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1

Preparation of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nano particles by hydrothermal synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanometric particles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Aluminum nitrate hydrate, aluminum\\u000a sec-butoxide and zinc nitrate hydrate were used as the starting materials, and n-propanol and 2-butanol were used as solvents.\\u000a Ratio of Al2O3 in ZnO was kept at 10 wt%. Reaction was conducted in a Teflon autoclave at 175–225 °C for 5 h. Ratios of alcohol, H2O

Esin Burunkaya; Nadir Kiraz; Ömer Kesmez; H. Erdem Çamurlu; Meltem Asiltürk; Ertu?rul Arpaç

2010-01-01

2

Exploitation of zinc oxide impregnated chitosan beads for the photocatalytic decolorization of an azo dye.  

PubMed

Investigations were made to evaluate and distinguish the photocatalytic decolorization of Reactive Red 2 (RR) dye using zinc oxide (ZnO) and zinc oxide impregnated chitosan beads (ZCB) under UV and visible light irradiations. To enhance the photoresponse of ZnO toward visible light, the modification of ZnO using biopolymer, chitosan, has been carried out and synthesized the ZCB. Both ZnO and ZCB photocatalysts were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectra (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). Experiments were conducted to optimize various parameters, viz., irradiation time, the amount of catalyst, pH, co-ions and initial concentration of dye under UV and visible light irradiations. The percentage of decolorization of RR dye using ZnO and ZCB under UV as well as visible light is in the order of ZnO/UV > ZCB/vis > ZnO/vis > ZCB/UV. The mineralization/detoxification of RR dye was assessed by measuring chemical oxygen demand (COD) at optimized conditions. The kinetic studies demonstrated that the photocatalytic reactions followed the pseudo-first-order model. The reusability of as-synthesized ZCB was assessed. PMID:25304748

Farzana, M Hasmath; Meenakshi, Sankaran

2015-01-01

3

Aluminum doped zinc oxide for organic photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) was grown via magnetron sputtering as a low-cost alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO) for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Postdeposition ozone treatment resulted in devices with lower series resistance, increased open-circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency double that of devices fabricated on untreated AZO. Furthermore, cells fabricated using ozone treated AZO and standard ITO displayed comparable performance.

Murdoch, G. B.; Hinds, S.; Sargent, E. H.; Tsang, S. W.; Mordoukhovski, L.; Lu, Z. H.

2009-05-01

4

Aluminum doped zinc oxide for organic photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) was grown via magnetron sputtering as a low-cost alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO) for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Postdeposition ozone treatment resulted in devices with lower series resistance, increased open-circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency double that of devices fabricated on untreated AZO. Furthermore, cells fabricated using ozone treated AZO and standard ITO displayed comparable performance.

Murdoch, G. B.; Hinds, S.; Sargent, E. H.; Tsang, S. W.; Mordoukhovski, L.; Lu, Z. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada)

2009-05-25

5

Light extraction enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes using aluminum zinc oxide embedded anodes.  

PubMed

Aluminum zinc oxide (AZO) has been embedded onto indium tin oxide (ITO) anode to enhance the light extraction from an organic light-emitting diode (OLED). The embedded AZO provides deflection and scattering interfaces on the newly generated AZO/organics and AZO/ITO interfaces rather than the conventional ITO/organic interface. The current efficiency of AZO embedded OLEDs was enhanced by up to 64%, attributed to the improved light extraction by additionally created reflection and scattering of emitted light on the AZO/ITO interfaces which was roughed in AZO embedding process. The current efficiency was found to increase with the increasing AZO embedded area ratio, but limited by the accompanying increases in haze and electrical resistance of the AZO embedded ITO film. PMID:25607483

Hsu, Ching-Ming; Lin, Bo-Ting; Zeng, Yin-Xing; Lin, Wei-Ming; Wu, Wen-Tuan

2014-12-15

6

Co-sputtered Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Film as Transparent Anode for Organic Light-emitting Diodes  

E-print Network

Co-sputtered Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Film as Transparent Anode for Organic Light and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China ABSTRACT Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO that MTDATA matches better with AZO than CuPc, which served as hole injection layer. Keywords: Aluminum doped

7

Zinc oxide hexagram whiskers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through vapor-phase transport method, zinc oxide hexagram whiskers with uniform size and morphology were fabricated by heating a mixture source of zinc oxide, indium oxide, and graphite powders in air. Each whisker presented a hexagonal disk core closed by six equivalent surfaces of {101¯0} and was surrounded by side nanorods grown along the diagonal of the core disk in the 6-symmetric directions of ±[112¯0], ±[21¯1¯0], and ±[12¯10]. Based on the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, the growth process of the zinc oxide hexagrams were discussed by considering the thermal dynamic properties of zinc oxide and indium oxide.

Xu, C. X.; Sun, X. W.; Dong, Z. L.; Zhu, G. P.; Cui, Y. P.

2006-02-01

8

Zinc oxide hexagram whiskers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through vapor-phase transport method, zinc oxide hexagram whiskers with uniform size and morphology were fabricated by heating a mixture source of zinc oxide, indium oxide, and graphite powders in air. Each whisker presented a hexagonal disk core closed by six equivalent surfaces of {1010} and was surrounded by side nanorods grown along the diagonal of the core disk in the

C. X. Xu; X. W. Sun; Z. L. Dong; G. P. Zhu; Y. P. Cui

2006-01-01

9

An Evaluation of Zinc Oxide Photovoltaic Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide (ZnO) is attractive for photovoltaic applications due to its conductivity when doped with aluminum and transparency to the visible range of sunlight, i.e. minimized optical and electrical loss. Zinc oxide can form a stable n-n isotype heterojunction with silicon, which is comparable with conventional p-n junctions. The performance of such a junction heavily relies on the Fermi energy tuning of ZnO by Al doping. As an n-type dopant to ZnO, Al greatly improves the conductivity of ZnO. Moreover, Al-doped ZnO (AZO) is relatively abundant and cheap compared to other transparent conductive oxides (TCO), so that potentially the cost of electricity generation ($/KW) can be decreased. In order to boost the poor open circuit voltages resulted from the structures such as ITO/n-Si and AZO/n-Si, a thin 40 nm AZO film was introduced in our design as a buffer layer between the emitter and base. Our goal is to discover what Al content in the buffer layer achieves the optimum performance. Aluminum doped ZnO films were grown by a co-sputtering method which was a combination of RF sputtered ZnO with a fixed power of 300 W and DC sputtered Al with varied powers of 15-40 W. The Al content in AZO increases with increasing power used in Al sputtering. In this research, two types of heterojunction solar cells, ITO/AZO/n-Si and AZO/AZO/n-Si, were fabricated, analyzed and compared. The middle layer of AZO is the buffer layer which has varied Al doping and plays a key role in improving open circuit voltage. For the structure AZO/AZO/n-Si, the top emitter AZO layer has a fixed Al doping of 6.12 wt% at which AZO demonstrates the highest conductivity. With Al doping of the buffer AZO layer ranging from 0-7 wt.%, 6.34 wt.% of Al doping yields the best performance for both types of solar cell structures. At its best performance, ITO/AZO/n-Si demonstrates an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.42 V, a short circuit current density (J sc) of 26.0 mA/cm2, and a conversion efficiency of 5.03%, while AZO/AZO/n-Si shows a Voc of 0.3 V, a Jsc of 24.7 mA/cm2 and a conversion efficiency of 3.99%. The device ITO/AZO/n-Si which has 6.34% Al doped ZnO buffer improves the Voc up to 0.42V from 0.2V for the cell without a ZnO buffer layer. Similarly, AZO/AZO/n-Si improves the Voc to 0.3 V from 0.26 V for the cell without a buffer layer. The research results have shown that both types of structure provide higher Voc than the structure without a buffer layer. The increase of Voc can be attributed to the fact that the buffer layer engineers the Fermi level of ZnO to heighten the isotype junction barrier. Our capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements showed that the junction formed with ZnO and intrinsic Si has the highest barrier height compared to ZnO/nSi or ZnO/pSi junctions. This could imply that reducing the doping density of Si can possibly improve the barrier height at the ZnO/Si interface and therefore improve the open-circuit voltage. To study the carrier transport mechanisms at ZnO/nSi junctions, current-voltage-temperature (I-V-T) measurements were conducted. As a result, in the forward direction, AZO(6.34 wt%)/nSi junction shows a combination of thermionic emission and recombination at intermediate voltages and an existence of space charge limited current (SCLC) at high voltages. On the other hand, AZO(3.49 wt%)/nSi junction has a mechanism of a combination of tunneling and recombination at intermediate voltages and SCLC in the ballistic regime at high voltages.

Wang, Jun

10

Co-sputtered Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Film as Transparent Anode for Organic Light-emitting Diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) is a promising transparent conducting oxide (TCO), which have the advantages of low material cost, low toxicity and chemical stability in reducing ambient over ITO. In this report, AZO was grown by sputtering Al target and ZnO target simultaneously, and the Al dopant concentration can be easily tuned by adjusting sputtering power set. The acquired

Haiying Chen; Chengfeng Qiu; Huajun Peng; Zhilang Xie; H. S. Kwok

11

Transmittance from visible to mid infra-red in AZO films grown by atomic layer deposition system  

E-print Network

rights reserved. Keywords: Aluminum-doped zinc oxide; Transparent conducting oxide; Atomic Layer that the transmittance of aluminum-doped zinc oxide is reported to extend beyond 2500­5000 nm. Following anneal- ing Deposition; Transmittance of AZO; IR transmittance 1. Introduction Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO

Tanner, David B.

12

Zinc oxide whiskers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the first experiments on the production of zinc oxide whiskers in air without crystallization chambers\\u000a or reactors, using CO2-laser radiation. The features of their exciton luminescence are studied, and they are compared with bulk single crystals\\u000a and epitaxial layers of Zno.

B. M. Ataev; I. K. Kamilov; V. V. Mamedov

1997-01-01

13

Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films (~3000 Å) with low electrical resistivity and high optical transparency have been grown by pulsed-laser deposition on glass substrates without a postdeposition anneal. Films were deposited at substrate temperatures ranging from room temperature to 400 °C in O2 partial pressures ranging from 0.1 to 50 mTorr. For 3000-Å-thick AZO films grown at room temperature

H. Kim; C. M. Gilmore; J. S. Horwitz; A. Piqué; H. Murata; G. P. Kushto; R. Schlaf; Z. H. Kafafi; D. B. Chrisey

2000-01-01

14

21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and...

2011-04-01

15

21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and...

2014-04-01

16

21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and...

2012-04-01

17

21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and...

2013-04-01

18

Flexible aluminum-doped zinc-oxide thin-film transistor fabricated on plastic substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied processing and characteristics of flexible Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide thin-film transistors (AZO TFTs) fabricated on plastic substrates using radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering. To improve the performance of flexible AZO TFT, we studied effects of device structures on characteristics of the aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin film transistors. The electrical properties of top-gate type and bottom-gate type AZO TFTs were investigated, respectively. The top-gate type AZO TFTs shows a threshold voltage of 1.4 V, a Ion/Ioff current ratio of 1.0×107, a field effect mobility of 28.2 cm2/ V•s, a subthreshold swing of 0.19 V/decade. And the bottom-gate type AZO TFTs shows a threshold voltage of 1.7 V, a Ion/Ioff ratio of 1.0×107, a field effect mobility of 209 cm2/ V•s, a subthreshold swing of 0.16 V/decade, and the off current of less than 10-11A at room temperature. Both TFTs show low threshold voltage, high Ion/Ioff ratio and high field effect mobility. By comparison, the bottom-gate type AZO TFTs shows better characteristics. The flexible AZO-TFT is a very promising low-cost optoelectronic device for the next generation of invisible and flexible electronics due to flexible, transparency, high mobility, and low-temperature processing.

Han, Dedong; Chen, Zhuofa; Zhao, Nannan; Wang, Wei; Huang, Fuqing; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

2014-03-01

19

Multipod zinc oxide nanowhiskers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide nanowhiskers with multipod structures have been fabricated on copper-coated Si wafer by sintering the mixture of ZnO and graphite powders in air. The multipod nanowhisker shows tetrapod, tripod and hexapod morphologies with legs of 100-500 nm in diameter and several microns in length. The legs of the multipod nanowhisker intercross at a central knot of the whisker. The octahedron twin nucleus is responsible for the tetrapod structure and possibly responsible for the tripod structure as well. The hexapod structure is due to a stacked nucleus of two octahedron nuclei.

Xu, C. X.; Sun, X. W.

2005-04-01

20

Highly stable inverted organic photovoltaics using aluminum-doped zinc oxide as electron transport layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we demonstrate highly stable inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) as electron transport layers fabricated via a non-toxic so-gel process. The conductivity of the AZO layers can be enhanced fourfold as compared to that of intrinsic zinc oxide (ZnO) layers. The transmittance of AZO films is improved and the Haze value of the films is reduced by more than 50% in comparison to that of ZnO. The power conversion efficiency of the device reaches 6.51% and still has approximately 98% of the initial power conversion efficiency (PCE) after over 900 h without encapsulation.

Chen, Mei-Hsin; Kuo, Ya-Ching; Lin, Hung-Hsuan; Chao, Yi-Ping; Wong, Ming-Show

2015-02-01

21

Oxidative dimerization of aromatic amines using tBuOI: entry to unsymmetric aromatic azo compounds.  

PubMed

It's all the hype: An oxidative dimerization reaction of aromatic amines utilizing tert-butyl hypoiodite (tBuOI) under mild reaction conditions leads to aromatic azo compounds. The method allows access to unsymmetric aromatic azo compounds, which are difficult to prepare by conventional synthetic methods, in a selective manner. PMID:22740244

Takeda, Youhei; Okumura, Sota; Minakata, Satoshi

2012-07-27

22

Degradation of azo dyes by oxidative processes – Laccase and ultrasound treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azo dyes are of synthetic origin and their environmental fate is not well understood. They are resistant to direct aerobic bacterial degradation and form potentially carcinogenic aromatic amines by reduction of the azo group. This study shows that applying the oxidative processes of enzymatic treatment with laccase and ultrasound treatment, both alone and in combination, leads to dye degradation. Laccase

Michael M. Tauber; Georg M. Gübitz; Astrid Rehorek

2008-01-01

23

Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors  

DOEpatents

Varistors and/or resistors are described that include doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

1993-07-27

24

Synthesis of nano-sized powders of transparent conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide by electrolysis-modified co-precipitation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nano-sized powders of transparent conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) have been successfully prepared by electrolysis-modified co-precipitation method. By adding ammonium hydroxide into the precursor solution prepared by electrolytic dissolution of zinc metal in a buffered electrolyte solution of nitric acid and ammonium nitrate with adequate addition of aluminum nitrate, co-precipitate precursors of AZO with particle size between 30 to 60

Hsin-Chun Lu; Chen-Sung Chang; Chia-Wei Li; Yu-Shiang Lin; Chun-Lung Chu; Chi-you Lai

2008-01-01

25

Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin film prepared by sol–gel process followed by laser irradiation treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were fabricated at a low substrate temperature (300 °C) in air by KrF excimer laser irradiation of sol–gel spin-coated films. Structural, electrical and optical properties of the laser-irradiated films at different laser energies were studied and compared with those prepared by conventional high-temperature processing. The 200 nm laser-irradiated AZO film shows a resistivity of 44×10?3 ?-cm and about

W. M. Tsang; F. L. Wong; M. K. Fung; J. C. Chang; C. S. Lee; S. T. Lee

2008-01-01

26

Aluminum-doped zinc oxide as anode for organic near-infrared photodetectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High transparency and low resistivity aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were prepared by atomic layer deposition. The AZO films show a transparency of about 80% in the near-infrared (NIR) region and a resistivity of the order of 10-3 ? cm. Organic small molecule NIR-photodetectors (NIR-PDs) with AZO as the anode have been demonstrated for the first time with lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) and C60 as the donor and acceptor, respectively. The optimized NIR-PD exhibited an external quantum efficiency of 6.2% at 760 nm. This result indicated that AZO can be used as the anode for high efficiency NIR-PDs.

Wang, Xing; Fang, Fang; Su, Zisheng; Fang, Xuan; Zhang, Guang; Wang, Junbo; Wei, Zhipeng; Li, Jinhua; Wang, Xiaohua

2014-08-01

27

ENZ waveguide of Al-doped zinc oxide for telecommunication applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the incorporation of an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) material into a waveguide structure in order to suppress dispersion associated with the interaction of light with material in the core, guiding layer. ENZ metamaterials can provide a mechanism for air-core waveguides by introduction of a cladding medium exhibiting a refractive index less than unity. We study the application of aluminum zinc oxide (AZO), a transparent conducting oxide, as the candidate for ENZ waveguides. For this purpose, we design a metamaterial cladding layer with ENZ properties derived from nanoparticles of AZO, and investigate the resulting loss and dispersion of guided optical signals.

Alisafaee, Hossein; Fullager, Daniel B.; Fiddy, Michael A.

2014-02-01

28

21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc oxide is a white or yellow-white amorphous powder manufactured by the French process (described as the indirect process whereby zinc metal isolated from the zinc-containing ore is vaporized and...

2010-04-01

29

Annealing Effects on Contact Properties of Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum Zinc Oxide (AZO) thin films are grown on glass substrates by RF Magnetron Sputtering using a single target of zinc oxide (99 wt%) and aluminum oxide (1 wt%) with argon as the plasma. Photolithographic process is then performed on the films in order to obtain a Transmission Line Model structure (TLM) of the metal contact system, namely aluminum and gold. The specific contact resistivity, ?c, of these two metal-semiconductor systems, which will undergo different rapid thermal annealing (RTA) environment, are determined. X-Ray diffraction patterns for these samples are obtained to investigate phase formations or micro-structural changes so as to justify for the differences in specific contact resistivity obtained for these contact systems. The different RTA environment are simulated by purging either nitrogen or argon gas, with a pressure of 40 psi at a temperature of 400°C for 60 s and annealing in vacuum (10-6 Torr) also at the same temperature and duration. One-dimensional TLM (1D-TLM) measurements are performed on the TLM structures to obtain the specific contact resistivity, ?c. Results show that aluminum contacts on AZO without RTA give the lowest ?c as compared to those in other environment, while gold contacts on AZO annealed in vacuum yield the lowest ?c. Adhesion of aluminum contacts on AZO is good even when subjected to ultrasonic bath test but not true for the case of gold contact, which adheres poorly on AZO films.

Low, Ke Bin; Gong, Hao; Chor, Eng Fong

30

Highly conductive and transparent reduced graphene oxide/aluminium doped zinc oxide nanocomposite for the next generation solar cell applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, aluminum-doped zinc oxide(AZO)/reduced graphene oxide nano-composite thin films are synthesized by a one-pot, solution-processed method. The nanocomposite film has been extensively characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray-diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Hall effect measurement and UV-Vis spectroscopy. It is found that the controlled addition of reduced graphene oxide into AZO can lower the film's resistivity without causing significant degradation of optical transparency. In addition, nanocomposite films post-annealed at process temperature at 500 °C possesses the lowest resistivity and the highest optical transmittance and that further increases in the annealing temperature degrades the film's property due to nucleation of other phases of the AZO.

Bu, Ian Y. Y.

2013-12-01

31

Impact of thin metal layer on the optical and electrical properties of indium-doped-tin oxide and aluminum-doped-zinc oxide layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distinguished transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layers like indium-doped-tin oxide (ITO) and aluminum-doped-zinc oxide (AZO) layers were prepared in different combinations with and without thin Ni metal layer. The optical and electrical properties of prepared samples were analyzed and compared with the objective to understand the role and influence of the Ni layer in each TCO combination. The highest transmittance value of 91.49% was exhibited by prepared AZO layers. Even though if the transmittance of Ni inserting TCO layers was marginally reduced than that of the ordinary TCO samples, they exhibited balanced optical properties with enhanced electrical properties. Carrier concentration of indium doped tin-oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide (ITO/AZO) bilayer sample is increased more than double the times when the Ni layer was inserted between ITO and AZO. Thin layer of Ni in between TCO layers reduced sheet resistance and offered substantial transmittance, so that the figure of merit (FOM) value of Ni embedding TCOs was greater than that of TCOs without Ni layer. The ITO/Ni/AZO combination provided optimum results in all the electrical properties. As compared to other TCO/metal combinations, the overall performance of ITO/Ni/AZO tri-layer combination was appreciable. These results show that the optical and electrical properties of TCO layers could be enhanced by inserting a Ni layer with optimum thickness in between them.

Kumar, Melvin David; Park, Yun Chang; Kim, Joondong

2015-06-01

32

Zinc Oxide and Iron Phthalocyanine(FePc) based Hybrid Inorganic-Organic p-n Junction Diode Using Heavily Doped Zinc Oxide Transparent Conducting Electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the fabrication of FePc\\/ZnO hybrid p-n junction device using Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) as the transparent conducting electrode. The structure of such devices consist of ZnO and an organic molecular semiconductors, in which ZnO and Organic thin films served as n and p-type component respectively. We have obtained a rectification factor greater than ~102 and current

Budhi Singh; Subhasis Ghosh

2011-01-01

33

Multi-wavelength Raman scattering of nanostructured Al-doped zinc oxide  

SciTech Connect

In this work we present a detailed Raman scattering investigation of zinc oxide and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films characterized by a variety of nanoscale structures and morphologies and synthesized by pulsed laser deposition under different oxygen pressure conditions. The comparison of Raman spectra for pure ZnO and AZO films with similar morphology at the nano/mesoscale allows to investigate the relation between Raman features (peak or band positions, width, relative intensity) and material properties such as local structural order, stoichiometry, and doping. Moreover Raman measurements with three different excitation lines (532, 457, and 325?nm) point out a strong correlation between vibrational and electronic properties. This observation confirms the relevance of a multi-wavelength Raman investigation to obtain a complete structural characterization of advanced doped oxide materials.

Russo, V.; Ghidelli, M.; Gondoni, P. [Dipartimento di Energia and NEMAS, Center for Nanoengineered Materials and Surfaces, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Casari, C. S.; Li Bassi, A. [Dipartimento di Energia and NEMAS, Center for Nanoengineered Materials and Surfaces, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Center for Nano Science and Technology PoliMI, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Pascoli 70/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

2014-02-21

34

Different properties of aluminum doped zinc oxide nanostructured thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

Aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanostructured thin films are prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on glass substrate using specifically designed ZnO target containing different amount of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder as the Al doping source. The optical properties of the aluminium doped zinc oxide films are investigated. The topography of the deposited films were investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Variation of the refractive index by annealing temperature are considered and it is seen that the refractive index increases by increasing the annealing temperature.

Bidmeshkipour, Samina, E-mail: samina204@gmail.com; Shahtahmasebi, Nasser [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-06-15

35

Inserted layer of AZO thin film with high work function between transparent conductive oxide and p-layer and its solar cell application.  

PubMed

We report aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) films with high work function as an insertion layer between transparent conducting oxides (TCO) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC:H) layer to improve open circuit voltage (V(oc)) and fill factor (FF) for thin film solar cells. Amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells exhibit poor fill factors due to a Schottky barrier at the interface between a-SiC:H window and TCO. The interface engineering is carried out by inserting an AZO layer with high work function (4.95 eV at O2 = 2 sccm). As a result, V(oc) and FF improved significantly. FF as high as 63.35% is obtained. PMID:24245205

Park, Hyeongsik; Lee, Jaehyeong; Lee, Youn-Jung; Kim, Heewon; Jung, Junhee; Hussain, S Qamar; Park, Jinjoo; Shin, Chonghoon; Kim, Sunbo; Ahn, Shihyun; Yil, Junsin

2013-10-01

36

Efficient indium-tin-oxide free inverted organic solar cells based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide cathode and low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide electron extraction layer  

SciTech Connect

Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) cathode, low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron extraction layer, and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl):[6, 6]-phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester blend were realized in this work. The resulted IOSC with ZnO annealed at 150?°C shows the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.01%, if decreasing the ZnO annealing temperature to 100?°C, the obtained IOSC also shows a PCE of 2.76%, and no light soaking issue is observed. It is found that this ZnO film not only acts as an effective buffer layer but also slightly improves the optical transmittance of AZO substrates. Further, despite the relatively inferior air-stability, these un-encapsulated AZO/ZnO IOSCs show comparable PCEs to the referenced ITO/ZnO IOSCs, which demonstrates that the AZO cathode is a potential alternative to ITO in IOSCs. Meanwhile, this simple ZnO process is compatible with large area deposition and plastic substrates, and is promising to be widely used in IOSCs and other relative fields.

Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu, E-mail: cfzhang@xidian.edu.cn; Wang, Zhizhe; Zhang, Jincheng; Tang, Shi; Wei, Wei; Sun, Li; Hao, Yue, E-mail: yhao@xidian.edu.cn [State Key Discipline Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, No. 2 South Taibai Road, Xi'an 710071 (China)

2014-06-16

37

Efficient indium-tin-oxide free inverted organic solar cells based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide cathode and low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide electron extraction layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) cathode, low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron extraction layer, and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl):[6, 6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester blend were realized in this work. The resulted IOSC with ZnO annealed at 150 °C shows the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.01%, if decreasing the ZnO annealing temperature to 100 °C, the obtained IOSC also shows a PCE of 2.76%, and no light soaking issue is observed. It is found that this ZnO film not only acts as an effective buffer layer but also slightly improves the optical transmittance of AZO substrates. Further, despite the relatively inferior air-stability, these un-encapsulated AZO/ZnO IOSCs show comparable PCEs to the referenced ITO/ZnO IOSCs, which demonstrates that the AZO cathode is a potential alternative to ITO in IOSCs. Meanwhile, this simple ZnO process is compatible with large area deposition and plastic substrates, and is promising to be widely used in IOSCs and other relative fields.

Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu; Wang, Zhizhe; Zhang, Jincheng; Tang, Shi; Wei, Wei; Sun, Li; Hao, Yue

2014-06-01

38

Salicylic acid as a tridentate anchoring group for azo-bridged zinc porphyrin in dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Two series dyes of azo-bridged zinc porphyrins have been devised, synthesized, and performed in dye-sensitized solar cells, in which salicylic acids and azo groups were introduced as a new anchoring group and ?-conjugated bridge via a simple synthetic procedure. The representation of the new dyes has been investigated by optical, photovoltaic, and electrochemical means. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of their DSSC devices has been improved compared with other DSSC devices sensitized by symmetrical porphyrin dyes. The results revealed that tridentate binding modes between salicylic acid and TiO2 nanoparticles could enhance the efficiency of electron injection. The binding modes between salicylic acid and TiO2 nanoparticles may play a crucial role in the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs. PMID:24229086

Gou, Faliang; Jiang, Xu; Li, Bo; Jing, Huanwang; Zhu, Zhenping

2013-12-11

39

Dependence of aluminum-doped zinc oxide work function on surface cleaning method as studied by ultraviolet and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dependence of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) work function on surface treatment, i.e. acetone solvent cleaning and ultraviolet (UV)-ozone cleaning, was studied by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Comparing different cleaning methods, UV-ozone treated AZO achieved relative higher work function of 4.26 eV; whereas acetone solvent treated AZO had relative lower work function of 3.94 eV. Two factors, stoichiometry ratio of [OZnAl]/[Zn] + 1.5[Al] and carbon contamination on AZO surface, affected the work function and, moreover, the stoichiometry ratio was supposed to be the controlling factor. It was concluded that AZO with high stoichiometry ratio and reduced carbon concentration possessed high work function.

Wang, Weiyan; Feng, Quanyu; Jiang, Kemin; Huang, Jinhua; Zhang, Xianpeng; Song, Weijie; Tan, Ruiqin

2011-02-01

40

Comparative toxicity of a zinc salt, zinc powder and zinc oxide to Eisenia fetida, Enchytraeus albidus and Folsomia candida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pore water zinc concentration and the calcium chloride extracted zinc fraction are higher in the soils spiked with a zinc salt (ZnCl2) compared to soils spiked with zinc oxide or zinc powder. Based on total zinc concentrations in the soil, the acute toxicity of zinc salt to the compost worm Eisenia fetida, the potworm Enchytraeus albidus and the springtail

Koen Lock; Colin R. Janssen

2003-01-01

41

Comparison of carrier transport mechanism under UV/Vis illumination in an AZO photodetector and an AZO/p-Si heterojunction photodiode produced by spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) layer is deposited on p-type silicon (p-Si) by spray pyrolysis method to fabricate ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) photodetector as Al doping process can have positive effect on the photodetector performance. Morphology, crystalline structure, and Al concentration of AZO layer are investigated by SEM, XRD, and EDX. The goal of this study is to analyze the mechanism of carrier transport by means of current-voltage characteristics under UV/Vis illumination in two cases: (a) electrodes connected to the surface of AZO layer and (b) electrodes connected to cross section of heterojunction (AZO/p-Si). Measurements indicate that the AZO/p-Si photodiode exhibits a higher photocurrent and lower photoresponse time under visible illumination with respect to AZO photodetector; while under UV illumination, the above result is inversed. Besides, the internal junction field of AZO/p-Si heterojunction plays an important role on this mechanism.

Shasti, M.; Mortezaali, A.; Dariani, R. S.

2015-01-01

42

Low-emitting surfaces prepared by applying transparent aluminum-doped zinc oxide coatings via a sol–gel process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycrystalline transparent conductive oxide thin films based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) have been prepared on soda-lime glass by using an inorganic sol–gel process and the dip-coating technique. The multilayered films were crystallized on the substrate and subsequently annealed in a reducing atmosphere to enhance the number of free charge carriers. Significant characteristics of the functional coatings, such as crystallinity,

M. Rydzek; M. Reidinger; M. Arduini-Schuster; J. Manara

43

Degradation of transparent conductive oxides; Mechanistic insights across configurations and exposures  

E-print Network

Degradation of transparent conductive oxides; Mechanistic insights across configurations, Cleveland, OH, USA ABSTRACT Understanding transparent conductive oxide (TCO) degradation is critical, like indium tin oxide (ITO), aluminum- doped zinc oxide (AZO) and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO

Rollins, Andrew M.

44

Fabrication and characteristics of high-performance and high-stability aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin-film transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fully transparent aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) were successfully fabricated on glass substrates at room temperature. Superior properties, such as a high saturation mobility of 59.3 cm2 V-1 s-1, a positive threshold voltage of 1.3 V, a steep subthreshold swing of 122.9 mV/dec, an off-state current on the order of 10-12 A, and an on/off ratio of 2.7 × 108, were obtained. The electrical properties of the AZO TFTs were successively studied within a period of six months. Small property degenerations could be observed from the test results obtained within the study period, which proved the high-performance and high-stability characteristics of AZO TFTs. Furthermore, hysteresis loop scanning of AZO TFTs was performed, and a small hysteresis could be detected in the scanning curves, which suggested the superior properties of a dielectric and a channel-insulator interface. Lastly, we succeeded in manufacturing an organic LED (OLED) flat panel display panel driven by AZO TFTs and obtained an excellent display effect from it. We believe that AZO TFTs are a promising candidate successor to Si-based TFTs in next-generation flat panel displays.

Shan, Dongfang; Han, Dedong; Huang, Fuqing; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Suoming; Qi, Lin; Cong, Yingying; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

2014-01-01

45

Effect on structural, optical and electrical properties of aluminum-doped zinc oxide films using diode laser annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the laser annealing characteristics of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films using a diode laser source (808 nm) combined with moving stage with varying parameters, including laser fluence and speed of moving stage in air atmosphere. The commercial AZO thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on glass substrates. The films characteristics were systematically analyzed using a field emission scanning electron microscope, an atomic force microscope (AFM), an X-ray diffraction (XRD) equipment, an ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectrophotometer, a four points probe instrument, and a Hall effect measurement system. The experimental results indicate that varying the laser fluence and annealing speed affected the optical, electrical, and structural characteristics of the AZO films. After annealing, approximately 90% of transmittance spectra exhibited slight changes in the visible region. All resistivity values of the laser-annealed AZO films decreased substantially from 4×10-2 ? cm to 2.8×10-2 ? cm. The absorption band edge moved toward shorter or longer wavelengths, depending on the annealing laser fluence and annealing speed. The optical energy band gap of the annealed AZO films increased because the carrier concentration of the annealed AZO films increased. The grain size increased in conjunction with the annealing speed. The AFM-derived root mean square (RMS) values decreased as the annealing speed increased, and the corresponding RMS values ranged from 1.4 to 1.9 nm.

Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Tseng, Shih-Feng; Chung, Chien-Kai; Chiang, Donyau; Huang, Kuo-Cheng; Lin, Keh-Moh; Li, Liang-Yan; Chen, Ming-Fei

2015-05-01

46

[Clinical studies on zinc oxide ointment replacing boric acid and zinc oxide ointment (JP8)].  

PubMed

A boric acid and zinc oxide ointment (J.P. VIII) is an unique preparation in Japan, which consist of boric acid (5%), zinc oxide (10%), vegetable oil (usually soybean oil or sesame oil) and yellow wax. The ointment is widely used in the area of Hokkaido, because not only of the customary prescription but also of the characteristic clinical efficiency. However, boric acid has been recognized to be harmful in these days. Therefore, a zinc oxide ointment consisting 10% zinc oxide, soybean oil and white beeswax was tentatively made and evaluated. The zinc oxide ointment presented the same consistency as the boric acid and zinc oxide ointment, measured with penetrometer. The clinical efficiency was also confirmed on six patients with chronic eczema and seven patients with psoriasis vulgaris. The effect on wound healing of the donor site of skin graft was as good as the previous preparation. PMID:6629312

Kubota, K; Kumakiri, M; Miura, Y; Hine, K; Kori, N; Saito, H; Miyazaki, K; Arita, T

1983-07-01

47

Solution Grown Antimony Doped Zinc Oxide Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide is an extensively studied semiconducting material due to its versatile properties applicable to many technologies such as electronics, optoelectronics, sensing and renewable energy. Although zinc oxide films have been created for device fabrication, the methods used to synthesize them are expensive and unrealistic for affordable commercial devices. In addition, zinc oxide is intrinsically n-type making the realization of stable p-type materials a great challenge for light emitting diodes, solar cells and UV lasing. In this thesis zinc oxide films are created using low cost solution methods. To accomplish this, a previously unreported surfactant, tert-butanol, is used. Several controlled experiments vary the concentration of tert-butanol, zinc and oxygen sources to demonstrate the ability of tert-butanol to create low cost films. Further, small amounts of antimony glycolate are added to the reaction solution, to create antimony doped zinc oxide films on sapphire and silicon substrates. Although hall measurements indicate that the films are n-type, a discussion of antimony activation provides a feasible path for the realization of low cost, p-type zinc oxide films.

Riley, Conor T.

48

Rapid thermal oxidation of zinc nitride film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, a zinc nitride (ZnN) film was deposited at room temperature and subjected to pulse-mode rapid thermal oxidation. The physical and chemical structures of ZnN film were changed during the rapid thermal oxidation process. The presence of zinc-oxygen bonds in the oxidized ZnN film indicated that some nitrogen atoms within the ZnN film are replaced by oxygen atoms. Through the rapid thermal oxidation process, ZnN was converted into a zinc oxide material containing nitrogen atoms. The oxidized ZnN possessed more acceptor states than donor states, which resulted in p-type conduction. The carrier concentration, mobility, and resistivity of the rapid-thermal-oxidized ZnN were 6.49 × 1018 cm?3, 12.9 cm2 V?1 s?1 and 0.7 ? cm, respectively.

Lin, Chiung-Wei; Song, Yue-Pu; Chang, Shih-Chieh

2015-04-01

49

Comparative study of zinc oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide transparent thin films grown by direct current magnetron sputtering  

E-print Network

Comparative study of zinc oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide transparent thin films grown January 2007 Abstract Pure and aluminum (Al) doped zinc oxide (ZnO and ZAO) thin films have been grown.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Zinc oxide; dc magnetron sputtering; Surface morphology; Sensors 1

50

Network array of zinc oxide whiskers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A zinc oxide (ZnO) whisker network array with sixfold symmetry was fabricated on ZnO-buffered (0001) sapphire substrate by the vapour-phase transport method using a mixture of zinc oxide and graphite powders as source materials and patterned gold as catalyst. From the ZnO buffer layer, hexagonal ZnO nanorods with identical in-plane structure grew epitaxially along the [0001] orientation to form vertical

C. X. Xu; X. W. Sun; B. J. Chen; Z. L. Dong; M. B. Yu; X. H. Zhang; S. J. Chua

2005-01-01

51

Efficient inverted polymer solar cells based on ultrathin aluminum interlayer modified aluminum-doped zinc oxide electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A convenient and economical design for inverted polymer solar cells has been developed by introducing an ultrathin aluminium (Al) interlayer to modify aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) electrode as the bottom cathode. An ultrathin interlayer of Al could lower the work function of AZO electrode. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.84% was obtained for poly(3-hexyl-thiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester based device and that of poly(3-hexyl-thiophene):indene-C60 bisadduct based device with such electrodes could reach to 5.52%, which was much higher than the structurally identical device based on ITO/Al(1 nm) electrode and almost the same as that of the conventional device. This indicates that the ultrathin Al modified AZO composite electrode is a strong competitor for the cathode in inverted polymer solar cells especially the large scale and low costs devices.

Shi, Ting; Zhu, Xiaoguang; Tu, Guoli

2014-03-01

52

Degradation of azo dyes by oxidative processes--laccase and ultrasound treatment.  

PubMed

Azo dyes are of synthetic origin and their environmental fate is not well understood. They are resistant to direct aerobic bacterial degradation and form potentially carcinogenic aromatic amines by reduction of the azo group. This study shows that applying the oxidative processes of enzymatic treatment with laccase and ultrasound treatment, both alone and in combination, leads to dye degradation. Laccase treatment degraded both Acid Orange and Direct Blue dyes within 1-5 h but failed in the case of Reactive dyes, whereas ultrasound degraded all the dyes investigated (3-15 h). When applied as multi-stage combinations the treatments showed synergistic effects for dye degradation compared with individual treatments. Bulk light absorption (UV-Vis) and ion pairing HPLC were used for process monitoring. Additionally, mass spectrometry was used to elucidate the structures of intermediates arising from ultrasound treatment. PMID:17967530

Tauber, Michael M; Gübitz, Georg M; Rehorek, Astrid

2008-07-01

53

Generation of fume aerosols of zinc oxide  

SciTech Connect

Fume aerosols of zinc cxide were generated by nebulization of aqueous solutions of zinc acetate (30 milligrams zinc acetate per milliliter water), with subsequent thermal vaporization and chemical degradation to the oxide. A Retec nebulizer operated with compressed air was used to generate the zinc acetate mists which were passed through a quartz tube furnace (1150/sup 0/C) to dry the droplets and degrade the acetate to the oxide form. Ultrafine particles were formed in this process, demonstrating that zinc acetate was vaporized as aerosol entered the heated tube prior to thermolysis. The few larger particles probably represent those larger droplets which do not m with completely vaporize prior to thermolysis. Cascade impactor samples indicated a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD/sub ar/) of 0.8+-0.1 (SD) ..mu..m with geometric standard deviation (sigma g) of 2.9 +- 0.5 (SD). About 25% of the zinc was associated with particles smaller than 0.3 ..mu..m in aerodynamic diameter, equivalent to spherical particles smaller than 0.09 ..mu..m in geometric diameter.

Teague, S.V.; Raabe, O.G.

1980-09-01

54

Photoluminescent properties of copper-doped zinc oxide nanowires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper-doped zinc oxide nanowires were fabricated on copper-coated silicon substrate by sintering a mixture of zinc oxide and graphite powders at high temperature. Copper functioned as a catalyst in the zinc oxide nanowire growth and was incorporated during the growth as a dopant. The size of copper-doped zinc oxide nanowires ranges from 30 to 100 nm in diameter and tens

C X Xu; X W Sun; X H Zhang; L Ke; S J Chua

2004-01-01

55

Electroless deposition of cadmium stannate, zinc oxide, and aluminum-doped zinc oxide films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transparent conducting films of cadmium stannate (Cd2SnO4), zinc oxide, and aluminum-doped zinc oxide have been made by a simple, economical electroless deposition technique. The as-deposited films of cadmium stannate have a 75% transmittance in the visible, 48% reflectance in the IR, and a band gap of 2.7 eV. Its resistivity is ?10?1 ? cm. Vacuum annealing changes the transmittance in

D. Raviendra; J. K. Sharma

1985-01-01

56

A Back-Gated Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor with an Al-Doped Zinc Oxide Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a back-gated metal-oxide-ferroelectric-metal (MOFM) field-effect transistor (FET) with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material, in which an Al doped zinc oxide (AZO) channel layer with an optimized doping concentration of 1% is applied to reduce the channel resistance of the channel layer, thus guaranteeing a large enough load capacity of the transistor. The hysteresis loops of the Pt/PZT/AZO/Ti/Pt capacitor are measured and compared with a Pt/PZT/Pt capacitor, indicating that the remnant polarization is almost 40 ?C/cm2 and the polarization is saturated at 20 V. The measured capacitance-voltage properties are analyzed as a result of the electron depletion and accumulation switching operation conducted by the modulation of PZT on AZO channel resistance caused by the switchable remnant polarization of PZT. The switching properties of the AZO channel layer are also proved by the current-voltage transfer curves measured in the back-gated MOFM ferroelectric FET, which also show a drain current switching ratio up to about 100 times.

Jia, Ze; Xu, Jian-Long; Wu, Xiao; Zhang, Ming-Ming; Liou, Juin-J.

2015-02-01

57

Highly Thermostable, Flexible, Transparent, and Conductive Films on Polyimide Substrate with an AZO/AgNW/AZO Structure.  

PubMed

Flexible transparent conductive films (TCFs) are used in a variety of optoelectronic devices. However, their use is limited due to poor thermostability. We report hybrid TCFs incorporation in both aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) and silver nanowires (AgNWs). The layered AZO/AgNWs/AZO structure was deposited onto a transparent polyimide (PI) substrate and displayed excellent thermostability. When heated to 250 °C for 1 h, the change in resistivity (Rc) was less than 10% (Rc of pure AgNW film > 500) while retaining good photoelectric properties (Rsh = 8.6 Ohm/sq and T = 74.4%). Layering the AgNW network between AZO films decreased the surface roughness (Rrms < 8 nm) and enhances the mechanical flexibility of the hybrid films. The combination of these characteristics makes the hybrid film an excellent candidate for substrates of novel flexible optoelectronic devices which require high-temperature processing. PMID:25629397

Huang, Qijin; Shen, Wenfeng; Fang, Xingzhong; Chen, Guofei; Yang, Ye; Huang, Jinhua; Tan, Ruiqin; Song, Weijie

2015-02-25

58

Novel Zinc Oxide Nanostructures Discovery by Electron Zhong Lin Wang  

E-print Network

Novel Zinc Oxide Nanostructures Discovery by Electron Microscopy Zhong Lin Wang School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245, USA Abstract. Zinc oxide fabricated based on individual nanobelts. Thermal transport along a nanobelt has been measured [7]. Zinc

Wang, Zhong L.

59

LPG sensing performance of nanostructured zinc oxide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured zinc oxide thin films were prepared using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. Zinc acetate was used as a starting precursor. As prepared thin films were characterized using different analytical techniques. The sensing performance of the nanostructured zinc oxide thin films was studied on exposure of various gases. The films were observed to be most sensitive (S= 1727) to LPG at 300°C.

Bari, A. R.; Patil, L. A.

2013-06-01

60

Atomistic Simulation Study of Spinel Oxides: Zinc Aluminate and Zinc Gallate  

E-print Network

Atomistic Simulation Study of Spinel Oxides: Zinc Aluminate and Zinc Gallate Ravindra Pandey´tica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006-Oviedo, Spain Stoichiometric zinc aluminate (ZnAl2O4) and zinc gallate (ZnGa2O4 of Al2O3/Ga2O3 via the formation of zinc vacancies is predicted relative to that of ZnO in ZnAl2O4/ZnGa2

Pandey, Ravi

61

Photo-Fenton oxidation of azo dye Reactive Black B using an immobilized iron oxide as heterogeneous catalyst.  

PubMed

The heterogeneous oxidation of azo dye Reactive Black B (RBB) by the photo-Fenton system catalyzed with an immobilized iron oxide, B1 (supported with SiO2 grain), was investigated. Reactive Black B oxidation was carried out in an expended-bed reactor in which the effect of B1 dosage on the decolorization and degradation of RBB was examined. Through pseudo-first-order kinetic studies, decolorization was found to be faster than degradation with a fixed rate constant ratio. By determining the iron dissolution from B1, RBB oxidation was supposed to mainly occur on the B1 surface, which catalyzed the generation of hydroxyl radicals in the photo-Fenton reaction. Accordingly, the efficiency of photo-Fenton could reach 100% and 91.2% of decolorization and degradation, respectively, in 300 minutes. PMID:23697238

Shih, Yu-Jen; Ho, Chien-Hung; Huang, Yao-Hui

2013-04-01

62

RF Characteristics of Room-Temperature-Deposited, Small Gate Dimension Indium Zinc Oxide TFTs  

E-print Network

RF Characteristics of Room-Temperature-Deposited, Small Gate Dimension Indium Zinc Oxide TFTs Yu, North Carolina 27709, USA Depletion-mode indium zinc oxide channel thin film transistors TFTs with gate semiconductors such as zinc oxide, zinc tin oxide, indium gallium oxide, and indium gallium zinc tin oxide have

Pearton, Stephen J.

63

Correlation of zinc with oxidative stress biomarkers.  

PubMed

Hypertension and smoking are related with oxidative stress (OS), which in turn reports on cellular aging. Zinc is an essential element involved in an individual's physiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of zinc levels in serum and urine with OS and cellular aging and its effect on the development of hypertension. In a Spanish sample with 1500 individuals, subjects aged 20-59 years were selected, whose zinc intake levels fell within the recommended limits. These individuals were classified according to their smoking habits and hypertensive condition. A positive correlation was found (Pearson's C = 0.639; p = 0.01) between Zn serum/urine quotient and oxidized glutathione levels (GSSG). Finally, risk of hypertension significantly increased when the GSSG levels exceeded the 75 percentile; OR = 2.80 (95%CI = 1.09-7.18) and AOR = 3.06 (95%CI = 0.96-9.71). Low zinc levels in serum were related with OS and cellular aging and were, in turn, to be a risk factor for hypertension. PMID:25774936

Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Llopis-González, Agustín; González-Albert, Verónica; López-Izquierdo, Raúl; González-Manzano, Isabel; Cháves, Javier; Huerta-Biosca, Vicente; Martin-Escudero, Juan C

2015-01-01

64

Effect of solvent volume on the physical properties of aluminium doped nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films deposited using a simplified spray pyrolysis technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were deposited by employing a low cost and simplified spray technique using a perfume atomizer from starting solutions having different volumes (10, 20, … , 50 mL) of solvent. The effect of solvent volume on the structural, electrical, optical, photoluminescence (PL) and surface morphological properties was studied. The electrical resistivity of the AZO films is remarkably influenced by the variation in the solvent volume. The X-ray diffraction profiles clearly showed that all the films have preferential orientation along the (0 0 2) plane irrespective of the solvent volume. The crystallite size was found to be in the nano range of 35-46 nm. The optical transmittance in the visible region is desirably high (>85%). The AFM images show columnar morphology with varying grain size. The PL studies revealed that the AZO film deposited from 50 mL of solvent volume has good quality with lesser defect density.

Jabena Begum, N.; Mohan, R.; Ravichandran, K.

2013-01-01

65

Zinc oxide nanostructures: growth, properties and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc oxide is a unique material that exhibits semiconducting and piezoelectric dual properties. Using a solid–vapour phase thermal sublimation technique, nanocombs, nanorings, nanohelixes\\/nanosprings, nanobelts, nanowires and nanocages of ZnO have been synthesized under specific growth conditions. These unique nanostructures unambiguously demonstrate that ZnO probably has the richest family of nanostructures among all materials, both in structures and in properties. The

Zhong Lin Wang

2004-01-01

66

Doping in zinc oxide thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doping in zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films is discussed in this dissertation. The optimizations of undoped ZnO thin film growth using molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) are discussed. The effect of the oxygen ECR plasma power on the growth rate, structural, electrical, and optical properties of the ZnO thin films were studied. It was found that larger ECR power leads to higher

Zheng Yang

2009-01-01

67

Rapid synthesis of aligned zinc oxide nanowires  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solution growth approach for zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires is highly appealing because of the low growth temperature and possibility for large area synthesis. Reported reaction times for ZnO nanowire synthesis, however, are long, spanning from several hours to days. In this work, we report on the rapid synthesis of ZnO nanowires on various substrates (such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET),

Husnu Emrah Unalan; Pritesh Hiralal; Nalin Rupesinghe; Sharvari Dalal; William I. Milne; Gehan A. J. Amaratunga

2008-01-01

68

Process for preparing zinc oxide-based sorbents  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them. The sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents comprise an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, comprising a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

Gangwal, Santosh Kumar (Cary, NC); Turk, Brian Scott (Durham, NC); Gupta, Raghubir Prasad (Durham, NC)

2011-06-07

69

Summary review of health effects associated with zinc and zinc oxide: health issue assessment  

SciTech Connect

Zinc is a dense, bluish-white, relatively soft metal used extensively in the galvanizing of iron and steel. Zinc oxide, the most valued of the variety of compounds formed by zinc is used principally in rubber products as an activator in the vulcanization process and in the treatment of burns, infections, and skin diseases. Zinc occurs naturally in the environment; however, zinc may also enter the environment as the result of mining and processing the production of zinc oxide and the manufacture and use of products containing zinc oxide, the combustion of coal and oil, the production of iron and steel, and the incineration of refuse. Humans are mainly exposed to zinc through the ingestion of food (between 8 and 18.6 mg/kg/day) and drink (averaging up to 10 mg/day). Based on annual average airborne zinc concentrations in areas throughout the United States without mines or smelters of generally < 1mg/cu. m., the contribution of zinc from inhaled air represents an insignificant amount of daily zinc exposure, averaging approximately 20 micrograms. The literature on the toxic effects of zinc is limited. The most widely known systemic effect resulting from acute inhalation of freshly formed zinc oxide fumes is a disease called metal fume fever. Metal fume fever occurs in certain occupational settings and the exposure level at which the fever occurs is not known.

