Phosphate, Nitrate, and Chloride Anions on Zinc Sorption and Lability in Selected Acid and Calcareous Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

capacity (CEC) (McBride, 1989). The interactions be- tween Zn and Fe or Al oxides through the formation Zinc availability and mobility in soils is controlled by its interaction of a covalent bond with surface aquo and\\/or hydroxo with the soil matrix and amendments. Contradicting evidence has been reported for factors influencing Zn behavior in soils. This study groups have been

Jim Jian Wang; Dustin L. Harrell

2005-01-01

125

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOEpatents

An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

Ross, Jr., Philip N. (Kensington, CA)

1989-01-01

126

The role of zinc on anti-Newcastle disease virus specific antibody response and agranulocytes count in rabbits treated with methotrexate and prednisolone.  

PubMed

Zinc (Zn) plays a pivotal role in highly proliferative tissues including immune system. The long-term therapy of neoplastic and autoimmune disorders is associated with immunosuppression and myleosuppression. In the current study role of Zn on anti-Newcastle disease virus response and agranulocytes count of methotrexate and prednisolone treated rabbits. Thirty six healthy rabbits were randomly segregated into six groups (group I to VI) each containing six rabbits. Oil based Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine was administered subcutaneously to rabbits of all the groups at day 0 and 21 and after one week, all the groups received Zn, (Zn + prednisolone), prednisolone, (Zn + methotrexate) methotrexate orally from day 7 to day 21, except the control. The serum antibody titer, total and differential leukocyte count were measured weekly for 6 weeks. The administration of zinc in combination with methotrexate showed same antibody titer as that of the control suggesting that Zn has ability to counteract the methotrexate-induced immunosuppression. However, Zn did not show any significant impact in combination with prednisolone (p<0.05). The results of the present study indicate that co-administration of Zn and methotrexate is beneficial in the activity of immune system. PMID:23010003

Tipu, Muhammad Khalid; Saleem, Uzma; Hussain, Khalid; Muhammad, Khushi; Hashmi, Furqan Khurshid; Islam, Muhammad; Ahmad, Bashir

2012-10-01

127

Realization of write-once-read-many-times memory device with O2 plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide thin film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices based on O2 plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films has been demonstrated. The device has a simple Al/IGZO/Al structure. The device has a normally OFF state with a very high resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2 V is ˜109 ? for a device with the radius of 50 ?m) as a result of the O2 plasma treatment on the IGZO thin films. The device could be switched to an ON state with a low resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2 V is ˜103 ? for the radius of 50 ?m) by applying a voltage pulse (e.g., 10 V/1 ?s). The WORM device has good data-retention and reading-endurance capabilities.

Liu, P.; Chen, T. P.; Li, X. D.; Liu, Z.; Wong, J. I.; Liu, Y.; Leong, K. C.

2014-01-01

128

Studies on ‘zinc deficiency syndrome’ in Black Bengal goats (Capra hircus) fed with fodder (Andropogon gayanus) grown on soil treated with an excess of calcium and phosphorus fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overliming and excessive application of superphosphate caused a zinc deficiency in the soil and so reduced the uptake of zinc by fodder plants. Bucks reared on such fodder had significantly (p<0.01) less zinc in their hair compared with controls and suffered from ‘conditioned zinc deficiency syndrome’ with a significant (p<0.01) loss of body weight, stunted growth, alopecia, lethargy, abnormal (kyphotic)

S. K. Ray; R. Roychoudhury; S. K. Bandopadhyayi; S. Basu

1997-01-01

129

Hepatic and renal metallothionein induction by an oral equimolar dose of zinc, cadmium or mercury in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hepatic and the renal subcellular distribution of zinc, cadmium or mercury and induction of tissue metallothionein (MT) at 24, 48 and 72 h following an oral equimolar dose (15 ?mol metal\\/kg) of zinc (II) chloride, cadmium (II) chloride or mercury (II) chloride in male albino mice were investigated. There was a moderate increase in hepatic and renal zinc levels

S. K Tandon; S Singh; S Prasad; N Mathur

2001-01-01

130

Zinc movement in sewage-sludge-treated soils as influenced by soil properties, irrigation water quality, and soil moisture level  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A soil column study was conducted to assess the movement of Zn in sewage-sludge-amended soils. Varables investigated were soil properties, irrigation water quality, and soil moisture level. Bulk samples of the surface layer of six soil series were packed into columns, 10.2 cm in diameter and 110 cm in length. An anaerobically digested municipal sewage sludge was incorporated into the top 20 cm of each column at a rate of 300 mg ha-1. The columns were maintained at moisture levels of saturation and unsaturation and were leached with two waters of different quality. At the termination of leaching, the columns were cut open and the soil was sectioned and analyzed. Zinc movement was evaluated by mass balance accounting and correlation and regression analysis. Zinc movement in the unsaturated columns ranged from 3 to 30 cm, with a mean of 10 cm. The difference in irrigation water quality did not have an effect on Zn movement. Most of the Zn applied to the unsaturated columns remained in the sludge-amended soil layer (96.1 to 99.6%, with a mean of 98.1%). The major portion of Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer accumulated in the 0- to 3-cm depth (35.7 to 100%, with a mean of 73.6%). The mean final soil pH values decreased in the order: saturated columns = sludge-amended soil layer > untreated soils > unsaturated columns. Total Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer was correlated negatively at P = 0.001 with final pH (r = -0.85). Depth of Zn movement was correlated negatively at P = 0.001 with final pH (r = -0.91). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the final pH accounted for 72% of the variation in the total amounts of Zn leached from the sludge-amended soil layer of the unsaturated columns and accounted for 82% of the variation in the depth of Zn movement among the unsaturated columns. A significant correlation was not found between Zn and organic carbon in soil solutions, but a negative correlation significant at P = 0.001 was found between pH and Zn (r = -0.61).

Welch, J. E.; Lund, L. J.

1989-01-01

131

Synthesis, characterization and thermodynamics of complex formation of some new Schiff base ligands with some transition metal ions and the adduct formation of zinc Schiff base complexes with some organotin chlorides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four new complexes, [M(Salpyr)] where Salpyr = N,N'-bis(Salicylidene)-2,3- and 3,4-diiminopyridine and M = Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and UV-vis spectrophotometry. UV-vis spectrophotometric study of the adduct formation of the zinc(II) complexes, [Zn(2,3-Salpyr)] and [Zn(3,4-Salpyr)], as donor with R2SnCl2 (R = methyl, phenyl, n-butyl), PhSnCl3 and Bu3SnCl as acceptors has been investigated in methanol, as solvent. The formation constants and the thermodynamic free energies were measured using UV-vis spectrophotometry. Titration of the organotin chlorides with Zn(II) complexes at various temperatures (T = 283-313 K) leads to 1:1 adduct formation. The results show that the formation constants were decreased by increasing the temperature. The trend of the reaction of RnSnCl4-n as acceptors toward given zinc complexes was as follows: PhSnCl3 > Me2SnCl2 > Ph2SnCl2 > Bu2SnCl2 > Bu3SnCl By considering the formation constants and the ?G° of the complex formation for the Schiff base as donor and the M(II) as acceptor, the following conclusion was drawn: the formation constant for a given Schiff base changes according to the following trend: Ni > Cu > Co > Zn > Mn

Asadi, Mozaffar; Asadi, Zahra; Torabi, Susan; Lotfi, Najmeh

132

Synthesis, characterization and thermodynamics of complex formation of some new Schiff base ligands with some transition metal ions and the adduct formation of zinc Schiff base complexes with some organotin chlorides.  

PubMed

Four new complexes, [M(Salpyr)] where Salpyr=N,N'-bis(Salicylidene)-2,3- and 3,4-diiminopyridine and M=Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and UV-vis spectrophotometry. UV-vis spectrophotometric study of the adduct formation of the zinc(II) complexes, [Zn(2,3-Salpyr)] and [Zn(3,4-Salpyr)], as donor with R(2)SnCl(2) (R=methyl, phenyl, n-butyl), PhSnCl(3) and Bu(3)SnCl as acceptors has been investigated in methanol, as solvent. The formation constants and the thermodynamic free energies were measured using UV-vis spectrophotometry. Titration of the organotin chlorides with Zn(II) complexes at various temperatures (T=283-313K) leads to 1:1 adduct formation. The results show that the formation constants were decreased by increasing the temperature. The trend of the reaction of R(n)SnCl(4-n) as acceptors toward given zinc complexes was as follows: PhSnCl3 > Me2SnCl2 > Ph2SnCl2 > Bu2SnCl2 > Bu3SnCl. By considering the formation constants and the ?G° of the complex formation for the Schiff base as donor and the M(II) as acceptor, the following conclusion was drawn: the formation constant for a given Schiff base changes according to the following trend: Ni > Cu > Co > Zn > Mn. PMID:22626922

Asadi, Mozaffar; Asadi, Zahra; Torabi, Susan; Lotfi, Najmeh

2012-08-01

133

Cohesion and polymorphism in solid rubidium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cohesive energetics of three phases of solid cubic rubidium chloride, the zinc blende structured 4:4 phase, the 6:6 sodium chloride polymorph and the 8:8 phase with the cesium chloride structure, are computed using a non-empirical fully ionic model. The rearrangement energies needed to convert free anions to their optimal states in-crystal, two-body inter-ionic potentials, plus the further contributions arising

N. C. Pyper; A. I. Kirkland; J. H. Harding

2006-01-01

134

Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts.  

PubMed

To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L-1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the cell walls; thus, the electrolyte is leaked from cells. PMID:24572014

Sun, Tong; Hao, Han; Hao, Wen-Ting; Yi, Shu-Min; Li, Xue-Peng; Li, Jian-Rong

2014-01-01

135

Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L-1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the cell walls; thus, the electrolyte is leaked from cells.

Sun, Tong; Hao, Han; Hao, Wen-ting; Yi, Shu-min; Li, Xue-peng; Li, Jian-rong

2014-02-01

136

Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts  

PubMed Central

To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L?1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the cell walls; thus, the electrolyte is leaked from cells.

2014-01-01

137

The accumulation of zinc in oat grown in soils treated by incubated sewage sludge with peat and straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of addition of treated sewage sludge on the accumulation of Zn in plants was tested in pot experiment. The additions of eight months preincubated sewage sludge at temperature of 20°C under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with addition of peat and straw were tested. Two different combinations were designed: first consisted of 50% sludge + 35% peat and 15%

J. Balík; D. Pavlíková; J. ?erný

138

Effect of grain-boundary corrosion on impedance characteristics of an aluminum-zinc-indium alloy in 3.5% sodium chloride solution  

SciTech Connect

Applications of Al alloy sacrificial anodes for cathodic protection (CP) of steel structures in marine environments are well known. Small changes in composition and heat treatment can affect the corrosion behavior of the alloy substantially. However, characterization of the alloy anodes in relation to such changes is lacking in the literature. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to understand the dissolution behavior of an Al-Zn-In alloy in 3.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution as a function of time after the alloy was subjected to galvanostatic dissolution. Compared to optical microscopy, the changing trend in impedance spectra reflected the preferential dissolution of the alloy along the grain boundaries. The usefulness of EIS as a tool to indicate the current efficiency loss from grain-boundary attack was illustrated.

Venugopal, A.; Angal, R.D.; Raja, V.S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Bombay (India). Corrosion Science and Engineering Program

1996-02-01

139

Studies on 'zinc deficiency syndrome' in black bengal goats (Capra hircus) fed with fodder (Andropogon gayanus) grown on soil treated with an excess of calcium and phosphorus fertilizer.  

PubMed

Overliming and excessive application of superphosphate caused a zinc deficiency in the soil and so reduced the uptake of zinc by fodder plants. Bucks reared on such fodder had significantly (p < 0.01) less zinc in their hair compared with controls and suffered from 'conditioned zinc deficiency syndrome' with a significant (p < 0.01) loss of body weight, stunted growth, alopecia, lethargy, abnormal (kyphotic) gait, anorexia, digestive and respiratory problems. Oral supplementation with zinc sulphate very rapidly improved these conditions to near normality. Histological examination of samples of skin and testis from the zinc-deficient bucks revealed formation of excessive keratin, retention of nuclei in the stratum corneum and reduction in the width of the stratum granulosum in the skin, while samples of testis indicated degenerative changes, including atrophy of the seminiferous tubules, hyperplasia of the germinal epithelium and thickening of the walls of blood vessels. PMID:9444077

Ray, S K; Roychoudhury, R; Bandopadhyay, S K; Basu, S

1997-11-01

140

Congenital chloride diarrhea misdiagnosed as pseudo-Bartter syndrome.  

PubMed

Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease which is characterized by intractable diarrhea of infancy, failure to thrive, high fecal chloride, hypochloremia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia and metabolic alkalosis. In this case report, we present the first female and the second official case of CCD in Iran. A 15-month-old girl referred to our hospital due to failure to thrive and poor feeding. She had normal kidneys, liver and spleen. Treating her with Shohl's solution, thiazide and zinc sulfate did not result in weight gain. Consequently, pseudo-Bartter syndrome was suspected, she was treated with intravenous (IV) therapy to which she responded dramatically. In addition, hypokalemia resolved quickly. Since this does not usually happen in patients with the pseudo-Bartter syndrome, stool tests were performed. Abnormal level of chloride in stool suggested CCD and she was thus treated with IV fluid replacement, Total parentral nutrition and high dose of oral omeprazole (3 mg/kg/day). She gained 1 kg of weight and is doing fine until present. CCD is a rare hereditary cause of intractable diarrhea of infancy. It should be considered in infants with unknown severe electrolyte disturbances. PMID:24381629

Saneian, Hossein; Bahraminia, Emad

2013-09-01

141

Zinc Enzymes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

Bertini, I.; And Others

1985-01-01

142

Method of preparing zinc orthotitanate pigment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zinc orthotitanate suitable for use as a pigment for spacecraft thermal control coatings is prepared by heating a slightly zinc deficient reaction mixture of precipitated oxalates of zinc and titanium. The reaction mixture can be formed by coprecipitation of zinc and titanium oxalates from chloride solution or by mixing separately precipitated oxalates. The mixture is first heated to 400 to 600 C to remove volatiles and is then rapidly heated at 900 to 1200 C. Zinc orthotitanate produced by this method exhibits the very fine particle size needed for thermal control coatings as well as stability in a space environment.

Gates, D. W.; Harada, Y.; Logan, W. R.; Gilligan, J. E. (inventors)

1977-01-01

143

Preparation of self-healing protective films on a zinc electrode treated in a cerium(III) nitrate solution and modified with sodium phosphate and cerium(III) nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-healing protective films were prepared on a zinc electrode previously treated in a Ce(NO3)3 solution by modification with Na3PO4 and Ce(NO3)3. The protective and self-healing abilities of the films were examined by polarization measurements and observation of pit formation after the electrode was scratched with a knife-edge crosswise and immersed in oxygenated 0.5 M NaCl at 30 °C for many

Kunitsugu Aramaki

2004-01-01

144

Chloride Test  

MedlinePLUS

... Formal name: Chloride Related tests: Sodium , Potassium , Bicarbonate , Electrolytes , Comprehensive Metabolic Panel , Basic Metabolic Panel , Blood Gases ... if there is a problem with your body's electrolyte balance or acid-base balance and to monitor ...

145

Cesium Chloride  

MedlinePLUS

... with heart rhythm, seizures, loss of consciousness, and electrolyte (blood chemistry) imbalances after taking cesium chloride. How ... with heart rhythm, seizures, loss of consciousness, and electrolyte imbalances. Cesium appears to take the place of ...

146

Surface scanning techniques to locate and study defects in painted zinc and zinc alloy coated steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current density and impedance mapping measurements have been used to locate and monitor corrosion and defects on painted surfaces in solution. Measurements are reported for painted zinc and aluminum-zinc alloy coated steel surfaces. When scratched, current density mapping showed corrosion of the metal coating started at localized sites in both dilute chloride and sulfate solutions. Different scribing techniques were tested

H. S. Isaacs; A. J. Jr. Aldykiewicz; D. Thierry; T. C. Simpson

1995-01-01

147

Mechanical Properties of Silane and Zirconate Coupling Agent-Treated Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber-Filled Acrylic-Impact Modified Poly (Vinyl Chloride) Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of untreated and treated OPEFB content on the mechanical properties of acrylic impact-modified PVC was investigated. The formulations were first dry blended before being milled into sheets on a two-roll mill. Test specimens were then hot pressed. The modulus significantly increased while the impact and flexural strength insignificantly improved with increasing of treated OPEFB contents. The reduction in

Aznizam Abu Bakar; Azman Hassan; Ahmad Fuad Mohd Yusof

2010-01-01

148

Removal of chloride from electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust with high chloride content increases the threat of dioxin emissions and the high chloride content reduces the value of recycled zinc oxide produced by EAF dust recycling plants. This study conducts a number of laboratory experiments to determine the technical feasibility of a new dechlorination method. These methods consist of a series of roasting processes

Wei-Sheng Chen; Yun-Hwei Shen; Min-Shing Tsai; Fang-Chih Chang

2011-01-01

149

Preparation and Purification of Zinc Sulphinate Reagents for Organic Synthesis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The present protocol details the synthesis of zinc bis(alkanesulphinate)s that can be used as general reagents for the formation of radical species. The zinc sulphinates described herein have been generated from the corresponding sulphonyl chlorides by treatment with zinc dust. The products may be used crude, or a simple purification procedure may be performed to minimize incorporation of water and zinc chloride. Elemental analysis has been conducted in order to confirm the purity of the zinc sulphinate reagents; reactions with caffeine have also been carried out to verify the reactivity of each batch that has been synthesized. Although the synthesis of the zinc sulphinate salts generally proceeds within 3 h, workup can take up to 24 h and purification can take up to 3 h. Following the steps in this protocol would enable the user to generate a small toolkit of zinc sulphinate reagents over the course of one week.

O'Hara, Fionn; Baxter, Ryan D.; O'Brien, Alexander G.; Collins, Michael R.; Dixon, Janice A.; Fujiwara, Yuta; Ishihara, Yoshihiro; Baran, Phil S.

2014-01-01

150

Zinc absorption by young adults from supplemental zinc citrate is comparable with that from zinc gluconate and higher than from zinc oxide.  

PubMed

The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with (67)Zn and (70)Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6-71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6-71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9-57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P < 0.01). Three participants had little or no absorption from zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627. PMID:24259556

Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnic, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F

2014-02-01

151

The role of endogenous steroid hormones in the generation of T helper 2-mediated autoimmunity in mercuric chloride-treated Brown-Norway rats  

PubMed Central

Injection of Brown–Norway rats with mercuric chloride (HgCl2) activates a T helper type 2 (Th2) autoimmune response, with production of a number of autoantibodies and vasculitis primarily affecting the gut. Glucocorticoids have been shown to suppress Th1 and to promote the development of Th2?type responses. Conversely dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) promotes Th1 responses with suppression of Th2 responses. This study set out to define the role of these hormones in this animal model. Rats were adrenalectomized (Adx) with no steroid replacement (n = 11), Adx with basal steroid replacement given by a 25 mg corticosterone pellet inserted subcutaneously (n = 13), or sham?Adx (n = 14) prior to administration of HgCl2. In both groups of Adx animals there was a delay in the production of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and serum concentrations on day 9 were marginally lower (P = 0·035, repeated measures anova). All of the animals Adx with no steroid replacement and two Adx animals with steroid replacement died between 10 and 14 days after HgCl2 challenge. There was no difference in the severity of caecal vasculitis between the groups. A significant increase in adrenal size was noted following administration of HgCl2. Administration of subcutaneous DHEA implants (100 mg and 200 mg) had no significant effect on IgE concentrations or severity of vasculitis. These observations do not support the hypothesis that corticosterone and DHEA play a central role in setting the Th1/Th2 balance in this experimental Th2?mediated autoimmune disease; in contrast with the Th1?mediated autoimmune disease experimental allergic encephalomyelitis where corticosterone plays a key role in immunoregulation.

Macphee, I A M; Turner, D R; Oliveira, D B G

2000-01-01

152

Zinc/Zinc Oxide Preliminary Source Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary source assessment of industries with zinc and/or zinc oxide emissions is presented. Brief descriptions of these industries and associated air pollution control equipment are presented. Zinc/zinc oxide emission data were primarily obtained fr...

1987-01-01

153

Preparation and purification of zinc sulfinate reagents for drug discovery.  

PubMed

The present protocol details the synthesis of zinc bis(alkanesulfinate)s that can be used as general reagents for the formation of radical species. The zinc sulfinates described herein are generated from the corresponding sulfonyl chlorides by treatment with zinc dust. The products may be used crude, or a simple purification procedure may be performed to minimize incorporation of water and zinc chloride. Although the synthesis of the zinc sulfinate salts can generally be completed within 3 h, workup can take up to 24 h and purification can take up to 3 h. Following the steps in this protocol would enable the user to generate a small toolkit of zinc sulfinate reagents over the course of 1 week. PMID:23640168

O'Hara, Fionn; Baxter, Ryan D; O'Brien, Alexander G; Collins, Michael R; Dixon, Janice A; Fujiwara, Yuta; Ishihara, Yoshihiro; Baran, Phil S

2013-06-01

154

CHLORIDE POLLUTION OF THE GREAT LAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper summarizes current estimates of chloride inputs to the Great Lakes from various sources. It also evaluates changes that have occurred. Future chloride levels are projected with the aid of a mathematical model that treats the lakes as an integrated system. Management im...

155

Electrochemical Insertion of Lithium into Graphite–Zinc Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal-based composites are currently under investigation as possible negative-electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. We present here a new composite material composed of zinc particles deposited mainly onto graphite surfaces. This Zn\\/graphite composite was prepared by reduction of zinc chloride ZnCl2 by a KC8 graphite intercalation compound in tetrahydrofuran. Electrochemical insertion of lithium occurs both in graphite and in zinc. A

A. Dailly; J. Ghanbaja; P. Willmann; D. Billaud

2004-01-01

156

Zinc as an appetite stimulator - the possible role of zinc in the progression of diseases such as cachexia and sarcopenia.  

PubMed

Zinc is required by humans and animals for many physiological functions, such as growth, immune function, and reproduction. Zinc deficiency induces a number of physiological problems, including anorexia, growth retardation, dermatitis, taste disorder, and hypogonadism. Although it is clear that zinc deficiency produces specific and profound anorexia in experimental animals, the connection between zinc deficiency and anorexia is less certain. We were the first to show that orally, but not intraperitoneally, administered zinc rapidly stimulates food intake through orexigenic peptides coupled to the afferent vagus nerve using rats during early-stage zinc deficiency without decreased zinc concentrations in plasma and tissues. We confirmed that a zinc-sufficient diet containing zinc chloride acutely stimulated food intake after short-term zinc deprivation. We also found that orally administered zinc sulfate increased the expression of NPY and orexin mRNA after administration. Using vagotomized rats, we tested whether the increase in food intake after oral administration of zinc was mediated by the vagus nerve. In sham-operated rats, the oral administration of zinc stimulated food intake, whereas zinc and saline administrations did not exhibit differing effects in vagotomized rats. We conclude that zinc stimulates food intake in short-term zinc-deficient rats through the afferent vagus nerve with subsequent effects on hypothalamic peptides associated with food intake regulation. In this review, we describe recent research investigating the roles of zinc as an appetite stimulator in food intake regulation, along with research about hypothalamus, ghrelin, leptin and zinc receptor, and clinical application about anorexia nervosa, cachexia and sarcopenia. The article also presents some promising patents on zinc. PMID:21846317

Suzuki, Hajime; Asakawa, Akihiro; Li, Jiang B; Tsai, Minglun; Amitani, Haruka; Ohinata, Kousaku; Komai, Michio; Inui, Akio

2011-09-01

157

Poly Iron Chloride and Poly Aluminum Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structures, basic chemistry, preparation procedures, and applications of poly iron chloride (PIC) and poly aluminum chloride (PAC) are presented. PIC and PAC are unconventional inorganic polymers known to be extremely effective for treatment of water ...

L. K. Wang

1987-01-01

158

Zinc Information  

MedlinePLUS

... Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Zinc Information Time To Talk About Natural Products for the ... Glance Eye Conditions Information Colds/Flu Information Safety Information Zicam Cold Remedy Nasal Products—Warnings ( FDA ; 06/ ...

159

Spectrophotometric studies and applications for the determination of Ni²+ in zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte.  

PubMed

The absorption properties of zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte were studied by visible spectrophotometer. The results show that the relationship between the absorbance of the zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte and Ni(2+) concentration in the electrolyte obeys Beer's law at 660 nm. In addition, other components except Ni(2+) in the zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte such as zinc chloride, ammonium chloride, potassium chloride and boric acid have no obvious effect on the absorbance of zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte. Based on these properties, a new method is developed to determine Ni(2+) concentration in zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte. Comparing with other methods, this method is simple, direct and accurate. Moreover, the whole testing process does not consume any reagent and dilution, and after testing, the electrolyte samples can be reused without any pollution to the environment. PMID:22591796

Qiao, Xiaoping; Li, Helin; Zhao, Wenzhen; Li, Dejun

2012-09-01

160

Spectrophotometric studies and applications for the determination of Ni2+ in zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absorption properties of zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte were studied by visible spectrophotometer. The results show that the relationship between the absorbance of the zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte and Ni2+ concentration in the electrolyte obeys Beer's law at 660 nm. In addition, other components except Ni2+ in the zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte such as zinc chloride, ammonium chloride, potassium chloride and boric acid have no obvious effect on the absorbance of zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte. Based on these properties, a new method is developed to determine Ni2+ concentration in zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte. Comparing with other methods, this method is simple, direct and accurate. Moreover, the whole testing process does not consume any reagent and dilution, and after testing, the electrolyte samples can be reused without any pollution to the environment.

Qiao, Xiaoping; Li, Helin; Zhao, Wenzhen; Li, Dejun

161

Glioma-Associated Oncogene Family Zinc Finger 1 Expression and Metastasis in Patients With Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated With Radiation Therapy (RTOG 9003)  

PubMed Central

Purpose Glioma-associated oncogene family zinc finger 1 (GLI1) expression was assessed to determine a potential role of hedgehog (Hh) signaling in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Additional proteins known to be modulated by Hh signaling, including beta-catenin (CTNNB1) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), were also assessed to determine the correlation among these distinct signaling pathways. Patients and Methods Nuclear GLI1 and CTNNB1 expression levels were determined in tumors from patients enrolled on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9003, a radiation fractionation trial. The results were also correlated with previously determined EGFR expression. The expression levels were evaluated in relation to three end points: time to metastasis (TTM), time to disease progression (TDP), and overall survival (OS). Results Among 1,068 eligible patients, data on GLI1, CTNNB1, and EGFR were available in 339, 164, and 300 patients, respectively. Although CTNNB1 expression did not differentiate prognosis, GLI1 was associated with poorer outcomes, adjusted for age, TNM stages, and Karnofsky performance score, and the significant influence persisted in a multivariable analysis (quartile 4 [Q4] v Q1 to Q3: TTM hazard ratio [HR], 2.7; 95% CI, 1.5 to 4.9; TDP HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.5; OS HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4 to 2.7). The significance of GLI1 persisted in a multivariable analysis that included EGFR expression levels. Conclusion These data suggest that Hh signaling may play an important role in metastasis and that GLI1 could serve as a marker in HNSCC, but the regulatory mechanisms and oncogenic significance need further investigation. Risk classification based on this analysis needs a validation in independent cohorts.

Chung, Christine H.; Dignam, James J.; Elizabeth Hammond, M.; Klimowicz, Alexander C.; Petrillo, Stephanie K.; Magliocco, Anthony; Jordan, Richard; Trotti, Andy; Spencer, Sharon; Cooper, Jay S.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Ang, K. Kian

2011-01-01

162

Regulatory role for Kr?ppel-like Zinc-finger Protein Gli-similar 1 (Glis1) in PMA-treated and psoriatic epidermis  

PubMed Central

In this study, we analyze the expression and potential function of the Krüppel-like zinc-finger protein Gli-similar protein 1 (Glis1) in normal and inflammatory skin and in the differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes. Glis1 mRNA is not expressed in normal human epidermis but is significantly induced in psoriatic epidermis and in mouse skin upon treatment with the tumor promoter phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). The expression of Glis1 is restricted to the suprabasal layers. These observations suggest that Glis1 expression is associated with hyperplastic, inflammatory epidermis. Consistent with these findings, Glis1 mRNA is not expressed in undifferentiated or differentiated normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) in culture but is dramatically induced after the addition of PMA or interferon ?. A similar induction of Glis1 mRNA by PMA treatment was observed in the immortalized epidermal keratinocyte cell line NHEK-HPV whereas PMA did not induce Glis1 in HaCaT cells or in several squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. To obtain insight into its function, Glis1 and a C-terminal deletion mutant Glis1 ?C were expressed in NHEK-HPV cells and changes in epidermal differentiation and gene expression examined. Microarray analysis revealed that Glis1 ?C promoted PMA-induced epidermal differentiation as indicated by increased expression of many differentiation-specific genes. This, in association with its induction in psoriasis, suggests that transcriptional factor Glis1 is involved in the regulation of aberrant differentiation observed in psoriatic epidermis.

Nakanishi, Gen; Kim, Yong-Sik; Nakajima, Takeshi

2005-01-01

163

The electrodeposition of metals and alloys from the room-temperature aluminum chloride 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride molten salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemistry of cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc was investigated in the room-temperature Lewis acidic aluminum chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride molten salt (AlClsb3-MeEtimCl). Concentrated solutions of Co(II), Cu(I), Ni(II), and Zn(II) were produced by anodization of the respective metal, and each of these metals could be electrodeposited from these solutions. Bulk deposits were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and

William Robert Pitner

1997-01-01

164

The Solanum lycopersicum Zinc Finger2 Cysteine-2/Histidine-2 Repressor-Like Transcription Factor Regulates Development and Tolerance to Salinity in Tomato and Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The zinc finger superfamily includes transcription factors that regulate multiple aspects of plant development and were recently shown to regulate abiotic stress tolerance. Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Zinc Finger2 [SIZF2]) is a cysteine-2/histidine-2-type zinc finger transcription factor bearing an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression domain and binding to the ACGTCAGTG sequence containing two AGT core motifs. SlZF2 is ubiquitously expressed during plant development, and is rapidly induced by sodium chloride, drought, and potassium chloride treatments. Its ectopic expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tomato impaired development and influenced leaf and flower shape, while causing a general stress visible by anthocyanin and malonyldialdehyde accumulation. SlZF2 enhanced salt sensitivity in Arabidopsis, whereas SlZF2 delayed senescence and improved tomato salt tolerance, particularly by maintaining photosynthesis and increasing polyamine biosynthesis, in salt-treated hydroponic cultures (125 mm sodium chloride, 20 d). SlZF2 may be involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis/signaling, because SlZF2 is rapidly induced by ABA treatment and 35S::SlZF2 tomatoes accumulate more ABA than wild-type plants. Transcriptome analysis of 35S::SlZF2 revealed that SlZF2 both increased and reduced expression of a comparable number of genes involved in various physiological processes such as photosynthesis, polyamine biosynthesis, and hormone (notably ABA) biosynthesis/signaling. Involvement of these different metabolic pathways in salt stress tolerance is discussed. PMID:24567191

Hichri, Imène; Muhovski, Yordan; Zižkova, Eva; Dobrev, Petre I; Franco-Zorrilla, Jose Manuel; Solano, Roberto; Lopez-Vidriero, Irene; Motyka, Vaclav; Lutts, Stanley

2014-04-01

165

Metal distribution in different tissues and in subcellular fractions of the Mediterranean clam Ruditapes decussatus treated with cadmium, copper, or zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetics of accumulation of Cd (500 ?g\\/l), Cu (150 ?g\\/l) and Zn (1000 ?g\\/l) were measured in organs (gills, digestive gland and remainder) of the clam Ruditapes decussatus. A significant accumulation was observed in the organs of animals treated with Cd or Cu, whereas no difference was obvious between controls and animals exposed to Zn. A slight increase was noted

M. Roméo; M. Gnassia-Barelli

1995-01-01

166

[Increased sebum secretion due to oral administration of zinc sulfate].  

