Sample records for zinc oxide azo

  1. Preparation of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nano particles by hydrothermal synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esin Burunkaya; Nadir Kiraz; Ömer Kesmez; H. Erdem Çamurlu; Meltem Asiltürk; Ertu?rul Arpaç

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanometric particles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Aluminum nitrate hydrate, aluminum\\u000a sec-butoxide and zinc nitrate hydrate were used as the starting materials, and n-propanol and 2-butanol were used as solvents.\\u000a Ratio of Al2O3 in ZnO was kept at 10 wt%. Reaction was conducted in a Teflon autoclave at 175–225 °C for 5 h. Ratios of alcohol, H2O

  2. Exploitation of zinc oxide impregnated chitosan beads for the photocatalytic decolorization of an azo dye.

    PubMed

    Farzana, M Hasmath; Meenakshi, Sankaran

    2015-01-01

    Investigations were made to evaluate and distinguish the photocatalytic decolorization of Reactive Red 2 (RR) dye using zinc oxide (ZnO) and zinc oxide impregnated chitosan beads (ZCB) under UV and visible light irradiations. To enhance the photoresponse of ZnO toward visible light, the modification of ZnO using biopolymer, chitosan, has been carried out and synthesized the ZCB. Both ZnO and ZCB photocatalysts were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectra (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). Experiments were conducted to optimize various parameters, viz., irradiation time, the amount of catalyst, pH, co-ions and initial concentration of dye under UV and visible light irradiations. The percentage of decolorization of RR dye using ZnO and ZCB under UV as well as visible light is in the order of ZnO/UV > ZCB/vis > ZnO/vis > ZCB/UV. The mineralization/detoxification of RR dye was assessed by measuring chemical oxygen demand (COD) at optimized conditions. The kinetic studies demonstrated that the photocatalytic reactions followed the pseudo-first-order model. The reusability of as-synthesized ZCB was assessed. PMID:25304748

  3. Aluminum doped zinc oxide for organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, G. B.; Hinds, S.; Sargent, E. H.; Tsang, S. W.; Mordoukhovski, L.; Lu, Z. H.

    2009-05-01

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) was grown via magnetron sputtering as a low-cost alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO) for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Postdeposition ozone treatment resulted in devices with lower series resistance, increased open-circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency double that of devices fabricated on untreated AZO. Furthermore, cells fabricated using ozone treated AZO and standard ITO displayed comparable performance.

  4. Aluminum doped zinc oxide for organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Murdoch, G. B.; Hinds, S.; Sargent, E. H.; Tsang, S. W.; Mordoukhovski, L.; Lu, Z. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada)

    2009-05-25

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) was grown via magnetron sputtering as a low-cost alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO) for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Postdeposition ozone treatment resulted in devices with lower series resistance, increased open-circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency double that of devices fabricated on untreated AZO. Furthermore, cells fabricated using ozone treated AZO and standard ITO displayed comparable performance.

  5. Light extraction enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes using aluminum zinc oxide embedded anodes.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ching-Ming; Lin, Bo-Ting; Zeng, Yin-Xing; Lin, Wei-Ming; Wu, Wen-Tuan

    2014-12-15

    Aluminum zinc oxide (AZO) has been embedded onto indium tin oxide (ITO) anode to enhance the light extraction from an organic light-emitting diode (OLED). The embedded AZO provides deflection and scattering interfaces on the newly generated AZO/organics and AZO/ITO interfaces rather than the conventional ITO/organic interface. The current efficiency of AZO embedded OLEDs was enhanced by up to 64%, attributed to the improved light extraction by additionally created reflection and scattering of emitted light on the AZO/ITO interfaces which was roughed in AZO embedding process. The current efficiency was found to increase with the increasing AZO embedded area ratio, but limited by the accompanying increases in haze and electrical resistance of the AZO embedded ITO film. PMID:25607483

  6. Co-sputtered Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Film as Transparent Anode for Organic Light-emitting Diodes

    E-print Network

    Co-sputtered Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Film as Transparent Anode for Organic Light and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China ABSTRACT Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO that MTDATA matches better with AZO than CuPc, which served as hole injection layer. Keywords: Aluminum doped

  7. Zinc oxide hexagram whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. X.; Sun, X. W.; Dong, Z. L.; Zhu, G. P.; Cui, Y. P.

    2006-02-01

    Through vapor-phase transport method, zinc oxide hexagram whiskers with uniform size and morphology were fabricated by heating a mixture source of zinc oxide, indium oxide, and graphite powders in air. Each whisker presented a hexagonal disk core closed by six equivalent surfaces of {101¯0} and was surrounded by side nanorods grown along the diagonal of the core disk in the 6-symmetric directions of ±[112¯0], ±[21¯1¯0], and ±[12¯10]. Based on the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, the growth process of the zinc oxide hexagrams were discussed by considering the thermal dynamic properties of zinc oxide and indium oxide.

  8. Zinc oxide hexagram whiskers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. X. Xu; X. W. Sun; Z. L. Dong; G. P. Zhu; Y. P. Cui

    2006-01-01

    Through vapor-phase transport method, zinc oxide hexagram whiskers with uniform size and morphology were fabricated by heating a mixture source of zinc oxide, indium oxide, and graphite powders in air. Each whisker presented a hexagonal disk core closed by six equivalent surfaces of {1010} and was surrounded by side nanorods grown along the diagonal of the core disk in the