Not Available

1987-07-01

70

Effects of step-deposition on structures and properties of transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide films prepared by DC magnetron sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2wt% aluminum-doped zinc oxide films (AZO) was sputtered on corning glass plate at temperatures of 30–200°C by DC magnetron sputtering using ceramic target. The microstructures and electrical resistivity of thin films were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the van der Pauw method. The optical transmittances of films were measured by UV visible spectrophotometer in the wavelength of

T. Tohsophon; N. Sirikulrat

2006-01-01

71

Oxidation of commercial reactive azo dye aqueous solutions by the photo-Fenton and Fenton-like processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the degradation of two azo reactive dyes, C.I. Reactive Yellow 84 (RY84) and C.I. Reactive Red 120 (RR120) by photo-Fenton and Fenton-like oxidation. All experiments were performed on a laboratory scale set-up. The effects of different reaction parameters such as initial pH, contact time, effect of light and hydrogen peroxide concentrations on the oxidation of the dye

Mariana Neamtu; Ayfer Yediler; Ilie Siminiceanu; Antonius Kettrup

2003-01-01

72

Variable-Temperature Electrical Measurements of Zinc Oxide/Tin Oxide-Cosubstituted Indium Oxide  

E-print Network

Variable-Temperature Electrical Measurements of Zinc Oxide/Tin Oxide-Cosubstituted Indium Oxide A-), undoped In2O3, and indium-tin oxide (ITO) were studied vs cation composition, state of reduction of choice, tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) has a typical conductivity of 1-5 × 103 S/cm and a transpar- ency

Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

73

Low-temperature solution-processed metal oxide buffer layers fulfilling large area production requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a review of our previous work on the field of low temperature, solution processed metal oxide buffer layers published in various journals. Our work focuses on zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) as n-type and molybdenum oxide (MoO3) as p-type solution processed buffer layer. In addition to that, we investigate the surface modification of AZO using phosphonic acid-anchored aliphatic and fullerene self assembled monolayers (SAMs).

Stubhan, T.; Litzov, I.; Li, Ning; Wang, H. Q.; Krantz, J.; Machui, F.; Steidl, M.; Oh, H.; Matt, G. J.; Brabec, C. J.

2012-09-01

74

Electroless deposition of cadmium stannate, zinc oxide, and aluminum-doped zinc oxide films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transparent conducting films of cadmium stannate (Cd2SnO4), zinc oxide, and aluminum-doped zinc oxide have been made by a simple, economical electroless deposition technique. The as-deposited films of cadmium stannate have a 75% transmittance in the visible, 48% reflectance in the IR, and a band gap of 2.7 eV. Its resistivity is ˜10-1 ? cm. Vacuum annealing changes the transmittance in the visible range to 82%, the IR reflectance to 62%, and the band gap to 3.1 eV. The corresponding values for the hydrogen-annealed films are 87%, 76%, and 3.2 eV. Annealing lowers the resistivity of the films to ˜10-2 and ˜10-3 ? cm for vacuum and hydrogen-annealed films, respectively. The undoped zinc oxide films have transmittance in the visible and reflectance in the IR of 80 and 67% respectively. Aluminum doping increases the transmittance to 88% and reflectance to 83%. The optical band gap of undoped and aluminum-doped zinc oxide films are found to be 3.40 and 3.98 eV, respectively. The resistivity is 1.20×10-2 and 6.0×10-2 ? cm for undoped and aluminum-doped ZnO films. Vacuum annealing reduces the resistivity of the films to 2.5×10-3 and 2.1×10-4 ? cm for undoped and aluminum-doped ZnO films, respectively.

Raviendra, D.; Sharma, J. K.

1985-07-01

75

Electrode patterning and annealing processes of aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films using a UV laser system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the hybrid processing (patterning and annealing) of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films in a one-step process using a diode-pumped-solid-state (DPSS) ultraviolet (UV) laser system. The focused laser beam had a diameter of 30 ?m and the positive defocused laser beam had a diameter of 1 mm. Both beams were adjusted using a UV laser-processing system. AZO films were deposited on Corning Eagle 2000® optical glass sheets with a thickness of 0.7 mm using a sputtering method. The deposited films were approximately 200 nm. The optoelectronic properties of machined (patterning and annealing) AZO films depend on the laser pulse frequency and galvanometer scanning speed. The surface morphology, roughness, optical transmittance, and resistivity of the films after the laser patterning and annealing processes were measured using a three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscope, a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), a spectrophotometer, and a four-point probe instrument, respectively. Experimental results indicate that the ablation depth increased as the pulse repetition frequency increased. The ablation depth also decreased as the galvanometric scanning speed increased. The transmittance spectra of the film changes slightly after laser annealing, and the average transmittance in the visible region is approximately 83%. All resistivity values of laser-patterned and annealed AZO films decreased significantly. The structural properties grain size was calculated firm the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra using the Scherrer equation that increased from 7.4 nm to 12 nm as the annealing scanning speed decreased from 800 mm/s to 400 mm/s. The root mean square (RMS) values of annealed AZO films treated with a laser scanning speed of 500 mm/s with a pulse repetition frequency of 40 kHz, 55 kHz, and 70 kHz were 1.1 nm, 1.2 nm, and 1.8 nm, respectively.

Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Tseng, Shih-Feng; Huang, Kuo-Cheng; Chiang, Donyau

2013-01-01

76

Decolorization of disperse red 354 azo dye in water by several oxidation processes—a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of the Disperse Red 354 azo dye in water was investigated in laboratory-scale experiments, using four advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): ozonation, Fenton, UV\\/H2O2, and photo-Fenton. The photodegradation experiments were carried out in a stirred batch photoreactor equipped with an immersed low-pressure mercury lamp as UV source. Besides the conventional parameters, on acute toxicity test with a LUMIStox 300

Mariana Neamtu; Ayfer Yediler; Ilie Siminiceanu; Matei Macoveanu; Antonius Kettrup

2004-01-01

77

Piezoelectric Nanogenerators Based on Zinc Oxide Nanowire Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have converted nanoscale mechanical energy into electrical energy by means of piezoelectric zinc oxide nanowire (NW) arrays. The aligned NWs are deflected with a conductive atomic force microscope tip in contact mode. The coupling of piezoelectric and semiconducting properties in zinc oxide creates a strain field and charge separation across the NW as a result of its bending. The

Zhong Lin Wang; Jinhui Song

2006-01-01

78

Fabrication and characterization of zinc oxide based rib waveguide  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we investigate the possibility to use Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films, deposited by RF magnetron sputtering, for the realization of integrated optical structures working at 1550 nm. Structural properties of sputtered zinc oxide thin films were studied by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements, while optical properties were investigated by spectrophotometry and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE). In particular,

M. Gioffrè; M. Gagliardi; M. Casalino; G. Coppola; M. Iodice; F. Della Corte

2007-01-01

79

Transient laser annealing of zinc oxide nanoparticle inks to fabricate zinc oxide thin film transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Display technology, which relies exclusively on amorphous silicon as the active material for driver electronics, has reached multiple impasses that limit future progress. In order to deliver higher resolutions, higher refresh rates, new display technologies, and innovative form factors, driver electronics must transition to higher performance materials like amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs). Transient laser annealing offers an attractive means to maximize performance while minimizing thermal budget, making it compatible with flexible back plane materials and roll-to-roll processing. This research investigates the deposition and annealing of zinc oxide nanoparticle inks to form fully densified crystalline and amorphous zinc oxide films. Processing routes for nanoparticle annealing, including ligand removal, calcining, and excimer pulse laser sintering on the nanosecond time scale, will be introduced that minimize defect formation and suppress the anomalous n-conductivity which is a major challenge to zinc oxide processing. Resistivities as high as 6 x 107 O-cm have been demonstrated. Laser processing on longer millisecond time scales can control defect formation to produce ZnO films without extrinsic doping which have low resistivity for intrinsic oxides, in the range of 10-1 - 10-2 O-cm. Finally, a viable process for the production of backgated ZnO transistors with promising characteristics is presented and the future implications for AOSs and transient thermal processing will be discussed.

Willemann, Michael

80

UV irradiation-induced zinc dissociation from commercial zinc oxide sunscreen and its action in human epidermal keratinocytes  

E-print Network

UV irradiation-induced zinc dissociation from commercial zinc oxide sunscreen and its action Summary Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an active ingredient in sunscreen owing to its properties of broadly filtering of solar radiation on the skin. This study investigated the dissociation of zinc (Zn2+ ) from Zn

Li, Yang V.

81

Influence of growth temperature on electrical, optical, and plasmonic properties of aluminum:zinc oxide films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the responsible mechanism for the observation of metallic conductivity at room temperature and metal-semiconductor transition (MST) at lower temperatures for aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films. AZO films were grown on glass substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering with varying substrate temperatures (Ts). The films were found to be crystalline with the electrical resistivity close to 1.1 × 10-3 ? cm and transmittance more than 85% in the visible region. The saturated optical band gap of 3.76 eV was observed for the sample grown at Ts of 400 °C, however, a slight decrease in the bandgap was noticed above 400 °C, which can be explained by Burstein-Moss effect. Temperature dependent resistivity measurements of these highly conducting and transparent films showed a MST at ˜110 K. The observed metal-like and metal-semiconductor transitions are explained by taking into account the Mott phase transition and localization effects due to defects. All AZO films demonstrate crossover in permittivity from positive to negative and low loss in the near-infrared region, illustrating its applications for plasmonic metamaterials, including waveguides for near infrared telecommunication region. Based on the results presented in this study, the low electrical resistivity and high optical transmittance of AZO films suggested a possibility for the application in the flexible electronic devices, such as transparent conducting oxide film on LEDs, solar cells, and touch panels.

Dondapati, Hareesh; Santiago, Kevin; Pradhan, A. K.

2013-10-01

82

Influence of growth temperature on electrical, optical, and plasmonic properties of aluminum:zinc oxide films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the responsible mechanism for the observation of metallic conductivity at room temperature and metal-semiconductor transition (MST) at lower temperatures for aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films. AZO films were grown on glass substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering with varying substrate temperatures (T{sub s}). The films were found to be crystalline with the electrical resistivity close to 1.1 × 10{sup ?3} ? cm and transmittance more than 85% in the visible region. The saturated optical band gap of 3.76 eV was observed for the sample grown at T{sub s} of 400 °C, however, a slight decrease in the bandgap was noticed above 400 °C, which can be explained by Burstein–Moss effect. Temperature dependent resistivity measurements of these highly conducting and transparent films showed a MST at ?110 K. The observed metal-like and metal-semiconductor transitions are explained by taking into account the Mott phase transition and localization effects due to defects. All AZO films demonstrate crossover in permittivity from positive to negative and low loss in the near-infrared region, illustrating its applications for plasmonic metamaterials, including waveguides for near infrared telecommunication region. Based on the results presented in this study, the low electrical resistivity and high optical transmittance of AZO films suggested a possibility for the application in the flexible electronic devices, such as transparent conducting oxide film on LEDs, solar cells, and touch panels.

Dondapati, Hareesh; Santiago, Kevin; Pradhan, A. K. [Center for Materials Research, Norfolk State University, 700 Park Avenue, Norfolk, Virginia 23504 (United States)] [Center for Materials Research, Norfolk State University, 700 Park Avenue, Norfolk, Virginia 23504 (United States)

2013-10-14

83

Antifouling properties of zinc oxide nanorod coatings.  

PubMed

In laboratory experiments, the antifouling (AF) properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod coatings were investigated using the marine bacterium Acinetobacter sp. AZ4C, larvae of the bryozoan Bugula neritina and the microalga Tetraselmis sp. ZnO nanorod coatings were fabricated on microscope glass substrata by a simple hydrothermal technique using two different molar concentrations (5 and 10?mM) of zinc precursors. These coatings were tested for 5?h under artificial sunlight (1060?W?m(-2) or 530?W?m(-2)) and in the dark (no irradiation). In the presence of light, both the ZnO nanorod coatings significantly reduced the density of Acinetobacter sp. AZ4C and Tetraselmis sp. in comparison to the control (microscope glass substratum without a ZnO coating). High mortality and low settlement of B. neritina larvae was observed on ZnO nanorod coatings subjected to light irradiation. In darkness, neither mortality nor enhanced settlement of larvae was observed. Larvae of B. neritina were not affected by Zn(2+) ions. The AF effect of the ZnO nanorod coatings was thus attributed to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by photocatalysis. It was concluded that ZnO nanorod coatings effectively prevented marine micro and macrofouling in static conditions. PMID:25115521

Al-Fori, Marwan; Dobretsov, Sergey; Myint, Myo Tay Zar; Dutta, Joydeep

2014-01-01

84

Optical and Luminescence Properties of Zinc Oxide  

E-print Network

We generalize and systematize basic experimental data on optical and luminescence properties of ZnO single crystals, thin films, powders, ceramics, and nanocrystals. We consider and study mechanisms by which two main emission bands occur, a short-wavelength band near the fundamental absorption edge and a broad long-wavelength band, the maximum of which usually lies in the green spectral range. We determine a relationship between the two luminescence bands and study in detail the possibility of controlling the characteristics of ZnO by varying the maximum position of the short-wavelength band. We show that the optical and luminescence characteristics of ZnO largely depend on the choice of the corresponding impurity and the parameters of the synthesis and subsequent treatment of the sample. Prospects for using zinc oxide as a scintillator material are discussed. Additionally, we consider experimental results that are of principal interest for practice.

Rodnyi, P A; 10.1134/S0030400X11120216

2012-01-01

85

Optical and Luminescence Properties of Zinc Oxide  

E-print Network

We generalize and systematize basic experimental data on optical and luminescence properties of ZnO single crystals, thin films, powders, ceramics, and nanocrystals. We consider and study mechanisms by which two main emission bands occur, a short-wavelength band near the fundamental absorption edge and a broad long-wavelength band, the maximum of which usually lies in the green spectral range. We determine a relationship between the two luminescence bands and study in detail the possibility of controlling the characteristics of ZnO by varying the maximum position of the short-wavelength band. We show that the optical and luminescence characteristics of ZnO largely depend on the choice of the corresponding impurity and the parameters of the synthesis and subsequent treatment of the sample. Prospects for using zinc oxide as a scintillator material are discussed. Additionally, we consider experimental results that are of principal interest for practice.

P. A. Rodnyi; I. V. Khodyuk

2012-03-20

86

Zinc oxide thin film acoustic sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the implementation of (750 nm) thickness of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film for the piezoelectric pressure sensors. The film was prepared and deposited employing the spray pyrolysis technique. XRD results show that the growth preferred orientation is the (002) plane. A polycrystalline thin film (close to mono crystallite like) was obtained. Depending on the Scanning Electron Microscopy photogram, the film homogeneity and thickness were shown. The resonance frequency measured (about 19 kHz) and the damping coefficient was calculated and its value was found to be about (2.5538), the thin film be haves as homogeneous for under and over damped. The thin film pressure sensing was approximately exponentially related with frequency, the thin film was observed to has a good response for mechanical stresses also it is a good material for the piezoelectric properties.

Mohammed, Ali Jasim; Salih, Wafaa Mahdi; Hassan, Marwa Abdul Muhsien; Mansour, Hazim Louis; Nusseif, Asmaa Deiaa; Kadhum, Haider Abdullah

2013-12-01

87

Zinc oxide thin film acoustic sensor  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the implementation of (750 nm) thickness of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film for the piezoelectric pressure sensors. The film was prepared and deposited employing the spray pyrolysis technique. XRD results show that the growth preferred orientation is the (002) plane. A polycrystalline thin film (close to mono crystallite like) was obtained. Depending on the Scanning Electron Microscopy photogram, the film homogeneity and thickness were shown. The resonance frequency measured (about 19 kHz) and the damping coefficient was calculated and its value was found to be about (2.5538), the thin film be haves as homogeneous for under and over damped. The thin film pressure sensing was approximately exponentially related with frequency, the thin film was observed to has a good response for mechanical stresses also it is a good material for the piezoelectric properties.

Mohammed, Ali Jasim; Salih, Wafaa Mahdi; Hassan, Marwa Abdul Muhsien; Nusseif, Asmaa Deiaa; Kadhum, Haider Abdullah [Department of Physics , College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq); Mansour, Hazim Louis [Department of Physics , College of Education, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

2013-12-16

88

Rapid synthesis of aligned zinc oxide nanowires.  

PubMed

A solution growth approach for zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires is highly appealing because of the low growth temperature and possibility for large area synthesis. Reported reaction times for ZnO nanowire synthesis, however, are long, spanning from several hours to days. In this work, we report on the rapid synthesis of ZnO nanowires on various substrates (such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), silicon and glass) using a commercially available microwave oven. The average growth rate of our nanowires is determined to be as high as 100 nm min(-1), depending on the microwave power. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a defect-free single-crystalline lattice of the nanowires. A detailed analysis of the growth characteristics of ZnO nanowires as functions of growth time and microwave power is reported. Our work demonstrates the possibility of a fast synthesis route using microwave heating for nanomaterials synthesis. PMID:21828660

Unalan, Husnu Emrah; Hiralal, Pritesh; Rupesinghe, Nalin; Dalal, Sharvari; Milne, William I; Amaratunga, Gehan A J

2008-06-25

89

Rapid synthesis of aligned zinc oxide nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solution growth approach for zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires is highly appealing because of the low growth temperature and possibility for large area synthesis. Reported reaction times for ZnO nanowire synthesis, however, are long, spanning from several hours to days. In this work, we report on the rapid synthesis of ZnO nanowires on various substrates (such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), silicon and glass) using a commercially available microwave oven. The average growth rate of our nanowires is determined to be as high as 100 nm min-1, depending on the microwave power. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a defect-free single-crystalline lattice of the nanowires. A detailed analysis of the growth characteristics of ZnO nanowires as functions of growth time and microwave power is reported. Our work demonstrates the possibility of a fast synthesis route using microwave heating for nanomaterials synthesis.

Emrah Unalan, Husnu; Hiralal, Pritesh; Rupesinghe, Nalin; Dalal, Sharvari; Milne, William I.; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.

2008-06-01

90

Production of nano zinc, zinc sulphide and nanocomplex of magnetite zinc oxide by Brevundimonas diminuta and Pseudomonas stutzeri.  

PubMed

ZnO (Zincite) nanoparticle has many industrial applications and is mostly produced by chemical reactions, usually prepared by decomposition of zinc acetate or hot-injection and heating-up method. Synthesis of semi-conductor nanoparticles such as ZnS (Sphalerite) by ultrasonic was previously reported. In this work, high-zinc tolerant bacteria were isolated and used for nano zinc production. Among all isolated microorganisms, a gram negative bacterium which was identified as Brevundimonas diminuta could construct nano magnetite zinc oxide on bacterial surface with 22 nm in size and nano zinc with 48.29 nm in size. A piece of zinc metal was immersed in medium containing of pure culture of B. diminuta. Subsequently, a yellow-white biofilm was formed which was collected from the surface of zinc. It was dried at room temperature. The isolated biofilm was analysed by X-ray diffractometer. Interestingly, the yield of these particles was higher in the light, with pH 7 at 23°C. To the best of the authors knowledge, this is the first report about the production of nano zinc metal and nano zinc oxide that are stable and have anti-bacterial activities with magnetite property. Also ZnS (sized 12 nm) produced by Pseudomonas stutzeri, was studied by photoluminescence and fluorescent microscope. PMID:24206770

Mirhendi, Mansoureh; Emtiazi, Giti; Roghanian, Rasoul

2013-12-01

91

DIRECT SOLAR THERMAL DISSOCIATION OF ZINC OXIDE: CONDENSATION AND CRYSTALLISATION OF ZINC IN THE PRESENCE OF OXYGEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar thermal production of zinc from zinc oxide is part of a two-step water splitting cycle. Zinc oxide thermally dissociates into zinc vapour and oxygen at elevated temperatures;ZnO(s)=Zn(g)+0.5O2In practice, the yield of zinc depends on the kinetics of dissociation and the technical feasibility of quenching its gaseous products fast enough to avoid reoxidation. As the gaseous products cool, the

A. WEIDENKAFF; A. STEINFELD; A. WOKAUN; P. O. AUER; B. EICHLER; A. RELLER

1999-01-01

92

Fibrous zinc oxide prepared by combined electrospinning and solvothermal techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of novel zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure consisting of ZnO nanoparticles formed into the network of fibers was investigated. This structure was fabricated from the solvothermal reaction of the poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)\\/zinc acetate composite fibers, which were firstly prepared by electrospinning technique. It was found that zinc acetate within the PVA matrix was converted into ZnO nanoparticles in hexagonal

Naratip Sangkhaprom; Pitt Supaphol; Varong Pavarajarn

2010-01-01

93

Superhydrophobic zinc oxide surface by differential etching and hydrophobic modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A superhydrophobic ZnO nanorod films on zinc substrate were fabricated by natural oxidation of zinc metal and subsequent modification with a monolayer of n-octadecyl thiol (ODT). The surface morphology and composition were studied using SEM, XRD, and XPS, respectively. The surface of ZnO films directly grown on zinc substrate was hydrophilic with a water contact angle (CA) of 40±2°, whereas

Xianming Hou; Feng Zhou; Bo Yu; Weimin Liu

2007-01-01

94

Optical and electric properties of aluminum-gallium doped zinc oxide for transparent conducting film  

Microsoft Academic Search

The well-known indium-tin-oxide is not suitable for solar cell, because of the chemical reduction, even without any hydrogen dilution. The inexpensive and non-toxic of transparent conducting Aluminum and Gallium doped ZnO (AZO and GZO) thin films have been investigated for the substitutes for the indium-tin-oxide thin films. AZO performs high transmittance at visible region, however, higher resistance than GZO. In

Meng-Chi Li; Chien-Cheng Kuo; Sheng-Hui Chen; Cheng-Chung Lee

2009-01-01

95

A review of zinc oxide mineral beneficiation using flotation method.  

PubMed

In recent years, extraction of zinc from low-grade mining tailings of oxidized zinc has been a matter of discussion. This is a material which can be processed by flotation and acid-leaching methods. Owing to the similarities in the physicochemical and surface chemistry of the constituent minerals, separation of zinc oxide minerals from their gangues by flotation is an extremely complex process. It appears that selective leaching is a promising method for the beneficiation of this type of ore. However, with the high consumption of leaching acid, the treatment of low-grade oxidized zinc ores by hydrometallurgical methods is expensive and complex. Hence, it is best to pre-concentrate low-grade oxidized zinc by flotation and then to employ hydrometallurgical methods. This paper presents a critical review on the zinc oxide mineral flotation technique. In this paper, the various flotation methods of zinc oxide minerals which have been proposed in the literature have been detailed with the aim of identifying the important factors involved in the flotation process. The various aspects of recovery of zinc from these minerals are also dealt with here. The literature indicates that the collector type, sulfidizing agent, pH regulator, depressants and dispersants types, temperature, solid pulp concentration, and desliming are important parameters in the process. The range and optimum values of these parameters, as also the adsorption mechanism, together with the resultant flotation of the zinc oxide minerals reported in the literature are summarized and highlighted in the paper. This review presents a comprehensive scientific guide to the effectiveness of flotation strategy. PMID:23571227

Ejtemaei, Majid; Gharabaghi, Mahdi; Irannajad, Mehdi

2014-04-01

96

Toxicokinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle have been extensively applied to diverse industrial fields because they possess UV light absorption, catalytic, semi-conducting, and magnetic characteristics as well as antimicrobial property. However, up to date, toxicological effects of ZnO nanoparticles in animal models have not been completely determined. Moreover, little information is available about kinetic behaviors of ZnO nanoparticles in vivo, which will be crucial to predict their potential chronic toxicity after long-term exposure. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics of ZnO nanoparticles after single-dose and repeated dose 90-day oral administration in male and female rats, respectively. The blood samples were collected following administration of three different doses (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) and ZnO concentration was assessed by measuring zinc level with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The result showed that the plasma ZnO concentration significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner, but decreased within 24 h after single-dose oral administration up to 500 mg/kg, without any significant difference between gender. However, when repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study was performed, the elevated plasma concentrations did not return to normal control levels in all the cases, indicating their toxicity potential. These findings suggest that repeated oral exposure to ZnO nanoparticles up to the dose of 125 mg/kg could accumulate in the systemic circulation, thereby implying that the NOAEL values could be less than 125 mg/kg via oral intake.

Chung, H. E.; Yu, J.; Baek, M.; Lee, J. A.; Kim, M. S.; Kim, S. H.; Maeng, E. H.; Lee, J. K.; Jeong, J.; Choi, S. J.

2013-04-01

97

Nano-sized layered aluminium or zinc-manganese oxides as efficient water oxidizing catalysts.  

PubMed

Nano-sized layered aluminium or zinc-manganese oxides were synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, dynamic light scattering and atomic absorption spectroscopy. These oxides showed efficient water oxidizing activity in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate as a non-oxo transfer oxidant. Amounts of dissolved manganese, zinc or aluminium, and water oxidation activities of these oxides were reported and compared with other manganese oxides. A mechanism for oxygen evolution and possible roles for zinc or aluminium ions are also proposed. PMID:22565665

Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Pashaei, Babak; Nayeri, Sara

2012-06-21

98

Acetone sensor based on zinc oxide hexagonal tubes  

SciTech Connect

In this work hexagonal tubes of zinc oxide have been synthesized by co-precipitation method. For structural, morphological, elemental and optical analysis synthesized powders were characterized by using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning microscope, EDX, UV-visible and FTIR techniques. For acetone sensing thick films of zinc oxide have been deposited on alumina substrate. The fabricated sensors exhibited maximum sensing response towards acetone vapour at an optimum operating temperature of 400°C.

Hastir, Anita, E-mail: anitahastir@gmail.com; Singh, Onkar, E-mail: anitahastir@gmail.com; Anand, Kanika, E-mail: anitahastir@gmail.com; Singh, Ravi Chand, E-mail: anitahastir@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar-143005, Punjab (India)

2014-04-24

99

Zinc oxide nanoflowers make new blood vessels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well established that angiogenesis is the process of formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels. It is a complex process, involving both pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, and plays a significant role in physiological and pathophysiological processes such as embryonic development, atherosclerosis, post-ischemic vascularization of the myocardium, tumor growth and metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis etc. This is the first report of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflowers that show significant pro-angiogenic properties (formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels), observed by in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. The egg yolk angiogenesis assay using ZnO nanoflowers indicates the presence of matured blood vessels formation. Additionally, it helps to promote endothelial cell (EA.hy926 cells) migration in wound healing assays. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)--a redox signaling molecule, might be the plausible mechanism for nanoflower-based angiogenesis. Angiogenesis by nanoflowers may provide the basis for the future development of new alternative therapeutic treatment strategies for cardiovascular and ischemic diseases, where angiogenesis plays a significant role.It is well established that angiogenesis is the process of formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels. It is a complex process, involving both pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, and plays a significant role in physiological and pathophysiological processes such as embryonic development, atherosclerosis, post-ischemic vascularization of the myocardium, tumor growth and metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis etc. This is the first report of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflowers that show significant pro-angiogenic properties (formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels), observed by in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. The egg yolk angiogenesis assay using ZnO nanoflowers indicates the presence of matured blood vessels formation. Additionally, it helps to promote endothelial cell (EA.hy926 cells) migration in wound healing assays. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)--a redox signaling molecule, might be the plausible mechanism for nanoflower-based angiogenesis. Angiogenesis by nanoflowers may provide the basis for the future development of new alternative therapeutic treatment strategies for cardiovascular and ischemic diseases, where angiogenesis plays a significant role. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32369a

Barui, Ayan Kumar; Veeriah, Vimal; Mukherjee, Sudip; Manna, Joydeb; Patel, Ajay Kumar; Patra, Sujata; Pal, Krishnendu; Murali, Shruthi; Rana, Rohit K.; Chatterjee, Suvro; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

2012-11-01

100

Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 49, December 2006, pp. S584S588 Deposition-Temperature Effects on AZO Thin Films Prepared by RF  

E-print Network

- electronic devices, we investigated aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films prepared by radio- frequency@pusan.ac.kr magnetic semiconductors [3,4]. In particular, transpar- ent conductive oxide (TCO) electrodes using Al February 2006) Transparent conductive thin films have attracted much attention due to their high

Pak, Hyuk Kyu

101

Local structure of condensed zinc oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-pressure local structure of zinc oxide has been studied at room temperature using combined energy-dispersive x-ray-diffraction and x-ray-absorption spectroscopy experiments. The structural parameter u and the lattice-parameter ratio c/a of the wurtzite phase is given as a function of pressure and compared with results from ab initio calculations based on a plane-wave pseudopotential method within the density-functional theory. It is shown that an accurate study of ZnO requires the explicit treatment of the d electrons of Zn as valence electrons. In good agreement with present calculations, our experimental data do not show any variation of u(P) in the low-pressure wurtzite phase between 0 and 9 GPa, pressure at which the phase transition to the rocksalt phase occurs. Moreover, no dramatic modification of the r-phase K-edge position up to ˜20 GPa is observed, indicating the absence of metallization. In view of all these results, theoretical models identifying the wurtzite-to-rocksalt transition as an homogeneous path are discussed.

Decremps, F.; Datchi, F.; Saitta, A. M.; Polian, A.; Pascarelli, S.; di Cicco, A.; Itié, J. P.; Baudelet, F.

2003-09-01

102

Biomedical Applications of Zinc Oxide Nanomaterials  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology has witnessed tremendous advancement over the last several decades. Zinc oxide (ZnO), which can exhibit a wide variety of nanostructures, possesses unique semiconducting, optical, and piezoelectric properties hence has been investigated for a wide variety of applications. One of the most important features of ZnO nanomaterials is low toxicity and biodegradability. Zn2+ is an indispensable trace element for adults (~10 mg of Zn2+ per day is recommended) and it is involved in various aspects of metabolism. Chemically, the surface of ZnO is rich in -OH groups, which can be readily functionalized by various surface decorating molecules. In this review article, we summarized the current status of the use of ZnO nanomaterials for biomedical applications, such as biomedical imaging (which includes fluorescence, magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography, as well as dual-modality imaging), drug delivery, gene delivery, and biosensing of a wide array of molecules of interest. Research in biomedical applications of ZnO nanomaterials will continue to flourish over the next decade, and much research effort will be needed to develop biocompatible/biodegradable ZnO nanoplatforms for potential clinical translation. PMID:24206130

Zhang, Yin; Nayak, Tapas R.; Hong, Hao; Cai, Weibo

2013-01-01

103

Growth and Characterization of Digitally Alloyed Zinc Oxide Based TCOs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) based on substitutionally doped zinc oxide and novel amorphous oxides offer the potential of high performance and low cost for organic solid-state lighting and organic photovoltaic (OPV) applications. We present studies on digitally alloyed amorphous indium zinc oxide (InZnO) with crystalline gallium doped zinc oxide (GaZnO) and zinc tin oxide (ZnSnO3). The films were grown using pulse laser deposition system with varying oxygen pressure. Alternating layers of two constituent materials are deposited with periodicity of around 5 nm. We find that the composite material has similar conductivity as the constituent species grown at similar conditions but the surface roughness and the work function are determined solely by the terminating layer. We observe that both IZO and GZO terminated stacks result in conductivity of 1.5E3 S/cm, but the surface roughness varies from 0.3 nm to 0.7 nm respectively. We also explore other possible combination of zinc based oxide materials in order to optimize the optical and the electrical properties of TCO for possible application in opto-electronic devices.

Sigdel, Ajaya; Shaheen, Sean; Perkins, John; Ginley, David; Berry, Joseph

2009-10-01

104

Degradation of Azo Dyes by Trametes villosa Laccase over Long Periods of Oxidative Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical structure of dyes is comprised of a conjugated system of double bonds and aromatic rings. The major classes of dyes have antroquinoid, indigoid, and azo aromatic struc- tures. All of these structures allow strong -* transitions in the UV-visible (UV-Vis) area, with high extinction coefficients that allow us to consider these structures dye chromophores. Of all of these

Andrea Zille; Barbara Gornacka; Astrid Rehorek; Artur Cavaco-Paulo

2005-01-01

105

Electrolyte optimization for cathodic growth of zinc oxide films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc oxide is of considerable interest to the optical and electronic industries, because of its electrical, optical, and acoustic characteristics. ZnO films can be prepared by several techniques, such as radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and molecular beam epitaxy. Preparation of oxide films by electrodeposition from aqueous solutions has several potential advantages over the other techniques. However,

Masanobu Izaki; Takashi Omi

1996-01-01

106

The photoluminescence properties of zinc oxide nanofibres prepared by electrospinning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphology and optical properties of zinc oxide fibres with diameters in the nanometre to micrometre range are reported. The PVA/zinc acetate organic/inorganic hybrid nanofibres were successfully prepared by electrospinning using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and zinc acetate. Pure zinc oxide fibres were obtained by high-temperature calcination of the hybrid fibres in air. The nanofibres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The photoluminescence spectra under excitation at 325 nm showed an ultraviolet emission at 3.13 eV and a green emission at 2.21 eV. These nanofibres could be used as light emitting devices in nanoscale optoelectronic applications.

Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy; Bhattarai, Narayan; Kim, Hak Yong; Lee, Douk Rae

2004-03-01

107

Characterization of transparent zinc oxide films prepared by electrochemical reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transparent zinc oxide (ZnO) films have been grown by galvanostatic cathodic deposition onto conductive glasses from a simple aqueous zinc nitrate electrolyte maintained at 335 K. The as-deposited ZnO films were characterized with Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical transmission and absorption studies, and measurement of sheet resistivity as a function of cathodic current density.

Masanobu Izaki; Takashi Omi

1997-01-01

108

Plasma in-liquid method for reduction of zinc oxide in zinc nanoparticle synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal air-batteries with high-energy density are expected to be increasingly applied in electric vehicles. This will require a method of recycling air batteries, and reduction of metal oxide by generating plasma in liquid has been proposed as a possible method. Microwave-induced plasma is generated in ethanol as a reducing agent in which zinc oxide is dispersed. Analysis by energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals the reduction of zinc oxide. According to images by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cubic and hexagonal metallic zinc particles are formed in sizes of 30 to 200 nm. Additionally, spherical fiber flocculates approximately 180 nm in diameter are present.

Amaliyah, Novriany; Mukasa, Shinobu; Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Kitamae, Tomohide

2015-02-01

109

Optical cavity modes of a single crystalline zinc oxide microsphere.  

PubMed

A detailed study on the optical cavity modes of zinc oxide microspheres under the optical excitation is presented. The zinc oxide microspheres with diameters ranging from 1.5 to 3.0 µm are prepared using hydrothermal growth technique. The photoluminescence measurement of a single microsphere shows prominent resonances of whispering gallery modes at room temperature. The experimentally observed whispering gallery modes in the photoluminescence spectrum are compared with theoretical calculations using analytical and finite element methods in order to clarify resonance properties of these modes. The comparison between theoretical analysis and experiment suggests that the dielectric constant of the ZnO microsphere is somewhat different from that for bulk ZnO. The sharp resonances of whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide microspheres cover the entire visible window. They may be utilized in realizations of optical resonators, light emitting devices, and lasers for future chip integrations with micro/nano optoelectronic circuits, and developments of optical biosensors. PMID:23481759

Moirangthem, Rakesh Singh; Cheng, Pi-Ju; Chien, Paul Ching-Hang; Ngo, Buu Trong Huynh; Chang, Shu-Wei; Tien, Chung-Hao; Chang, Yia-Chung

2013-02-11

110

Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Revolutionizing Agriculture: Synthesis and Applications  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology is the most innovative field of 21st century. Extensive research is going on for commercializing nanoproducts throughout the world. Due to their unique properties, nanoparticles have gained considerable importance compared to bulk counterparts. Among other metal nanoparticles, zinc oxide nanoparticles are very much important due to their utilization in gas sensors, biosensors, cosmetics, drug-delivery systems, and so forth. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) also have remarkable optical, physical, and antimicrobial properties and therefore have great potential to enhance agriculture. As far as method of formation is concerned, ZnO NPs can be synthesized by several chemical methods such as precipitation method, vapor transport method, and hydrothermal process. The biogenic synthesis of ZnO NPs by using different plant extracts is also common nowadays. This green synthesis is quite safe and ecofriendly compared to chemical synthesis. This paper elaborates the synthesis, properties, and applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles. PMID:25436235

Sabir, Sidra; Arshad, Muhammad

2014-01-01

111

Heterostructured nanohybrid of zinc oxide-montmorillonite clay.  

PubMed

We have synthesized heterostructured zinc oxide-aluminosilicate nanohybrids through a hydrothermal reaction between the colloidal suspension of exfoliated montmorillonite nanosheets and the sol solution of zinc acetate. According to X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, and field emission-scanning electron microscopic analyses, it was found that the intercalation of zinc oxide nanoparticles expands the basal spacing of the host montmorillonite clay, and the crystallites of the nanohybrids are assembled to form a house-of-cards structure. From UV-vis spectroscopic investigation, it becomes certain that calcined nanohybrid contains two kinds of the zinc oxide species in the interlayer space of host lattice and in mesopores formed by the house-of-cards type stacking of the crystallites. Zn K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure/extended X-ray absorption fine structure analyses clearly demonstrate that guest species in the nanohybrids exist as nanocrystalline zinc oxides with wurzite-type structure. PMID:16471722

Hur, Su Gil; Kim, Tae Woo; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Hwang, Sung-Ho; Yang, Jae Hun; Choy, Jin-Ho

2006-02-01

112

Zinc oxide based diluted magnetic semiconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During my graduate research I have synthesized materials known as diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) as epitaxial thin film structures using the process of pulsed laser deposition (PLD). These materials are envisioned to be of importance in the emerging field of spintronics where the charge as well as the spin of the charge carriers can be combined to yield unique functionalities to yield novel devices including, on-chip memories, ultra-low power devices etc. The material of interest in this dissertation was zinc oxide, a wide bandgap optoelectronic semiconductor. ZnO has a bandgap of 3.3 eV. It is an ideal candidate for spintronics applications, because Zn is the last of the first row transition metals, which leads to pretty high solubility of transition metals such as Co, Mn and V in ZnO. In a diluted magnetic semiconductor a fraction of the host atoms is substituted by the transition metal dopant ion. We have found that we can synthesize very high quality, single phase and single crystalline Zn(TM)O thin films on basal plane sapphire single crystals (alpha-Al 2O3). We have analyzed the magnetic properties of the three systems of ZnVO, ZnCoO and ZnMnO and found that ZnCoO and ZnMnO exhibit ferromagnetic ordering up to room temperature, when synthesized under high vacuum. In these conditions, the samples have a reasonable concentration of point defects which drive ZnO to n-type conductivity. By a combination of in-situ and ex-situ variation of parameters we have been able to tune the electronic and magnetic properties of these systems. From these studies we conclude that the main mechanism of magnetic ordering in these DMS materials is through a combination of defect related carrier induced exchange and bound magnetic polaron exchange. Device structures were fabricated using the as deposited samples to study the possibility of spin injection through semiconductors. We have observed that at low temperatures we see a considerable effect from this phenomenon in a magnetic tunnel junction kind of configuration. Hence, this study opens up new avenues and possibilities for a variety of spintronics applications.

Ramachandran, Shivaraman

113

Analysis of cellular responses of macrophages to zinc ions and zinc oxide nanoparticles: a combined targeted and proteomic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two different zinc oxide nanoparticles, as well as zinc ions, are used to study the cellular responses of the RAW 264 macrophage cell line. A proteomic screen is used to provide a wide view of the molecular effects of zinc, and the most prominent results are cross-validated by targeted studies. Furthermore, the alteration of important macrophage functions (e.g. phagocytosis) by zinc is also investigated. The intracellular dissolution/uptake of zinc is also studied to further characterize zinc toxicity. Zinc oxide nanoparticles dissolve readily in the cells, leading to high intracellular zinc concentrations, mostly as protein-bound zinc. The proteomic screen reveals a rather weak response in the oxidative stress response pathway, but a strong response both in the central metabolism and in the proteasomal protein degradation pathway. Targeted experiments confirm that carbohydrate catabolism and proteasome are critical determinants of sensitivity to zinc, which also induces DNA damage. Conversely, glutathione levels and phagocytosis appear unaffected at moderately toxic zinc concentrations.Two different zinc oxide nanoparticles, as well as zinc ions, are used to study the cellular responses of the RAW 264 macrophage cell line. A proteomic screen is used to provide a wide view of the molecular effects of zinc, and the most prominent results are cross-validated by targeted studies. Furthermore, the alteration of important macrophage functions (e.g. phagocytosis) by zinc is also investigated. The intracellular dissolution/uptake of zinc is also studied to further characterize zinc toxicity. Zinc oxide nanoparticles dissolve readily in the cells, leading to high intracellular zinc concentrations, mostly as protein-bound zinc. The proteomic screen reveals a rather weak response in the oxidative stress response pathway, but a strong response both in the central metabolism and in the proteasomal protein degradation pathway. Targeted experiments confirm that carbohydrate catabolism and proteasome are critical determinants of sensitivity to zinc, which also induces DNA damage. Conversely, glutathione levels and phagocytosis appear unaffected at moderately toxic zinc concentrations. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00319e

Triboulet, Sarah; Aude-Garcia, Catherine; Armand, Lucie; Gerdil, Adèle; Diemer, Hélène; Proamer, Fabienne; Collin-Faure, Véronique; Habert, Aurélie; Strub, Jean-Marc; Hanau, Daniel; Herlin, Nathalie; Carrière, Marie; van Dorsselaer, Alain; Rabilloud, Thierry

2014-05-01

114

The insert of zinc oxide thin film in indium tin oxide anode for organic electroluminescence devices q  

E-print Network

The insert of zinc oxide thin film in indium tin oxide anode for organic electroluminescence-746, South Korea Received 30 August 2003; accepted 7 November 2003 Available online 6 May 2004 Abstract Zinc high-purity of zinc oxide (99.99%) powder. Systematic study on dependence of target

Boo, Jin-Hyo

115

J Am Cerom Soc 73 [lo] 3026-32 (19901 Electrical Properties of Individual Zinc Oxide  

E-print Network

J Am Cerom Soc 73 [lo] 3026-32 (19901 Electrical Properties of Individual Zinc Oxide Grain properties of single interfaces and grain boundaries. [Keywords: grain boundaries, zinc oxide, varistors semiconductor, zinc oxide (ZnO), which is used commercially as a varistor material. This is an excellent

Rohrer, Gregory S.

116

A new copper species based on an azo-compound utilized as a homogeneous catalyst for water oxidation.  

PubMed

A new azo-complex [(L)Cu(II)(NO3)] [L = (E)-3-(pyridin-2-yldiazenyl)naphthalen-2-ol (HL)], was prepared via a one-pot synthetic method at 60 °C and was structurally characterized by IR, EA, PXRD and single crystal X-ray diffraction. In addition, TGA studies indicated that the complex was stable in air. The redox properties were determined by cyclic voltammetry, which revealed that the complex could be utilized as a catalyst for water oxidation under mild conditions. Subsequently, the complex was employed as a catalyst to take part in water oxidation reaction in the presence of a Ce(IV) salt utilized as an oxidant at pH 11 in PBS (Phosphate Buffered Saline) solution. The results suggested that the catalyst exhibited a high stability and activity toward water oxidation reaction under these conditions with an initial TOF of 4.0 kPa h(-1). Calculation methodology was performed to study the mechanism of the reaction, which revealed that in this catalytic process, the initial oxidation of Cu(II) to Cu(III) occurred by the formation of an intermediate "Cu(III)-O-O-Cu(III)". The formation of this intermediate, resulted in a release of oxygen and closing of the catalytic cycle. PMID:25382024

Yu, Wei-Bin; He, Qing-Ya; Ma, Xiu-Fang; Shi, Hua-Tian; Wei, Xianwen

2015-01-01

117

High-performance liquefied petroleum gas sensing based on nanostructures of zinc oxide and zinc stannate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic and combustible gas detection plays a major role in environmental air quality monitoring. Real-time monitoring of hazardous gases and signal of accidental leakages is of great importance owing to the concern for safety requirements in industries and household applications. A simple and economical method for the fabrication of highly sensitive zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods based gas sensors for detecting

Aarthy Sivapunniyam; Niti Wiromrat; Myo Tay Zar Myint; Joydeep Dutta

2011-01-01

118

Photoexcited emission efficiencies of zinc oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optoelectronic properties of the II-VI semiconductor zinc oxide (ZnO) have been studied scientifically for almost 60 years; however, many fundamental questions remain unanswered about its two primary emission bands--the exciton-related luminescence in the ultraviolet and the defect-related emission band centered in the green portion of the visible spectrum. The work in this dissertation was motivated by the surprising optical properties of a ZnO nanowire sample grown by the group of Prof. Jie Liu, Department of Chemistry, Duke University. We found that this nanowire sample exhibited defect-related green/white emission of unprecedented intensity relative to near-band-edge luminescence. The experimental work comprising this dissertation was designed to explain the optical properties of this ZnO nanowire sample. Understanding the physics underlying such exceptional intensity of green emission addresses many of the open questions of ZnO research and assesses the possibility of using ZnO nanostructures as an ultraviolet-excited, broadband visible phosphor. The goal of this dissertation is to provide insight into what factors influence the radiative and nonradiative recombination efficiencies of ZnO by characterizing simultaneously the optical properties of the near-band-edge ultraviolet and the defect-related green emission bands. Specifically, we seek to understand the mechanisms of ultraviolet and green emission, the mechanism of energy transfer between them, and the evolution of their emission efficiencies with parameters such as excitation density and sample temperature. These fundamental but unanswered questions of ZnO emission are addressed here by using a novel combination of ultrafast spectroscopic techniques in conjunction with a systematic set of ZnO samples. Through this systematic investigation, ZnO may be realistically assessed as a potential green/white light phosphor. Photoluminescence techniques are used to characterize the thermal quenching behavior of both emission bands in micrometer-scale ZnO powders. Green luminescence quenching is described by activation energies associated with bound excitons. We find that green luminescence efficiency is maximized when excitons are localized in the vicinity of green-emitting defects. Subsequent photoluminescence excitation measurements performed at multiple temperatures independently verified that green band photoluminescence intensity directly correlates with the photogenerated exciton population. The spatial distributions of green-emitting defects and nonradiative traps are elucidated by an innovative combination of quantum efficiency and time-integrated/resolved photoluminescence measurements. By combining these techniques for the first time, we take advantage of the drastically different absorption coefficients for one- and two-photon excitations to provide details about the types and concentrations of surface and bulk defects and to demonstrate the non-negligible effects of reabsorption. A comparison of results for unannealed and annealed ZnO powders indicates that the annealing process creates a high density of green-emitting defects near the surface of the sample while simultaneously reducing the density of bulk nonradiative traps. These experimental results are discussed in the context of a simple rate equation model that accounts for the quantum efficiencies of both emission bands. For both femtosecond pulsed and continuous-wave excitations, the green band efficiency is found to decrease with increasing excitation density--from 35% to 5% for pulsed excitation spanning 1-1000 muJ/cm--2, and from 60% to 5% for continuous excitation in the range 0.01-10 W/cm --2. On the other hand, near-band-edge emission efficiency increases from 0.4% to 25% for increasing pulsed excitation density and from 0.1% to 0.6% for continuous excitation. It is shown experimentally that these changes in efficiency correspond to a reduction in exciton formation efficiency. The differences in efficiencies for pulsed versus continuous-wave excitation are described by changes in the relative

Foreman, John Vincent

119

Nanocomposite electrical generator based on piezoelectric zinc oxide nanowires  

E-print Network

Nanocomposite electrical generator based on piezoelectric zinc oxide nanowires K. Momeni, G. M October 2010; published online 1 December 2010 A nanocomposite electrical generator composed of an array system and loading configuration can generate up to 160% more electric potential than the values reported

Endres. William J.

120

Application of zinc oxide quantum dots in food safety  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO QDs) are nanoparticles of purified powdered ZnO. The ZnO QDs were directly added into liquid foods or coated on the surface of glass jars using polylactic acid (PLA) as a carrier. The antimicrobial activities of ZnO QDs against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteriti...

121

Interfacial electron transfer dynamics of photosensitized zinc oxide nanoclusters  

SciTech Connect

The authors have prepared and characterized photosensitized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoclusters, dispersed in methanol, using carboxylated coumarin dyes for surface adsorption. Femtosecond time-resolved emission spectroscopy allows the authors to measure the photo-induced charge carrier injection rate constant from the adsorbed photosensitizer to the n-type semiconductor nanocluster. These results are compared with other photosensitized semiconductors.

Murakoshi, Kei; Yanagida, Shozo [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Capel, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

1997-06-01

122

Effect of lattice constant of zinc oxide on antibacterial characteristics.  