PubMed

In 87 patients hospitalized for chronic leg ulcers the effect of oral zinc on sebum secretion was determined. The patients were divided into three groups according to serum zinc concentrations. Patients with zinc levels in the upper normal range (Zn greater than or equal to 1.0 mg/l) were not treated. Patients with zinc levels in the lower normal range (Zn < 1.0 mg/l) received either three daily doses of 220 mg zinc sulphate or a placebo. The zinc-treated group displayed significantly increased sebum secretion. This effect was more marked in males, and may be due to a zinc-induced rise in plasma testosterone. Indications for oral zinc in dermatological conditions are discussed. PMID:7423170

Floersheim, G L; Kull, P

1980-08-23

167

Behavior and products of mechano-chemical dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride and poly (vinylidene chloride).  

PubMed

The mechano-chemical (MC) dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) was performed by mechanical milling PVC/PVDC powder with zinc powder in a planetary ball mill, and the products of dechlorination were characterized by Infrared spectra (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The experimental results show that PVC/PVDC can be easily dechlorinated by milling with zinc powder, and formed various kinds of inorganic and organic products. Inorganic compounds included Zn2OCl(2).2H2O, Zn5(OH)8Cl2.H2O etc., and organic products involved diamond-like carbon, carbyne fragment, polyacetylene etc. Organic products formed following the paths of dechlorination, dehydrochlorination, crosslink, and oxidation. The mechano-chemical dechlorination process of PVC/PVDC may be an effective approach for carbyne synthesizing in the appropriate condition. PMID:17604907

Xiao, Xiao; Zeng, Zigao; Xiao, Songwen

2008-02-28

168

Zinc'ing down RNA polymerase I  

PubMed Central

Most RNA polymerases contain zinc, yet the precise function of zinc and its influence of polymerases stability are unknown. A recent study provides evidence that zinc levels control the stability of RNA polymerase I in vivo and that the enzyme might serve as a zinc reservoir for other proteins.

Chanfreau, Guillaume F

2013-01-01

169

Parenteral supplementation with zinc in surgical patients corrects postoperative serum-zinc drop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc has been known for a long time to facilitate wound healing. But, so far, supplementation trials in patients treated by\\u000a major severity surgery gave either partial or controversial results. In a doublebind, randomized study including 30 patients,\\u000a we show that zinc supplements (30 mg\\/d for 3 d) administered by a drip correct postoperative drop of serum zinc, that this

Henri Faure; Jean-Claude Peyrin; Marie-Jeanne Richard; Alain Favier

1991-01-01

170

Nanocrystalline copper doped zinc oxide produced from copper doped zinc hydroxide nitrate as a layered precursor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undoped and copper doped nanostructured zinc oxides were synthesized by using a series of synthetic layered material, undoped and copper doped zinc hydroxide nitrates at various molar percentages of copper (2–10) within the layers as precursors. The layered materials were heat-treated at 500°C to produce zinc oxide nanostructures with crystallite sizes in the range of 23–35nm. Optical studies of the

Mohammad Yeganeh Ghotbi; Narjes Bagheri; S. K. Sadrnezhaad

171

Protection against ionising radiation and synergism with thiols by zinc aspartate.  

PubMed

Pre-treatment with zinc aspartate protected mice against the lethal effects of radiation and raised the LD50 from 8 Gy to 12.2 Gy. Zinc chloride and zinc sulphate were clearly less active. The radioprotective effect of zinc aspartate was equivalent to cysteamine and slightly inferior to S,2-aminoethylisothiourea (AET). Zinc aspartate displayed a similar therapeutic index to the thiols but could be applied at an earlier time before irradiation. Synergistic effects occurred with the combined administration of zinc aspartate and thiols. By giving zinc aspartate with cysteamine, the LD50 was increased to 13.25 Gy and, by combining it in the optimal protocol with AET, to 17.3 Gy. The radioprotection by zinc and its synergism with thiols is explained by the stabilisation of thiols through the formation of zinc complexes. PMID:3518853

Floersheim, G L; Floersheim, P

1986-06-01

172

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

173

Dehydration of Magnesium Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application discloses a method for dehydrating magnesium chloride hydrates or brines by complexing with amine hydrochlorides. Magnesium chloride hydrate or brine is reacted to an amine hydrochloride to form a complex which is then heated to fir...

H. Dolezal

1975-01-01

174

Chloride - urine test  

MedlinePLUS

The urine chloride test measures the amount of chloride in urine. ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested in the lab. If needed, the health care provider may ask you to collect your urine ...

175

Mercuric chloride poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different ... poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric chloride. This is for information only and not for ...

176

Reproductive and developmental toxicities of zinc supplemented rats.  

PubMed

Reproductive and developmental toxicities of zinc supplementation in F(0) rats and F(1) progeny were examined. Rats were treated by gavaging with zinc chloride (ZnCl(2)) at 0.0, 7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg-d. ZnCl(2) treatment was associated with deficient energy imbalances, reduced number of live pups/litter, decreased live birth index, increased mortality and increased fetal resorption. Changes in serum clinical chemistry and hematologic parameters were sex-related. In F(0) females, ZnCl(2) was associated with increased liver/body weight ratios, reduced creatinine and reduced alkaline phosphatase concentrations. In F(0) males, ZnCl(2) significantly increased relative liver weight and elevated ?-GGT. In addition, at birth, F(1) males exhibited, a significant (p<0.05) increase in anogenital distance, whereas ZnCl(2) hastened the time of eye opening and incisor eruption in males and females. These results indicate that excess ZnCl(2) supplementation before and during pregnancy and during lactation could pose some health risk concerns to pregnant mothers and their offspring. PMID:20977935

Johnson, F O; Gilbreath, E T; Ogden, L; Graham, T C; Gorham, S

2011-02-01

177

Influence of drug and light dose in determining PDT efficacy in human pancreatic cancer cells treated with zinc tetrasulfonated phthalocyanines (ZnTSPc)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has the potential to be applied as an adjuvant treatment modality in advanced cancer cases and recently its role in the management of pancreatic cancer, has been evaluated. Nevertheless PDT remains an experimental therapy and one of the main reasons is its complexity, as far as it relies on the combined action of the photosensitizing drug and light source. In this study was evaluated the effect of various photosensitizer and photoirradiation doses, in the lethality of MIA PaCa cell line by using ZnPcS4 as photosensitizer and a novel diode laser system as illumination source. No lethality was observed when only laser light or only photosensitizer was applied to cells. Cells treated with various concentrations of ZnTSPc and a light dose of 9 J/cm2 indicated more than 70% lethality, 24 hrs after irradiation and with a light dose of 6 J/cm2 presented almost 90% lethality, 72 hours after irradiation. The results show that low light and photosensitizer (drug) doses are enough to obtain lethality of more than 90% of MIA PaCa cells.

Halkiotis, Konstantinos N.; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos K.; Loukas, Spyros; Pantelias, Gabriel; Trafalis, D.; Yova-Loukas, Dido M.

1997-12-01

178

Atmospheric Corrosion and Precipitation Runoff From Zinc and Zinc Alloys Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The long-term atmospheric corrosion performance of rolled zinc and three thermal-sprayed (TS) zinc materials (Zn, Zn-15Al, and Al-12Zn-0.2In) was characterized by measuring corrosion product concentrations in precipitation runoff at coastal marine and inland sites. Corrosion rates and average zinc concentrations in the runoff were greater at the site having higher annual rainfall. Higher chloride concentrations did not seem to affect either the corrosion rates or the zinc concentrations in the runoff at the coastal site compared to those of the inland site. Zinc runoff concentrations were higher for TS Zn than rolled zinc due to the greater surface area of the thermal-sprayed surface. Average cumulative zinc runoff losses for the two sites were: 64 {micro}mol Zn/L for TS Zn, 37 {micro}mol Zn/L for rolled Zn, 24 {micro}mol Zn/L for TS Zn-15Al, and 1.8 {micro}mol Zn/L for TS Al-12Zn-0.2In. Cumulative zinc runoff losses were directly related both to the precipitation rate and to the availability of Zn in metal surfaces, a consequence of surface roughness and surface chemistry properties of the metal.

Matthes, S.A.; Cramer, S.D.; Bullard, S.J.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Holcomb, G.R.

2003-03-16

179

Zinc electrodeposition and dendritic growth from zinc-halide electrolytes. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roughness evolution and dendritic growth restrict the thickness of electroplated zinc during the charge of zinc\\/halogen batteries and thereby impose operating and economic limitations on their application. Although technologically important, there has so far been little fundamental understanding of dendritic growth and, in the absence of an adequate theory, the phenomenon has been treated mostly empirically. A systematic theoretical and

U. Landau; B. D. Cahan; J. R. Selman

1982-01-01

180

Zinc induces apatite and scholzite formation during dentin remineralization.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to ascertain whether zinc may improve the repair ability of demineralized dentin. Dentin disks were demineralized by phosphoric acid during 15 s and immersed in artificial saliva, remineralizing solution, a zinc chloride solution and a zinc oxide solution. Dentin specimens were analyzed after 24 h and 1 month of storage. Surface morphology was assessed by atomic force and scanning electron microscopy, mechanical properties were analyzed by nanohardness testing in a TriboIndenter, and chemical changes at the surfaces were determined by X-ray diffraction, Raman and energy-dispersive elemental analyses. After phosphoric acid application, dentin was only partially demineralized. Demineralized dentin was remineralized after 24 h of storage in any of the tested solutions (nanohardness increased and hydroxylapatite formation was detected by Raman). Remineralization was maintained up to 1 month in dentin stored in remineralizing solution, zinc chloride and zinc oxide. Zinc and phosphate were important for hydroxylapatite homeostasis. Scholzite formation was encountered in dentin stored in zinc-containing solutions. Zinc might allow to reach the balance between dentin demineralization and remineralization processes. PMID:24513585

Osorio, R; Osorio, E; Cabello, I; Toledano, M

2014-01-01

181

Zinc Sorption in Sandy Soils from Central Vietnam as a Function of Soil Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc (Zn) sorption curves were established for 11 cultivated sandy soils from central Vietnam. Soil samples (10 g) were equilibrated with 5 mM calcium chloride (CaCl2) solutions (50 mL) at five zinc chloride (ZnCl2) concentrations (0 to 80 mg Zn L). The experimental sorption data were fitted with the Freundlich equation. The amounts of Zn sorbed by soil (QZn) at

Gaetan Verriest; Eléonore Couder; Hoa Hoang Thi Thai; Stephen Bythell; Anne Iserentant; Claudine Givron; Joseph E. Dufey

2012-01-01

182

Bacitracin zinc overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... Small amounts of bacitracin zinc are dissolved in petroleum jelly to create antibiotic ointments. Bacitracin zinc overdose ... 1-800-222-1222. See also: Bacitracin overdose Petroleum jelly overdose Zinc oxide overdose

183

Enhanced zinc consumption causes memory deficits and increased brain levels of zinc  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Zinc deficiency has been shown to impair cognitive functioning, but little work has been done on the effects of elevated zinc. This research examined the effect on memory of raising Sprague-Dawley rats on enhanced levels of zinc (10 ppm ZnCO3; 0.153 mM) in the drinking water for periods of 3 or 9 months, both pre- and postnatally. Controls were raised on lab water. Memory was tested in a series of Morris Water Maze (MWM) experiments, and zinc-treated rats were found to have impairments in both reference and working memory. They were significantly slower to find a stationary platform and showed greater thigmotaxicity, a measure of anxiety. On a working memory task, where the platform was moved each day, zinc-treated animals had longer latencies over both trials and days, swam further from the platform, and showed greater thigmotaxicity. On trials using an Atlantis platform, which remained in one place but was lowered on probe trials, the zinc-treated animals had significantly fewer platform crossings, spent less time in the target quadrant, and did not swim as close to the platform position. They had significantly greater latency on nonprobe trials. Microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (??SXRF) confirmed that brain zinc levels were increased by adding ZnCO 3 to the drinking water. These data show that long-term dietary administration of zinc can lead to impairments in cognitive function. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Flinn, J. M.; Hunter, D.; Linkous, D. H.; Lanzirotti, A.; Smith, L. N.; Brightwell, J.; Jones, B. F.

2005-01-01

184

Reductive Amination with Zinc Borohydride. Efficient, Safe Route to Fluorinated Benzylamines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Fluorinated benzylamines are synthesized in high yields by reductive alkylation of secondary amines with appropriate fluoroaldehydes using a combination of zinc chloride and zinc borohydride. The present method offers an alternative to toxic sodium cyanoborohydride and is adaptable to multigram-scale preparations.

Sukanta Bhattacharyya; Arindam Chatterjee; John S. Williamson

1997-01-01

185

Role of zinc in pediatric diarrhea.  

PubMed

Zinc supplementation is a critical new intervention for treating diarrheal episodes in children. Recent studies suggest that administration of zinc along with new low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions / salts (ORS), can reduce the duration and severity of diarrheal episodes for up to three months. The World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF recommend daily 20 mg zinc supplements for 10 - 14 days for children with acute diarrhea, and 10 mg per day for infants under six months old, to curtail the severity of the episode and prevent further occurrences in the ensuing -two to three months, thereby decreasing the morbidity considerably. This article reviews the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of zinc supplementation in pediatric diarrhea and convincingly concludes that zinc supplementation has a beneficial impact on the disease outcome. PMID:21713083

Bajait, Chaitali; Thawani, Vijay

2011-05-01

186

Comparative in vitro toxicity of seven zinc-salts towards neuronal PC12 cells.  

PubMed

Currently much attention has been given to the neurotoxicity of zinc, yet little is known about the influence of the counterions present. Therefore, we investigated the influence of different Zn(2+)-salts (concentrations range 0.05-0.3 mM) on cell viability, ATP and glutathione concentration and caspase activation in differentiated PC12 cells as a model for neuronal cells. Generally, at concentrations of 0.05 mM most Zn(2+)-salts were not cytotoxic except for zinc-citrate. At concentrations between 0.1 and 0.3 mM Zn(2+) a significant decrease in GSH and ATP levels preceded cell death induced by all salts, except of zinc-histidinate. Zinc-citrate and zinc-sulphate turned out to be the most toxic salts particularly at low concentrations. Analyses of caspase 3/7 activity showed that dependent on the concentration and the type of the salt used cell death may show more or less signs of both, necrosis and apoptosis. Interestingly, the uptake of Zn(2+) from zinc-sulphate and zinc-citrate was significantly higher than that of other salts, implicating a correlation between uptake and toxicity. In conclusion, Zn(2+)-salts could be divided into three categories with high (zinc-citrate, zinc-sulphate), moderate (zinc-orotate, zinc-acetate, zinc-chloride(,) zinc-gluconate) and low cytotoxicity (zinc-histidinate). PMID:19306923

Pavlica, Sanja; Gaunitz, Frank; Gebhardt, Rolf

2009-06-01

187

Zinc in buckwheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buckwheat flour was subjected to peptic and pancreatic digestion. The soluble zinc component in the digesta was separated by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Approximately 72% of the zinc in buckwheat was solubilized on digestion. The majority of the soluble zinc was bound with a substance with molecular weight of approximately 1,000 dalton. Our findings suggest that zinc in

Sayoko Ikeda; Mari Edotani; Shizuka Naito

1990-01-01

188

Zinc and zinc transporters in prostate carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

The healthy human prostate accumulates the highest level of zinc of any soft tissue in the body. This unique property is retained in BPH, but is lost in prostatic malignancy, which implicates changes in zinc and its transporters in carcinogenesis. Indeed, zinc concentrations diminish early in the course of prostate carcinogenesis, preceding histopathological changes, and continue to decline during progression toward castration-resistant disease. Numerous studies suggest that increased zinc intake might protect against progression of prostatic malignancy. Despite increased dietary intake, zinc accumulation might be limited by the diminished expression of zinc uptake transporters, resulting in decreased intratumoural zinc levels. This finding can explain the conflicting results of various epidemiological studies evaluating the role of zinc supplementation on primary and secondary prostate cancer prevention. Overall, more research into the mechanisms of zinc homeostasis are needed to fully understand its impact on prostate carcinogenesis. Only then can the potential of zinc and zinc transport proteins be harnessed in the diagnosis and treatment of men with prostate cancer.

Kolenko, Vladimir; Teper, Ervin; Kutikov, Alexander; Uzzo, Robert

2013-01-01

189

Production of zinc pellets  

DOEpatents

Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

1996-01-01

190

21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...gram cetylpyridinium chloride per pound of raw poultry carcass, provided that the additive is used in systems that collect and recycle solution that is not carried out of the system with the treated poultry carcasses; or (2) As a liquid aqueous...

2013-04-01

191

Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for missile applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative performance study has been conducted for silver-zinc, thionyl chloride, and thermal batteries designed for such missile applications as ICBM guidance system power supplies. Attention is given to each of the three candidates' conformity to requirements concerning mechanical configuration, electrochemical design, electrolyte reservoir, external case, and gas generator. The silver-zinc and Li-SOCl2 candidates employ similar cell configurations and yield comparable performance. The thermal battery is found to be incapable of meeting battery case temperature-related requirements.

Planchat, J. P.; Descroix, J. P.; Sarre, G.

192

Wastewater Treatment Facilities for a Polyvinyl Chloride Production Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the investigations of various types of wastewater treatment systems to adequately treat wastes from a polyvinyl chloride plant. Both primary and secondary treatment methods were investigated. Waste equalization; solids removal by chem...

1971-01-01

193

Phosphonium chloride for thermal storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of systems for storage of thermal energy is discussed. Application of phosphonium chloride for heat storage through reversible dissociation is described. Chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties of phosphonium chloride are analyzed and dangers in using phosphonium chloride are explained.

Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

1972-01-01

194

Carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of mice to 50, 250, or 1000 ppm of vinyl chloride (VC) in the air for 6 h\\/d, 5 d\\/wk, caused a high incidence of bronchioloalveolar adenoma, mammary gland tumors, and hemangiosarcoma. Mammary gland tumors occurred in the females and included ductular odenocarcinoma and squamous and anaplastic cell carcinomas with metastasis to the lung. Hemangiosarcoma occurred in the liver

C. C. Lee; J. C. Bhandari; J. M. Winston; W. B. House; R. L. Dixon; J. S. Woods

1978-01-01

195

Inorganic complexation of Zinc (II) in seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation constants for zinc complexation by bicarbonate, carbonate, and oxalate, on the molal concentration scale, were determined through observation of aqueous/tributyl phosphate distribution equilibria. At 25°C in our 0.68 molal ionic strength mixtures (0.55 m NaCl plus 0.13 m NaClO 4-NaHCO 3) we obtained the following results: H?' 1 = [ZnHCO 3+][Zn 2+] -1[HCO 3-] t-1 log H?' 1 = 0.85 ± 0.04 ?' 1 = [ZnCO 30][Zn 2+] -1[CO 32-] t-1 log ?' 1 = 3.30 ± 0.08 Ox?' 1 = [ZnC 2O 40][Zn 2+] -1[C 2O 42-] t-1 log Ox?' 1 = 3.58 ± 0.03 where [ ] denotes the concentration of each indicated chemical species, and [HCO 3-] t, [CO 32-] t, and [C 2O 42-] t are the total (free plus ion paired) concentrations of bicarbonate, carbonate, and oxalate. Our analyses in chloride media provide additionally an assessment of the conditional complexation constant of zinc with chloride ion: Cl? 1 = [ZnCl +][Zn 2+] -1[Cl -] -1; log Cl? 1 = -0.4 ±0.1 Our results indicate that in seawater ( S = 35%., 25°C, carbonate alkalinity = 2.09 × 10 -3 eq 1 -1, pH 8.2) approximately 64% of total inorganic zinc exists as the free ion, 14% is complexed with chloride, 10% is complexed with carbonate, and complexation with hydroxide, sulfate, and bicarbonate account for approximately 6, 5, and 1% of the total inorganic zinc, respectively.

Stanley, J. K., Jr.; Byrne, R. H.

1990-03-01

196

EFFECT OF ZINC SUPPLEMENTATION OF PREGNANT RATS ON SHORT-TERM & LONG-TERM MEMORY OF THEIR OFFSPRING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To see the dose dependent effects of zinc chloride on the short-term and long-term memory in a shuttle box (rats). Methodology: Six pair adult wistar rats were taken for this experiment. One group of pregnant rats received a daily oral dose of 20mg\\/kg Zn as zinc chloride and the remaining groups received a daily oral dose of (30, 50,

Moazedi Ahmad Ali; Ghotbeddin Z; Parham GH

197

Influence of zinc, D-penicillamine and oxygen on poisoning with Amanita phalloides. Zinc accelerates liver regeneration and prevents the depletion of brain noradrenaline caused by the mushroom.  

PubMed

Pretreatment with zinc aspartate increased the survival rate of mice poisoned with a lyophilisate from the mushroom Amanita phalloides (APL). In the livers of the zinc-treated animals, confluent necrosis was cleared earlier. Zinc also prevented the reduction of brain noradrenaline caused by the mushroom as well as the rise of brain dopamine and brain weight. D-Penicillamine also protected against the lethal effects of APL. The survival afforded by zinc pretreatment was marginally ameliorated by additional oxygenation. PMID:6702510

Floersheim, G L; Bianchi, L; Probst, A; Chiodetti, N; Honegger, C G

1984-01-01

198

The development of a micropatterned electrode for studies of zinc electrodeposition  

SciTech Connect

A micropatterned electrode was prepared for the study of electrocrystallization. Using microphotolithography, in conjunction with evaporation and pulse electrodeposition of thin films, a set of artificially roughened electrodes with hemispherical surface features five microns in diameter was developed. Voltammetric studies were conducted to determine the best electrode material. Gold, platinum, and various carbon surfaces were evaluated for zinc nucleation density and hydrogen overpotential. Surface homogeneity was examined by both light and scanning electron microscopy. Gold was determined to possess the best combination of material properties: chemical inertness, low melting point, and a high work function allowing underpotential deposition of zinc which reduces the rate of hydrogen evolution. Stripping coulometry was employed to determine zinc limiting currents, and evaluate effective diffusion coefficients in concentrated zinc chloride solutions. Although the method worked well for dilute zinc chloride and copper sulfate solutions, it failed at higher current densities; the emergence of surface roughness obscured actual limiting current plateaus.

Sutija, D.P.; Muller, R.H.; Tobias, C.W.

1986-12-01

199

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

200

Conversion of sodium chloride to hydrogen chloride in the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reaction route is suggested, based on experimental results, for the conversion of sodium chloride particles to gaseous hydrogen chloride in the atmosphere. The first step is the hydrolysis of nitrogen dioxide (NOâ) to form nitric acid (HNOâ) vapor. The second step is either adsorption on the relatively dry sodium chloride and the fourth is desorption of the hydrogen chloride,

R. C. Robbins; R. D. Cadle; D. L. Eckhardt

1959-01-01

201

[Congenital chloride diarrhea].  

PubMed

Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare hereditary disease, with a prenatal onset, secondary to a deficit in the intestinal chloride transport. In the present study, we describe the clinical characteristics of three patients with congenital watery diarrhea, two of them females, aged between 9 and 14 months at the first visit. All patients presented perinatal antecedents of polyhydramnios and prematurity, watery stools since birth and growth failure. Metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia and hypochloremia were found. Stool ionogram with elevated doses of chloride, exceeding both sodium and potassium, confirmed the diagnosis of CCD. Substitute treatment with sodium and potassium chloride was started with good results. CCD should be considered as a differential diagnosis to congenital watery diarrhea, since early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are mandatory for the normal development of the child, avoiding severe complications such as neurological sequelae and even death. PMID:16127986

Contreras, Mónica; Rocca, Ana; Benedetti, Laura; Kakisu, Hisae; Delgado, Sabrina; Ruiz, José Antonio

2005-01-01

202

Hydrogen chloride test set  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detector uses tertiary amine, which makes reaction fairly specific for relatively small highly polarized hydrogen chloride molecule. Reaction is monitored by any microbalance capable of measuring extremely small mass differences in real time.

Workman, G. L.

1976-01-01

203

Zinc and Diarrheal Disease: Current Status and Future Perspectives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this review article is to evaluate clinical data indicating the benefits of oral zinc supplementation to prevent and/or treat diarrhea in children and extend these findings to adults. Zinc plays an important role in modulating host resistan...

A. G. Scrimgeour H. C. Lukaski

2008-01-01

204

40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section...dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator...vinyl chloride, and/or polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with...

2010-07-01

205

RED Facts: Zinc Phosphide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet summarizes the information in the RED document for reregistration case 0026, zinc phosphide. Zinc phosphide is a rodenticide used to control gophers, mice, rats, lagomorphs (e.g. jack rabbits), prairie dogs, and squirrels.

1998-01-01

206

Zinc might protect oxidative changes in the retina and pancreas at the early stage of diabetic rats  

SciTech Connect

It is well documented that oxidative stress is a basic mechanism behind the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The current study was undertaken to elucidate the possible role of zinc as an antioxidant and a biological membrane stabilizer in the protection against (DR). Male Wistar rats weighing 250 {+-} 50 g were made diabetic by injection with a single ip dose of alloxan (100 mg/kg). Another group of rats was simultaneously treated with alloxan (100 mg/kg) and a single ip dose of zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}) (5 mg/kg). Blood and tissue samples were collected at 24, 48, and 72 h post-treatment in both groups. Diabetic state was confirmed by the determination of plasma glucose levels (significantly elevated at any time of the experiment when compared with controls receiving vehicle). Plasma insulin was significantly increased 24 h after treatment in both alloxan and alloxan plus ZnCl{sub 2}-treated groups, and then decreased markedly 48 and 72 h post treatment in both groups. Alloxan treatment depleted both retinal and liver glutathione contents. The decrease in retinal and liver GSH in alloxan-treated rats was accompanied with a sustained increase in their thiobarbituric acid (TBA) content. Simultaneous treatment of rats with alloxan and ZnCl{sub 2} blunted the sustained increment in plasma glucose induced by alloxan. The combined administration of alloxan and zinc reversed the depleting effect on retinal and hepatic GSH in alloxan-treated rats and reduced the elevations in TBA content of both retinas and livers. At variance with many other antioxidants the current results clearly indicate the beneficial effects of Zn in both controlling hyperglycemia and the protection of the retina against oxidative stress in diabetes which may help set a new direction toward the development of effective treatments of DR.

Moustafa, Sohair A. [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt)]. E-mail: Sohabdulla@hotmail.com

2004-12-01

207

Zinc protection against cadmium-induced infertility in female rats. Effect of zinc and cadmium on the progesterone production of cultured granulosa cells.  

PubMed

Adult female rats were treated subcutaneously (s.c.) with zinc chloride (ZnCl2, 10 or 20 mg kg-1 body weight, bw) four times during two ovarian cycles. The third injection was accompanied by cadmium chloride (CdCl2) administration sc (2.5, 5 and 10 mg kg-1 bw). The fourth zinc (Zn) treatment was followed by mating. ZnCl2 (20 mg kg-1) itself impaired fertility by 20%, while CdCl2 dose-dependently blocked the receptivity of female rats. In combination with 2.5 and 5 mg kg-1 CdCl2 the metal salts decreased fertility in an additive fashion, whereas at the highest CdCl2 dose (10 mg kg-1) a marked ameliorating effect of ZnCl2 (10 and 20 mg kg-1) on cadmium (Cd)-caused sterility was observed. In the pregnant animals apart from the higher Cd-induced blood progesterone levels and reduced body weight gain of dams, no significant treatment-related maternal and fetal effects could be observed. ZnCl2 (10 to 80 microM) and CdCl2 (10 to 80 microM) were added to the culture medium of ovarian granulosa cells. CdCl2 suppressed follicle-stimulating-hormone- (FSH-) and cAMP-stimulated progesterone accumulation. No protective effect of Zn against Cd-induced drop in progesterone production could be seen, while Zn by itself induced a significant increase in FSH-supported progesterone synthesis. In conclusion, while Zn protected against Cd-induced sterility in vivo, it failed to counteract the direct effect of Cd on steroid biosynthesis. The data indicate that Zn protection does not take place at the level of ovary. Moreover, Zn and Cd seem to affect FSH-stimulated progesterone production by different mechanisms. PMID:9002180

Paksy, K; Varga, B; Lázár, P

1997-01-01

208

Hydrometallurgical extraction of zinc from zinc ferrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of steel in electric arc furnaces (EAF) generates a by-product called EAF dusts. Due to the presence of significant amounts of leachable compounds of zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel, EAF dusts are classified as hazardous wastes. The quantity of EAF dust generated per year around the world represents a possible recovery of about 900 t of zinc.

Nathalie Leclerc; Eric Meux; Jean-Marie Lecuire

2003-01-01

209

Zinc in human milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc concentration in breast milk varies within and between mothers. Neither environmental (zinc intake — either in natural food or supplemented, nutrient interaction, cigarette smoking, and oral contraceptives) nor constitutional (premature delivery, number of children, teen age pregnancy, undernutrition, infection, and diabetes) variables consistently affected zinc concentration or its rate of decrease in breast milk. Stage of lactation is the

Jose G. Dorea

2000-01-01

210

Zinc in diet  

MedlinePLUS

... a chicken has more zinc than the light meat. Other good sources of zinc are nuts, whole grains, legumes, and yeast. Fruits and vegetables are not good sources, because the zinc in plant proteins is not as available for use by ...

211

The role of zinc in the treatment of taste disorders.  