  9. An Evaluation of Zinc Oxide Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is attractive for photovoltaic applications due to its conductivity when doped with aluminum and transparency to the visible range of sunlight, i.e. minimized optical and electrical loss. Zinc oxide can form a stable n-n isotype heterojunction with silicon, which is comparable with conventional p-n junctions. The performance of such a junction heavily relies on the Fermi energy tuning of ZnO by Al doping. As an n-type dopant to ZnO, Al greatly improves the conductivity of ZnO. Moreover, Al-doped ZnO (AZO) is relatively abundant and cheap compared to other transparent conductive oxides (TCO), so that potentially the cost of electricity generation ($/KW) can be decreased. In order to boost the poor open circuit voltages resulted from the structures such as ITO/n-Si and AZO/n-Si, a thin 40 nm AZO film was introduced in our design as a buffer layer between the emitter and base. Our goal is to discover what Al content in the buffer layer achieves the optimum performance. Aluminum doped ZnO films were grown by a co-sputtering method which was a combination of RF sputtered ZnO with a fixed power of 300 W and DC sputtered Al with varied powers of 15-40 W. The Al content in AZO increases with increasing power used in Al sputtering. In this research, two types of heterojunction solar cells, ITO/AZO/n-Si and AZO/AZO/n-Si, were fabricated, analyzed and compared. The middle layer of AZO is the buffer layer which has varied Al doping and plays a key role in improving open circuit voltage. For the structure AZO/AZO/n-Si, the top emitter AZO layer has a fixed Al doping of 6.12 wt% at which AZO demonstrates the highest conductivity. With Al doping of the buffer AZO layer ranging from 0-7 wt.%, 6.34 wt.% of Al doping yields the best performance for both types of solar cell structures. At its best performance, ITO/AZO/n-Si demonstrates an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.42 V, a short circuit current density (J sc) of 26.0 mA/cm2, and a conversion efficiency of 5.03%, while AZO/AZO/n-Si shows a Voc of 0.3 V, a Jsc of 24.7 mA/cm2 and a conversion efficiency of 3.99%. The device ITO/AZO/n-Si which has 6.34% Al doped ZnO buffer improves the Voc up to 0.42V from 0.2V for the cell without a ZnO buffer layer. Similarly, AZO/AZO/n-Si improves the Voc to 0.3 V from 0.26 V for the cell without a buffer layer. The research results have shown that both types of structure provide higher Voc than the structure without a buffer layer. The increase of Voc can be attributed to the fact that the buffer layer engineers the Fermi level of ZnO to heighten the isotype junction barrier. Our capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements showed that the junction formed with ZnO and intrinsic Si has the highest barrier height compared to ZnO/nSi or ZnO/pSi junctions. This could imply that reducing the doping density of Si can possibly improve the barrier height at the ZnO/Si interface and therefore improve the open-circuit voltage. To study the carrier transport mechanisms at ZnO/nSi junctions, current-voltage-temperature (I-V-T) measurements were conducted. As a result, in the forward direction, AZO(6.34 wt%)/nSi junction shows a combination of thermionic emission and recombination at intermediate voltages and an existence of space charge limited current (SCLC) at high voltages. On the other hand, AZO(3.49 wt%)/nSi junction has a mechanism of a combination of tunneling and recombination at intermediate voltages and SCLC in the ballistic regime at high voltages.

  10. Co-sputtered Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Film as Transparent Anode for Organic Light-emitting Diodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiying Chen; Chengfeng Qiu; Huajun Peng; Zhilang Xie; H. S. Kwok

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) is a promising transparent conducting oxide (TCO), which have the advantages of low material cost, low toxicity and chemical stability in reducing ambient over ITO. In this report, AZO was grown by sputtering Al target and ZnO target simultaneously, and the Al dopant concentration can be easily tuned by adjusting sputtering power set. The acquired

  11. Transmittance from visible to mid infra-red in AZO films grown by atomic layer deposition system

    E-print Network

    Tanner, David B.

    rights reserved. Keywords: Aluminum-doped zinc oxide; Transparent conducting oxide; Atomic Layer that the transmittance of aluminum-doped zinc oxide is reported to extend beyond 2500­5000 nm. Following anneal- ing Deposition; Transmittance of AZO; IR transmittance 1. Introduction Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO

  12. Zinc oxide whiskers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Ataev; I. K. Kamilov; V. V. Mamedov

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the first experiments on the production of zinc oxide whiskers in air without crystallization chambers\\u000a or reactors, using CO2-laser radiation. The features of their exciton luminescence are studied, and they are compared with bulk single crystals\\u000a and epitaxial layers of Zno.

  13. Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kim; C. M. Gilmore; J. S. Horwitz; A. Piqué; H. Murata; G. P. Kushto; R. Schlaf; Z. H. Kafafi; D. B. Chrisey

    2000-01-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films (~3000 Å) with low electrical resistivity and high optical transparency have been grown by pulsed-laser deposition on glass substrates without a postdeposition anneal. Films were deposited at substrate temperatures ranging from room temperature to 400 °C in O2 partial pressures ranging from 0.1 to 50 mTorr. For 3000-Å-thick AZO films grown at room temperature

  14. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and...

  15. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and...

  16. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and...

  17. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991...CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and...

  18. Flexible aluminum-doped zinc-oxide thin-film transistor fabricated on plastic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dedong; Chen, Zhuofa; Zhao, Nannan; Wang, Wei; Huang, Fuqing; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2014-03-01

    We have studied processing and characteristics of flexible Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide thin-film transistors (AZO TFTs) fabricated on plastic substrates using radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering. To improve the performance of flexible AZO TFT, we studied effects of device structures on characteristics of the aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin film transistors. The electrical properties of top-gate type and bottom-gate type AZO TFTs were investigated, respectively. The top-gate type AZO TFTs shows a threshold voltage of 1.4 V, a Ion/Ioff current ratio of 1.0×107, a field effect mobility of 28.2 cm2/ V•s, a subthreshold swing of 0.19 V/decade. And the bottom-gate type AZO TFTs shows a threshold voltage of 1.7 V, a Ion/Ioff ratio of 1.0×107, a field effect mobility of 209 cm2/ V•s, a subthreshold swing of 0.16 V/decade, and the off current of less than 10-11A at room temperature. Both TFTs show low threshold voltage, high Ion/Ioff ratio and high field effect mobility. By comparison, the bottom-gate type AZO TFTs shows better characteristics. The flexible AZO-TFT is a very promising low-cost optoelectronic device for the next generation of invisible and flexible electronics due to flexible, transparency, high mobility, and low-temperature processing.

  19. Multipod zinc oxide nanowhiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. X.; Sun, X. W.

    2005-04-01

    Zinc oxide nanowhiskers with multipod structures have been fabricated on copper-coated Si wafer by sintering the mixture of ZnO and graphite powders in air. The multipod nanowhisker shows tetrapod, tripod and hexapod morphologies with legs of 100-500 nm in diameter and several microns in length. The legs of the multipod nanowhisker intercross at a central knot of the whisker. The octahedron twin nucleus is responsible for the tetrapod structure and possibly responsible for the tripod structure as well. The hexapod structure is due to a stacked nucleus of two octahedron nuclei.

  20. Highly stable inverted organic photovoltaics using aluminum-doped zinc oxide as electron transport layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mei-Hsin; Kuo, Ya-Ching; Lin, Hung-Hsuan; Chao, Yi-Ping; Wong, Ming-Show

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate highly stable inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) as electron transport layers fabricated via a non-toxic so-gel process. The conductivity of the AZO layers can be enhanced fourfold as compared to that of intrinsic zinc oxide (ZnO) layers. The transmittance of AZO films is improved and the Haze value of the films is reduced by more than 50% in comparison to that of ZnO. The power conversion efficiency of the device reaches 6.51% and still has approximately 98% of the initial power conversion efficiency (PCE) after over 900 h without encapsulation.