PubMed

Zinc oxide powders were heated in different atmospheres at 800 and 1400 degrees C, of which the characterization and the antibacterial activity were studied by X-ray diffractometry and the measurement of the change in electrical conductivity with bacterial growth. The diffraction peaks corresponding to zinc oxide with hexagonal type structure were detected in all samples, which shifted in low-angle side with the increase in the oxidizability of atmosphere during heat-treatment. From the results of calculating lattice constants, a0 and c0, it was found that the value of c0 in hexagonal structure increased with the increase in the oxidizability of atmosphere. On the samples heated at 1400 degrees C, the changes of the c0 value were less than those at 800 degrees C. However, no change of the a0 value showed, irrespective of atmosphere and temperature. Hydrogen peroxide that contributes to the occurrence of antibacterial activity was found to generate from all samples, and the generation amount increased with the increase of c0 value; incidently the amount in the samples heated at 1400 degrees C was less than that at 800 degrees C. The antibacterial activity of zinc oxide increased with the increase of c0 value; that is, it was found that the value of c0 in crystal structure affected the antibacterial activity of zinc oxide. PMID:15477735

Yamamoto, Osamu; Komatsu, Miyako; Sawai, Jun; Nakagawa, Zenbe-E

2004-08-01

123

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF METAL - ZINC OXIDE - SILICON DIOXIDE - SILICON STRUCTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two of the basic problems associated with monolithic Metal - Zinc Oxide - Silicon Dioxide - Silicon (MZOS) surface acoustic wave devices involve (1) drifting of device characteristics due to charge injection and trapping associated with the ZnO and (2) radiation damage in the Si-SiO(,2) subsystem. Both of these problems are addressed in this thesis.^ A quantitative comparison of radiation

RICHARD DANA CHERNE

1983-01-01

124

Spray pyrolysis deposition of cadmium–zinc oxide thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed thin film oxides of cadmium and zinc with different compositions were deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis. The effect of the various parameters on the growth and on the film properties is presented. The sample structure was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) having found the presence of a cubic phase resembling that of pure CdO XRD pattern for

O. Vigil; L Vaillant; F Cruz; G Santana; A Morales-Acevedo; G Contreras-Puente

2000-01-01

125

Hydrogen sensors based on zinc oxide nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure ZnO, pure MgO and 5 wt%MgO\\/ZnO nanocomposites were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) in a single step using zinc naphthenate and magnesium acetate tetrahydrate as Zn and Mg precursors. The particle properties were analyzed by XRD, BET and TEM analyses. The sensing films were prepared by mixing the nanoparticles into an organic paste composed of ethyl cellulose and

Thanittha Samerjai; C. Liewhiran; A. Wisitsoraat; Sukon Phanichphant

2010-01-01

126

Octadecanethiol Island Formation on Single Crystal Zinc Oxide Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic photovoltaic devices, comprised of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod electron acceptor arrays intercalated with organic polymers, could lead to low-cost renewable energy generation. Surface modifications of ZnO with octadecanethiol (ODT) monolayers can help to improve charge transfer in such devices. In the present work, single crystals of ZnO provided well-defined oxygen-terminated and zinc-terminated surfaces on which to learn fundamentally about the attachment and growth of ODT. Both bare zinc oxide and ODT-functionalized surfaces were characterized with atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and contact angle analysis. ODT seemed to form islands of multilayers on zinc-terminated surfaces, while it formed islands of monolayers on oxygen-terminated surfaces. While ODT was expected to preferentially bond along defects and terraces on oxygen-terminated surfaces, this was not observed. ODT was also expected to more effectively bond to the zinc-terminated surface, which was observed. Finally, surface preparation treatments designed to leave atomically-flat oxygen terminated surfaces were developed. This work was made possible by the National Science Foundation Division of Materials Research and the Renewable Energy Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at the Colorado School of Mines.

Yocom, Andrea

2009-10-01

127

Low resistance and transparent Ag/AZO ohmic contact to p-GaN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver (Ag)/ aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were deposited on p-GaN by using electronbeam evaporation. After the annealing process, current -voltage (I-V) measurements were carried out to determine the characteristic of the contacts. The Ag/AZO films annealed at 600 °C were found to present an ohmic contact behavior. The specific contact resistance was calculated to be 9.76 × 10-4 ?cm2 and the transmittance was over 80% for visibly light. The atomic force microscope was used to measure the aggregation of Ag grains which may have been the main factor in the formation of the Ag/AZO ohmic contact to p-GaN.

Han, T.; Wang, T.; Gan, X. W.; Wu, H.; Shi, Y.; Liu, C.

2014-07-01

128

Rapid degradation of zinc oxide nanoparticles by phosphate ions  

PubMed Central

Summary Zinc oxide nanoparticles are highly sensitive towards phosphate ions even at pH 7. Buffer solutions and cell culture media containing phosphate ions are able to destroy ZnO nanoparticles within a time span from less than one hour to one day. The driving force of the reaction is the formation of zinc phosphate of very low solubility. The morphology of the zinc oxide particles has only a minor influence on the kinetics of this reaction. Surface properties related to different production methods and the presence and absence of labelling with a perylene fluorescent dye are more important. Particles prepared under acidic conditions are more resistant than those obtained in basic or neutral reaction medium. Surprisingly, the presence of a SiO2 coating does not impede the degradation of the ZnO core. In contrast to phosphate ions, ?-glycerophosphate does not damage the ZnO nanoparticles. These findings should be taken into account when assessing the biological effects or the toxicology of zinc oxide nanoparticles. PMID:25383310

García-García, F Javier; Reller, Armin

2014-01-01

129

Burn-induced oxidative stress is altered by a low zinc status: kinetic study in burned rats fed a low zinc diet  

E-print Network

1 Burn-induced oxidative stress is altered by a low zinc status: kinetic study in burned rats fed a low zinc diet Richard Claeyssen1,2 , Maud Andriollo-Sanchez1 , Josiane Arnaud2,3 , Laurence Touvard1 Cedex 9, France. Keywords: Burn injury, zinc intakes, zinc status, oxidative stress, rat model

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

130

Synthesis of 5-aminotetrazole-1N-oxide and its azo derivative: a key step in the development of new energetic materials.  

PubMed

1-Hydroxy-5-aminotetrazole (1), which is a long-desired starting material for the synthesis of hundreds of new energetic materials, was synthesized for the first time by the reaction of aqueous hydroxylamine with cyanogen azide. The use of this unique precursor was demonstrated by the preparation of several energetic compounds with equal or higher performance than that of commonly used explosives, such as hexogen (RDX). The prepared compounds, including energetic salts of 1-hydroxy-5-aminotetrazole (hydroxylammonium (2, two polymorphs) and ammonium (3)), azo-coupled derivatives (potassium (5), hydroxylammonium (6), ammonium (7), and hydrazinium 5,5'-azo-bis(1-N-oxidotetrazolate (8, two polymorphs)), as well as neutral compounds 5,5'-azo-bis(1-oxidotetrazole) (4) and 5,5'-bis(1-oxidotetrazole)hydrazine (9), were intensively characterized by low-temperature X-ray diffraction, IR, Raman, and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and DSC. The calculated energetic performance, by using the EXPLO5 code, based on the calculated (CBS-4M) heats of formation and X-ray densities confirm the high energetic performance of tetrazole-N-oxides as energetic materials. Last but not least, their sensitivity towards impact, friction, and electrostatic discharge were explored. 5,5'-Azo-bis(1-N-oxidotetrazole) deflagrates close to the DDT (deflagration-to-detonation transition) faster than all compounds that have been investigated in our research group to date. PMID:23417994

Fischer, Dennis; Klapötke, Thomas M; Piercey, Davin G; Stierstorfer, Jörg

2013-04-01

131

Zinc oxide's hierarchical nanostructure and its photocatalytic properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a new hierarchical nanostructure that consists of zinc oxide (ZnO) was produced by the electrospinning process followed by a hydrothermal technique. First, electrospinning of a colloidal solution that consisted of zinc nanoparticles, zinc acetate dihydrate and poly(vinyl alcohol) was performed to produce polymeric nanofibers embedding solid nanoparticles. Calcination of the obtained electrospun nanofiber mats in air at 500 °C for 90 min produced pure ZnO nanofibers with rough surfaces. The rough surface strongly enhanced outgrowing of ZnO nanobranches when a specific hydrothermal technique was used. Methylene blue dihydrate was used to check the photocatalytic ability of the produced nanostructures. The results indicated that the hierarchical nanostructure had a better performance than the other form.

Kanjwal, Muzafar A.; Sheikh, Faheem A.; Barakat, Nasser A. M.; Li, Xiaoqiang; Kim, Hak Yong; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

2012-02-01

132

Analytic bond-order potential for atomistic simulations of zinc oxide  

E-print Network

Analytic bond-order potential for atomistic simulations of zinc oxide Paul Erhart1 , Niklas Juslin2 for zinc oxide and its elemental constituents is derived based on an analytical bond-order formalism. The model potential provides a good description of the bulk properties of various solid structures of zinc

Nordlund, Kai

133

A long life zinc oxide-titanium oxide sorbent for moving bed reactors  

SciTech Connect

Coal Fired Gasifier Combined Cycles (GCCs) have both high efficiency and very low emissions. GCCs are in critical need of a method to remove the H{sub 2}S produced from the sulfur in the coal from the hot gases. There has been extensive research on hot gas clean-up systems, focused on the use of a zinc oxide based sorbent (e.g., zinc titanate). However, the previous sorbents show significant losses in sulfur capacity with cycling. TDA Research, Inc. recently increased the zinc oxide content and sulfur loadings while simultaneously improving the attrition resistance. The improved fabrication method produces long life, low cost sorbent containing zinc oxide. The authors are currently testing sorbents at conditions simulating a moving bed reactor for GCC [i.e., 20 atm, 482 C (900 F) to 538 C (1,000 F), and 1% H{sub 2}S].

Copeland, R.; Cesario, M.; Dubovik, M.; Feinberg, D.; Windecker, B.; Yang, J. [TDA Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)

1996-12-31

134

Biodecolorization of azo dye Remazol orange by Pseudomonas aeruginosa BCH and toxicity (oxidative stress) reduction in Allium cepa root cells.  

PubMed

In this report a textile azo dye Remazol orange was degraded and detoxified by bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa BCH in plain distilled water. This bacterial decolorization performance was found to be pH and temperature dependent with maximum decolorization observed at pH 8 and temperature 30 °C. Bacterium tolerated higher dye concentrations up to 400 mg?l(-1). Effect of initial cell mass showed that higher cell mass concentration can accelerate decolorization process with maximum of 92 % decolorization observed at 2.5 g?l(-1) cell mass within 6.5 h. Effect of various metal ions showed Mn has inducing effect whereas Zn strongly inhibited the decolorization process at 5 mM concentration. Analysis of biodegradation products carried out with UV-vis spectroscopy, HPTLC and FTIR confirmed the decolorization and degradation of Remazol orange. Possible route for the degradation of dye was proposed based on GC-MS analysis. During toxicological scrutiny in Allium cepa root cells, induction in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and inhibition of catalase (CAT) along with raised levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in dye treated samples were detected which conclusively indicated the generation of oxidative stress. Less toxic nature of the dye degraded products was observed after bacterial treatment. PMID:22948606

Jadhav, Shekhar B; Surwase, Shripad N; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Gurav, Ranjit G; Jadhav, Jyoti P

2012-11-01

135

Zinc in a +III oxidation state  

E-print Network

The possibility of Group 12 elements, such as Zn, Cd, and Hg existing in an oxidation state of +III or higher and hence transforming them into transition metals has fascinated chemists for decades. It took nearly 20 years before experiment could confirm the theoretical prediction that Hg indeed can exist in an oxidation state of +IV. While this unusual property of Hg is attributed to the relativistic effects, Zn being much lighter than Hg has not been expected to have an oxidation state higher than +II. Using density functional theory we show that an oxidation state of +III for Zn can be realized by choosing specific ligands with large electron affinities. We demonstrate this by a systematic study of the interaction of Zn with F, BO2, and AuF6 ligands whose electron affinities are progressively higher, namely, 3.4 eV, 4.5 eV, and 8.6 eV, respectively. Discovery of higher oxidation states of elements can help in the formulation of new reactions and hence in the development of new chemistry.

Samanta, Devleena

2012-01-01

136

Electrical and optical properties of zinc oxide for scintillator applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide-band-gap semiconductor suitable for many optical and optoelectronic applications. Among these is to use single crystal, powder, or ceramic forms of ZnO as a fast UV scintillator. In this work, the electrical and optical properties of ZnO were studied using photoluminescence, X-ray-induced luminescence, optical absorption, and Hall Effect techniques. This study included single crystal ZnO

Xiaocheng Yang

2008-01-01

137

Giant negative magnetoresistance in Manganese-substituted Zinc Oxide  

PubMed Central

We report a large negative magnetoresistance in Manganese-substituted Zinc Oxide thin films. This anomalous effect was found to appear in oxygen-deficient films and to increase with the concentration of Manganese. By combining magnetoresistive measurements with magneto-photoluminescence, we demonstrate that the effect can be explained as the result of a magnetically induced transition from hopping to band conduction where the activation energy is caused by the sp-d exchange interaction. PMID:25783664

Wang, X. L.; Shao, Q.; Zhuravlyova, A.; He, M.; Yi, Y.; Lortz, R.; Wang, J. N.; Ruotolo, A.

2015-01-01

138

A new method for preparation of zinc oxide whiskers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetrapod-shaped ZnO whiskers were prepared with high yield and good purity in a short reaction time by a new method, the oxidation of pellets or otherwise shaped metallic zinc at 500–800°C under atmospheric pressure. The reaction conditions were analyzed and compared with other methods. The products were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results

Zuowan Zhou; Hai Deng; Jing Yi; Shikai Liu

1999-01-01

139

Tetrapod-like Zinc Oxide Whisker Enhancement of Resin Composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing demand for composite resins with both strong antibacterial activity and satisfactory mechanical properties. This study tested the hypothesis that the new antibacterial agent tetrapod-like zinc oxide whisker (T-ZnOw) could simultaneously enhance the antibacterial activity and mechanical properties of a two-component composite resin. The antibacterial activities of the materials were assessed by the broth dilution test and

L. N. Niu; M. Fang; K. Jiao; L. H. Tang; Y. H. Xiao; L. J. Shen; J. H. Chen

2010-01-01

140

Preparation and Property Analysis of Hydrophobic Zinc Oxide Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, zinc oxide films were prepared on glass substrates by hydrothermal synthesis and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) respectively. A nanostructured layer of flurocarbon compounds with low surface energy was formed on the films by low-temperature dielectric barrier discharge plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (DBD-PECVD), in order to enhance the hydrophobicity of the films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

Li Chen; Li Min

2011-01-01

141

Giant negative magnetoresistance in Manganese-substituted Zinc Oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a large negative magnetoresistance in Manganese-substituted Zinc Oxide thin films. This anomalous effect was found to appear in oxygen-deficient films and to increase with the concentration of Manganese. By combining magnetoresistive measurements with magneto-photoluminescence, we demonstrate that the effect can be explained as the result of a magnetically induced transition from hopping to band conduction where the activation energy is caused by the sp-d exchange interaction.

Wang, X. L.; Shao, Q.; Zhuravlyova, A.; He, M.; Yi, Y.; Lortz, R.; Wang, J. N.; Ruotolo, A.

2015-03-01

142

Zinc oxide-based sorbents and processes for preparing and using same  

DOEpatents

Zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them are provided, wherein the sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents contain an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2 O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, containing a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

Gangwal, Santosh Kumar; Turk, Brian Scott; Gupta, Raghubir Prasad

2005-10-04

143

Zinc-oxide-based sorbents and processes for preparing and using same  

SciTech Connect

Zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them are provided. The sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents comprise an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, comprising a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

Gangwal, Santosh Kumar (Cary, NC); Turk, Brian Scott (Durham, NC); Gupta, Raghubir Prasael (Durham, NC)

2010-03-23

144

Superior antibacterial activity of zinc oxide/graphene oxide composites originating from high zinc concentration localized around bacteria.  

PubMed

New materials with good antibacterial activity and less toxicity to other species attract numerous research interest. Taking advantage of zinc oxide (ZnO) and graphene oxide (GO), the ZnO/GO composites were prepared by a facile one-pot reaction to achieve superior antibacterial properties without damaging other species. In the composites, ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), with a size of about 4 nm, homogeneously anchored onto GO sheets. The typical bacterium Escherichia coli and HeLa cell were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of the ZnO/GO composites, respectively. The synergistic effects of GO and ZnO NPs led to the superior antibacterial activity of the composites. GO helped the dispersion of ZnO NPs, slowed the dissolution of ZnO, acted as the storage site for the dissolved zinc ions, and enabled the intimate contact of E. coli with ZnO NPs and zinc ions as well. The close contact enhanced the local zinc concentration pitting on the bacterial membrane and the permeability of the bacterial membrane and thus induced bacterial death. In addition, the ZnO/GO composites were found to be much less toxic to HeLa cells, compared to the equivalent concentration of ZnO NPs in the composites. The results indicate that the ZnO/GO composites are promising disinfection materials to be used in surface coatings on various substrates to effectively inhibit bacterial growth, propagation, and survival in medical devices. PMID:24495147

Wang, Yan-Wen; Cao, Aoneng; Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Jia-Hui; Liu, Yuanfang; Wang, Haifang

2014-02-26

145

Nanocomposite electrical generator based on piezoelectric zinc oxide nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nanocomposite electrical generator composed of an array of zinc oxide nanowires is considered. The electric potential distribution along zinc oxide nanowires is modeled using continuum mechanics and Maxwell's equations for the case of axial loading. A perturbation technique is used for decoupling the constitutive equations. The governing differential equations are solved using a finite difference method. It is shown that a gradient of electric potential exists along the axis of the zinc oxide nanowires. Maximum and minimum values of electric potential exist at the extreme ends along the nanowire length and have opposite signs. The positive and negative voltages are separated by a zero-valued electric potential at the middle of the nanowire. It is also shown that the electric potential is a strong function of shear stress at the interface of matrix-nanowire. The proposed system and loading configuration can generate up to 160% more electric potential than the values reported for the nanowire in the bended configuration, which results in a more sustainable energy source.

Momeni, K.; Odegard, G. M.; Yassar, R. S.

2010-12-01

146

Band-Gap Engineering of Zinc Oxide Colloids via Lattice Substitution with Sulfur Leading to Materials with Advanced Properties for  

E-print Network

Band-Gap Engineering of Zinc Oxide Colloids via Lattice Substitution with Sulfur Leading requires a precise control over electronic properties. Zinc oxide is favorable for large such as zinc oxide (ZnO).3,4 At first sight, ZnO is a simple material. Unlike typical transition metals, zinc

Nabben, Reinhard

147

Nonohmic Properties of Zinc Oxide Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonohmic properties of ZnO ceramics with five additives of Bi2O3, CoO, MnO, Cr2O3, and Sb2O3 are studied in relation to sintering temperature, additive content, and temperature dependence. The observation of electron photomicrographs and X-ray microanalysis proves a ceramic microstructure such that ZnO and these five oxides form, at the grain boundaries, segregation layers which are responsible for the nonohmic properties.

Michio Matsuoka

1971-01-01

148

Ultrathin oxidized Ti to increase stability and smoothness of Al doped ZnO transparent conductors for high efficiency indium-free polymer solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a transparent electrode consisting of an aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) layer capped with an ultrathin oxidized Ti film for indium-free bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs). The oxidized Ti increases the chemical, environmental, stability and the surface smoothness of AZO while still maintaining its electrical and optical properties. The application potential of the proposed transparent electrode is demonstrated in an inverted PSC, which shows an efficiency of 6.3%, very close to the value (7%) obtained in a similar structure using indium tin oxide. This efficiency is the highest reported to date for PSCs incorporating AZO electrodes.

Formica, N.; Ghosh, D. S.; Martinez-Otero, A.; Chen, T. L.; Martorell, Jordi; Pruneri, V.

2013-10-01

149

Kinetics of fluoride release from zinc oxide-based cements.  

PubMed

Considerable attention has been given to the release of the cariostatic fluoride ion from glass-based dental cements (dental silicate and glass ionomer). In these, the total available fluoride content is not precisely known since fluorine is distributed between the cross-linked aqueous salt matrix, partially dissolved glass, and undissolved glass. In analogous cements based on zinc oxide the fluoride is added as highly soluble SnF2. The object of this study is to compare the F- ion release profiles of commercial zinc polycarboxylate and zinc phosphate containing 4.4 and 3.6% SnF2, respectively. Mixed cements were clamped in split ring moulds to produce discs of 10 mm x 1 mm after storage at 37 degrees C for 1 h. Each was weighed and immersed in 10 ml of deionised water. When this changed, at 13 time intervals up to 98 days, the fluoride content was measured using an ion selective electrode. The mean (N = 3) values obtained were expressed cumulatively [F] in micromol F ion/g cement. The total [F] released was 111 for the zinc polycarboxylate and 286 for zinc phosphate compared with total F in the cements of 561 and 464, respectively. When the cumulative [F] was plotted versus t(1/2) close associations were found for both cements. For the polycarboxylate the regression line [F] = 10.6t(1/2) + 9.9 fitted well over the whole 98 days (R = 0.997). For the phosphate a better fit regression line was obtained using results up to 32 days only; [F] = 36.8t(1/2) - 8.4 (R = 0.999). For t > 32 days results increasingly deviated from this line. These results fitted a regression line of the form [F] = 81.7log(e) t - 87.3 (R = 0.9997). Comparisons are made with data from previous authors both for zinc phosphate cement and glass-based cements and with diffusion theory of F ion release. It is concluded that zinc-based cements provide some indications of how glass-based cements may behave over long periods of release and that zinc phosphate is the material of clinical choice for orthodontic cementation if maximal fluoride release is the prime criterion. PMID:11516083

Billington, R W; Hadley, P C; Williams, J A; Pearson, G J

2001-09-01

150

Study of photo-induced effect on field emission from zinc oxide nanowire cold cathode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fully-sealed zinc oxide nanowire cold cathode flat-panel device and a LED flat-panel lighting sources with different wavelengths have been used for investigating the photo-induced effect on field emission from zinc oxide nanowires. The results show that the photo-induced effect using red, orange, yellow, and green light on the field emission from zinc oxide nanowires was not obvious, while the

J. L. Hu; M. X. Liao; S. Z. Deng; W. J. Zai; N. S. Xu

2011-01-01

151

Rare earth doped zinc oxide varistors  

DOEpatents

A varistor includes a Bi-free, essentially homogeneous sintered body of a ceramic composition including, expressed as nominal weight %, 0.2--4.0% oxide of at least one rare earth element, 0.5--4.0% Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, 0.05--0.4% K{sub 2}O, 0.05--0.2% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--0.2% CaO, 0.00005--0.01% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--2% MnO, 0--0.05% MgO, 0--0.5% TiO{sub 3}, 0--0.2% SnO{sub 2}, 0--0.02% B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, balance ZnO. 4 figs.

McMillan, A.D.; Modine, F.A.; Lauf, R.J.; Alim, M.A.; Mahan, G.D.; Bartkowiak, M.

1998-12-29

152

Rare earth doped zinc oxide varistors  

DOEpatents

A varistor includes a Bi-free, essentially homogeneous sintered body of a ceramic composition including, expressed as nominal weight %, 0.2-4.0% oxide of at least one rare earth element, 0.5-4.0% Co.sub.3 O.sub.4, 0.05-0.4% K.sub.2 O, 0.05-0.2% Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3, 0-0.2% CaO, 0.00005-0.01% Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, 0-2% MnO, 0-0.05% MgO, 0-0.5% TiO.sub.3, 0-0.2% SnO.sub.2, 0-0.02% B.sub.2 O.sub.3, balance ZnO.

McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Modine, Frank A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Alim, Mohammad A. (Medina, OH); Mahan, Gerald D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bartkowiak, Miroslaw (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01

153

The zinc ferrite obtained by oxidative precipitation method as a catalyst in n-butanol conversion  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of catalytic properties of n-butanol conversion of the zinc ferrite obtained by oxidative precipitation method. The zinc ferrite showed good dehydrogenating activity but also catalyzed consecutive bimolecular condensation of emerged aldehyde particles into symmetrical ketone. The zinc-iron oxide of spinel structure was prepared from ferrous sulfate, which forms as a waste during the titanium dioxide production. The X-ray diffraction methods (XRD, XRF) were used in determining the structure and composition of obtained zinc ferrite, while thermogravimetry (TG-DTG), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used in the study of thermal transformations of zinc spinel in air.

Klimkiewicz, Roman [W. Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, Wroclaw 2 50-950 (Poland)], E-mail: R.Klimkiewicz@int.pan.wroc.pl; Wolska, Jolanta; Przepiera, Aleksander; Przepiera, Krystyna; Jablonski, Maciej [Institute of Chemistry and Environmental Protection, Szczecin University of Technology, Al. Piastow 42, Szczecin 71-065 (Poland); Lenart, Stanislaw [Institute of Materials Engineering, Szczecin University of Technology, Al. Piastow 19, Szczecin 70-310 (Poland)

2009-01-08

154

The synthesis and optical properties of different zinc oxide nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tetrapod-like whiskers (T-ZnO), nanoaeroplanes, nanocombs, nanobelts, bead-like nanoforms and many other forms of hexagonal zinc oxide were synthesized by the chemical deposition process (CVD). From the experimental results it can be seen that the composition of source gases and the speed of oxidation are essential to the growth of each of these morphologies of zinc oxide. By controlling the growth conditions, one novel morphology of ZnO (bead-like nanoform) has been obtained. The ZnO tetrapod-like whiskers were grown without catalysts on the walls of quartz tube. The structure and morphology of the T-ZnO was characterized. All four legs of as-grown ZnO nanotetrapods are needle-like and hexagonal shaped and grow in the ±[0001] direction. The effect of synthesis conditions on the morphology and size T-ZnO was observed. Possible mechanisms of growth were investigated. The lengths of the legs of the tetrapods range from 1 to 15 ?m and diameter varying from 0.03 to 1 ?m during the synthesis. In the photoluminescence spectra T-ZnO clearly shows two maxima at UV and visible regions. The oxygen impurity, particularly, oxygen flow rates mainly influences on increasing (decreasing) at PL peaks. The maximum near of 590-610 nm (˜2 eV), confirming the influence of native defects (oxygen vacancies and interstitials) on the PL intensity and optical quenching exciton peak.

Al Rifai, S. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P.

2013-12-01

155

Interfacial mixing during annealing of zinc oxide nanoparticle junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of forming a junction between crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles during pulsed thermal annealing in liquid tetradecane is studied using molecular dynamics simulation. Pairs of equal and unequal size particles are considered with emphasis on neck growth and atom mixing. The contact area and interface width of the junction are found to increase with heat pulse power albeit at different rates. The results suggest that it is possible to increase the junction area without significant mixing of atoms across the junction interface by tailoring the heat pulse power.

Hu, Ming; Giapis, Konstantinos P.; Poulikakos, Dimos

2011-05-01

156

Eshelby twist and magic helical zinc oxide nanowires and nanotubes.  

PubMed

Twisted zinc oxide nanowires and nanotubes were recently synthesized by screw-dislocation growth. We show theoretically that once their diameter increases above a critical size of the order of a few atomic spacings, the existence of these structures can be rationalized in terms of the energetics of surfaces and veritable Eshelby's twist linear elasticity mechanics supplemented by a nonlinear core term. For Burgers vector larger than the minimum allowed one, a twisted nanotube with well-defined thickness, rather than a nanowire, is the most stable nanostructure. Results are assistive for designing ultrathin nanostructures made out of nonlayered materials. PMID:22861867

Akatyeva, E; Dumitric?, T

2012-07-20

157

Manganese-doped zinc oxide tetratubes and their photoluminescent properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on vapor-phase transport method, manganese-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Mn) tetropod whiskers were fabricated. The pods of the ZnO:Mn whiskers show hexagonal hollow shape with multitips at the front. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy demonstrate that the tube pods and the tips are composed of wurtzite ZnO growing along [0001] direction. The generation of the luminescent center in ZnO whiskers and electron transport between the ground state and the excitation states of Mn2+ are analyzed by Raman-scattering, photoluminescence, and photoluminescent excitation measurements.

Xu, C. X.; Sun, X. W.; Dong, Z. L.; Tan, S. T.; Cui, Y. P.; Wang, B. P.

2005-12-01

158

Diameter control of ultrathin zinc oxide nanofibers synthesized by electrospinning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrospinning is a versatile technique, which can be used to generate nanofibers from a rich variety of materials. We investigate the variation of a zinc oxide (ZnO)-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) composite structure in morphology by electrospinning from a series of mixture solutions of ZnO sol-gel and PVP. Calcination conditions for the crystallization of ZnO nanofibers and removal of the PVP component from the ZnO-PVP composite nanofibers were also studied. The progression of the ZnO-PVP composite structure from grains to nanofibers was observed, and ZnO-PVP nanofibers as thin as 29.9 ± 0.8 nm on average were successfully fabricated. The size of the resultant ZnO-PVP composite nanofibers was considerably affected by two parameters: the concentrations of zinc acetate and PVP in the precursor solution. The concentration of zinc acetate particularly influenced the diameter distribution of the ZnO-PVP nanofibers. The ZnO-PVP nanofibers could be subsequently converted into ZnO nanofibers of a pure wurtzite phase via calcination in air at 500°C for 2 h.

Liao, Yingjie; Fukuda, Takeshi; Kamata, Norihiko; Tokunaga, Makoto

2014-05-01

159

Diameter control of ultrathin zinc oxide nanofibers synthesized by electrospinning  

PubMed Central

Electrospinning is a versatile technique, which can be used to generate nanofibers from a rich variety of materials. We investigate the variation of a zinc oxide (ZnO)-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) composite structure in morphology by electrospinning from a series of mixture solutions of ZnO sol–gel and PVP. Calcination conditions for the crystallization of ZnO nanofibers and removal of the PVP component from the ZnO-PVP composite nanofibers were also studied. The progression of the ZnO-PVP composite structure from grains to nanofibers was observed, and ZnO-PVP nanofibers as thin as 29.9?±?0.8 nm on average were successfully fabricated. The size of the resultant ZnO-PVP composite nanofibers was considerably affected by two parameters: the concentrations of zinc acetate and PVP in the precursor solution. The concentration of zinc acetate particularly influenced the diameter distribution of the ZnO-PVP nanofibers. The ZnO-PVP nanofibers could be subsequently converted into ZnO nanofibers of a pure wurtzite phase via calcination in air at 500°C for 2 h. PMID:24948890

2014-01-01

160

pH-dependent growth of zinc oxide nanorods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we study the effect of pH variation on the dimension and morphology of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods grown through hydrothermal process at temperatures less than 100 °C. ZnO nanorods were grown on pre-seeded glass substrates using zinc nitrate hexahydrate as the source of Zn ions and hexamethylenetetramine as the source of hydroxyl ions. The pH of the reaction bath was found to change gradually from 6.4 to 7.3 in 5 h during the growth process. The growth of the ZnO nanorods was observed to be faster, both laterally and longitudinally, when the growth solution was in basic conditions. However, flower petal like ZnO nanostructures were obtained when the growth process was initiated in basic condition (pH 8-12), indicating that initial acidic conditions were required to obtain nanorods with well-defined hexagonal facets. ZnO is known to erode in acidic condition and the final dimension of the nanorods is determined by a competition between crystal growth and etching. ZnO nanorods of different dimensions, both laterally (diameters ranging from 220 nm to 1 ?m) and longitudinally (lengths ranging from 1 to 5.6 ?m) were successfully synthesized using the same concentration of zinc nitrate and hexamine in the reaction bath and the same growth duration of 5 h simply through appropriate control of the pH of the reactant solution between 6 and 7.3.

Baruah, Sunandan; Dutta, Joydeep

2009-04-01

161

Zinc  

MedlinePLUS

... they may not get enough zinc. People with sickle cell disease because they might need more zinc. ... Children in developing countries often die from diarrhea. Studies show that zinc dietary supplements help reduce the ...

162

A combined marginal deficiency of copper and zinc does not exacerbate oxidant stress asssociated with copper or zinc deficiency  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Both copper deficiency (Cu-def) and zinc deficiency (Zn-def) result in oxidative stress. Thus, an experiment was conducted to determine whether a marginal Zn-def amplified oxidative stress responses to a marginal Cu-def, or vice versa. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to groups of 10 ...

163

An image processing approach to approximating interface textures of microcrystalline silicon layers grown on existing aluminum-doped zinc oxide textures.  

PubMed

We present an algorithm for generating a surface approximation of microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si) layers after plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) onto surface textured substrates, where data of the textured substrate surface are available as input. We utilize mathematical image processing tools and combine them with an ellipsoid generator approach. The presented algorithm has been tuned for use in thin-film silicon solar cell applications, where textured surfaces are used to improve light trapping. We demonstrate the feasibility of this method by means of optical simulations of generated surface textures, comparing them to simulations of measured atomic force microscopy (AFM) scan data of both Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO, a transparent and conductive material) and ?c-Si layers. PMID:24514939

Hertel, Kai; Hüpkes, Jürgen; Pflaum, Christoph

2013-11-01

164

Determining adaptive and adverse oxidative stress responses in human bronical epithelial cells exposed to zinc  

EPA Science Inventory

Determining adaptive and adverse oxidative stress responses in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to zincJenna M. Currier1,2, Wan-Yun Cheng1, Rory Conolly1, Brian N. Chorley1Zinc is a ubiquitous contaminant of ambient air that presents an oxidant challenge to the human lung...

165

The Electrical and Band-Gap Properties of Amorphous Zinc-Indium-Tin Oxide Thin Films  

E-print Network

MRSEC The Electrical and Band-Gap Properties of Amorphous Zinc-Indium-Tin Oxide Thin Films D Science & Engineering Center For zinc-indium-tin oxide (ZITO) films, grown by pulsed-laser deposition, ZITO-50 and ZITO-70 in which, respectively, 30%, 50% and 70% of the indium in the In2O3 structure

Shahriar, Selim

166

Electrochemical deposition of zinc oxide nanorods for hybrid solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays for inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells were electrochemically deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates with a rotating disk electrode setup. The addition of a ZnO seed layer on the ITO prior to electrochemical deposition improved the morphology of the nanorods, resulting in nanorods with smaller and homogenous diameters as well as a higher degree of vertical orientation on to the substrate. The ZnO films deposited on the seeded ITO substrates had higher optical transmittance and lower concentration of defects. Chronoamperometric transient curves show that nucleation and coalescence occurred later for bare ITO substrates, indicating lower densities of initial nuclei, resulting in the growth of nanorods with larger diameters. The solar cell characteristics of the devices fabricated from the seeded ITO substrates were better. The seed layer also acts as a hole-blocking layer, preventing the direct contact between the hole-transporting polymer material and the ITO.

Torres Damasco Ty, Jennifer; Yanagi, Hisao

2015-04-01

167

Degradation and mineralization of azo dye reactive blue 222 by sequential Photo-Fenton's oxidation followed by aerobic biological treatment using white rot fungi.  

PubMed

A two stage sequential Photo-Fenton's oxidation followed by aerobic biological treatment using two white rot fungi P. ostreatus IBL-02 (PO) and P. chrysosporium IBL-03 (PC) was performed to check decolorization and to enhance mineralization of azo dye Reactive Blue 222 (RB222). In the first stage, selected dye was subjected to Photo-Fenton's oxidation with decolorization percentage ?90 % which was further increased to 96.88 % and 95.23 % after aerobic treatment using two white rot fungi P. ostreatus IBL-02 (PO) and P. chrysosporium IBL-03 (PC), respectively. Mineralization efficiency was accessed by measuring the water quality assurance parameters like COD, TOC, TSS and Phenolics estimation. Reduction in COD, TOC, TSS and Phenolics were found to be 95.34 %, 90.11 %, 90.84 % and 92.22 %, respectively in two stage sequential processes. The degradation products were characterized by UV-visible and FTIR spectral techniques and their toxicity was measured. The results provide evidence that both fungal strains were able to oxidize and mineralize the selected azo dye into non-toxic metabolites. PMID:23272326

Kiran, Shumaila; Ali, Shaukat; Asgher, Muhammad

2013-02-01

168

ZINC  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the available information on zinc as it relates to its effects on man and his environment. Zinc is found in most soils, but some areas are deficient in it. Metallurgic operations contribute to zinc contamination in air, water and soil. Trace amounts of zinc...

169

Transparent conductive oxides for organic photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) were systematically investigated as alternatives to indium tin oxide (ITO) for canonical poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) + [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) polymer bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Devices made with FTO performed twice as well as devices made with ITO, establishing FTO as a suitable, low-cost ITO replacement. Ozone treatment was shown to be a critical enabling element for both FTO and AZO. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and device characteristics were used to explain the effect of ozone treatment and the origin of open circuit voltage.

Murdoch, G. B.; Gao, D.; Greiner, M.; Mordoukhovski, L.; Zhang, J.; Lu, Z. H.

2010-03-01

170

Nearly full-dense and fine-grained AZO:Y ceramics sintered from the corresponding nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Aluminum-doped zinc oxide ceramics with yttria doping (AZO:Y) ranging from 0 to 0.2 wt.% were fabricated by pressureless sintering yttria-modified nanoparticles in air at 1,300°C. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, a physical property measurement system, and a densimeter were employed to characterize the precursor nanoparticles and the sintered AZO ceramics. It was shown that a small amount of yttria doping can remarkably retard the growth of the as-received precursor nanoparticles, further improve the microstructure, refine the grain size, and enhance the density for the sintered ceramic. Increasing the yttria doping to 0.2 wt.%, the AZO:Y nanoparticles synthetized by a coprecipitation process have a nearly sphere-shaped morphology and a mean particle diameter of 15.1 nm. Using the same amount of yttria, a fully dense AZO ceramic (99.98% of theoretical density) with a grain size of 2.2 ?m and a bulk resistivity of 4.6?×?10-3??·cm can be achieved. This kind of AZO:Y ceramic has a potential to be used as a high-quality sputtering target to deposit ZnO-based transparent conductive films with better optical and electrical properties. PMID:22929049

Yang, Ye; Lan, Pinjun; Wang, Muqin; Wei, Tiefeng; Tan, Ruiqin; Song, Weijie

2012-01-01

171

Resistance of extremely halophilic archaea to zinc and zinc oxide nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrialization as well as other anthropogenic activities have resulted in addition of high loads of metal and/or metal nanoparticles to the environment. In this study, the effect of one of the widely used heavy metal, zinc (Zn) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on extremely halophilic archaea was evaluated. One representative member from four genera namely Halococcus, Haloferax, Halorubrum and Haloarcula of the family Halobacteriaceae was taken as the model organism. All the haloarchaeal genera investigated were resistant to both ZnCl2 and ZnO NPs at varying concentrations. Halococcus strain BK6 and Haloferax strain BBK2 showed the highest resistance in complex/minimal medium of up to 2.0/1.0 mM ZnCl2 and 2.0/1.0-0.5 mM ZnO NP. Accumulation of ZnCl2/ZnO NPs was seen as Haloferax strain BBK2 (287.2/549.6 mg g-1) > Halococcus strain BK6 (165.9/388.5 mg g-1) > Haloarcula strain BS2 (93.2/28.5 mg g-1) > Halorubrum strain BS17 (29.9/16.2 mg g-1). Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analysis revealed that bulk ZnCl2 was sorbed at a higher concentration (21.77 %) on the cell surface of Haloferax strain BBK2 as compared to the ZnO NPs (14.89 %).

Salgaonkar, Bhakti B.; Das, Deepthi; Bragança, Judith Maria

2015-03-01

172

Azo dye removal in a membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor.  

PubMed

Azo dyes that consist of a large quantity of dye wastewater are toxic and persistent to biodegradation, while they should be removed before being discharged to water body. In this study, Alizarin Yellow R (AYR) as a model azo dye was decolorized in a combined bio-system of membrane-free, continuous up-flow bio-catalyzed electrolysis reactor (UBER) and subsequent aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor (ABOR). With the supply of external power source 0.5 V in the UBER, AYR decolorization efficiency increased up to 94.8±1.5%. Products formation efficiencies of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) were above 90% and 60%, respectively. Electron recovery efficiency based on AYR removal in cathode zone was nearly 100% at HRTs longer than 6 h. Relatively high concentration of AYR accumulated at higher AYR loading rates (>780 gm(-3) d(-1)) likely inhibited acetate oxidation of anode-respiring bacteria on the anode, which decreased current density in the UBER; optimal AYR loading rate for the UBER was 680 gm(-3) d(-1) (HRT 2.5 h). The subsequent ABOR further improved effluent quality. Overall the Chroma decreased from 320 times to 80 times in the combined bio-system to meet the textile wastewater discharge standard II in China. PMID:23009797

Cui, Dan; Guo, Yu-Qi; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Liang, Bin; Kong, Fan-Ying; Lee, Hyung-Sool; Wang, Ai-Jie

2012-11-15

173

Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/zinc oxide smart composite material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work aimed at fabrication and electromechanical characterization of a smart material system composed of electroactive polymer and ceramic materials. The idea of composite material system is on account of complementary characteristics of the polymer and ceramic for flexibility and piezoelectric activity. Our preliminary work included Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) as the flexible piezoelectric polymer, and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) as the piezoelectric ceramic brittle, but capable to respond strains without poling. Two alternative processes were investigated. The first process makes use of ZnO fibrous formation achieved by sintering PVA/zinc acetate precursor fibers via electrospinning. Highly brittle fibrous ZnO mat was dipped into a PVDF polymer solution and then pressed to form pellets. The second process employed commercial ZnO nanopowder material. The powder was mixed into a PVDF/acetone polymer solution, and the resultant paste was pressed to form pellets. The free standing composite pellets with electrodes on the top and bottom surfaces were then subjected to sinusoidal electric excitation and response was recorded using a fotonic sensor. An earlier work on electrospun PVDF fiber mats was also summarized here and the electromechanical characterization is reported.

Ö?üt, Erdem; Yördem, O. Sinan; Mencelo?lu, Yusuf Z.; Papila, Melih

2007-04-01

174

Kinetics and mechanism of azo dye destruction in advanced oxidation processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics and mechanism of dye destruction in advanced oxidation processes is discussed on the example of Apollofix Red (Ar-28) radiolysis in aqueous solution. When the reactive intermediate reacts with the color bearing part of the molecule causing with nearly 100% efficiency destruction of the conjugation, the dose dependence, or time dependence of color disappearance is linear. In this case, spectrophotometry can be used to follow-up dye decomposition. Linear dependence was observed when hydrated electrons or hydrogen atoms reacted with the dye. In hydroxyl radical reactions some colored products form with spectra similar to those of the starting dye molecules. For that reason, spectrophotometry gives false result about the intact dye molecule concentration. Analysis by the HPLC reveals logarithmic time dependence in agreement with a theoretical model developed.

Wojnárovits, L.; Pálfi, T.; Takács, E.

2007-08-01

175

Adsorption of isopropanol and cyclohexane on zinc oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adsorption isotherms of isopropanol and cyclohexane are obtained in the range of 234-303 K on an initial surface of zinc oxide and after its treatment with glow-discharge plasma in O2 and high-frequency plasma in Ar. The values of isosteric heat and adsorption entropy are shown to be only slightly affected by these treatments. It is found that the acidity of the surface increases by 38 and 97%, respectively, and the acidic sites are not adsorption sites for either adsorbate. At low degrees of occupation, the adsorption isotherms of (CH3)2CHOH are described by an equation of induced adsorption whose parameters are dependent on the plasma-chemical treatments. It is concluded that adsorbed isopropanol particles exist in positively and negatively charged forms. The adsorption of cyclohexane is described by the Hill-de Boer equation for the initial ZnO surface, and by the Langmuir equation after plasma-chemical treatments.

Bratchikova, I. G.; Pylinina, A. I.; Platonov, E. A.; Danilova, M. N.; Isaeva, N. Yu.; Yagodovskii, V. D.

2015-01-01

176

Room temperature deposited indium zinc oxide thin film transistors  

SciTech Connect

Depletion-mode indium zinc oxide (IZO) channel thin film transistors were fabricated on glass substrates from layers deposited at room temperature using rf magnetron sputtering. The threshold voltage was in the range from -5.5 to -6.5 V depending on gate dielectric (SiO{sub 2}) thickness and the drain current on-to-off ratio was {approx}10{sup 5}. The maximum field effect mobility in the channel was {approx}4.5 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, lower than the Hall mobility of {approx}17 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} in the same layers, suggesting a strong influence of scattering due to trapped charges at the SiO{sub 2}-IZO interface. The low deposition and processing temperatures make these devices suitable for applications requiring flexible substrates.

Wang, Y.-L.; Ren, F.; Lim, Wantae; Norton, D. P.; Pearton, S. J.; Kravchenko, I. I.; Zavada, J. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Electronics Division, U.S. Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 (United States)

2007-06-04

177

Green Approach for Fabrication and Applications of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are known to be one of the multifunctional inorganic compounds which are widely used in everyday applications. This study aims to fabricate ZnO-NPs using grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peel extract with particle size ranging from 12 to 72?nm. Structural, morphological, and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, TEM, DLS, and FTIR analysis. They show the significant photocatalytic degradation efficiency (>56%, 10?mg/L, 6?h) against methylene blue and antioxidant efficacy (?80% for 1.2?mM) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. From the results obtained it is suggested that green ZnO-NPs could be used effectively in environmental safety applications and also can address future medical concerns. PMID:25374484

Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis

2014-01-01

178

Photophysical Behaviors of Single Fluorophores Localized on Zinc Oxide Nanostructures  

PubMed Central

Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy has now been widely used to investigate complex dynamic processes which would normally be obscured in an ensemble-averaged measurement. In this report we studied photophysical behaviors of single fluorophores in proximity to zinc oxide nanostructures by single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC). Single fluorophores on ZnO surfaces showed enhanced fluorescence brightness to various extents compared with those on glass; the single-molecule time trajectories also illustrated pronounced fluctuations of emission intensities, with time periods distributed from milliseconds to seconds. We attribute fluorescence fluctuations to the interfacial electron transfer (ET) events. The fluorescence fluctuation dynamics were found to be inhomogeneous from molecule to molecule and from time to time, showing significant static and dynamic disorders in the interfacial electron transfer reaction processes. PMID:23109903

Fu, Yi; Zhang, Jian; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

2012-01-01

179

Zinc/nickel oxide battery membrane separator studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourteen different macrocyclic compounds were synthesized for possible use in anionic exchange membranes and several polymerized with polyvinylbenzyl chloride. Two others were used in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membranes. Work continued to develop a suitable polymer material for the membranes. PVA could be cross-linked using a crown-ether dialdehyde as a cross-linking agent to produce a membrane with high ionic conductivity (0.02 mho/cm) and reasonable short-term stability in strong caustic solution at room temperatures. Selectivity of the membrane for hydroxide ions was essentially the same as that in the solution itself. Two new fabrication methods for polypropylene membranes were investigated and developed. Development of a two-dimensional code of a zinc-nickel oxide cell was begun.

Bennion, D. N.; Bradshaw, J. S.

1986-03-01

180

Effect of morphology and solvent on two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? ZnO nanospheres and triangular structures synthesis by novel precipitation technique. ? The effect of precursor concentration on the size and shape of nano ZnO. ? Open aperture Z-scan measurements of the ZnO nanoparticle dispersions. ? Nanospheres exhibit higher two photon absorption coefficient than triangular nanostructures. ? Nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two photon absorption coefficient than its dispersion in 2-propanol. - Abstract: In this paper, we report the effect of morphology and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide. Zinc oxide nanoparticles in two different morphologies like nanospheres and triangular nanostructures are synthesized by novel precipitation technique and their two-photon absorption coefficient is measured using open aperture Z-scan technique. Experimental results show that the zinc oxide nanospheres exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than the zinc oxide triangular nanostructures. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than that of its dispersion in 2-propanol. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water shows a decrease in two-photon absorption coefficient with an increase in on-axis irradiance. The result confirms the dependence of shape and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide.

Kavitha, M.K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India); Haripadmam, P.C.; Gopinath, Pramod; Krishnan, Bindu [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India); John, Honey, E-mail: honey@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India)

2013-05-15

181

Transparent amorphous zinc oxide thin films for NLO applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review focuses on the growth and optical properties of amorphous zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films. A high quality ZnO films fabricated by dip-coating (sol-gel) method were grown on quartz and glass substrates at temperature equal to 350 K. The amorphous nature of the films was verified by X-ray diffraction. Atomic Force Microscopy was used to evaluate the surface morphology of the films. The optical characteristics of amorphous thin films have been investigated in the spectral range 190-1100 nm. Measurement of the polarized optical properties was shows a high transmissivity (80-99%) and low absorptivity (<5%) in the visible and near infrared regions at different angles of incidence. Linear optical properties were investigated by classic and Time-Resolved Photoluminescence (TRPL) measurements. Photoluminescence spectrum exhibits a strong ultraviolet emission while the visible emission is very weak. An innovative TRPL technique has enabled the measurement of the photoluminescence decay time as a function of temperature. TRPL measurements reveal a multiexponential decay behavior typical for amorphous thin films. Second and third harmonic generation measurements were performed by means of the rotational Maker fringe technique using Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm in picosecond regime for investigations of the nonlinear optical properties. The obtained values of second and third order nonlinear susceptibilities were found to be high enough for the potential applications in the optical switching devices based on refractive index changes. Presented spectra confirm high structural and optical quality of the investigated zinc oxide thin films.

Zawadzka, A.; P?óciennik, P.; Strzelecki, J.; Sahraoui, B.