PubMed

In the 1990s the number of patients diagnosed with taste disorders in the USA and Japan was over one million people each year, and the number is increasing annually. Taste disorders are caused by several factors such as genetic disease, head trauma, structural changes, glossodynia, cancer, change of lifestyle, and more. The role of zinc in the treatment of taste disorders has been studied since the oral administration of zinc by patients was reported to improve their taste disorders. Carbonic anhydrase (CA), a zinc metalloenzyme, has also been studied in association with taste disorders, since the regulation of serum CA levels was shown to influence the effect of orally administrated zinc in the treatment of taste disorders. Zinc is an essential trace element that contributes to the active center of approximately 300 enzymes. Studies have revealed that zinc is involved in various physiological functions. Moreover, some medications have been shown to induce a zinc deficiency, which has been associated with a variety of clinical conditions. Hence, since the relationship between taste disorder and serum zinc concentration has been discussed for long time, taste disorder may be useful in diagnosing zinc deficiency. Moreover, it appears that medicines of the zinc-containing supplement type contribute to the treatment of taste disorders caused by zinc deficiency. Orally administered zinc has been shown to directly stimulate food intake via neuropeptide in the hypothalamus. Therefore, zinc administration may potentially be used to treat taste disorders, as well as several other diseases by stimulating feeding. The article presents some promising patents on the role of zinc in the treatment of taste disorders. PMID:23305423

Yagi, Takakazu; Asakawa, Akihiro; Ueda, Hirotaka; Ikeda, Satoshi; Miyawaki, Shouichi; Inui, Akio

2013-04-01

212

Thermochemical regeneration of bleaching earth waste with zinc chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, thermochemical regeneration with ZnCl2 has been carried out on bleaching earth waste at heating rate of 10°C\\/min up to 570°C under nitrogen atmosphere for 1 h. Various acid solutions and ultrasonic cleanings further washed the resulting solids after regeneration. The variations of pore space as well as the change of sorption properties in the resulting solids

W. T. Tsai; H. P. Chen; W. Y. Hsien; C. W. Lai; M. S. Lee

2003-01-01

213

Spectroscopic study of catalysis by zinc chloride of coal depolymerization  

SciTech Connect

Diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor in situ reactions which ether groups undergo during the depolymerization of ZnCl/sub 2/-impregnated Wyodak coal at elevated temperatures. Subtraction procedures were used to obtain difference spectra that revealed small changes in IR band intensity between 2000 and 1000 cm/sup /minus/1/. Evidence was obtained indicating that the ZnCl/sub 2/-impregnated coal samples could be depolymerized in an inert argon atmosphere. However, the degree of the cleavage of ether linkages catalyzed by ZnCl/sub 2/ in an inert atmosphere is about 30% of that in a high pressure hydrogen atmosphere (68 atm). The effect of solvent on impregnation of ZnCl/sub 2/ in coal samples was also studied. A higher degree of cleavage of what appears to be a phenyl ether linkage was found for ZnCl/sub 2/-impregnated coal prepared in methanol compared to similar preparations in water and in acetone.

Wang, H.P.; Wann, J.P.; Eyring, E.M.

1988-01-01

214

[Tolerance of large doses of oral zinc sulfate].  

PubMed

The toxicity of oral zinc was investigated in patients hospitalized for chronic leg ulcers. Untoward effects were monitored by reference to clinical tolerance, hematological, hepatic and renal parameters, and serum concentrations of copper and iron. The investigation was conducted by comparing two groups of patients who initially did not differ significantly with regard to ulcer area, hemoglobin, leukocytes, copper, iron and zinc. Both groups had serum zinc concentrations in the lower normal range. One group was treated with 3 daily doses of 220 mg oral zinc sulfate and the other with placebo, and hence, untoward effects of zinc should have become manifest in the zinc-treated group. This was not the case. Therefore, oral zinc appears to be well tolerated clinically and does not cause hematological, renal or hepatic toxicity. In view of the increasing interest in and range of indications for zinc, particularly in conditions associated with cellular immunological hyporeactivity, this finding is a prerequisite for the institution of clinical zinc therapy. PMID:7031872

Tschumi, P; Floersheim, G L

1981-10-17

215

The effect of zinc status on the immune function of diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To evaluate the role of zinc status in immune system dysfunction in diabetic animals, the interleukin-2 production and the lymphocyte mitogenic response to phytohaemagglutinin, concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharide were measured in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, diabetic rats treated with insulin and their non-diabetic controls maintained on low zinc, normal zinc and high zinc diets for 3 weeks. Unstimulated lymphocyte proliferation was

A. D. Mooradian; D. C. Norman; J. E. Morley

1988-01-01

216

Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor  

DOEpatents

Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

Gordon, Roy G. (Cambridge, MA)

1991-02-05

217

Zinc metabolism in uremia.  

PubMed

Subnormal plasma zinc levels have been reported in uremic patients. However, detailed studies regarding zinc status in uremia are not available. Twenty-five patients with chronic renal failure (10 undergoing maintenance hemodialysis, five receiving chronic peritoneal dialysis, and 10 nondialyzed azotemic patients) had lower concentration of zinc in plasma, leukocytes, and hair as well as increased plasma ammonia and ribonuclease activity compared to age- and sex-matched controls (p less than 0.001). Similar biochemical changes have been reported in experimentally induced zinc deficiency in both animals and man, except that erythrocyte zinc concentration was elevated in these patients. High erythrocyte zinc concentration may be related to ineffective erythropoiesis in uremia. The results of this study suggest that abnormality in zinc metabolism occurs commonly in patients with chronic renal failure and that it develops prior to initiation of dialysis treatment. PMID:501198

Mahajan, S K; Prasad, A S; Rabbani, P; Briggs, W A; McDonald, F D

1979-11-01

218

Efficacy and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a Dose of Diazepam That Will Reduce the Incidence of Convulsions in Indian Rhesus Monkeys Pretreated with Pyridostigmine Bromide, Challenged with Soman, and Treated with Atropine and Pralidoxime Chloride with the Diazepam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was initiated to determine the smallest dose of diazepam that would result in no more than a 20 percent incidence of convulsions in male rhesus monkeys pretreated with pyridostigmine, challenged with soman, and post treated with atropine and 2-PAM...

C. T. Olson G. S. Dill R. C. Kiser R. G. Menton T. L. Llayes

1990-01-01

219

Selenium supplementation modulates zinc levels and antioxidant values in blood and tissues of diabetic rats fed zinc-deficient diet.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is associated to a reduction of antioxidant defenses that leads to oxidative stress and complications in diabetic individuals. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of selenium on blood biochemical parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities, and tissue zinc levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats fed a zinc-deficient diet. The rats were divided into two groups; the first group was fed a zinc-sufficient diet, while the second group was fed a zinc-deficient diet. Half of each group was treated orally with 0.5 mg/kg sodium selenite. Tissue and blood samples were taken from all animals after 28 days of treatment. At the end of the experiment, the body weight gain and food intake of the zinc-deficient diabetic animals were lower than that of zinc-adequate diabetic animals. Inadequate dietary zinc intake increased glucose, lipids, triglycerides, urea, and liver lipid peroxidation levels. In contrast, serum protein, reduced glutathione, plasma zinc and tissue levels were decreased. A zinc-deficient diet led also to an increase in serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, and liver glutathione-S-transferase and to a decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase activity and glutathione peroxidase. Selenium treatment ameliorated all the values approximately to their normal levels. In conclusion, selenium supplementation presumably acting as an antioxidant led to an improvement of insulin activity, significantly reducing the severity of zinc deficiency in diabetes. PMID:23354544

Fatmi, Wided; Kechrid, Zine; Naz?ro?lu, Mustafa; Flores-Arce, Manuel

2013-05-01

220

[Genotoxic effect of cadmium chloride in various test-systems].  

PubMed

Many industrial regions of Bulgaria are contaminated with cadmium. Induction of various genetic damages by four concentrations of cadmium chloride was studied in various test systems. None of the tested concentrations induced gene mutations in Salmonella typhimurium. An increase in frequency of gene mutations, mitochondrial mutations, and intragene recombination was detected in Saccharomyces cerevisiae treated with the highest cadmium chloride concentration. A clastogenic effect and a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) were induced in radicle meristem cells of Pisum sativum L. by the two highest cadmium chloride concentrations. Cadmium chloride was also shown to increase the frequency of sex-linked recessive lethals (SLRLs) and dominant lethals (DLs) in Drosophila germ cells. The results obtained in different test systems allow cadmium chloride to be considered a weak mutagen inducing various genetic damages. PMID:9162694

Pesheva, M G; Chankova, S G; Avramova, Ts V; Milanov, D V; Genova, G K

1997-02-01

221

Chloride removal from vitrification offgas  

SciTech Connect

This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

Slaathaug, E.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-06-01

222

Molecular Structure of Barium Chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Barium Chloride was the byproduct of the discovery of radium by Madame Curie. When refining radium, the final separation resulted in barium chloride and radium chloride. Electrophoresis of barium chloride produces small-scale amounts of barium atom. This can be used for obtaining barium for commercial uses. Applications of barium chloride include stimulating the heart and other muscles for medicinal purposes, and also for softening water. Other uses of barium chloride include the manufacturing of barium salts, as pesticide, pigments, boiler detergent, in purifying sugar, as mordant in dyeing and printing textiles, and in the manufacture of caustic soda, polymers, and stabilizers.

2002-08-15

223

Investigation of factors influencing chloride extraction efficiency during electrochemical chloride extraction from reinforcing concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) is an accelerated bridge restoration method similar to cathodic protection, but operates at higher current densities and utilizes a temporary installation. Both techniques prolong the life of a bridge by reducing the corrosion rate of the reinforcing bar when properly applied. ECE achieves this by moving chlorides away from the reinforcement and out of the concrete while simultaneously increasing the alkalinity of the electrolyte near the reinforcing steel. Despite the proven success, significant use of ECE has not resulted in part due to an incomplete understanding in the following areas: (1) An estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment when the treated member is again subjected to chlorides; (2) The cause of the decrease in current flow and, therefore, chloride removal rate during treatment; (3) Influence of water-to-cement (w/c) ratio and cover depth on the time required for treatment. This dissertation covers the research that is connected to the last two areas listed above. To begin examining these issues, plain carbon steel reinforcing bars (rebar) were embedded in portland cement concrete slabs of varying water-to-cement (w/c) ratios and cover depths, and then exposed to chlorides. A fraction of these slabs had sodium chloride added as an admixture, with all of the slabs subjected to cyclical ponding with a saturated solution of sodium chloride. ECE was then used to remove the chlorides from these slabs while making electrical measurements in the different layers between the rebar (cathode) and the titanium mat (anode) to follow the progress of the ECE process. During this study, it was revealed that the resistance of the outer concrete surface layer increases during ECE, inevitably restricting current flow, while the resistance of the underlying concrete decreases or remains constant. During ECE treatment, a white residue formed on the surface of the concrete. Analyses of the residue revealed that it contains calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, and other yet unidentified minor components when calcium hydroxide was used as the electrolyte. The surface film can be completely removed mechanically or to some extent inhibited chemically, with both of these processes resulting in an increase in the efficiency of the electrochemical chloride extraction process. In addition, an obvious relationship between the cover depth, water-to-cement ratio, and chloride extraction efficiency does not exist, however, cover depth does influence the current density. The final phase of this study will be presented in a VTRC/FHWA final report. This report will include the results that are presented in this dissertation, in addition to the results from the ongoing research. It will also include an estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment.

Sharp, Stephen R.

224

Phosphorescent Sensor for Biological Mobile Zinc  

PubMed Central

A new phosphorescent zinc sensor (ZIrF) was constructed based on an Ir(III) complex bearing two 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine (dfppy) cyclometalating ligands and a neutral 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligand. A zinc-specific di(2-picolyl)amino (DPA) receptor was introduced at the 4-position of the phen ligand via a methylene linker. The cationic Ir(III) complex exhibited dual phosphorescence bands in CH3CN solutions originating from blue and yellow emission of the dfppy and phen ligands, respectively. Zinc coordination selectively enhanced the latter, affording a phosphorescence ratiometric response. Electrochemical techniques, quantum chemical calculations, and steady-state and femtosecond spectroscopy were employed to establish a photophysical mechanism for this phosphorescence response. The studies revealed that zinc coordination perturbs nonemissive processes of photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) and intraligand charge transfer (ILCT) transition occurring between DPA and phen. ZIrF can detect zinc ions in a reversible and selective manner in buffered solution (pH 7.0, 25 mM PIPES) with Kd = 11 nM and pKa = 4.16. Enhanced signal-to-noise ratios were achieved by time-gated acquisition of long-lived phosphorescence signals. The sensor was applied to image biological free zinc ions in live A549 cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy. A fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope (FLIM) detected an increase in photoluminescence lifetime for zinc-treated A549 cells as compared to controls. ZIrF is the first successful phosphorescent sensor that detects zinc ions in biological samples.

You, Youngmin; Lee, Sumin; Kim, Taehee; Ohkubo, Kei; Chae, Weon-Sik; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Jhon, Gil-Ja; Nam, Wonwoo; Lippard, Stephen J.

2011-01-01

225

Characterization of Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Aged in a Bromine Containing Electrolyte.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is being considered for use as a flow frame material in a developmental zinc/bromine battery. The choice of PVC was based on its low cost and the ease with which it can be molded into complex parts. The electrolyte used in this ...

C. Arnold A. Leo M. Tarjani

1988-01-01

226

Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell\\/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

P. N. Jr

1988-01-01

227

Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOEpatents

The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1988-06-21

228

Lithium thionyl chloride battery  

SciTech Connect

The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

1982-10-19

229

Ferrimagnetic copper chloride hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic properties of copper chloride hydroxide were studied by using a superconducting quantum interference device. The coercivity of this material was more than 10 000 Oe at 2 K, which is the highest observed in the copper compounds. The magnetic susceptibility as a function of temperature revealed ferrimagnetism in the sample.

S G Yang; T Li; B L Xu; Y W Du

2003-01-01

230

(Perfluoroalkylimino)selenyl Chlorides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Very few examples of compounds containing discrete nitrogen-selenium double bonds exist. The first of these was reported in 1967 and involved the preparation of ((arylsulfonyl)imino)-selenyl chlorides. Other examples such as TeF5N--SeCl2 and SF5N--SeCl2 d...

J. S. Thrasher C. S. Bauknight D. D. DesMarteau

1985-01-01

231

PHOTOOXIDATION OF ALLYL CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The photooxidation of allyl chloride was studied by irradiation either in 100-L Teflon bags or in a 22.7-cu m Teflon smog chamber in the presence of added NOx. In the absence of added hydrocarbons, the reaction involves a Cl atom chain, which leads to a highly reactive system. A ...

232

Photooxidation of Allyl Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The photooxidation of allyl chloride was studied by irradiation either in 100-L Teflon bags or in a 22.7-cu m Teflon smog chamber in the presence of added NOx. In the absence of added hydrocarbons, the reaction involves a Cl atom chain, which leads to a h...

E. O. Edney P. B. Shepson T. E. Kleindienst E. W. Corse

1986-01-01

233

Synthetic silver oxide and mercury-free zinc electrodes for silver-zinc reserve batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reserve activated silver oxide-zinc cells were constructed with synthetic silver oxide (Ag 2O) electrodes with Pb-treated zinc electrodes produced by a non-electrolytic process. The cells were tested before and after thermally accelerated aging. At discharge rates up to 80 mA cm -2, the discharge was limited by the Ag 2O electrode, with a coulombic efficiency between 89-99%. At higher rates, the cells are apparently zinc-limited. Test cells were artificially aged at 90°C for 19 h and discharged at 21°C at 80 mA cm -2. No capacity loss was measured, but a delayed activation rise time was noted (192 ms fresh vs. 567 ms aged). The delay is thought to be caused by zinc passivation due to the outgassing of cell materials.

Smith, David F.; Gucinski, James A.

234

Zinc homeostasis and functions of zinc in the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brain barrier system, i.e., the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers, is important for zinc homeostasis in the brain. Zinc is supplied to the brain via both barriers. A large portion of zinc serves as zinc metalloproteins in neurons and glial cells. Approximately 10% of the total zinc in the brain, probably ionic zinc, exists in the synaptic vesicles, and

Atsushi Takeda

2001-01-01

235

Could zinc prevent reproductive alterations caused by cigarette smoke in male rats?  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of zinc on fertility through semen parameters, testosterone level and oxidative DNA damage to spermatozoa of rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Male Wistar rats (60 days old) were divided into four groups (n = 10 per group): control, cigarette-smoking (20 cigarettes per day), zinc (zinc chloride 20 mg kg?¹ day?¹) and zinc plus cigarette-smoking (zinc chloride 20 mg kg?¹ day?¹; 20 cigarettes per day). The treatment was applied for nine weeks and the following parameters were analysed: bodyweight, wet weights of the reproductive organs and the adrenal gland, plasma testosterone concentration, testicular function (seminal analysis and daily sperm production) and sperm DNA oxidative damage. The exposure to cigarette smoke decreased testosterone concentration, the percentage of normal morphology and the motility of spermatozoa. In addition, this exposure increased sperm DNA oxidative damage. Zinc treatment protected against the toxic damage that smoking caused to spermatozoa. This study showed a correlation between smoking and possible male infertility and subfertility, and also that the majority of smoking-induced changes in spermatozoa were prevented by zinc treatment. In conclusion, zinc, an antioxidant and stimulant of cell division, can be indicated as a promising treatment in men with infertility caused by the toxic components of cigarette smoke. PMID:22541544

Garcia, Patrícia Carvalho; Piffer, Renata Carolina; Gerardin, Daniela Cristina Cecatto; Sankako, Michele Kimie; Alves de Lima, Rodrigo Otávio; Pereira, Oduvaldo Câmara Marques

2012-01-01

236

Chloride ATPase Pumps in Epithelia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Five widely documented mechanisms for chloride transport across biological membranes are known: anion-coupled antiport, Na+ and H(+)-coupled symport, Cl? channels and an electrochemical coupling process. These transport processes for chloride are either secondarily active or\\u000a are driven by the electrochemical gradient for chloride. Until recently, the evidence in favour of a primary active transport\\u000a mechanism for chloride has been inconclusive

George A. Gerencser

237

Molecular Structure of Thionyl chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thionyl chloride is a slightly yellowish liquid with an intense odor and low viscosity. It reacts with lithium to produce lithium chloride and is a good solvent for most organic compounds. Other uses of thionyl chloride include as an intermediate for the production of pharmaceutically active ingredients, as an electrolyte in lithium batteries, and in crop protection.

2002-10-01

238

Role of cellular zinc in programmed cell death: temporal relationship between zinc depletion, activation of caspases, and cleavage of Sp family transcription factors.  

PubMed

Zinc is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis, whereas zinc depletion induces apoptosis in many cell lines. To investigate the mechanisms of zinc depletion-induced apoptosis, HeLa cells were treated with the membrane permeable metal ion chelator, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN). TPEN decreased the intracellular level of zinc and induced apoptosis with a characteristic cellular pattern, i.e. cell shrinkage and formation of apoptotic bodies, with DNA fragmentation and formation of a typical DNA ladder pattern. Following TPEN treatment, caspases-3, -8, and -9 were activated and caspase target proteins, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and Sp transcription factors were cleaved. These effects were inhibited by adding zinc to the medium. To assess the role of zinc in the activation of the caspase cascade, we compared zinc inhibition during tumor necrosis factor alpha/cycloheximide- and etoposide-induced apoptosis with that induced by TPEN. Zinc addition partially inhibited caspase-3 activation, but not caspase-8 and -9 cleavage in HeLa cells treated with tumor necrosis factor alpha or etoposide. These results suggest that caspase-3 is rapidly and directly activated by zinc chelation, without a requirement for an upstream event. Caspase-3 activation is therefore the main event leading to apoptosis after intracellular zinc chelation. Finally, we conclude that cellular zinc inhibits apoptosis by maintaining caspase-3 inactive. PMID:11377396

Chimienti, F; Seve, M; Richard, S; Mathieu, J; Favier, A

2001-07-01

239

Zinc: An Essential Micronutrient  

PubMed Central

Zinc is an essential micronutrient for human metabolism that catalyzes more than 100 enzymes, facilitates protein folding, and helps regulate gene expression. Patients with malnutrition, alcoholism, inflammatory bowel disease, and malabsorption syndromes are at an increased risk of zinc deficiency. Symptoms of zinc deficiency are nonspecific, including growth retardation, diarrhea, alopecia, glossitis, nail dystrophy, decreased immunity, and hypogonadism in males. In developing countries, zinc supplementation may be effective for the prevention of upper respiratory infection and diarrhea, and as an adjunct treatment for diarrhea in malnourished children. Zinc in combination with antioxidants may be modestly effective in slowing the progression of intermediate and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Zinc is an effective treatment for Wilson disease. Current data do not support zinc supplementation as effective for upper respiratory infection, wound healing, or human immunodeficiency virus. Zinc is well tolerated at recommended dosages. Adverse effects of long-term high-dose zinc use include suppressed immunity, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, anemia, copper deficiency, and possible genitourinary complications.

SAPER, ROBERT B.; RASH, REBECCA

2009-01-01

240

Zinc-mediated palladium-catalyzed formation of carbon-sulfur bonds.  

PubMed

A catalytic amount of zinc chloride in combination with a palladium catalyst ligated by a monodentate phosphine allows the coupling of aryl and alkyl thiols with aryl bromides in high yields. The addition of zinc chloride to a palladium catalyst system that reportedly failed to promote sulfide formation allows this once ineffective catalyst system to provide the sulfide product in good yield. This paper describes a high-yielding and general monodentate phosphine-ligated palladium catalyst for biaryl and alkyl aryl sulfide formation. PMID:19344165

Eichman, Chad C; Stambuli, James P

2009-05-15

241

Worker Exposure to Vinyl Chloride in Vinyl Chloride and Polyvinyl Chloride Production and Fabrication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In assessment of worker exposure to vinyl-chloride (75014) (VC) and polyvinyl-chloride (9002862) (PVC) was reported. Toxicological data were presented, including acute and chronic animal and human studies, as well as reported worker exposures. Common meth...

J. H. Jones

1977-01-01

242

Zinc triggers microglial activation  

PubMed Central

Microglia are resident immune cells of the central nervous system. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, “amoeboid” morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other pro-inflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with an NF-kB reporter gene showed a several-fold increase in NF-kB activity in response to 30 ?M zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15 – 30 ?M zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-?B activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-?B. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

Kauppinen, Tiina M.; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A.

2009-01-01

243

Cohesion and polymorphism in solid rubidium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cohesive energetics of three phases of solid cubic rubidium chloride, the zinc blende structured 4:4 phase, the 6:6 sodium chloride polymorph and the 8:8 phase with the cesium chloride structure, are computed using a non-empirical fully ionic model. The rearrangement energies needed to convert free anions to their optimal states in-crystal, two-body inter-ionic potentials, plus the further contributions arising from electron correlation, are reported. The 'optimal' anion-anion potentials, computed by using at each geometry the optimal wavefunction, are compared with the 'frozen' potential using the same wavefunction at all geometries. The lattice energy of the 4:4 structure is predicted to be some 40 kJ mol-1 smaller than that of either the 6:6 or the 8:8 phases. Introduction of the Axilrod-Teller triple dipole dispersion interactions and the vibrational zero point energy predicts the 8:8 phase to lie 3.2 kJ mol-1 lower in energy than the 6:6 structure. This is both consistent with radius ratio arguments and supported by two separate experiments that strongly suggest that the 8:8 phase is favoured over the 6:6 structure at low temperatures even though the latter is more stable at ambient temperatures. A shell model description is presented for the ion-induced dipole interactions that arise both in small clusters and in crystals encapsulated in nanotubes. The elastic constants and entropy at 300 K predicted for the 6:6 phase from this model by using the GULP program agree well with experiment. A smaller entropy is predicted for the 8:8 structure.

Pyper, N. C.; Kirkland, A. I.; Harding, J. H.

2006-01-01

244

Effective treatment of Wilson's disease with oral zinc sulphate: two case reports.  

PubMed Central

Most patients with Wilson's disease are treated with the potentially toxic cupriuretic agent penicillamine. The toxicity of zinc taken by mouth is low, and long term administration induces a negative copper balance. Two patients with severe neurological symptoms were given zinc sulphate by mouth three times daily in doses of 200 mg, later increased to 300 mg. One patient, a 21 year old man, started to receive zinc sulphate after his condition had deteriorated during treatment with cupriuretic drugs. The other, a 27 year old woman, was treated from the start with zinc sulphate. The conditions of both patients improved appreciably, and they were still receiving treatment with zinc sulphate roughly two years later. Effective depletion of body copper stores was shown by an intravenous radiocopper loading test and liver biopsy. No side effects were found. Wilson's disease may effectively be treated with zinc sulphate alone.

Hoogenraad, T U; Van den Hamer, C J; Van Hattum, J

1984-01-01

245

Chloride and Salinity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-07-15

246

Chloride channels as drug targets  

PubMed Central

Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (?-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery.

Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

2013-01-01

247

Paper-based, printed zinc–air battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flexible battery is printed on paper by screen-printing a zinc\\/carbon\\/polymer composite anode on one side of the sheet, polymerising a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) cathode on the other side of the sheet, and applying a lithium chloride electrolyte between the two electrodes. The PEDOT cathode is prepared by inkjet printing a pattern of iron(III)p-toluenesulfonate as a solution in butan-1-ol onto paper,

M. Hilder; B. Winther-Jensen; N. B. Clark

2009-01-01

248

46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ensure that it is as dry as practical. No zinc material that is wet may be accepted for shipment. (d) Zinc material may not...150 °F), the cargo hatches should be opened provided that weather and sea conditions are favorable. When hatches are opened...

2013-10-01

249

Preparation of zinc orthotitanate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Use of decomposable precursors to enhance zinc oxide-titanium dioxide reaction and rapid fixing results in rapid preparation of zinc orthotitanate powder pigment. Preparation process allows production under less stringent conditions. Elimination of powder grinding results in purer that is less susceptible to color degradation.

Gates, D. W.; Gilligan, J. E.; Harada, Y.; Logan, W. R.

1977-01-01

250

Surface scanning techniques to locate and study defects in painted zinc and zinc alloy coated steels  

SciTech Connect

Current density and impedance mapping measurements have been used to locate and monitor corrosion and defects on painted surfaces in solution. Measurements are reported for painted zinc and aluminum-zinc alloy coated steel surfaces. When scratched, current density mapping showed corrosion of the metal coating started at localized sites in both dilute chloride and sulfate solutions. Different scribing techniques were tested exposing only the metal coating and both the coating and the underlying steel. Effect of roll forming was investigated. Current density mapping located corrosion susceptible defects on painted roll formed materials that were not readily discernible optically. Scanning ac mapping showed that artificially formed defects were readily observed. Local impedance variations with frequency were measured for simulated defects and defect free areas of painted surfaces. Variations in paint thickness and the presence of defects were detected using the ac techniques.

Isaacs, H.S.; Aldykiewicz, A.J. Jr. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Thierry, D. [Swedish Corrosion Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Simpson, T.C. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States). Homer Research Labs.

1995-02-01

251

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vacuole in Zinc Storage and Intracellular Zinc Distribution? ‡  

PubMed Central

Previous studies of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicated that the vacuole is a major site of zinc storage in the cell. However, these studies did not address the absolute level of zinc that was stored in the vacuole nor did they examine the abundances of stored zinc in other compartments of the cell. In this report, we describe an analysis of the cellular distribution of zinc by use of both an organellar fractionation method and an electron probe X-ray microanalysis. With these methods, we determined that zinc levels in the vacuole vary with zinc status and can rise to almost 100 mM zinc (i.e., 7 × 108 atoms of vacuolar zinc per cell). Moreover, this zinc can be mobilized effectively to supply the needs of as many as eight generations of progeny cells under zinc starvation conditions. While the Zrc1 and Cot1 zinc transporters are essential for zinc uptake into the vacuole under steady-state growth conditions, additional transporters help mediate zinc uptake into the vacuole during “zinc shock,” when zinc-limited cells are resupplied with zinc. In addition, we found that other compartments of the cell do not provide significant stores of zinc. In particular, zinc accumulation in mitochondria is low and is homeostatically regulated independently of vacuolar zinc storage. Finally, we observed a strong correlation between zinc status and the levels of magnesium and phosphorus accumulated in cells. Our results implicate zinc as a major determinant of the ability of the cell to store these other important nutrients.

Simm, Claudia; Lahner, Brett; Salt, David; LeFurgey, Ann; Ingram, Peter; Yandell, Brian; Eide, David J.

2007-01-01

252

Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuole in zinc storage and intracellular zinc distribution.  

PubMed

Previous studies of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicated that the vacuole is a major site of zinc storage in the cell. However, these studies did not address the absolute level of zinc that was stored in the vacuole nor did they examine the abundances of stored zinc in other compartments of the cell. In this report, we describe an analysis of the cellular distribution of zinc by use of both an organellar fractionation method and an electron probe X-ray microanalysis. With these methods, we determined that zinc levels in the vacuole vary with zinc status and can rise to almost 100 mM zinc (i.e., 7 x 10(8) atoms of vacuolar zinc per cell). Moreover, this zinc can be mobilized effectively to supply the needs of as many as eight generations of progeny cells under zinc starvation conditions. While the Zrc1 and Cot1 zinc transporters are essential for zinc uptake into the vacuole under steady-state growth conditions, additional transporters help mediate zinc uptake into the vacuole during "zinc shock," when zinc-limited cells are resupplied with zinc. In addition, we found that other compartments of the cell do not provide significant stores of zinc. In particular, zinc accumulation in mitochondria is low and is homeostatically regulated independently of vacuolar zinc storage. Finally, we observed a strong correlation between zinc status and the levels of magnesium and phosphorus accumulated in cells. Our results implicate zinc as a major determinant of the ability of the cell to store these other important nutrients. PMID:17526722

Simm, Claudia; Lahner, Brett; Salt, David; LeFurgey, Ann; Ingram, Peter; Yandell, Brian; Eide, David J

2007-07-01

253

Exposure to a Mixture of Zinc and Copper Decreases Survival and Fecundity of Discocotyle sagittata (Leuckart) Parasitizing Juvenile Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the effects of zinc and copper on freshwater monogenean ectoparasites (Discocotyle sagittata Leuckart) infecting juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Exposure to 47 ?g\\/L zinc and 3 ?g\\/L copper reduced survival and fecundity of adult D. sagittata, while egg hatching success was only reduced at high exposure concentrations (2704 ?g\\/L zinc and 164 ?g\\/L copper). Parasitized\\u000a salmon had decreased plasma chloride, but

Christopher A. BlanarDeborah; Deborah L. MacLatchy; Jim D. Kieffer; Kelly R. Munkittrick

2010-01-01

254

Influence of zinc, D-penicillamine and oxygen on poisoning with Amanita phalloides . Zinc accelerates liver regeneration and prevents the depletion of brain noradrenaline caused by the mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment with zinc aspartate increased the survival rate of mice poisoned with a lyophilisate from the mushroomAmanita phalloides (APL). In the livers of the zinc-treated animals, confluent necrosis was cleared earlier. Zinc also prevented the reduction of brain noradrenaline caused by the mushroom as well as the rise of brain dopamine and brain weight.d-Penicillamine also protected against the lethal effects

G. L. Floersheim; L. Bianchi; A. Probst; N. Chiodetti; C. G. Honegger

1984-01-01

255

Subacute Zinc Administration and L-NAME Caused an Increase of NO, Zinc, Lipoperoxidation, and Caspase-3 during a Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia Process in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Zinc or L-NAME administration has been shown to be protector agents, decreasing oxidative stress and cell death. However, the treatment with zinc and L-NAME by intraperitoneal injection has not been studied. The aim of our work was to study the effect of zinc and L-NAME administration on nitrosative stress and cell death. Male Wistar rats were treated with ZnCl2 (2.5?mg/kg each 24?h, for 4 days) and N-?-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, 10?mg/kg) on the day 5 (1 hour before a common carotid-artery occlusion (CCAO)). The temporoparietal cortex and hippocampus were dissected, and zinc, nitrites, and lipoperoxidation were assayed at different times. Cell death was assayed by histopathology using hematoxylin-eosin staining and caspase-3 active by immunostaining. The subacute administration of zinc before CCAO decreases the levels of zinc, nitrites, lipoperoxidation, and cell death in the late phase of the ischemia. L-NAME administration in the rats treated with zinc showed an increase of zinc levels in the early phase and increase of zinc, nitrites, and lipoperoxidation levels, cell death by necrosis, and the apoptosis in the late phase. These results suggest that the use of these two therapeutic strategies increased the injury caused by the CCAO, unlike the alone administration of zinc.