  1. Oxidative dimerization of aromatic amines using tBuOI: entry to unsymmetric aromatic azo compounds.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Youhei; Okumura, Sota; Minakata, Satoshi

    2012-07-27

    It's all the hype: An oxidative dimerization reaction of aromatic amines utilizing tert-butyl hypoiodite (tBuOI) under mild reaction conditions leads to aromatic azo compounds. The method allows access to unsymmetric aromatic azo compounds, which are difficult to prepare by conventional synthetic methods, in a selective manner. PMID:22740244

  2. Degradation of azo dyes by oxidative processes – Laccase and ultrasound treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael M. Tauber; Georg M. Gübitz; Astrid Rehorek

    2008-01-01

    Azo dyes are of synthetic origin and their environmental fate is not well understood. They are resistant to direct aerobic bacterial degradation and form potentially carcinogenic aromatic amines by reduction of the azo group. This study shows that applying the oxidative processes of enzymatic treatment with laccase and ultrasound treatment, both alone and in combination, leads to dye degradation. Laccase

  3. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-07-27

    Varistors and/or resistors are described that include doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  4. Synthesis of nano-sized powders of transparent conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide by electrolysis-modified co-precipitation method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsin-Chun Lu; Chen-Sung Chang; Chia-Wei Li; Yu-Shiang Lin; Chun-Lung Chu; Chi-you Lai

    2008-01-01

    Nano-sized powders of transparent conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) have been successfully prepared by electrolysis-modified co-precipitation method. By adding ammonium hydroxide into the precursor solution prepared by electrolytic dissolution of zinc metal in a buffered electrolyte solution of nitric acid and ammonium nitrate with adequate addition of aluminum nitrate, co-precipitate precursors of AZO with particle size between 30 to 60

  5. Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin film prepared by sol–gel process followed by laser irradiation treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. Tsang; F. L. Wong; M. K. Fung; J. C. Chang; C. S. Lee; S. T. Lee

    2008-01-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were fabricated at a low substrate temperature (300 °C) in air by KrF excimer laser irradiation of sol–gel spin-coated films. Structural, electrical and optical properties of the laser-irradiated films at different laser energies were studied and compared with those prepared by conventional high-temperature processing. The 200 nm laser-irradiated AZO film shows a resistivity of 44×10?3 ?-cm and about

  6. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide as anode for organic near-infrared photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xing; Fang, Fang; Su, Zisheng; Fang, Xuan; Zhang, Guang; Wang, Junbo; Wei, Zhipeng; Li, Jinhua; Wang, Xiaohua

    2014-08-01

    High transparency and low resistivity aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were prepared by atomic layer deposition. The AZO films show a transparency of about 80% in the near-infrared (NIR) region and a resistivity of the order of 10-3 ? cm. Organic small molecule NIR-photodetectors (NIR-PDs) with AZO as the anode have been demonstrated for the first time with lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) and C60 as the donor and acceptor, respectively. The optimized NIR-PD exhibited an external quantum efficiency of 6.2% at 760 nm. This result indicated that AZO can be used as the anode for high efficiency NIR-PDs.

  7. ENZ waveguide of Al-doped zinc oxide for telecommunication applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alisafaee, Hossein; Fullager, Daniel B.; Fiddy, Michael A.

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the incorporation of an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) material into a waveguide structure in order to suppress dispersion associated with the interaction of light with material in the core, guiding layer. ENZ metamaterials can provide a mechanism for air-core waveguides by introduction of a cladding medium exhibiting a refractive index less than unity. We study the application of aluminum zinc oxide (AZO), a transparent conducting oxide, as the candidate for ENZ waveguides. For this purpose, we design a metamaterial cladding layer with ENZ properties derived from nanoparticles of AZO, and investigate the resulting loss and dispersion of guided optical signals.

  8. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc oxide is a white or yellow-white amorphous powder manufactured by the French process (described as the indirect process whereby zinc metal isolated from the zinc-containing ore is vaporized and...

  9. Annealing Effects on Contact Properties of Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Ke Bin; Gong, Hao; Chor, Eng Fong

    Aluminum Zinc Oxide (AZO) thin films are grown on glass substrates by RF Magnetron Sputtering using a single target of zinc oxide (99 wt%) and aluminum oxide (1 wt%) with argon as the plasma. Photolithographic process is then performed on the films in order to obtain a Transmission Line Model structure (TLM) of the metal contact system, namely aluminum and gold. The specific contact resistivity, ?c, of these two metal-semiconductor systems, which will undergo different rapid thermal annealing (RTA) environment, are determined. X-Ray diffraction patterns for these samples are obtained to investigate phase formations or micro-structural changes so as to justify for the differences in specific contact resistivity obtained for these contact systems. The different RTA environment are simulated by purging either nitrogen or argon gas, with a pressure of 40 psi at a temperature of 400°C for 60 s and annealing in vacuum (10-6 Torr) also at the same temperature and duration. One-dimensional TLM (1D-TLM) measurements are performed on the TLM structures to obtain the specific contact resistivity, ?c. Results show that aluminum contacts on AZO without RTA give the lowest ?c as compared to those in other environment, while gold contacts on AZO annealed in vacuum yield the lowest ?c. Adhesion of aluminum contacts on AZO is good even when subjected to ultrasonic bath test but not true for the case of gold contact, which adheres poorly on AZO films.

  10. Highly conductive and transparent reduced graphene oxide/aluminium doped zinc oxide nanocomposite for the next generation solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Ian Y. Y.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, aluminum-doped zinc oxide(AZO)/reduced graphene oxide nano-composite thin films are synthesized by a one-pot, solution-processed method. The nanocomposite film has been extensively characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray-diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Hall effect measurement and UV-Vis spectroscopy. It is found that the controlled addition of reduced graphene oxide into AZO can lower the film's resistivity without causing significant degradation of optical transparency. In addition, nanocomposite films post-annealed at process temperature at 500 °C possesses the lowest resistivity and the highest optical transmittance and that further increases in the annealing temperature degrades the film's property due to nucleation of other phases of the AZO.

  11. Impact of thin metal layer on the optical and electrical properties of indium-doped-tin oxide and aluminum-doped-zinc oxide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Melvin David; Park, Yun Chang; Kim, Joondong

    2015-06-01

    The distinguished transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layers like indium-doped-tin oxide (ITO) and aluminum-doped-zinc oxide (AZO) layers were prepared in different combinations with and without thin Ni metal layer. The optical and electrical properties of prepared samples were analyzed and compared with the objective to understand the role and influence of the Ni layer in each TCO combination. The highest transmittance value of 91.49% was exhibited by prepared AZO layers. Even though if the transmittance of Ni inserting TCO layers was marginally reduced than that of the ordinary TCO samples, they exhibited balanced optical properties with enhanced electrical properties. Carrier concentration of indium doped tin-oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide (ITO/AZO) bilayer sample is increased more than double the times when the Ni layer was inserted between ITO and AZO. Thin layer of Ni in between TCO layers reduced sheet resistance and offered substantial transmittance, so that the figure of merit (FOM) value of Ni embedding TCOs was greater than that of TCOs without Ni layer. The ITO/Ni/AZO combination provided optimum results in all the electrical properties. As compared to other TCO/metal combinations, the overall performance of ITO/Ni/AZO tri-layer combination was appreciable. These results show that the optical and electrical properties of TCO layers could be enhanced by inserting a Ni layer with optimum thickness in between them.