2014-11-01

182

Prenatal development toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the potential adverse effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles ([ZnOSM20(+) NPs] zinc oxide nanoparticles, positively charged, 20 nm) on pregnant dams and embryo–fetal development after maternal exposure over the period of gestational days 5–19 with Sprague-Dawley rats. ZnOSM20(+) NPs were administered to pregnant rats by gavage at 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day. All dams were subjected to a cesarean section on gestational day 20, and all of the fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal alterations. Toxicity in the dams manifested as significantly decreased body weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs; reduced food consumption after administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day NPs; and decreased liver weight and increased adrenal glands weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. However, no treatment-related difference in: number of corpora lutea; number of implantation sites; implantation rate (%); resorption; dead fetuses; litter size; fetal deaths and placental weights; and sex ratio were observed between the groups. On the other hand, significant decreases between treatment groups and controls were seen for fetal weights after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. Morphological examinations of the fetuses demonstrated significant differences in incidences of abnormalities in the group administered 400mg/kg/day. Meanwhile, no significant difference was found in the Zn content of fetal tissue between the control and high-dose groups. These results showed that oral doses for the study with 15-days repeated of ZnOSM20(+) NPs were maternotoxic in the 200 mg/kg/day group, and embryotoxic in the 400 mg/kg/day group. PMID:25565834

Hong, Jeong-Sup; Park, Myeong-Kyu; Kim, Min-Seok; Lim, Jeong-Hyeon; Park, Gil-Jong; Maeng, Eun-Ho; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Jeong, Jayoung; Park, Jin-A; Kim, Jong-Choon; Shin, Ho-Chul

2014-01-01

183

Texture and Topography Analysis of Doxycycline Hyclate Thermosensitive Systems Comprising Zinc Oxide  

PubMed Central

To characterize the thermal behavior and texture analysis of doxycycline hyclate thermosensitive gels developed for periodontitis treatment containing zinc oxide prepared by using poloxamer (Lutrol® F127) as polymeric material and N-methyl pyrrolidone was used as cosolvent. The thermosensitive gel comprising doxycycline hyclate, Lutrol® F127, and N-methyl pyrrolidone were characterized for the thermal behavior and texture analysis. The topography of the system after the dissolution test was characterized with scanning electron microscope. Differential scanning calorimetric thermogram exhibited the endothermic peaks in the systems containing high amount of N-methyl pyrrolidone in solvent. The sol-gel transition temperature of the systems decreased as the zinc oxide amount was increased. The addition of doxycycline hyclate, zinc oxide, and N-methyl pyrrolidone affected the syringeability of systems. The addition of zinc oxide into the doxycycline hyclate-Lutrol® F127 systems decreased the diameter of inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans since zinc oxide decreased the diffusion and prolonged release of doxycycline hyclate. From scanning electron microscope analysis, the porous surface of 20% w/w Lutrol® F127 system was notably different from that of gel comprising doxycycline hyclate which had interconnected pores and smooth surfaces. The number of pores was decreased with increasing zinc oxide and the porous structure was smaller and more compact. Therefore, the addition of zinc oxide could increase the syringeability of doxycycline hyclate-Lutrol® F127 system with the temperature dependence. Zinc oxide decreased inhibition zone against test microbes because of prolongation of doxycycline hyclate release and reduced size of continuous cells. Furthermore, zinc oxide also increased the compactness of wall surfaces of Lutrol® F127. PMID:24302791

Phaechamud, T.; Mahadlek, J.; Charoenteeraboon, J.

2013-01-01

184

Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays Grown Directly on Zinc Foils and Zinc Spheres by a Low-Temperature Oxidation Method.  

SciTech Connect

Vertically aligned, dense ZnO nanorod arrays were grown directly on zinc foils by a catalyst-free, low-temperature (450-500 C) oxidization method. The zinc foils remain conductive even after the growth of ZnO nanorods on its surface. The success of this synthesis largely relies on the level of control over oxygen introduction. By replacing zinc foils with zinc microspheres, unique and sophisticated urchin-like ZnO nanorod assemblies can be readily obtained.

Gu, Dr Zhanjun [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Xu, Jun [ORNL; Pan, Zhengwei [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

2009-01-01

185

Assessing the antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide thin films using disk diffusion and biofilm reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic and chemical properties of semiconductor materials may be useful in preventing growth of microorganisms. In this article, in vitro methods for assessing microbial growth on semiconductor materials will be presented. The structural and biological properties of silicon wafers coated with zinc oxide thin films were evaluated using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and MTT viability assay. The antimicrobial properties of zinc oxide thin films were established using disk diffusion and CDC Biofilm Reactor studies. Our results suggest that zinc oxide and other semiconductor materials may play a leading role in providing antimicrobial functionality to the next-generation medical devices.

Gittard, Shaun D.; Perfect, John R.; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Wei, Wei; Jin, Chunming; Narayan, Roger J.

2009-03-01

186

Optical properties of zinc peroxide and zinc oxide multilayer nanohybrid films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc peroxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared and self-assembled hybrid nanolayers were built up using layer-by-layer (LbL) technique on the surface of glass substrate using the layer silicate hectorite and an anionic polyelectrolyte, sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSS). Light absorption, interference and morphological properties of the hybrid films were studied to determine their thickness and refractive index. The influence of layer silicates and polymers on the self-organizing properties of ZnO 2 and ZnO nanoparticles was examined. X-ray diffraction revealed that ZnO 2 powders decomposed to ZnO (zincite phase) at relatively low temperatures (less than 200 °C). The optical thickness of the films ranged from 190 to 750 nm and increased linearly with the number of layers. Band gap energies of the ZnO 2/hectorite films were independent from the layer thickness and were larger than that of pure ZnO 2 nanodispersion. Decomposition of ZnO 2 to ZnO and O 2 at 400 °C resulted in the decrease of the band gap energy from 3.75 to 3.3 eV. Concomitantly, the refractive index increased in correlation with the formation of the zincite ZnO phase. In contrast, the band gap energies of the ZnO 2/PSS hybrid films decreased with the thickness of the nanohybrid layers. We ascribe this phenomenon to the steric stabilization of primary ZnO 2 particles present in the confined space between adjacent layers of hectorite sheets.

Seb?k, Dániel; Szabó, Tamás; Dékány, Imre

2009-05-01

187

EFFECT OF NANOSCALE ZINC OXIDE PARTICLES ON THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND YIELD OF PEANUT  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was initiated to examine the effects of nanoscale zinc oxide particles on plant growth and development. In view of the widespread cultivation of peanut in India and in other parts of the globe and in view of the potential influence of zinc on its growth, this plant was chosen as the model system. Peanut seeds were separately treated

T. N. V. K. V. Prasad; P. Sudhakar; Y. Sreenivasulu; P. Latha; V. Munaswamy; K. Raja Reddy; T. S. Sreeprasad; P. R. Sajanlal; T. Pradeep

2012-01-01

188

Influence Of pH On The Transport Of Nanoscale Zinc Oxide In Saturated Porous Media  

EPA Science Inventory

Widespread use of nanoscale zinc oxide (nZnO) in various fields causes subsurface environment contamination. Even though the transport of dissolved zinc ions in subsurface environments such as soils and sediments has been widely studied, the transport mechanism of nZnO in such e...

189

Bioavailability of zinc oxide added to corn tortilla is similar to that of zinc sulfate and is not affected by simultaneous addition of iron  

PubMed Central

Background Corn tortilla is the staple food of Mexico and its fortification with zinc, iron, and other micronutrients is intended to reduce micronutrient deficiencies. However, no studies have been performed to determine the relative amount of zinc absorbed from the fortified product and whether zinc absorption is affected by the simultaneous addition of iron. Objective To compare zinc absorption from corn tortilla fortified with zinc oxide versus zinc sulfate and to determine the effect of simultaneous addition of two doses of iron on zinc bioavailability. Methods A randomized, double-blind, crossover design was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, 10 adult women received corn tortillas with either 20 mg/kg of zinc oxide added, 20 mg/kg of zinc sulfate added, or no zinc added. In the second phase, 10 adult women received corn tortilla with 20 mg/kg of zinc oxide added and either with no iron added or with iron added at one of two different levels. Zinc absorption was measured by the stable isotope method. Results The mean (± SEM) fractional zinc absorption from unfortified tortilla, tortilla fortified with zinc oxide, and tortilla fortified with zinc sulfate did not differ among treatments: 0.35 ± 0.07, 0.36 ± 0.05, and 0.37 ± 0.07, respectively. The three treatment groups with 0, 30, and 60 mg/kg of added iron had similar fractional zinc absorption (0.32 ± 0.04, 0.33 ± 0.02, and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively) and similar amounts of zinc absorbed (4.8 ± 0.7, 4.5 ± 0.3, and 4.8 ± 0.7 mg/day, respectively). Conclusions Since zinc oxide is more stable and less expensive and was absorbed equally as well as zinc sulfate, we suggest its use for corn tortilla fortification. Simultaneous addition of zinc and iron to corn tortilla does not modify zinc bioavailability at iron doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg of corn flour. PMID:23424892

Rosado, Jorge L.; Díaz, Margarita; Muñoz, Elsa; Westcott, Jamie L.; González, Karla E.; Krebs, Nancy F.; Caamaño, María C.; Hambidge, Michael

2013-01-01

190

Work function measurements on nano-crystalline zinc oxide surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work function of nano-crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films was examined using photoemission spectroscopy (PES). Colloidally dispersed ZnO nano-particles were electrospray-deposited in vacuum to form nano-crystalline thin films. The samples showed an immediate work function reduction by 0.35 eV during ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) measurements. This artifact was detected and quantified through low intensity x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (LIXPS) measurements, which use a very low photon flux. This prevented significant photochemical changes on the measured surface, i.e. the true work function unaffected by the UPS artifact can be measured. Annealing of an identical sample removed all ambient contamination from the ZnO surface with the effect to prevent the work function lowering artifact. This allowed the conclusion that ambient contamination is essential for the artifact to occur, similar to what was observed earlier on indium tin oxide and TiO2 surfaces. In an additional experiment, exposure of the annealed sample to the ambient resulted in a sample that again showed the artifact further demonstrating the necessity of water to be present. This experiment also demonstrated that the solubility enhancing surfactant shell of the nano-crystals does not play a significant role in the artifact, since it was removed during the annealing process.

Gutmann, S.; Conrad, M.; Wolak, M. A.; Beerbom, M. M.; Schlaf, R.

2012-06-01

191

CSA doped polypyrrole-zinc oxide thin film sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polypyrrole-zinc oxide (PPy-ZnO) hybrid sensor doped with different weight ratios of camphor sulphonic acid (CSA) were prepared by spin coating technique. These CSA doped PPy-ZnO hybrids were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) which proved the formation of polypyrrole, PPy-ZnO and the interaction between polypyrrole - ZnO (PPy-ZnO) hybrid with CSA doping. The gas sensing properties of the PPy-ZnO hybrid films doped with CSA have been studied for oxidizing (NO2) as well as reducing (H2S, NH3, CH4OH and CH3OH) gases at room temperature. We demonstrate that CSA doped PPy-ZnO hybrid films are highly selective to NO2 along with high-sensitivity at low concentration (80% to 100 ppm) and better stability, which suggested that the CSA doped PPy-ZnO hybrid films are potential candidate for NO2 detection at room temperature.

Chougule, M. A.; Jundale, D. M.; Raut, B. T.; Sen, Shashwati; Patil, V. B.

2013-02-01

192

Zinc poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... other materials to make industrial items such as paint, dyes, and more. These combination substances can be ... Compounds used to make paint, rubber, dyes, wood preservatives, and ... Zinc chloride Zinc oxide (relatively nonharmful) Zinc ...

193

Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion of zinc oxide nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Background This study explored the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion profile of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles with respect to their particle size in rats. Methods Two ZnO nanoparticles of different size (20 nm and 70 nm) were orally administered to male and female rats, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve, tissue distribution, excretion, and the fate of the nanoparticles in organs were analyzed. Results The plasma zinc concentration of both sizes of ZnO nanoparticles increased during the 24 hours after administration in a dose-dependent manner. They were mainly distributed to organs such as the liver, lung, and kidney within 72 hours without any significant difference being found according to particle size or rat gender. Elimination kinetics showed that a small amount of ZnO nanoparticles was excreted via the urine, while most of nanoparticles were excreted via the feces. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies in the tissues showed no noticeable ZnO nanoparticles, while new Zn-S bonds were observed in tissues. Conclusion ZnO nanoparticles of different size were not easily absorbed into the bloodstream via the gastrointestinal tract after a single oral dose. The liver, lung, and kidney could be possible target organs for accumulation and toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles was independent of particle size or gender. ZnO nanoparticles appear to be absorbed in the organs in an ionic form rather than in a particulate form due to newly formed Zn-S bonds. The nanoparticles were mainly excreted via the feces, and smaller particles were cleared more rapidly than the larger ones. ZnO nanoparticles at a concentration below 300 mg/kg were distributed in tissues and excreted within 24 hours. These findings provide crucial information on possible acute and chronic toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in potential target organs. PMID:22811602

Baek, Miri; Chung, Hae-Eun; Yu, Jin; Lee, Jung-A; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Oh, Jae-Min; Lee, Won-Jae; Paek, Seung-Min; Lee, Jong Kwon; Jeong, Jayoung; Choy, Jin-Ho; Choi, Soo-Jin

2012-01-01

194

Hydrothermal synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using rice as soft biotemplate  

PubMed Central

Background Rice as a renewable, abundant bio-resource with unique characteristics can be used as a bio-template to synthesize various functional nanomaterials. Therefore, the effect of uncooked rice flour as bio-template on physico-chemical properties, especially the morphology of zinc oxide nanostructures was investigated in this study. The ZnO particles were synthesized through hydrothermal-biotemplate method using zinc acetate-sodium hydroxide and uncooked rice flour at various ratios as precursors at 120°C for 18 hours. Results The results indicate that rice as a bio-template can be used to modify the shape and size of zinc oxide particles. Different morphologies, namely flake-, flower-, rose-, star- and rod-like structures were obtained with particle size at micro- and nanometer range. Pore size and texture of the resulting zinc oxide particles were found to be template-dependent and the resulting specific surface area enhanced compared to the zinc oxide synthesized without rice under the same conditions. However, optical property particularly the band gap energy is generally quite similar. Conclusion Pure zinc oxide crystals were successfully synthesized using rice flour as biotemplate at various ratios of zinc salt to rice. The size- and shape-controlled capability of rice to assemble the ZnO particles can be employed for further useful practical applications. PMID:23919386

2013-01-01

195

Enhanced omni-directional performance of copper zinc tin sulfide thin film solar cell by gradient index coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many types of thin-film solar cells have a top, transparent conducting oxide (TCO) coating (such as aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO)) through which light is transmitted and current collected. In this paper, we demonstrate an effective antireflective coating for TCO surfaces using a gradient index coating formed from co-sputtered AZO and silicon dioxide (SiO2) targets that reduces reflection loss from the TCO. When applied to an active solar device, the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell increased by >10% when measured at normal incidence and >20% at angles 10° or greater.

Ge, Zhongyang; Rajbhandari, Pravakar; Hu, Junjie; Emrani, Amin; Dhakal, Tara P.; Westgate, Charles; Klotzkin, David

2014-03-01

196

Biochemistry of mobile zinc and nitric oxide revealed by fluorescent sensors  

E-print Network

Biological mobile zinc and nitric oxide (NO) are two prominent examples of inorganic compounds involved in numerous signaling pathways in living systems. In the past decade, a synergy of regulation, signaling, and translocation ...

Pluth, Michael D.

197

Nanohybrids of ultrathin titania nanosheets and zinc oxide nanoparticles by an electrostatic interaction.  

PubMed

We synthesized ultrathin titania nanosheets and zinc oxide nanoparticles, and formed the nanohybrids of them by an electrostatic interaction. The titania nanosheets were prepared by soft chemical processes: intercalation, exfoliation, and reassembly. The zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel method. And two nano-scale inorganic materials were hybridized to form nanohybrids using an electrostatic interaction as a driving force. According to the X-ray diffraction pattern and high-resolution transmission electron microscope images, it is revealed that the nanohybrid of the titania nanosheets and zinc oxide nanoparticles has a house of cards structure in which zinc oxide nanoparticles are randomly attached to layered titania nanosheets. PMID:20352811

Kim, Sunmi; Paek, Seungwoo; Lee, Seonghoon

2010-01-01

198

Flexible and monolithic zinc oxide bionanocomposite foams by a bacterial cellulose mediated approach for antibacterial applications.  

PubMed

The use of self-assembled biomacromolecules in the development of functional bionanocomposite foams is one of the best lessons learned from nature. Here, we show that monolithic, flexible and porous zinc oxide bionanocomposite foams with a hierarchical architecture can be assembled through the mediation of bacterial cellulose. The assembly is achieved by controlled hydrolysis and solvothermal crystallization using a bacterial cellulose aerogel as a template in a non-aqueous polar medium. The bionanocomposite foam with a maximum zinc oxide loading of 70 wt% is constructed of intimately packed spheres of aggregated zinc oxide nanocrystals exhibiting a BET surface area of 92 m(2) g(-1). The zinc oxide bionanocomposite foams show excellent antibacterial activity, which give them potential value as self-supporting wound dressing and water sterilization materials. PMID:24647467

Wang, Peipei; Zhao, Jun; Xuan, Ruifei; Wang, Yun; Zou, Chen; Zhang, Zhiquan; Wan, Yizao; Xu, Yan

2014-05-14

199

Ultrathin amorphous zinc-tin-oxide buffer layer for enhancing heterojunction interface quality in  

E-print Network

-blocking layer to enhance the performance of an Earth-abundant metal-oxide solar-cell material. A 5 nm thickUltrathin amorphous zinc-tin-oxide buffer layer for enhancing heterojunction interface quality amorphous ternary metal-oxide buffer layer reduces interface recombination, resulting in sizable open

200

Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured zinc oxide layers for sensor applications  

SciTech Connect

Fractal structures and arrays of nanowires based on zinc oxide are fabricated by two different methods, sol-gel dip-coating and chemical bath deposition combined with sol-gel synthesis. The gas-sensitive properties of the structures are analyzed. It is found that the greatest sensitivity to reducing ethanol vapor is exhibited by the structure with a lower layer in the form of an array of zinc-oxide nanowires modified by four immersions in a copper nitrate solution.

Krasteva, L. K.; Dimitrov, D. Tz.; Papazova, K. I.; Nikolaev, N. K.; Peshkova, T. V. [University of Sofia (Bulgaria); Moshnikov, V. A.; Gracheva, I. E., E-mail: iegrachova@mail.ru; Karpova, S. S. [Ul'yanov (Lenin) State Electrotechnical University LETI (Russian Federation); Kaneva, N. V. [University of Sofia (Bulgaria)

2013-04-15

201

Microfine zinc oxide (Z-Cote) as a photostable UVA\\/UVB sunblock agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Microfine zinc oxide (Z-Cote) is used as a transparent broad-spectrum sunblock to attenuate UV radiation (UVR), including UVA I (340-400 nm). Objective: Our purpose was to assess the suitability of microfine zinc oxide as a broad-spectrum photoprotective agent by examining those properties generally considered important in sunscreens: attenuation spectrum, sun protection factor (SPF) contribution, photostability, and photoreactivity. Methods: Attenuation

Mark A. Mitchnick; David Fairhurst; Sheldon R. Pinnell

1999-01-01

202

XPS and X-ray diffraction studies of aluminum-doped zinc oxide transparent conducting films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum-doped zinc oxide transparent conducting films are prepared by spray pyrolysis at different dopant concentrations. These films are subsequently characterized by X-ray diffractometric and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) techniques. The results are compared with those obtained from pure zinc oxide films prepared under identical conditions. X-ray diffraction measurements show an increase in lattice parameters (c and a) for aluminum-doped films

T. B. Ghosh; K. L. Chopra; H. N. Acharya

1996-01-01

203

Sensing of LPG with nanostructured zinc oxide thin films grown by spray pyrolysis technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured zinc oxide thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique using Zn(NO3)2·6H2O as the precursor solution. The resulting films were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy to know crystal structure, size of crystallites and surface morphology. The films have been found to be polycrystalline zinc oxide, possessing hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure and nanocrystallite with grain size of

C. S. Prajapati; S. N. Pandey; P. P. Sahay

2011-01-01

204

Transport of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in a Simulated Gastric Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have seen a growing interest in the use of many types of nano sized materials in the consumer sector. Potential uses include encapsulation of nutrients, providing antimicrobial activity, altering texture, or changing bioavailability of nutrients. Engineered nanoparticles (ENP) possess properties that are different than larger particles made of the same constituents. Properties such as solubility, aggregation state, and toxicity can all be changed as a function of size. The gastric environment is an important area for study of engineered nanoparticles because of the varied physical, chemical, and enzymatic processes that are prevalent there. These all have the potential to alter those properties of ENP that make them different from their bulk counterparts. The Human Gastric Simulator (HGS) is an advanced in vitro model that can be used to study many facets of digestion. The HGS consists of a plastic lining that acts as the stomach cavity with two sets of U-shaped arms on belts that provide the physical forces needed to replicate peristalsis. Altering the position of the arms or changing the speed of the motor which powers them allows one to tightly hone and replicate varied digestive conditions. Gastric juice, consisting of salts, enzymes, and acid levels which replicate physiological conditions, is introduced to the cavity at a controllable rate. The release of digested food from the lumen of simulated stomach is controlled by a peristaltic pump. The goal of the HGS is to accurately and repeatedly simulate human digestion. This study focused on introducing foods spiked with zinc oxide ENP and bulk zinc oxide into the HGS and then monitoring how the concentration of each changed at two locations in the HGS over a two hour period. The two locations chosen were the highest point in the lumen of the stomach, which represented the fundus, and a point just beyond the equivalent of the pylorus, which represented the antrum of the stomach. These points were chosen in order to elucidate if and how two different particle sizes of the same material are transported during digestion. Results showed that particles preferentially collected at Location A; time played a minor role in the separation to the two locations while particle size did not play any role.

Mayfield, Ryan T.

205

Zinc oxide thin films and nanostructures for optoelectronic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research focuses on investigating optical, electrical, and structural properties of Al doped ZnO (AZO) and developing novel approaches to demonstrate and improve the photovoltaics and photodetectors by introducing AZO nanoscaled structures. ZnO has been widely studied for optoelectronic applications such as light emitting diodes, lasers and photodiodes covering the ultraviolet spectrum because of its wide and direct bandgap and high exciton binding energy. In this research, aluminum doped ZnO films were grown by a dual beam sputtering method which is a combination of RF sputtered ZnO and DC sputtered Al. Various approaches were applied to characterize its optical, electrical and structural modulation in terms of growth parameters and doping parameters. As an n-type dopant, Al doping was controlled from 5x016 to 5x0 20 cm-3 maintaining visible transparency with a wider transparency as Al increased, and high mobility ( 2 ˜ 14 cm2/V.s). For the optoelectric applications, a ZnO/Si heterojunction was demonstrated and studied regarding Al doping effects on the anisotype and isotype junction. An unlikely conventional photovoltaic structure suggested the ZnO/Si solar cell to be advantageous in terms of low cost fabrication process -- low temperature, no diffusion, and large area processing. In this structure, AZO plays a role as a transparent current spreading layer and rectifying junction with silicon (Si). Furthermore, by introducing metal nanostructures inside of the AZO film, light harvesting was enhanced because of plasmonic and light scattering effects ensuring minimized electrical and optical loss within the AZO. To improve photovoltaic performance, a transparent and conductive nanolens array was embedded on ITO film and employed on a conventional Si solar cell using large scale nanoimprint method. The proposed structure provides superior optical transparency beyond 700 nm of wavelength and omnidirectional broadband low reflectivity as well as good electrical conductivity. The nanolens array collimates the long wavelength energy into a shallow depth of Si, showing improved charge collection efficiency. Moreover, wave coupling in the nanolens uncovered region focuses the energy in a more shallow depth as an absorber.

Yun, Juhyung

206

The role of intracellular zinc release in aging, oxidative stress, and Alzheimer’s disease  

PubMed Central

Brain aging is marked by structural, chemical, and genetic changes leading to cognitive decline and impaired neural functioning. Further, aging itself is also a risk factor for a number of neurodegenerative disorders, most notably Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Many of the pathological changes associated with aging and aging-related disorders have been attributed in part to increased and unregulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain. ROS are produced as a physiological byproduct of various cellular processes, and are normally detoxified by enzymes and antioxidants to help maintain neuronal homeostasis. However, cellular injury can cause excessive ROS production, triggering a state of oxidative stress that can lead to neuronal cell death. ROS and intracellular zinc are intimately related, as ROS production can lead to oxidation of proteins that normally bind the metal, thereby causing the liberation of zinc in cytoplasmic compartments. Similarly, not only can zinc impair mitochondrial function, leading to excess ROS production, but it can also activate a variety of extra-mitochondrial ROS-generating signaling cascades. As such, numerous accounts of oxidative neuronal injury by ROS-producing sources appear to also require zinc. We suggest that zinc deregulation is a common, perhaps ubiquitous component of injurious oxidative processes in neurons. This review summarizes current findings on zinc dyshomeostasis-driven signaling cascades in oxidative stress and age-related neurodegeneration, with a focus on AD, in order to highlight the critical role of the intracellular liberation of the metal during oxidative neuronal injury. PMID:24860495

McCord, Meghan C.; Aizenman, Elias

2014-01-01

207

Stress evolution during growth in direct-current-sputtered zinc oxide films at various oxygen flows  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of stress during the growth of zinc and zinc oxide films deposited from a metallic target using direct-current magnetron sputtering has been analyzed in situ. For this purpose a two-beam wafer curvature setup attached to the sputter chamber was employed. The oxygen flow during the deposition was varied over a wide range to obtain films with stoichiometries between metallic zinc and fully stoichiometric zinc oxide. In good agreement with results from Hinze and Ellmer [J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2443 (2000)] on radio-frequency-sputtered zinc oxide from an oxidic target, the oxidic films analyzed in this work possess high levels of compressive stress. These stresses arise in the early stages of film growth and are constant above a certain film thickness. The level of stress in the films is highly dependent on the deposition pressure, which indicates that the stress originates from bombardment with energetic particles, namely, oxygen ions. In contrast to the oxidic films, metallic zinc films exhibit only very low levels of stress. The stress evolution is similar to that of evaporated high-mobility films and does not change upon variation of deposition pressure.

Drese, Robert J.; Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut (1A), Lehrstuhl fuer Physik neuer Materialien, Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

2005-10-01

208

New roles for 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7): halogenated FOX-7 and azo-bis(diahaloFOX) as energetic materials and oxidizers.  

PubMed

The syntheses and full characterization of two new halogenated 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7) compounds and three halogenated azo-bridged FOX-7 derivatives are described. Some of these new structures demonstrate properties that approach those of the commonly used secondary explosive RDX (cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene-2,4,6-trinitramine). All the compounds display hypergolic properties with common hydrazine-based fuels and primary aliphatic amines (ignition delay times of 2-53 ms). This is a new role that has yet to be reported for FOX-7 and its derivatives. Their physical and energetic properties have been investigated. All compounds were characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography, elemental analysis, infrared spectra, and differential scanning calorimetry. These new molecules as energetic materials and hypergolic oxidizers contribute to the expansion of the chemistry of FOX-7. PMID:23909984

Vo, Thao T; Zhang, Jiaheng; Parrish, Damon A; Twamley, Brendan; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

2013-08-14

209

Zinc-oxide charge trapping memory cell with ultra-thin chromium-oxide trapping layer  

SciTech Connect

A functional zinc-oxide based SONOS memory cell with ultra-thin chromium oxide trapping layer was fabricated. A 5 nm CrO{sub 2} layer is deposited between Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) steps. A threshold voltage (V{sub t}) shift of 2.6V was achieved with a 10V programming voltage. Also for a 2V V{sub t} shift, the memory with CrO{sub 2} layer has a low programming voltage of 7.2V. Moreover, the deep trapping levels in CrO{sub 2} layer allows for additional scaling of the tunnel oxide due to an increase in the retention time. In addition, the structure was simulated using Physics Based TCAD. The results of the simulation fit very well with the experimental results providing an understanding of the charge trapping and tunneling physics.

El-Atab, Nazek; Rizk, Ayman; Nayfeh, Ammar [Institute Center for Microsystems – iMicro, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)] [Institute Center for Microsystems – iMicro, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Okyay, Ali K. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey) [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center and Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

2013-11-15

210

The calculation of band gap energy in zinc oxide films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the optical properties of undoped zinc oxide thin films as the n-type semiconductor; the thin films were deposited at different precursor molarities by ultrasonic spray and spray pyrolysis techniques. The thin films were deposited at different substrate temperatures ranging between 200 and 500 °C. In this paper, we present a new approach to control the optical gap energy of ZnO thin films by concentration of the ZnO solution and substrate temperatures from experimental data, which were published in international journals. The model proposed to calculate the band gap energy with the Urbach energy was investigated. The relation between the experimental data and theoretical calculation suggests that the band gap energies are predominantly estimated by the Urbach energies, film transparency, and concentration of the ZnO solution and substrate temperatures. The measurements by these proposal models are in qualitative agreements with the experimental data; the correlation coefficient values were varied in the range 0.96–0.99999, indicating high quality representation of data based on Equation (2), so that the relative errors of all calculation are smaller than 4%. Thus, one can suppose that the undoped ZnO thin films are chemically purer and have many fewer defects and less disorder owing to an almost complete chemical decomposition and contained higher optical band gap energy.

Arif, Ali; Belahssen, Okba; Gareh, Salim; Benramache, Said

2015-01-01

211

Tetrapod-like zinc oxide whisker enhancement of resin composite.  

PubMed

There is an increasing demand for composite resins with both strong antibacterial activity and satisfactory mechanical properties. This study tested the hypothesis that the new antibacterial agent tetrapod-like zinc oxide whisker (T-ZnOw) could simultaneously enhance the antibacterial activity and mechanical properties of a two-component composite resin. The antibacterial activities of the materials were assessed by the broth dilution test and direct contact test. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and measurements of the flexural strength, compressive strength, and diametral tensile strength were carried out for mechanical characterization. The results revealed that T-ZnOw provided the resin with strong antibacterial activity and improved mechanical properties in all tested groups. However, the antibacterial activity of the resin with 10% T-ZnOw in the powder component significantly decreased after aging treatment. The incorporation of 5% T-ZnOw into the resin powder was optimal to give appropriate antibacterial activity, long-term antibacterial effectiveness, and mechanical properties. PMID:20439932

Niu, L N; Fang, M; Jiao, K; Tang, L H; Xiao, Y H; Shen, L J; Chen, J H

2010-07-01

212

Fungus mediated biosynthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanorods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently nanomaterials have been synthesized through biological approach due to its biocompatibility, inexpensive, eco friendly and it offers easiest experimental protocol and so on. ZnO can be potentially used in various applications. This present study reports the fungus mediated extra-cellular bio synthesis of ZnO nanorods using Fusarium Solani. The dried powder was calcined at 350°C for 1 hour in air. The thermal property of the as synthesized ZnO nanopowder was analyzed through Thermo gravimetric /Differential Thermo gravimetric (TGA / DTG) analysis. The structural and morphological properties of the calcined ZnO nanopowder were studied by XRD and SEM analysis respectively. X ray diffraction result revealed that a peak located at 2? = 36.2° with (101) plane confirms the presence of Zinc oxide with Hexagonal crystal system. The morphology of the calcined ZnO powder was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and it clearly indicates the presence of ZnO nanorods. The diameter of the nanorods is in the range of 60 to 95 nm.

Venkatesh, K. S.; Palani, N. S.; Krishnamoorthi, S. R.; Thirumal, V.; Ilangovan, R.

2013-06-01

213

Biochemical responses of duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza) to zinc oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The present study focuses on the biochemical responses of the aquatic plant duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza L.) to zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). Laboratory experiments were performed using a 96-h exposure to 25-nm NPs at different concentrations (0, 1, 10, and 50 mg/L). Growth, chlorophyll-to-pheophytin ratio (D665/D665a) and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase (POD), and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase were determined as indices to evaluate the toxicity of NPs in the culture medium. To understand better whether the Zn(2+) released from the ZnO NP suspensions plays a key role in toxicity of the NPs, we investigated particle aggregation and dissolution in the medium. Furthermore, two exposure treatments for the group with the highest concentration (50 mg/L) were performed: (1) exposure for the full 96 h (50a treatment) and (2) the medium being replaced with culture medium without NPs after 12 h (50b treatment). Our results indicate that ZnO NPs induced adverse effects in S. polyrhiza at the concentration of 50 mg/L in the culture medium. Zn(2+) released from the NPs might be the main source of its toxicity to this species. PMID:23271345

Hu, Changwei; Liu, Yimeng; Li, Xiuling; Li, Mei

2013-05-01

214

Investigation of electrical and optoelectronic properties of zinc oxide nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires have been synthesized by using tubular furnace chemical vapor deposition technique. The morphology, chemical composition and crystal structure of as-synthesized ZnO nanowires were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Four-terminal current-voltage ( I- V) measurements were employed to study the electrical conductance of ZnO nanowires under various testing gas environments for gas sensing purpose. The I- V curves at temperature ranging from 150 to 300 K were recorded in the testing chamber under vacuum. The Arrhenius plot shows perfect linear relationship between the logarithm of the current I and inverse temperature 1/ T. The donor level of the semiconducting nanowires is about 326 meV. The I- V behaviors were found to be reversible and repeatable with testing gases. The electrical conductivity was enhanced by a factor of four with ambient CO gas compared to that in vacuum and other testing gases. The optoelectronic properties of the ZnO nanowires were obtained by two-terminal I- V measurement method while the nanowires were illuminated by a ruby laser. The electrical conductivity was increased by 60% when the laser was present in comparison to that when the laser was off. Those significant changes suggest that nano-devices constructed by the ZnO nanowires could be used in gas sensing and optical switching applications.

Zhang, D.; Lee, S. K.; Chava, S.; Berven, C. A.; Katkanant, V.

2011-10-01

215

Synthesis of europium-doped zinc oxide micro- and nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystalline Eu3+-doped wurtzite ZnO micro- and nanowires were synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition method (CVD). The nanostructures were grown by autocatalytic mechanism at walls of an alumina boat. The structure and properties of the doped ZnO is fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), and photoluminescence (PL) methods. The synthesis was carried out for 10 min giving vertically aligned nanowires with mean diameter of 50-400 nm and with length of up to several microns. The nanowires were grown along ±[0001] direction. The concentration of Eu3+ dopant in the synthesized nanowires was varied from 0.7 to 0.9 at %. The crystal structure and microstructures of the doped nanomaterials were discussed and compared with undoped ZnO. The photoluminescence spectra show that emission of doped samples were shifted towards orange-red region (2.02 eV) relative to undoped zinc oxide nanostructures (2.37 eV) due to Eu3+ intraionic transitions from ZnO/Eu.

Al Rifai, S. A.; Ryabtsev, S. V.; Smirnov, M. S.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Ivanov, O. N.

2014-01-01

216

Rambutan peels promoted biomimetic synthesis of bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains for biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A naturally occurring rambutan peel waste was employed to synthesis bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains. Rambutan peels has the ability of ligating zinc ions as a natural ligation agent resulting in zinc oxide nanochains formation due to its extended polyphenolic system over incubation period. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanochains was confirmed employing transmission electron microscopy studies. About 60% and ?40% cell viability was lost and 50% and 10% morphological change was observed in 7 and 4 days incubated ZnO treated cells compared with control. Moreover, 50% and 55% of cell death was observed at 24 and 48 h incubation with 7 days treated ZnO cells and hence alters and disturbs the growth of cancer cells and could be used for liver cancer cell treatment.

Yuvakkumar, R.; Suresh, J.; Saravanakumar, B.; Joseph Nathanael, A.; Hong, Sun Ig; Rajendran, V.

2015-02-01

217

Zinc release from atomic layer deposited zinc oxide thin films and its antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide films have been grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at different reaction temperatures and in various thicknesses. Zinc-ion release has been examined from the ZnO films in water and in phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS). Additionally, the antibacterial effect has been studied on Escherichia coli. The thickness of the ZnO film or its crystal orientation did not affect the rate of dissolution. ALD grown aluminum oxide films were deposited on top of the ZnO films and they acted as an effective barrier against zinc dissolution. The bacteriostatic effect was not dependent on the film thickness but both 45 nm and 280 nm thick ZnO films significantly reduced bacterial attachment and growth in dark conditions by 99.7% and 99.5%, respectively. The results indicated that photoirradiation is not required for to enhance antibacterial properties of inorganic films and that the elution of zinc ions is probably responsible for the antibacterial properties of the ZnO films. The duration of the antibacterial effect of ZnO can be controlled by accurate control of the film thickness, which is a feature of ALD, and the onset of the antibacterial effect can be delayed by a time which can be adjusted by controlling the thickness of the Al2O3 blocking layer. This gives the possibility of obtaining dual antibacterial release profiles through a nanolaminate structure of these two materials.

Kääriäinen, M.-L.; Weiss, C. K.; Ritz, S.; Pütz, S.; Cameron, D. C.; Mailänder, V.; Landfester, K.

2013-12-01

218

Novel nanostructure zinc zirconate, zinc oxide or zirconium oxide pastes coated on fluorine doped tin oxide thin film as photoelectrochemical working electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell.  

PubMed

Zinc zirconate (ZnZrO(3)) (ZZ), zinc oxide (ZnO) (ZO) and zirconium oxide (ZrO(2)) (ZRO) nano-particles were synthesized by simple sol-gel method. ZZ, ZO and ZRO nano-particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS). Nanoporous ZZ, ZO and ZRO thin films were prepared doctor blade technique on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and used as working electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Their photovoltaic behavior were compared with standard using D35 dye and an electrolyte containing [Co(bpy)(3)](PF(6))(2), [Co(pby)(3)](PF(6))(3), LiClO(4), and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP). The properties of DSSC have been studied by measuring their short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (ff). The application of ZnZrO(3) as working electrode produces a significant improvement in the fill factor (ff) of the dye-sensitized solar cells (ff=56%) compared to ZnO working electrode (ff=40%) under the same condition. PMID:23266694

Hossein Habibi, Mohammad; Askari, Elham; Habibi, Mehdi; Zendehdel, Mahmoud

2013-03-01

219

Novel nanostructure zinc zirconate, zinc oxide or zirconium oxide pastes coated on fluorine doped tin oxide thin film as photoelectrochemical working electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc zirconate (ZnZrO3) (ZZ), zinc oxide (ZnO) (ZO) and zirconium oxide (ZrO2) (ZRO) nano-particles were synthesized by simple sol-gel method. ZZ, ZO and ZRO nano-particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS). Nanoporous ZZ, ZO and ZRO thin films were prepared doctor blade technique on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and used as working electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Their photovoltaic behavior were compared with standard using D35 dye and an electrolyte containing [Co(bpy)3](PF6)2, [Co(pby)3](PF6)3, LiClO4, and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP). The properties of DSSC have been studied by measuring their short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (ff). The application of ZnZrO3 as working electrode produces a significant improvement in the fill factor (ff) of the dye-sensitized solar cells (ff = 56%) compared to ZnO working electrode (ff = 40%) under the same condition.

Hossein Habibi, Mohammad; Askari, Elham; Habibi, Mehdi; Zendehdel, Mahmoud

2013-03-01

220

Human safety review of "nano" titanium dioxide and zinc oxide.  

PubMed

Based on the current weight of evidence of all available data, the risk for humans from the use of nano-structured titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) or zinc oxide (ZnO) currently used in cosmetic preparations or sunscreens is considered negligible. There is a large body of information that when viewed in its entirety is considered as sufficient to demonstrate that these nano-structured ultraviolet (UV) filters, irrespective of various treatments (coatings) or crystalline structure, can be regarded as safe for use at concentrations up to 25% in cosmetic products to protect the skin from harmful effects of solar UV radiation. "Nano" TiO(2) and ZnO formulated in topically applied sunscreen products exist as aggregates of primary particles ranging from 30-150 nm in size. These aggregates are bonded such that the force of sunscreen product application onto the skin would have no impact on their structure or result in the release of primary particles. Multiple studies have shown that under exaggerated test conditions neither nano-structured TiO(2) nor ZnO penetrates beyond the stratum corneum of skin. Further, the distribution and persistence of these nano-structured metal oxides is the same compared to larger pigment-grade (i.e., >100 nm) particles, demonstrating equivalence in the recognition and elimination of such material from the body. Finally, the in vitro genotoxic and photogenotoxic profiles of these nano-structured metal oxides are of no consequence to human health. Whereas the most logical, straightforward conclusion based on data from internationally-recognized guideline studies and current 20+ year history of human use is that nano-structured TiO(2) and ZnO are safe, there will continue to be questions as "nano" conjures images of technology gone awry. Despite this rather sober view, the public health benefits of sunscreens containing nano TiO(2) and/or ZnO outweigh human safety concerns for these UV filters. PMID:20354643

Schilling, Karsten; Bradford, Bobbie; Castelli, Dominique; Dufour, Eric; Nash, J Frank; Pape, Wolfgang; Schulte, Stefan; Tooley, Ian; van den Bosch, Jeroen; Schellauf, Florian

2010-04-01

221

Dual signal amplification of zinc oxide nanoparticles and quantum dots-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticles for highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence immunosensing.  

PubMed

A novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for highly sensitive detection of ?-fetoprotein (AFP) based on a dual signal amplification strategy was developed. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were employed as the carriers for immobilizing the capture AFP antibody (Ab1) and CdSe quantum dots (QDs). CdSe QDs-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles were used as the tracer to label the signal AFP antibody (Ab2). CdSe QDs-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles were prepared through an amide dehydration reaction and they were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The Ab2 was bound to the CdSe QDs-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles to obtain the detection probe. ZnO nanoparticles could accelerate electron transfer between the detection probe and the electrode, and their large surface area was beneficial for loading more CdSe QDs, leading to an enhanced ECL signal (0.9-fold increase) by a sandwich immunoreaction. This also indicated efficient association of the detection probe on the immunosensor surface. The designed immunoassay showed a wide linear range from 0.5 to 600 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.48 ng mL(-1) at a S/N ratio of 3 for AFP detection. The ECL immunosensor exhibited good analytical performance and was successfully applied to clinical sample detection, showing a promising application in ECL biosensing. PMID:23882462

Zhang, Jinxing; Liu, Suli; Bao, Jianchun; Tu, Wenwen; Dai, Zhihui

2013-09-21

222

High performance organic photovoltaics with zinc oxide and graphene oxide buffer layers.  

PubMed

We report air stable inverted organic photovoltaics (OPVs) incorporating graphene oxide (GO) and solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) as hole transport and electron transport layers, respectively. Both the hole transport layer and the electron transport layer (HTL and ETL) are of advantage in high transparency and environmental stability. The use of GO and ZnO in poly(2,7-carbazole) derivative (PCDTBT):fullerene derivative (PC??BM)-based inverted OPVs leads to an improved device stability and enhanced high open circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 0.81 V, a short-circuit current density (J(sc)) of 14.10 mA cm(-2), and a fill factor (FF) of 54.44 along with a power conversion efficiency of 6.20%. PMID:24323233

Yusoff, Abd Rashid bin Mohd; Kim, Hyeong Pil; Jang, Jin

2014-01-01

223

High performance organic photovoltaics with zinc oxide and graphene oxide buffer layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report air stable inverted organic photovoltaics (OPVs) incorporating graphene oxide (GO) and solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) as hole transport and electron transport layers, respectively. Both the hole transport layer and the electron transport layer (HTL and ETL) are of advantage in high transparency and environmental stability. The use of GO and ZnO in poly(2,7-carbazole) derivative (PCDTBT):fullerene derivative (PC70BM)-based inverted OPVs leads to an improved device stability and enhanced high open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.81 V, a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 14.10 mA cm-2, and a fill factor (FF) of 54.44 along with a power conversion efficiency of 6.20%.

Mohd Yusoff, Abd Rashid Bin; Kim, Hyeong Pil; Jang, Jin

2014-01-01

224

Tunable infrared absorption and visible transparency of colloidal aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals.  

PubMed

Plasmonic nanocrystals have been attracting a lot of attention both for fundamental studies and different applications, from sensing to imaging and optoelectronic devices. Transparent conductive oxides represent an interesting class of plasmonic materials in addition to metals and vacancy-doped semiconductor quantum dots. Herein, we report a rational synthetic strategy of high-quality colloidal aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals. The presence of substitutional aluminum in the zinc oxide lattice accompanied by the generation of free electrons is proved for the first time by tunable surface plasmon absorption in the infrared region both in solution and in thin films. PMID:21970407

Buonsanti, Raffaella; Llordes, Anna; Aloni, Shaul; Helms, Brett A; Milliron, Delia J

2011-11-01

225

Oxidation of pyrite in marine clays and zinc adsorption by clays  

SciTech Connect

The oxidation of pyrite in marine clays exposed to a subaerial environment was confirmed and was determined to be well correlated with decreased adsorption of zinc by the clays. The production of sulfuric acid and iron oxide by this oxidation and the accompanying decrease in pH was demonstrated based on an investigation of the chemistry of the marine clay profile and laboratory incubation tests for remolded clay samples. Both pH decrease and the production of iron oxides reduced the zinc adsorption capability of the clays. This suggests that the zinc adsorbed by the marine clays would be released into the pore water due to exposure of the sediment surface to the atmosphere.

Ohtsubo, Masami [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

1995-12-31

226

Impacts of humidity and temperature on the performance of transparent conducting zinc oxide.  

SciTech Connect

The impact of humidity and temperature on a zinc oxide based transparent conducting oxide (TCO) was assessed under accelerated aging conditions. An in situ electroanalytical method was used to monitor the electrical properties for a conducting zinc oxide under controlled atmospheric (humidity, temperature and irradiation) conditions. A review of thin film photovoltaic (PV) literature has shown one major failure mode of cells/modules is associated with the ingress of water into modules in the field. Water contamination has been shown to degrade the performance of the TCO in addition to corroding interconnects and other conductive metals/materials associated with the module. Water ingress is particularly problematic in flexible thin film PV modules since traditional encapsulates such as poly(ethyl vinyl acetate) (EVA) have high water vapor transmission rates. The accelerated aging studies of the zinc oxide based TCOs will allow acceleration factors and kinetic parameters to be determined for reliability purposes.

Granata, Jennifer E.; Yaklin, Melissa A.; Schneider, Duane Allen; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Norman, Kirsten

2010-06-01

227

Phase equilibria and properties of transparent conductors in the indium-tin-zinc oxide system  

E-print Network

transparent conducting oxides (TCO's) with In, Zn, and Sn cations. Optical and electronic propertiesPhase equilibria and properties of transparent conductors in the indium-tin-zinc oxide system for applications where tradeoffs between cond. and transparency are acceptable. Proceedings of the Materials

Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

228

Dinuclear zinc catalysts with unprecedented activities for the copolymerization of cyclohexene oxide and CO2.  

PubMed

A variety of new dinuclear zinc catalysts was developed and tested for the copolymerization of cyclohexene oxide and carbon dioxide. Electron-withdrawing groups thereby led to unprecedented activities with turnover frequencies up to 155?000 h(-1). These are by far the highest polymerization rates ever reported for the copolymerization of cyclohexene oxide and CO2. PMID:25683286

Kissling, S; Lehenmeier, M W; Altenbuchner, P T; Kronast, A; Reiter, M; Deglmann, P; Seemann, U B; Rieger, B

2015-03-01

229

Antibacterial Activity of Dental Composites Containing Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

The resin-based dental composites commonly used in restorations result in more plaque accumulation than other materials. Bacterial biofilm growth contributes to secondary caries and failure of resin-based dental composites. Methods to inhibit biofilm growth on dental composites have been sought for several decades. It is demonstrated here that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) blended at 10% (w/w) fraction into dental composites display antimicrobial activity and reduce growth of bacterial biofilms by roughly 80% for a single-species model dental biofilm. Antibacterial effectiveness of ZnO-NPs was assessed against Streptococcus sobrinus ATCC 27352 grown both planktonically and as biofilms on composites. Direct contact inhibition was observed by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy while biofilm formation was quantified by viable counts. An 80% reduction in bacterial counts was observed with 10% ZnO-NP-containing composites compared with their unmodified counterpart, indicating a statistically significant suppression of biofilm growth. Although, 20% of the bacterial population survived and could form a biofilm layer again, 10% ZnO-NP-containing composites maintained at least some inhibitory activity even after the third generation of biofilm growth. Microscopy demonstrated continuous biofilm formation for unmodified composites after one day growth, but only sparsely distributed biofilms formed on 10% ZnO-NP-containing composites. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ZnO-NPs suspended in S. sobrinus planktonic culture was 50 ?g/ml. 10% ZnO-NP-containing composites qualitatively showed less biofilm after one day anaerobic growth of a three-species initial colonizer biofilm after when compared to unmodified composites, but did not significantly reduce growth after three days. PMID:20225252

Sevinç, Berdan Aydin; Hanley, Luke

2010-01-01

230

Alveolar Epithelial Cell Injury Due to Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle Exposure  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Although inhalation of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) is known to cause systemic disease (i.e., metal fume fever), little is known about mechanisms underlying injury to alveolar epithelium. Objectives: Investigate ZnO NP–induced injury to alveolar epithelium by exposing primary cultured rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayers (RAECMs) to ZnO NPs. Methods: RAECMs were exposed apically to ZnO NPs or, in some experiments, to culture fluid containing ZnCl2 or free Zn released from ZnO NPs. Transepithelial electrical resistance (RT) and equivalent short-circuit current (IEQ) were assessed as functions of concentration and time. Morphologic changes, lactate dehydrogenase release, cell membrane integrity, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial activity were measured. Measurements and Main Results: Apical exposure to 176 ?g/ml ZnO NPs decreased RT and IEQ of RAECMs by 100% over 24 hours, whereas exposure to 11 ?g/ml ZnO NPs had little effect. Changes in RT and IEQ caused by 176 ?g/ml ZnO NPs were irreversible. ZnO NP effects on RT yielded half-maximal concentrations of approximately 20 ?g/ml. Apical exposure for 24 hours to 176 ?g/ml ZnO NPs induced decreases in mitochondrial activity and increases in lactate dehydrogenase release, permeability to fluorescein sulfonic acid, increased intracellular ROS, and translocation of ZnO NPs from apical to basolateral fluid (most likely across injured cells and/or damaged paracellular pathways). Conclusions: ZnO NPs cause severe injury to RAECMs in a dose- and time-dependent manner, mediated, at least in part, by free Zn released from ZnO NPs, mitochondrial dysfunction, and increased intracellular ROS. PMID:20639441

Kim, Yong Ho; Fazlollahi, Farnoosh; Kennedy, Ian M.; Yacobi, Nazanin R.; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.; Borok, Zea; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Crandall, Edward D.