Blanco-Alvarez, Victor Manuel; Lopez-Moreno, Patricia; Soto-Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Rubio, Hector; Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Pina-Leyva, Celia; Torres-Soto, Maricela; Gomez-Villalobos, Maria de Jesus; Hernandez-Baltazar, Daniel; Eguibar, Jose Ramon; Ugarte, Araceli; Cebada, Jorge

2013-01-01

256

Reaction kinetics of the ferric chloride leaching of sphalerite—an experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride leaching processes have significant potential for treating complex sulfides. One advantage of chloride leaching is\\u000a fast dissolution rates for most sulfide minerals. This experimental study is concerned with ferric chloride leaching of sphalerite,\\u000a a common component of many complex concentrates. The effects of stirring, temperature, ferric ion concentration, and particle\\u000a size have been examined. In addition, reaction residues at

Zuo-Mei Jin; G. W. Warren; H. Henein

1984-01-01

257

Zinc and immune function.  

PubMed

Zinc and immune function relationship has been extensively studied. Both in experimentally induced mineral deficit and in genetically determined deficit observable in acrodermatitis enteropathica and in enteropathy of Danish A-46 cattle, a B and T dependent antibody response decrease, a T dependent cytolytic response decrease and a natural killer cytotoxic activity decrease are present noteviously. Serious reduction of the immune function is present, in proportion to the value of low zinc plasmatic level, in elderly patients, in malnourished and seriously zinc deficient children, in patients subjected to total parenteral supply, in HIV infections and especially in evident AIDS: in this condition the plasmatic zinc level can be considered, together with the CD4+ lymphocytes amount and the B2-microglobulin value, a disease progression marker. Zinc immunostimulating action mechanisms are complex, although thymic hormone (of which zinc is essential cofactor) stimulation seems to be most important. Zinc supplementation, also parenterally, can be useful in immunodeficiency (in the elderly, in the post-surgical patients, in genetically determined or alimentary induced deficit, in AIDS. PMID:7478075

Ripa, S; Ripa, R

1995-01-01

258

The secondary alkaline zinc electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The worldwide studies conducted between 1975 and 1990 with the aim of improving cell lifetimes of secondary alkaline zinc electrodes are overviewed. Attention is given the design features and characteristics of various secondary alkaline zinc cells, including four types of zinc/nickel oxide cell designs (vented static-electrolyte, sealed static-electrolyte, vibrating-electrode, and flowing-electrolyte); two types of zinc/air cells (mechanically rechargeable consolidated-electrode and mechanically rechargeable particulate-electrode); zinc/silver oxide battery; zinc/manganese dioxide cell; and zinc/ferric cyanide battery. Particular consideration is given to recent research in the fields of cell thermodynamics, zinc electrodeposition, zinc electrodissolution, zinc corrosion, electrolyte properties, mathematical and phenomenological models, osmotic pumping, nonuniform current distribution, and cell cycle-life perforamnce.

McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

1991-02-01

259

Interstitial zinc clusters in zinc oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Doped zinc oxide (ZnO) exhibits anomalous Raman modes in the range of 270 to 870 cm-1. Commonly, the resonance at 275 cm-1 is attributed to the local vibration of Zn atoms in the vicinity of extrinsic dopants. We revisit this assignment by investigating the influence of isotopically purified zinc oxide thin films on the frequency of the vibrational mode around 275 cm-1. For this purpose, undoped and nitrogen-doped ZnO thin-films with Zn isotope compositions of natural Zn, 64Zn, 68Zn, and a 1:1 mixture of 64Zn and 68Zn were grown by pulsed laser deposition. The isotopic shift and the line shape of the Raman resonance around 275 cm-1 are analyzed in terms of three different microscopic models, which involve the vibration of (i) interstitial zinc atoms bound to extrinsic defects, (ii) interstitial diatomic Zn molecules, and (iii) interstitial zinc clusters. The energy diagram of interstitial Zn-Zn bonds in a ZnO matrix is derived from density functional theory calculations. The interstitial Zn-Zn bond is stabilized by transferring electrons from the antibonding orbital into the ZnO conduction band. This mechanism facilitates the formation of interstitial Zn clusters and fosters the common n-type doping asymmetry of ZnO.

Gluba, M. A.; Nickel, N. H.; Karpensky, N.

2013-12-01

260

Oral zinc supplementation restore high molecular weight seminal zinc binding protein to normal value in Iraqi infertile men  

PubMed Central

Background Zinc in human seminal plasma is divided into three types of ligands which are high (HMW), intermediate (IMW), and low molecular weight ligands (LMW). The present study was aimed to study the effect of Zn supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen along with Zinc Binding Protein levels in the seminal plasma in asthenozoospermic patients. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 37 fertile and 37 asthenozoospermic infertile men with matched age. The subfertile group was treated with zinc sulfate, every participant took two capsules per day for three months (each one 220mg). Semen samples were obtained (before and after zinc sulfate supplementation). After liquefaction seminal fluid at room temperature, routine semen analyses were performed. For determination of the amount of zinc binding proteins, the gel filtration of seminal plasma on Sephadex G-75 was performed. All the fractions were investigated for protein and for zinc concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Evaluation of chromatograms was made directly from the zinc concentration in each fraction. Results A significant high molecular weight zinc binding ligands percentage (HMW-Zn %) was observed in seminal plasma of fertile males compared with subfertile males. However, seminal low molecular weight ligands (LMW-Zn) have opposite behavior. The mean value of semen volume, progressive sperm motility percentage and total normal sperm count were increased after zinc sulfate supplementation. Conclusions Zinc supplementation restores HMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to normal value. Zinc supplementation elevates LMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to more than normal value. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01612403

2012-01-01

261

Magnesium-lead chloride batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation of lead chloride cathodes, and their discharge in magnesium-lead chloride batteries, is described. The lead chloride blended with graphite is pasted on grids of expanded copper, using urea formaldehyde solutions as the binder. One-, five-, and fifteen-cell batteries were discharged at temperatures between -40°C and +45°C, at low current drains. For five-cell batteries energy densities in the range

J. R. Coleman

1971-01-01

262

Clioquinol Synergistically Augments Rescue by Zinc Supplementation in a Mouse Model of Acrodermatitis Enteropathica  

PubMed Central

Background Zinc deficiency due to poor nutrition or genetic mutations in zinc transporters is a global health problem and approaches to providing effective dietary zinc supplementation while avoiding potential toxic side effects are needed. Methods/Principal Findings Conditional knockout of the intestinal zinc transporter Zip4 (Slc39a4) in mice creates a model of the lethal human genetic disease acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE). This knockout leads to acute zinc deficiency resulting in rapid weight loss, disrupted intestine integrity and eventually lethality, and therefore provides a model system in which to examine novel approaches to zinc supplementation. We examined the efficacy of dietary clioquinol (CQ), a well characterized zinc chelator/ionophore, in rescuing the Zip4intest KO phenotype. By 8 days after initiation of the knockout neither dietary CQ nor zinc supplementation in the drinking water was found to be effective at improving this phenotype. In contrast, dietary CQ in conjunction with zinc supplementation was highly effective. Dietary CQ with zinc supplementation rapidly restored intestine stem cell division and differentiation of secretory and the absorptive cells. These changes were accompanied by rapid growth and dramatically increased longevity in the majority of mice, as well as the apparent restoration of the homeostasis of several essential metals in the liver. Conclusions These studies suggest that oral CQ (or other 8-hydroxyquinolines) coupled with zinc supplementation could provide a facile approach toward treating zinc deficiency in humans by stimulating stem cell proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells.

Geiser, Jim; De Lisle, Robert C.; Finkelstein, David; Adlard, Paul A.; Bush, Ashley I.; Andrews, Glen K.

2013-01-01

263

Comparative absorption of zinc picolinate, zinc citrate and zinc gluconate in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparative absorption of zinc after oral administration of three different complexed forms was studied in 15 healthy human volunteers in a double-blind four-period crossover trial. The individuals were randomly divided into four groups. Each group rotated for four week periods through a random sequence of oral supplementation including: zinc picolinate, zinc citrate, and zinc gluconate (equivalent to 50 mg

S. A. Barrie; J. V. Wright; J. E. Pizzorno; E. Kutter; P. C. Barron

1987-01-01

264

Cobalt chloride-induced lateral root formation in rice: the role of heme oxygenase.  

PubMed

Lateral roots (LRs) perform the essential tasks of providing water, nutrients, and physical support to plants. Therefore, understanding the regulation of LR development is of agronomic importance. Recent findings suggest that heme oxygenase (HO) plays an important role in LR development. In this study, we examined the effect of cobalt chloride (CoCl2) on LR formation and HO expression in rice. Treatment with CoCl2 induced LR formation and HO activity. We further observed that CoCl2 could induce the expression of OsHO1 but not OsHO2. CoCl2-increased HO activity occurred before LR formation. Zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX, the specific inhibitor of HO) and hemoglobin (the carbon monoxide/nitric oxide scavenger) reduced LR formation, HO activity, and OsHO1 expression. Application of biliverdin, a product of HO-catalyzed reaction, to CoCl2-treated rice seedlings reversed the ZnPPIX-inhibited LR formation and ZnPPIX-decreased HO activity. CoCl2 had no effect on H2O2 content and nitric oxide production. Moreover, application of ascorbate, a H2O2 scavenger, failed to affect CoCl2-promoted LR formation and HO activity. It is concluded that HO is required for CoCl2-promoted LR formation in rice. PMID:23566873

Hsu, Yun Yen; Chao, Yun-Yang; Kao, Ching Huei

2013-08-15

265

Electrochemical studies of zinc in zinc-insulin solution.  

PubMed

The electrochemical determination of zinc arising from zinc-insulin complexes was investigated and it was demonstrated that zinc in zinc-insulin solution can be measured in the presence of dissolved oxygen by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) at mercury thin-film electrodes on glassy carbon disc minielectrode and cylindrical carbon fibre microelectrode substrates. Reoxidation signals arise from complexed zinc at low insulin concentrations (< 100 nmol l-1) and from labile zinc at higher concentrations; the latter can be quantified through linear calibration curves. Batch injection analysis with SWASV was successfully tested for the determination of zinc in zinc-insulin solutions in small sample volumes. Since intracellularly stored insulin exists in the form of a zinc-insulin complex, these techniques are very promising for the indirect study of insulin release from pancreatic beta-cells. PMID:9008404

Barbosa, R M; Rosário, L M; Brett, C M; Brett, A M

1996-12-01

266

Effect of pulsed electric fields upon accumulation of zinc in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were treated with pulsed electric fields to improve accumulation of zinc in the biomass. Under optimized conditions, that is, on 15 min exposure of the 20 h grown culture to PEFs of 1500 V and 10 microns pulse width, accumulation of zinc in the yeast biomass reached a maximum of 15.57 mg/g d.m. Under optimum zinc concentration (100 microgram/ml nutrient medium), its accumulation in the cells was higher by 63% in comparison with the control (without PEFs). That accumulation significantly correlated against zinc concentration in the medium. Neither multiple exposure of the cultures to PEFs nor intermittent supplementation of the cultures with zinc increased the zinc accumulation. The intermittent supplementation of the cultures with zinc and multiple exposures on PEFs could even reduce the accumulation efficiency, respectively, by 57% and 47%. PMID:21715972

Pankiewicz, Urszula; Jamroz, Jerzy

2011-06-01

267

Response of nanocrystalline cerium-based conversion coatings on Al 2024-T3 to chloride environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanocrystalline cerium-based conversion coatings were found to be effective at retarding corrosion of Al 2024-T3 in sodium chloride environments. Cerium oxide coatings were deposited by spraying an aqueous solution made with cerium chloride onto cleaned panels. After deposition, the coatings were treated in a phosphate solution, which produced dense, nanocrystalline coatings composed of hydrated cerium phosphate. Visually, the coatings appeared

Shaoxin You; Philip Jones; Ajay Padwal; Paul Yu; Matthew O'Keefe; William Fahrenholtz; Thomas O'Keefe

2007-01-01

268

Response of a Packed-Bed, Fixed-Film Bioreactor to Zinc Toxicant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An anaerobic, upflow bioreactor was fed a zinc chloride and nutrient solution, and the response of the bioreactor was monitored over a two-week period. The main objectives of this project were to assess the biological performance of the bioreactor in resp...

M. Amrhein F. Ngan

1980-01-01

269

Determination of Zinc Pyrithione in Hair Care Products by Normal Phase Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid chromatographic method is described for the determination of zinc pyrithione (ZPT) in shampoos, hair conditioners and hair dressings. The method involves simultaneous transchelation to the cupric complex and extraction into methylene chloride. The cupric complex is then separated by normal phase liquid chromatography and detected by UV absorbance at 254 nm. A slight modification of the chromatographic conditions

R. J. Fenn; M. T. Alexander

1988-01-01

270

Determination of Zinc Phytoavailability in Soil by Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of zinc (Zn) phytoavailability by the newly developed technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) has started gaining more importance because of some advantages over routine soil extractants. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine Zn phytotoxicity thresholds and the phytoavailability of Zn to sorghum sudan (Sorghum vulgare var. sudanese) grass by DGT, compared with calcium chloride (CaCl2)

Osman Sonmez; Cengiz Kaya; Salih Aydemir

2009-01-01

271

Zinc-Promoted Barbier-Type Reaction of Propargyl Bromide with Aldehydes in Aqueous Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the prese of metallic zinc, propargyl bromide is found to react with aldehydes at room temperature in tetrahydrofurane-saturated aqueous ammonium chloride (5:2) to afford the corresponding homopropargylic alcohols in moderate to high yields together with small amounts of ?-allenic alchohols.

Issa Yavari; Farhad Riazi-Kermani

1995-01-01

272

Use of SVET and SECM to study the galvanic corrosion of an iron–zinc cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work makes use of the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) and the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) to investigate microscopic aspects of the electrochemical reactions that occur in an iron–zinc galvanic couple immersed in aqueous sodium chloride solution. Detection of the corrosion processes was made by sensing the phenomena occurring in solution. The SVET provided information on the distribution of

A. M. Simões; A. C. Bastos; M. G. Ferreira; Y. González-García; S. González; R. M. Souto

2007-01-01

273

Zinc Finger Libraries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A library of multimeric DNA binding polypeptides is provided. Preferred such polypeptides are zinc finger protein DNA binding domains. Libraries of nucleotides encoding such polypeptides, expression vectors containing such nucleotides, cells containing an...

C. F. Barbas P. Blancafort

2003-01-01

274

Historical Zinc Smelting in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C., with Estimates of Atmospheric Zinc Emissions and Other Materials  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The metallurgical industry can be broadly divided into metal production from feedstock consisting of primary and secondary sources. Primary production refers to the extraction of metal derived from ores and concentrates. Secondary production refers to the recovery of metal from materials such as alloys, electric arc furnace dust, ingots, and scrap. The foci of this study are the histories of selected pyrometallurgical plants that treated mostly primary zinc feedstock and the atmospheric emissions, primarily zinc, generated by those plants during the course of producing zinc and zinc oxide in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C.

Bleiwas, Donald I.; DiFrancesco, Carl

2010-01-01

275

Evaluation of Nano Zinc (ZnO) for Surface Enhancement of ATR–FTIR Spectra of Butter and Spread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of nano zinc (ZnO) particles in surface enhancement of attenuated total reflection–Fourier transform mid-infrared\\u000a spectroscopy (ATR–FTIR) has been studied in butter and spread. Due to the health implications associated with consumption\\u000a of trans fats, the studies also included the determination of band corresponding to trans fats of butter\\/spread in the nano-zinc-treated samples. The FTIR spectra of nano-zinc-treated butter

Mayeli P. Contreras; Ramesh Y. Avula; Rakesh K. Singh

2010-01-01

276

Antibiotic bonding to polytetrafluoroethylene with tridodecylmethylammonium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) treated with the cationic surfactant, triodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDMAC), binds /sup 14/C-penicillin (1.5 to 2 mg antibiotic/cm graft), whereas untreated PTFE or PTFE treated with anionic detergents shows little binding of antibiotic. TDMAC-treated PTFE concomitantly binds penicillin and heparin, generating a surface that potentially can resist both infection and thrombosis. The retention of these biologically active molecules is not due to passive entrapment in the PTFE but reflects an ionic interaction between the anionic ligands and surface-bound TDMAC. Penicillin bound to PTFE is not removed by exhaustive washing in aqueous buffers but is slowly released in the presence of plasma or when the PTFE is placed in a muscle pouch in the rat. Muscle tissue adjacent to the treated PTFE shows elevated levels of antibiotic following implantation. PTFE treated with TDMAC and placed in a muscle pouch binds /sup 14/C-penicillin when it is locally irrigated with antibiotic or when penicillin is administered intravenously. Thus, the TDMAC surface treated either in vitro or in vivo with penicillin provides an effective in situ source for the timed release of antibiotic.

Harvey, R.A.; Alcid, D.V.; Greco, R.S.

1982-09-01

277

Zinc pretreatment prevents hepatic stellate cells from cadmium-produced oxidative damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment with zinc produces tolerance to several cadmium toxic effects. This study was performed to further elucidate\\u000a the mechanism of zinc-induced tolerance to cadmium cytotoxicity in a rat hepatic stellate cell line (CFSC-2G). Twenty four\\u000a hours after seeding, cells were treated with 60 ?mol\\/L ZnCl2 for 24 h. Following zinc pretreatment, cells were exposed to 3 ?mol\\/L and 5 ?mol\\/L

V. Souza; M. del C. Escobar; L. Bucio; E. Hernfindez; M. C. Gutiérrez-Ruiz

2004-01-01

278

A Kinetic study of the reaction of zinc oxide with iron powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts contain significant quantities of zinc, mostly in the form of zinc oxide. This dust has been\\u000a classified as a hazardous waste due to the presence of lead, cadmium, and hexavalent chromium. It is important that environmentally\\u000a acceptable processes be developed to treat this waste. One possible alternative process would involve reacting the zinc oxide\\u000a in

J. R. Donald; C. A. Pickles

1996-01-01

279

Impact of Dual Alum and Polyaluminum Chloride Coagulation on Filtration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The process of treating drinking water with a combination of alum and polyaluminum chloride (dual coagulant) has been performed by at least one utility along the Colorado Front Range since the early 199Os. Previous bench- scale research with water contain...

M. G. Haines

2003-01-01

280

Molecular Structure of Picryl chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Picryl chloride is ranked as one of the 100 most commonly found explosive and shock sensitive materials. It is made by reacting 2,4,6 trinitrophenol with thionyl chloride. This highly reactive compound is known to be hazardous and toxic, and to cause liver injury in mice. It is often used as a sensitization agent in mice when their cells undergo hypersensitivity studies.

2002-09-20

281

Thin film cadmium telluride and zinc phosphide solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deposition of cadmium telluride films by direct combination of the cadmium and tellurium vapor on foreign substrates is described. Nearly stoichiometric p-type cadmium telluride films and arsenic-doped p-type films were prepared reproducibly. Major efforts were directed to the deposition and characterization of heterojunction window materials, indium tin oxide, fluorine-doped tin oxide, cadmium oxide, and zinc oxide. A number of heterojunction solar cells were prepared, and the best thin-film ITO/CdTe solar cells had an AMI efficiency of about 7.2%. Zinc phosphide films were deposited on W/steel substrated by the reaction of zinc and phosphine in a hydrogen flow. Films without intentional doping had an electrical resistivity on the order of 10(6) ohm-cm, and this resistivity may be reduced to about 5 x 10(4) ohm-cm by adding hydrogen chloride or hydrogen bromide to the reaction mixture. Lower resistivity films are deposited by adding a controlled amount of silver nitrate solution on to the substrate surface. Major efforts are directed to the deposition of low-resistivity zinc selenide to prepare ZnSe/An3P2 heterojunction thin-film solar cells. The zinc selenide films deposited by vaccum evaporation and chemical vapor deposition techniques are all of high resistivity.

Chu, T.

1984-10-01

282

Thin film cadmium telluride and zinc phosphide solar cells  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research performed from June 1982 to October 1983 on the deposition of cadmium telluride films by direct combination of the cadmium and tellurium vapor on foreign substrates. Nearly stoichiometric p-type cadmium telluride films and arsenic-doped p-type films have been prepared reproducibly. Major efforts were directed to the deposition and characterization of heterojunction window materials, indium tin oxide, fluorine-doped tin oxide, cadmium oxide, and zinc oxide. A number of heterojunction solar cells were prepared, and the best thin-film ITO/CdTe solar cells had an AMl efficiency of about 7.2%. Zinc phosphide films were deposited on W/steel substrates by the reaction of zinc and phosphine in a hydrogen flow. Films without intentional doping had an electrical resistivity on the order of 10/sup 6/ ohm-cm, and this resistivity may be reduced to about 5 x 10/sup 4/ ohm-cm by adding hydrogen chloride or hydrogen bromide to the reaction mixture. Lower resistivity films were deposited by adding a controlled amount of silver nitrate solution on to the substrate surface. Major efforts were directed to the deposition of low-resistivity zinc selenide in order to prepare ZnSe/An/sub 3/P/sub 2/ heterojunction thin-film solar cells. However, zinc selenide films deposited by vacuum evaporation and chemical vapor deposition techniques were all of high resistivity.

Chu, T.

1984-10-01

283

Biocidal effects of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on the bioluminescent bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles in combination with alginate on bioluminescent Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1 bacteria was investigated. Silver nanoparticles were found to be more toxic than zinc oxide nanoparticles on bioluminescent bacteria. The nanoparticles and their ions released results in the same effect, however, it was absent in combination with alginate. The effective inhibiting concentration (EC50) for silver nanoparticles was found about 0.3 - 0.4 ?g mL-1, which was up to two times larger then for zinc oxide nanoparticles. The absence of sodium chloride in the tested media prevented the formation of colloidal particles of larger size and the effective inhibition concentrations of metal derivatives were lower than in the presence of sodium chloride.

Taran, M. V.; Starodub, N. F.; Katsev, A. M.; Guidotti, M.; Khranovskyy, V. D.; Babanin, A. A.; Melnychuk, M. D.

2013-11-01

284

Benzalkonium chloride and glaucoma.  

PubMed

Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology. PMID:24205938

Rasmussen, Carol A; Kaufman, Paul L; Kiland, Julie A

2014-01-01

285

Treatment of zinc deficiency without zinc fortification  

PubMed Central

Zinc (Zn) deficiency in animals became of interest until the 1950s. In this paper, progresses in researches on physiology of Zn deficiency in animals, phytate effect on bioavailability of Zn, and role of phytase in healing Zn deficiency of animals were reviewed. Several studies demonstrated that Zn is recycled via the pancreas; the problem of Zn deficiency was controlled by Zn homeostasis. The endogenous secretion of Zn is considered as an important factor influencing Zn deficiency, and the critical molar ratio is 10. Phytate (inositol hexaphosphate) constituted up to 90% of the organically bound phosphorus in seeds. Great improvement has been made in recent years on isolating and measuring phytate, and its structure is clear. Phytate is considered to reduce Zn bioavailability in animal. Phytase is the enzyme that hydrolyzes phytate and is present in yeast, rye bran, wheat bran, barley, triticale, and many bacteria and fungi. Zinc nutrition and bioavailability can be enhanced by addition of phytase to animal feeds. Therefore, using phytase as supplements, the most prevalent Zn deficiency in animals may be effectively corrected without the mining and smelting of several tons of zinc daily needed to correct this deficiency by fortification worldwide.

Oberleas, Donald; Harland, Barbara F.

2008-01-01

286

Zinc Vacancy-Zinc Interstitial Frenkel Pairs in Zinc Selenide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron irradiation of ZnSe at low temperatures creates zinc vacancy-zinc interstitial Frenkel pairs. Pairs with different separations between the vacancy and the interstitial give rise to different optically detected magnetic resonance signals. From the magnetic resonance spectrum, the exchange interaction between an electron localized on the interstitial and a hole localized on the vacancy can be determined. Several of these Frenkel pairs have already been reported by Watkins (50) and Rong (50, 37). In this dissertation we report a new group of Frenkel pairs. This new group of Frenkel pairs has very small exchange interactions, indicating that they are farther apart than the pairs that had previously been reported. For some of these pairs, the exchange is so small that their magnetic resonance spectra are very similar to the spectra of the isolated vacancy and the isolated interstitial. The Frenkel pairs are detected from luminescence emitted when an electron on the zinc interstitial recombines with a hole on the zinc vacancy. The recombination rate for this process is spin dependent. For each Frenkel pair there are four excited spin states. Two of them are pure triplet states and the transitions from them to the singlet ground state are not spin-allowed. The other two states are mixtures of triplet and singlet with the mixture depending on the separation of the vacancy and the interstitial. I have measured the recombination rate (lifetime of the excited state) for both of the radiative states for several Frenkel pairs and find that for the state that becomes more singlet -like as the exchange increases, the recombination rate increases with exchange. For the state that becomes more triplet like with increasing exchange, the radiative rate increases with exchange for small exchange but for larger exchange the rate begins to decrease reflecting the increasing unallowedness of the excited triplet state to ground singlet state transition. We have developed simple models of the exchange and the recombination rate as a function of separation. The magnitudes of the exchange interaction and the recombination rate depend exponentially on the separation of the vacancy and the interstitial. The two models can be combined to get the recombination rate as a function of exchange. That combined model agrees quite well with the experimental data.

Barry, William Anthony

1992-01-01

287

Thermochemistry of Charge-Unsymmetrical Binary Fused Halide Systems. Ii. Mixtures of Magnesium Chloride with the Alkali Chlorides and with Silver Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The integral enthalpies of mixing of the liquid mixtures of magnesium chloride with the alkali chlorides and with silver chloride were determined calorimetrically. The magnesium chloride-silver chloride system is slightly endothermic, while the alkali chl...

O. J. Kleppa F. G. McCarty

1965-01-01

288

Endogenous Zinc in Neurological Diseases  

PubMed Central

The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the pantheon of signal ions in biology and medicine. However, the number of biological functions, health implications and pharmacological targets that are emerging for zinc indicate that it might turn out to be 'the calcium of the twenty-first century'. Here neurobiological roles of endogenous zinc is summarized.

2005-01-01

289

Double-blind comparison of a zinc pyrithione shampoo and its shampoo base in the treatment of tinea versicolor.  

PubMed

A zinc pyrithione shampoo was compared with its shampoo base in the treatment of tinea versicolor. Forty patients with tinea versicolor were included in the study. The condition in twenty patients treated with the zinc pyrithione shampoo cleared; the condition in the remaining twenty patients treated with the shampoo base did not. No side effects were noted in any of the patients. PMID:6342980

Fredriksson, T; Faergemann, J

1983-04-01

290

75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China Determination On the...revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to...Publication 4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation...

2010-06-15

291

75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States...concerning the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China...revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely...

2010-04-15

292

49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation...Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must be packaged in any of the following...

2013-10-01

293

21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food...Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2013-04-01

294

[Lack of effect of oral zinc sulfate on wound healing in leg ulcer].  

PubMed

The effect of oral zinc on the healing of chronic venous leg ulcers has been investigated in 91 hospitalized patients aged approximately 70 years. The patients were divided into three groups: group A consisted of patients with serum zinc concentrations in the upper normal range (Zn greater than or equal to 1.0 mg/l) who received no zinc therapy. Groups B and C consisted of patients with serum zinc concentrations in the lower normal range (Zn less than 1.0 mg/l) who received either 3 daily doses of 220 mg zinc sulphate (group B) or placebo (group C). In group B, a marked increase in serum zinc concentration occured within one month (from 0.9 to 1.25 mg/L). In group A, serum zinc levels decreased slightly during the observation period of three months (from 1.1 to 1.0 mg/l) while a slight rise was seen in group C (from 0.9 to 1.0 mg/l). The healing rate of the ulcers in group A was not superior to that in group C. Zinc substitution in the low zinc group B did not improve healing as compared to placebo-treated low zinc group C. A favourable effect of oral zinc on wound healing in patients with initially low serum zinc concentrations could not be demonstrated. Initial ulcer areas were significantly smaller in patients with higher serum zinc levels than in patients with lower serum zinc levels. Low serum zinc levels appear to be a consequence of insufficient nutrition, an observation which may indicate a correlation between nutritional deficiency and ulcer area. The healing rate did not depend significantly upon age, sex, weight or cause. It was, however, accelerated in the case of larger ulcers. PMID:7423160

Floersheim, G L; Lais, E

1980-07-26

295

Zinc protects against shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli by acting on host tissues as well as on bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Zinc supplements can treat or prevent enteric infections and diarrheal disease. Many articles on zinc in bacteria, however, highlight the essential nature of this metal for bacterial growth and virulence, suggesting that zinc should make infections worse, not better. To address this paradox, we tested whether zinc might have protective effects on intestinal epithelium as well as on the pathogen. Results Using polarized monolayers of T84 cells we found that zinc protected against damage induced by hydrogen peroxide, as measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance. Zinc also reduced peroxide-induced translocation of Shiga toxin (Stx) across T84 monolayers from the apical to basolateral side. Zinc was superior to other divalent metals to (iron, manganese, and nickel) in protecting against peroxide-induced epithelial damage, while copper also showed a protective effect. The SOS bacterial stress response pathway is a powerful regulator of Stx production in STEC. We examined whether zinc’s known inhibitory effects on Stx might be mediated by blocking the SOS response. Zinc reduced expression of recA, a reliable marker of the SOS. Zinc was more potent and more efficacious than other metals tested in inhibiting recA expression induced by hydrogen peroxide, xanthine oxidase, or the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. The close correlation between zinc’s effects on recA/SOS and on Stx suggested that inhibition of the SOS response is one mechanism by which zinc protects against STEC infection. Conclusions Zinc’s ability to protect against enteric bacterial pathogens may be the result of its combined effects on host tissues as well as inhibition of virulence in some pathogens. Research focused solely on the effects of zinc on pathogenic microbes may give an incomplete picture by failing to account for protective effects of zinc on host epithelia.