  12. Zinc Oxide and Iron Phthalocyanine(FePc) based Hybrid Inorganic-Organic p-n Junction Diode Using Heavily Doped Zinc Oxide Transparent Conducting Electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Budhi Singh; Subhasis Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of FePc\\/ZnO hybrid p-n junction device using Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) as the transparent conducting electrode. The structure of such devices consist of ZnO and an organic molecular semiconductors, in which ZnO and Organic thin films served as n and p-type component respectively. We have obtained a rectification factor greater than ~102 and current

  13. Multi-wavelength Raman scattering of nanostructured Al-doped zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, V.; Ghidelli, M.; Gondoni, P. [Dipartimento di Energia and NEMAS, Center for Nanoengineered Materials and Surfaces, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Casari, C. S.; Li Bassi, A. [Dipartimento di Energia and NEMAS, Center for Nanoengineered Materials and Surfaces, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Center for Nano Science and Technology PoliMI, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Pascoli 70/3, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-02-21

    In this work we present a detailed Raman scattering investigation of zinc oxide and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films characterized by a variety of nanoscale structures and morphologies and synthesized by pulsed laser deposition under different oxygen pressure conditions. The comparison of Raman spectra for pure ZnO and AZO films with similar morphology at the nano/mesoscale allows to investigate the relation between Raman features (peak or band positions, width, relative intensity) and material properties such as local structural order, stoichiometry, and doping. Moreover Raman measurements with three different excitation lines (532, 457, and 325?nm) point out a strong correlation between vibrational and electronic properties. This observation confirms the relevance of a multi-wavelength Raman investigation to obtain a complete structural characterization of advanced doped oxide materials.

  14. Different properties of aluminum doped zinc oxide nanostructured thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Bidmeshkipour, Samina, E-mail: samina204@gmail.com; Shahtahmasebi, Nasser [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanostructured thin films are prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on glass substrate using specifically designed ZnO target containing different amount of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder as the Al doping source. The optical properties of the aluminium doped zinc oxide films are investigated. The topography of the deposited films were investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Variation of the refractive index by annealing temperature are considered and it is seen that the refractive index increases by increasing the annealing temperature.

  15. Inserted layer of AZO thin film with high work function between transparent conductive oxide and p-layer and its solar cell application.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeongsik; Lee, Jaehyeong; Lee, Youn-Jung; Kim, Heewon; Jung, Junhee; Hussain, S Qamar; Park, Jinjoo; Shin, Chonghoon; Kim, Sunbo; Ahn, Shihyun; Yil, Junsin

    2013-10-01

    We report aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) films with high work function as an insertion layer between transparent conducting oxides (TCO) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC:H) layer to improve open circuit voltage (V(oc)) and fill factor (FF) for thin film solar cells. Amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells exhibit poor fill factors due to a Schottky barrier at the interface between a-SiC:H window and TCO. The interface engineering is carried out by inserting an AZO layer with high work function (4.95 eV at O2 = 2 sccm). As a result, V(oc) and FF improved significantly. FF as high as 63.35% is obtained. PMID:24245205

  16. Efficient indium-tin-oxide free inverted organic solar cells based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide cathode and low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide electron extraction layer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu, E-mail: cfzhang@xidian.edu.cn; Wang, Zhizhe; Zhang, Jincheng; Tang, Shi; Wei, Wei; Sun, Li; Hao, Yue, E-mail: yhao@xidian.edu.cn [State Key Discipline Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, No. 2 South Taibai Road, Xi'an 710071 (China)

    2014-06-16

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) cathode, low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron extraction layer, and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl):[6, 6]-phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester blend were realized in this work. The resulted IOSC with ZnO annealed at 150?°C shows the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.01%, if decreasing the ZnO annealing temperature to 100?°C, the obtained IOSC also shows a PCE of 2.76%, and no light soaking issue is observed. It is found that this ZnO film not only acts as an effective buffer layer but also slightly improves the optical transmittance of AZO substrates. Further, despite the relatively inferior air-stability, these un-encapsulated AZO/ZnO IOSCs show comparable PCEs to the referenced ITO/ZnO IOSCs, which demonstrates that the AZO cathode is a potential alternative to ITO in IOSCs. Meanwhile, this simple ZnO process is compatible with large area deposition and plastic substrates, and is promising to be widely used in IOSCs and other relative fields.

  17. Efficient indium-tin-oxide free inverted organic solar cells based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide cathode and low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide electron extraction layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu; Wang, Zhizhe; Zhang, Jincheng; Tang, Shi; Wei, Wei; Sun, Li; Hao, Yue

    2014-06-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) cathode, low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron extraction layer, and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl):[6, 6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester blend were realized in this work. The resulted IOSC with ZnO annealed at 150 °C shows the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.01%, if decreasing the ZnO annealing temperature to 100 °C, the obtained IOSC also shows a PCE of 2.76%, and no light soaking issue is observed. It is found that this ZnO film not only acts as an effective buffer layer but also slightly improves the optical transmittance of AZO substrates. Further, despite the relatively inferior air-stability, these un-encapsulated AZO/ZnO IOSCs show comparable PCEs to the referenced ITO/ZnO IOSCs, which demonstrates that the AZO cathode is a potential alternative to ITO in IOSCs. Meanwhile, this simple ZnO process is compatible with large area deposition and plastic substrates, and is promising to be widely used in IOSCs and other relative fields.

  18. Salicylic acid as a tridentate anchoring group for azo-bridged zinc porphyrin in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gou, Faliang; Jiang, Xu; Li, Bo; Jing, Huanwang; Zhu, Zhenping

    2013-12-11

    Two series dyes of azo-bridged zinc porphyrins have been devised, synthesized, and performed in dye-sensitized solar cells, in which salicylic acids and azo groups were introduced as a new anchoring group and ?-conjugated bridge via a simple synthetic procedure. The representation of the new dyes has been investigated by optical, photovoltaic, and electrochemical means. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of their DSSC devices has been improved compared with other DSSC devices sensitized by symmetrical porphyrin dyes. The results revealed that tridentate binding modes between salicylic acid and TiO2 nanoparticles could enhance the efficiency of electron injection. The binding modes between salicylic acid and TiO2 nanoparticles may play a crucial role in the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs. PMID:24229086

  19. Dependence of aluminum-doped zinc oxide work function on surface cleaning method as studied by ultraviolet and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiyan; Feng, Quanyu; Jiang, Kemin; Huang, Jinhua; Zhang, Xianpeng; Song, Weijie; Tan, Ruiqin

    2011-02-01

    The dependence of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) work function on surface treatment, i.e. acetone solvent cleaning and ultraviolet (UV)-ozone cleaning, was studied by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Comparing different cleaning methods, UV-ozone treated AZO achieved relative higher work function of 4.26 eV; whereas acetone solvent treated AZO had relative lower work function of 3.94 eV. Two factors, stoichiometry ratio of [OZnAl]/[Zn] + 1.5[Al] and carbon contamination on AZO surface, affected the work function and, moreover, the stoichiometry ratio was supposed to be the controlling factor. It was concluded that AZO with high stoichiometry ratio and reduced carbon concentration possessed high work function.