2010-01-01

231

Antibacterial properties of composite resins incorporating silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus  

PubMed Central

Objectives Recurrent caries was partly ascribed to lack of antibacterial properties in composite resin. Silver and zinc nanoparticles are considered to be broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of composite resins containing 1% silver and zinc-oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Materials and Methods Ninety discoid tablets containing 0%, 1% nano-silver and 1% nano zinc-oxide particles were prepared from flowable composite resin (n = 30). The antibacterial properties of composite resin discs were evaluated by direct contact test. Diluted solutions of Streptococcus mutans (PTCC 1683) and Lactobacillus (PTCC 1643) were prepared. 0.01 mL of each bacterial species was separately placed on the discs. The discs were transferred to liquid culture media and were incubated at 37? for 8 hr. 0.01 mL of each solution was cultured on blood agar and the colonies were counted. Data was analyzed with Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results Composites containing nano zinc-oxide particles or silver nanoparticles exhibited higher antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The effect of zinc-oxide on Streptococcus mutans was significantly higher than that of silver (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the antibacterial activity against Lactobacillus between composites containing silver nanoparticles and those containing zinc-oxide nanoparticles. Conclusions Composite resins containing silver or zinc-oxide nanoparticles exhibited antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. PMID:24790923

Kasraei, Shahin; Sami, Lida; Hendi, Sareh; AliKhani, Mohammad-Yousef; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman

2014-01-01

232

Feeding Low or Pharmacological Concentrations of Zinc Oxide Changes the Hepatic Proteome Profiles in Weaned Piglets  

PubMed Central

Pharmacological levels of zinc oxide can promote growth and health of weaning piglets, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are yet not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine changes in the global hepatic protein expression in response to dietary zinc oxide in weaned piglets. Nine half-sib piglets were allocated to three dietary zinc treatment groups (50, 150, 2500 mg/kg dry matter). After 14 d, pigs were euthanized and liver samples taken. The increase in hepatic zinc concentration following dietary supplementation of zinc was accompanied by up-regulation of metallothionein mRNA and protein expression. Global hepatic protein profiles were obtained by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis following matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A total of 15 proteins were differentially (P<0.05) expressed between groups receiving control (150 mg/kg) or pharmacological levels of zinc (2500 mg/kg) with 7 down- (e.g. arginase1, thiosulfate sulfurtransferase, HSP70) and 8 up-regulated (e.g. apolipoprotein AI, transferrin, C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase) proteins. Additionally, three proteins were differentially expressed with low zinc supply (50 mg/kg Zn) in comparison to the control diet. The identified proteins were mainly associated with functions related to cellular stress, transport, metabolism, and signal transduction. The differential regulation was evaluated at the mRNA level and a subset of three proteins of different functional groups was selected for confirmation by western blotting. The results of this proteomic study suggest that zinc affects important liver functions such as blood protein secretion, protein metabolism, detoxification and redox homeostasis, thus supporting the hypothesis of intermediary effects of pharmacological levels of zinc oxide fed to pigs. PMID:24282572

Bondzio, Angelika; Pieper, Robert; Gabler, Christoph; Weise, Christoph; Schulze, Petra; Zentek, Juergen; Einspanier, Ralf

2013-01-01

233

Antidiabetic Activity of Zinc Oxide and Silver Nanoparticles on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

The use of nanoparticles in medicine is an attractive proposition. In the present study, zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their antidiabetic activity. Fifty male albino rats with weight 120 ± 20 and age 6 months were used. Animals were grouped as follows: control; did not receive any type of treatment, diabetic; received a single intraperitoneal dose of streptozotocin (100 mg/kg), diabetic + zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs), received single daily oral dose of 10 mg/kg ZnONPs in suspension, diabetic + silver nanoparticles (SNPs); received a single daily oral dose of SNP of 10 mg/kg in suspension and diabetic + insulin; received a single subcutaneous dose of 0.6 units/50 g body weight. Zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles induce a significant reduced blood glucose, higher serum insulin, higher glucokinase activity higher expression level of insulin, insulin receptor, GLUT-2 and glucokinase genes in diabetic rats treated with zinc oxide, silver nanoparticles and insulin. In conclusion, zinc oxide and sliver nanoparticles act as potent antidiabetic agents. PMID:24477262

Alkaladi, Ali; Abdelazim, Aaser Mohamed; Afifi, Mohamed

2014-01-01

234

Extracellular synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticle using seaweeds of gulf of Mannar, India  

PubMed Central

Background The biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles by marine resources is thought to be clean, nontoxic, and environmentally acceptable “green procedures”. Marine ecosystems are very important for the overall health of both marine and terrestrial environments. The use of natural sources like Marine biological resources essential for nanotechnology. Seaweeds constitute one of the commercially important marine living renewable resources. Seaweeds such as green Caulerpa peltata, red Hypnea Valencia and brown Sargassum myriocystum were used for synthesis of Zinc oxide nanoparticles. Result The preliminary screening of physico-chemical parameters such as concentration of metals, concentration of seaweed extract, temperature, pH and reaction time revealed that one seaweed S. myriocystum were able to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles. It was confirmed through the, initial colour change of the reaction mixture and UV visible spectrophotometer. The extracellular biosynthesized clear zinc oxide nanoparticles size 36 nm through characterization technique such as DLS, AFM, SEM –EDX, TEM, XRD and FTIR. The biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles are effective antibacterial agents against Gram-positive than the Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusion Based on the FTIR results, fucoidan water soluble pigments present in S. myriocystum leaf extract is responsible for reduction and stabilization of zinc oxide nanoparticles. by this approach are quite stable and no visible changes were observed even after 6 months. These soluble elements could have acted as both reduction and stabilizing agents preventing the aggregation of nanoparticles in solution, extracellular biological synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles of size 36 nm. PMID:24298944

2013-01-01

235

Enhanced ionic polymer metal composite actuator with porous nafion membrane using zinc oxide particulate leaching method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, to improve the performance of an ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC), we suggest a porous nafion membrane fabricated with the particulate leaching method with zinc oxide and propose an IPMC that uses the porous nafion membrane. To fabricate this membrane, the proper ratio of nafion and zinc oxide powder is dispersed in a solvent. Then the zinc oxide embedded in the nafion membrane is fabricated with a casting method. With the particulate leaching method, the embedded zinc oxide particles are dissolved by an acid solution, and the spaces of the zinc oxide particles changed to pores. Finally, through electroless plating and ion exchange procedures, an IPMC with the porous nafion membrane is fabricated. The proposed IPMC has higher water uptake (WUP) and ion exchange capacity (IEC) and can show better actuation performance compared to the conventional nafion-based IPMC. We also measure the actuation displacement and blocking forces of the proposed IPMC. Compared with the conventional nafion-based IPMC, the proposed IPMC with the porous nafion membrane has increased displacements: about 80% at ac input and about 250% at dc input, and increased blocking force about 130% at dc input.

Jung, Sun Yong; Ko, Seong Young; Park, Jong-Oh; Park, Sukho

2015-03-01

236

Comparing Inhaled Ultrafine versus Fine Zinc Oxide Particles in Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Zinc oxide is a common, biologically active constituent of particulate air pollution as well as a workplace toxin. Ultrafine particles (< 0.1 ?m diameter) are believed to be more potent than an equal mass of inhaled accumulation mode particles (0.1–1.0 ?m diameter). Objectives: We compared exposure–response relationships for respiratory, hematologic, and cardiovascular endpoints between ultrafine and accumulation mode zinc oxide particles. Methods: In a human inhalation study, 12 healthy adults inhaled 500 ?g/m3 of ultrafine zinc oxide, the same mass of fine zinc oxide, and filtered air while at rest for 2 hours. Measurements and Main Results: Preexposure and follow-up studies of symptoms, leukocyte surface markers, hemostasis, and cardiac electrophysiology were conducted to 24 hours post-exposure. Induced sputum was sampled 24 hours after exposure. No differences were detected between any of the three exposure conditions at this level of exposure. Conclusions: Freshly generated zinc oxide in the fine or ultrafine fractions inhaled by healthy subjects at rest at a concentration of 500 ?g/m3 for 2 hours is below the threshold for acute systemic effects as detected by these endpoints. PMID:15735058

Beckett, William S.; Chalupa, David F.; Pauly-Brown, Andrea; Speers, Donna M.; Stewart, Judith C.; Frampton, Mark W.; Utell, Mark J.; Huang, Li-Shan; Cox, Christopher; Zareba, Wojciech; Oberdörster, Günter

2005-01-01

237

The interaction of zinc oxide-based dental cements with aqueous solutions of potassium fluoride.  

PubMed

The ability of zinc oxide-based dental cements (zinc phosphate and zinc polycarboxylate) to take up fluoride from aqueous solution has been studied. Only zinc phosphate cement was found to take up any measurable fluoride after 5 h exposure to the solutions. The zinc oxide filler of the zinc phosphate also failed to take up fluoride from solution. The key interaction for this uptake was thus shown to involve the phosphate groups of the set cement. However, whether this took the form of phosphate/fluoride exchange, or the formation of oxyfluoro-phosphate groups was not clear. Fluoride uptake followed radicaltime kinetics for about 2 h in some cases, but was generally better modelled by the Elovich equation, dq(t)/dt = alpha exp(-betaq(t)). Values for alpha varied from 3.80 to 2.48 x 10(4), and for beta from 7.19 x 10(-3) to 0.1946, though only beta showed any sort of trend, becoming smaller with increasing fluoride concentration. Fluoride was released from the zinc phosphate cements in processes that were diffusion based up to M(t)/M(infinity) of about 0.4. No further release occurred when specimens were placed in fresh volumes of deionised water. Only a fraction of the fluoride taken up was re-released, demonstrating that most of the fluoride taken up becomes irreversibly bound within the cement. PMID:18389342

Pawluk, K; Booth, S E; Coleman, N J; Nicholson, J W

2008-09-01

238

Zinc-phthalocyaninetetraphosphonic acid as a novel transparent-conducting-oxide passivation for organic photovoltaic devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel monolayer chemical passivation improving the surface electronic properties of indium-tin oxide (ITO), used as an electrode in organic solar cells (OSC), is reported. Deposition of zinc-phthalocyaninetetraphosphonic acid on ITO substrates, from a water solution, creates a chemically bound organic monolayer passivation, which improves the charge transfer through the ITO\\/zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) interface in ZnPc\\/C60 OSC. Current–voltage measurements on devices

B. Johnev; K. Fostiropoulos

2008-01-01

239

Zinc Oxide Nanostructures and High Electron Mobility Nanocomposite Thin Film Transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures and examines the performance of nanocomposite thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated using ZnO dispersed in both n- and p-type polymer host matrices. The ZnO nanostructures considered here comprise nanowires and tetrapods and were synthesized using vapor phase deposition techniques involving the carbothermal reduction of solid-phase zinc-containing compounds. Measurement results of

Flora M. Li; Gen-Wen Hsieh; Sharvari Dalal; Marcus C. Newton; James E. Stott; Pritesh Hiralal; Arokia Nathan; Paul A. Warburton; Husnu Emrah Unalan; Paul Beecher; Andrew J. Flewitt; Ian Robinson; Gehan Amaratunga; William I. Milne

2008-01-01

240

Fabrication of a super-hydrophobic nanofibrous zinc oxide film surface by electrospinning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a new approach for fabricating a super-hydrophobic nanofibrous zinc oxide (ZnO) film surface. The pure poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and composite PVA\\/ZnO nanofibrous films can be obtained by electrospinning the PVA and PVA\\/zinc acetate solutions, respectively. After the calcination of composite fibrous films, the inorganic fibrous ZnO films with a reduced fiber diameter were fabricated. The wettability of three

Bin Ding; Tasuku Ogawa; Jinho Kim; Kouji Fujimoto; Seimei Shiratori

2008-01-01

241

Zinc (hydr)oxide/graphite oxide/AuNPs composites: role of surface features in H?S reactive adsorption.  

PubMed

Zinc hydroxide/graphite oxide/AuNPs composites with various levels of complexity were synthesized using an in situ precipitation method. Then they were used as H2S adsorbents in visible light. The materials' surfaces were characterized before and after H2S adsorption by various physical and chemical methods (XRD, FTIR, thermal analysis, potentiometric titration, adsorption of nitrogen and SEM/EDX). Significant differences in surface features and synergistic effects were found depending on the materials' composition. Addition of graphite oxide and the deposition of gold nanoparticles resulted in a marked increase in the adsorption capacity in comparison with that on the zinc hydroxide and zinc hydroxide/AuNP. Addition of AuNPs to zinc hydroxide led to a crystalline ZnO/AuNP composite while the zinc hydroxide/graphite oxide/AuNP composite was amorphous. The ZnOH/GO/AuNPs composite exhibited the greatest H2S adsorption capacity due to the increased number of OH terminal groups and the conductive properties of GO that facilitated the electron transfer and consequently the formation of superoxide ions promoting oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. AuNPs present in the composite increased the conductivity, helped with electron transfer to oxygen, and prevented the fast recombination of the electrons and holes. PMID:25306297

Giannakoudakis, Dimitrios A; Bandosz, Teresa J

2014-12-15

242

Sorption behavior of microamounts of zinc on titanium oxide from aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

To correlate soil response toward zinc, it is necessary to study its adsorption in detail on soils or on their constituents. The adsorption of microamounts of zinc on titanium oxide, prepared and characterized in this laboratory, has been studied in detail. Zinc adsorption has been found to be dependent on the pH of the aqueous solution, amount of oxide, and zinc concentration. Maximum adsorption is from pH 10 buffer. EDTA and cyanide ions inhibit adsorption significantly. The adsorption of other elements under optimal conditions has also been measured on this oxide. Sc(III) and Cs(I) show almost negligible adsorption. Zinc adsorption follows the linear form of the Freundlich adsorption isotherm: log C{sub Ads} = log A + (1/n) log C{sub Bulk} with A = 0.48 mol/g and n = 1. Except at a very low bulk concentration (3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} mol/dm{sup 3}), Langmuir adsorption isotherm is also linear for the entire zinc concentration investigated. The limiting adsorbed concentration is estimated to be 0.18 mol/g.

Hasany, S.M.; Ghaffar, A. (Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)); Chughtai, F.A. (Univ. of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan))

1991-08-01

243

AZO thin film-based UV sensors: effects of RF power on the films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films of thickness 150 nm were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method under various RF powers in the range of 25-100 W. Structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the films were investigated by X-ray diffractometer, atomic force microscope, UV-Vis spectrometer and Hall effect measurement system. All the obtained films had a highly preferred orientation along [002] direction of the c-axis perpendicular to the flexible PET substrate and had a high-quality surface. The energy band gap (E g) values of the films varied in the range of 3.30-3.43 eV. The minimum resistivity of 1.84 × 10-4 ? cm was obtained at a 50 W RF power. The small changes in the RF power had a critical important role on the structural, optical and electrical properties of the sputtered AZO thin films on flexible PET substrate. In addition, UV sensing of the fabricated AZO thin film-based sensors was explored by using current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. The sensors were sensitive in the UV region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Akin, Nihan; Ceren Baskose, U.; Kinaci, Baris; Cakmak, Mehmet; Ozcelik, Suleyman

2015-02-01

244

Defect Mediated Ferromagnetism in Zinc Oxide Thin Film Heterostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in the field of spintronics (spin based electronics) have led to an extensive search for materials in which semiconducting properties can be integrated with magnetic properties to realize the objective of successful fabrication of spin-based devices. Since zinc oxide (ZnO) posits a promising player, it is important to elucidate the critical issues regarding the origin and nature of magnetism in ZnO thin film heterostructures. Another critical issue in the development of practical devices based on metal oxides is the integration of high quality epitaxial thin films on the existing technology based on Si (100) substrates, which requires appropriate substrate templates. The present research work is focused on the study of room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) caused by intrinsic defects and precise control of RTFM using thermal treatments and laser and ion irradiation. We performed a systematic study of the structural, chemical, electrical, optical and magnetic properties of undoped ZnO films grown under different conditions as well as the films that were annealed in various environments. Oxygen annealed films displayed a sequential transition from ferromagnetism to diamagnetism as a function of the annealing temperature. An increase in the green band intensity has been observed in oxygen annealed ZnO films. Reversible switching of room-temperature ferromagnetism and n-type conductivity have been demonstrated by oxygen and vacuum annealing. Detailed electron energy loss spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy studies have been presented to rule out the possibility of external source of magnetism. Electron-Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) measurements indicate the presence of a broad peak at g=2.01. This would be most consistent with the magnetic moment arising from the oxygen vacancies (g=1.996), although the possible contribution from Zn vacancies (g=2.013) cannot be entirely ruled out. The magnetic moment in these films may arise from the unpaired 2p electrons at the O sites surrounding the zinc vacancy with each nearest-neighbor O atom carrying a magnetic moment ranging from 0.49 to 0.74 muB and the oxygen vacancies may provide the coupling mechanism. Results of EPR study are found to be in agreement with the results of magnetization and conductivity measurements. The effect of UV Excimer laser irradiation on electrical, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO thin films has been studied. Increases in the electrical conductivity and magnetic moment have been controlled precisely with the number of laser pulses, without altering the Wurtzite crystal structure and n-type semiconducting characteristics of the films. The laser-induced ferromagnetism and concomitant conductivity enhancement can be reversed through subsequent thermal annealing. It has also been shown that heavy swift ion irradiation can also create room temperature ferromagnetism in oxygen annealed insulating ZnO films. Saturation magnetic moments increase with increasing ion dose. A systematic study of the thickness dependency of the structural, electrical and magnetic properties of undoped ZnO thin films has been presented. The role of film/substrate interface in magnetism has been discussed. It has been shown by EPR study and oxidative quenching of ferromagnetism that oxygen vacancies are the key mediating defect in ferromagnetic ZnO thin films. Finally growth of epitaxial ZnO on Si (100) substrates has been achieved using a titanium nitride (TiN)/strontium titanate (STO) template layer. It has been shown that TiN can be grown epitaxially on silicon substrates. It was observed that, crystallographic orientations of ZnO on STO can be controlled by the oxygen pressure and substrate temperature during the deposition. The detailed x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electrical and magnetic characterization results for the deposited films have been carried out. The above mentioned methods provide a controlled way to study changes in magnetic, electrical and optical properties of ZnO films and determine the mechanis

Mal, Siddhartha

245

Effect of the temperature on structural and optical properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Zinc nitrate hexahydrate, Zn(NO3)2 x 6H2O was used as a precursor with urea NH2CONH2 to prepare hydrozincite Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6 powder using hydrothermal method for 8 h at 90 degrees C. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by thermal annealing of hydrozincite powder at different annealing temperatures, i.e., 350, 550 750 and 950 degrees C in air for 2 h. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The optical properties of the products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. It was found that the particle size increased from - 33 to 250 nm with increasing in the annealing temperatures. FTIR results showed that the standard peaks of zinc oxide were presented at 428.17 and 532.32 cm(-1). Thermal analysis study showed that the primary weight loss starts at - 93 degrees C is due to solvent evaporation. The secondary weight loss, observed at - 378 degrees C, is due to phase transition from hydrated zinc oxide to zinc oxide. The band gaps of the products were in the range - 3.26-3.30 eV. The PL spectrum showed that the as-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles had UV (381 nm) and green (537 nm) emissions. PMID:24758046

Hadia, N M A; García-Granda, Santiago; García, José R

2014-07-01

246

EXAMINATION OF THE OXIDATION PROTECTION OF ZINC COATINGS FORMED ON COPPER ALLOYS AND STEEL SUBSTRATES  

SciTech Connect

The exposure of metallic components at aggressive high temperature environments, usually limit their usage at similar application because they suffer from severe oxidation attack. Copper alloys are used in a wide range of high-quality indoor and outdoor applications, statue parts, art hardware, high strength and high thermal conductivity applications. On the other hand, steel is commonly used as mechanical part of industrial set outs or in the construction sector due to its high mechanical properties. The aim of the present work is the examination of the oxidation resistance of pack cementation zinc coatings deposited on copper, leaded brass and steel substrates at elevated temperature conditions. Furthermore, an effort made to make a long-term evaluation of the coated samples durability. The oxidation results showed that bare substrates appear to have undergone severe damage comparing with the coated ones. Furthermore, the mass gain of the uncoated samples was higher than this of the zinc covered ones. Particularly zinc coated brass was found to be more resistant to oxidation conditions in which it was exposed as it has the lower mass gain as compared to the bare substrates and zinc coated copper. Zinc coated steel was also proved to be more resistive than the uncoated steel.

Papazoglou, M.; Chaliampalias, D.; Vourlias, G.; Pavlidou, E.; Stergioudis, G. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Skolianos, S. [Physical Metallurgy Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24, Thessaloniki (Greece)

2010-01-21

247

Electrical and optical properties of zinc oxide for scintillator applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide-band-gap semiconductor suitable for many optical and optoelectronic applications. Among these is to use single crystal, powder, or ceramic forms of ZnO as a fast UV scintillator. In this work, the electrical and optical properties of ZnO were studied using photoluminescence, X-ray-induced luminescence, optical absorption, and Hall Effect techniques. This study included single crystal ZnO and ZnO:Ga samples grown from high-pressure-melt (HPM), seeded chemical-vapor-transport (SCVT), and hydrothermal (HYD) techniques; powder samples synthesized using both solution and solid-state processes, and purchased from different commercial sources; and ceramic samples prepared by hot-uni-axial-pressing and spark-plasma-sintering methods. Temperature-dependent PL and Hall measurements were combined to establish the luminescence origins in the n-type ZnO and ZnO:Ga single crystals. Based on a PL line-shape analysis, including band-gap renormalization, the direct (e,h) transition is the main luminescent channel in highly n-type ZnO:Ga, while FX and FX-LO recombinations are responsible for the UV PL from as-grown ZnO. An intrinsic mobility limit for n-type ZnO was established by including three major phonon-scattering mechanisms. Analysis of Hall data from single-crystal samples including both neutral- and ionized-impurity scatterings provided donor and acceptor concentrations and energy levels. High n-type single-crystal ZnO samples prepared either by Ga doping and co-doping, or by after-growth treatments, were also studied. Absorption and reflectance data were used to obtain free carrier concentrations from the Ga-doped and co-doped crystals, and it was found that several samples with n ˜ high-1018 to low-1019 cm -3 had optimum UV luminescence. Anneal treatments in reducing atmospheres increased free carrier concentrations in HPM and HYD samples, but an induced absorption band due to oxygen vacancies limited the UV emission from these samples. PL and X-ray-induced luminescence studies on powder ZnO:Ga samples demonstrated that high Ga-doping levels and H-anneal treatments can improve UV emission, while impurities such as Cu and Li enhance the lower energy visible emissions and affect the UV output. For ceramic forms of ZnO, reduction of scattering losses remains as the main challenge for improved scintillation.

Yang, Xiaocheng

248

Synthesis, characterization and luminescence properties of zinc oxide nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide (ZnO) represents an important semiconductor material due to its wideband gap (3.37 eV at room temperature), large exciton binding energy (60 meV), high optical gain, and luminescence as well as piezoelectric properties [1]. From the 1960s, ZnO thin films have been extensively studied because of their applications as sensors, transducers and catalysts [2]. Since a few decades, one-dimensional nanostructures have become the focus point in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Nanostructures are considered to have unique physical, chemical, catalytic and optical properties that are profoundly different from their bulk counterparts. Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in 1991, a string of research activities led to the growth and characterization of nanostructures of various materials including semiconductors such as Si, Ge and also compound semiconductors such as InP, GaAs, GaN and ZnO. ZnO is a versatile material and has shown potential for the synthesis of various types of nanostructures such as nanocombs, nanorings, nanohelices/nanosprings, nanobelts, nanowires and nanocages under specific growth conditions and probably has the richest family of nanostructures among all materials, both in structure and properties. This dissertation presents the synthesis, characterization and luminescence properties of ZnO nanostructures with the development of a PVD system. The nanostructures of ZnO are synthesized on various kinds of substrates such as Silicon, Sapphire and Alumina. We have synthesized a large family of nanostructures such as nanowires, nanorods, nanobelts, aligned nanorods, nanosheets, nanospheres, nanocombs, microspheres, hexagons etc. The nanostructures are then characterized by SEM, EDX, TEM, HRTEM, XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, PL and CL. From the characterization of the materials, we observed that these nanostructures are of good crystalline quality. PL and CL spectra reveal that all the nanostructures emit a ˜380 nm (UV) usually called the near band edge emission and a broad green band related to the defects and surface states at about 500 nm. Ultra-fine nanowires/belts show band edge emission of about 367 nm, with a blue shift of 124 meV relative to the other structures (380 nm). This dissertation gives an overview of the optical properties of ZnO nanostructures, in addition to the issues such as controlled growth, band-gap engineering, synthesis and characterization of these nanostructures.

Khan, Aurangzeb

249

Cytotoxicity of nitric oxide is alleviated by zinc-mediated expression of antioxidant genes.  

PubMed

Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich zinc binding proteins that are powerful antioxidants. In this study, we investigated the interaction between zinc, MTs, and other components of the antioxidant defense system in HepG2 cells. Cells were preincubated with zinc and then exposed to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor. Both zinc pretreatment and SNP exposure separately induced transcription of MT genes (MT1A, MT2A, MT1E, MT1X), as measured using real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after reverse transcription (RT). Pretreatment of HepG2 cells with zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) followed by SNP exposure caused MT and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) mRNA levels to increase more than in cells only exposed to SNP. However, when cells were incubated with N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethyl-enediamine (TPEN), a membrane-permeant Zn2+ chelator, the stimulation of MT transcription by SNP was blocked, suggesting that SNP-induced upregulation of these genes is zinc-dependent. Human glutathione-S-transferase (hGSTA1) and G6PD mRNA levels in the cells treated with 5 microM TPEN decreased. Additionally, the induction of MT by SNP after zinc pretreatment appears to be mediated by metal-activated transcription factor-1 (MTF-1), which is induced by labile zinc in the cytosol. SNP cytotoxicity was inhibited by preincubation with zinc. Taken together, these results suggest that NO plays an important role in regulation of cellular zinc homeostasis and that NO-mediated release of protein-bound Zn2+ may be an important signal in antioxidant defense. PMID:17018880

Chung, Mi Ja; Hogstrand, Christer; Lee, Sung-Joon

2006-10-01

250

An efficient non-Lambertian organic light-emitting diode using imprinted submicron-size zinc oxide pillar arrays  

E-print Network

An efficient non-Lambertian organic light-emitting diode using imprinted submicron-size zinc oxide://apl.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;An efficient non-Lambertian organic light-emitting diode using imprinted submicron-size zinc oxide 2013; published online 8 February 2013) We report phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes

Demir, Hilmi Volkan

251

Molecular Orbital Studies of Zinc Oxide Chemical Vapor Deposition: Gas-Phase Hydrolysis of Diethyl Zinc,  

E-print Network

Zinc, Elimination Reactions, and Formation of Dimers and Tetramers Stanley M. Smith and H. Bernhard Schlegel* Department of Chemistry, and Institute for Scientific Computing, Wayne State University, Detroit University Press: Cambridge, U.K., 1994. (7) Huang, M. H.; Mao, S.; Feick, H.; Yan, H.; Wu, Y.; Kind, H

Schlegel, H. Bernhard

252

Using C??? Sputtering to Improve Detection Limit of Nitrogen in Zinc Oxide  

SciTech Connect

C??? sputtering was firstly used to determine depth profile of nitrogen in zinc oxide materials by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Compared to traditional Cs+ sputtering depth profiling, the C??? sputtering provides over 200 times of effective signal intensity and the detection limit is about 10 times better. In addition, our X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that sputtering zinc oxide materials by 10 keV C??? leads to very weak carbon deposition at bottom of the sputter crater.

Zhu, Zihua; Shutthanandan, V.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy

2010-05-11

253

Synthesis of Silicon and Zinc Oxide Nanowhiskers and Studies of Their Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conditions and mechanisms for purposeful pattern formation on the surface of single-crystal silicon wafers by building up silicon or zinc oxide by the vapor-liquid-crystal (VLC) mechanism were studied. For the polished silicon surface we developed a procedure for preparation of areas with randomly distributed nanosized gold metal particles - whisker growth initiators. The arrays of randomly distributed silicon and zinc oxide whiskers were grown. The emission cells with a pointed surface pattern were fabricated. The morphology, structure, and field electron emission properties of the fabricated structures were studied.

Gorbyk, P. P.; Dubrovin, I. V.; Dadykin, A. A.; Demchenko, Yu. A.

254

Oxidative degradation of acid orange 7 using Ag-doped zinc oxide thin films.  

PubMed

Ag-doped ZnO thin films with preferred c-axis orientation along (002) have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique in aqueous medium on to the corning glass substrates. The effect of Ag-doping on to the photoelectrochemical, structural, morphological, optical, luminescence, electrical and thermal properties has been investigated. XRD and Raman study indicates that the films have hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure. The effect of Ag loading on the photocatalytic activity of Ag-doped ZnO in the degradation of azo dye is studied and results are compared with pure ZnO. The results show that the rate of degradation of azo dye over Ag-doped ZnO is much higher as compared to pure ZnO. Ag doping in ZnO is highly effective and can significantly enhance the photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of azo dye. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity of Ag-doped ZnO thin films is mainly due to their smaller crystallite size and capability for reducing the electron-hole pair recombination. Kinetic parameters have been investigated in terms of a first order rate equation. The rate constant (-k) for this heterogeneous photocatalysis is evaluated as a function of the initial concentration of original species. Substantial reduction in azo dye is achieved as analyzed from COD and TOC studies. PMID:23165170

Shinde, S S; Bhosale, C H; Rajpure, K Y

2012-12-01

255

Zinc-catalyzed copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide  

E-print Network

precaution to exclude thoroughly water or acid in the system should be taken. In the preparation of the zinc catalyst, an excess of ZnO relative to acid should be used and the reaction should be followed by IR until all of the acid is consumed... Strem Chemicals, Incorporation. 2. Synthesized Reagents a. Synthesis of Znx(02C(CH2)sCOs)x Zinc glutarate was prepared according to the Patent literature. The typical preparation is as follows. In a 300 mL round bottom flask, a slurry of ZnO (8. 5g...

Katsurao, Takumi

1994-01-01

256

Migration of point defects and a defect pair in zinc oxide using the dimer method  

SciTech Connect

The migration mechanism and the minimum energy path of vacancies, interstitials and an interstitial-vacancy pair in zinc oxide have been studied by the dimer method. The in-plane and out-of-plane migrations of zinc and oxygen vacancies are found to be anisotropic. The kick-out mechanism is energetically preferred to zinc and oxygen interstitials that can easily migrate through the ZnO crystal lattice. In addition, the migration process of an interstitial-vacancy pair as a complex of an octahedral oxygen interstitial and a zinc vacancy is dominated by an oxygen interstitial/zinc vacancy successive migration. The energy barriers indicate that the existence of oxygen interstitial in the defect pair can promote the mobility of zinc vacancy, whereas the migration of oxygen interstitial is slowed down due to the presence of zinc vacancy. In the end, we show a possible migration path of the interstitial-vacancy pair that can be dissociated through a set of displacement movements.

Chen, Dong; Gao, Fei; Dong, Mingdong; Liu, Bo

2012-09-24

257

Zinc regulates iNOS-derived nitric oxide formation in endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Aberrant production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. Mechanisms responsible for the fine-tuning of iNOS activity in inflammation are still not fully understood. Zinc is an important structural element of NOS enzymes and is known to inhibit its catalytical activity. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of zinc on iNOS activity and expression in endothelial cells. We found that zinc down-regulated the expression of iNOS (mRNA+protein) and decreased cytokine-mediated activation of the iNOS promoter. Zinc-mediated regulation of iNOS expression was due to inhibition of NF-?B transactivation activity, as determined by a decrease in both NF-?B-driven luciferase reporter activity and expression of NF-?B target genes, including cyclooxygenase 2 and IL-1?. However, zinc did not affect NF-?B translocation into the nucleus, as assessed by Western blot analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. Taken together our results demonstrate that zinc limits iNOS-derived high output NO production in endothelial cells by inhibiting NF-?B-dependent iNOS expression, pointing to a role of zinc as a regulator of iNOS activity in inflammation. PMID:25180171

Cortese-Krott, Miriam M.; Kulakov, Larissa; Opländer, Christian; Kolb-Bachofen, Victoria; Kröncke, Klaus-D.; Suschek, Christoph V.

2014-01-01

258

Growth of high-quality, uniform c-axis-oriented zinc oxide nano-wires on a-plane sapphire substrate with zinc oxide templates  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-quality, vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-wires were grown by the vapour-transport method on (112¯0) (a-plane) sapphire substrate covered by a uniform ZnO nano-crystalline seed layer which was deposited in a preceding growth step via simple chemical vapour deposition. A thin layer of close-packed nano-seeds with an average size of 12nm was formed rapidly on the substrate by sublimation and

A. Reiser; V. Raeesi; G. M. Prinz; M. Schirra; M. Feneberg; U. Röder; R. Sauer; K. Thonke

2009-01-01

259

Performance improvement of tin-doped zinc oxide thin-film transistor by novel channel modulation layer of indium tin oxide/tin zinc oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By applying a novel active modulation layer of indium tin oxide/tin zinc oxide (ITO/TZO), we have successfully fabricated high-performance bottom-gate-type dual-active-layer thin-film transistors (TFTs) on a glass substrate at a low temperature by a simple process. The as-fabricated dual-active-layer ITO/TZO TFTs exhibited excellent electrical properties compared with single-active-layer TZO TFTs. We found that the dual-layer ITO/TZO TFT with an optimized stack structure of ITO (5 nm)/TZO (45 nm) as the channel layer exhibits excellent properties, namely, a high saturation mobility of 204 cm2 V?1 s?1, a steep subthreshold slope of 219 mV/dec, a low threshold voltage of 0.8 V, and a high on–off current ratio of 4.3 × 107. A physical mechanism for the electrical improvement is also deduced. Owing to its advantages, namely, a low processing temperature, a high electrical performance, a simple process, and a low cost, this novel active modulation layer is highly promising for the manufacture of oxide semiconductor TFT and transparent displays.

Chen, Zhuofa; Han, Dedong; Zhao, Nannan; Wu, Jing; Cong, Yingying; Dong, Junchen; Zhao, Feilong; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi; Liu, Lifeng

2015-04-01

260

Novel synthetic methodology for controlling the orientation of zinc oxide nanowires grown on silicon oxide substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a simple method to reproducibly obtain well-aligned vertical ZnO nanowire arrays on silicon oxide (SiOx) substrates using seed crystals made from a mixture of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and zinc acetate (Zn(O2CCH3)2) solution. In comparison, high levels of OH- concentration obtained using NaOH or KOH solutions lead to incorporation of Na or K atoms into the seed crystals, destroying the c-axis alignment of the seeds and resulting in the growth of misaligned nanowires. The use of NH4OH eliminates the metallic impurities and ensures aligned nanowire growth in a wide range of OH- concentrations in the seed solution. The difference of crystalline orientations between NH4OH- and NaOH-based seeds is directly observed by lattice-resolved images and electron diffraction patterns using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This study obviously suggests that metallic impurities incorporated into the ZnO nanocrystal seeds are one of the factors that generates the misaligned ZnO nanowires. This method also enables the use of silicon oxide substrates for the growth of vertically aligned nanowires, making ZnO nanostructures compatible with widely used silicon fabrication technology.This study presents a simple method to reproducibly obtain well-aligned vertical ZnO nanowire arrays on silicon oxide (SiOx) substrates using seed crystals made from a mixture of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and zinc acetate (Zn(O2CCH3)2) solution. In comparison, high levels of OH- concentration obtained using NaOH or KOH solutions lead to incorporation of Na or K atoms into the seed crystals, destroying the c-axis alignment of the seeds and resulting in the growth of misaligned nanowires. The use of NH4OH eliminates the metallic impurities and ensures aligned nanowire growth in a wide range of OH- concentrations in the seed solution. The difference of crystalline orientations between NH4OH- and NaOH-based seeds is directly observed by lattice-resolved images and electron diffraction patterns using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This study obviously suggests that metallic impurities incorporated into the ZnO nanocrystal seeds are one of the factors that generates the misaligned ZnO nanowires. This method also enables the use of silicon oxide substrates for the growth of vertically aligned nanowires, making ZnO nanostructures compatible with widely used silicon fabrication technology. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional SEM images, photographs of seed solution and XRD peaks and XPS. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03694d

Cho, Jinhyun; Salleh, Najah; Blanco, Carlos; Yang, Sungwoo; Lee, Chul-Jin; Kim, Young-Woo; Kim, Jungsang; Liu, Jie

2014-03-01

261

Heat-sterilized silver oxide-zinc cells: Cycle life studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A JPL study was conducted to evaluate the cell design parameters that contribute to the cycle life of sealed, heat-sterilized silver oxide-zinc cells. Test cells having a rated capacity of 4.2 A-h were fabricated using zinc oxide electrodes prepared by the sintered Teflon process. Two separator variations were evaluated, one having acrylic acid and the other methacrylic acid grafted to irradiated polyethylene film. Significant results of this study include the following: (1) cycle life in excess of 300 cycles was attained; (2) a zinc oxide/silver stoichiometric ratio of 1.5 resulted in greater cycle life than a ratio of 1.1, and similar cycle life to cells having a ratio of 2; (3) cells having methacrylic acid grafted separators suffered somewhat less in capacity loss due to zinc electrode shape change than cells having acrylic acid type; (4) use of acrylic acid grafted separators was slightly superior to the methacrylic acid type in respect to silver penetration; and (5) the inclusion of a layer of potassium titanate paper adjacent to the zinc electrodes resulted in cells that achieved higher cycle life before any of the group failed than that reached by cells of any other construction.

Arms, J. T.

1973-01-01

262

High mobility undoped amorphous indium zinc oxide transparent thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the amorphous region of the In2O3-ZnO material system. The composition dependence of the amorphous region was explored and the films exhibited an n-type semiconductor behavior with low resistivities in the range of 4×10-4-6.33×10-4 ?cm. These amorphous films have a very wide transmittance window range of 300-2500 nm, and the transmittance is higher than 85% in the fiber-optics telecommunication window of 1.30-1.55 ?m. The band gap of amorphous films can be engineered from 2.66 to 3.05 eV, by varying the zinc/(zinc+indium) atomic ratio. A monotonous decrease in mobility from 71.6 to 59.4 cm2/V s was observed with an increase in zinc/(zinc+indium) atomic ratio from 0.19 to 0.43 in the amorphous region. This trend was explained on the basis of percolation theory and overlap integral calculations. The effective mass of these amorphous films was calculated using the Drude model in the free-carrier absorption region and correlated with composition as well as the carrier concentration of the films.

Kumar, Bhupendra; Gong, Hao; Akkipeddi, Ramam

2005-10-01

263

Zinc stable isotope fractionation upon accelerated oxidative weathering of sulfidic mine waste.  

PubMed

Accelerated oxidative weathering in a reaction cell (ASTM D 5744 standard protocol) was performed over a 33 week period on well characterized, sulfidic mine waste from the Kidd Creek Cu-Zn volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, Canada. The cell leachate was monitored for physicochemical parameters, ion concentrations and stable isotope ratios of zinc. Filtered zinc concentrations (<0.45 ?m) in the leachate ranged between 4.5 mg L(-1) and 1.9 g L(-1)-potentially controlled by pH, mineral solubility kinetics and (de)sorption processes. The zinc stable isotope ratios varied mass-dependently within +0.1 and +0.52‰ relative to IRMM 3702, and were strongly dependent on the pH (rpH-d66Zn=0.65, p<0.005, n=31). At a pH below 5, zinc mobilization was governed by sphalerite oxidation and hydroxide dissolution-pointing to the isotope signature of sphalerite (+0.1 to +0.16‰). Desorption processes resulted in enrichment of (66)Zn in the leachate reaching a maximum offset of +0.32‰ compared to the proposed sphalerite isotope signature. Over a period characterized by pH=6.1 ± 0.6, isotope ratios were significantly more enriched in (66)Zn with an offset of ? 0.23‰ compared to sphalerite, suggesting that zinc release may have been derived from a second zinc source, such as carbonate minerals, which compose 8 wt.% of the tailings. This preliminary study confirms the benefit of applying zinc isotopes alongside standard monitoring parameters to track principal zinc sources and weathering processes in complex multi-phase matrices. PMID:24784733

Matthies, R; Krahé, L; Blowes, D W

2014-07-15

264

High-Performance Indium–Gallium–Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Based on Anodic Aluminum Oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on indium- gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) active layer and anodic aluminum oxide (Al2O3) gate dielectric were investigated. The anodic Al2O3 gate dielectric possesses low leakage current and relatively high dielectric constant. The IGZO TFT based on anodic Al2O3 shows a mobility of as high as 21.6 cm 2 \\/V · s, an on\\/off current ratio of as

Linfeng Lan; Junbiao Peng

2011-01-01

265

The production of zinc by thermal dissociation of zinc oxide—solar chemical reactor design  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the design, fabrication, and preliminary test of a novel solar chemical reactor for conducting the thermal dissociation of ZnO into zinc and oxygen at above 2000 K. The reactor configuration features a windowed rotating cavity-receiver lined with ZnO particles that are held by centrifugal force. With this arrangement, ZnO is directly exposed to high-flux solar irradiation and serves

P. Haueter; S. Moeller; R. Palumbo; A. Steinfeld

1999-01-01

266

Hybrid p-type copper sulphide coated zinc oxide nanowire heterojunction device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel heterojunction was formed between zinc oxide nanowires and copper sulphide. The proposed device was fabricated by a fully solution-based process that consists of hydrothermal growth method and chemical bath deposition. The optoelectronic properties of the proposed heterojunction were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence measurements and current voltage characteristics.

Bu, Ian Y. Y.

2014-11-01

267

Synthesis of carbon and zinc oxide nanotubes and their applications in electronic devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured materials, including single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs), zinc oxide (ZnO) nanotubes (NTs) and graphene, have been successfully synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or wet chemistry routines, and used to fabricate nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices, including field effect transistors (FETs) and heterojunction solar cells. Both nanomaterials properties and devices performances have been characterized. Vertically aligned multiwalled

Kaikun Yang

2010-01-01

268

Structural and optical properties of direct current sputtered zinc aluminum oxides with a high Al concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc aluminum oxide films were deposited by reactive dc magnetron sputtering from Zn\\/Al target containing 30 wt.% Al. Sputtering was carried out on glass and Si(100) substrates held at room temperature. The effect of oxygen flow on structural and optical properties was studied. The properties of the films were strongly dependent on oxygen flow. Amorphous, highly transparent and very smooth

S. H. Mohamed; R. Drese

2006-01-01

269

Preparation and mechanical properties of aluminum-doped zinc oxide transparent conducting films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum-doped zinc oxide transparent conducting films were deposited in this study by magnetron sputtering under different sputtering powers and substrate temperatures. At low sputtering powers and substrate temperatures, the deposited films were constructed by spherical grains. With increasing power and temperature, the grains became facet with an obvious (002) preferred orientation. The crystallinity and grain size of the films increased

Shou-Yi Chang; Yen-Chih Hsiao; Yi-Chung Huang

2008-01-01

270

Optimization and Characterization of RF Sputtered Piezoelectric Zinc Oxide Thin Film for  

E-print Network

Optimization and Characterization of RF Sputtered Piezoelectric Zinc Oxide Thin Film for Transducer on the piezoelectric and crystalline qualities of the ZnO thin films. Experimental results showed that the multilayer film with the most preferred crystalline orientation. The thermally grown amorphous silicon dioxide

Tang, William C

271

Degradation of wastewaters containing organic dyes photocatalysed by zinc oxide: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic dyes are one of the largest groups of pollutants discharged into wastewaters from textile and other industrial processes. Owing to the potential toxicity of the dyes and their visibility in surface waters, removal and degradation of them have attracted considerable attention worldwide. A wide range of approaches have been developed, amongst which the heterogeneous photocatalysis involving zinc oxide (ZnO)

Sze-Mun Lam; Jin-Chung Sin; Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah; Abdul Rahman Mohamed

2012-01-01

272

Deposition of Aluminum---Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum---doped zinc oxide films were prepared on Corning 7059 by an inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique. Variation in structural, electrical and optical properties with doping concentration is investigated in detail. The films were highly transparent to the visible radiation and electrically conductive. X-ray diffraction results show that all films were polycrystalline in nature with [002] preferred orientation. Texture coefficient and grain

Devendra Goyal; Parag Solanki; Balkrishna Marathe; Murlidhar Takwale; Vishnu Bhide

1992-01-01

273

Influence of the doping and annealing atmosphere on zinc oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undoped and doped (indium and aluminium) zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis, and the effect of the doping and annealing atmosphere on the electrical, optical and structural properties of the produced films has been investigated. The deposited films have a high resistivity. Annealing the films in an argon atmosphere or under vacuum leads to a

P Nunes; A Malik; B Fernandes; E Fortunato; P Vilarinho; R Martins

1999-01-01

274

Effect of aluminium doping on zinc oxide thin films grown by spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the structural, optical, and electrical characterization of aluminium-doped zinc oxide thin films grown by the spray pyrolysis method. We report the effect of Al concentration on the resistivity and on the X-ray diffraction, transmittance, photoluminescence and Raman scattering spectra of the films. The minimum resistivity is obtained for the sample with nominal Al concentration of 1%. An increase

A. El Manouni; F. J. Manjón; M. Mollar; B. Marí; R. Gómez; M. C. López; J. R. Ramos-Barrado

2006-01-01

275

Performances presented by zinc oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of doping and annealing atmosphere on the performances of zinc oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis have been studied. The results show that the way doping influences the electrical and structural properties depends also on the characteristics of the doping element. Annealing the as-deposited films in an inert atmosphere leads to a substantial reduction in the resistivity

P. Nunes; B Fernandes; E Fortunato; P Vilarinho; R Martins

1999-01-01

276

LASER ABLATION SYNTHESIS OF ZINC OXIDE CLUSTERS: A NEW FAMILY OF FULLERENES?  

E-print Network

1 LASER ABLATION SYNTHESIS OF ZINC OXIDE CLUSTERS: A NEW FAMILY OF FULLERENES? Alexander V stoichiometry were synthesized in the gas phase by excimer ArF laser ablation of a ZnO target and investigatedOm clusters of different stoichiometry in a laser-ablation plasma plume. The effect of ablation conditions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

Vapor-phase growth of transparent zinc oxide ceramics with c -axis orientation  

SciTech Connect

Large transparent specimens of polycrystalline zinc oxide with c-axis orientation have been prepared by the vapor transport method. Optical transmittance is 80% to 90% at 800 nm. X-ray diffraction peaks from faces other than (001) are negligible.

Noritake, F.; Yamamoto, N.; Horiguchi, Y. (Dept. of Research and Development, Lion Corporation, Tokyo, 132 (JP)); Fujitsu, S.; Koumoto, K. (Dept. of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 (JP)); Yanagida, H. (Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo 153 (JP))

1991-01-01

278

The cytotoxic effects of titanium oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles oh Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma cell membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO), inorganic metal oxides nanoparticles (NPs) stems from their ubiquitous applications in personal care products, solar cells and food whitening agents. Hence, these NPs come in direct contact with the skin, digestive tracts and are absorbed into human tissues. Currently, TiO2 and ZnO are considered safe commercial ingredients by the material safety data sheets with no reported evidence of carcinogenicity or ecotoxicity, and do not classify either NP as a toxic substance. This study examined the direct effects of TiO2 and ZnO on HeLa cells, a human cervical adenocarcinonma cell line, and their membrane mechanics. The whole cell patch-clamp technique was used in addition to immunohistochemistry staining, TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Additionally, we examined the effects of dexamethasone (DXM), a glucocorticoid steroid known to have an effect on cell membrane mechanics. Overall, TiO2 and ZnO seemed to have an adverse effect on cell membrane mechanics by effecting cell proliferation, altering cellular structure, decreasing cell-cell adhesion, activating existing ion channels, increasing membrane permeability, and possibly disrupting cell signaling.

Mironava, Tatsiana; Applebaum, Ariella; Applebaum, Eliana; Guterman, Shoshana; Applebaum, Kayla; Grossman, Daniel; Gordon, Chris; Brink, Peter; Wang, H. Z.; Rafailovich, Miriam

2013-03-01

279

The synthesis and photoluminescence of multipod-like zinc oxide whiskers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multipod-like zinc oxide (M-ZnO) whiskers were produced in bulk quantity by the thermal oxidation of metal Zn powders that had been etched by an NiSO4 aqueous solution. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis investigations showed that the M-ZnO whiskers had pure hexagonal structure with several needle-like legs united at a common junction. A weak photoluminescence emission

Tao Gao; Yanhong Huang; Taihong Wang

2004-01-01

280

Aging in chemically prepared divalent silver oxide electrodes for silver\\/zinc reserve batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The instability of silver(II) oxide electrodes used in silver\\/zinc reserve batteries is the well known cause of capacity loss and delayed activation in reserve batteries after they are stored in the dry, unactivated state for extended periods of time. Metal contaminants in sintered\\/electroformed electrodes destabilize the oxide and the solid state reaction between AgO and elemental silver results in the

David F. Smith; Curtis Brown

2001-01-01

281

Nanocrystalline zinc oxide: Pyrolytic synthesis and spectroscopic characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocrystalline and microcrystalline ZnO powders are synthesized by the pyrolysis of organic zinc salts in the presence of a reducing catalyst represented by a porous cellulose carrier. The specimens obtained are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, energy dispersive analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and pulse cathodoluminescence. Lasing characteristics of the specimens are studied. The synthesis conditions, under which specimens with the crystallite morphology optimal for a low-threshold lasing are obtained, are found.

Demyanets, L. N.; Li, L. E.; Lavrikov, A. S.; Nikitin, S. V.