2014-01-01

296

Zinc absorption from zinc oxide, zinc sulfate, zinc oxide + EDTA, or sodium-zinc EDTA does not differ when added as fortificants to maize tortillas.  

PubMed

The fortification of staple foods with zinc may play an important role in achieving adequate zinc intakes in countries at risk of zinc deficiency. However, little is known about the relative bioavailability of different zinc compounds that may be used in food fortification. The objective of this study was to measure and compare fractional zinc absorption from a test meal that included a maize tortilla fortified with zinc oxide, zinc sulfate, zinc oxide + EDTA, or sodium-zinc EDTA. A double isotopic tracer ratio method ((67)Zn as oral tracer and (70)Zn as intravenous tracer) was used to estimate zinc absorption in 42 Mexican women living in a periurban community of Puebla State, Mexico. The test meal consisted of maize tortillas, yellow beans, chili sauce, and milk with instant coffee; it contained 3.3 mg zinc and had a phytate:zinc molar ratio of 17. Fractional zinc absorption did not differ significantly between the test groups (ANOVA; P > 0.05). Percent absorptions were (mean +/- SD) zinc oxide, 10.8 +/- 0.9; zinc sulfate, 10.0 +/- 0.02; zinc oxide + EDTA, 12.7 +/- 1.5; and sodium-zinc EDTA, 11.1 +/- 0.7. We conclude that there was no difference in zinc absorption from ZnO and ZnSO(4) when added as fortificants to maize tortillas and consumed with beans and milk. The addition of EDTA with zinc oxide or the use of prechelated sodium-zinc EDTA as fortificants did not result in higher zinc absorption from the test meal. PMID:15867288

Hotz, Christine; DeHaene, Jessica; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Villalpando, Salvador; Rivera, Juan A; King, Janet C

2005-05-01

297

Sodium selenite and vitamin E in preventing mercuric chloride induced renal toxicity in rats.  

PubMed

This study aims to investigate improving effects of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E on mercuric chloride-induced kidney impairments in rats. Wistar male rats were exposed either to sodium selenite (0.25mg/kgday), vitamin E (100mg/kgday), sodium selenite+vitamin E, mercuric chloride (1mg/kgday), sodium selenite+mercuric chloride, vitamin E+mercuric chloride and sodium selenite+vitamin E+mercuric chloride for 4weeks. Mercuric chloride exposure resulted in an increase in the uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and a decrease in the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Histopathological changes were detected in kidney tissues in mercuric chloride-treated groups. A significant decrease in the uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and MDA levels and a significant increase in the SOD, CAT and GPx activities were observed in the supplementation of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E to mercuric chloride-treated groups. Conclusively, sodium selenite, vitamin E and vitamin E+sodium selenite significantly reduce mercuric chloride induced nephrotoxicity in rats, but not protect completely. PMID:24857817

Aslanturk, Ayse; Uzunhisarcikli, Meltem; Kalender, Suna; Demir, Filiz

2014-08-01

298

History of zinc in agriculture.  

PubMed

Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, >20 y would pass before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it was reported that zinc deficiency induced poor growth, leg abnormalities, poor feathering, and parakeratosis in chicks. In the 1960s, zinc supplementation was found to alleviate parakeratosis in grazing cattle and sheep. Within 35 y, it was established that nearly one half of the soils in the world may be zinc deficient, causing decreased plant zinc content and production that can be prevented by zinc fertilization. In many of these areas, zinc deficiency is prevented in grazing livestock by zinc fertilization of pastures or by providing salt licks. For livestock under more defined conditions, such as poultry, swine, and dairy and finishing cattle, feeds are easily supplemented with zinc salts to prevent deficiency. Today, the causes and consequences of zinc deficiency and methods and effects of overcoming the deficiency are well established for agriculture. The history of zinc in agriculture is an outstanding demonstration of the translation of research into practical application. PMID:23153732

Nielsen, Forrest H

2012-11-01

299

Optimized zinc electrode for the rechargeable zinc–air battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the development of a long-lived, electrically rechargeable zinc–air battery the structure and wettability of pasted zinc electrodes were optimized. Pasted zinc electrodes containing 1 to 10% cellulose but having almost the same nominal capacities were prepared and tested in zinc\\/oxygen cells. The effect of discharge rate on cell voltage and delivered capacity, as well as the maximum power, were

S. Müller; F. Holzer; O. Haas

1998-01-01

300

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vacuole in Zinc Storage and Intracellular Zinc Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicated that the vacuole is a major site of zinc storage in the cell. However, these studies did not address the absolute level of zinc that was stored in the vacuole nor did they examine the abundances of stored zinc in other compartments of the cell. In this report, we describe an analysis

Claudia Simm; Brett Lahner; David Salt; Ann LeFurgey; Peter Ingram; Brian Yandell; David J. Eide

2007-01-01

301

[Testicular toxicity of allyl chloride].  

PubMed

In this study, 124 mg/kg of allyl chloride (one-fifth of LD50) was administered to mice by a single subcutaneous injection and its effects on the male reproductive system were evaluated at 4 days, 9 days, 14 days, 22 days and 39 days after treatment. Allyl chloride decreased the weight of the testes, reduced the numbers of spermatid and sperm, and increased the frequency of the morphologically abnormal sperm without any sign of general influence. From these results, allyl chloride was confirmed to be a definite testicular toxicant in mice. Spermatid reduction was already apparent at 4 days after treatment. Therefore, it was found that allyl chloride affected the testis immediately after the injection. Sperm with an abnormal tail (most of them were sperm with a folded tail) increased at the cauda epididymis before the epididymal sperm reduction became apparent. Consequently, it seemed likely that, with its toxic effects on the testis, allyl chloride also affected sperm passing through the epididymis and disturbed their maturation. Spermatid/sperm reduction caused by allyl chloride did not recover and seemed to get worse until 39 days after treatment. The testicular damage caused by allyl chloride was irreversible during this observation period. PMID:9103701

Zhao, M

1997-03-01

302

A high amount of dietary zinc changes the expression of zinc transporters and metallothionein in jejunal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo but does not prevent zinc accumulation in jejunal tissue of piglets.  

PubMed

High dietary zinc concentrations are used to prevent or treat diarrhea in piglets and humans, but long-term adaptation to high zinc supply has yet not been assessed. Intestinal zinc uptake is facilitated through members of zinc transporter families SLC30 (ZnT) and SLC39 (ZIP). Whereas in rodents, regulation of zinc homeostasis at low or adequate zinc supply has been described, such mechanisms are unclear in piglets. A total of 54 piglets were fed diets containing 57 [low dietary zinc (LZn)], 164 [normal dietary zinc (NZn)], or 2425 [high dietary zinc (HZn)] mg/kg dry matter zinc. After 4 wk, 10 piglets/group were killed and jejunal tissues taken for analysis of zinc transporters SLC30A1 (ZnT1), SLC30A2 (ZnT2), SLC30A5 (ZnT5), SLC39A4 (ZIP4), divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), and metallothionein-1 (MT). Weight gain was higher (P < 0.05) in pigs fed HZn than in the LZn and NZn groups during the first 2 wk. Food intake did not differ between groups. The digesta and jejunal tissue zinc concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in the HZn pigs than in NZn and LZn pigs. Expression of ZnT1 was higher (P < 0.05) and ZIP4 lower (P < 0.05) in HZn pigs than in the 2 other groups, whereas expression of ZnT5 and DMT1 did not differ between treatments. Expression of ZnT2 was lower (P < 0.05) in the LZn group than in the HZn and NZn groups. The mRNA expression and protein abundance of MT was higher (P < 0.05) in the HZn group than in the NZn and LZn groups. Studies with intestinal porcine cell line intestinal epithelial cell-J2 confirmed the dose-dependent downregulation of ZIP4 and upregulation of ZnT1 and MT (P < 0.05) with increasing zinc concentration within 24 h. In conclusion, high dietary zinc concentrations increase intracellular zinc, promote increased zinc export from intestinal tissues into extracellular compartments, and decrease zinc uptake from the gut lumen. The adaptive process appears to be established within 24 h; however, it does not prevent tissue zinc accumulation. PMID:23761649

Martin, Lena; Lodemann, Ulrike; Bondzio, Angelika; Gefeller, Eva-Maria; Vahjen, Wilfried; Aschenbach, Jörg Rudolf; Zentek, Jürgen; Pieper, Robert

2013-08-01

303

Treating Meningitis  

MedlinePLUS

... use of steroids in treating meningitis is under debate. Although other studies in adults have been done, ... THE STUDY For many years, there has been debate about using steroids to treat meningitis. Steroid medications ( ...

304

Cortisol stimulates the zinc signaling pathway and expression of metallothioneins and ZnT1 in rainbow trout gill epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Intracellular zinc signaling is important in the control of a number of cellular processes. Hormonal factors that regulate cellular zinc influx and initiate zinc signals are poorly understood. The present study investigates the possibility for cross talk between the glucocorticoid and zinc signaling pathways in cultured rainbow trout gill epithelial cells. The rainbow trout metallothionein A (MTA) gene possesses a putative glucocorticoid response element and multiple metal response elements 1042 base pairs upstream of the start codon, whereas metallothionein B (MTB) and zinc transporter-1 (ZnT1) have multiple metal response elements but no glucocorticoid response elements in this region. Cortisol increased MTA, MTB, and ZnT1 gene expression, and this stimulation was enhanced if cells were treated with cortisol together with zinc. Cells treated with zinc showed increased zinc accumulation, transepithelial zinc influx (apical to basolateral), and intracellular labile zinc concentrations. These responses were also significantly enhanced in cells pretreated with cortisol and zinc. The cortisol-mediated effects were blocked by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU-486, indicating mediation via a GR. In reporter gene assays, zinc stimulated MTA promoter activity, whereas cortisol did not. Furthermore, cortisol significantly reduced zinc-stimulated MTA promoter activity in cells expressing exogenous rainbow trout GR. These results demonstrate that cortisol enhances cellular zinc uptake, which in turn stimulates expression of MTA, MTB, and ZnT1 genes. PMID:18077514

Bury, Nic R; Chung, Mi Ja; Sturm, Armin; Walker, Paul A; Hogstrand, Christer

2008-02-01

305

Clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency.  

PubMed

The essentiality of zinc for humans was recognized in the early 1960s. The causes of zinc deficiency include malnutrition, alcoholism, malabsorption, extensive burns, chronic debilitating disorders, chronic renal diseases, following uses of certain drugs such as penicillamine for Wilson's disease and diuretics in some cases, and genetic disorders such as acrodermatitis enteropathica and sickle cell disease. In pregnancy and during periods of growth the requirement of zinc is increased. The clinical manifestations in severe cases of zinc deficiency include bullous-pustular dermatitis, alopecia, diarrhea, emotional disorder, weight loss, intercurrent infections, hypogonadism in males; it is fatal if unrecognized and untreated. A moderate deficiency of zinc is characterized by growth retardation and delayed puberty in adolescents, hypogonadism in males, rough skin, poor appetite, mental lethargy, delayed wound healing, taste abnormalities, and abnormal dark adaptation. In mild cases of zinc deficiency in human subjects, we have observed oligospermia, slight weight loss, and hyperammonemia. Zinc is a growth factor. Its deficiency adversely affects growth in many animal species and humans. Inasmuch as zinc is needed for protein and DNA synthesis and for cell division, it is believed that the growth effect of zinc is related to its effect on protein synthesis. Whether or not zinc is required for the metabolism of somatomedin needs to be investigated in the future. Testicular functions are affected adversely as a result of zinc deficiency in both humans and experimental animals. This effect of zinc is at the end organ level; the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is intact in zinc-deficient subjects. Inasmuch as zinc is intimately involved in cell division, its deficiency may adversely affect testicular size and thus affect its functions. Zinc is required for the functions of several enzymes and whether or not it has an enzymatic role in steroidogenesis is not known at present. Thymopoeitin, a hormone needed for T-cell maturation, has also been shown to be zinc dependent. Zinc deficiency affects T-cell functions and chemotaxis adversely. Disorders of cell-mediated immune functions are commonly observed in patients with zinc deficiency. Zinc is beneficial for wound healing in zinc-deficient subjects. In certain zinc-deficient subjects, abnormal taste and abnormal dark adaptation have been noted to reverse with zinc supplementation. PMID:3896271

Prasad, A S

1985-01-01

306

Toxicological Profile for Zinc. Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Statement was prepared to give you information about zinc and to emphasize the human health effects that may result from exposure to it. Zinc has been found in at least 776 of the sites on the NPL. However, the number of NPL sites evaluated for zinc ...

A. A. Ademoyero K. N. Gan

1994-01-01

307

Synthesis, structure, and properties of nanocrystalline zinc by pulsed-current electrodeposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Square-wave cathodic current electrodeposition was used to produce for the first time nanocrystalline zinc electrodeposits from both zinc chloride and zinc sulfate-based electrolytes. The influence of pulse electrodeposition parameters and polyacrylamide and thiourea additions on the grain size, surface morphology, and preferred orientation of zinc deposits was determined. The microstructure and surface morphology of the zinc electrodeposits were studied by SEM, FESEM, and AFM. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the preferred orientation of these deposits. The grain size of zinc deposits decreased gradually with increasing current on-time at constant current off-time and peak current density. An increase in the current off-time at constant current on-time and peak current density resulted in grain growth. A progressive decrease of the grain size was observed with increasing peak current density at constant current on-time and off-time. Nanocrystalline zinc (50 nm) was obtained from the chloride-based electrolyte at on-time of 5 ms, off-time of 9 ms and a peak current density of 1000 mA/cm2. Nanocrystalline zinc with an average grain size of 38 nm was obtained from sulfate-based electrolyte at on-time of 7 ms, off-time of 9 ms and at peak current density of 1200 mA/cm2. The hardness of nanocrystalline zinc increases from 5 to 8 times higher than that of pure polycrystalline zinc (0.29 GPa). Calorimetric investigations using DSC show two exothermic peaks. The first peak (peak temperature of 429 K) was attributed to the release of internal lattice strain. Abnormal grain growth was observed by the AFM and the second peak from the DSC scan, which begins at 576 K with a peak temperature of 608 K. Potentiodynamic and alternating current impedance testing of nanocrystalline zinc deposits show that the corrosion current density of nanocrystalline zinc was about 60% lower than that of electrogalvanized (EG) steel, 90 muA/cm 2 and 229 muA/cm2, respectively. The passive film formed on the nanocrystalline zinc surface seems to be a dominating factor for the corrosion behavior observed.

Youssef, Khaled Mohamed Saber Abdel-Hamid

308

Zinc titanate sorbents  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 .mu., and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 .mu.. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

Gupta, Raghubir P. (Durham, NC); Gangwal, Santosh K. (Durham, NC); Jain, Suresh C. (Germantown, MD)

1998-01-01

309

Zinc titanate sorbents  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750 to about 950 C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 microns, and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 micron. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

1998-02-03

310

Observations of interstellar zinc  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of interstellar zinc toward 10 stars are examined. It is found that zinc is at most only slightly depleted in the interstellar medium; its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. The local interstellar medium has abundances that apparently are homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc, and this result is important for understanding the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood. The intrinsic errors in detecting weak interstellar lines are analyzed and suggestions are made as to how this error limit may be lowered to 5 mA per target observation.

Jura, M.; York, D.

1981-01-01

311

Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

Rawls, Rebecca

1980-01-01

312

A new approach to the determination of the cathodic protection period in zinc-rich paints  

SciTech Connect

The present study examined the behavior of zinc-rich paints (ZRP) based on an epoxy binder in 3% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. The study focused on the effect of some design parameters often considered in paint formulation. The paint thickness, the zinc particle grain size, and the zinc particle distribution in the paint were studied. The study was based mainly on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). EIS results were interpreted using a model involving the contact impedance between zinc particles. The contact impedance and electrolyte resistance throughout the coating defined the protective action of ZRP. Based on these two concepts, a practical approach to evaluate ZRP performance was given. This approach, called total film resistance (TFR), can be used for optimization criteria in paint formulation.

Abreu, C.M.; Izquierdo, M.; Merino, P.; Novoa, X.R.; Perez, C.

1999-12-01

313

Insulin production hampered by intermittent hypoxia via impaired zinc homeostasis.  

PubMed

Without zinc, pancreatic beta cells cannot either assemble insulin molecules or precipitate insulin crystals; thus, a lack of zinc concentration in the beta cells would result in a decreased insulin production. ZIP8 is one of the zinc uptake transporters involved in zinc influx into the cytosol of beta cells. Thus, if ZIP8 is down-regulated, a decreased insulin production would result. We assumed that intermittent hypoxic exposure to the beta cells may result in a decreased production of insulin due to a lack of zinc. To test this hypothesis we harvested pancreatic islets from the rats conditioned under intermittent hypoxia (IH) (fluctuating between 20.5% and 10% every 4 min for 1 h) and compared the results with those from control animals and islets. We also compared their insulin and glucose homeostasis using glucose tolerance tests (GTT) after 3 weeks. GTT results show a significant delay (P<0.05) in recovery of the blood glucose level in IH treated pups. ZIP8 expression in the beta cell membrane was down-regulated. The zinc concentration in the cell as well as insulin production was significantly decreased in the islets harvested from IH animals. However, mRNA for insulin and C-peptide/insulin protein levels in the total cell lysates remained the same as those of controls. When we treated the beta cells using siRNA mediated ZIP8, we observed the commensurate results from the IH-treated islets. We conclude that a transient IH exposure could knockdown ZIP8 transporters at mRNA as well as protein levels in the beta cells, which would decrease the level of blood insulin. However, the transcriptional activity of insulin remains the same. We conclude that the precipitation process of insulin crystal may be disturbed by a lack of zinc in the cytosol that is modulated by mainly ZIP8 after IH exposure. PMID:24587273

Pae, Eung-Kwon; Kim, Gyuyoup

2014-01-01

314

Characterization of poly(vinyl chloride) aged in a bromine containing electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is being considered for use as a flow frame material in a developmental zinc/bromine battery. The choice of PVC was based on its low cost and the ease with which it can be molded into complex parts. The electrolyte used in this battery is a highly corrosive mixture of bromine, zinc bromide, zinc chloride, potassium bromide, potassium chloride and a quaternary amine salt. The quaternary salt serves to reduce the concentration of free bromine in the electrolyte by virtue of its complexing capability. It is well known that aqueous bromine is capable of oxidizing organic compounds. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of a bromine electrolyte on two PVC formulations, PVC-1 and PVC-4. PVC-1 is the designation given to one of B.F. Goodrich's commercial formulations and is the present baseline material for the flow frame. PVC-4 is an experimental B.F. Goodrich formulation that was developed especially for battery applications. We sought answers to such questions as (1) does oxidation and/or bromination take place. (2) does bromine penetrate into the sample and, if so, how far. (3) how are the mechanical and morphological properties affected. and (4) are there differences in stability between PVC-1 and PVC-4. To accelerate the aging processes we aged the PVC samples at an elevated temperature in an electrolyte which did not contain any complexing agent. 5 refs., 6 figs.

Arnold, C. Jr.; Leo, A.; Tarjani, M.

1988-01-01

315

21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Calcium chloride. (a) Calcium chloride (CaCl2 ·2H2 O...10035-04-8) or anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2 , CAS...substitution reactions with other calcium and chloride salts...defined in § 170.3(n)(35) of this chapter;...

2010-01-01

316

21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Calcium chloride. (a) Calcium chloride (CaCl2 ·2H2 O...10035-04-8) or anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2 , CAS...substitution reactions with other calcium and chloride salts...defined in § 170.3(n)(35) of this chapter;...

2009-04-01

317

BiAxial Testing of Zinc and Zinc Alloy Sheets under Superimposed Hydrostatic Pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pressurization on the properties of metals has long been of interest to scientists. Bridgman found that in general, the ductility (ability of the metal to deform without fracture) increased with superimposed hydrostatic pressure. Pugh et al. confirmed similar findings.\\u000aThe effects of hydrostatistic pressure on the mechanical properties of thin anisotropic zinc, heat treated and non heat

Harjeet S. Sandhu

1973-01-01

318

Zinc: the brain's dark horse.  

PubMed

Zinc is a life-sustaining trace element, serving structural, catalytic, and regulatory roles in cellular biology. It is required for normal mammalian brain development and physiology, such that deficiency or excess of zinc has been shown to contribute to alterations in behavior, abnormal central nervous system development, and neurological disease. In this light, it is not surprising that zinc ions have now been shown to play a role in the neuromodulation of synaptic transmission as well as in cortical plasticity. Zinc is stored in specific synaptic vesicles by a class of glutamatergic or "gluzinergic" neurons and is released in an activity-dependent manner. Because gluzinergic neurons are found almost exclusively in the cerebral cortex and limbic structures, zinc may be critical for normal cognitive and emotional functioning. Conversely, direct evidence shows that zinc might be a relatively potent neurotoxin. Neuronal injury secondary to in vivo zinc mobilization and release occurs in several neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, in addition to epilepsy and ischemia. Thus, zinc homeostasis is integral to normal central nervous system functioning, and in fact its role may be underappreciated. This article provides an overview of zinc neurobiology and reviews the experimental evidence that implicates zinc signals in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases. A greater understanding of zinc's role in the central nervous system may therefore allow for the development of therapeutic approaches where aberrant metal homeostasis is implicated in disease pathogenesis. PMID:19623531

Bitanihirwe, Byron K Y; Cunningham, Miles G

2009-11-01

319

Zinc signals and immune function.  

PubMed

For more than 50 years, it has been known that zinc deficiency compromises immune function. During this time, knowledge about the biochemistry of zinc has continued to grow, but only recent years have provided in-depth molecular insights into the multiple aspects of zinc as a regulator of immunity. A network based on ZnT and ZIP proteins for transport and metallothionein for storage tightly regulates zinc availability, and virtually all aspects of innate and adaptive immunity are affected by zinc. In vivo, zinc deficiency alters the number and function of neutrophil granulocytes, monocytes, natural killer (NK)-, T-, and B-cells. T cell functions and balance between the different subsets are particularly susceptible to changes in zinc status. This article focuses in particular on the main mechanisms by which zinc ions exert essential functions in the immune system. On the one hand, this includes tightly protein bound zinc ions serving catalytic or structural functions in a multitude of different proteins, in particular enzymes and transcription factors. On the other hand, increasing evidence arises for a regulatory role of free zinc ions in signal transduction, especially in cells of the immune system. Identification of several molecular targets, including phosphatases, phosphodiesterases, caspases, and kinases suggest that zinc ions are a second messenger regulating signal transduction in various kinds of immune cells. PMID:23804522

Haase, Hajo; Rink, Lothar

2014-01-01

320

Doped zinc oxide microspheres  

DOEpatents

A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01

321

Doped zinc oxide microspheres  

DOEpatents

A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

1993-12-14

322

Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst  

DOEpatents

A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

1984-01-01

323

Creep Resistant Zinc Alloy  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the development of Hot Chamber Die Castable Zinc Alloys with High Creep Strengths. This project commenced in 2000, with the primary objective of developing a hot chamber zinc die-casting alloy, capable of satisfactory service at 140 C. The core objectives of the development program were to: (1) fill in missing alloy data areas and develop a more complete empirical model of the influence of alloy composition on creep strength and other selected properties, and (2) based on the results from this model, examine promising alloy composition areas, for further development and for meeting the property combination targets, with the view to designing an optimized alloy composition. The target properties identified by ILZRO for an improved creep resistant zinc die-casting alloy were identified as follows: (1) temperature capability of 1470 C; (2) creep stress of 31 MPa (4500 psi); (3) exposure time of 1000 hours; and (4) maximum creep elongation under these conditions of 1%. The project was broadly divided into three tasks: (1) Task 1--General and Modeling, covering Experimental design of a first batch of alloys, alloy preparation and characterization. (2) Task 2--Refinement and Optimization, covering Experimental design of a second batch of alloys. (3) Task 3--Creep Testing and Technology transfer, covering the finalization of testing and the transfer of technology to the Zinc industry should have at least one improved alloy result from this work.

Frank E. Goodwin

2002-12-31

324

Zinc bioavailability in the chick  

SciTech Connect

Methods for assessing zinc bioavailability were evaluated in the chick. A low-zinc chick diet was developed using rehydrated, spray-dried egg white autoclaved at 121 C for 30 min as the primary protein source. The relative bioavailability of zinc from soy flour and beef was determined by whole-body retention of extrinsic /sup 65/Zn, and in slope ratio assays for growth rate and tissue zinc. Compared to zinc carbonate added to an egg white-based diet, all methods gave similar estimates of approximately 100% zinc bioavailability for beef but estimates for soy flour varied widely. The slope ratio assay for growth rate gave the best estimate of zinc bioavailability for soy flour. True absorption, as measured by percent isotope retention from extrinsically labeled soy flour, was 47%.

Hempe, J.M.

1987-01-01

325

CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING  

SciTech Connect

Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

2007-11-30

326

Engineering design and cost analysis of chlorine storage concepts for a zinc--chlorine load-leveling battery. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project evaluated and compared alternative chlorine storage approaches in terms of the key technical, safety, economic, and environmental aspects. The study has demonstrated for an ambient pressure zinc--chloride battery that the chlorine hydrate approach is a simpler and less expensive storage system than liquid chlorine. Absorption of chlorine in carbon tetrachloride was ruled out because adequate energy efficiencies could

Battey

1976-01-01

327

Zinc Chelation Reduces Hippocampal Neurogenesis after Pilocarpine-Induced Seizure  

PubMed Central

Several studies have shown that epileptic seizures increase hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult. However, the mechanism underlying increased neurogenesis after seizures remains largely unknown. Neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus in the adult brain, although an understanding of why it actively occurs in this region has remained elusive. A high level of vesicular zinc is localized in the presynaptic terminals of the SGZ. Previously, we demonstrated that a possible correlation may exist between synaptic zinc localization and high rates of neurogenesis in this area after hypoglycemia. Using a lithium-pilocarpine model, we tested our hypothesis that zinc plays a key role in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure. Then, we injected the zinc chelator, clioquinol (CQ, 30 mg/kg), into the intraperitoneal space to reduce brain zinc availability. Neuronal death was detected with Fluoro Jade-B and NeuN staining to determine whether CQ has neuroprotective effects after seizure. The total number of degenerating and live neurons was similar in vehicle and in CQ treated rats at 1 week after seizure. Neurogenesis was evaluated using BrdU, Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining 1 week after seizure. The number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cell was increased after seizure. However, the number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cells was significantly decreased by CQ treatment. Intracellular zinc chelator, N,N,N0,N-Tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), also reduced seizure-induced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The present study shows that zinc chelation does not prevent neurodegeneration but does reduce seizure-induced progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Therefore, this study suggests that zinc has an essential role for modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure.

Kim, Jin Hee; Jang, Bong Geom; Choi, Bo Young; Kwon, Lyo Min; Sohn, Min; Song, Hong Ki; Suh, Sang Won

2012-01-01

328

Zinc chelation reduces hippocampal neurogenesis after pilocarpine-induced seizure.  

PubMed

Several studies have shown that epileptic seizures increase hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult. However, the mechanism underlying increased neurogenesis after seizures remains largely unknown. Neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus in the adult brain, although an understanding of why it actively occurs in this region has remained elusive. A high level of vesicular zinc is localized in the presynaptic terminals of the SGZ. Previously, we demonstrated that a possible correlation may exist between synaptic zinc localization and high rates of neurogenesis in this area after hypoglycemia. Using a lithium-pilocarpine model, we tested our hypothesis that zinc plays a key role in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure. Then, we injected the zinc chelator, clioquinol (CQ, 30 mg/kg), into the intraperitoneal space to reduce brain zinc availability. Neuronal death was detected with Fluoro Jade-B and NeuN staining to determine whether CQ has neuroprotective effects after seizure. The total number of degenerating and live neurons was similar in vehicle and in CQ treated rats at 1 week after seizure. Neurogenesis was evaluated using BrdU, Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining 1 week after seizure. The number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cell was increased after seizure. However, the number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cells was significantly decreased by CQ treatment. Intracellular zinc chelator, N,N,N0,N-Tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), also reduced seizure-induced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The present study shows that zinc chelation does not prevent neurodegeneration but does reduce seizure-induced progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Therefore, this study suggests that zinc has an essential role for modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure. PMID:23119054

Kim, Jin Hee; Jang, Bong Geom; Choi, Bo Young; Kwon, Lyo Min; Sohn, Min; Song, Hong Ki; Suh, Sang Won

2012-01-01

329

Selective leaching of zinc from zinc ferrite with hydrochloric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc ferrite is a major constituent of the steel-making dust and sludge. In the present work the hydrometallurgical extraction of zinc from this material was studied. ZnFe2O4 and the sludge were leached in hydrochloric acid at atmospheric and elevated pressure using the microwave heating. More than 90% of zinc can be extracted with diluted acid when the temperature is 250 °C

Šárka Langová; Juraj Leško; Dalibor Matýsek

2009-01-01

330

Influence of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) on zinc electrodeposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is a study of the electrodeposition of zinc onto SAE 4140 steel electrodes using solutions containing zinc sulfate and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT). The influence of different parameters such as electrolyte concentration, electrodeposition time and temperature on the morphology of the electrodeposits was analyzed. The deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction. The variation of open circuit potential over time in chloride solutions was also evaluated. The nucleation-growth process and consequently the morphology of the electrodeposits are modified in the presence of AOT. The surfactant induces the formation of a porous deposit.

Lehr, I. L.; Saidman, S. B.