  20. Comparative toxicity of a zinc salt, zinc powder and zinc oxide to Eisenia fetida, Enchytraeus albidus and Folsomia candida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koen Lock; Colin R. Janssen

    2003-01-01

    The pore water zinc concentration and the calcium chloride extracted zinc fraction are higher in the soils spiked with a zinc salt (ZnCl2) compared to soils spiked with zinc oxide or zinc powder. Based on total zinc concentrations in the soil, the acute toxicity of zinc salt to the compost worm Eisenia fetida, the potworm Enchytraeus albidus and the springtail

  1. Comparison of carrier transport mechanism under UV/Vis illumination in an AZO photodetector and an AZO/p-Si heterojunction photodiode produced by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shasti, M.; Mortezaali, A.; Dariani, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) layer is deposited on p-type silicon (p-Si) by spray pyrolysis method to fabricate ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) photodetector as Al doping process can have positive effect on the photodetector performance. Morphology, crystalline structure, and Al concentration of AZO layer are investigated by SEM, XRD, and EDX. The goal of this study is to analyze the mechanism of carrier transport by means of current-voltage characteristics under UV/Vis illumination in two cases: (a) electrodes connected to the surface of AZO layer and (b) electrodes connected to cross section of heterojunction (AZO/p-Si). Measurements indicate that the AZO/p-Si photodiode exhibits a higher photocurrent and lower photoresponse time under visible illumination with respect to AZO photodetector; while under UV illumination, the above result is inversed. Besides, the internal junction field of AZO/p-Si heterojunction plays an important role on this mechanism.

  2. Low-emitting surfaces prepared by applying transparent aluminum-doped zinc oxide coatings via a sol–gel process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rydzek; M. Reidinger; M. Arduini-Schuster; J. Manara

    Polycrystalline transparent conductive oxide thin films based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) have been prepared on soda-lime glass by using an inorganic sol–gel process and the dip-coating technique. The multilayered films were crystallized on the substrate and subsequently annealed in a reducing atmosphere to enhance the number of free charge carriers. Significant characteristics of the functional coatings, such as crystallinity,

  3. Degradation of transparent conductive oxides; Mechanistic insights across configurations and exposures

    E-print Network

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Degradation of transparent conductive oxides; Mechanistic insights across configurations, Cleveland, OH, USA ABSTRACT Understanding transparent conductive oxide (TCO) degradation is critical, like indium tin oxide (ITO), aluminum- doped zinc oxide (AZO) and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO

  4. Fabrication and characteristics of high-performance and high-stability aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Dongfang; Han, Dedong; Huang, Fuqing; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Suoming; Qi, Lin; Cong, Yingying; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Fully transparent aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) were successfully fabricated on glass substrates at room temperature. Superior properties, such as a high saturation mobility of 59.3 cm2 V-1 s-1, a positive threshold voltage of 1.3 V, a steep subthreshold swing of 122.9 mV/dec, an off-state current on the order of 10-12 A, and an on/off ratio of 2.7 × 108, were obtained. The electrical properties of the AZO TFTs were successively studied within a period of six months. Small property degenerations could be observed from the test results obtained within the study period, which proved the high-performance and high-stability characteristics of AZO TFTs. Furthermore, hysteresis loop scanning of AZO TFTs was performed, and a small hysteresis could be detected in the scanning curves, which suggested the superior properties of a dielectric and a channel-insulator interface. Lastly, we succeeded in manufacturing an organic LED (OLED) flat panel display panel driven by AZO TFTs and obtained an excellent display effect from it. We believe that AZO TFTs are a promising candidate successor to Si-based TFTs in next-generation flat panel displays.

  5. Effect on structural, optical and electrical properties of aluminum-doped zinc oxide films using diode laser annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Tseng, Shih-Feng; Chung, Chien-Kai; Chiang, Donyau; Huang, Kuo-Cheng; Lin, Keh-Moh; Li, Liang-Yan; Chen, Ming-Fei

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the laser annealing characteristics of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films using a diode laser source (808 nm) combined with moving stage with varying parameters, including laser fluence and speed of moving stage in air atmosphere. The commercial AZO thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on glass substrates. The films characteristics were systematically analyzed using a field emission scanning electron microscope, an atomic force microscope (AFM), an X-ray diffraction (XRD) equipment, an ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectrophotometer, a four points probe instrument, and a Hall effect measurement system. The experimental results indicate that varying the laser fluence and annealing speed affected the optical, electrical, and structural characteristics of the AZO films. After annealing, approximately 90% of transmittance spectra exhibited slight changes in the visible region. All resistivity values of the laser-annealed AZO films decreased substantially from 4×10-2 ? cm to 2.8×10-2 ? cm. The absorption band edge moved toward shorter or longer wavelengths, depending on the annealing laser fluence and annealing speed. The optical energy band gap of the annealed AZO films increased because the carrier concentration of the annealed AZO films increased. The grain size increased in conjunction with the annealing speed. The AFM-derived root mean square (RMS) values decreased as the annealing speed increased, and the corresponding RMS values ranged from 1.4 to 1.9 nm.

  6. [Clinical studies on zinc oxide ointment replacing boric acid and zinc oxide ointment (JP8)].

    PubMed

    Kubota, K; Kumakiri, M; Miura, Y; Hine, K; Kori, N; Saito, H; Miyazaki, K; Arita, T

    1983-07-01

    A boric acid and zinc oxide ointment (J.P. VIII) is an unique preparation in Japan, which consist of boric acid (5%), zinc oxide (10%), vegetable oil (usually soybean oil or sesame oil) and yellow wax. The ointment is widely used in the area of Hokkaido, because not only of the customary prescription but also of the characteristic clinical efficiency. However, boric acid has been recognized to be harmful in these days. Therefore, a zinc oxide ointment consisting 10% zinc oxide, soybean oil and white beeswax was tentatively made and evaluated. The zinc oxide ointment presented the same consistency as the boric acid and zinc oxide ointment, measured with penetrometer. The clinical efficiency was also confirmed on six patients with chronic eczema and seven patients with psoriasis vulgaris. The effect on wound healing of the donor site of skin graft was as good as the previous preparation. PMID:6629312

  7. Solution Grown Antimony Doped Zinc Oxide Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Conor T.

    Zinc oxide is an extensively studied semiconducting material due to its versatile properties applicable to many technologies such as electronics, optoelectronics, sensing and renewable energy. Although zinc oxide films have been created for device fabrication, the methods used to synthesize them are expensive and unrealistic for affordable commercial devices. In addition, zinc oxide is intrinsically n-type making the realization of stable p-type materials a great challenge for light emitting diodes, solar cells and UV lasing. In this thesis zinc oxide films are created using low cost solution methods. To accomplish this, a previously unreported surfactant, tert-butanol, is used. Several controlled experiments vary the concentration of tert-butanol, zinc and oxygen sources to demonstrate the ability of tert-butanol to create low cost films. Further, small amounts of antimony glycolate are added to the reaction solution, to create antimony doped zinc oxide films on sapphire and silicon substrates. Although hall measurements indicate that the films are n-type, a discussion of antimony activation provides a feasible path for the realization of low cost, p-type zinc oxide films.