2010-01-01

282

Zinc Oxide Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

ZnO thin films were deposited by spraying of zinc acetate solution onto heated glass substrates at 670K. Highly textured in the (002) direction undoped ZnO films, exhibiting exciton emission bands in photoluminescence spectra at 8K, were grown. The initial stages of the thin film growth and effect of doping with In, Ce and Eu were studied. A spraying time of

K. Krunks; O. Bijakina; V. Mikli; T. Varema; E. Mellikov

1999-01-01

283

Octadecanethiol Island Formation on Single Crystal Zinc Oxide Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic photovoltaic devices, containing ZnO nanorod electron acceptor arrays intercalated with organic polymers, could lead to low-cost solar cells. Surface modifications of ZnO with octadecanethiol (ODT) monolayers have been shown to improve charge transfer in such devices. The present work is an effort to understand these monolayers through studies of ODT on single crystals of ZnO with well-defined oxygen-terminated or zinc-terminated surfaces. Both bare and ODT- functionalized surfaces were characterized with atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurements. ODT seemed to form islands of multilayers on zinc-terminated surfaces and islands of monolayers on oxygen- terminated surfaces. While ODT was expected to preferentially bond along defects and terraces on oxygen-terminated surfaces, this was not observed. ODT was also expected to more effectively bond to the zinc-terminated surface, which was observed. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Division of Materials Research DMR-0606054, DMR-0907409, and the Renewable Energy Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at the Colorado School of Mines.

Yocom, Andrea; Collins, Reuben; Furtak, Thomas; Baker, Darick; Ohno, Timothy

2010-03-01

284

Effect of solvents on the synthesis of nano-size zinc oxide and its properties  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the solvents on particle size and morphology of ZnO is investigated. The optical properties of nano ZnO were studied extensively. During this study, zinc oxalate was prepared in aqueous and organic solvents using zinc acetate and oxalic acid as precursors. The thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA) showed formation of ZnO at 400 deg. C. Nano-size zinc oxide was obtained by thermal decomposition of aqueous and organic mediated zinc oxalate at 450 deg. C. The phase purity was confirmed by XRD and crystal size determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was found to be 22-25 nm for the aqueous and 14 -17 nm in organic mediated ZnO. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) also revealed different nature of surfaces and microstructures for zinc oxide obtained in aqueous and organic solvents. The UV absorption spectra showed sharp absorption peaks with a blue shift for organic mediated ZnO, due to monodispersity and lower particle size. Sharp peaks and absence of any impurity peaks in photoluminescence spectra (PLS) complement the above observations.

Kanade, K.G. [Department of Chemistry, Mahatma Phule College, Pimpri, Pune 411017 (India); Kale, B.B. [Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), Department of Information Technology, Govt. of India, Panchawati, Off Pashan Road, Pune 411008 (India)]. E-mail: kbbb1@yahoo.com; Aiyer, R.C. [Department of Physics, Pune University, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Das, B.K. [Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), Department of Information Technology, Govt. of India, Panchawati, Off Pashan Road, Pune 411008 (India)

2006-03-09

285

Oxidation of zinc-thiolate complexes of biological interest by hydrogen peroxide: a theoretical study.  

PubMed

Zinc-thiolate complexes play a major structural and functional role in the living cell. Their stability is directly related to the thiolate reactivity toward reactive oxygen species naturally present in the cell. Oxidation of some zinc-thiolate complexes has a functional role, as is the case of zinc finger redox switches. Herein, we report a theoretical investigation on the oxidation of thiolate by hydrogen peroxide in zinc finger cores of CCCC, CCHC, and CCHH kinds containing either cysteine or histidine residues. In the case of the CCCC core, the calculated energy barrier for the oxidation to sulfenate of the complexed thiolate was found to be 16.0 kcal mol(-1), which is 2 kcal mol(-1) higher than that for the free thiolate. The energy barrier increases to 19.3 and 22.2 kcal mol(-1) for the monoprotonated and diprotonated CCCC cores, respectively. Substitution of cysteine by histidine also induces an increase in the magnitude of the reaction energy barrier: It becomes 20.0 and 20.9 kcal mol(-1) for the CCCH and CCHH cores, respectively. It is concluded that the energy barrier for the oxidation of zinc fingers is strictly dependent on the type of ligands coordinated to zinc and on the protonation state of the complex. These changes in the thiolate reactivity can be explained by the lowering of the nucleophilicity of complexed sulfur and by the internal reorganization of the complex (changes in the metal-ligand distances) upon oxidation. The next reaction steps subsequent to sulfenate formation are also considered. The oxidized thiolate (sulfenate) is predicted to dissociate very fast: For all complexes, the calculated dissociation energy barrier is lower than 3 kcal mol(-1). It is also shown that the dissociated sulfenic acid can interact with a free thiolate to form a sulfur-sulfur (SS) bridge in a reaction that is predicted to be quasi-diffusion limited. The interesting biological consequences of the modulation of thiolate reactivity by the chemical composition of the zinc finger cores are discussed. PMID:21598974

Kassim, Rima; Ramseyer, Christophe; Enescu, Mironel

2011-06-20

286

Extracellular zinc competitively inhibits manganese uptake and compromises oxidative stress management in Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pneumoniae requires manganese for colonization of the human host, but the underlying molecular basis for this requirement has not been elucidated. Recently, it was shown that zinc could compromise manganese uptake and that zinc levels increased during infection by S. pneumoniae in all the niches that it colonized. Here we show, by quantitative means, that extracellular zinc acts in a dose dependent manner to competitively inhibit manganese uptake by S. pneumoniae, with an EC50 of 30.2 µM for zinc in cation-defined media. By exploiting the ability to directly manipulate S. pneumoniae accumulation of manganese, we analyzed the connection between manganese and superoxide dismutase (SodA), a primary source of protection for S. pneumoniae against oxidative stress. We show that manganese starvation led to a decrease in sodA transcription indicating that expression of sodA was regulated through an unknown manganese responsive pathway. Intriguingly, examination of recombinant SodA revealed that the enzyme was potentially a cambialistic superoxide dismutase with an iron/manganese cofactor. SodA was also shown to provide the majority of protection against oxidative stress as a S. pneumoniae ?sodA mutant strain was found to be hypersensitive to oxidative stress, despite having wild-type manganese levels, indicating that the metal ion alone was not sufficiently protective. Collectively, these results provide a quantitative assessment of the competitive effect of zinc upon manganese uptake and provide a molecular basis for how extracellular zinc exerts a 'toxic' effect on bacterial pathogens, such as S. pneumoniae. PMID:24558498

Eijkelkamp, Bart A; Morey, Jacqueline R; Ween, Miranda P; Ong, Cheryl-lynn Y; McEwan, Alastair G; Paton, James C; McDevitt, Christopher A

2014-01-01

287

Surface morphology and electrical transport of rapid thermal annealed chromium-doped indium zinc oxides: The influence of zinc interstitials and out-diffusion  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the complex impedance (CI) spectra of chromium-doped indium zinc oxide (CIZO) films with different rapid thermal annealing (RTA) temperatures. The CI spectra drawn from the impedance contributions of Zn-O and In-O bondings in CIZO films were analyzed by two sets of parallel resistance and capacitance components in series. The result demonstrates that zinc interstitials controls electron concentration and transition of electrical transport from semiconducting to metallic. At higher RTA temperature, high-density zinc interstitial promotes Zn atom diffusion from the surface, modifying surface morphology.

Hsu, C. Y., E-mail: cyhsu00@gmail.com [Physics Department, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China)

2013-12-09

288

Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films as transparent conductive electrode for organic light-emitting devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly transparent conductive, aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) films were deposited on glass substrates by midfrequency magnetron sputtering of metallic aluminum-doped zinc target. ZnO:Al films with surface work functions between 3.7 and 4.4 eV were obtained by varying the sputtering conditions. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated on these ZnO:Al films. A current efficiency of higher than 3.7 cd\\/A, was achieved.

X. Jiang; F. L. Wong; M. K. Fung; S. T. Lee

2003-01-01

289

Structural and Optical Properties of Nanostructured Zinc Oxide Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis and Ethanol Sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycrystalline Zinc Oxide thin films were deposited on a glass substrate by Spray Pyrolysis technique using zinc acetate dehydrate precursor at 220?C substrate temperature. The concentration of the solution was 0.05 M, the deposited films are annealed at 300?C temperature in air atmosphere. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows that the films are in the hexagonal Wurtzite phase with preferential orientation (002) along the c-axis. It confirms polycrystalline nature and grain size is 14.666 nm. Scanning Electron Microscope images reveals that the surface of the films are flat and smooth, spherical and wheat in shape and grain size is about 30- 50 nm. Optical spectrum shows that the films are having high transmittance and low absorption in the visible region. Ultra violet-visible spectra shown that the optical energy gaps for ZnO films were estimated in the range 3.25 and 3.31 eV. It confirms zinc oxide thin films are semiconductors with wide band gap energy. The applications of zinc oxide thin films are sensing towards various concentrations of ethanol at an operating temperature of 100 °C. It shows that the resistance increases with increasing the concentration of Ethanol gas.

Charles, J.; Lawrence, N.; Thiruvenkadam, S.

290

Effects of Zinc Supplementation on Plasma Copper/Zinc Ratios, Oxidative Stress, and Immunological Status in Hemodialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) have low plasma levels of zinc (Zn), high plasma levels of copper (Cu), and exhibit increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune abnormalities. We evaluated the effects of Zn supplementation on abnormal plasma Cu/Zn ratios and clinical outcomes in HD patients. Design and Methods: Patients on long-term HD with lower than normal plasma concentrations of Zn (< 80 mg/dL) were randomized to receive daily oral Zn supplements (n = 40) or no supplements (n = 25) for eight weeks. Age- and sex-matched healthy individuals served as a control group (n = 38). A number of clinical parameters were measured before and after the supplementation period. Results: Compared with healthy subjects, patients had significantly elevated plasma Cu concentrations and Cu/Zn ratios, as well as higher levels of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Patients who received Zn supplements for eight weeks had higher plasma concentrations of Zn and lower concentrations of Cu, along with reduced Cu/Zn ratios, oxidative stress status, and inflammatory responses compared to patients who did not receive Zn. Patients receiving Zn also showed significantly higher percentages of CD4 and CD19 lymphocytes, and elevated CD4/CD8 ratios. Conclusions: Zn supplementation ameliorates abnormally high plasma Cu/Zn ratios and may reduce oxidative stress, improve inflammatory status, and maintain immune function in patients undergoing long-term HD. PMID:23289009

Guo, Chih-Hung; Wang, Chia-Liang

2013-01-01

291

Efficient inverted polymer solar cells based on conjugated polyelectrolyte and zinc oxide modified ITO electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) were constructed by utilizing a conjugated polyelectrolyte PFEOSO3Na and zinc oxide to modify the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. The ITO electrode modified by PFEOSO3Na and zinc oxide possesses high transparency, increased electron mobility, smoothened surface, and lower work function. PTB7:PC71BM inverted PSCs containing the modified ITO electrode achieved a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.49%, exceeding that of the control device containing a ZnO modified ITO electrode (7.48%). Especially, PCE-10:PC71BM inverted polymer solar cells achieved a high PCE up to 9.4%. These results demonstrate a useful approach to improve the performance of inverted polymer solar cells.

Yuan, Tao; Zhu, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Lingyu; Zhang, Jian; Tu, Guoli

2015-02-01

292

Effects of Li and Cu dopants on structural properties of zinc oxide nanorods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We fabricated undoped zinc oxide (ZnO), Li-doped zinc oxide (LZO), and Cu-doped zinc oxide (CZO) nanorods (NRs) on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates using chemical solution deposition and investigated their structural properties. With the incorporation of the Li dopant, the length and crystallinity of LZO NRs increased and improved, respectively, compared to that of the ZnO NRs. The average optical transmittance of LZO NRs was slightly lower than that of the ZnO NRs, but otherwise very similar over the visible wavelength region. With the incorporation of the Cu dopant, however, the morphology of the CZO sample was remarkably different from that of the pure ZnO NRs. Rods with a length of ?12 ?m and a diameter of 0.5-1.2 ?m were randomly oriented on the substrate, and copper oxide (CuO) nanocrystals were uniformly grown on the surface of substrate. This paper presents a simple way to tune the growth behaviors of the ZnO NRs by adding dopants.

Kim, Kyung Ho; Jin, Zhuguang; Abe, Yoshio; Kawamura, Midori

2015-01-01

293

Structural Properties of Ultrasonically Sprayed Al-Doped ZnO (AZO) Thin Films: Effect of ZnO Buffer Layer on AZO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transparent aluminium-doped ZnO (AZO)-conducting oxide films were deposited on a glass substrate, using an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) system at 475°C. We investigated the effects of the Al/Zn atomic ratios on the structural properties of the AZO films. All the deposited AZO thin films presented hexagonal wurtzite structure. As Al doping increased in the film, the preferential orientation switched from [002] to [101], and crystallite sizes varied from 31.90 nm to 34.5 nm. Field emission scanning electron microscopy showed a change in the surface morphology of the AZO films with respect to the Al/Zn ratio, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy showed that the amount of Al incorporated into the films was proportional to the concentration of the starting solution. A fast Fourier transform of the AZO film measurements confirmed the presence of (100), (102), and (200) reflections, corresponding to a wurtzite structure of the AZO thin films. The plane corresponding to AZO was simulated, and matched the experimental pattern obtained from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. An un-doped ZnO layer was deposited onto the AZO film using USP at 400°C, and a bilayer of AZO/ZnO was annealed in vacuum for 20 min at 350°C. The resistivity of these bilayer films was lower than that of a single-layered AZO film, and it further decreased by vacuum annealing.

Babu, B. J.; Velumani, S.; Arenas-Alatorre, J.; Kassiba, A.; Chavez, Jose; Park, Hyeonsik; Hussain, Shahzada Qamar; Yi, Junsin; Asomoza, R.

2015-02-01

294

Magnetic Mn substituted cobalt zinc ferrite systems: Structural, electrical and magnetic properties and their role in photo-catalytic degradation of methyl orange azo dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work focuses on the effect of replacement of Fe3+ ions by the Mn3+ ions in cobalt zinc ferrites (Co0.6Zn0.4MnxFe2-xO4 (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) on the structural, magnetic, electrical and catalytic properties. Powder X-ray diffraction studies confirmed that all the samples possessed cubic spinel structure with Fd-3m space groups. The saturation magnetization was found to decrease with increase in Mn3+ ions concentration. The drift mobility of all compositions was found to decrease with increase in temperature which could be attributed to the semiconductor nature of nanoferrites. The photo-catalytic activity of all the nanoferrites was evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange dye and it was observed that the degradation of methyl orange dye was enhanced with increase in Mn3+ ions concentration from 0.2 to 1.0. This might be due to the octahedral site preference and higher redox potential of manganese ion as compared those of iron.

Bhukal, Santosh; Bansal, S.; Singhal, Sonal

2014-07-01

295

Evaluation of growth and biochemical indicators of Salvinia natans exposed to zinc oxide nanoparticles and zinc accumulation in plants.  

PubMed

The adverse effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) with an average diameter of 25 nm on the aquatic plant Salvinia natans (L.) All. were determined. Growth, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, peroxidase activity, and chlorophyll content of the plants were measured after 7 days of exposure to different concentrations of ZnO NPs (1 to 50 mg L(-1)). The particle distribution in the culture medium (without plants) during the first 24 h was determined using a Nanotrac 250 particle analyzer. We also investigated the zinc accumulation in leaves and roots of the plant after 7 days of exposure. Exposure to 50 mg L(-1) ZnO NPs significantly increased SOD and CAT activities (P??0.05). NPs completely precipitated at the bottom of the container at 8 h except for the portions of dissolution and aggregation on the roots. ZnO NPs at a concentration of 50 mg L(-1) can adversely affect S. natans, and their stress is affected by their aggregation and dissolution. PMID:23860598

Hu, Changwei; Liu, Xu; Li, Xiuling; Zhao, Yongjun

2014-01-01

296

Morphologies of zinc oxide particles and their effects on photocatalysis.  

PubMed

ZnO powders with different morphologies were synthesized by alkali precipitation, organo-zinc hydrolysis, and spray pyrolysis. Acetaldehyde decomposition was used as a probe reaction to evaluate the photocatalysis of these ZnO powders. We investigated the relationship between photocatalytic activity and crystallinity, surface area, or morphology. Results indicate that the photocatalytic activity of ZnO powder depends on crystallinity rather than surface area for the same original ZnO powders prepared by equal conditions other than the difference in calcination temperature. However, no direct relationship between photocatalytic activity and crystallinity or surface area was found for the differently original ZnO powders prepared by different methods, or the same method with different conditions. Instead, we find that the particle morphology significantly affects its photocatalysis. PMID:12586145

Li, Di; Haneda, Hajime

2003-04-01

297

Gills are an initial target of zinc oxide nanoparticles in oysters Crassostrea gigas, leading to mitochondrial disruption and oxidative stress.  

PubMed

The increasing industrial use of nanomaterials during the last decades poses a potential threat to the environment and in particular to organisms living in the aquatic environment. In the present study, the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) was investigated in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. The nanoscale of ZnONP, in vehicle or ultrapure water, was confirmed, presenting an average size ranging from 28 to 88 nm. In seawater, aggregation was detected by TEM and DLS analysis, with an increased average size ranging from 1 to 2 ?m. Soluble or nanoparticulated zinc presented similar toxicity, displaying a LC50 (96 h) around 30 mg/L. High zinc dissociation from ZnONP, releasing ionic zinc in seawater, is a potential route for zinc assimilation and ZnONP toxicity. To investigate mechanisms of toxicity, oysters were treated with 4 mg/L ZnONP for 6, 24 or 48 h. ZnONP accumulated in gills (24 and 48 h) and digestive glands (48 h). Ultrastructural analysis of gills revealed electron-dense vesicles near the cell membrane and loss of mitochondrial cristae (6 h). Swollen mitochondria and a more conspicuous loss of mitochondrial cristae were observed after 24 h. Mitochondria with disrupted membranes and an increased number of cytosolic vesicles displaying electron-dense material were observed 48 h post exposure. Digestive gland showed similar changes, but these were delayed relative to gills. ZnONP exposure did not greatly affect thiol homeostasis (reduced and oxidized glutathione) or immunological parameters (phagocytosis, hemocyte viability and activation and total hemocyte count). At 24 h post exposure, decreased (-29%) glutathione reductase (GR) activity was observed in gills, but other biochemical responses were observed only after 48 h of exposure: lower GR activity (-28%) and levels of protein thiols (-21%), increased index of lipid peroxidation (+49%) and GPx activity (+26%). In accordance with ultrastructural changes and zinc load, digestive gland showed delayed biochemical responses. Except for a decreased GR activity (-47%) at 48 h post exposure, the biochemical alterations seen in gills were not present in digestive gland. The results indicate that gills are able to incorporate zinc prior (24 h) to digestive gland (48 h), leading to earlier mitochondrial disruption and oxidative stress. Our data suggest that gills are the initial target of ZnONP and that mitochondria are organelles particularly susceptible to ZnONP in C. gigas. PMID:24745718

Trevisan, Rafael; Delapedra, Gabriel; Mello, Danielle F; Arl, Miriam; Schmidt, Éder C; Meder, Fabian; Monopoli, Marco; Cargnin-Ferreira, Eduardo; Bouzon, Zenilda L; Fisher, Andrew S; Sheehan, David; Dafre, Alcir L

2014-08-01

298

The histopathology of rat lung following exposure to zinc oxide/hexachloroethane smoke or installation with zinc chloride followed by treatment with 70% oxygen.  

PubMed Central

The effects of inhaled zinc oxide/hexachloroethane smoke (11,580 mg x min/m3) and intratracheally instilled zinc chloride (2.5 mg/kg body weight) have been studied in rat lung. The effects of subsequent treatment with 70% oxygen have been studied after both procedures. Both the inhalation of the smoke and instillation of zinc chloride produced similar effects that included pulmonary edema, alveolitis and, at a later stage, some fibrosis. After zinc chloride instillation, the pathological changes largely spared the periphery of the lung, while following smoke inhalation they were more diffuse. Subsequent oxygen administration had little effect on the development or progression of the pathological changes. Images FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. PMID:2384070

Brown, R F; Marrs, T C; Rice, P; Masek, L C

1990-01-01

299

Carbon-Incorporated Amorphous Indium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose the use of amorphous-carbon indium zinc oxide (a-CIZO) as a channel material for thin-film transistor (TFT) fabrication. This study chose a carbon dopant as a carrier suppressor and strong oxygen binder in amorphous-indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) channel material. a-CIZO thin films were deposited using radiofrequency (RF) sputtering and postannealed at 150°C. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that the film remained amorphous even after postannealing. The a-CIZO TFT postannealed at 150°C exhibited saturation field-effect mobility of 16.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 and on-off current ratio of ˜4.3 × 107.

Parthiban, S.; Park, K.; Kim, H.-J.; Yang, S.; Kwon, J.-Y.

2014-11-01

300

Inductively coupled plasma etching of hafnium-indium-zinc oxide using chlorine based gas mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the etching characteristics of a stacked hafnium-indium-zinc oxide (HIZO) with a photoresist using the gas mixture of chlorine and argon (Cl2/Ar). The etching behaviors of HIZO have been investigated in terms of a source power, a bias power and a chamber pressure. As the concentration of Cl2 was increased compared to pure Ar, the etch rate of HIZO film was found slightly different from that of indium-zinc oxide (IZO) film. Moreover, to investigate the etching mechanism systematically, various inspections were carried out such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depending on the portion of Cl2. Additionally, we compared the etching mechanism of HIZO film with IZO film to confirm the difference of chemical bonds caused by the influence of hafnium doping.

Choi, Yong-Hee; Jang, Ho-Kyun; Jin, Jun-Eon; Joo, Min-Kyu; Piao, Mingxing; Shin, Jong Mok; Kim, Jae-Sung; Na, Junhong; Kim, Gyu Tae

2014-04-01

301

Conjugated phosphonic acid modified zinc oxide electron transport layers for improved performance in organic solar cells.  

PubMed

Phosphonic acid modification of zinc oxide (ZnO) electron transport layers in inverted P3HT:ICBA solar cells was studied to determine the effect of conjugated linkages between the aromatic and phosphonic acid attachment groups. For example, zinc oxide treated with 2,6-difluorophenylvinylphosphonic acid, having a conjugated vinyl group connecting the aromatic moiety to the phosphonic acid group, showed a 0.78 eV decrease in the effective work function versus unmodified ZnO, whereas nonconjugated 2,6-difluorophenylethylphosphonic acid resulted in a 0.57 eV decrease, as measured by Kelvin probe. This resulted in an average power conversion efficiency of 5.89% for conjugated 2,6-difluorophenyvinylphosphonic acid modified solar cells, an improvement over unmodified (5.24%) and nonconjugated phosphonic acid modified devices (5.64%), indicating the importance of the conjugated linkage. PMID:25329245

Braid, Jennifer L; Koldemir, Unsal; Sellinger, Alan; Collins, Reuben T; Furtak, Thomas E; Olson, Dana C

2014-11-12

302

Synthesis and dielectric properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles using a biotemplate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc Oxide nanoparticles are synthesized using DNA as capping agent. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are synthesized using DNA as a capping agent. Structural and morphological characterizations are done using SEM, FTIR and XRD. The particle size and lattice parameters are calculated from the diffraction data. The optical properties are studied using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and bandgap variation with temperature is determined. The dielectric property of nanoparticles is studied by varying temperature and frequency. The dielectric constant and dispersion parameters are found out. Method of Cole-Cole analysis is used to study the high temperature dispersion of relaxation time. The variation of both AC and DC conductivity are studied and activation energy calculated.

P, Sharmila P.; Tharayil, Nisha J.

2014-10-01

303

Synthesis and dielectric properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles using a biotemplate  

SciTech Connect

Zinc Oxide nanoparticles are synthesized using DNA as capping agent. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are synthesized using DNA as a capping agent. Structural and morphological characterizations are done using SEM, FTIR and XRD. The particle size and lattice parameters are calculated from the diffraction data. The optical properties are studied using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and bandgap variation with temperature is determined. The dielectric property of nanoparticles is studied by varying temperature and frequency. The dielectric constant and dispersion parameters are found out. Method of Cole-Cole analysis is used to study the high temperature dispersion of relaxation time. The variation of both AC and DC conductivity are studied and activation energy calculated.

P, Sharmila P, E-mail: sharmilavishram@gmail.com [Sree Narayana College, Kollam, Kerala, India and T.K Madhva Memorial College, Nangiarkulungara, Alapuzha, Kerala (India); Tharayil, Nisha J., E-mail: nishajohntharayil@gmail.com [Sree Narayana College for Women Kollam, Kerala (India)

2014-10-15

304

Tribology of tungsten disulfide–nanocrystalline zinc oxide adaptive lubricant films from ambient to 500°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tungsten disulfide (WS2)–zinc oxide (ZnO) composite is a candidate material that exhibits adaptive lubricant behavior. Adaptive lubricants undergo chemical changes with changing environment to provide lubrication in extreme environments. In the current study, the tribological characteristics of WS2–nanocrystalline ZnO films have been investigated from ambient to 500°C. The composite films were powder burnished on inconel substrates. Using a ball-on-flat tribometer,

S. V Prasad; N. T McDevitt; J. S Zabinski

2000-01-01

305

FTIR spectroscopy of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane adsorbed and co-adsorbed on zinc oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of dihydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane, and co-adsorption of H2\\/CO, H2\\/CH4 and CO\\/CH4 on zinc oxide was studied by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Besides the already known dissociation of dihydrogen and molecular adsorption of CO, methane was found to be adsorbed molecularly on coordinatively unsaturated Zn2+ ions. Adsorption lowers the CH4 symmetry from Td to C3v, which

D. Scarano; S Bertarione; G Spoto; A Zecchina; C Otero Areán

2001-01-01

306

Zinc(II) oxide solubility and phase behavior in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility is used to investigate the solubility\\/phase behavior of zinc(II) oxide in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at temperatures between 17 and 287°C. ZnO solubilities are observed to increase continuously with temperature and phosphate concentration. At higher phosphate concentrations, a solid phase transformation to NaZnPO4 is observed. NaZnPO4 solubilities are retrograde with temperature. The measured solubility behavior

S. E. Ziemniak; M. E. Jones; K. E. S. Combs

1992-01-01

307

Room-temperature fabrication of highly transparent conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room temperature fabricated aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) films were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering under pure Ar ambient. By investigating and controlling the sputtering parameters, such as relative position between target and substrate, and working pressure, high quality ZnO:Al films were obtained. Even without substrate heating during deposition or post annealing process, we were able to fabricate ZnO:Al films on

C. H. Chen; Y. C. Chen; S. F. Hong; C. L. Wang; W. C. Shih; C. P. Tsai; Y. C. Wu; C. H. Lai; C. N. Wei; H. Y. Bor

2010-01-01

308

Substrate effect on mechanical characterizations of aluminum-doped zinc oxide transparent conducting films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurements of thin-film mechanical properties are generally influenced by the elastic and plastic responses of substrates and consequently may be inaccurate. Thus in this study, the effects of three different substrates, including sapphire, glass and polyimide, on the mechanical characterizations of aluminum-doped zinc oxide transparent conducting films are evaluated. From nanoindentation tests, it was found that a high film\\/substrate

Yi-Chung Huang; Shou-Yi Chang

2010-01-01

309

The influence of oxygen on the optical properties of RF-sputtered zinc oxide thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we investigate the effects of oxygen partial pressure in the deposition chamber on the optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films; in particular, we examine the variation of the refractive index with oxygen flux.ZnO thin films were deposited by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). We

M. Gioffre; M. Angeloni; M. Gagliardi; M. Iodice; G. Coppola; C. Aruta; F. G. Della Corte

2007-01-01

310

Highly stable transparent and conducting gallium-doped zinc oxide thin films for photovoltaic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transparent and highly conducting gallium zinc oxide (GZO) films were successfully deposited by RF sputtering at room temperature. A lowest resistivity of ?2.8×10?4?cm was achieved for a film thickness of 1100nm (sheet resistance ?2.5?\\/?), with a Hall mobility of 18cm2\\/Vs and a carrier concentration of 1.3×1021cm?3. The films are polycrystalline with a hexagonal structure having a strong crystallographic c-axis orientation.

E. Fortunato; L. Raniero; L. Silva; A. Gonçalves; A. Pimentel; P. Barquinha; H. Águas; L. Pereira; G. Gonçalves; I. Ferreira; E. Elangovan; R. Martins

2008-01-01

311

Transparent and conductive aluminum doped zinc oxide films prepared by mid-frequency reactive magnetron sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, aluminum doped zinc oxide films were prepared by reactive mid-frequency (MF) magnetron sputtering (Leybold TwinMagTM) at deposition rate of approx. 9 nm\\/s and substrate temperature of 100 to 300°C. Process stabilization in the metallic mode was performed by the control of plasma impedance due to adjustment of oxygen flow. Metallic Zn:Al targets with different aluminum content were

B. Szyszka

1999-01-01

312

Effects of an Electrically Conducting Layer at the Zinc Oxide Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the electrical properties of high-resistivity zinc oxide (ZnO) are strongly influenced by the sample ambient. Temperature-dependent Hall-effect measurements were performed on Li- and Cu-doped bulk crystals in both air and vacuum. Repeating the measurements under a given test ambient produced stable results. Changing the ambient systematically changed the measured results. We explain this behavior in terms of a

Oliver Schmidt; Peter Kiesel; Chris G. Van de Walle; Noble M. Johnson; Jeff Nause; Gottfried H. Döhler

2005-01-01

313

Analysis of a conducting channel at the native zinc oxide surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical properties of high-resistivity zinc oxide (ZnO) bulk and epi-samples are strongly influenced by the sample ambient. Bulk samples that are highly resistive in ambient air can be reversibly transformed into a high conducting state under vacuum. As an explanation we suggest a conducting electron channel at the ZnO surface. Under vacuum this channel appears upon annealing. Exposure to

Oliver Schmidt; Arnd Geis; Peter Kiesel; Chris. G. Van de Walle; Noble M. Johnson; Andrey Bakin; Andreas Waag; Gottfried H. Döhler

2006-01-01

314

Studies on the mutagenicity of a zinc oxide-hexachloroethane smoke.  

PubMed

1. A suitable method has been developed for generating atmospheres of zinc oxide/hexachloroethane smoke (ZnHCE). 2. The smoke was investigated using the Ames test and the micronucleus assay. 3. It was weakly mutagenic to the bacteria, but in the bone marrow no increases in micronuclei were detected up to toxic levels of the smoke. 4. The method used here could be applied to other pyrotechnic mixtures which give rise to complex mixtures of products. PMID:1673625

Clode, S A; Riley, R A; Blowers, S D; Marrs, T C; Anderson, D

1991-01-01

315

Studies on the antistatic mechanism of tetrapod-shaped zinc oxide whisker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antistatic composites of polyurethane, polyvinyl and natural rubber with the electrical resistivity of 106–1010?cm were prepared using tetrapod-shaped zinc oxide whisker as the conducting additives. The conductive behavior of this system has been analyzed and the results show that the tetrapod-shaped ZnO whisker is an effective antistatic additive for polymer materials. A formula of critical volume fraction of ZnO whisker

Zuowan Zhou; Longsheng Chu; Wenming Tang; Lixia Gu

2003-01-01

316

Impact of Al doping on microstructure and optical characteristics of tetrapod-like zinc oxide whiskers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al-doped tetrapod-like zinc oxide whiskers with different Al dopant concentration (0.3˜1.0 mol%) were prepared by solid state reaction method using T-ZnOw and AlCl3 powder as raw materials. X-ray diffraction and SEM microscopy were applied to characterize the structure and surface morphology of the T-ZnOw. The shift of diffraction peaks of ZnO towards high angle indicated the increase of Al-doping concentration.

X. M. Fan; L. Zhao; Z. W. Zhou; H. G. Zhang; J. Wang

2010-01-01

317

Comparison of tribological behavior of nylon composites filled with zinc oxide particles and whiskers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical properties and tribological behavior of nylon composites filled with zinc oxides were investigated in this paper. Different effects of ZnO particles and ZnO whiskers filling on the friction and wear behavior of nylon 1010 (PA1010) composites under dry friction condition were observed. The hardness, tensile strength and scratch coefficients of two kinds of nylon composites filled with the ZnO

Shibo Wang; Shirong Ge; Dekun Zhang

2009-01-01

318

Mechanical properties and morphology of nylon 11\\/tetrapod-shaped zinc oxide whisker composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nylon 11\\/tetrapod-shaped zinc oxide whisker (T-ZnOw) composites were prepared via melt blending in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. The mechanical properties, morphology and crystal structure were investigated. The tensile strength was increased by 15.7% as adding of 15phr T-ZnOw, while the optimum values of room temperature and low temperature (?40°C) notched Izod impact strength was increased by 281% and 65% as

Guosheng Hu; Yalin Ma; Biaobing Wang

2009-01-01

319

Effect of zinc oxide on flame retardant finishing of plasma pre-treated cotton fabric  

Microsoft Academic Search

An organic phosphorus compound (flame retardant agent, FR) in combination with a melamine resin (crosslinking agent, CL),\\u000a phosphoric acid (catalyst, PA) and zinc oxide (co-catalyst, ZnO\\/nano-ZnO) imparted effective and durable flame retardant properties.\\u000a Also, atmospheric pressure plasma jet was applied as pre-treatment to improve post-finishing (flame retardant finishing) on\\u000a cotton fabrics. In the present paper, surface morphology, chemical structure analysis,

Y. L. Lam; C. W. Kan; C. W. M. Yuen

2011-01-01

320

Zinc oxide nanowires in chemical bath on seeded substrates: Role of hexamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a study of the role of hexamine in the seeded growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires by hydrothermal route. We show\\u000a that the growth can be made highly anisotropic (aspect ratio >150) with almost no detectable increase in diameter (with time\\u000a of hydrothermal growth) of the obtained nanowires. Results indicate that hexamine acts as a shape inducing molecule,

Abhilash Sugunan; Hemant C. Warad; Mats Boman; Joydeep Dutta

2006-01-01

321

Production and characterization of zinc oxide thin films for room temperature ozone sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The room temperature ozone sensing properties of polycrystalline undoped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been investigated. ZnO thin films have been produced by the d.c. and r.f. magnetron sputtering technique as well as with spray pyrolysis with a variety of parameters. The as-grown films were brought to a high conducting state through a reversible photoreduction process by UV light

M. Bender; E. Gagaoudakis; E. Douloufakis; E. Natsakou; N. Katsarakis; V. Cimalla; G. Kiriakidis; E. Fortunato; P. Nunes; A. Marques; R Martins

2002-01-01

322

Photoluminescence characteristics of zinc oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photoluminescence characteristics of zinc oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique were studied as a function of the substrate temperature, film thickness, and post heat treatment. The ZnO films with the (002) plane oriented wurtzite structure were formed in the temperature range 250–350°C and post heat treatment did not affect the crystal structure of the films. It was observed

Ki Hyun Yoon; Joon Yeob Cho

2000-01-01

323

Low temperature growth and photoluminescence of well-aligned zinc oxide nanowires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well-aligned single-crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires with high density were successfully synthesized on nickel monoxide (NiO) catalyzed alumina substrate through a simple metal–vapor deposition method at an extremely low temperature (450 °C). The single-crystalline ZnO nanowires had a hexagonal wurzite structure and diameters of about 55 nm, and lengths up to 2.6 ?m. The photoluminescence spectra under excitation 325 nm

Seung Chul Lyu; Ye Zhang; Hyun Ruh; Hwack-Joo Lee; Hyun-Wook Shim; Eun-Kyung Suh; Cheol Jin Lee

2002-01-01

324

Resistive Switching Characteristics of Sol–Gel Zinc Oxide Films for Flexible Memory Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unipolar resistive switching devices are investigated for nonvolatile memory applications in a metal-insulator-metal structure in which the insulator layer is based on sol-gel-derived zinc oxide (ZnO) films prepared by a simple spin-coating process followed by thermal annealing. Fast programming ( les 50 ns) and a high off-to-on resistance ratio ( ges 104) is demonstrated. The influences on the switching behaviors

Sungho Kim; Hanul Moon; Dipti Gupta; Seunghyup Yoo; Yang-Kyu Choi

2009-01-01

325

Stimulatory effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on visual sensitivity and electroretinography b-waves in the bullfrog eye.  

PubMed

During the last decade, a large number of studies have focused on the development of nanomaterials for medical applications. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the stimulatory effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles in the vertebrate visual system. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized through photoluminescence, ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. Furthermore, various electrophysiological recordings were obtained from the bullfrog eyecup preparations under various treatment conditions. Photoluminescence data showed a central peak at 386 nm while the UV-visible spectrum showed a sharp absorption band centered around 367 nm. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements showed that synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles have a polycrystalline wurtzite structure, with a round to oval shape and an average particle size of > 40 nm. Electroretinography (ERG) demonstrated that zinc oxide nanoparticles significantly increased the ERG b-wave amplitude in dark-adapted bullfrog eyecups and in the presence of background illumination. Zinc oxide nanoparticles also improved the visual sensitivity by 0.7 log unit of light intensity and shortened the duration of rhodopsin regeneration. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that zinc oxide nanoparticles may be used to improve visual functions. The present study may add new dimensions to the biomedical applications of nanomaterials in eye research. PMID:23926809

Wahid, Fazli; Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Khan, Romana; Khan, Taous; Khattak, Waleed Ahmad; Hwang, Kyung-Hee; Park, Jong Seok; Chang, Su-Chan; Kim, You Young

2013-08-01

326

Bacillus cereus as a biotemplating agent for the synthesis of zinc oxide with raspberry- and plate-like structures.  

PubMed

Currently the development of green chemistry approach with the use of biomaterial-based activities of microbial cells in the synthesis of various nanostructures has attracted a great attention. In this study, we report on the use of bacterium, Bacillus cereus as a biotemplating agent for the formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles with raspberry- and plate-like structures through a simple thermal decomposition of zinc acetate by maintaining the original pH of the reaction mixtures. Possible mechanism on the formation of the nanostructures is proposed based on the surface chemistry and biochemistry processes involved organic-inorganic interactions between zinc oxide and the microbial cells. PMID:19577306

Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmin, Wan Haizum Wan Nor; Mustafa, Muskhazli; Yahaya, Asmah Hj

2009-08-01

327

PEGylated silver doped zinc oxide nanoparticles as novel photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy against Leishmania.  

PubMed

We describe daylight responsive silver (Ag) doped semiconductor nanoparticles of zinc oxide (DSNs) for photodynamic therapy (PDT) against Leishmania. The developed materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Rutherford backscattering (RBS), diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and band-gap analysis. The Ag doped semiconductor nanoparticles of zinc oxide were PEGylated to enhance their biocompatibility. The DSNs demonstrated effective daylight response in the PDT of Leishmania protozoans, through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a quantum yield of 0.13 by nondoped zinc oxide nanoparticles (NDSN) whereas 0.28 by DSNs. None of the nanoparticles have shown any antileishmanial activity in dark, confirming that only ROS produced in the daylight were involved in the killing of leishmanial cells. Furthermore, the synthesized nanoparticles were found biocompatible. Using reactive oxygen species scavengers, cell death was attributable mainly to 77-83% singlet oxygen and 18-27% hydroxyl radical. The nanoparticles caused permeability of the cell membrane, leading to the death of parasites. Further, the uptake of nanoparticles by Leishmania cells was confirmed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). We believe that these DSNs are widely applicable for the PDT of leishmaniasis, cancers, and other infections due to daylight response. PMID:25266330

Nadhman, Akhtar; Nazir, Samina; Khan, Malik Ihsanullah; Arooj, Syeda; Bakhtiar, Muhammad; Shahnaz, Gul; Yasinzai, Masoom

2014-12-01

328

The complex interface chemistry of thin-film silicon/zinc oxide solar cell structures.  

PubMed

The interface between solid-phase crystallized phosphorous-doped polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si(n(+))) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) was investigated using spatially resolved photoelectron emission microscopy. We find the accumulation of aluminum in the proximity of the interface. Based on a detailed photoemission line analysis, we also suggest the formation of an interface species. Silicon suboxide and/or dehydrated hemimorphite have been identified as likely candidates. For each scenario a detailed chemical reaction pathway is suggested. The chemical instability of the poly-Si(n(+))/ZnO:Al interface is explained by the fact that SiO2 is more stable than ZnO and/or that H2 is released from the initially deposited a-Si:H during the crystallization process. As a result, Zn (a deep acceptor in silicon) is "liberated" close to the silicon/zinc oxide interface presenting the inherent risk of forming deep defects in the silicon absorber. These could act as recombination centers and thus limit the performance of silicon/zinc oxide based solar cells. Based on this insight some recommendations with respect to solar cell design, material selection, and process parameters are given for further knowledge-based thin-film silicon device optimization. PMID:25363298

Gerlach, D; Wimmer, M; Wilks, R G; Félix, R; Kronast, F; Ruske, F; Bär, M

2014-12-21

329

High quality ZnO:Al transparent conducting oxide films synthesized by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum-doped zinc oxide, ZnO:Al or AZO, is a well-known n-type transparent conducting oxide with great potential in a number of applications currently dominated by indium tin oxide (ITO). In this study, the optical and electrical properties of AZO thin films deposited on glass and silicon by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition are systematically studied. In contrast to magnetron sputtering, this technique does not produce energetic negative ions, and therefore ion damage can be minimized. The quality of the AZO films strongly depends on the growth temperature while only marginal improvements are obtained with post-deposition annealing. The best films, grown at a temperature of about 200?C, have resistivities in the low to mid 10-4 Omega cm range with a transmittance better than 85percent in the visible part of the spectrum. It is remarkable that relatively good films of small thickness (60 nm) can be fabricated using this method.

Anders, Andre; Lim, Sunnie H.N.; Yu, Kin Man; Andersson, Joakim; Rosen, Johanna; McFarland, Mike; Brown, Jeff

2009-04-24

330

Zinc oxide nanoparticles toxicity to Daphnia magna: size-dependent effects and dissolution.  

PubMed

As the production of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) and other metal oxides is exponentially increasing, it is important to investigate potential environmental and health impacts of such nanoparticles. Nanoparticles' properties (e.g., size, dissolution rate) may change in different water media, and their characterization is essential to derive conclusions about toxicity results. Therefore, an aquatic model organism, Daphnia magna, was used to investigate the effect of ZnO-NPs with 2 different particle sizes (30?nm and 80-100?nm) and then compare these effects with ZnO microsized particles (>200?nm) and the ionic counterpart (in the form of ZnCl2 ) on immobilization, feeding inhibition, and reproduction endpoints. The 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) for immobilization ranged between 0.76?mg Zn L(-1) for the ionic zinc and 1.32?mg Zn L(-1) for ZnO-NPs of 80?nm to 100?nm. For the chronic exposures, the reproduction output was impaired similarly among zinc exposures and possibly driven mainly by the zinc ionic form. The concentrations used showed a total dissolution after 48?h. On the other hand, feeding activity was more affected by the 30?nm ZnO-NPs than by the ionic zinc, showing that the particulate form was also playing an important role in the feeding inhibition of D. magna. Dissolution and particle size in the daphnia test media were found to be essential to derive conclusions on toxicity. Therefore, they can possibly be considered critical for evaluating nanoparticles' toxicity and fate. PMID:24123301

Lopes, Sílvia; Ribeiro, Fabianne; Wojnarowicz, Jacek; ?ojkowski, Witold; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Crossley, Alison; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

2014-01-01

331

40 CFR 721.9538 - Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene...Chemical Substances § 721.9538 Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene...substance identified generically as lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo...

2010-07-01

332

40 CFR 721.9538 - Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene...Chemical Substances § 721.9538 Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene...substance identified generically as lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo...

2013-07-01

333

40 CFR 721.9538 - Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene...Chemical Substances § 721.9538 Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene...substance identified generically as lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo...

2014-07-01

334

Characterization of Zinc Oxide and Pentacene Thin Film Transistors for CMOS Inverters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We fabricated both thin film transistors (TFTs) and diodes using zinc oxide (ZnO) and pentacene, and investigated their basic characteristics. We found that field-effect mobility is influenced by the interface state between the semiconductor and dielectric layers. Furthermore, the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) inverter using a p-channel pentacene field-effect transistor (FET) and an n-channel ZnO FET showed a relatively high voltage gain (8 - 12) by optimizing the device structure. The hybrid complementary inverters described here are expected for application in flexible displays, radio frequency identification cards (RFID) tags, and others.

Iechi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Yasuyuki; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kudo, Kazuhiro

335

Cardiopulmonary toxicity of pulmonary exposure to occupationally relevant zinc oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Exposure to zinc oxide (ZnO) metal fumes is linked to adverse human health effects; however, the hazards of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) remain unclear. To determine pulmonary exposure to occupationally relevant ZnONPs cause cardiopulmonary injury, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to ZnONPs via intratracheal (IT) instillation and inhalation. The relationship between intrapulmonary zinc levels and pulmonary oxidative-inflammatory responses 72 h after ZnONP instillation was determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Instilled ZnONPs altered zinc balance and increased the levels of total cells, neutrophils, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and total protein in BALF and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in blood after 72 h. The ZnONPs accumulated predominantly in the lungs over 24 h, and trivial amounts of zinc were determined in the heart, liver, kidneys and blood. Furthermore, the inflammatory-oxidative responses induced by occupationally relevant levels of 1.1 and 4.9 mg/m(3) of ZnONP inhalation for 2 weeks were determined in BALF and blood at 1, 7 and 30 days post-exposure. Histopathological examinations of the rat lungs and hearts were performed. Inhalation of ZnONP caused an inflammatory cytological profile. The total cell, neutrophil, LDH and total protein levels were acutely increased in the BALF, and there was an inflammatory pathology in the lungs. There were subchronic levels of white blood cells, granulocytes and 8-OHdG in the blood. Cardiac inflammation and the development of fibrosis were detected 7 days after exposure. Degeneration and necrosis of the myocardium were detected 30 days after exposure. The results demonstrate that ZnONPs cause cardiopulmonary impairments. These findings highlight the occupational health effects for ZnONP-exposed workers. PMID:23738974

Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Juan, Hung-Tzu; Chang, Chun-Nung; Yan, Yuan-Horng; Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Chen, Hao-Cheng; Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lee, Chii-Hong; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

2014-09-01

336

Toxicity to woodlice of zinc and lead oxides added to soil litter  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Previous studies have shown that high concentrations of metals in soil are associated with reductions in decomposer populations. We have here determined the relation between the concentrations of lead and zinc added as oxides to soil litter and the survival and reproduction of a decomposer population under controlled conditions. Laboratory populations of woodlice (Porcellio scaber Latr) were fed soil litter treated with lead or zinc at concentrations that ranged from 100 to 12,800 ppm. The survival of the adults, the maximum number of young alive, and the average number of young alive, were recorded over 64 weeks. Lead at 12,800 ppm and zinc at 1,600 ppm or more had statistically significant (p < 0.05) negative effects on the populations. These results agree with field observations suggesting that lead and zinc have reduced populations of decomposers in contaminated forest soil litter, and concentrations are similar to those reported to be associated with reductions in natural populations of decomposers. Poisoning of decomposers may disrupt nutrient cycling, reduce the numbers of invertebrates available to other wildlife for food, and contribute to the contamination of food chains.

Beyer, W.N.; Anderson, A.

1985-01-01

337

Electrical effect of titanium diffusion on amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide  

SciTech Connect

In this work, thermal diffusion phenomenon of Ti into amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide ({alpha}-IGZO) was carefully investigated with secondary ion mass spectroscopy, I-V, and R{sub s} measurement systems and HSC chemistry simulation tool. According to the experimental and simulated results, the diffused Ti atoms were easily oxidized due to its lowest oxidation free energy. Since oxygen atoms were decomposed from the {alpha}-IGZO during the oxidation of Ti, the number of oxygen vacancies working as electron-donating sites in {alpha}-IGZO was dramatically increased, contributing to the decrease of resistivity ({rho}) from 1.96 {Omega} cm (as-deposited {alpha}-IGZO) to 1.33 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}{Omega} cm (350 Degree-Sign C annealed {alpha}-IGZO).

Choi, Seung-Ha [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Development Group of Oxide Semiconductor, Samsung Display, Yongin 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Woo-Shik [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Park, Jin-Hong [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-19

338

High stability mechanisms of quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide multicomponent oxide films and thin film transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide (IGZAO) multicomponent oxide films were deposited using indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) target and Al target by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering system. An extra carrier transport pathway could be provided by the 3 s orbitals of Al cations to improve the electrical properties of the IGZO films, and the oxygen instability could be stabilized by the strong Al-O bonds in the IGZAO films. The electron concentration change and the electron mobility change of the IGZAO films for aging time of 10 days under an air environment at 40 °C and 75% humidity were 20.1% and 2.4%, respectively. The experimental results verified the performance stability of the IGZAO films. Compared with the thin film transistors (TFTs) using conventional IGZO channel layer, in conducting the stability of TFTs with IGZAO channel layer, the transconductance gm change, threshold voltage VT change, and the subthreshold swing S value change under the same aging condition were improved to 7.9%, 10.5%, and 14.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the stable performances of the IGZAO TFTs were also verified by the positive gate bias stress. In this research, the quinary IGZAO multicomponent oxide films and that applied in TFTs were the first studied in the literature.

Lee, Ching-Ting; Lin, Yung-Hao; Lin, Jhong-Ham

2015-01-01

339

Zinc sorption by iron oxides and soil samples  

E-print Network

is supposed to dissolve primarily poorly crystalline Fe oxide material. The samples for the x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were 13 suspended in acetone and pipetted onto glass slides. The XRD patterns of the +our material were obtained using a Philips... to the glass slides were prepared and air dried. A sample of Mg + saturated clay was also solvated with 10 ethylene glycol and this suspension was used for makina a slide. The xRD patterns were run (2 degrees per minute) using a Philips-Norelco goniometer...