2012-03-01

331

Therapeutic Value of Zinc Supplementation in Acute and Persistent Diarrhea: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background For over a decade, the importance of zinc in the treatment of acute and persistent diarrhea has been recognized. In spite of recently published reviews, there remain several unanswered questions about the role of zinc supplementation in childhood diarrhea in the developing countries. Our study aimed to assess the therapeutic benefits of zinc supplementation in the treatment of acute or persistent diarrhea in children, and to examine the causes of any heterogeneity of response to zinc supplementation. Methods and Findings EMBASE®, MEDLINE ® and CINAHL® databases were searched for published reviews and meta-analyses on the use of zinc supplementation for the prevention and treatment of childhood diarrhea. Additional RCTs published following the meta-analyses were also sought. The reviews and published RCTs were qualitatively mapped followed by updated random-effects meta-analyses, subgroup meta-analyses and meta-regression to quantify and characterize the role of zinc supplementation with diarrhea-related outcomes. We found that although there was evidence to support the use of zinc to treat diarrhea in children, there was significant unexplained heterogeneity across the studies for the effect of zinc supplementation in reducing important diarrhea outcomes. Zinc supplementation reduced the mean duration of diarrhea by 19.7% but had no effect on stool frequency or stool output, and increased the risk of vomiting. Our subgroup meta-analyses and meta-regression showed that age, stunting, breast-feeding and baseline zinc levels could not explain the heterogeneity associated with differential reduction in the mean diarrheal duration. However, the baseline zinc levels may not be representative of the existing zinc deficiency state. Conclusions Understanding the predictors of zinc efficacy including the role of diarrheal disease etiology on the response to zinc would help to identify the populations most likely to benefit from supplementation. To improve the programmatic use of zinc, further evaluations of the zinc salts used, the dose, the frequency and duration of supplementation, and its acceptability are required. The significant heterogeneity of responses to zinc suggests the need to revisit the strategy of universal zinc supplementation in the treatment children with acute diarrhea in developing countries.

Dibley, Michael J.; Badhoniya, Neetu; Kulkarni, Hemant

2010-01-01

332

Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.  

PubMed

The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. PMID:22947185

Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

2012-10-30

333

Influence of zinc on growth and development and on energy intakes of children with chronic renal failure  

SciTech Connect

This investigation assessed whether zinc acetate supplementation (2 mg/kg BW, maximum 40 mg/ka/child) in Children with End Stage Renal Disease, improved energy intakes and, in turn, growth and development. Height, weight, mid-arm circumference, triceps fatfold, hand wrist radiographs, and Tanner Staging measurements were taken at the beginning of the study, prior to zinc supplementation, and at the end of the study period. Clinical analyses for serum sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and CO/sub 2/ were routinely completed monthly. Simultaneously, plasma zinc and copper and erythrocyte zinc and 3 day food diaries were completed. Mean growth velocity in males was 4.07 +/- 2.02 cm/yr (non-supplemented), 2.98 +/- 2.33 cm/yr (supplemented) and in females, 3.88 +/- 0.73 cm/yr (non-supplemented), 3.28 +/- 2.10 cm/yr (supplemented). There were no significant differences between the supplemented and non-zinc supplemented males or females in growth velocity. Bone maturation as determined through hand wrist radiographs, improved in 4 of 6 zinc supplemented subjects. Before zinc supplementation, 50%, 92%, and 42% of the subjects met 67% of their RDA for age and sex for energy, protein, and zinc, respectively. After zinc acetate supplementation, the percentage of subjects meeting 67% of the RDA for energy, protein, and dietary zinc were 67%, 100%, and 67%, respectively. There was a trend toward increased dietary energy, protein, and zinc intake with zinc acetate supplementation.

Hagan, D.W.

1985-01-01

334

Zinc transporters in prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is a major health concern as it has the second highest incidence rate among cancers in men. Despite progress in tumor diagnostics and therapeutic approaches, prognosis for men with advanced disease remains poor. In this review we provide insight into the changes of the intermediary metabolism in normal prostate and prostate cancer. In contrast to normal cells, prostate cancer cells are reprogrammed for optimal energy-efficiency with a functional Krebs cycle and minimal apoptosis rates. A key element in this relationship is the uniquely high zinc level of normal prostate epithelial cells. Zinc is transported by the SLC30 and SLC39 families of zinc transporters. However, in prostate cancer the intracellular zinc content is remarkably reduced and expression levels of certain zinc transporters are altered. Here, we summarize the role of different zinc transporters in the development of prostate cancer.

Franz, M.-C.; Anderle, P.; Burzle, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Freeman, M.R.; Hediger, M. A.; Kovacs, G.

2014-01-01

335

Observations of interstellar zinc  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IUE observations toward 10 stars have shown that zinc is not depleted in the interstellar medium by more than a factor of two, suggesting that its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. A result pertinent to the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood is that the local interstellar medium has abundances that appear to be homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc.

York, D. G.; Jura, M.

1982-01-01

336

Effect of dietary zinc supplementation and phytase pre-treatment of soybean meal or corn gluten meal on growth, zinc status and zinc-related metabolism in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets containing untreated or phytase-treated soybean meal and corn gluten meal with or without 50 mg supplemental zinc kg-1 to determine if dietary phytate caused a zinc (Zn) deficiency. Fish fed diets containing untreated soybean meal and corn gluten meal without supplemental Zn (basal diet) showed no signs of a Zn deficiency after 170 d of

L. Ramseyer; D. Garling; G. Hill; J. Link

1999-01-01

337

Constructed Wetlands Treating Runoff Contaminated with Nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to assess the role of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. in experimental, mature, and temporarily flooded vertical flow wetland filters treating urban runoff\\u000a rich in organic matter. During the experiment, ammonium chloride was added to sieved concentrated road runoff to simulate\\u000a primary treated urban runoff contaminated with nitrogen. Five days at 20°C N-allylthiourea biochemical oxygen demand

M. Scholz; Å. Hedmark

2010-01-01

338

Zinc-air primary batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary zinc-air batteries based upon the use of plastic cell trays in a prismatic, stackable configuration, which overcomes the capacity limitation of zinc-air button cells and the rate limitations of currently available industrial zinc-air batteries, were developed. A series of experiments was conducted on subscale prototype cells to test the elements of the design basis and to optimize electrode formulations.

R. A. Putt; G. W. Merry

1992-01-01

339

Commercial zinc-air batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical analysis is presented indicating that zinc-air cells have twice the capacity of mercury and silver cells. Discharge and decay mechanisms are considered in detail and design data presented which allow optimization of any zinc-air cell for maximum capacity and tolerance to environmental conditions. Performance details for zinc-air button cells are compared with the three most common mercury and

J. W. Cretzmeyer; H. R. Espig; R. S. Melrose

1976-01-01

340

The influence of selected antihypertensive drugs on zinc, copper, and iron status in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Mineral homeostasis in hypertensive patients may be affected by hypotensive drugs. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of selected antihypertensive drugs on mineral homeostasis in a rat model of hypertension. Eight-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were treated with perindopril, metoprolol, indapamide, amlodipine, or no drug for 45 days. In another experiment, the SHRs were treated with indapamide or amlodipine in the presence of zinc and copper gluconate supplement. Lipids, glucose, and insulin levels along with superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were assayed in serum. Iron, zinc, and copper concentrations in serum, erythrocytes, and tissues were determined using the flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Blood pressure was measured using a tail-cuff plethysmograph. Treatment with indapamide and amlodipine was found to significantly lower zinc levels in serum, erythrocytes, livers, and spleens of the SHRs, as well as copper levels in the kidneys, compared with the control no-drug group. A markedly higher concentration of glucose was found in the indapamide-treated rats. Supplementing the indapamide-treated SHRs with zinc and copper gluconate resulted in a significant decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and also lowered serum glucose and triglyceride concentrations and HOMA (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance) values. The results show that indapamide and amlodipine disturb zinc and copper homeostasis in SHRs. Supplementation with zinc and copper restores mineral homeostasis in SHRs treated with indapamide and amlodipine, and also corrects metabolic imbalances while improving the antihypertensive efficiency of indapamide. PMID:24927993

Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdanski, Pawe?; Jakubowski, Hieronim

2014-09-01

341

21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and...

2009-04-01

342

21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and...

2010-04-01

343

Compatibility of Steel and Aluminium with Calcium Chloride/Ammonia, Magnesium Chloride/Methylamine and Magnesium Chloride/Methylamine/Decane.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of pairs of substances such as calcium chloride/ammonia or magnesium chloride/methylamine for distant heating or heat storage requires compatibility between these substances and the structural materials of the reactor vessels, transport-containers...

H. K. Kohl

1978-01-01

344

Interactions between zinc and thymulin.  

PubMed

Thymulin (formerly called "Facteur Thymique Sérique or FTS) is a metallopeptidic hormone selectively produced by thymic epithelial cells (TEC) and known to induce intra and extra-thymic T cell differentiation. It was initially isolated from porcine serum and shown to be present in calf thymus extract. Its amino-acid sequence was determined (zinc, in an equimolecular ratio. The metallopeptide thus formed bears a specific tridimensional conformation detected by nuclear magnetic resonance studies, and that yielded a new monoclonal antibody-defined epitope. The presence of zinc and metallothionein has been demonstrated within TEC which produce the peptide, suggesting that the molecule is secreted in its active zinc-containing form. The zinc/thymulin relationship, was further studied using various models of mild zinc deficiency in experimental animals and in humans. Serum thymulin activity was decreased as a result of zinc deficiency, and was corrected by in vivo and in vitro zinc supplementation, suggesting that this parameter could be a sensitive indicator of zinc deficiency. When considered together with the parallel variations seen in T-cell subpopulations and lymphokine production, these observations could provide a possible explanation of the role of zinc on T cell functions. PMID:18476235

Dardenne, M; Pleau, J M

1994-01-01

345

Development of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for Centaur  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary cells and batteries have received considerable attention over the last several years because of their high theoretical specific energy and energy density. The objective was to develop a 300 wh/kg cell capable of safe operation at C/2 rate and active storage life for 5 to 10 years. This technology would replace other primary cell technologies in NASA applications mainly the silver zinc (AgZn) batteries presently in use. The LiSOCl2 system exceeds the capabilities of the AgZn in terms of specific energy of 300 wh/kg (compared with 100 wh/kg for AgZn), active storage life of 10 to 20 times the 3 to 6 months active storage and has a significantly lower projected cost.

Halpert, Gerald; Frank, Harvey; Lutwack, Ralph

1987-01-01

346

Development of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for Centaur  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary cells and batteries have received considerable attention over the last several years because of their high theoretical specific energy and energy density. The objective was to develop a 300 wh/kg cell capable of safe operation at C/2 rate and active storage life for 5 to 10 years. This technology would replace other primary cell technologies in NASA applications mainly the silver zinc (AgZn) batteries presently in use. The LiSOCl2 system exceeds the capabilities of the AgZn in terms of specific energy of 300 wh/kg (compared with 100 wh/kg for AgZn), active storage life of 10 to 20 times the 3 to 6 months active storage and has a significantly lower projected cost.

Halpert, Gerald; Frank, Harvey; Lutwack, Ralph

1988-01-01

347

Zinc protoporphyrin inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-, lipoteichoic acid-, and peptidoglycan-induced nitric oxide production through stimulating iNOS protein ubiquitination  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), but not ferric protoporphyrin (FePP), tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), or zinc chloride (ZnCl2), at the doses of 0.5, 1, and 2 ?M, dose-dependently inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and peptidoglycan (PGN)-induced inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production with an increase in heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) protein in RAW264.7 macrophages in a

Jyh-Ming Chow; Hui-Yi Lin; Shing-Chuan Shen; Ming-Shun Wu; Cheng-Wei Lin; Wen-Ta Chiu; Chien-Huang Lin; Yen-Chou Chen

2009-01-01

348

Zinc-, copper- and cadmium-binding protein in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells.  

PubMed Central

The properties of Ehrlich ascites tumour cells exposed in vivo to cadmium were investigated as a function of the zinc status of the host animals. Tumour-cell growth was inhibited by cadmium in both zinc-sufficient and zinc-deficient animals. However, cells in zinc-sufficient tumours accumulate much less cadmium than those in deficient tumours. The subcellular distributions of cadmium and zinc do not depend on zinc status. Cadmium and zinc are bound to a low-molecular-weight protein with properties similar to metallothionein. Without exposure to cadmium, a zinc- and copper-binding protein is still present that behaves like a metallothionein. This protein can rapidly bind cadmium added to Ehrlich cells in vitro. It is shown that the zinc- and copper-binding protein contains free thiol groups. Ehrlich cells isolated from cadmium-treated animals are viable and show normal incorporation of uridine into RNA, but the cellular uptake of thymidine and its incorporation into DNA are inhibited.

Koch, J; Wielgus, S; Shankara, B; Saryan, L A; Shaw, C F; Petering, D H

1980-01-01

349

Differential impact of zinc deficiency on phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by human monocytes.  

PubMed

Zinc deficiency has a fundamental influence on the immune defense, with multiple effects on different immune cells, resulting in a major impairment of human health. Monocytes and macrophages are among the immune cells that are most fundamentally affected by zinc, but the impact of zinc on these cells is still far from being completely understood. Therefore, this study investigates the influence of zinc deficiency on monocytes of healthy human donors. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which include monocytes, were cultured under zinc deficient conditions for 3 days. This was achieved by two different methods: by application of the membrane permeable chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) or by removal of zinc from the culture medium using a CHELEX 100 resin. Subsequently, monocyte functions were analyzed in response to Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Zinc depletion had differential effects. On the one hand, elimination of bacterial pathogens by phagocytosis and oxidative burst was elevated. On the other hand, the production of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-6 was reduced. This suggests that monocytes shift from intercellular communication to basic innate defensive functions in response to zinc deficiency. These results were obtained regardless of the method by which zinc deficiency was achieved. However, CHELEX-treated medium strongly augmented cytokine production, independently from its capability for zinc removal. This side-effect severely limits the use of CHELEX for investigating the effects of zinc deficiency on innate immunity. PMID:24823619

Mayer, Lena S; Uciechowski, Peter; Meyer, Sören; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Rink, Lothar; Haase, Hajo

2014-06-25

350

Sodium Chloride Toxicity in Dogs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the research was to determine whether consistent, significant differences in response to life span dietary sodium chloride levels occur in dogs, and, if so, the influence of sex and genetics and exploration of the significance in the occu...

J. B. Youmans

1972-01-01

351

Chloride thresholds in marine concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports results from an ongoing study of the performance of fly ash concrete in marine exposure. Reinforced concrete specimens exposed to tidal conditions were retrieved at ages ranging from 1 to 4 years. Steel reinforcement mass losses are compared with chloride contents at the location of the bar for concrete specimens of various strength grades and with a

Michael Thomas

1996-01-01

352

Changes in vacuolar and mitochondrial motility and tubularity in response to zinc in a Paxillus involutus isolate from a zinc-rich soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term effects of zinc on organelles were investigated in Paxillus involutus from a zinc-rich soil. Vacuoles were labelled with Oregon Green 488 carboxylic acid and mitochondria with DiOC6(3). Hyphae were treated with ZnSO4 in the range 1–100mM and examined by fluorescence microscopy. ZnSO4 caused loss of tubularity and motility in both organelles depending on concentration and exposure time. Tubular vacuoles

Sandra Tuszynska; Danielle Davies; Katarzyna Turnau; Anne E. Ashford

2006-01-01

353

21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered from the filtrate on...

2009-04-01

354

21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered from the filtrate on...

2010-01-01

355

Quantitative Studies of Chloride Permeability of Concrete.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies were undertaken to develop a quantitative determination of chloride ion permeability in concrete based upon measuring the chloride ion migration in the concrete. The intent was to modify AASHTO standard method T-277 to measure the amount of chlori...

J. Walsh M. Sock J. Lima S. Quintin J. Fera

1998-01-01

356

29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

2013-07-01

357

29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations...CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

2013-07-01

358

29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations...EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard...

2013-07-01

359

29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1152 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to...

2013-07-01

360

Recovery of Zinc from Zinc Waste By-adsorption Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zinc present in the dead tank wash water of plating industry is of about 300 ppm approximately. The aim of the experiment was to reduce the zinc content in the effluent. Treatment by ion exchange produces reusable water. Generally dead tank wash water contains about 1% of the plating bath concentration. If this water is sent as waste the

S. Madhan Babu; C. Ahmed Basha; S. Murthy Shekhar

2006-01-01

361

Nicotine aerosol generation from thermally reversible zinc halide complexes using the Staccato system.  

PubMed

Application of the Staccato system to liquid drugs presents unique technological challenges. Liquids, such as nicotine, do not form physically stable films on vaporization substrates. We identified two thermally reversible zinc halides (ZnCl2 and ZnBr2) that complex with nicotine in a 1:2 mol ratio (zinc halide: nicotine) that can be coated as a solid film. Feasibility studies indicated that the chloride complex liberates a higher fraction of nicotine upon heating whereas the nicotine aerosol purity for both complexes was approximately 99%. Using a multidose Staccato device previously used in a Phase I clinical trial, we demonstrated that highly pure nicotine aerosol can be reliably generated from the chloride complex with the following qualities: aerosol purity approximately 99%, single emitted dose approximately 117 microg, particle fraction approximately 57%, and mean particle size approximately 0.8 microm. These results were supported by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. PMID:18800254

Simis, Kathleen; Lei, Mingzu; Lu, Amy Tsai; Sharma, Krishnamohan C V; Hale, Ron L; Timmons, Ryan; Cassella, Jim

2008-09-01

362

Method for the Abatement of Hydrogen Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and coll...

S. J. Winston T. R. Thomas

1977-01-01

363

Method for the Abatement of Hydrogen Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and coll...

S. J. Winston T. R. Thomas

1975-01-01

364

21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg...glycerol and has a saline taste at low concentration...

2009-04-01

365

21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg...glycerol and has a saline taste at low concentration...

2010-01-01

366

21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13 . 6H2 0, CAS Reg. No....

2010-01-01

367

21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food and...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12 ·6H2 O, CAS Reg. No....

2013-04-01

368

21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and...Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in...

2013-04-01

369

Effect of zinc-levulinic acid chelate compounds formed in furfuryl alcohol polymer concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an experimental programme to develop high early strength water-compatible furfuryl alcohol (FA) polymer concrete (PC) composites, the polymerization heat resulting from the use of various mineral and organic acid initiators was measured using a differential scanning calorimeter. The results indicated that, of the several initiators evaluated, the use of 1,1,1-trichlorotoluene (TCT)-zinc chloride (ZnCl2) system to cure a

T. Sugama; L. E. Kukacka

1982-01-01

370

The protective capacity of zinc silicate coatings in damage of them  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silikatsink-2 (STs-2), Silikatsink-01 (STs-01), and Silikatsink-02 (STs-02) coatings, the zinc content in which is 80, 75, and 60%, respectively [4], were investigated. The specimens were 100  200  2 mm shot-blasted plates of 08 steel. The coating thickness was 80 um. The corrosive medium was sea water. The potentials were measured relative to a silver chloride electrode. Mechanical removal

V. V. Knyazeva; N. A. Stepanok; V. A. Orlov

1987-01-01

371

An optical sensor for zinc determination based on Zincon as sensing reagent  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical sensor has been designed for the determination of zinc by spectrophotometry. The sensing membrane is made by immobilizing Zincon as an ion pair with methyltrioctylammonium ion on triacetylcellulose membrane. In the present of Zn2+ ions in ammonia\\/ammonium chloride buffer at pH 9 the color of the membrane changes from purple to blue. The calibration curve was linear in

Saadat Rastegarzadeh; Vida Rezaei

2008-01-01

372

Growth and Studies of Halides doped Zinc Tris-Thiourea Sulphate(HZTS) Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of Sodium chloride and Potassium iodide (Halides) doped Zinc tris-thiourea sulphate (ZTS) were grown from low temperature solution growth technique by slow evaporation method using water as solvent. The powder X-Ray diffraction pattern were recorded and indexed. The UV transmittance spectrum has been recorded. The optical band gap was estimated using Taucís plot. The TGA/DTA studies show the thermal properties of the crystals.

Suveetha, P.; Sathya, T.; Sudha, S.; Raj, M. B. Jessie

2012-10-01

373

Electrical and gas sensing properties of self-aligned copper-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical and gas sensing properties of nanocrystalline ZnO:Cu, having Cu Xwt% (X=0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) in ZnO, in the form of pellet were investigated. Copper chloride and zinc acetate were used as precursors along with oxalic acid as a precipitating reagent in methanol. Material characterization was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron

Yogesh S. Sonawane; K. G. Kanade; B. B. Kale; R. C. Aiyer

2008-01-01

374

Zinc protects human peripheral blood lymphocytes from Cr(III)(phenanthroline){sub 3}-induced apoptosis  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the effect of Cr(III)(phen){sub 3} [(tris(1,10-phenanthroline) chromium(III) chloride)] on lymphocytes in order to find out if metallothioneins (MTs) are produced in the process. We also investigated whether zinc pretreatment is able to protect cells from apoptosis reported to occur for this compound. Our results indicate that MT synthesis is induced by Cr(III)(phen){sub 3}, and it has been identified as the MT-3 isoform through RT-PCR which has not been reported earlier. By zinc pretreatment, this apoptosis is reversed as inferred from cytotoxicity studies, Annexin-V/PI staining, ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining and DNA fragmentation pattern and ultrastructural investigations using TEM and SEM. The zinc pretreatment reduces the amount of ROS produced by Cr(III)(phen){sub 3} . The MT-1a and 1b synthesized by zinc (also evidenced through RT-PCR experiments) is possibly able to scavenge ROS which is one of the early signaling molecules that lead to apoptosis. Zinc pretreatment also reverses the changes in downstream signaling events such as mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP levels and the activation of caspase-3. This is the first report on the induction of MT-3 in lymphocytes due to a metal stress or any other stimuli. Even though MT-3 is synthesized here, apoptosis still occurs due to ROS production on Cr(III)(phen){sub 3} exposure when the cells have not been primed with zinc.

Sankaramanivel, Sundararaj [Biochemistry Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai-600 020 (India); Rajaram, Anantanarayanan [Biophysics Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai (India); Rajaram, Rama, E-mail: rajaram.rama@gmail.co [Biochemistry Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai-600 020 (India)

2010-03-15

375

21 CFR 862.1170 - Chloride test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Chloride test system. (a) Identification. A chloride test system is a device intended to measure the level of chloride in plasma, serum, sweat, and urine. Chloride measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of electrolyte and metabolic...

2013-04-01

376

Synthesis of Zinc Iodide Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two inquiry-based labs that complement a previously published activity in this Journal, "The Synthesis and Decomposition of Zinc Iodide: Model Reactions for Investigating Chemical Change in the Introductory Laboratory", are described. These two experiments could be of interest to introductory chemistry instructors at the college or high school level who teach their students about limiting and excess stoichiometry as well as acid base chemistry. The inquiry-based experiments center on alternate reaction pathways involving a second synthesis of zinc iodide and a side reaction that produces zinc hydroxide. In the first experiment, students draw upon their understanding of solubility and molarity to propose a synthesis of zinc iodide from a double replacement reaction involving zinc sulfate and barium iodide. Students compare the double replacement reaction with the elemental synthesis in terms of percentage yield, efficiency, safety, and cost. In the second experiment, students are asked to identify a white precipitate that forms during a synthesis of zinc iodide from its elements when a specific reagent, acetic acid, is not used. By referring to the literature and conducting qualitative tests, students determine that the white product is zinc hydroxide, a base produced from the hydrolysis of zinc ion.

Demeo, Stephen

2003-07-01

377

Ion exchange in a zeolite-molten chloride system  

SciTech Connect

Electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel results in a secondary waste stream of radioactive fission products dissolved in chloride salt. Disposal plans include a waste form that can incorporate chloride forms featuring one or more zeolites consolidated with sintered glass. A candidate method for incorporating fission products in the zeolites is passing the contaminated salt over a zeolite column for ion exchange. To date, the molten chloride ion-exchange properties of four zeolites have been investigated for this process: zeolite A, IE95{reg_sign}, clinoptilolite, and mordenite. Of these, zeolite A has been the most promising. Treating zeolite 4A, the sodium form of zeolite A , with the solvent salt for the waste stream-lithium-potassium chloride of eutectic melting composition, is expected to provide a material with favorable ion-exchange properties for the treatment of the waste salt. The authors constructed a pilot-plant system for the ion-exchange column. Initial results indicate that there is a direct relationship between the two operating variable of interest, temperature, and initial sodium concentration. Also, the mass ratio has been about 3--5 to bring the sodium concentration of the effluent below 1 mol%.

Woodman, R.H.; Pereira, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

1997-07-01

378

Diffusion redistribution of zinc during the doping of structurally inhomogeneous epitaxial layers of gallium phosphide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of zinc established during its diffusion accompanying the doping of gallium phosphide layers in the course of epitaxial growth has been numerically simulated. The internal redistribution of zinc introduced in the presence of a structural macrodefect (in particular, screw dislocation) is treated according to the dissociative model of the interstitial-lattice site diffusion. This model assumes the existence of zinc ions in two states with different diffusion mobilities that actively interact with gallium vacancies. The results of an analysis of solutions of a nonlinear boundary-value problem demonstrate the existence of sharply inhomogeneous distributions of the zinc ion concentration, which explain some experimentally observed anomalies in the reverse current of zinc-doped epitaxial GaP-based p-tn junctions.

Panyutin, E. A.

2009-07-01

379

Zinc deficiency regulates hippocampal gene expression and impairs neuronal differentiation  

PubMed Central

Objectives Proliferating adult stem cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus have the capacity not only to divide, but also to differentiate into neurons and integrate into the hippocampal circuitry. The present study identifies several hippocampal genes putatively regulated by zinc and tests the hypothesis that zinc deficiency impairs neuronal stem cell differentiation. Methods Genes that regulate neurogenic processes were identified using microarray analysis of hippocampal mRNA isolated from adult rats fed zinc-adequate or zinc-deficient (ZD) diets. We directly tested our hypothesis with cultured human neuronal precursor cells (NT2), stimulated to differentiate into post-mitotic neurons by retinoic acid (RA), along with immunocytochemistry and western analysis. Results Microarray analysis revealed the regulation of genes involved in cellular proliferation. This analysis also identified a number of genes known to be involved in neuronal differentiation, including the nuclear RA receptor, retinoid X receptor (RXR), doublecortin, and a transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) binding protein (P < 0.05). Zinc deficiency significantly reduced RA-induced expression of the neuronal marker proteins doublecortin and ?-tubulin type III (TuJ1) to 40% of control levels (P < 0.01). This impairment of differentiation may be partially mediated by alterations in TGF-? signaling. The TGF-? type II receptor, responsible for binding TGF-? during neuronal differentiation, was increased 14-fold in NT2 cells treated with RA (P < 0.001). However, this increase was decreased by 60% in ZD RA-treated cells (P < 0.001). Discussion This research identifies target genes that are involved in governing neurogenesis under ZD conditions and suggests an important role for TGF-? and the trace metal zinc in regulating neuronal differentiation.

Gower-Winter, Shannon D.; Corniola, Rikki S.; Morgan, Thomas J.; Levenson, Cathy W.

2012-01-01

380

A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

Shah, Pinakin M.

1993-01-01

381

A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

Shah, Pinakin M.

1993-03-01

382

Oral zinc reduces amyloid burden in Tg2576 mice  

PubMed Central

The aggregation of amyloid beta in Alzheimer’s disease can be affected by free transition metals such as copper and zinc in the brain. Addition of copper and zinc with amyloid acts to increase aggregation and copper additionally promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species. We propose that reduction of brain copper by blocking uptake of copper from the diet is a viable strategy to regulate the formation of insoluble amyloid beta in the brain of Tg2576 mice. Mice were treated with regimens of zinc acetate, which acts with metallothionein to block copper uptake in the gut, at various times along their lifespan to model prevention and treatment paradigms. We found that the mice tolerated zinc acetate well over the six month course of study. While we did not observe significant changes in cognition and behavior, there was a reduction in insoluble amyloid beta in the brain. This observation coincided with a reduction in brain copper and interestingly no change in brain zinc. Our findings show that blocking copper uptake from the diet can redistribute copper from the brain and reduce amyloid beta aggregation.

Harris, Christopher J.; Voss, Kellen; Murchison, Charles; Ralle, Martina; Frahler, Kate; Carter, Raina; Rhoads, Alison; Lind, Betty; Robinson, Emily; Quinn, Joseph F.

2014-01-01

383

Exposure to a mixture of zinc and copper decreases survival and fecundity of Discocotyle sagittata (Leuckart) parasitizing juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.  

PubMed

We assessed the effects of zinc and copper on freshwater monogenean ectoparasites (Discocotyle sagittata Leuckart) infecting juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Exposure to 47 microg/L zinc and 3 microg/L copper reduced survival and fecundity of adult D. sagittata, while egg hatching success was only reduced at high exposure concentrations (2704 microg/L zinc and 164 microg/L copper). Parasitized salmon had decreased plasma chloride, but this was negated in infected fish exposed to metals. No other effects on Atlantic salmon survival and physiology (plasma osmolality, hematocrit) were noted, suggesting that D. sagittata may be more susceptible to metal toxicity than its host fish. PMID:20473654

Blanar, Christopher A; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Kieffer, Jim D; Munkittrick, Kelly R

2010-06-01

384

Effect of Zinc Supplement in the Prognosis of Burn Patients in Iraq  

PubMed Central

Summary Many studies have reported that zinc plasma levels significantly decrease after a burn, leading to zinc deficiency, and that increased free radical generation and decreased natural antioxidant may negatively affect wound healing and burn outcome in general. Targeting of these changes is considered an important strategy in the treatment of burns in an attempt to improve burn outcome in the clinical setting. Zinc was given orally in a nutritional dose (15 mg elemental zinc) as a zinc sulphate capsule to burn patients in order to improve post-burn zinc deficiency and burn outcome. The study was carried out in 58 burn patients of different age groups, sex, and occupation with different burn size. The patients were allocated to two groups: group A patients (43 in number) were treated with topical povidone-iodine ointment for the first four days post-injury followed by topical silver sulphadiazine cream 1% until discharge in addition to other prescribed drugs according to our burn unit policy; group B patients (15) received the same treatment as group A plus a single daily oral dose of zinc sulphate in a 66 mg capsule, equivalent to 15 mg elemental zinc. In each group, using standard methods, we considered plasma zinc and copper levels, oxidative stress parameters, thyroid, liver, and renal function tests, microbiological factors, mortality rate, healing time, and cost effectiveness. The administration of zinc in dietary doses significantly increased the plasma zinc level in burn patients to around normal control levels and improved the antioxidant status, as represented by elevation of the natural antioxidant level (glutathione), in addition to improving healing time, the incidence of eschar formation, and the mortality rate, compared with the zinc-nonsupplemented group. We conclude that dietary zinc supplementation in zinc-deficient burn patients led to great improvements in their outcome and that zinc deficiency was as an important goal to target during treatment; also, that the use of a combination of topical and systemic antioxidants (povidoneiodine ointment and zinc sulphate, respectively) represented a good strategy for improving results in burn patient treatment.