  8. Rapid thermal oxidation of zinc nitride film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chiung-Wei; Song, Yue-Pu; Chang, Shih-Chieh

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a zinc nitride (ZnN) film was deposited at room temperature and subjected to pulse-mode rapid thermal oxidation. The physical and chemical structures of ZnN film were changed during the rapid thermal oxidation process. The presence of zinc-oxygen bonds in the oxidized ZnN film indicated that some nitrogen atoms within the ZnN film are replaced by oxygen atoms. Through the rapid thermal oxidation process, ZnN was converted into a zinc oxide material containing nitrogen atoms. The oxidized ZnN possessed more acceptor states than donor states, which resulted in p-type conduction. The carrier concentration, mobility, and resistivity of the rapid-thermal-oxidized ZnN were 6.49 × 1018 cm?3, 12.9 cm2 V?1 s?1 and 0.7 ? cm, respectively.

  9. Comparative study of zinc oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide transparent thin films grown by direct current magnetron sputtering

    E-print Network

    Comparative study of zinc oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide transparent thin films grown January 2007 Abstract Pure and aluminum (Al) doped zinc oxide (ZnO and ZAO) thin films have been grown.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Zinc oxide; dc magnetron sputtering; Surface morphology; Sensors 1

  10. Network array of zinc oxide whiskers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. X. Xu; X. W. Sun; B. J. Chen; Z. L. Dong; M. B. Yu; X. H. Zhang; S. J. Chua

    2005-01-01

    A zinc oxide (ZnO) whisker network array with sixfold symmetry was fabricated on ZnO-buffered (0001) sapphire substrate by the vapour-phase transport method using a mixture of zinc oxide and graphite powders as source materials and patterned gold as catalyst. From the ZnO buffer layer, hexagonal ZnO nanorods with identical in-plane structure grew epitaxially along the [0001] orientation to form vertical

  11. Efficient inverted polymer solar cells based on ultrathin aluminum interlayer modified aluminum-doped zinc oxide electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ting; Zhu, Xiaoguang; Tu, Guoli

    2014-03-01

    A convenient and economical design for inverted polymer solar cells has been developed by introducing an ultrathin aluminium (Al) interlayer to modify aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) electrode as the bottom cathode. An ultrathin interlayer of Al could lower the work function of AZO electrode. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.84% was obtained for poly(3-hexyl-thiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester based device and that of poly(3-hexyl-thiophene):indene-C60 bisadduct based device with such electrodes could reach to 5.52%, which was much higher than the structurally identical device based on ITO/Al(1 nm) electrode and almost the same as that of the conventional device. This indicates that the ultrathin Al modified AZO composite electrode is a strong competitor for the cathode in inverted polymer solar cells especially the large scale and low costs devices.

  12. Degradation of azo dyes by oxidative processes--laccase and ultrasound treatment.

    PubMed

    Tauber, Michael M; Gübitz, Georg M; Rehorek, Astrid

    2008-07-01

    Azo dyes are of synthetic origin and their environmental fate is not well understood. They are resistant to direct aerobic bacterial degradation and form potentially carcinogenic aromatic amines by reduction of the azo group. This study shows that applying the oxidative processes of enzymatic treatment with laccase and ultrasound treatment, both alone and in combination, leads to dye degradation. Laccase treatment degraded both Acid Orange and Direct Blue dyes within 1-5 h but failed in the case of Reactive dyes, whereas ultrasound degraded all the dyes investigated (3-15 h). When applied as multi-stage combinations the treatments showed synergistic effects for dye degradation compared with individual treatments. Bulk light absorption (UV-Vis) and ion pairing HPLC were used for process monitoring. Additionally, mass spectrometry was used to elucidate the structures of intermediates arising from ultrasound treatment. PMID:17967530

  13. Generation of fume aerosols of zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Teague, S.V.; Raabe, O.G.

    1980-09-01

    Fume aerosols of zinc cxide were generated by nebulization of aqueous solutions of zinc acetate (30 milligrams zinc acetate per milliliter water), with subsequent thermal vaporization and chemical degradation to the oxide. A Retec nebulizer operated with compressed air was used to generate the zinc acetate mists which were passed through a quartz tube furnace (1150/sup 0/C) to dry the droplets and degrade the acetate to the oxide form. Ultrafine particles were formed in this process, demonstrating that zinc acetate was vaporized as aerosol entered the heated tube prior to thermolysis. The few larger particles probably represent those larger droplets which do not m with completely vaporize prior to thermolysis. Cascade impactor samples indicated a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD/sub ar/) of 0.8+-0.1 (SD) ..mu..m with geometric standard deviation (sigma g) of 2.9 +- 0.5 (SD). About 25% of the zinc was associated with particles smaller than 0.3 ..mu..m in aerodynamic diameter, equivalent to spherical particles smaller than 0.09 ..mu..m in geometric diameter.

  14. Photoluminescent properties of copper-doped zinc oxide nanowires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C X Xu; X W Sun; X H Zhang; L Ke; S J Chua

    2004-01-01

    Copper-doped zinc oxide nanowires were fabricated on copper-coated silicon substrate by sintering a mixture of zinc oxide and graphite powders at high temperature. Copper functioned as a catalyst in the zinc oxide nanowire growth and was incorporated during the growth as a dopant. The size of copper-doped zinc oxide nanowires ranges from 30 to 100 nm in diameter and tens

  15. Electroless deposition of cadmium stannate, zinc oxide, and aluminum-doped zinc oxide films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Raviendra; J. K. Sharma

    1985-01-01

    Transparent conducting films of cadmium stannate (Cd2SnO4), zinc oxide, and aluminum-doped zinc oxide have been made by a simple, economical electroless deposition technique. The as-deposited films of cadmium stannate have a 75% transmittance in the visible, 48% reflectance in the IR, and a band gap of 2.7 eV. Its resistivity is ?10?1 ? cm. Vacuum annealing changes the transmittance in

  16. A Back-Gated Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor with an Al-Doped Zinc Oxide Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Ze; Xu, Jian-Long; Wu, Xiao; Zhang, Ming-Ming; Liou, Juin-J.