Yli-Halla, Markku Juhani

1989-01-01

340

Improved zinc oxide surge arresters using high voltage gradient 300 V\\/mm, 400 V\\/mm ZnO elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc oxide surge arresters using zinc oxide (ZnO) elements have been widely used for insulation coordination in the world's power systems. These ZnO elements have basically reference voltage of about 200 V\\/mm. Recently, new ZnO elements having about 1.5, 2 times high voltage gradient zinc oxide element have been developed. This paper describes applications of high voltage gradient 300 V\\/mm

Shingo Shirakawa; Seiichi Yamada; Shigeru Tanaka; Iwao Ejiri; Satoshi Watahiki; Shinichi Kondo

2000-01-01

341

Silver ions induce oxidative stress and intracellular zinc release in human skin fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Silver compounds used as topical antimicrobial agents are known to exert toxic effects on skin cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the toxicity of silver ions, in analogy to other transition metal ions, depends on pro-oxidant effects. We treated human skin fibroblasts with concentrations of AgNO(3) not affecting cell proliferation, mitochondrial activity, or cell viability and found that Ag(+) strongly increases the production of reactive oxygen species, including superoxide anion radicals. These effects correspond to a strong decrease in intracellular reduced glutathione and to an increased susceptibility to H(2)O(2)-induced cell death. In addition, AgNO(3) down-regulates the expression of antioxidant genes such as the transcription factor Nrf2 and its target gene glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit. Furthermore Ag(+) induces a transient intracellular zinc release and increases the mRNA and protein expression of the zinc-binding protein metallothionein by activating the metal-responsive transcription factor 1, as verified by RNA interference. In conclusion, we show for the first time that Ag(+) induces oxidative stress and affects intracellular zinc homeostasis in human skin fibroblasts. The understanding of the mechanism involved in silver toxicity might contribute to new strategies for managing the therapy of skin infections. PMID:19733233

Cortese-Krott, Miriam M; Münchow, Meike; Pirev, Elvis; Hessner, Florian; Bozkurt, Ahmed; Uciechowski, Peter; Pallua, Norbert; Kröncke, Klaus-D; Suschek, Christoph V

2009-12-01

342

Pencil-like zinc oxide micro/nano-scale structures: Hydrothermal synthesis, optical and photocatalytic properties  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Zinc oxide micro/nanopencils have been synthesized hydrothermally. • Photocatalytic activity has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation. • ZnO nanopencils exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity than the commercial ZnO. - Abstract: Zinc oxide micro/nanopencils have been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal process using zinc acetate and diamines as structure-directing agents. The morphology, the structure, the crystallinity and the composition of the materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optical properties of synthesized ZnO were investigated by UV–vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the material has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. As a result, after the lapse of 150 min, around 82% bleaching was observed, with ZnO nanopencils yielding more photodegradation compared to that of commercial ZnO (61%)

Moulahi, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée, IPEIT, Université de Tunis, 2 rue Jawaher Lel Nehru 1008, B. P. 229 Montfleury (Tunisia); Sediri, F., E-mail: faouzi.sediri@ipeit.rnu.tn [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée, IPEIT, Université de Tunis, 2 rue Jawaher Lel Nehru 1008, B. P. 229 Montfleury (Tunisia); Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université de Tunis El Manar, 2092 El Manar (Tunisia)

2013-10-15

343

Effects of size and surface of zinc oxide and aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles on cell viability inferred by proteomic analyses  

PubMed Central

Although the health effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on the respiratory system have been reported, the fate, potential toxicity, and mechanisms in biological cells of these particles, as related to particle size and surface characteristics, have not been well elucidated. To determine the physicochemical properties of ZnONPs that govern cytotoxicity, we investigated the effects of size, electronic properties, zinc concentration, and pH on cell viability using human alveolar-basal epithelial A549 cells as a model. We observed that a 2-hour or longer exposure to ZnONPs induced changes in cell viability. The alteration in cell viability was associated with the zeta potentials and pH values of the ZnONPs. Proteomic profiling of A549 exposed to ZnONPs for 2 and 4 hours was used to determine the biological mechanisms of ZnONP toxicity. p53-pathway activation was the core mechanism regulating cell viability in response to particle size. Activation of the Wnt and TGF? signaling pathways was also important in the cellular response to ZnONPs of different sizes. The cadherin and Wnt signaling pathways were important cellular mechanisms triggered by surface differences. These results suggested that the size and surface characteristics of ZnONPs might play an important role in their observed cytotoxicity. This approach facilitates the design of more comprehensive systems for the evaluation of nanoparticles. PMID:25120361

Pan, Chih-Hong; Liu, Wen-Te; Bien, Mauo-Ying; Lin, I-Chan; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Ma, Chih-Ming; Lai, Ching-Huang; Chen, Mei-Chieh; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

2014-01-01

344

Oxidation reactivity of zinc-cysteine clusters in metallothionein.  

PubMed

Evaluating the reactivity of the metal-thiolate clusters in metallothionein (MT) is a key step in understanding the biological functions of this protein. The effects of the metal clustering and protein environment on the thiolate reactivity with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) were investigated by performing quantum theory calculations with chemical accuracy at two levels of complexity. At the first level, the reactivity with H(2)O(2) of a model system ([(Zn)(3)(MeS)(9)](3-), MeS is methanethiolate) of the ? domain cluster of MT was evaluated using density functional theory (DFT) with the mPW1PW91 functional. At the second level of complexity, the protein environment was included in the reactant system and the calculations were performed with the hybrid ONIOM method combining the DFT-mPW1PW91 and the semiempirical PM6 levels of theory. In these conditions, the energy barrier for the oxidation of the most reactive terminal thiolate was 21.5 kcal mol(-1). This is 3 kcal mol(-1) higher than that calculated for the terminal thiolate in the model system [(Zn)(3)(MeS)(9)](3-) and about 7 kcal mol(-1) higher than that obtained for the free thiolate. In spite of this rise of the energy barrier induced by the protein environment, the thiolate oxidation by H(2)O(2) is confirmed as a possible way for metal release from MT. On the other hand, the results suggest that the antioxidant role of MT in the living cell cannot be as important as that of glutathione (which bears a free thiol). PMID:23334196

Kassim, Rima; Ramseyer, Christophe; Enescu, Mironel

2013-03-01

345

Bio-fabrication of zinc oxide nanoparticles using leaf extract of Parthenium hysterophorus L. and its size-dependent antifungal activity against plant fungal pathogens.  

PubMed

The study reports the synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles from weed plant by a novel method. The aim of this work is to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles from Parthenium hysterophorus L. by inexpensive, ecofriendly and simple method. Highly stable, spherical and hexagonal zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by using different concentrations of 50% and 25% parthenium leaf extracts. Both the concentrations of the leaf extract act as reducing and capping agent for conversion of nanoparticles. Formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles have been confirmed by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier trans-form infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). SEM, TEM and EDX analysis reveals that spherical and hexagonal zinc oxide nanoparticle sizes were 27±5 nm and 84±2 nm respectively and chemical composition of zinc oxide were present. We synthesized different sized zinc oxide nanoparticles and explored the size-dependent antifungal activity against plant fungal pathogens. Highest zone of inhibition was observed in 25 ?g/ml of 27±5 nm size zinc oxide nanoparticles against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. Parthenium mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and proved to be good antifungal agents and environment friendly. PMID:23686093

Rajiv, P; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Venckatesh, Rajendran

2013-08-01

346

Bio-Fabrication of zinc oxide nanoparticles using leaf extract of Parthenium hysterophorus L. and its size-dependent antifungal activity against plant fungal pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study reports the synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles from weed plant by a novel method. The aim of this work is to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles from Parthenium hysterophorus L. by inexpensive, ecofriendly and simple method. Highly stable, spherical and hexagonal zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by using different concentrations of 50% and 25% parthenium leaf extracts. Both the concentrations of the leaf extract act as reducing and capping agent for conversion of nanoparticles. Formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles have been confirmed by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier trans-form infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). SEM, TEM and EDX analysis reveals that spherical and hexagonal zinc oxide nanoparticle sizes were 27 ± 5 nm and 84 ± 2 nm respectively and chemical composition of zinc oxide were present. We synthesized different sized zinc oxide nanoparticles and explored the size-dependent antifungal activity against plant fungal pathogens. Highest zone of inhibition was observed in 25 ?g/ml of 27 ± 5 nm size zinc oxide nanoparticles against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. Parthenium mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and proved to be good antifungal agents and environment friendly.

Rajiv, P.; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Venckatesh, Rajendran

2013-08-01

347

Observation of the amorphous zinc oxide recrystalline process by molecular dynamics simulation  

PubMed Central

The detailed structural variations of amorphous zinc oxide (ZnO) as well as wurtzite (B4) and zinc blende (B3) crystal structures during the temperature elevation process were observed by molecular dynamics simulation. The amorphous ZnO structure was first predicted through the simulated-annealing basin-hopping algorithm with the criterion to search for the least stable structure. The density and X-ray diffraction profiles of amorphous ZnO of the structure were in agreement with previous reports. The local structural transformation among different local structures and the recrystalline process of amorphous ZnO at higher temperatures are observed and can explain the structural transformation and recrystalline mechanism in a corresponding experiment [Bruncko et al., Thin Solid Films 520, 866-870 (2011)]. PMID:23509413

Lin, Ken-Huang; Sun, Shih-Jye; Ju, Shin-Pon; Tsai, Jen-Yu; Chen, Hsin-Tsung; Hsieh, Jin-Yuan

2013-01-01

348

Effect of Supersaturation on the Growth of Zinc Oxide Nanostructured Films by Electrochemical Deposition  

SciTech Connect

The changes in crystal growth habit of electrodeposited zinc oxide with zinc nitrate concentration are explained by changes in the levels of saturation at the electrode. Three growth regimes are found between 0.5 and 50 mM. For concentrations less than 2 mM, the growth is one-dimensional. Nanorods grow by screw dislocations from the outside inward, no coalescence is observed, and their surface shows pyramid-like features. For concentrations above 20 mM, the growth is two-dimensional. Large levels of supersaturation favor the nucleation on the low indexes faces and large sheets are observed. In the intermediate regime of growth, the growth is pseudo three-dimensional. Nanorods with a conical ends grow initially before coalescing and forming dense films.

Illy, B.; Ingham, B; Ryan, M

2010-01-01

349

Nanocrystalline order of zinc oxide thin films grown on optical fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystallographic orientation of polycrystalline zinc oxide films grown on optical fibers using single-source chemical vapor deposition (SS CVD) of basic zinc acetate have been studied. The films have been characterized using near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure. For the SS CVD ZnO growth on planar substrates, the film orientation can be varied from randomly oriented to highly c-axis oriented. In contrast, the films grown on optical fibers were either randomly oriented or a,b-axis oriented, depending on growth conditions. The correlations between growth conditions and the crystallographic properties of the films on fibers were discussed. The results suggest that factors such as curvature may have an effect on the crystallinity of film growth.

Lee, E. Y. M.; Tran, N.; Russell, J.; Lamb, R. N.

2002-09-01

350

Synthesis of monocrystalline zinc oxide microrods by wet chemical method for light confinement applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) microrods by wet chemical method, under prolonged treatment of zinc nitrate for 22 h in low temperature (80 °C) with hexamine is presented. The purpose was to obtain large microrods that can act as laser resonators with emission in the blue region. The electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction observations reveal that the ZnO microrods are single crystalline. We have done various optical characterizations in order to assess the suitability of the rods in photonic applications. Studies include optical absorption, fluorescence and photon backscattering. Room temperature optical measurements reveal that they have a large direct band gap of 3.7 eV and an emission at the visible and ultraviolet region and have excitation wavelength dependence. The backscattering studies clearly reveal the photon confinement effects, which is the first test of the material's self lasing action.

Thankappan, Aparna; Hari, Misha; Mathew, S.; Joseph, Santhi Ani; Rolf, Erni; Bora, Debajeet; Braun, Artur; Nampoori, V. P. N.

2012-07-01

351

Solvothermal synthesis of gallium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles with tunable infrared absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The doping of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) has been attracting a lot of attention both for fundamental studies and potential applications. In this manuscript, we report the preparation of gallium doped zinc oxide (GZO) NPs through the solvothermal method. In order to obtain the effective Ga doping in the ZnO crystalline lattice, we identified the optimal reaction conditions in terms of different Zn precursors, temperature, and heating rate. The results show that GZO NPs with tunable infrared absorption can be received using different molar ratios of Ga(NO3)3 and zinc stearate (Zn[CH3(CH2)16COO]2, ZnSt2) kept in the sealed autoclaves at 160 °C for 8 h. Furthermore, the growth of the GZO NPs was investigated by monitoring the optical absorption spectral and the corresponding chemical composition of aliquots extracted at different reaction time intervals.

Zhou, Haifeng; Wang, Hua; Tian, Xingyou; Zheng, Kang; Xu, Fei; Su, Zheng; Tian, Konghu; li, Qiulong; Fang, Fei

2014-12-01

352

Zinc protects HepG2 cells against the oxidative damage and DNA damage induced by ochratoxin A  

SciTech Connect

Oxidative stress and DNA damage are the most studied mechanisms by which ochratoxin A (OTA) induces its toxic effects, which include nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity and genotoxicity. Zinc, which is an essential trace element, is considered a potential antioxidant. The aim of this paper was to investigate whether zinc supplement could inhibit OTA-induced oxidative damage and DNA damage in HepG2 cells and the mechanism of inhibition. The results indicated that that exposure of OTA decreased the intracellular zinc concentration; zinc supplement significantly reduced the OTA-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity but did not affect the OTA-induced decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential (??{sub m}). Meanwhile, the addition of the zinc chelator N,N,N?,N?-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) strongly aggravated the OTA-induced oxidative damage. This study also demonstrated that zinc helped to maintain the integrity of DNA through the reduction of OTA-induced DNA strand breaks, 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation and DNA hypomethylation. OTA increased the mRNA expression of metallothionein1-A (MT1A), metallothionein2-A (MT2A) and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Zinc supplement further enhanced the mRNA expression of MT1A and MT2A, but it had no effect on the mRNA expression of SOD1 and catalase (CAT). Zinc was for the first time proven to reduce the cytotoxicity of OTA through inhibiting the oxidative damage and DNA damage, and regulating the expression of zinc-associated genes. Thus, the addition of zinc can potentially be used to reduce the OTA toxicity of contaminated feeds. - Highlights: ? OTA decreased the intracellular zinc concentration. ? OTA induced the formation of 8-OHdG in HepG2 cells. ? It was testified for the first time that OTA induced DNA hypomethylation. ? Zinc protects against the oxidative damage and DNA damage induced by OTA in vitro.

Zheng, Juanjuan; Zhang, Yu [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, Wentao, E-mail: xuwentaoboy@sina.com [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China); Luo, YunBo [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China); Hao, Junran [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Shen, Xiao Li [The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, Xuan [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Xiaohong [The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China); Huang, Kunlun, E-mail: hkl009@163.com [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China)

2013-04-15

353

Enhancement of the electrical characteristics of thin-film transistors with indium-zinc-tin oxide/Ag/indium-zinc-tin oxide multilayer electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transparent indium-zinc-tin oxide (IZTO)-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes were fabricated on glass substrates using a tilted dual-target radio-frequency magnetron sputtering system. The IZTO TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes exhibited a high optical transmittance in a visible region. The threshold voltage, the mobility, and the on/off-current ratio of the TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes were enhanced in comparison with those of the TFTs with ITO electrodes. The source/drain contact resistance of the IZTO TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes was smaller than that of the IZTO TFTs with ITO electrodes, resulting in enhancement of their electrical characteristics.

Oh, Dohyun; Yun, Dong Yeol; Cho, Woon-Jo; Kim, Tae Whan

2014-08-01

354

Nitric oxide and zinc-mediated protein assemblies involved in mu opioid receptor signaling.  

PubMed

Opioids are among the most effective analgesics in controlling the perception of intense pain, although their continuous use decreases their potency due to the development of tolerance. The glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor system is currently considered to be the most relevant functional antagonist of morphine analgesia. In the postsynapse of different brain regions the C terminus of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) associates with NR1 subunits of NMDARs, as well as with a series of signaling proteins, such as neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)/nitric oxide (NO), protein kinase C (PKC), calcium and calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). NO is implicated in redox signaling and PKC falls under the regulation of zinc metabolism, suggesting that these signaling elements might participate in the regulation of MOR activity by the NMDAR. In this review, we discuss the influence of redox signaling in the mechanisms whose plasticity triggers opioid tolerance. Thus, the MOR C terminus assembles a series of signaling proteins around the homodimeric histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1). The NMDAR NR1 subunit and the regulator of G protein signaling RGSZ2 bind HINT1 in a zinc-independent manner, with RGSZ2 associating with nNOS and regulating MOR-induced production of NO. This NO acts on the RGSZ2 zinc finger, providing the zinc ions that are required for PKC/Raf-1 cysteine-rich domains to simultaneously bind to the histidines present in the HINT1 homodimer. The MOR-induced activation of phospholipase ? (PLC?) regulates PKC, which increases the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by acting on NOX/NADPH, consolidating the long-term PKC activation required to regulate the Raf-1/MAPK cascade and enhancing NMDAR function. Thus, RGSZ2 serves as a Redox Zinc Switch that converts NO signals into Zinc signals, thereby modulating Redox Sensor Proteins like PKC? and Raf-1. Accordingly, redox-dependent and independent processes weave together to situate the MOR under the negative control of the NMDAR. PMID:23666425

Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Garzón, Javier

2013-12-01

355

Highly conductive indium zinc oxide prepared by reactive magnetron cosputtering technique using indium and zinc metallic targets  

SciTech Connect

Zn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} film is frequently deposited from an oxide target; but the use of metallic target is increasingly expected as preparing the film with comparable properties. This work aimed to prepare a highly conductive and transparent Zn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film on Corning Eagle{sup 2000} glass substrate by magnetron cosputtering method using indium and zinc targets. Structural characterization was performed using x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The film had an amorphous structure when the film was prepared on an unheated substrate, but had an In{sub 2}O{sub 3} polycrystalline structure when the film was deposited on 150 and 300 deg. C substrates. The electrical properties of the film were greatly affected by annealing; the Zn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} film had a low resistivity of 6.1x10{sup -4} {Omega} cm and an average transmittance of 81.7% when the film was deposited without substrate heating and followed a 600 deg. C annealing.

Tsai, T. K.; Chen, H. C.; Lee, J. H.; Huang, Y. Y.; Fang, J. S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China); LinCo Technology, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China)

2010-05-15

356

Inkjet printed ambipolar transistors and inverters based on carbon nanotube/zinc tin oxide heterostructures  

SciTech Connect

We report ambipolar field-effect transistors (FETs) consisting of inkjet printed semiconductor bilayer heterostructures utilizing semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO). The bilayer structure allows for electron transport to occur principally in the amorphous oxide layer and hole transport to occur exclusively in the SWCNT layer. This results in balanced electron and hole mobilities exceeding 2 cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1} at low operating voltages (<5?V) in air. We further show that the SWCNT-ZTO hybrid ambipolar FETs can be integrated into functional inverter circuits that display high peak gain (>10). This work provides a pathway for realizing solution processable, inkjet printable, large area electronic devices, and systems based on SWCNT-amorphous oxide heterostructures.

Kim, Bongjun; Jang, Seonpil; Dodabalapur, Ananth, E-mail: ananth.dodabalapur@engr.utexas.edu [Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Geier, Michael L.; Prabhumirashi, Pradyumna L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Hersam, Mark C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2014-02-10

357

Metal Catalyst for Low-Temperature Growth of Controlled Zinc Oxide Nanowires on Arbitrary Substrates  

PubMed Central

Zinc oxide nanowires generated by hydrothermal method present superior physical and chemical characteristics. Quality control of the growth has been very challenging and controlled growth is only achievable under very limited conditions using homogeneous seed layers with high temperature processes. Here we show the controlled ZnO nanowire growth on various organic and inorganic materials without the requirement of a homogeneous seed layer and a high temperature process. We also report the discovery of an important role of the electronegativity in the nanowire growth on arbitrary substrates. Using heterogeneous metal oxide interlayers with low-temperature hydrothermal methods, we demonstrate well-controlled ZnO nanowire arrays and single nanowires on flat or curved surfaces. A metal catalyst and heterogeneous metal oxide interlayers are found to determine lattice-match with ZnO and to largely influence the controlled alignment. These findings will contribute to the development of novel nanodevices using controlled nanowires. PMID:24625584

Kim, Baek Hyun; Kwon, Jae W.

2014-01-01

358

Metal Catalyst for Low-Temperature Growth of Controlled Zinc Oxide Nanowires on Arbitrary Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide nanowires generated by hydrothermal method present superior physical and chemical characteristics. Quality control of the growth has been very challenging and controlled growth is only achievable under very limited conditions using homogeneous seed layers with high temperature processes. Here we show the controlled ZnO nanowire growth on various organic and inorganic materials without the requirement of a homogeneous seed layer and a high temperature process. We also report the discovery of an important role of the electronegativity in the nanowire growth on arbitrary substrates. Using heterogeneous metal oxide interlayers with low-temperature hydrothermal methods, we demonstrate well-controlled ZnO nanowire arrays and single nanowires on flat or curved surfaces. A metal catalyst and heterogeneous metal oxide interlayers are found to determine lattice-match with ZnO and to largely influence the controlled alignment. These findings will contribute to the development of novel nanodevices using controlled nanowires.

Kim, Baek Hyun; Kwon, Jae W.

2014-03-01

359

Molybdenum as a contact material in zinc tin oxide thin film transistors  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous oxide semiconductors are of increasing interest for a variety of thin film electronics applications. Here, the contact properties of different source/drain electrode materials to solution-processed amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin-film transistors are studied using the transmission line method. The width-normalized contact resistance between ZTO and sputtered molybdenum is measured to be 8.7 ?-cm, which is 10, 20, and 600 times smaller than that of gold/titanium, indium tin oxide, and evaporated molybdenum electrodes, respectively. The superior contact formed using sputtered molybdenum is due to a favorable work function lineup, an insulator-free interface, bombardment of ZTO during molybdenum sputtering, and trap-assisted tunneling. The transfer length of the sputtered molybdenum/ZTO contact is 0.34??m, opening the door to future radio-frequency sub-micron molybdenum/ZTO thin film transistors.

Hu, W.; Peterson, R. L., E-mail: blpeters@umich.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122 (United States)

2014-05-12

360

Ecotoxicological evaluation of sewage sludge contaminated with zinc oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to evaluate the ecotoxicological qualitative risk associated with the use of sewage sludge containing Zn oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) as soil amendment. A sludge-untreated soil and two sludge-treated soils were spiked with ZnO-NPs (0-1,000 mg/kg soil). Soil ecotoxicity was assessed with Eisenia fetida (acute and sublethal end points), and the unfilterable and filterable (0.02 ?m) soil leachates were tested with a battery of biomarkers using Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia magna, and the fish cell line RTG-2 (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The production of E. fetida cocoons in sludge-treated soils was lower than that in sludge-untreated soils. The highest effect in the algal growth inhibition test was detected in sludge-untreated soil, most likely caused by the loss of organic matter in these samples. The D. magna results were always negative. Toxic effects (lysosomal cell function and production of reactive oxygen species) in RTG-2 cells were only observed in sludge-treated soils. In general, the toxicity of ZnO-NPs in sludge-treated soils was similar to that of sludge-untreated soil, and the filterable leachate fraction [Zn salt (Zn(2+))] did not produce greater effects than the unfilterable fraction (ZnO-NPs). Thus, after the addition of ZnO-NP--enriched sewage sludge to agricultural soil, the risk of toxic effects for soil and aquatic organisms was shown to be low. These findings are important because repeated use of organic amendments such as sewage sludge may cause more and more increased concentrations of ZnO-NPs in soils over the long-term. PMID:25185842

García-Gómez, Concepción; Fernández, María Dolores; Babin, Mar

2014-11-01

361

Atmospheric pressure based electrostatic spray deposition of transparent conductive ZnO and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films: Effects of Al doping and annealing treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide (ZnO) and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were prepared by electrostatic spray deposition method at atmospheric pressure followed by annealing. The effects of annealing and Al doping on the structural, electrical and optical properties of the films were investigated. The results show that films have random orientation with compact hexagonal wurtzite structure. It also implies that the annealing and the Al doping help to improve the electrical conductivity and optical properties as well. The minimum value of resistivity was 1.10 × 10-4 ? cm for 0.5 at. % AZO film and transmittance was greater than 96% in the visible region. The present value of resistivity is comparable to the lowest values for AZO films reported in open literatures. All the films prepared by this method have a good crystalline structure and homogenous surface. We proposed that the substitution of Al in the ZnO lattice has positive effects in terms of increasing the free electron concentration. At atmospheric pressure, the electrospraying method was confirmed to be suitable for the preparation of AZO films with low resistivity and high transmittance.

Mahmood, Khalid; Park, Seung Bin

2013-03-01

362

Morphology and optical properties of tetrapod-like zinc oxide whiskers synthesized via equilibrium gas expanding method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zinc oxide whiskers were synthesized by the equilibrium gas expanding method at the temperature of 700 °C with metallic zinc as the main raw material without any catalysts. The effects of the growth time on microstructure and photoluminescence properties were investigated. The results show that the as-grown samples are composed of uniform tetrapod-like ZnO whiskers. The length and diameter

Xi-mei FAN; Zuo-wan ZHOU; Jie WANG; Ke TIAN

2011-01-01

363

Growth and characterization of zinc oxide nanowires and thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZnO was studied in this dissertation for use in one-dimensional nanoscale devices, optoelectronics, and electronic applications. The synthesis, structural, and optical properties of ZnO and MgO nanowires as nanoscale materials were investigated. The crystallinity, electrical, optical and magnetic properties of undoped and phosphorous doped ZnO thin films for p-type ZnO were examined. The ZnO nanowires were fabricated using catalyst-driven molecular beam epitaxy. Site specific growth of ZnO and MgO nanowires was observed on Ag coated Si and Al2O3 substrates. The structural and compositional studies indicated that the deposition of Zn and Mg resulted in two different types of radial heterostructured (Zn,Mg)O nanowires. The effect of phosphorus doping on the electrical and optical properties of ZnO grown via pulsed laser beam deposition was studied. Phosphorus doping yields enhanced n-type behavior in as-deposited films, indicating the formation of shallow donor states. Annealing in 100 mTorr of oxygen led to the conversion of n-type behavior in as-deposited films to semi-insulating behavior in the annealed films. For the annealed film, these results appear to reflect phosphorus substitution on the O sites. The characteristics of device structures that employ phosphorus-doped (Zn,Mg)O have been examined in a effort to delineate the carrier type behavior in this material. The capacitance-voltage properties of metal/insulator/P-doped (Zn,Mg)O diode structures were measured and found to exhibit a polarity consistent with the P-doped (Zn,Mg)O layer being p-type. The photo-response of ZnO doped with phosphorus was investigated. A correlation between near band-edge emission and carrier density is observed. This is similar to results found for ZnO in which the carrier density is increased via annealing in a reducing ambient. Upon annealing in an oxidizing environment, the near band-edge emission decreased for both the undoped and phosphorus doped ZnO films. The magnetic properties of phosphorus doped ZnO thin films were examined after high dose Mn implantation. Films show room temperature hysteresis in magnetization loops. The saturation magnetization and coercivity of the implanted single-phase films were both strong functions of the initial annealing temperature. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Heo, Young-Woo

364

Greener syntheses of metallic nanoparticles and zinc oxide nanopowders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, nanotechnology and nanomaterials synthesis have attracted a great deal of attention in the scientific community. Nanomaterials display size and morphology-related optical properties that differ from their bulk counterparts and therefore can be used for many applications in different fields such as biomedicine, electronics, antibacterial agents, and energy. Attempts to fabricate different morphologies of metallic and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have successfully yielded attractive nanostructures such as particles, rods, helices, combs, tetra-pods, and flowers, all displaying properties mainly related to their enhanced surface area and/or aspect ratios. Most of the above mentioned nanomaterials productions have employed harsh synthetic routes such as high temperatures, low pressures, and the use of costly equipments. Here we show how a greener approach to nanomaterials synthesis is feasible with both minimization of aqueous precursors, energy and employment of a multi-block heater for temperature control. We present in this thesis several methods for the preparation of NPs of several materials that focus on minimizing the environmental impact of the synthesis itself. First, we describe the use of the toroidal form of plasmid DNA as a rigid narrowly dispersed bio-polymeric nanocavity, which mold the formation of disc-shaped nanoparticles of several types of metals. This approach exploits several properties of plasmid DNA: (a) DNA affinity for metal cations, (b) toroidal plasmid DNA structures which are favored by metal ionic binding, and (c) the ability to vary plasmid size. Herein, we present a complementary synthetic method based on a kinetic approach wherein the plasmid DNA acts as a template to initiate and control the formation of Au and other metallic NPs by incubation at elevated temperatures. Also reported herein is a simple, scalable hydrothermal method to make ZnO NPs that exploits temperature to precisely control the range of pH values of an organic amine buffer. The presence or absence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in the tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer further modulates the morphology of the ZnO nanomaterials since both compounds can serve as nucleating sites, and as stabilizing agents that prevents agglomeration.

Samson, Jacopo

365

Synthesis and characterization of single-crystalline zinc tin oxide nanowires  

PubMed Central

Crystalline zinc tin oxide (ZTO; zinc oxide with heavy tin doping of 33 at.%) nanowires were first synthesized using the electrodeposition and heat treatment method based on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, which has an average diameter of about 60 nm. According to the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) results, the synthesized ZTO nanowires are highly ordered and have high wire packing densities. The length of ZTO nanowires is about 4 ?m, and the aspect ratio is around 67. ZTO nanowires with a Zn/(Zn?+?Sn) atomic ratio of 0.67 (approximately 2/3) were observed from an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and corresponding selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns demonstrated that the ZTO nanowire is hexagonal single-crystalline. The study of ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/Vis/NIR) absorption showed that the ZTO nanowire is a wide-band semiconductor with a band gap energy of 3.7 eV. PMID:24872800

2014-01-01

366

Synthesis and characterization of single-crystalline zinc tin oxide nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystalline zinc tin oxide (ZTO; zinc oxide with heavy tin doping of 33 at.%) nanowires were first synthesized using the electrodeposition and heat treatment method based on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, which has an average diameter of about 60 nm. According to the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) results, the synthesized ZTO nanowires are highly ordered and have high wire packing densities. The length of ZTO nanowires is about 4 ?m, and the aspect ratio is around 67. ZTO nanowires with a Zn/(Zn + Sn) atomic ratio of 0.67 (approximately 2/3) were observed from an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and corresponding selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns demonstrated that the ZTO nanowire is hexagonal single-crystalline. The study of ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/Vis/NIR) absorption showed that the ZTO nanowire is a wide-band semiconductor with a band gap energy of 3.7 eV.

Shi, Jen-Bin; Wu, Po-Feng; Lin, Hsien-Sheng; Lin, Ya-Ting; Lee, Hsuan-Wei; Kao, Chia-Tze; Liao, Wei-Hsiang; Young, San-Lin

2014-05-01

367

Improved conductivity and mechanism of carrier transport in zinc oxide with embedded silver layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of an embedded silver layer on the electrical and optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO)/silver (Ag)/zinc oxide (ZnO) layered composite structures on polymer substrates have been investigated. We have engineered transparent conducting oxide structures with greatly improved conductivity. Optical and electrical properties are correlated with Ag thickness. Film thicknesses were determined using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Hall effect, four-point probe, and UV-Vis spectrophotometer analyses were used to characterize electrical and optical properties. The results show that carrier concentration, mobility, and conductivity increase with Ag thickness. Increasing Ag thickness from 8to14nm enhances sheet resistance and resistivity by six orders of magnitude. The optical transmittance of the composite structure decreases when compared to a single ZnO layer of comparable thickness. However, a composite with 12nm of Ag provides conductivity and transmittance values that are acceptable for optoelectronic devices. We describe of the influence of Ag thickness on electrical and optical properties of the ZnO /Ag/ZnO composite and propose a conduction mechanism for this system.

Han, H.; Theodore, N. D.; Alford, T. L.

2008-01-01

368

In-vitro antibacterial study of zinc oxide nanostructures on Streptococcus sobrinus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide nanostructures were prepared using a pilot plant of zinc oxide boiling furnace. Generally, it produced two types of nanostructures different in morphology; one is rod-like shaped (ZnO-1) and a plate-like shape (ZnO-2). The properties of ZnO were studied by structural, optical and morphological using XRD, PL and FESEM respectively. The XRD patterns confirmed the wurtzite structures of ZnO with the calculated crystallite size of 41 nm (ZnO-1) and 42 nm (ZnO-2) using Scherrer formula. The NBE peaks were determined by photoluminescence spectra which reveal peak at 3.25 eV and 3.23 eV for ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 respectively. Prior to that, the morphologies for both ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 were demonstrated from FESEM micrographs. Subsequently the antibacterial study was conducted using in-vitro broth dilution technique towards a gram positive bacterium Streptococcus sobrinus (ATCC 33478) to investigate the level of antibacterial effect of zinc oxide nanostructures as antibacterial agent. Gradual increment of ZnO concentrations from 10-20 mM affected the inhibition level after twenty four hours of incubation. In conjunction with concentration increment of ZnO, the percentage inhibition towards Streptococcus sobrinus was also increased accordingly. The highest inhibition occurred at 20 mM of ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 for 98% and 77% respectively. It showed that ZnO has good properties as antibacterial agent and relevancy with data presented by XRD, PL and FESEM were determined.

Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo; Sirelkhatim, Amna; Hasan, Habsah; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Masudi, Sam'an Malik; Seeni, Azman; Rahman, Rosliza Abd

2014-10-01

369

Evaluation of zinc oxide nanoparticles toxicity on marine algae chlorella vulgaris through flow cytometric, cytotoxicity and oxidative stress analysis.  

PubMed

The increasing industrial use of nanomaterials during the last decades poses a potential threat to the environment and in particular to organisms living in the aquatic environment. In the present study, the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was investigated in Marine algae Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris). High zinc dissociation from ZnONPs, releasing ionic zinc in seawater, is a potential route for zinc assimilation and ZnONPs toxicity. To examine the mechanism of toxicity, C. vulgaris were treated with 50mg/L, 100mg/L, 200mg/L and 300 mg/L ZnO NPs for 24h and 72h. The detailed cytotoxicity assay showed a substantial reduction in the viability dependent on dose and exposure. Further, flow cytometry revealed the significant reduction in C. vulgaris viable cells to higher ZnO NPs. Significant reductions in LDH level were noted for ZnO NPs at 300 mg/L concentration. The activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased in the C. vulgaris exposed to 200mg/L and 300 mg/L ZnO NPs. The content of non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) significantly decreased in the groups with a ZnO NPs concentration of higher than 100mg/L. The level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was found to increase as the ZnO NPs dose increased. The FT-IR analyses suggested surface chemical interaction between nanoparticles and algal cells. The substantial morphological changes and cell wall damage were confirmed through microscopic analyses (FESEM and CM). PMID:25483368

Suman, T Y; Radhika Rajasree, S R; Kirubagaran, R

2015-03-01

370

Photoluminescence characteristics of undoped and terbium chloride doped zinc oxide films deposited by spray pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photoluminescence characteristics of undoped and TbCl3-doped zinc oxide films deposited by the spray pyrolysis technique are reported. Undoped films present the characteristic blue-green emission peak at ˜508 nm observed in single-crystal and powder ZnO. The TbCl3-doped films present a luminescence peak at ˜540 nm. The light emission of the doped films decreases with time of exposure of the sample to the excitation light. The phenomenon is interpreted in terms of a simple model in which a competitive process of hole trapping and phototrapping occurs at a radiative recombination center generated by the TbCl3.

Falcony, C.; Ortiz, A.; García, M.; Helman, J. S.

1988-04-01

371

Constrained, aqueous growth of three-dimensional single crystalline zinc oxide structures  

SciTech Connect

We study low temperature (90?°C) aqueous growth of single crystal zinc oxide structures through patterned PMMA molds of different sizes, shapes, and orientations. We demonstrate the ability to create 3D shapes with smooth vertical sidewalls. Although the unconstrained growth is influenced by the hexagonal geometry of the underlying crystal structure, the ZnO is shown to conform exactly to any shape patterned. Using electron backscatter diffraction and scanning electron microscopy we show that the mold orientation, in conjunction with control of the growth rates of the c and m planes of the ZnO, is crucial in determining the final structure shape.

Pooley, Kathryn J., E-mail: greenber@fas.harvard.edu; Joo, John H.; Hu, Evelyn L. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2014-01-01

372

Structural and optical properties of zinc oxide film using RF-sputtering technique  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the fabrication of zinc oxide (ZnO) film using RF-sputtering technique. Determination of the structural properties using High Resolution X-ray Diffraction (HRXRD) confirmed that ZnO film deposited on silicon (Si) substrate has a high quality. This result is in line with the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) which were used to image the morphology of the film, in which a rough surface was demonstrated. Photoluminescence (PL) emission is included to study the optical properties of ZnO film that shows two PL peak in the UV region at 371 nm and in visible region at 530 nm respectively.

Hashim, A. J.; Jaafar, M. S.; Ghazai, Alaa J. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pinang (Malaysia); Physics Department, Science College, Thi-Qar University (Iraq)

2012-11-27

373

Zinc(II) oxide stability in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc oxide (ZnO) is shown to transform into either of two phosphate-containing compounds in relatively dilute alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via ZnO(s) + Na[sup +] + H[sub 2]PO[sub 4]- [l reversible] NaZnPO[sub 4](s) + H[sub 2]O or 2ZnO(s) + H[sub 3]PO[sub 4](aq) [l reversible] Zn[sub 2](OH)PO[sub 4](s) + H[sub 2]O. X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that NaZnPO[sub 4

Stephen E. Ziemniak; Edward P. Opalka

1994-01-01

374

Constrained, aqueous growth of three-dimensional single crystalline zinc oxide structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study low temperature (90 °C) aqueous growth of single crystal zinc oxide structures through patterned PMMA molds of different sizes, shapes, and orientations. We demonstrate the ability to create 3D shapes with smooth vertical sidewalls. Although the unconstrained growth is influenced by the hexagonal geometry of the underlying crystal structure, the ZnO is shown to conform exactly to any shape patterned. Using electron backscatter diffraction and scanning electron microscopy we show that the mold orientation, in conjunction with control of the growth rates of the c and m planes of the ZnO, is crucial in determining the final structure shape.

Pooley, Kathryn J.; Joo, John H.; Hu, Evelyn L.

2014-01-01

375

Profile-broaden ultraviolet lasing from whispering gallery mode cavity in crown-like zinc oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crown-like zinc oxide (ZnO) samples, which are composed of a hexagonal cap and a tower-like shaft, are prepared by vapor transport method. The hexagonal cap, working as a whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonant cavity, demonstrates density-dependent ultraviolet (UV) lasing emission with a broadened and squared photoluminescence (PL) profile under UV excitation at 355 nm. Theoretical analyses based on Fermi golden rule show that the broadened spectrum profile results from the special optical mode density characteristics in a WGM micro-cavity, which is in agreement with the observed results.

Wang, Ma-hua; Zhu, Guang-ping; Ju, Yong-feng; Ji, Ren-dong; Fu, Li-hui

2015-03-01

376

Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated at Low Temperature by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the electrical behavior of undoped zinc oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated by low-temperature chemical spray pyrolysis. An aerosol system utilizing aerodynamic focusing was used to deposit the ZnO. Polycrystalline films were subsequently formed by annealing at the relatively low temperature of 140°C. The saturation mobility of the TFTs was 2 cm2/Vs, which is the highest reported for undoped ZnO TFTs manufactured below 150°C. The devices also had an on/off ratio of 104 and a threshold voltage of -3.5 V. These values were found to depend reversibly on measurement conditions.

Jeong, Yesul; Pearson, Christopher; Lee, Yong Uk; Winchester, Lee; Hwang, Jaeeun; Kim, Hongdoo; Do, Lee-Mi; Petty, Michael C.

2014-11-01

377

Field emission from well-aligned zinc oxide nanowires grown at low temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field electron emission from vertically well-aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires, which were grown by the vapor deposition method at a low temperature of 550 degC, was investigated. The high-purity ZnO nanowires showed a single crystalline wurtzite structure. The turn-on voltage for the ZnO nanowires was found to be about 6.0 V\\/mum at current density of 0.1 muA\\/cm2. The emission current

C. J. Lee; T. J. Lee; S. C. Lyu; Y. Zhang; H. Ruh; H. J. Lee

2002-01-01

378

Growth mechanism of atomic layer deposition of zinc oxide: A density functional theory approach  

SciTech Connect

Atomic layer deposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) using diethylzinc (DEZ) and water is studied using density functional theory. The reaction pathways between the precursors and ZnO surface sites are discussed. Both reactions proceed by the formation of intermediate complexes on the surface. The Gibbs free energy of the formation of these complexes is positive at temperatures above ?120?°C and ?200?°C for DEZ and water half-reactions, respectively. Spectroscopic ellipsometry results show that the growth per cycle changes at approximately the same temperatures.

Afshar, Amir; Cadien, Kenneth C., E-mail: kcadien@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada)

2013-12-16

379

Origin of ferromagnetism enhancement in bi-layer chromium-doped indium zinc oxides  

SciTech Connect

This work demonstrates that by controlling the rapid thermal annealing temperature, amorphous chromium-doped indium zinc oxide films develop an amorphous-crystalline bi-layer structure and show magnetization up to {approx}30 emu/cm{sup 3}. The crystalline layer arises from significant out-diffusion of Zn from surfaces, leading to a large difference in the Zn:In ratio in amorphous and crystalline layers. Doped Cr ions in amorphous and crystalline layers form different valence configurations, creating a charge reservoir which transfers electrons through amorphous-crystalline interfaces and in turn enhances ferromagnetism.

Hsu, C. Y. [Physics Department, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China)

2012-08-06

380

High-pressure Pulsed Laser Deposition and Structural Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various zinc oxide nanostructures have been grown by high-pressure PLD on gold coated sapphire substrates. Depending on growth parameters, a wide range of geometries is obtained in a controlled fashion. The whisker diameter depends on the target-to-substrate distance. The well aligned epitaxial growth of the nanowires on sapphire without rotational domains is proved by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Our growth mechanism seems to be different from the usually assumed vapor-liquid-solid process, because of the absence of any gold drops on top of the nanowires.

Rahm, Andreas; Nobis, Thomas; Kaidashev, Evgeni M.; Lorenz, Michael; Wagner, Gerald; Lenzner, Jörg; Grundmann, Marius

2005-06-01

381

Impact of Al doping on microstructure and optical characteristics of tetrapod-like zinc oxide whiskers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al-doped tetrapod-like zinc oxide whiskers with different Al dopant concentration (0.3?1.0mol%) were prepared by solid state reaction method using T-ZnOw and AlCl3 powder as raw materials. X-ray diffraction and SEM microscopy were applied to characterize the structure and surface morphology of the T-ZnOw. The shift of diffraction peaks of ZnO towards high angle indicated the increase of Al-doping concentration. The

X. M. Fan; L. Zhao; Z. W. Zhou; H. G. Zhang; J. Wang

2010-01-01

382

The conductivity and magnetic properties of zinc oxide thin films doped with cobalt  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic properties, temperature dependences of the resistivity, Hall constant, and magnetoresistance of epitaxial zinc oxide films doped with cobalt are studied. The ferromagnetism of the films is observed at room temperature. The conduction and magnetoresistance of the films are attributed to transport of electrons in the conduction band at high temperatures and to hopping transport at low temperatures. With increasing concentration of cobalt dopants, the resistivity of the films increases and the concentration of electrons decreases. This is due to the increase in the ionization energy of donor states because of the increase in the energy of exchange interaction between electrons at donor states and electrons of the d shell of cobaltions.

Kytin, V. G., E-mail: kytin@mig.phys.msu.ru; Kulbachinskii, V. A.; Glebov, D. S.; Burova, L. I. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Kaul, A. R.; Reukova, O. V. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Chemistry (Russian Federation)

2010-02-15

383

Mapping of two-photon luminescence amplification in zinc-oxide microstructures  

SciTech Connect

The mapping of two-photon excited luminescence in aggregations of free-standing zinc oxide microrods has been carried out at room temperature. Two-photon luminescence spectra in the excitonic region for individual microrods have been recorded. The luminescence intensity exhibits a power-law dependence on the optical pump power with the exponent n > 2. This fact, along with the existence of a threshold power above which the dependence in the exciton region deviates from a quadratic one, indicates the onset of light amplification in individual ZnO microrods and the conditions preceding laser oscillation.

Semin, S. V., E-mail: sv_semin@mail.ru; Sherstyuk, N. E.; Mishina, E. D. [Moscow State Technical University of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Automation (Russian Federation); Gherman, C.; Kulyuk, L. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of); Rasing, Th. [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Molecules and Materials (Netherlands); Peng, L.-H. [National Taiwan University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics (China)

2012-03-15

384

Zinc oxide integrated area efficient high output low power wavy channel thin film transistor  

SciTech Connect

We report an atomic layer deposition based zinc oxide channel material integrated thin film transistor using wavy channel architecture allowing expansion of the transistor width in the vertical direction using the fin type features. The experimental devices show area efficiency, higher normalized output current, and relatively lower power consumption compared to the planar architecture. This performance gain is attributed to the increased device width and an enhanced applied electric field due to the architecture when compared to a back gated planar device with the same process conditions.

Hanna, A. N.; Ghoneim, M. T.; Bahabry, R. R.; Hussain, A. M.; Hussain, M. M., E-mail: muhammadmustafa.hussain@kaust.edu.sa [Integrated Nanotechnology Lab, Electrical Engineering, Computer Electrical Mathematical Science and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia)

2013-11-25

385

Electron transport and low-temperature electrical and galvanomagnetic properties of zinc oxide and indium oxide films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical and galvanomagnetic properties of zinc oxide films with and without gallium, aluminum, and cobalt doping and of tin-doped indium oxide films are studied over a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields. It is shown that the mechanism for electron transport in these films changes from band to hopping transport as the degree of crystallinity of the films is reduced because of the methods and conditions for their synthesis. The change in the dimensionality of the films with band electron transport at low temperatures is studied in terms of the weak localization induced by a magnetic field. The localization radius and density of electron states in the Fermi level are estimated for the films with a hopping electron transport.

Kulbachinskii, V. A.; Kytin, V. G.; Reukova, O. V.; Burova, L. I.; Kaul, A. R.; Ulyashin, A. G.

2015-02-01

386

Effect of nitrogen doping on wetting and photoactive properties of laser processed zinc oxide-graphene oxide nanocomposite layers  

SciTech Connect

Zinc oxide-graphene oxide nanocomposite layers were submitted to laser irradiation in air or controlled nitrogen atmosphere using a frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG (??=?266?nm, ?{sub FWHM}???3?ns, ??=?10?Hz) laser source. The experiments were performed in air at atmospheric pressure or in nitrogen at a pressure of 2?×?10{sup 4} Pa. The effect of the irradiation conditions, incident laser fluence value, and number of subsequent laser pulses on the surface morphology of the composite material was systematically investigated. The obtained results reveal that nitrogen incorporation improves significantly the wetting and photoactive properties of the laser processed layers. The kinetics of water contact angle variation when the samples are submitted to laser irradiation in nitrogen are faster than that of the samples irradiated in air, the surfaces becoming super-hydrophilic under UV light irradiation.

György, E., E-mail: egyorgy@icmab.es [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona (CSIC-ICMAB), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P. O. Box MG 36, 76900 Bucharest V (Romania); Pérez del Pino, A. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona (CSIC-ICMAB), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Logofatu, C. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P. O. Box MG. 7, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Duta, A.; Isac, L. [Transilvania University of Brasov, Research Centre for Renewable Energy Systems and Recycling, Eroilor 29, 500036, Brasov (Romania)

2014-07-14

387

40 CFR 721.9538 - Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9538 Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene...chemical substance identified generically as lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl...

2012-07-01

388

40 CFR 721.9538 - Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9538 Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene...chemical substance identified generically as lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl...

2011-07-01

389

Origin of deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen  

SciTech Connect

The origin of the deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO), whether intrinsic to the amorphous structure or not, has serious implications for the development of p-type transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors. We report that the deep subgap feature in a-IGZO originates from local variations in the oxygen coordination and not from oxygen vacancies. This is shown by the positive correlation between oxygen composition and subgap intensity as observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that the subgap feature is not intrinsic to the amorphous phase because the deep subgap feature can be removed by low-temperature annealing in a reducing environment. Atomistic calculations of a-IGZO reveal that the subgap state originates from certain oxygen environments associated with the disorder. Specifically, the subgap states originate from oxygen environments with a lower coordination number and/or a larger metal-oxygen separation.

Sallis, S.; Williams, D. S. [Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Butler, K. T.; Walsh, A. [Center for Sustainable Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Quackenbush, N. F. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Junda, M.; Podraza, N. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Fischer, D. A.; Woicik, J. C. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); White, B. E.; Piper, L. F. J., E-mail: lpiper@binghamton.edu [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States)

2014-06-09

390

Hydrogen plasma treatment for improved conductivity in amorphous aluminum doped zinc tin oxide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving the conductivity of earth-abundant transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) remains an important challenge that will facilitate the replacement of indium-based TCOs. Here, we show that a hydrogen (H2)-plasma post-deposition treatment improves the conductivity of amorphous aluminum-doped zinc tin oxide while retaining its low optical absorption. We found that the H2-plasma treatment performed at a substrate temperature of 50 °C reduces the resistivity of the films by 57% and increases the absorptance by only 2%. Additionally, the low substrate temperature delays the known formation of tin particles with the plasma and it allows the application of the process to temperature-sensitive substrates.