Al-Kaisy, A.A.; Salih Sahib, A.; Al-Biati, H.A.H.K.

2006-01-01

385

Some effects of oral ingestion of cadmium on zinc, copper, and iron metabolism.  

PubMed Central

Data are presented to show that ingestion of cadmium chloride by rats at low levels leads to alteration of zinc metabolism in the liver, even though the formation of metallothionein is not evident. A dose-response relationship between amount of cadmium ingested and degree of perturbation of zinc metabolism in liver was found. Oral cadmium was shown to cause emphysema and reduce pulmonary function in male rats; the effect was less severe or delayed in onset if dietary zinc concentration was high. Interference with copper and iron metabolism was shown to occur in rats given low levels of cadmium orally. Depression of copper and iron metabolism of the rat fetus was found to occur when dams received very low doses of cadmium during gestation, even though very little cadmium passed the placental barrier. Images FIGURE 1. a FIGURE 1. b FIGURE 2. a FIGURE 2. b

Petering, H G; Choudhury, H; Stemmer, K L

1979-01-01

386

Reaction mechanism for the ferric chloride leaching of sphalerite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reaction mechanisms for the ferric chloride leaching of sphalerite are proposed based on data obtained in leaching and dual cell experiments presented in this work and in a previous study. The results from the leaching experiments show that at low concentrations the rate is proportional to [Fe3+]T 0.5 and [Cl-]T 0.43 but at higher concentrations the reaction order with respect to both [Fe3+]T and [Cl-]T decreases. Using dual cell experiments which allow the half cell reactions to be separated, increased rates are observed when NaCl is added to the anolyte and to the catholyte. The increase in rate is attributed to a direct, anodic electrochemical reaction of Cl- with the mineral. When NaCl is added only to the catholyte, a decrease in the rate is observed due to a decrease in the E 0 of the cathode which is attributed to the formation of ferric-chloro complexes. Several possible electrochemical mechanisms and mathematical models based on the Butler-Volmer relation are delineated, and of these, one model is selected which accounts for the experimentally observed changes in reaction order for both Fe3+ and Cl-. This analysis incorporates a charge transfer process for each ion and an adsorption step for ferric and chloride ions. The inhibiting effect of Fe2+ noted by previous investigators is also accounted for through a similar model which includes back reaction kinetics for Fe2+. The proposed models successfully provide a theoretical basis for describing the role of Cl-, Fe3+, and Fe2+ as well as their interrelationship in zinc sulfide leaching reactions. Possible applications of these results to chloride leaching systems involving other sulfides or complex sulfides are considered.

Warren, G. W.; Henein, H.; Jin, Zuo-Mei

1985-12-01

387

Constructed Wetlands treating Urban Runoff Contaminated with Nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research project was to assess the role of the macrophyte Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. in experimental, mature and temporarily flooded vertical-flow wetland filters treating simulated urban runoff rich in organic matter. During the experiment, ammonium chloride was added to sieved concentrated road runoff (i.e. gully pot liquor) to simulate primary treated urban runoff contaminated

Xiaohui Wu; Miklas Scholz; Lin Rao

2008-01-01

388

Extraction of zinc from zinc ferrites by fusion with caustic soda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc ferrites are one of the major forms of zinc in some wastes, such as steel mill EAF dusts and the leaching residues of roasted zinc sulfide concentrates. These ferrites can be very difficult to chemically decompose so that the zinc can be recovered. This decomposition is the key to the recovery of zinc in these solid wastes. In this

Zhao Youcai; R. Stanforth

2000-01-01

389

Zinc air battery development for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the results of research conducted during the sixteen month continuation of a program to develop rechargeable zinc-air batteries for electric vehicles. The zinc-air technology under development incorporates a metal foam substrate for the zinc electrode, with flow of electrolyte through the foam during battery operation. In this 'soluble' zinc electrode the zincate discharge product dissolves completely in

R. A. Putt; G. W. Merry

1991-01-01

390

[Acute zinc poisoning in a dog].  

PubMed

Zinc-induced haemolytic anaemia was diagnosed in a young dog. The origin of the zinc intoxication was the ingestion of a toy material which contained a high percentage of zinc. The level of zinc in the liver and kidneys was resp. 1050 and 1320 ppm. PMID:15551629

Borst, G H A; Peperkamp, N H M T; Soethout, N C J

2004-10-15

391

Zinc oxide varistors and\\/or resistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varistors and\\/or resistors that includes doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon

Arnold Jr. Wesley D; Walter D. Bond; Robert J. Lauf

1993-01-01

392

Zinc oxide varistors and\\/or resistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varistors and\\/or resistors are described that include doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron

W. D. Jr. Arnold; W. D. Bond; R. J. Lauf

1993-01-01

393

Assessment of marginal zinc status in humans.  

PubMed

The assessment of marginal zinc status is problematic. Currently, there is no universally accepted single measure to assess zinc status in humans. The development of a reliable measure of marginal or moderate zinc status would be useful for a variety of purposes. For example, a simple, yet sensitive and accurate measure of zinc nutritional status is critically needed to further our limited understanding of the possible associations between zinc status and the risk of developing various chronic diseases and in predicting favorable health outcomes in patient populations. A convenient and reliable zinc assessment tool is needed to identify subpopulations who are at a risk of zinc deficiency and as an objective guidepost to determine the need for initiation of zinc supplementation or zinc fortification of the food supply, as well in the refinement of recommendations of dietary zinc allowances. In frank zinc deficiency, clinical signs and static measures of zinc concentrations in a variety of readily available tissues, such as plasma, various blood cell types and hair, may uniformly confirm the presence of depleted body zinc stores. However, in general, the relative insensitivity or imprecision of these measurements has resulted in general disappointment in their use to assess marginal zinc status. Therefore, the search continues to find a useful and reliable marker of marginal zinc deficiency. In an attempt to speculate on possible future developments in the zinc status assessment field, a number of new and potentially promising approaches to this problem are highlighted. PMID:10801942

Wood, R J

2000-05-01

394

Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-zinc(II) and -copper(II) complexes induce apoptosis in tumor cells by inhibiting the proteasomal activity  

SciTech Connect

Zinc and copper are trace elements essential for proper folding, stabilization and catalytic activity of many metalloenzymes in living organisms. However, disturbed zinc and copper homeostasis is reported in many types of cancer. We have previously demonstrated that copper complexes induced proteasome inhibition and apoptosis in cultured human cancer cells. In the current study we hypothesized that zinc complexes could also inhibit the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity responsible for subsequent apoptosis induction. We first showed that zinc(II) chloride was able to inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of a purified 20S proteasome with an IC{sub 50} value of 13.8 {mu}M, which was less potent than copper(II) chloride (IC{sub 50} 5.3 {mu}M). We then compared the potencies of a pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PyDT)-zinc(II) complex and a PyDT-copper(II) complex to inhibit cellular proteasomal activity, suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in various human breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Consistently, zinc complex was less potent than copper complex in inhibiting the proteasome and inducing apoptosis. Additionally, zinc and copper complexes appear to use somewhat different mechanisms to kill tumor cells. Zinc complexes were able to activate calpain-, but not caspase-3-dependent pathway, while copper complexes were able to induce activation of both proteases. Furthermore, the potencies of these PyDT-metal complexes depend on the nature of metals and also on the ratio of PyDT to the metal ion within the complex, which probably affects their stability and availability for interacting with and inhibiting the proteasome in tumor cells.

Milacic, Vesna; Chen Di [Prevention Program, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Giovagnini, Lorena [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, via Marzolo 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Diez, Alejandro [Department of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Fregona, Dolores [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, via Marzolo 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Dou, Q. Ping [Prevention Program, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States)], E-mail: doup@karmanos.org

2008-08-15

395

[Municipal wastewater treatment using a composite flocculant made of polyaluminum chloride and polydimethyldiallyammonium chloride].  

PubMed

A composite flocculant (denoted JYF-1), made of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and polydimethyldiallyammonium chloride (PDMDAAC), was used in jar-tests to simulate the chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) for municipal wastewater. Removal of particles, organic compounds, nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater was investigated, and the effects of pH and surface overflow rate (SOR) on flocculation were also examined. Electrical charge and distribution of particles in wastewater were analyzed before and after flocculation. Furthermore, the flocculation mechanism and application of JYF-1 in CEPT were discussed. The results demonstrate that JYF-1 performs better than PAC under a wide pH and SOR range. When 8 mg x L(-1) JYF-1 is added, 76.72% COD and 64.31% soluble COD (SCOD) can be removed. About 90% soluble TP (STP), 80% TP and 20% TN can be removed by addition of 12 mg x L(-1) JYF-1. After flocculation, the BOD/COD ratio increases from 0.23 to 0.53, which indicates the biodegradation ability of wastewater is improved. It can be concluded that JYF-1 is a high-efficiency low-cost flocculant, which can improve outlet water quality and produce less sludge without changing the existing equipments and treating process in sewage plants. PMID:17990553

Lu, Lei; Gao, Bao-yu; Xu, Chun-hua; Yue, Qin-yan; Cao, Bai-chuan; Xu, Shi-ping; Li, Wei-wei

2007-09-01

396

Clioquinol induces autophagy in cultured astrocytes and neurons by acting as a zinc ionophore.  

PubMed

Recent studies have demonstrated that clioquinol, an antibiotic with an anti-amyloid effect, acts as a zinc ionophore under physiological conditions. Because increases in labile zinc may induce autophagy, we examined whether clioquinol induces autophagy in cultured astrocytes in a zinc-dependent manner. Within 1h of exposure to 0.1-10 ?M clioquinol, the levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II, a marker of autophagy, began to increase in astrocytes. Confocal live-cell imaging of GFP-LC3-transfected astrocytes showed the formation of LC3(+) autophagic vacuoles (AVs), providing a further indication that clioquinol induced autophagy. Addition of 3-methyladenine or small-interfering RNA against autophagy-related gene 6 (ATG6/Beclin-1) blocked clioquinol-induced increases in LC3-II. FluoZin-3 fluorescence microscopy showed that, like the zinc ionophore pyrithione, clioquinol increased intracellular zinc levels in the cytosol and AVs in an extracellular zinc-dependent manner. Zinc chelation with N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN) reduced, and addition of zinc increased the levels of LC3-II and LC3(+) puncta, indicating that zinc influx plays a key role therein. Moreover, astrocytes and SH-SY5Y cells expressing mutant huntingtin (mHttQ74) accumulated less aggregates when treated with clioquinol, and this effect was reversed by TPEN. These results indicate that clioquinol-induced autophagy is likely to be physiologically functional. The present study demonstrates that clioquinol induces autophagy in a zinc-dependent manner and contributes to clearance of aggregated proteins in astrocytes and neurons. Hence, in addition to its metal-chelating effect in and around amyloid beta (A?) plaques, clioquinol may contribute to the reduction of A? loads by activating autophagy by increasing or normalizing intracellular zinc levels in brain cells. PMID:21220021

Park, Mi-Ha; Lee, Sook-Jeong; Byun, Hyae-Ran; Kim, Yunha; Oh, Young J; Koh, Jae-Young; Hwang, Jung Jin

2011-06-01

397

Lactating and nonlactating rats differ to renal toxicity induced by mercuric chloride: the preventive effect of zinc chloride.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effects of HgCl2 on renal parameters in nonlactating and lactating rats and their pups, as well as the preventive role of ZnCl2 . Rats received 27?mg?kg(-1) ZnCl2 for five consecutive days and 5?mg?kg(-1) HgCl2 for five subsequent days (s.c.). A decrease in ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (?-ALA-D) activity in the blood and an increase in urine protein content in renal weight as well as in blood and urine Hg levels were observed in lactating and nonlactating rats from Sal-Hg and Zn-Hg groups. ZnCl2 prevented partially the ?-ALA-D inhibition and the proteinuria in nonlactating rats. Renal Hg levels were increased in all HgCl2 groups, and the ZnCl2 exposure potentiated this effect in lactating rats. Nonlactating rats exposed to HgCl2 exhibited an increase in plasma urea and creatinine levels, ?-ALA-D activity inhibition and histopathological alterations (necrosis, atrophic tubules and collagen deposition) in the kidneys. ZnCl2 exposure prevented the biochemical alterations. Hg-exposed pups showed lower body and renal weight and an increase in the renal Hg levels. In conclusion, mercury-induced nephrotoxicity differs considerably between lactating and nonlactating rats. Moreover, prior exposure with ZnCl2 may provide protection to individuals who get exposed to mercury occupationally or accidentally. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24619859

Favero, Alexandre M; Oliveira, Cláudia S; Franciscato, Carina; Oliveira, Vitor A; Pereira, Juliana S F; Bertoncheli, Claudia M; da Luz, Sônia C A; Dressler, Valderi L; Flores, Erico M M; Pereira, Maria E

2014-07-01

398

Effects of zinc on interleukins and antioxidant enzyme values in psoriasis-induced mice.  

PubMed

The effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2), disodium zinc ethylenediamine tetraacetate (Zn-EDTA), and zinc gluconate (Zn-GLU) on the antioxidant enzyme activities and levels of interleukins (ILs) in psoriasis-induced mice were studied. One hundred twenty female mice were randomly divided into six groups with 20 mice in each group: the control, positive control (PC), methotrexate (MTX), ZnCl2, Zn-EDTA, and Zn-GLU groups. All animals except the control group were given diethylstilbestrol for three consecutive days. After successfully inducing psoriasis, the control and PC groups were given normal saline (i.g.) daily while the remaining groups were given MTX, ZnCl2, Zn-EDTA, and Zn-GLU, respectively. The results revealed that the zinc supplementation could significantly (p?zinc forms. After ZnCl2, Zn-EDTA, and Zn-GLU supplementation, the levels of liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) activities increased and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased significantly (p?zinc supplementation group and MTX group were insignificant (p?>?0.05). The zinc treatments also caused a significant (p?zinc as a complementary pharmaceutical intervention for the treatment of topical psoriasis. PMID:24018880

Yin, L L; Zhang, Y; Guo, D M; An, K; Yin, M S; Cui, X

2013-12-01

399

Zinc Treatment to Under-five Children: Applications to Improve Child Survival and Reduce Burden of Disease  

PubMed Central

Zinc is an essential micronutrient associated with over 300 biological functions. Marginal zinc deficiency states are common among children living in poverty and exposed to diets either low in zinc or high in phytates that compromise zinc uptake. These children are at increased risk of morbidity due to infectious diseases, including diarrhoea and respiratory infection. Children aged less than five years (under-five children) and those exposed to zinc-deficient diets will benefit from either daily supplementation of zinc or a 10 to 14-day course of zinc treatment for an episode of acute diarrhoea. This includes less severe illness and a reduced likelihood of repeat episodes of diarrhoea. Given these findings, the World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund now recommend that all children with an acute diarrhoeal illness be treated with zinc, regardless of aetiology. ICDDR.B scientists have led the way in identifying the benefits of zinc. Now, in partnership with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of Bangladesh and the private sector, the first national scaling up of zinc treatment has been carried out. Important challenges remain in terms of reaching the poorest families and those living in remote areas of Bangladesh.

Larson, Charles P.; Roy, S.K.; Khan, Azharul Islam; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Qadri, Firdausi

2008-01-01

400

Effect of Supplementation with Zinc and Other Micronutrients on Malaria in Tanzanian Children: A Randomised Trial  

PubMed Central

Background It is uncertain to what extent oral supplementation with zinc can reduce episodes of malaria in endemic areas. Protection may depend on other nutrients. We measured the effect of supplementation with zinc and other nutrients on malaria rates. Methods and Findings In a 2×2 factorial trial, 612 rural Tanzanian children aged 6–60 months in an area with intense malaria transmission and with height-for-age z-score??1.5 SD were randomized to receive daily oral supplementation with either zinc alone (10 mg), multi-nutrients without zinc, multi-nutrients with zinc, or placebo. Intervention group was indicated by colour code, but neither participants, researchers, nor field staff knew who received what intervention. Those with Plasmodium infection at baseline were treated with artemether-lumefantrine. The primary outcome, an episode of malaria, was assessed among children reported sick at a primary care clinic, and pre-defined as current Plasmodium infection with an inflammatory response, shown by axillary temperature ?37.5°C or whole blood C-reactive protein concentration ?8 mg/L. Nutritional indicators were assessed at baseline and at 251 days (median; 95% reference range: 191–296 days). In the primary intention-to-treat analysis, we adjusted for pre-specified baseline factors, using Cox regression models that accounted for multiple episodes per child. 592 children completed the study. The primary analysis included 1,572 malaria episodes during 526 child-years of observation (median follow-up: 331 days). Malaria incidence in groups receiving zinc, multi-nutrients without zinc, multi-nutrients with zinc and placebo was 2.89/child-year, 2.95/child-year, 3.26/child-year, and 2.87/child-year, respectively. There was no evidence that multi-nutrients influenced the effect of zinc (or vice versa). Neither zinc nor multi-nutrients influenced malaria rates (marginal analysis; adjusted HR, 95% CI: 1.04, 0.93–1.18 and 1.10, 0.97–1.24 respectively). The prevalence of zinc deficiency (plasma zinc concentration <9.9 µmol/L) was high at baseline (67% overall; 60% in those without inflammation) and strongly reduced by zinc supplementation. Conclusions We found no evidence from this trial that zinc supplementation protected against malaria. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00623857 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

Veenemans, Jacobien; Milligan, Paul; Prentice, Andrew M.; Schouten, Laura R. A.; Inja, Nienke; van der Heijden, Aafke C.; de Boer, Linsey C. C.; Jansen, Esther J. S.; Koopmans, Anna E.; Enthoven, Wendy T. M.; Kraaijenhagen, Rob J.; Demir, Ayse Y.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Mbugi, Erasto V.; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Verhoef, Hans

2011-01-01

401

Zinc Bells Rang in Jerusalem!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

“Oh, Jerusalem of gold, and of light, and of bronze…” goes the popular song. But it was another metal that towered above the Jerusalem landscape during the meeting of the International Society for Zinc Biology (ISZB; http://www.iszb.org/), held at Mishkenot Sha’ananim, a whisper away from the Old City walls. More than 100 scientists gathered on 1 to 5 December 2009 to discuss their research on the biology of this metal. Zinc is a double-edged sword. Zinc supplementation accelerates wound healing and growth and promotes an effective immune response. On the other hand, zinc deficiency leads to growth retardation and impaired learning and memory function, and has been linked to mood disorders. At the cellular level, however, uncontrolled increases in zinc concentrations can lead to neuronal cell death and may be involved in neurodegenerative disorders. Through regulation of various intracellular signaling pathways, zinc can accelerate cell growth and possibly contribute to cancer. However, despite the physiological and clinical importance of this metal, research on the molecular basis of these effects is still in its infancy. The 2009 ISZB meeting provided a venue for investigators working on various zinc-related issues to share their thoughts and ideas and to promote the growth of this field.

Michal Hershfinkel (Ben Gurion University;Department of Morphology REV); Elias Aizenman (University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine;Department of Neurobiology REV); Glen Andrews (University of Kansas Medical Center;Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology REV); Israel Sekler (Ben Gurion University;Department of Physiology REV)

2010-07-06

402

Corneal Neurotoxicity Due to Topical Benzalkonium Chloride  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize the effect of topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on corneal nerves in vivo and in vitro. Methods. Thy1-YFP+ neurofluorescent mouse eyes were treated topically with vehicle or BAK (0.01% or 0.1%). Wide-field stereofluorescence microscopy was performed to sequentially image the treated corneas in vivo every week for 4 weeks, and changes in stromal nerve fiber density (NFD) and aqueous tear production were determined. Whole-mount immunofluorescence staining of corneas was performed with antibodies to axonopathy marker SMI-32. Western immunoblot analyses were performed on trigeminal ganglion and corneal lysates to determine abundance of proteins associated with neurotoxicity and regeneration. Compartmental culture of trigeminal ganglion neurons was performed in Campenot devices to determine whether BAK affects neurite outgrowth. Results. BAK-treated corneas exhibited significantly reduced NFD and aqueous tear production, and increased inflammatory cell infiltration and fluorescein staining at 1 week (P < 0.05). These changes were most significant after 0.1% BAK treatment. The extent of inflammatory cell infiltration in the cornea showed a significant negative correlation with NFD. Sequential in vivo imaging of corneas showed two forms of BAK-induced neurotoxicity: reversible neurotoxicity characterized by axonopathy and recovery, and irreversible neurotoxicity characterized by nerve degeneration and regeneration. Increased abundance of beta III tubulin in corneal lysates confirmed regeneration. A dose-related significant reduction in neurites occurred after BAK addition to compartmental cultures of dissociated trigeminal ganglion cells. Although both BAK doses (0.0001% and 0.001%) reduced nerve fiber length, the reduction was significantly more with the higher dose (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Topical application of BAK to the eye causes corneal neurotoxicity, inflammation, and reduced aqueous tear production.

Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Namavari, Abed; Ozturk, Okan; Chang, Jin-Hong; Yco, Lisette; Sonawane, Snehal; Khanolkar, Vishakha; Hallak, Joelle; Jain, Sandeep

2012-01-01

403

V-ATPase dysfunction under excess zinc inhibits Arabidopsis cell expansion.  

PubMed

Although zinc is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms, zinc is harmful to cells at high levels. In the presence of excess zinc, plants exhibit several major symptoms, including root growth inhibition, abnormal root hair morphology and chlorosis. To dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of excess zinc on plant cells, we used aniTRA Q-based quantitative proteomics approach to analyze the microsomal protein profiles of Arabidopsis roots from wild-type (WT) plants and de-etiolated 3-1 (det3-1), a vacuolar H+ -AT Pase (V-AT Pase) subunit C-defective mutant. A comparative analysis of the iTRA Q data from WT and det3-1 plants exposed to excess zinc suggests that the reduction in V-AT Pase subunit levels and its activity are the cause of the symptoms of zinc toxicity, including the inhibition of cell expansion. Provided that reduced V-AT Pase activity in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) alone can inhibit cell expansion, it is possible that the det3-1 mutant phenotype is caused mainly by a defect in TGN acidification, leading to reduced cell wall component trafficking and cell expansion in the presence of excess zinc. To evaluate the contribution of V-AT Pase activity to vacuolar acidification under excess zinc, the vacuolar pH was measured. Our results indicate clear alkalinization of deep cell vacuoles treated with 300 ?M ZnSO4. PMID:21847017

Fukao, Yoichiro; Ferjani, Ali

2011-09-01

404

Iron control in zinc pressure leach processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of zinc in sulfide ore deposits is generally accompanied by various iron minerals. Hence, even the most efficient concentrators generally produce a zinc concentrate with significant iron content. The efficient recovery of zinc metal from zinc concentrates requires the rejection of iron residue in a form that minimizes the zinc entrainment. Careful control of the iron precipitation step is important, so that the iron residue produced is amenable to efficient liquid-solid separation in order to obtain high zinc recoveries. In hydrometallurgical zinc processes, the coprecipitation of minor impurities along with iron precipitation is also important in producing zinc-sulfate solution from which high-purity zinc cathode can be electrowon. The integration of Dynatec’s zinc pressure leach process with existing roast-leach-electrowin plants employing various methods of iron rejection is briefly described in this article, along with the application of two-stage pressure leaching in stand-alone processes.

Buban, K. R.; Collins, M. J.; Masters, I. M.

1999-12-01

405

A Zinc Sulphate-Resistant Acrodermatitis Enteropathica Patient with a Novel Mutation in SLC39A4 Gene.  

PubMed

Acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of zinc deficiency due to an abnormal intestinal zinc transporter. It is characterized by the triad of acral dermatitis, alopecia, and diarrhoea. Once AE is correctly diagnosed, patients are treated with orally administered zinc sulphate. In some patients, relapses occur during adolescence, despite the regular treatment. Here, we discuss the clinical and molecular features of a 13-year-old adolescent girl with acrodermatitis enteropathica who was resistant to high-dose zinc sulphate therapy. We successfully treated the patient with zinc gluconate and vitamin C, and we detected a novel homozygous c.541_551dup (p.Leu186fsX38) mutation in the exon 3 of her SLC39A4 gene. PMID:23430849

Kilic, M; Taskesen, M; Coskun, T; Gürakan, F; Tokatli, A; Sivri, H S; Dursun, A; Schmitt, S; Küry, S

2012-01-01

406

Zinc recovery from steel-making wastes by acid pressure leaching and hematite precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrometallurgical extraction of zinc from EAF dust and steel-making sludge was studied. These materials were treated with sulphuric acid at elevated pressure using microwave heating. More than 92% of zinc can be leached out using 0.3M acid solution at 260°C. Fe(II) remained in solution while most of the Fe(III) was precipitated as hematite. The iron concentration in the leach

Šárka Langová; Dalibor Matýsek

2010-01-01

407

[Rubidium chloride in the treatment of major depression].  

PubMed

The present study evaluated 20 patients (18 females and 2 males: mean age 55 +/- 8.8 years) suffering from major depression who had been treated with 360/720 mg/die rubidium chloride for 60 days. A gradual and significant improvement in depressive symptoms (HDRS and Zung Scale) and anxiety (Stai X1 and HamARS) was reported. Serum levels were not correlated to clinical improvement. Slight adverse effects were also observed (diarrhea and skin rashes). Rubidium chloride showed a marked and rapid anti-depressive action which was particularly evident in relation to mood, anti-conservative ideas, work, occupational interests and psychomotory slowing-down. It is clear that these symptoms represent the most important aspects of the polymorphous depressive syndrome and, in some ways, this improvement should be interpreted as the effective influence of the drug on the biological contest of mood changes. PMID:8412574

Torta, R; Ala, G; Borio, R; Cicolin, A; Costamagna, S; Fiori, L; Ravizza, L

1993-06-01

408

Development of an animal model of nephrocalcinosis via selective dietary sodium and chloride depletion  

PubMed Central

Background Nephrocalcinosis (NC) is an important clinical problem seen in critically ill pre-term neonates treated with loop diuretics. No reliable animal models are available to study the pathogenesis of NC in preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to develop a reproducible and clinically relevant animal model of NC for these patients, and to explore the impact of extracellular fluid (ECF) volume contraction induced by sodium and chloride depletion in this process. Methods Three-week old weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets deficient in either chloride or sodium and chloride. A sub-group of rats from each dietary group was injected daily with furosemide (40 mg/kg; i.p.). Results Rats fed a control diet, with or without furosemide, or a chloride depleted diet alone, did not develop NC. In contrast, 50% of the rats injected with furosemide and fed the chloride depleted diet developed NC. Moreover, 94% of the rats fed the combined sodium/chloride depleted diet developed NC, independently of furosemide use. NC was associated with the development of severe ECF volume contraction, hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, increased phosphaturia, and growth retardation. Conclusion Severe ECF volume contraction induced by chronic sodium and chloride depletion appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of NC.

Tuchman, Shamir; Asico, Laureano D.; Escano, Crisanto; Bobb, Daniel A.; Ray, Patricio E.

2013-01-01

409

Methods and Compositions for Treating Gain-of-Function Disorders Using RNA Interference.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to novel methods for treating dominant gain-of-function diseases. The invention provides methods for targeting regions of the copper zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), which causes inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...

X. Xia Z. Xu

2005-01-01

410

Equilibrium properties of zinc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total-energy and electronic-structure calculations have been performed for elemental zinc in the fcc, bcc, and hcp structures, using the general-potential linearized-augmented-plane-wave method within the local-density approximation. Calculated static structural properties for the hcp structure in good agreement with experimental data as well as the correct ordering of phases are obtained. In order to assess the importance of non-muffin-tin contributions to the potential, calculations have also been performed using a muffin-tin-approximation augmented-plane-wave code. It is found that, while the close-packed fcc phase can be rather well described using a muffin-tin potential, the bcc phase is not as well described in this approximation.

Singh, D.; Papaconstantopoulos, D. A.

1990-11-01

411

Metallothionein I and II Protect against Zinc Deficiency and Zinc Toxicity in Mice1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallothionein (MT)-bound zinc accu mulates when animals are exposed to excess zinc and is depleted under conditions of zinc deficiency, sug gesting that MT serves as a means of sequestering excess zinc as well as a zinc reservoir that can be utilized when zinc is deficient. To examine the impor tance of MT for these processes, mice with null alíeles

EDWARD J. KELLY; CAROL J. QUAIFE; GLENDA J. FROELICK; RICHARD D. PALMITER

412

Coupling of chiral 1-bromo-1,2-dienes with zinc-based cuprates: a new procedure for the regio and stereoselective synthesis of functionalized acetylenic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc alkylcyanocuprates (Knochel reagents) are found to be active in the cross-coupling reaction with allenic bromides affording acetylenic products with a high regio and stereoselective 1,3-anti substitution. The coupling process, which has been successfully extended to functionalized cuprates, can also be performed with alkylzinc chlorides in the presence of catalytic amounts of cuprous salts.

Anna Maria Caporusso; Sara Filippi; Federica Barontini; Piero Salvadori

2000-01-01

413

Depleted zinc: Properties, application, production.  

PubMed

The addition of ZnO, depleted in the Zn-64 isotope, to the water of boiling water nuclear reactors lessens the accumulation of Co-60 on the reactor interior surfaces, reduces radioactive wastes and increases the reactor service-life because of the inhibitory action of zinc on inter-granular stress corrosion cracking. To the same effect depleted zinc in the form of acetate dihydrate is used in pressurized water reactors. Gas centrifuge isotope separation method is applied for production of depleted zinc on the industrial scale. More than 20 years of depleted zinc application history demonstrates its benefits for reduction of NPP personnel radiation exposure and combating construction materials corrosion. PMID:19318263

Borisevich, V D; Pavlov, A V; Okhotina, I A

2009-01-01

414

[Treating epilepsy].  

PubMed

Epilepsy is not one single disease but a major symptom in a wide variety of brain disorders, hence better referred to as the epilepsies. Treating epilepsy requires expert knowledge about the disorders themselves and the various treatment options. The basis for optimal treatment is a correct diagnosis of the patient's type epilepsy and identification of seizure-provoking factors. The need for chronic drug treatment must be weighted against possible side effects. Several different drugs may be effective for a given type of seizure or epilepsy but drug effectiveness must be considered in relation to interactions and possible adverse effects. Even with optimal drug treatment, only about two thirds of patients achieve complete seizure control. In selected cases surgical treatment is very effective and should be considered in all patients who do not achieve seizure control within two years after having tried relevant antiepileptic drugs in optimal concentrations. PMID:12830269

Gjerstad, Leif; Taubøll, Erik; Røste, Geir Ketil

2003-06-26

415

Recent Developments in Silver/Zinc Rechargeable Cell Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation discusses silver/zinc cell casing configurations and test results examining discharge capacity and silver migration comparisons. The following recommendations were proposed: 1) Use silver-treated cellophane instead of clear cellophane; 2) Use split wrap for cellophane whenever possible; and 3) Strongly consider use of sausage casing with PVA film in the following configuration: 1-mil (tubular) SC/1-mil PVA film/2.3-mil plain or 6-mil fiber-reinforced SC tubular.