    2015-02-01

    We report a back-gated metal-oxide-ferroelectric-metal (MOFM) field-effect transistor (FET) with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material, in which an Al doped zinc oxide (AZO) channel layer with an optimized doping concentration of 1% is applied to reduce the channel resistance of the channel layer, thus guaranteeing a large enough load capacity of the transistor. The hysteresis loops of the Pt/PZT/AZO/Ti/Pt capacitor are measured and compared with a Pt/PZT/Pt capacitor, indicating that the remnant polarization is almost 40 ?C/cm2 and the polarization is saturated at 20 V. The measured capacitance-voltage properties are analyzed as a result of the electron depletion and accumulation switching operation conducted by the modulation of PZT on AZO channel resistance caused by the switchable remnant polarization of PZT. The switching properties of the AZO channel layer are also proved by the current-voltage transfer curves measured in the back-gated MOFM ferroelectric FET, which also show a drain current switching ratio up to about 100 times.

  17. Highly Thermostable, Flexible, Transparent, and Conductive Films on Polyimide Substrate with an AZO/AgNW/AZO Structure.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qijin; Shen, Wenfeng; Fang, Xingzhong; Chen, Guofei; Yang, Ye; Huang, Jinhua; Tan, Ruiqin; Song, Weijie

    2015-02-25

    Flexible transparent conductive films (TCFs) are used in a variety of optoelectronic devices. However, their use is limited due to poor thermostability. We report hybrid TCFs incorporation in both aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) and silver nanowires (AgNWs). The layered AZO/AgNWs/AZO structure was deposited onto a transparent polyimide (PI) substrate and displayed excellent thermostability. When heated to 250 °C for 1 h, the change in resistivity (Rc) was less than 10% (Rc of pure AgNW film > 500) while retaining good photoelectric properties (Rsh = 8.6 Ohm/sq and T = 74.4%). Layering the AgNW network between AZO films decreased the surface roughness (Rrms < 8 nm) and enhances the mechanical flexibility of the hybrid films. The combination of these characteristics makes the hybrid film an excellent candidate for substrates of novel flexible optoelectronic devices which require high-temperature processing. PMID:25629397

  18. Novel Zinc Oxide Nanostructures Discovery by Electron Zhong Lin Wang

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Novel Zinc Oxide Nanostructures Discovery by Electron Microscopy Zhong Lin Wang School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245, USA Abstract. Zinc oxide fabricated based on individual nanobelts. Thermal transport along a nanobelt has been measured [7]. Zinc

  19. LPG sensing performance of nanostructured zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, A. R.; Patil, L. A.

    2013-06-01

    Nanostructured zinc oxide thin films were prepared using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. Zinc acetate was used as a starting precursor. As prepared thin films were characterized using different analytical techniques. The sensing performance of the nanostructured zinc oxide thin films was studied on exposure of various gases. The films were observed to be most sensitive (S= 1727) to LPG at 300°C.

  20. Atomistic Simulation Study of Spinel Oxides: Zinc Aluminate and Zinc Gallate

    E-print Network

    Pandey, Ravi

    Atomistic Simulation Study of Spinel Oxides: Zinc Aluminate and Zinc Gallate Ravindra Pandey´tica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006-Oviedo, Spain Stoichiometric zinc aluminate (ZnAl2O4) and zinc gallate (ZnGa2O4 of Al2O3/Ga2O3 via the formation of zinc vacancies is predicted relative to that of ZnO in ZnAl2O4/ZnGa2

  1. Photo-Fenton oxidation of azo dye Reactive Black B using an immobilized iron oxide as heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yu-Jen; Ho, Chien-Hung; Huang, Yao-Hui

    2013-04-01

    The heterogeneous oxidation of azo dye Reactive Black B (RBB) by the photo-Fenton system catalyzed with an immobilized iron oxide, B1 (supported with SiO2 grain), was investigated. Reactive Black B oxidation was carried out in an expended-bed reactor in which the effect of B1 dosage on the decolorization and degradation of RBB was examined. Through pseudo-first-order kinetic studies, decolorization was found to be faster than degradation with a fixed rate constant ratio. By determining the iron dissolution from B1, RBB oxidation was supposed to mainly occur on the B1 surface, which catalyzed the generation of hydroxyl radicals in the photo-Fenton reaction. Accordingly, the efficiency of photo-Fenton could reach 100% and 91.2% of decolorization and degradation, respectively, in 300 minutes. PMID:23697238

  2. RF Characteristics of Room-Temperature-Deposited, Small Gate Dimension Indium Zinc Oxide TFTs

    E-print Network

    Pearton, Stephen J.

    RF Characteristics of Room-Temperature-Deposited, Small Gate Dimension Indium Zinc Oxide TFTs Yu, North Carolina 27709, USA Depletion-mode indium zinc oxide channel thin film transistors TFTs with gate semiconductors such as zinc oxide, zinc tin oxide, indium gallium oxide, and indium gallium zinc tin oxide have

  3. Correlation of zinc with oxidative stress biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Llopis-González, Agustín; González-Albert, Verónica; López-Izquierdo, Raúl; González-Manzano, Isabel; Cháves, Javier; Huerta-Biosca, Vicente; Martin-Escudero, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension and smoking are related with oxidative stress (OS), which in turn reports on cellular aging. Zinc is an essential element involved in an individual's physiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of zinc levels in serum and urine with OS and cellular aging and its effect on the development of hypertension. In a Spanish sample with 1500 individuals, subjects aged 20-59 years were selected, whose zinc intake levels fell within the recommended limits. These individuals were classified according to their smoking habits and hypertensive condition. A positive correlation was found (Pearson's C = 0.639; p = 0.01) between Zn serum/urine quotient and oxidized glutathione levels (GSSG). Finally, risk of hypertension significantly increased when the GSSG levels exceeded the 75 percentile; OR = 2.80 (95%CI = 1.09-7.18) and AOR = 3.06 (95%CI = 0.96-9.71). Low zinc levels in serum were related with OS and cellular aging and were, in turn, to be a risk factor for hypertension. PMID:25774936

  4. Effect of solvent volume on the physical properties of aluminium doped nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films deposited using a simplified spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabena Begum, N.; Mohan, R.; Ravichandran, K.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were deposited by employing a low cost and simplified spray technique using a perfume atomizer from starting solutions having different volumes (10, 20, … , 50 mL) of solvent. The effect of solvent volume on the structural, electrical, optical, photoluminescence (PL) and surface morphological properties was studied. The electrical resistivity of the AZO films is remarkably influenced by the variation in the solvent volume. The X-ray diffraction profiles clearly showed that all the films have preferential orientation along the (0 0 2) plane irrespective of the solvent volume. The crystallite size was found to be in the nano range of 35-46 nm. The optical transmittance in the visible region is desirably high (>85%). The AFM images show columnar morphology with varying grain size. The PL studies revealed that the AZO film deposited from 50 mL of solvent volume has good quality with lesser defect density.