Morales-Masis, M.; Ding, L.; Dauzou, F.; Jeangros, Q.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; Nicolay, S.; Ballif, C.

2014-09-01

391

Reduced contact resistance in inkjet printed high-performance amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide transistors.  

PubMed

Solution processing of amorphous metal oxide materials to fabricate thin-film transistors (TFTs) has received great recent interest. We demonstrate here an optimized "ink" and printing process for inkjet patterning of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) TFTs and investigate the effects of device structure on derived electron mobility. Bottom-gate top-contact (BGTC) TFTs are fabricated and shown to exhibit electron mobilities comparable to a-Si:H. Furthermore, a record electron mobility of 2.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) is demonstrated for bottom-gate bottom-contact (BGBC) TFTs. The mechanism underlying such impressive performance is investigated using transmission line techniques, and it is shown that the semiconductor-source/drain electrode interface contact resistance is nearly an order of magnitude lower for BGBC transistors versus BGTC devices. PMID:22321212

Hennek, Jonathan W; Xia, Yu; Everaerts, Ken; Hersam, Mark C; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

2012-03-01

392

Hydrogen plasma treatment for improved conductivity in amorphous aluminum doped zinc tin oxide thin films  

SciTech Connect

Improving the conductivity of earth-abundant transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) remains an important challenge that will facilitate the replacement of indium-based TCOs. Here, we show that a hydrogen (H{sub 2})-plasma post-deposition treatment improves the conductivity of amorphous aluminum-doped zinc tin oxide while retaining its low optical absorption. We found that the H{sub 2}-plasma treatment performed at a substrate temperature of 50?°C reduces the resistivity of the films by 57% and increases the absorptance by only 2%. Additionally, the low substrate temperature delays the known formation of tin particles with the plasma and it allows the application of the process to temperature-sensitive substrates.

Morales-Masis, M., E-mail: monica.moralesmasis@epfl.ch; Ding, L.; Dauzou, F. [Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory (PVLab), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne - EPFL, Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Jeangros, Q. [Interdisciplinary Centre for Electron Microscopy, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Hessler-Wyser, A. [Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory (PVLab), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne - EPFL, Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Interdisciplinary Centre for Electron Microscopy, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Nicolay, S. [Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique (CSEM) SA, Rue Jaquet-Droz 1, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Ballif, C. [Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory (PVLab), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne - EPFL, Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique (CSEM) SA, Rue Jaquet-Droz 1, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

2014-09-01

393

Transient characteristics for proton gating in laterally coupled indium-zinc-oxide transistors.  

PubMed

The control and detection over processing, transport and delivery of chemical species is of great importance in sensors and biological systems. The transient characteristics of the migration of chemical species reflect the basic properties in the processings of chemical species. Here, we observed the field-configurable proton effects in a laterally coupled transistor gated by phosphorosilicate glass (PSG). The bias on the lateral gate would modulate the interplay between protons and electrons at the PSG/indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) channel interface. Due to the modulation of protons flux within the PSG films, the IZO channel current would be modified correspondingly. The characteristic time for the proton gating is estimated to be on the order of 20 ms. Such laterally coupled oxide based transistors with proton gating are promising for low-cost portable biosensors and neuromorphic system applications. PMID:25741771

Liu, Ning; Zhu, Li Qiang; Xiao, Hui; Wan, Chang Jin; Liu, Yang Hui; Chao, Jin Yu

2015-03-25

394

Low-voltage zinc oxide thin-film transistors with solution-processed channel and dielectric layers below 150 °C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter, solution processed low voltage (<3 V) zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film transistors with the maximum process temperature not exceeding 150 °C were achieved. In the devices, an ultra-thin zirconium oxide layer was formed as the gate dielectric via ultraviolet irradiation assisted sol-gel processes, and the ZnO channel was processed from an aqueous precursor of ammine-hydroxo zinc complex. The devices can be operated under a voltage of 3 V, and show decent device performance with the field effect mobility of 0.45 cm2/V . s and an ON/OFF current ratio of 105.

Xu, Xiaoli; Cui, Qingyu; Jin, Yizheng; Guo, Xiaojun

2012-11-01

395

Dual operation characteristics of resistance random access memory in indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors  

SciTech Connect

In this study, indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors can be operated either as transistors or resistance random access memory devices. Before the forming process, current-voltage curve transfer characteristics are observed, and resistance switching characteristics are measured after a forming process. These resistance switching characteristics exhibit two behaviors, and are dominated by different mechanisms. The mode 1 resistance switching behavior is due to oxygen vacancies, while mode 2 is dominated by the formation of an oxygen-rich layer. Furthermore, an easy approach is proposed to reduce power consumption when using these resistance random access memory devices with the amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor.

Yang, Jyun-Bao; Chen, Yu-Ting; Chu, Ann-Kuo [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Huang, Jheng-Jie; Chen, Yu-Chun; Tseng, Hsueh-Chih [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Sze, Simon M. [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

2014-04-14

396

Protein Biosensors Based on Polymer Nanowires, Carbon Nanotubes and Zinc Oxide Nanorods  

PubMed Central

The development of biosensors using electrochemical methods is a promising application in the field of biotechnology. High sensitivity sensors for the bio-detection of proteins have been developed using several kinds of nanomaterials. The performance of the sensors depends on the type of nanostructures with which the biomaterials interact. One dimensional (1-D) structures such as nanowires, nanotubes and nanorods are proven to have high potential for bio-applications. In this paper we review these three different kinds of nanostructures that have attracted much attention at recent times with their great performance as biosensors. Materials such as polymers, carbon and zinc oxide have been widely used for the fabrication of nanostructures because of their enhanced performance in terms of sensitivity, biocompatibility, and ease of preparation. Thus we consider polymer nanowires, carbon nanotubes and zinc oxide nanorods for discussion in this paper. We consider three stages in the development of biosensors: (a) fabrication of biomaterials into nanostructures, (b) alignment of the nanostructures and (c) immobilization of proteins. Two different methods by which the biosensors can be developed at each stage for all the three nanostructures are examined. Finally, we conclude by mentioning some of the major challenges faced by many researchers who seek to fabricate biosensors for real time applications. PMID:22163892

M., Anish Kumar; Jung, Soyoun; Ji, Taeksoo

2011-01-01

397

Valence band structure in boron-zinc oxide films characterized by secondary electron emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Properties of the valence band structure in boron-zinc oxide (BZO) films were investigated using the secondary electron emission due to the Auger neutralization of helium ions, with respect to the application of BZO films to the development of solar cells, in which the conductivity of the BZO films plays a critical role in improving cell performance. The characteristic energy ?0 corresponding to the peak density of states in the valence band showed that BZO film prepared with a 3000 SCCM B2H6 gas flow rate (SCCM denotes cubic centimeters per minute at standard temperature and pressure) had a shallow characteristic energy ?0 = 5 eV, whereas film without boron doping had a deep characteristic energy ?0 = 8.2 eV, suggesting that a high concentration of boron impurity in BZO films might enhance the transition of electrons and holes through the bandgap from the valence to the conduction band in zinc oxide crystals, thereby improving the conductivity of the film. The measurement method developed here demonstrates that the secondary electron emission is very useful in the determination of the band structure in various synthetic films.

Uhm, Han S.; Choi, Joon H.; Yoo, Ha J.; Kwon, Gi C.; Choi, Eun H.

2012-03-01

398

Solvothermal synthesis of gallium-indium-zinc-oxide nanoparticles for electrolyte-gated transistors.  

PubMed

Solution-processed field-effect transistors are strategic building blocks when considering low-cost sustainable flexible electronics. Nevertheless, some challenges (e.g., processing temperature, reliability, reproducibility in large areas, and cost effectiveness) are requirements that must be surpassed in order to achieve high-performance transistors. The present work reports electrolyte-gated transistors using as channel layer gallium-indium-zinc-oxide nanoparticles produced by solvothermal synthesis combined with a solid-state electrolyte based on aqueous dispersions of vinyl acetate stabilized with cellulose derivatives, acrylic acid ester in styrene and lithium perchlorate. The devices fabricated using this approach display a ION/IOFF up to 1 × 10(6), threshold voltage (VTh) of 0.3-1.9 V, and mobility up to 1 cm(2)/(V s), as a function of gallium-indium-zinc-oxide ink formulation and two different annealing temperatures. These results validates the usage of electrolyte-gated transistors as a viable and promising alternative for nanoparticle based semiconductor devices as the electrolyte improves the interface and promotes a more efficient step coverage of the channel layer, reducing the operating voltage when compared with conventional dielectrics gating. Moreover, it is shown that by controlling the applied gate potential, the operation mechanism of the electrolyte-gated transistors can be modified from electric double layer to electrochemical doping. PMID:25517251

Santos, Lídia; Nunes, Daniela; Calmeiro, Tomás; Branquinho, Rita; Salgueiro, Daniela; Barquinha, Pedro; Pereira, Luís; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

2015-01-14

399

Large-scale synthesis of zinc oxide rose-like structures and their optical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide (ZnO) rose-like structures, which are composed of several or tens of nanoplates, have been successfully synthesized on a large scale through the hydrothermal decomposed method. The influences of the pH and the concentration of the reaction precursors on the morphology, orientation and density of the obtained ZnO nanocrystals were investigated. It was found that the pH and the concentration significantly affected the morphology, orientation and density of the as-grown ZnO nanostructures. The obtained zinc oxide rose-like structures were investigated by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction and photoluminescence. The possible growth mechanism of the rose-like structures was briefly discussed. This facile low-cost controllable growth procedure should promise us a future large-scale synthesis of ZnO nanostructures for many important applications in nano-/micro-scale devices. Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra from the ZnO rose- and daisy-like nanostructures reveal similar photoluminescence features: a strong UV emission peak at about 378 nm and a weak green emission band at ?500 nm. The strong UV photoluminescence and the weak green emission indicate the good crystallization quality of the rose-like nanostructures.

Bai, Wei; Yu, Ke; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhu, Xia; Peng, Deyan; Zhu, Ziqiang; Dai, Ning; Sun, Yan

2008-02-01

400

Rational design of amorphous indium zinc oxide/carbon nanotube hybrid film for unique performance transistors.  

PubMed

Here we report unique performance transistors based on sol-gel processed indium zinc oxide/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) composite thin films. In the composite, SWNTs provide fast tracks for carrier transport to significantly improve the apparent field effect mobility. Specifically, the composite thin film transistors with SWNT weight concentrations in the range of 0-2 wt % have been investigated with the field effect mobility reaching as high as 140 cm(2)/V·s at 1 wt % SWNTs while maintaining a high on/off ratio ?10(7). Furthermore, the introduction SWNTs into the composite thin film render excellent mechanical flexibility for flexible electronics. The dynamic loading test presents evidently superior mechanical stability with only 17% variation at a bending radius as small as 700 ?m, and the repeated bending test shows only 8% normalized resistance variation after 300 cycles of folding and unfolding, demonstrating enormous improvement over the basic amorphous indium zinc oxide thin film. The results provide an important advance toward high-performance flexible electronics applications. PMID:22694726

Liu, Xingqiang; Wang, Chunlan; Cai, Bo; Xiao, Xiangheng; Guo, Shishang; Fan, Zhiyong; Li, Jinchai; Duan, Xiangfeng; Liao, Lei

2012-07-11

401

Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Selective Destruction of Tumor Cells and Potential for Drug Delivery Applications  

PubMed Central

Importance of the field Metal oxide nanoparticles, including zinc oxide, are versatile platforms for biomedical applications and therapeutic intervention. There is an urgent need to develop new classes of anticancer agents, and recent studies demonstrate that ZnO nanomaterials hold considerable promise. Areas covered in this review This review analyzes the biomedical applications of metal oxide and ZnO nanomaterials under development at the experimental, preclinical, and clinical levels. A discussion regarding the advantages, approaches, and limitations surrounding the use of metal oxide nanoparticles for cancer applications and drug delivery is presented. The scope of this article is focused on ZnO, and other metal oxide nanomaterial systems, and their proposed mechanisms of cytotoxic action, as well as current approaches to improve their targeting and cytotoxicity against cancer cells. Take home message Through a better understanding of the mechanisms of action and cellular consequences resulting from nanoparticles interactions with cells, the inherent toxicity and selectivity of ZnO nanoparticles against cancer may be further improved to make them attractive new anti-cancer agents. PMID:20716019

Rasmussen, John W.; Martinez, Ezequiel; Louka, Panagiota; Wingett, Denise G.

2010-01-01

402

Growth of layered basic zinc acetate in methanolic solutions and its pyrolytic transformation into porous zinc oxide films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Layered basic zinc acetate (LBZA), Zn5(OH)8(CH3COO)2·2H2O, was deposited on glass substrates by a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method using methanolic solutions of zinc acetate dihydrate. The substrates were put into bottles filled with the solutions and sealed up and were kept at 60°C in a drying oven. Immersion time necessary for the deposition of LBZA films was typically more than

Eiji Hosono; Shinobu Fujihara; Toshio Kimura; Hiroaki Imai

2004-01-01

403

Antibacterial activity of root canal filling materials for primary teeth: zinc oxide and eugenol cement, Calen paste thickened with zinc oxide, Sealapex and EndoREZ.  

PubMed

This study evaluated in vitro the antibacterial activity of 4 root canal filling materials for primary teeth - zinc oxide and eugenol cement (ZOE), Calen paste thickened with zinc oxide (Calen/ZO), Sealapex sealer and EndoREZ sealer - against 5 bacterial strains commonly found in endodontic infections (Kocuria rhizophila, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) using the agar diffusion test (agar-well technique). Calen paste, 1% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and distilled water served as controls. Seven wells per dish were made at equidistant points and immediately filled with the test and control materials. After incubation of the plates at 37 degrees C for 24 h, the diameter of the zones of bacterial growth inhibition produced around the wells was measured (in mm) with a digital caliper under reflected light. Data were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test (alpha=0.05). There were statistically significant differences (p<0.0001) among the zones of bacterial growth inhibition produced by the different materials against all target microorganisms. K. rhizophila was inhibited more effectively (p<0.05) by ZOE, while Calen/ZO had its highest antibacterial activity against E. faecalis (p<0.05). S. mutans was inhibited by Calen/ZO, Sealapex and ZOE in the same intensity (p>0.05). E. coli was inhibited more effectively (p<0.05) by ZOE, followed by Calen/ZO and Sealapex. Calen/ZO and ZOE were equally effective (p>0.05) against S. aureus, while Sealapex had the lowest antibacterial efficacy (p<0.05) against this microorganism. EndoREZ presented antibacterial activity only against K. rhizophila and S. aureus. The Calen paste and Calen/ZO produced larger zones of inhibition than 1% CHX when the marker microorganism was E faecalis. In conclusion, the in vitro antibacterial activity of the 4 root canal filling materials for primary teeth against bacterial strains commonly found in endodontic infections can be presented in a decreasing order of efficacy as follows: ZOE>Calen/ZO>Sealapex>EndoREZ. PMID:20069251

Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino de; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra da; Assed, Sada; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da; Ito, Izabel Yoko

2009-01-01

404

Improving the Li-ion storage performance of layered zinc silicate through the interlayer carbon and reduced graphene oxide networks.  

PubMed

A novel layered zinc silicate/carbon composite was fabricated through carbon embedment into the interlayers of zinc silicate through a hydrothermal method. The interlayer space could be effectively tuned from 1.22 to 3.37 nm by controlling the amount of carbon precursors. Such a layered zinc silicate/carbon structure promoted the lithium ions and electron transportation within the nanostructures, while the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) network improved the conductivity between nanostructures. Such a 3-D carbon based conductive network improved zinc silicates' lithium storage property. After 50 cycles, two composite samples with different carbon loadings showed 778 mA h/g and 704 mA h/g, respectively. PMID:23701368

Qu, Jin; Yan, Yang; Yin, Ya-Xia; Guo, Yu-Guo; Song, Wei-Guo

2013-06-26

405

Photoluminescence properties of zinc oxide in paints: a study of the effect of self-absorption and passivation.  

PubMed

Zinc oxide has been widely used as a white artist pigment since the end of the eighteenth century. The luminescence properties of this compound have received great interest during the last decades for promising applications in different fields of material science, but their diagnostic implications in the cultural-heritage context have been poorly exploited. This paper is intended to provide a clear picture of the luminescence behavior of zinc white in oil paintings. With this aim, three white pigments and three highly pure (analytical grade) zinc oxides were studied as powder substrates and as painting models by ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The quenching of the luminescence intensity of the UV excitonic emission due to self-absorption and multiple scattering phenomena has been investigated, pointing out the possible difficulty of detecting this signal with negative consequences in the diagnostics of works of art. By contrast, the UV emission is notably enhanced by interaction with the binder, whereas the visible emission decreases. This phenomenon is probably due to the formation of covalent bonds between zinc atoms and carboxylates from the lipidic medium that are chemisorbed on zinc oxide surfaces. PMID:23031708

Clementi, Catia; Rosi, Francesca; Romani, Aldo; Vivani, Riccardo; Brunetti, Brunetto G; Miliani, Costanza

2012-10-01

406

Local vapor transport synthesis of zinc oxide nanowires for ultraviolet-enhanced gas sensing This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-print Network

Local vapor transport synthesis of zinc oxide nanowires for ultraviolet-enhanced gas sensing.1088/0957-4484/21/49/495502 Local vapor transport synthesis of zinc oxide nanowires for ultraviolet-enhanced gas sensing Lei Luo of nanowires into functional devices. The single-crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires are grown locally

Lin, Liwei

407

40 CFR 721.10107 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, [amino-hydroxy-[(substituted)azo-sulfo-naphthaleneyl]azo]-hydroxy...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...methoxy-sulfophenyl)azo], metal salt (generic). 721.10107 Section 721...methoxy-sulfophenyl)azo], metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...methoxy-sulfophenyl)azo], metal salt (PMN P-04-495) is subject to...

2014-07-01

408

40 CFR 721.10107 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, [amino-hydroxy-[(substituted)azo-sulfo-naphthaleneyl]azo]-hydroxy...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...methoxy-sulfophenyl)azo], metal salt (generic). 721.10107 Section 721...methoxy-sulfophenyl)azo], metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...methoxy-sulfophenyl)azo], metal salt (PMN P-04-495) is subject to...

2012-07-01

409

40 CFR 721.2577 - Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt (generic). 721.2577 Section 721...substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt (generic). Link to an amendment published...substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt (PMNs P-00-0364 and...

2014-07-01

410

Effect of dietary zinc oxide on morphological characteristics, mucin composition and gene expression in the colon of weaned piglets.  

PubMed

The trace element zinc is often used in the diet of weaned piglets, as high doses have resulted in positive effects on intestinal health. However, the majority of previous studies evaluated zinc supplementations for a short period only and focused on the small intestine. The hypothesis of the present study was that low, medium and high levels of dietary zinc (57, 164 and 2,425 mg Zn/kg from zinc oxide) would affect colonic morphology and innate host defense mechanisms across 4 weeks post-weaning. Histological examinations were conducted regarding the colonic morphology and neutral, acidic, sialylated and sulphated mucins. The mRNA expression levels of mucin (MUC) 1, 2, 13, 20, toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4, interleukin (IL)-1?, 8, 10, interferon-? (IFN-?) and transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) were also measured. The colonic crypt area increased in an age-depending manner, and the greatest area was found with medium concentration of dietary zinc. With the high concentration of dietary zinc, the number of goblet cells containing mixed neutral-acidic mucins and total mucins increased. Sialomucin containing goblet cells increased age-dependently. The expression of MUC2 increased with age and reached the highest level at 47 days of age. The expression levels of TLR2 and 4 decreased with age. The mRNA expression of TLR4 and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 were down-regulated with high dietary zinc treatment, while piglets fed with medium dietary zinc had the highest expression. It is concluded that dietary zinc level had a clear impact on colonic morphology, mucin profiles and immunological traits in piglets after weaning. Those changes might support local defense mechanisms and affect colonic physiology and contribute to the reported reduction of post-weaning diarrhea. PMID:24609095

Liu, Ping; Pieper, Robert; Rieger, Juliane; Vahjen, Wilfried; Davin, Roger; Plendl, Johanna; Meyer, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen

2014-01-01

411

Effect of Dietary Zinc Oxide on Morphological Characteristics, Mucin Composition and Gene Expression in the Colon of Weaned Piglets  

PubMed Central

The trace element zinc is often used in the diet of weaned piglets, as high doses have resulted in positive effects on intestinal health. However, the majority of previous studies evaluated zinc supplementations for a short period only and focused on the small intestine. The hypothesis of the present study was that low, medium and high levels of dietary zinc (57, 164 and 2,425 mg Zn/kg from zinc oxide) would affect colonic morphology and innate host defense mechanisms across 4 weeks post-weaning. Histological examinations were conducted regarding the colonic morphology and neutral, acidic, sialylated and sulphated mucins. The mRNA expression levels of mucin (MUC) 1, 2, 13, 20, toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4, interleukin (IL)-1?, 8, 10, interferon-? (IFN-?) and transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) were also measured. The colonic crypt area increased in an age-depending manner, and the greatest area was found with medium concentration of dietary zinc. With the high concentration of dietary zinc, the number of goblet cells containing mixed neutral-acidic mucins and total mucins increased. Sialomucin containing goblet cells increased age-dependently. The expression of MUC2 increased with age and reached the highest level at 47 days of age. The expression levels of TLR2 and 4 decreased with age. The mRNA expression of TLR4 and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 were down-regulated with high dietary zinc treatment, while piglets fed with medium dietary zinc had the highest expression. It is concluded that dietary zinc level had a clear impact on colonic morphology, mucin profiles and immunological traits in piglets after weaning. Those changes might support local defense mechanisms and affect colonic physiology and contribute to the reported reduction of post-weaning diarrhea. PMID:24609095

Liu, Ping; Pieper, Robert; Rieger, Juliane; Vahjen, Wilfried; Davin, Roger; Plendl, Johanna; Meyer, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen

2014-01-01

412

Properties of solid solutions, doped film, and nanocomposite structures based on zinc oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the properties of materials based on the wide bandgap zinc oxide semiconductor, which are promising for application in optoelectronics, photovoltaics and nanoplasmonics. The structural and optical properties of solid solution Zn1-xCdxO films with different cadmium content, are studied. The samples are grown using magnetron sputtering on sapphire backing. Low-temperature photoluminescence spectra revealed emission peaks associated with radiative recombination processes in those areas of the film that have varying amounts of cadmium. X-ray phase analysis showed the presence of a cadmium oxide cubic phase in these films. Theoretical studies of the solid solution thermodynamic properties allowed for a qualitative interpretation of the observed experimental phenomena. It is established that the growth of the homogeneous solid solution film is possible only at high temperatures, whereas regions of inhomogeneous composition can be narrowed through elastic deformation, caused by the mismatch of the film-backing lattice constants. The driving forces of the spinodal decomposition of the Zn1-xCdxO system are identified. Fullerene-like clusters of Znn-xCdxOn are used to calculate the bandgap and the cohesive energy of ZnCdO solid solutions. The properties of transparent conductive ZnO films, doped with Group III donor impurities (Al, Ga, In), are examined. It is shown that oxygen vacancies are responsible for the hole trap centers in the zinc oxide photoconductivity process. We also examine the photoluminescence properties of metal-ZnO nanocomposite structures, caused by surface plasmons.

Lashkarev, G. V.; Shtepliuk, I. I.; Ievtushenko, A. I.; Khyzhun, O. Y.; Kartuzov, V. V.; Ovsiannikova, L. I.; Karpyna, V. A.; Myroniuk, D. V.; Khomyak, V. V.; Tkach, V. N.; Timofeeva, I. I.; Popovich, V. I.; Dranchuk, N. V.; Khranovskyy, V. D.; Demydiuk, P. V.

2015-02-01

413

Intrinsic and interfacial effect of electrode metals on the resistive switching behaviors of zinc oxide films.  

PubMed

Exploring the role of electrode metals on the resistive switching properties of metal electrode/oxide/metal electrode sandwiched structures provides not only essential information to understand the underlying switching mechanism of the devices, but also useful guidelines for the optimization of the switching performance. A systematic study has been performed to investigate the influence of electrodes on the resistive switching characteristics of zinc oxide (ZnO) films in this contribution, in terms of both the intrinsic and interfacial effects. It has been found that the low-resistance state resistances (?(LRS)) of all the investigated devices are below 50 ?, which can be attributed to the formation of highly conductive channels throughout the ZnO films. On the other hand, the high-resistance state resistances (?(HRS)) depend on the electronegativity and ionic size of the employed electrode metals. Devices with electrode metals of high electronegativity and large ionic size possess high ?(HRS) values, while those with electrode metals of low electronegativity and small ionic size carry low ?(HRS) values. A similar trend of the set voltages has also been observed, while the reset voltages are all distributed in a narrow range close to ±0.5 V. Moreover, the forming voltages of the switching devices strongly depend on the roughness of the metal/ZnO and/or ZnO/metal interface. The present work provides essential information for better understanding the switching mechanism of zinc oxide based devices, and benefits the rational selection of proper electrode metals for the device performance optimization. PMID:25274278

Xue, W H; Xiao, W; Shang, J; Chen, X X; Zhu, X J; Pan, L; Tan, H W; Zhang, W B; Ji, Z H; Liu, G; Xu, X-H; Ding, J; Li, R-W

2014-10-24

414

Physiology and biochemistry of reduction of azo compounds by Shewanella strains relevant to electron transport chain  

PubMed Central

Azo dyes are toxic, highly persistent, and ubiquitously distributed in the environments. The large-scale production and application of azo dyes result in serious environmental pollution of water and sediments. Bacterial azo reduction is an important process for removing this group of contaminants. Recent advances in this area of research reveal that azo reduction by Shewanella strains is coupled to the oxidation of electron donors and linked to the electron transport and energy conservation in the cell membrane. Up to date, several key molecular components involved in this reaction have been identified and the primary electron transportation system has been proposed. These new discoveries on the respiration pathways and electron transfer for bacterial azo reduction has potential biotechnological implications in cleaning up contaminated sites. PMID:20706834

Gu, Ji-Dong

2010-01-01

415

Physiology and biochemistry of reduction of azo compounds by Shewanella strains relevant to electron transport chain.  

PubMed

Azo dyes are toxic, highly persistent, and ubiquitously distributed in the environments. The large-scale production and application of azo dyes result in serious environmental pollution of water and sediments. Bacterial azo reduction is an important process for removing this group of contaminants. Recent advances in this area of research reveal that azo reduction by Shewanella strains is coupled to the oxidation of electron donors and linked to the electron transport and energy conservation in the cell membrane. Up to date, several key molecular components involved in this reaction have been identified and the primary electron transportation system has been proposed. These new discoveries on the respiration pathways and electron transfer for bacterial azo reduction has potential biotechnological implications in cleaning up contaminated sites. PMID:20706834

Hong, Yi-Guo; Gu, Ji-Dong

2010-10-01

416

Degradation of Azo Dyes by Laccase and Ultrasound Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this work was to investigate the decomposition of azo dyes by oxidative methods, such as laccase and ultrasound treatments. Each of these methods has strong and feeble sides. The laccase treatment showed high decolorization rates but cannot degrade all investigated dyes (reactive dyes), and high anionic strength led to enzyme deactivation. Ultrasound treatment can decolorize all tested

Michael M. Tauber; Georg M. Guebitz; Astrid Rehorek

2005-01-01

417

Sol-Gel Zinc Oxide Humidity Sensors Integrated with a Ring Oscillator Circuit On-a-Chip  

PubMed Central

The study develops an integrated humidity microsensor fabricated using the commercial 0.18 ?m complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The integrated humidity sensor consists of a humidity sensor and a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip. The humidity sensor is composed of a sensitive film and branch interdigitated electrodes. The sensitive film is zinc oxide prepared by sol-gel method. After completion of the CMOS process, the sensor requires a post-process to remove the sacrificial oxide layer and to coat the zinc oxide film on the interdigitated electrodes. The capacitance of the sensor changes when the sensitive film adsorbs water vapor. The circuit is used to convert the capacitance of the humidity sensor into the oscillation frequency output. Experimental results show that the output frequency of the sensor changes from 84.3 to 73.4 MHz at 30 °C as the humidity increases 40 to 90 %RH. PMID:25353984

Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

2014-01-01

418

Sol-gel zinc oxide humidity sensors integrated with a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip.  

PubMed

The study develops an integrated humidity microsensor fabricated using the commercial 0.18 ?m complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The integrated humidity sensor consists of a humidity sensor and a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip. The humidity sensor is composed of a sensitive film and branch interdigitated electrodes. The sensitive film is zinc oxide prepared by sol-gel method. After completion of the CMOS process, the sensor requires a post-process to remove the sacrificial oxide layer and to coat the zinc oxide film on the interdigitated electrodes. The capacitance of the sensor changes when the sensitive film adsorbs water vapor. The circuit is used to convert the capacitance of the humidity sensor into the oscillation frequency output. Experimental results show that the output frequency of the sensor changes from 84.3 to 73.4 MHz at 30 °C as the humidity increases 40 to 90%RH. PMID:25353984

Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

2014-01-01

419

Role of water temperature in the fate and transport of zinc oxide nanoparticles in aquatic environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of water temperature on the aggregation and dissolution kinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) (mean diameter ~40 nm) was investigated. Samples of 100 mg.L-1 ZnO NPs were incubated at 15, 25 and 35 °C, similar to the surface temperature of cold freshwater, temperate estuarine, and tropical/sub-tropical coastal marine ecosystems, respectively. The natural organic matter (NOM) content, pH, electrolyte type, and ionic strength (IS), were adjusted on the basis of the water chemistries of typical aqueous systems. Specifically, the time-dependent hydrodynamic diameters (HDDs) and sedimentation plots were obtained over the first 3 h and after 24 h using time-resolved dynamic light scattering (TR-DLS) and UV-visible spectroscopy, respectively. The settling distance was further modeled for the aggregates with various HDDs according to the Stokes' sedimentation equation. The dissolution kinetics was studied over the first 12 h and after 48 h in term of percentage of released zinc ions. The results showed that the HDD increased at elevated temperatures, termed as temperature-induced aggregation, while dissolution was reduced. The aggregation at higher temperatures further hindered the dissolution due to the decrease in the surface area of the NPs. We express this process as "aggregate-suppressed dissolution". The maximum aggregation was reached in the tropical coastal marine environment with the HDD >3 ?m, and the released zinc ion of 9.2% was obtained in the cold freshwater. Based on the results, the aggregation rate of 1.57 nm.s-1 was estimated for the former, and the dissolution rate of 7.44 × 10-5 mol.L-1.h-1 was calculated for the latter, respectively. The predicted values successfully fitted to genuine water samples (<26% deviation). This study provides useful data for environmental risk assessment of exposure of ZnO NPs to water column and benthic organisms.

Majedi, Seyed Mohammad; Lee, Hian Kee; Kelly, Barry C.

2013-04-01

420

Antimicrobial Efficacy of Zinc Oxide Quantum Dots Against Listeria Monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO QDs) in a powder form, a ZnO-polystyrene (PS) film form and a polyvinylprolidone capped ZnO (ZnO-PVP) gel form were prepared and their antibacterial activities against foodborne pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cul...

421

Human Skin Penetration of Sunscreen Nanoparticles: In-vitro Assessment of a Novel Micronized Zinc Oxide Formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which topically applied solid nanoparticles can penetrate the stratum corneum and access the underlying viable epidermis and the rest of the body is a great potential safety concern. Therefore, human epidermal penetration of a novel, transparent, nanoparticulate zinc oxide sunscreen formulation was determined using Franz-type diffusion cells, 24-hour exposure and an electron microscopy to verify the location

Sheree E. Cross; Brian Innes; Michael S. Roberts; Takuya Tsuzuki; Terry A. Robertson; Paul McCormick

2007-01-01

422

Influence of tetrapod-shaped zinc oxide whisker on poly(vinylidene fluoride) based gel polymer electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of zinc oxide whisker (ZnOw) on the ionic conductivity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) based gel polymer composite electrolyte was investigated by impedance spectroscopy. The critical volume content (Vc) to constitute the ideal network channel was calculated theoretically, and it was found that Vc was higher than that of the experimental result.

Biaobing Wang; Zuowan Zhou; Lixia Gu

2003-01-01

423

A Retrospective Assessment of Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Pulpectomies in Vital Maxillary Primary Incisors Successfully Restored With Composite Resin Crowns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate, via clinical and radio- graphic assessments, the treatment outcome of zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) pulpectomies performed in vital maxillary primary incisors successfully restored with composite resin crowns. Methods: Pulpectomized vital primary incisors were treated by a uniformed technique, filled with ZOE paste, and successfully restored with composite resin crowns. Those that

Robert E. Primosch; Anissa Ahmadi; Barry Setzer

2005-01-01

424

Effect of doping level and spray time on zinc oxide thin films produced by spray pyrolysis for transparent electrodes applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the results of optical, electrical and structural properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) semiconductors thin layers with various aluminium (Al) doping level and deposited at different spray time using the spray pyrolysis technique in atmospheric pressure. The study of optical properties from reflection and transmission spectra shows a high transmission value a band gap energy of

Z. Ben Achour; T. Ktari; B. Ouertani; O. Touayar; B. Bessais; J. Ben Brahim

2007-01-01

425

Influence of the semiconductor thickness on the electrical properties of transparent TFTs based on indium zinc oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multicomponent amorphous oxides are starting to emerge as a class of appealing semiconductor materials for application in transparent electronics. In this work, a high performance bottom-gate n-type transparent thin-film transistors are reported, being the discussion primarily focused on the influence of the indium zinc oxide active layer thickness on the properties of the devices. For this purpose, transparent transistors with

P. Barquinha; A. Pimentel; A. Marques; L. Pereira; R. Martins; E. Fortunato

2006-01-01

426

Dissolution kinetics of macronutrient fertilizers coated with manufactured zinc oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The solubility of Zn in Zn fertilizers plays an important role in the agronomic effectiveness of the fertilizer. On the basis of thermodynamics, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) should dissolve faster and to a greater extent than bulk ZnO particles (equivalent spherical diameter >100 nm). These novel solubility features of ZnO NPs might be exploited to improve the efficiency of Zn fertilizers. In this study, we compared the Zn solubility and dissolution kinetics of ZnO nanoparticles and bulk ZnO particles coated onto two selected granular macronutrient fertilizers, urea and monoammonium phosphate (MAP). The main Zn species on coated MAP and urea granules were zinc ammonium phosphate and ZnO, respectively. Coated MAP granules showed greater Zn solubility and faster dissolution rates in sand columns compared to coated urea granules, which may be related to pH differences in the solution surrounding the fertilizer granules. The kinetics of Zn dissolution was not affected by the size of the ZnO particles applied for coating of either fertilizer type, possibly because solubility was controlled by formation of the same compounds irrespective of the size of the original ZnO particles used for coating. PMID:22480134

Milani, Narges; McLaughlin, Mike J; Stacey, Samuel P; Kirby, Jason K; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Beak, Douglas G; Cornelis, Geert

2012-04-25

427

Zinc(II) oxide solubility and phase behavior in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility is used to investigate the solubility/phase behavior of zinc(II) oxide in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at temperatures between 290 and 560 K. ZnO solubilities are observed to increase continuously with temperature and phosphate concentration. At higher phosphate concentrations, a solid phase transformation to NaZnPO{sub 4} is observed. NaZnPO{sub 4} solubilities are retrograde with temperature. The measured solubility behavior is examined via a Zn(II) ion hydrolysis/complexing model and thermodynamic functions for the hydrolysis/complexing reaction equilibria are obtained from a least-squares analysis of the data. The existence of two new zinc(II) ion complexes is reported for the first time: Zn(OH){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sup 2{minus}} and Zn(OH){sub 3}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sup 2{minus}}. A summary of thermochemical properties for species in the systems ZnO-H{sub 2}O and ZnO-Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-H{sub 2}O is also provided. 21 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

Ziemniak, S.E.; Jones, M.E.; Combs, K.E.S.

1990-02-01

428

Chromium and Ruthenium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films for Propane Sensing Applications  

PubMed Central

Chromium and ruthenium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Cr) and (ZnO:Ru) thin solid films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by the sol-gel dip-coating method. A 0.6 M solution of zinc acetate dihydrate dissolved in 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine was used as basic solution. Chromium (III) acetylacetonate and Ruthenium (III) trichloride were used as doping sources. The Ru incorporation and its distribution profile into the films were proved by the SIMS technique. The morphology and structure of the films were studied by SEM microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements, respectively. The SEM images show porous surfaces covered by small grains with different grain size, depending on the doping element, and the immersions number into the doping solutions. The sensing properties of ZnO:Cr and ZnO:Ru films in a propane (C3H8) atmosphere, as a function of the immersions number in the doping solution, have been studied in the present work. The highest sensitivity values were obtained for films doped from five immersions, 5.8 and 900, for ZnO:Cr and ZnO:Ru films, respectively. In order to evidence the catalytic effect of the chromium (Cr) and ruthenium (Ru), the sensing characteristics of undoped ZnO films are reported as well. PMID:23482091

Gómez-Pozos, Heberto; González-Vidal, José Luis; Torres, Gonzalo Alberto; Rodríguez-Baez, Jorge; Maldonado, Arturo; de la Luz Olvera, María; Acosta, Dwight Roberto; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Castañeda, Luis

2013-01-01

429

Continuous synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles in a microfluidic system for photovoltaic application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using a microfluidic system. A continuous and efficient synthetic process was developed based on a microfluidic reactor in which was implemented a time pulsed mixing method that had been optimized using numerical simulations and experimental methods. Numerical simulations revealed that efficient mixing conditions could be obtained over the frequency range 5-15 Hz. This system used ethanol solutions containing 30 mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or 10 mM dehydrated zinc acetate (Zn(OAc)2) under 5 Hz pulsed conditions, which provided the optimal mixing performance conditions. The ZnO NPs prepared using the microfluidic synthetic system or batch-processed system were validated by several analytical methods, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV/VIS NIR and zeta (?) potential analysis. Bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells were fabricated with the synthesized ZnO NPs to investigate the practicability and compared with batch-process synthesized ZnO NPs. The results showed that microfluidic synthesized ZnO NPs had good preservability and stability in working solution and the synthetic microfluidic system provided a low-cost, environmentally friendly approach to the continuous production of ZnO NPs.

Kang, Hyun Wook; Leem, Juyoung; Yoon, Sang Youl; Sung, Hyung Jin

2014-02-01

430

The repeated dose toxicity of a zinc oxide/hexachloroethane smoke.  

PubMed

Mice, rats and guinea pigs were exposed to the smoke produced by ignition of a zinc oxide/hexachloroethane pyrotechnic composition, 1 h/day, 5 days/week, at three different dose levels, together with controls. The animals received 100 exposures except for the high dose guinea pigs, which underwent 15 exposures, because of high death rate during the first few days of exposure. The test material had very little effect on weight gain, but there was a high rate of early deaths in the top dose of mice. A variety of incidental findings was seen in both decedents and survivors, but organ specific toxicity was, with one exception, confined to the respiratory tract. The most important of these findings was a statistically significant increase in the frequency of alveologenic carcinoma in the high dose group mice (p less than 0.01) and a statistically significant trend in the prevalence of the same tumour over all dose groups and the controls. A variety of inflammatory changes was seen in the lungs of all species and some appeared to be treatment-related. Fatty change in the mouse liver was more common in the middle and high dose groups than the controls. The aetiology of the tumour incidence is discussed and it is pointed out that hexachloroethane and zinc, as well as carbon tetrachloride, which may be present in the smoke, may be animal carcinogens in appropriate circumstances. Carbon tetrachloride is a known human carcinogen. PMID:3196147

Marrs, T C; Colgrave, H F; Edginton, J A; Brown, R F; Cross, N L

1988-01-01

431

Continuous synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles in a microfluidic system for photovoltaic application.  

PubMed

This study describes the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using a microfluidic system. A continuous and efficient synthetic process was developed based on a microfluidic reactor in which was implemented a time pulsed mixing method that had been optimized using numerical simulations and experimental methods. Numerical simulations revealed that efficient mixing conditions could be obtained over the frequency range 5-15 Hz. This system used ethanol solutions containing 30 mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or 10 mM dehydrated zinc acetate (Zn(OAc)2) under 5 Hz pulsed conditions, which provided the optimal mixing performance conditions. The ZnO NPs prepared using the microfluidic synthetic system or batch-processed system were validated by several analytical methods, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV/VIS NIR and zeta (?) potential analysis. Bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells were fabricated with the synthesized ZnO NPs to investigate the practicability and compared with batch-process synthesized ZnO NPs. The results showed that microfluidic synthesized ZnO NPs had good preservability and stability in working solution and the synthetic microfluidic system provided a low-cost, environmentally friendly approach to the continuous production of ZnO NPs. PMID:24469327

Kang, Hyun Wook; Leem, Juyoung; Yoon, Sang Youl; Sung, Hyung Jin

2014-03-01

432

Structural, optical and electrical properties of zinc oxide thin films deposited by a spray pyrolysis technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique decomposition of zinc acetate dihydrate in an ethanol solution with 30 mL of deposition rate, the ZnO thin films were deposited at two different temperatures: 300 and 350 °C. The substrates were heated using the solar cells method. The substrate was R217102 glass, whose size was 30 × 17.5 × 1 mm3. The films exhibit a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a strong (002) preferred orientation. The higher value of crystallite size is attained for sprayed films at 350 °C, which is probably due to an improvement of the crystallinity of the films at this point. The average transmittance of obtain films is about 90%–95%, as measured by a UV—vis analyzer. The band gap energy varies from 3.265 to 3.294 eV for the deposited ZnO thin film at 300 and 350 °C, respectively. The electrical resistivity measured of our films are in the order 0.36 ?·cm.

Aoun, Yacine; Benhaoua, Boubaker; Gasmi, Brahim; Benramache, Said

2015-01-01

433

Effects of physicochemical properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles on cellular uptake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have been used as a source of zinc, an essential trace element in food industry and also widely applied to various cosmetic products. However, there are few researches demonstrating that the cellular uptake behaviours of ZnO with respect to the physicochemical characteristics such as particle size and surface charge in human cells. In this study, we evaluated the cellular uptake of ZnO with two different sizes (20 and 70 nm) and different charges (positive and negative). Human lung epithelial cells were exposed to ZnO for a given time, and then the uptake amount of ZnO was measured with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results showed that the smaller sized ZnO could more easily enter the cells than the larger sized ZnO. In terms of surface charge, positively charged ZnO showed high cellular uptake compared to ZnO with negative charge. The internalization pathway of positively charged ZnO nanoparticles was determined to be primarily related to the energy-dependent endocytosis. It is, therefore, concluded that the particle size and surface charge of ZnO nanoparticles are critical factors influencing on their cellular uptake. Understanding the cellular uptake behaviours of nanoparticles with respect to physicochemical properties may be important to predict their toxicity potential on human.

Yu, J.; Baek, M.; Chung, H. E.; Choi, S. J.

2011-07-01

434

Structural and photoluminescence properties of terbium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present in this paper a study of the structural and photoluminescence (PL) properties of terbium (Tb) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles synthesized by a simple low temperature chemical precipitation method, using zinc acetate and terbium nitrate in an isopropanol medium with diethanolamine (DEA) as the capping agent at 60 °C. The as-prepared samples were heat treated and the PL of the annealed samples were studied. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD patterns show the pattern of typical ZnO nanoparticles and correspond with the standard XRD pattern given by JCPDS card No. 36-1451, showing the hexagonal phase structure. The PL intensity was enhanced due to Tb3+ doping, and it decreased at higher concentrations of Tb3+ doping after reaching a certain optimum concentration. The PL spectra of Tb3+ doped samples exhibited blue, bluish green, and green emissions at 460 nm (5D3 - 7F3), 484 nm (5D4 - 7F6), and 530 nm (5D4 - 7F5), respectively, which were more intense than the emissions for the undoped ZnO sample. Based on the results, an energy level schematic diagram was proposed to explain the possible electron transition processes.

Ningthoujam Surajkumar, Singh; Shougaijam Dorendrajit, Singh; Sanoujam Dhiren, Meetei

2014-05-01

435

Preventive effects of zinc against psychological stress-induced iron dyshomeostasis, erythropoiesis inhibition, and oxidative stress status in rats.  

PubMed

Psychological stress (PS) could cause decreased iron absorption and iron redistribution in body resulting in low iron concentration in the bone marrow and inhibition of erythropoiesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of zinc supplementation on the iron metabolism, erythropoiesis, and oxidative stress status in PS-induced rats. Thirty-two rats were divided into two groups randomly: control group and zinc supplementation group. Each group was subdivided into two subgroups: control group and PS group. Rats received zinc supplementation before PS exposure established by a communication box. We investigated the serum corticosterone (CORT) level; iron apparent absorption; iron contents in liver, spleen, cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and serum; hematological parameters; malondialdehyde (MDA); reduced glutathione (GSH); and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Compared to PS-treated rats with normal diet, the PS-treated rats with zinc supplementation showed increased iron apparent absorption, serum iron, hemoglobin, red blood cell, GSH, and SOD activities; while the serum CORT; iron contents in liver, spleen, and regional brain; and MDA decreased. These results indicated that dietary zinc supplementation had preventive effects against PS-induced iron dyshomeostasis, erythropoiesis inhibition, and oxidative stress status in rats. PMID:22274754

Li, Yingjie; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Qian, Jianxin; Chen, Xinmin; Shen, Zhilei; Tao, Liping; Li, Hongxia; Qin, Haihong; Li, Min; Shen, Hui

2012-06-01

436

Effect that the relative abundance of copper oxide and zinc oxide corrosion has on the visualization of fingerprints formed from fingerprint sweat corrosion of brass.  

PubMed

From an examination of the fingerprint sweat corrosion of 40 different individuals on ? phase brass, we show that an increase in visualization can be achieved by applying a negative potential to the brass followed by the introduction of a conducting powder. Previously, this technique has been demonstrated only for a positive applied potential and a corrosion product that was dominated by p-type copper (I) oxide. X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopic analyses of the surface of the corroded brass show that an increase in visualization with a negative applied potential corresponds with an increase in the concentration of n-type zinc oxide relative to p-type copper (I) oxide with the Cu:Zn ratio <0.8:1. Work function conditions for the formation of an n-type zinc oxide/brass rectifying Schottky barrier are fulfilled. PMID:21470225

Bond, John W

2011-07-01

437

Ultra-long multicolor belts and unique morphologies of tin-doped zinc oxide nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the synthesis, characterization and application of pure and tin (Sn) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures with unique optical properties. Pencil-shaped nanorods were synthesized using a mixture of pure ZnO and carbon as starting material. The growth mechanism of these nanorods is discussed in detail. Sn-doped ultra-long belt-shape ZnO structures show many different colors in a single belt under fluorescent light in an optical microscope. These different colors are attributed to the presence of different defects in the ZnO lattice. X-ray diffraction and UV-VIS spectroscopy results are in good agreement with each other. A major application for these belts is likely to be in a single-particle sensor. A single belt based UV sensor is also fabricated and the results suggest that these photoconducting belts can serve as highly sensitive UV-light detectors.

Zia, S.; Amin, M.; Manzoor, U.; Bhatti, A. S.

2014-04-01

438

Analysis of printed silver electrode on amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver (Ag) electrodes printed on amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-InGaZnO) were investigated to analyze their effect on thin-film transistor (TFT) characteristics. The TFT characteristics of samples annealed at 250 °C deteriorated seriously owing to an aggregation of Ag. In addition, the TFT characteristics deteriorated even for 200 °C annealing with oxygen and nitrogen atmospheres. From measurements of secondary ion mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, we found that carbon and hydrogen contained in printed Ag electrodes seriously affect the TFT characteristics. The reduction and protection against these impurities in Ag ink is the key point in the application of printed Ag electrodes to a-InGaZnO TFTs.

Ueoka, Yoshihiro; Nishibayashi, Takahiro; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Yamazaki, Haruka; Osada, Yukihiro; Horita, Masahiro; Uraoka, Yukiharu

2014-01-01

439

Electroluminescence from isolated defects in zinc oxide, towards electrically triggered single photon sources at room temperature  

E-print Network

Single photon sources are required for a wide range of applications in quantum information science, quantum cryptography and quantum communications. However, so far majority of room temperature emitters are only excited optically, which limits their proper integration into scalable devices. In this work, we overcome this limitation and present room temperature electrically triggered light emission from localized defects in zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and thin films. The devices emit at the red spectral range and show excellent rectifying behavior. The emission is stable over an extensive period of time, providing an important prerequisite for practical devices. Our results open up possibilities to build new ZnO based quantum integrated devices that incorporate solid-state single photon sources for quantum information technologies.

Choi, Sumin; Gentle, Angus; Ton-That, Cuong; Phillips, Matthew R; Aharonovich, Igor

2015-01-01

440

In situ analyses on negative ions in the indium-gallium-zinc oxide sputtering process  

SciTech Connect

The origin of negative ions in the dc magnetron sputtering process using a ceramic indium-gallium-zinc oxide target has been investigated by in situ analyses. The observed negative ions are mainly O{sup -} with energies corresponding to the target voltage, which originates from the target and barely from the reactive gas (O{sub 2}). Dissociation of ZnO{sup -}, GaO{sup -}, ZnO{sub 2}{sup -}, and GaO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals also contributes to the total negative ion flux. Furthermore, we find that some sputtering parameters, such as the type of sputtering gas (Ar or Kr), sputtering power, total gas pressure, and magnetic field strength at the target surface, can be used to control the energy distribution of the O{sup -} ion flux.

Jia, Junjun; Torigoshi, Yoshifumi; Shigesato, Yuzo [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan)

2013-07-01