Lewis, Harlan L.

2001-01-01

416

Lithium chloride protects retinal neurocytes from nutrient deprivation by promoting DNA non-homologous end-joining  

SciTech Connect

Lithium chloride is a therapeutic agent for treatment of bipolar affective disorders. Increasing numbers of studies have indicated that lithium has neuroprotective effects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of lithium have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate whether lithium chloride produces neuroprotective function by improving DNA repair pathway in retinal neurocyte. In vitro, the primary cultured retinal neurocytes (85.7% are MAP-2 positive cells) were treated with lithium chloride, then cultured with serum-free media to simulate the nutrient deprived state resulting from ischemic insult. The neurite outgrowth of the cultured cells increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner when exposed to different levels of lithium chloride. Genomic DNA electrophoresis demonstrated greater DNA integrity of retinal neurocytes when treated with lithium chloride as compared to the control. Moreover, mRNA and protein levels of Ligase IV (involved in DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway) in retinal neurocytes increased with lithium chloride. The end joining activity assay was performed to determine the role of lithium on NHEJ in the presence of extract from retinal neurocytes. The rejoining levels in retinal neurocytes treated with lithium were significantly increased as compared to the control. Furthermore, XRCC4, the Ligase IV partner, and the transcriptional factor, CREB and CTCF, were up-regulated in retinal cells after treating with 1.0 mM lithium chloride. Therefore, our data suggest that lithium chloride protects the retinal neural cells from nutrient deprivation in vitro, which may be similar to the mechanism of cell death in glaucoma. The improvement in DNA repair pathway involving in Ligase IV might have an important role in lithium neuroprotection. This study provides new insights into the neural protective mechanisms of lithium chloride.

Zhuang Jing; Li Fan; Liu Xuan; Liu Zhiping; Lin Jianxian [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Ge Yihong [Department of Stomatology, the Southern Medical University (China); Kaminski, Joseph M. [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation, University of South Alabama (United States); Summers, James Bradley [Department of Radiology, University of South Alabama (United States); Wang Zhichong [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Ge Jian [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)], E-mail: gejian@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Yu Keming [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 54 S Xianlie Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)], E-mail: yukeming@mail.sysu.edu.cn

2009-03-13

417

Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition  

DOEpatents

A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

1981-10-08

418

Clinical pharmacokinetics of trospium chloride.  

PubMed

Trospium chloride, a quaternary amine with anticholinergic properties, is used for the treatment of overactive bladder with symptoms of urge urinary incontinence, urgency and urinary frequency. The pharmacokinetics of trospium chloride have been investigated in healthy volunteers, in patients with renal and hepatic impairment, and in those with symptoms of overactive bladder, after oral, intravenous and intravesical administration. After oral administration, absorption of the hydrophilic trospium chloride is slow and incomplete. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) of approximately 4 ng/mL are reached 4-5 hours after administration of a 20 mg immediate-release preparation. The mean bioavailability is approximately 10% and decreases by concomitant food intake (to a mean of 26% of the fasting area under the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC]). Trospium chloride displays dose proportional increases in AUC and Cmax after a single dose within the clinically relevant dose range (20-60 mg). The mean volume of distribution is approximately 350-800 L. The drug is minimally (mean approximately 10%) metabolised to spiroalcohol by hydrolysis, is 50% plasma protein bound and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Urinary excretion of the parent compound plays a major role in the disposition of the drug, with a mean renal clearance of 29 L/h (accounting for approximately 70% of total clearance) and a mean elimination half-life ranging from 10 to 20 hours. Elimination of the drug is slowed in patients with renal insufficiency, and population pharmacokinetic modelling has demonstrated that drug clearance is correlated with serum creatinine concentration. Thus, dose reduction is needed in patients with severe renal impairment (i.e. creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min). To date, no clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions have been identified; the drug does not bind to any of the drug metabolising cytochrome P450 enzymes. The pharmacokinetics of the drug are compatible with twice-daily administration. A once-daily schedule may also be appropriate, but this regimen needs formal clinical evaluation. PMID:15966754

Doroshyenko, Oxana; Jetter, Alexander; Odenthal, Karl P; Fuhr, Uwe

2005-01-01

419

Chloride Transporting CLC Proteins1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the early 1980s, Chris Miller and colleagues described a curious "double-barreled" chloride channel from the electric organ of Torpedo fish reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers (Miller and White, 1980). Single-channel openings occurred in "bursts" separated by long closures. A single burst was characterized by the presence of two open conductance levels of equal size and the gating (i.e., openings and closings) during a burst could be almost perfectly described as a superposition of two identical and independent conductances that switched between open and closed states with voltage-dependent rates ? and ? (Hanke and Miller, 1983) (Fig. 8.1).

Pusch, Michael

420

Carbothermal reduction of zinc ferrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carbothermal reduction of zinc ferrite was studied using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), wet chemical analysis, scanning electron\\u000a microscope (SEM), surface area meter, and thermogravimetrical analysis (TGA) systems. Zinc ferrite was found to be decomposed\\u000a to ZnO and Fe2O3 initially and carbothermal reduction of ZnO and Fe2O3 took place simultaneously. The results of the surface area measurement indicated that the surface

Jyh-Jen Lee; Chun-I Lin; Hsi-Kuei Chen

2001-01-01

421

Zinc in innate and adaptive tumor immunity  

PubMed Central

Zinc is important. It is the second most abundant trace metal with 2-4 grams in humans. It is an essential trace element, critical for cell growth, development and differentiation, DNA synthesis, RNA transcription, cell division, and cell activation. Zinc deficiency has adverse consequences during embryogenesis and early childhood development, particularly on immune functioning. It is essential in members of all enzyme classes, including over 300 signaling molecules and transcription factors. Free zinc in immune and tumor cells is regulated by 14 distinct zinc importers (ZIP) and transporters (ZNT1-8). Zinc depletion induces cell death via apoptosis (or necrosis if apoptotic pathways are blocked) while sufficient zinc levels allows maintenance of autophagy. Cancer cells have upregulated zinc importers, and frequently increased zinc levels, which allow them to survive. Based on this novel synthesis, approaches which locally regulate zinc levels to promote survival of immune cells and/or induce tumor apoptosis are in order.

2010-01-01

422

Effect of aluminium chloride on binding of 4-hydroxyamino-quinoline 1-oxide to nucleotides.  

PubMed

Effect of aluminium chloride on the binding of carcinogenic 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline 1-oxide (4-HAQO) with mouse lung DNA, RNA, and various homopolyribonucleotides was examined in vitro, in the presence of seryl-AMP. Mouse lung DNA, RNA, or homopolyribonucleotide [poly(A), poly(G), poly(I), poly(X), poly(C), or poly(U)] was pretreated with aluminium chloride in an ice bath and the binding with 4-HAQO was examined. Binding with DNA, RNA, poly(A), and poly(G) was markedly inhibited, and their binding rates were 46%, 56%, 53%, and 18% of that of the control, respectively. Binding with poly(C) and poly(U) was hardly different from that of the control. Consequently, effect of aluminium chloride in inhibiting the binding of 4-HAQO with mouse lung DNA and RNA is assumed to be due to the inhibition of its binding with guanine. Effect of various metals (Mg2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, and Fe3+) on the binding of 4-HAQO with mouse lung DNA was examined and it was found that aluminium chloride had the strongest inhibitory effect, followed by copper and zinc. Trivalent iron showed hardly any inhibition. PMID:111996

Yamane, Y; Ohtawa, M

1979-06-01

423

75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject...

2010-04-20

424

Production of chlorine from chloride salts  

DOEpatents

A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

Rohrmann, Charles A. (Kennewick, WA)

1981-01-01

425

Fabrication Of Metal Chloride Cathodes By Sintering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transition-metal chloride cathodes for use in high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries prepared by sintering transition-metal powders mixed with sodium chloride. Need for difficult and dangerous chlorination process eliminated. Proportions of transition metal and sodium chloride in mixture adjusted to suit specific requirements. Cathodes integral to sodium/metal-chloride batteries, which have advantages over sodium/sulfur batteries including energy densities, increased safety, reduced material and thermal-management problems, and ease of operation and assembly. Being evaluated for supplying electrical power during peak demand and electric vehicles.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Di Stefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

1992-01-01

426

BLOOD CHLORIDES IN CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH PNEUMONIA  

PubMed Central

Attempts have been made in dogs to lower the serum chlorides by means of various procedures. Of these the withholding of food, anoxemia, tissue destruction, anaphylactic shock, leucocytosis, and fever yielded negative results. Ingestion of large amounts of water lowered the chloride level independently of body temperature. The chloride drop under these circumstances could not be accounted for by excretion and appeared to run parallel with an increase in the serum water content. Experimental pneumococcus infection in two animals reduced the serum chloride concentration.

Binger, Carl A. L.; Christie, Ronald V.; Davis, John Staige; Hiller, Alma

1929-01-01

427

Enrofloxacin hydro-chloride dihydrate.  

PubMed

The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H23FN3O3 (+)·Cl(-)·2H2O [systematic name: 4-(3-carb-oxy-1-cyclo-propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-di-hydro-quin-o-lin-7-yl)-1-ethyl-piperazin-1-ium chloride dihydrate], consists of two independent monocations of the protonated enrofloxacin, two chloride anions and four water mol-ecules. In the cations, the piperazinium rings adopt chair conformations and the dihedral angles between the cyclo-propyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring system are 56.55?(2) and 51.11?(2)°. An intra-molecular O-H?O hydrogen bond is observed in each cation. In the crystal, the components are connected via O-H?Cl, N-H?Cl and O-H?O hydrogen bonds, and a ?-? inter-action between the benzene rings [centroid-centroid distance = 3.6726?(13)?Å], resulting in a three-dimensional array. PMID:24826167

Miranda-Calderón, Jorge E; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Sumano, Héctor

2014-04-01

428

Enrofloxacin hydro-chloride dihydrate  

PubMed Central

The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H23FN3O3 +·Cl?·2H2O [systematic name: 4-(3-carb­oxy-1-cyclo­propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-di­hydro­quin­o­lin-7-yl)-1-ethyl­piperazin-1-ium chloride dihydrate], consists of two independent monocations of the protonated enrofloxacin, two chloride anions and four water mol­ecules. In the cations, the piperazinium rings adopt chair conformations and the dihedral angles between the cyclo­propyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring system are 56.55?(2) and 51.11?(2)°. An intra­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bond is observed in each cation. In the crystal, the components are connected via O—H?Cl, N—H?Cl and O—H?O hydrogen bonds, and a ?–? inter­action between the benzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.6726?(13)?Å], resulting in a three-dimensional array.

Miranda-Calderon, Jorge E.; Gutierrez, Lilia; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; Garcia-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Sumano, Hector

2014-01-01

429

Arsenic removal by ferric chloride  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale studies were conducted in model freshwater systems to investigate how various parameters affected arsenic removal during coagulation with ferric chloride and arsenic adsorption onto preformed hydrous ferric oxide. Parameters included arsenic oxidation state and initial concentration, coagulant dosage or adsorbent concentration, pH, and the presence of co-occurring inorganic solutes. Comparison of coagulation and adsorption experiments and of experimental results with predictions based on surface complexation modeling demonstrated that adsorption is an important (though not the sole) mechanism governing arsenic removal during coagulation. Under comparable conditions, better removal was observed with arsenic(V) [As(V)] than with arsenic(III) [As(III)] in both coagulation and adsorption experiments. Below neutral pH values, As(III) removal-adsorption was significantly decreased in the presence of sulfate, whereas only a slight decrease in As(V) removal-adsorption was observed. At high pH, removal-adsorption of As(V) was increased in the presence of calcium. Removal of As(V) during coagulation with ferric chloride is both more efficient and less sensitive than that of As(III) to variations in source water composition.

Hering, J.G.; Chen, P.Y.; Wilkie, J.A.; Elimelech, M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Liang, S. [Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, La Verne, CA (United States)

1996-04-01

430

Irreversible gettering of thionyl chloride  

SciTech Connect

The authors have successfully demonstrated the irreversible gettering of SOCl{sub 2} by ZnO/ASZMTEDA carbon over a modest temperature range. While thionyl chloride decomposition was slow below {minus}20 C, lower temperatures are expected to be less of a problem than at higher temperatures. The approximately 30 cc of thionyl chloride in a typical D-cell would require 50 g of ZnO and 107 g of ASZMTEDA carbon. Fortunately, since it is unlikely to happen at all, it is common practice to assume only one cell will fail (leak) in a given battery pack. So, one charge of getter can protect the whole battery pack. In summary, ZnO/ASZMTEDA carbon fulfills all of the requirements of an ideal getter including: irreversible binding or reaction with SOCl{sub 2}, high volumetric uptake capacity, high efficiency, non-volatile, air stable, insensitive to poisoning, non-toxic, cheap, non-corrosive, and the gettering product is not a liquid or oil that could block further flow or accessibility. Future work in this area includes incorporation of the ZnO and carbon into a structural open-celled porous monolith, as well as, gettering for other types of batteries (e.g., Li/MnO{sub 2}).

LeRoy Whinnery; Steve Goods; George Buffleben; Tim Sheppodd

1999-11-01

431

A double-blind block randomized clinical trial on the effect of zinc as a treatment for diarrhea in neonatal Holstein calves under natural challenge conditions.  

PubMed

Diarrhea is the leading cause of death in neonatal calves and contributes to major economic losses. The objective of this double-blind randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of oral inorganic or organic zinc supplementation as a treatment for neonatal diarrhea in calves. Seventy nine 1 to 8 day old male Holstein calves on a California calf ranch were block randomized to one of 3 treatments within 24h from their first onset of diarrhea. Calves received a daily dose of either a placebo composed of 80 mg of zinc-free powder, 381.54 mg of zinc methionine (Met) (equivalent to 80 mg of zinc), or 99.69 mg of zinc oxide (ZO) (equivalent to 80 mg of zinc) in 2L of a zinc-free oral rehydration solution (ORS). Calves were treated once daily until normal fecal consistency or for a maximum of 14 days. Upon enrollment and exit, calves were weighed, and blood, feces, and liver biopsies were collected for trace mineral analysis. Fecal samples at enrollment and exit were tested for E. coli K99, Cryptosporidium spp., rotavirus and coronavirus. Pre-treatment liver zinc concentrations for the 71 calves in the placebo, zinc Met, and ZO treatment groups were 710.6 (SEM=147.7), 852.3 (SEM=129.6), and 750.7 (SEM=202.9)mg/kg dry weight (DW), respectively. Exit liver zinc concentrations for the calves in the placebo, zinc Met, and ZO treatment groups were 728.9 (SEM=182.9), 1141.0 (SEM=423.8), and 636.8 (SEM=81.5)mg/kg dry weight, respectively. Although statistically non-significant, there were clinically important findings identified for each of zinc Met and ZO treatments. Calves treated with zinc Met gained on average 40 g/day during a diarrhea episode compared to a weight loss of 67 g/day on average in the placebo-treated calves (Power 19.9%). Calves treated with ZO had 1.4 times higher hazard of clinical cure compared to calves in the placebo group (Power 5.3%). Calves that were fecal positive to cryptosporidium spp. at enrollment and treated with zinc Met had higher odds of testing negative at exit compared to placebo calves (Odds Ratio (OR)=16.0). In contrast, calves treated with ZO tended to recover (fecal score=1) one day earlier compared to calves treated with a placebo (8.5 d vs. 9.7 d). The current trial identified clinically important findings that warrant further research to investigate zinc's therapeutic effect for calf diarrhea. PMID:24074841

Glover, A D; Puschner, B; Rossow, H A; Lehenbauer, T W; Champagne, J D; Blanchard, P C; Aly, S S

2013-11-01

432

Durability of Adhesive Bonds to Zinc-Coated Steels: Effects of Corrosive Environments on Lap Shear Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of corrosive environments on adhesive bonds to electro-galvanized, zinc\\/aluminum alloy coated, coated electro-galvanized, and cold-rolled steels have been investigated. Bonds prepared using a rubber-modified dicyandiamide-cured epoxy adhesive, an epoxy-modified poly(vinyl chloride)-based adhesive, an acrylic-modified poly(vinyl chloride)-based adhesive a one-part urethane adhesive, and a two-component epoxy-modified acrylic adhesive were exposed under no-load conditions to constant high humidity or cyclic

J. W. Holubka; W. Chun; R. A. Dickie

1989-01-01

433

The effect of chloride ion on the ferric chloride leaching of galena concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous investigations of the ferric chloride brine leaching of galena concentrate have shown that additions of chloride\\u000a ion result in accelerated dissolution rates. The current study has provided the necessary information to extend and modify\\u000a these previous results by incorporating the important effect of chloride ion on the dissolution kinetics. As part of this\\u000a study the solubility of lead chloride

G. W. Warren; Seon-Hyo Kim; H. Henein

1987-01-01

434

Relative yield and zinc uptake by rice from zinc sulphate and zinc oxide coatings onto urea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc (Zn) deficiency is prevalent worldwide and is a barrier to achieving yield goals in crops. It is also now recognized\\u000a as a leading risk factor for disease in humans in developing countries. In general, soil application of 5–17 kg of Zn ha?1 year?1 as zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) or more is recommended. However, in developing rice growing countries of Asia, ZnSO4 of

Yashbir Singh Shivay; Dinesh Kumar; Rajendra Prasad; I. P. S. Ahlawat

2008-01-01

435

21 CFR 73.2995 - Luminescent zinc sulfide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Luminescent zinc sulfide. 73.2995 Section 73.2995... Cosmetics § 73.2995 Luminescent zinc sulfide. (a) Identity. The color additive luminescent zinc sulfide is zinc sulfide containing...

2013-04-01

436

Solubilities of Chloride Salts of Alkali and Alkaline-Earth Metals When Sparged with Hydrogen Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of hydrogen chloride (HCl) concentration and temperature on the solubility and hydration state of the alkali chlorides LiCl, NaCl, and KCl and the alkaline-earth chlorides, MgCl2, and CaCl2 were investigated by the Bureau of Mines. Saturated a...

E. G. Noble D. E. Shanks D. J. Bauer

1985-01-01

437

Electrochemical studies of zirconium and hafnium in alkali chloride and alkali fluoride-chloride molten salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical reduction of zirconium and hafnium in alkali chloride or fluoride-chloride molten salts on platinum electrodes has been investigated by means of linear and cyclic voltammetry. It has been found that fluoride ions greatly influenced the reduction of zirconium and hafnium in fluoride-chloride melts. It has been proposed that the mechanism for reduction of zirconium and hafnium in baths

Chen Guang-Sen; Masazumi Okido; Takeo Oki

1990-01-01

438

Inhalation toxicity of vinyl chloride and Vinylidene chloride*  

PubMed Central

Exposure of mice to 1000 ppm of vinyl chloride (VC), 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, caused some acute deaths with toxic hepatitis and marked tubular necrosis of the renal cortex. Starting the sixth month, mice exposed to 1000, 250, or 50 ppm of VC became lethargic, lost weight quickly, and died. Only a few mice exposed to 50 ppm survived for 12 months. Pulmonary macrophage count was elevated in some mice. There was a high incidence of bronchiolo-alveolar adenoma, mammary gland tumors including ductular adenocarcinoma, squamous and anaplastic cell carcinomas with metastasis to the lung, and hemangiosarcoma in the liver, and, to a lesser extent, in some other organs. The incidence of these tumors quickly increased, and the severity was in direct proportion to the levels of VC and the length of exposure. Malignant lymphoma involving various organs was observed in a few mice. Rats were more resistant to the toxic effects of VC. Exposure to 1000 ppm slightly depressed the body weight of the females. Exposures of 250 or 1000 ppm caused a number of deaths and hemangiosarcoma in the liver starting the ninth month. Most rats with hepatic hemangiosarcoma also developed hemangiosarcoma in the lung. Hemangiosarcoma occasionally occurred in other tissues of one or two rats exposed to 50 ppm or higher level of VC. Exposure of mice to 55 ppm of vinylidene chloride (VDC) also caused a few acute deaths and a few hepatic hemangiosarcomas. Inflammatory, degenerative, and mitotic changes occurred in the liver. No mouse exposed to VDC developed any mammary gland tumors. Several mice had bronchioloalveolar adenoma. Exposure of rats to 55 ppm of VDC slightly depressed the body weight. Hemangiosarcoma occurred in the mesenteric lymph node or subcutaneous tissue in two rats.

Lee, C. C.; Bhandari, J. C.; Winston, J. M.; House, W. B.; Peters, P. J.; Dixon, R. L.; Woods, J. S.

1977-01-01

439

The preparation of zinc silicate/ZnO particles and their use as an efficient UV absorber  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} We used innovative gel-route in order to prepare zinc silicate/ZnO nano-particles. {yields} Continuous reactor was efficient for synthesizing ZnO and zinc silicate/ZnO precursors. {yields} Introduction of Si into reaction mixture influenced on particle size and their photoactivity. {yields} Prepared particles are appropriate for UV absorbers in polymers. -- Abstract: The formation of zinc silicate/ZnO particles synthesized by a two-step method and their incorporation into PMMA is presented. In the first step a segmented-flow tubular reactor was used for the continuous room-temperature preparation of a zinc silicate/Zn(OH){sub 2} gel that was thermally treated after rinsing and drying in the second step. The same preparation procedure was also employed for the synthesis of pure ZnO and pure zinc silicate particles. It was found that the presence of the zinc silicate phase significantly influenced the final particle size, decreased the degree of crystallization and reduced the particles' UV absorption capabilities. The reduced photocatalytic activity of the zinc silicate/ZnO particles indicated that the majority of ZnO crystallites were formed inside the zinc silicate matrix. The nanocomposite prepared from zinc silicate/ZnO particles (0.04 wt.%) and PMMA showed high UV shielding and at the same time sufficient transmittance in the visible-light region.

Podbrscek, Peter [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)] [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drazic, Goran [Department for Nanostructured Materials, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)] [Department for Nanostructured Materials, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Anzlovar, Alojz [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia) [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Center of Excellence for Polymer Materials and Technologies, Tehnoloski Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Orel, Zorica Crnjak, E-mail: zorica.crnjak.orel@ki.si [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Center of Excellence for Polymer Materials and Technologies, Tehnoloski Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2011-11-15

440

Zinc and Diabetic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Zinc (Zn) is an important nutrient that is involved in various physiological metabolisms. Zn dyshomeostasis is often associated with various pathogeneses of chronic diseases, such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and related complications. Zn is present in ocular tissue in high concentrations, particularly in the retina and choroid. Zn deficiencies have been shown to affect ocular development, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and even diabetic retinopathy. However, the mechanism by which Zn deficiency increases the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy remains unclear. In addition, due to the negative effect of Zn deficiency on the eye, Zn supplementation should prevent diabetic retinopathy; however, limited available data do not always support this notion. Therefore, the goal of this paper was to summarize these pieces of available information regarding Zn prevention of diabetic retinopathy. Current theories and possible mechanisms underlying the role of Zn in the eye-related diseases are discussed. The possible factors that affect the preventive effect of Zn supplementation on diabetic retinopathy were also discussed.

Miao, Xiao; Sun, Weixia; Miao, Lining; Fu, Yaowen; Wang, Yonggang; Su, Guanfang; Liu, Quan

2013-01-01

441

Doping in Zinc Selenide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental technique ensuring the incorporation of substitutional arsenic and copper doping in ZnSe is presented. Two techniques are investigated. In each, neutron transmutation doping is employed to introduce arsenic and copper dopants in ZnSe. In the first technique, as-grown crystals of ZnSe are exposed to thermal neutrons. The crystals are thermally annealed after irradiation in order to repair the neutron induced lattice damage. The thermal annealing schedules employed in this work, however, do not fully repair the ZnSe lattice. In the second technique, homoepitaxial layers of ZnSe are deposited with irradiated zinc and selenium as source materials. High quality layers of ZnSe, characterized by x-ray diffraction and low temperature photoluminescence, are produced. The long half lives of As^ {75} and Zn^{65} allow the epitaxial layers to be formed prior to nuclear decay. Since the nuclear recoil associated with the decays are not sufficient to displace the dopant nuclei from their substitutional lattice sites, the technique results in isolated As_{Se } or isolated Cu_{Zn } being introduced in layers of ZnSe after crystal growth. Since the dopants are introduced in the bulk crystal after crystal growth, the doping process is decoupled from any interactions present during crystal growth. A technique in which crystal doping is decoupled from crystal growth provides several unique probes for arsenic and copper doping in ZnSe.

Wheeler, Edward Dean

442

Responses of Siberian ferrets to secondary zinc phosphide poisoning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hazard of operational-type applications of zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) on a species closely related to the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), was evaluated by feeding 16 Siberian ferrets (M. eversmanni) rats that had been killed by consumption of 2% zinc phosphide treated bait or by an oral dose of 40, 80, or 160 mg of Zn3P2. All ferrets accepted rats and a single emesis by each of 3 ferrets was the only evidence of acute intoxication. All ferrets learned to avoid eating gastrointestinal tracts of the rats. Subacute zinc phosphide toxicity in the ferrets was indicated by significant decreases (18-48%) in hemoglobin, increases of 35-91 % in serum iron, and elevated levels of serum globulin, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Hemoglobin/iron, urea nitrogen/creatinine, and albumin/globulin ratios also were altered by the treatments. This study demonstrated that Siberian ferrets, or other species with a sensitive emetic reflex, are afforded a degree of protection from acute zinc phosphide poisoning due to its emetic action. The importance of toxicity associated with possible respiratory, liver, and kidney damage indicated by altered blood chemistries is not known.

Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.

1982-01-01

443

History of Zinc in Agriculture12  

PubMed Central

Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, >20 y would pass before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it was reported that zinc deficiency induced poor growth, leg abnormalities, poor feathering, and parakeratosis in chicks. In the 1960s, zinc supplementation was found to alleviate parakeratosis in grazing cattle and sheep. Within 35 y, it was established that nearly one half of the soils in the world may be zinc deficient, causing decreased plant zinc content and production that can be prevented by zinc fertilization. In many of these areas, zinc deficiency is prevented in grazing livestock by zinc fertilization of pastures or by providing salt licks. For livestock under more defined conditions, such as poultry, swine, and dairy and finishing cattle, feeds are easily supplemented with zinc salts to prevent deficiency. Today, the causes and consequences of zinc deficiency and methods and effects of overcoming the deficiency are well established for agriculture. The history of zinc in agriculture is an outstanding demonstration of the translation of research into practical application.

Nielsen, Forrest H.

2012-01-01

444

Effects of zinc gluconate and 2 other divalent cationic compounds on olfactory function in mice.  

PubMed

Intranasal application of zinc gluconate has commonly been used to treat the common cold. The safety of this treatment, however, has come into question recently. In addition to a United States recall of a homeopathic product that contains zinc gluconate, abundant literature reports cytotoxic effects of zinc on the olfactory epithelium. Additional research suggests that divalent cations (such as zinc) can block ion channels that facilitate the transduction of odors into electrical signals on the olfactory epithelium. The purpose of the current study was 2-fold: to confirm whether zinc gluconate causes anosmia and to reveal whether any other divalent cationic compounds produce a similar effect. Groups of mice underwent a buried food-pellet test to gauge olfactory function and then were nasally irrigated with 1 of 3 divalent cationic compounds. When tested after treatment, mice irrigated with zinc gluconate and copper gluconate experienced a marked increase in food-finding time, indicating that they had lost their ability to smell a hidden food source. Control mice irrigated with saline had a significantly lower increase in times. These results confirm that zinc gluconate can cause anosmia and reveal that multiple divalent cations can negatively affect olfaction. PMID:22330252

Duncan-Lewis, Christopher A; Lukman, Roy L; Banks, Robert K

2011-08-01

445

Trypanosoma evansi: effects of zinc and copper in experimentally infected rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a treatment using injectable zinc and copper in rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi. 48 rats were divided into eight groups of six animals each. Group A was composed of uninfected animals. Animals from groups B-H were inoculated at the 5th day of experiment with 1.2×10(6) trypanosomes. Group B was used as a positive control. The infected groups received prophylactic (C, D and E) and therapeutic (F, G and H) treatments with the zinc and copper, both at a dose of 5 mg kg(-1). The effectiveness of treatment was confirmed by negative blood smears and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) at the end of study. All treated animals had their prepatent period and survival prolonged when compared with control group (group B). Treatment efficacy was 17% (C: zinc), 33% (D: copper), 50% (E: zinc+copper), 0% (F: zinc), 50% (G: copper) and 50% (H: zinc+copper). Thus, we can conclude that treatment with zinc and copper are capable of controlling and/or curing T. evansi infection in rats, delaying the parasitemia and prolonging their survival. PMID:22609305

Dalla Rosa, Luciana; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Oliveira, Camila B; Brum, Isabela; Benevenutti, Erika; Dorneles, Fellipe; Jaques, Jeandre A; Tavares, Kaio C S; Miletti, Luiz Claudio; Leal, Marta R; Monteiro, Silvia G

2012-07-01

446

Effects of Zinc Gluconate and 2 Other Divalent Cationic Compounds on Olfactory Function in Mice  

PubMed Central

Intranasal application of zinc gluconate has commonly been used to treat the common cold. The safety of this treatment, however, has come into question recently. In addition to a United States recall of a homeopathic product that contains zinc gluconate, abundant literature reports cytotoxic effects of zinc on the olfactory epithelium. Additional research suggests that divalent cations (such as zinc) can block ion channels that facilitate the transduction of odors into electrical signals on the olfactory epithelium. The purpose of the current study was 2-fold: to confirm whether zinc gluconate causes anosmia and to reveal whether any other divalent cationic compounds produce a similar effect. Groups of mice underwent a buried food-pellet test to gauge olfactory function and then were nasally irrigated with 1 of 3 divalent cationic compounds. When tested after treatment, mice irrigated with zinc gluconate and copper gluconate experienced a marked increase in food-finding time, indicating that they had lost their ability to smell a hidden food source. Control mice irrigated with saline had a significantly lower increase in times. These results confirm that zinc gluconate can cause anosmia and reveal that multiple divalent cations can negatively affect olfaction.

Duncan-Lewis, Christopher A; Lukman, Roy L; Banks, Robert K

2011-01-01

447

The interplay between iron and zinc metabolism in Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc plays a critical role in a diverse array of biochemical processes. However, excess of zinc is deleterious to cells. Therefore, cells require finely tuned home