  5. Zinc oxide nanostructures: growth, properties and applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhong Lin Wang

    2004-01-01

    Zinc oxide is a unique material that exhibits semiconducting and piezoelectric dual properties. Using a solid–vapour phase thermal sublimation technique, nanocombs, nanorings, nanohelixes\\/nanosprings, nanobelts, nanowires and nanocages of ZnO have been synthesized under specific growth conditions. These unique nanostructures unambiguously demonstrate that ZnO probably has the richest family of nanostructures among all materials, both in structures and in properties. The

  6. Doping in zinc oxide thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng Yang

    2009-01-01

    Doping in zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films is discussed in this dissertation. The optimizations of undoped ZnO thin film growth using molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) are discussed. The effect of the oxygen ECR plasma power on the growth rate, structural, electrical, and optical properties of the ZnO thin films were studied. It was found that larger ECR power leads to higher

  7. Rapid synthesis of aligned zinc oxide nanowires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Husnu Emrah Unalan; Pritesh Hiralal; Nalin Rupesinghe; Sharvari Dalal; William I. Milne; Gehan A. J. Amaratunga

    2008-01-01

    A solution growth approach for zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires is highly appealing because of the low growth temperature and possibility for large area synthesis. Reported reaction times for ZnO nanowire synthesis, however, are long, spanning from several hours to days. In this work, we report on the rapid synthesis of ZnO nanowires on various substrates (such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET),

  8. Process for preparing zinc oxide-based sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gangwal, Santosh Kumar (Cary, NC); Turk, Brian Scott (Durham, NC); Gupta, Raghubir Prasad (Durham, NC)

    2011-06-07

    The disclosure relates to zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them. The sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents comprise an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, comprising a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

  9. Summary review of health effects associated with zinc and zinc oxide: health issue assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    Zinc is a dense, bluish-white, relatively soft metal used extensively in the galvanizing of iron and steel. Zinc oxide, the most valued of the variety of compounds formed by zinc is used principally in rubber products as an activator in the vulcanization process and in the treatment of burns, infections, and skin diseases. Zinc occurs naturally in the environment; however, zinc may also enter the environment as the result of mining and processing the production of zinc oxide and the manufacture and use of products containing zinc oxide, the combustion of coal and oil, the production of iron and steel, and the incineration of refuse. Humans are mainly exposed to zinc through the ingestion of food (between 8 and 18.6 mg/kg/day) and drink (averaging up to 10 mg/day). Based on annual average airborne zinc concentrations in areas throughout the United States without mines or smelters of generally < 1mg/cu. m., the contribution of zinc from inhaled air represents an insignificant amount of daily zinc exposure, averaging approximately 20 micrograms. The literature on the toxic effects of zinc is limited. The most widely known systemic effect resulting from acute inhalation of freshly formed zinc oxide fumes is a disease called metal fume fever. Metal fume fever occurs in certain occupational settings and the exposure level at which the fever occurs is not known.

  10. Effects of step-deposition on structures and properties of transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide films prepared by DC magnetron sputtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Tohsophon; N. Sirikulrat

    2006-01-01

    The 2wt% aluminum-doped zinc oxide films (AZO) was sputtered on corning glass plate at temperatures of 30–200°C by DC magnetron sputtering using ceramic target. The microstructures and electrical resistivity of thin films were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the van der Pauw method. The optical transmittances of films were measured by UV visible spectrophotometer in the wavelength of

  11. Oxidation of commercial reactive azo dye aqueous solutions by the photo-Fenton and Fenton-like processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariana Neamtu; Ayfer Yediler; Ilie Siminiceanu; Antonius Kettrup

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the degradation of two azo reactive dyes, C.I. Reactive Yellow 84 (RY84) and C.I. Reactive Red 120 (RR120) by photo-Fenton and Fenton-like oxidation. All experiments were performed on a laboratory scale set-up. The effects of different reaction parameters such as initial pH, contact time, effect of light and hydrogen peroxide concentrations on the oxidation of the dye

  12. Variable-Temperature Electrical Measurements of Zinc Oxide/Tin Oxide-Cosubstituted Indium Oxide

    E-print Network

    Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    Variable-Temperature Electrical Measurements of Zinc Oxide/Tin Oxide-Cosubstituted Indium Oxide A-), undoped In2O3, and indium-tin oxide (ITO) were studied vs cation composition, state of reduction of choice, tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) has a typical conductivity of 1-5 × 103 S/cm and a transpar- ency

  13. Low-temperature solution-processed metal oxide buffer layers fulfilling large area production requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubhan, T.; Litzov, I.; Li, Ning; Wang, H. Q.; Krantz, J.; Machui, F.; Steidl, M.; Oh, H.; Matt, G. J.; Brabec, C. J.

    2012-09-01

    This paper is a review of our previous work on the field of low temperature, solution processed metal oxide buffer layers published in various journals. Our work focuses on zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) as n-type and molybdenum oxide (MoO3) as p-type solution processed buffer layer. In addition to that, we investigate the surface modification of AZO using phosphonic acid-anchored aliphatic and fullerene self assembled monolayers (SAMs).

  14. Electroless deposition of cadmium stannate, zinc oxide, and aluminum-doped zinc oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raviendra, D.; Sharma, J. K.

    1985-07-01

    Transparent conducting films of cadmium stannate (Cd2SnO4), zinc oxide, and aluminum-doped zinc oxide have been made by a simple, economical electroless deposition technique. The as-deposited films of cadmium stannate have a 75% transmittance in the visible, 48% reflectance in the IR, and a band gap of 2.7 eV. Its resistivity is ˜10-1 ? cm. Vacuum annealing changes the transmittance in the visible range to 82%, the IR reflectance to 62%, and the band gap to 3.1 eV. The corresponding values for the hydrogen-annealed films are 87%, 76%, and 3.2 eV. Annealing lowers the resistivity of the films to ˜10-2 and ˜10-3 ? cm for vacuum and hydrogen-annealed films, respectively. The undoped zinc oxide films have transmittance in the visible and reflectance in the IR of 80 and 67% respectively. Aluminum doping increases the transmittance to 88% and reflectance to 83%. The optical band gap of undoped and aluminum-doped zinc oxide films are found to be 3.40 and 3.98 eV, respectively. The resistivity is 1.20×10-2 and 6.0×10-2 ? cm for undoped and aluminum-doped ZnO films. Vacuum annealing reduces the resistivity of the films to 2.5×10-3 and 2.1×10-4 ? cm for undoped and aluminum-doped ZnO films, respectively.

  15. Electrode patterning and annealing processes of aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films using a UV laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Tseng, Shih-Feng; Huang, Kuo-Cheng; Chiang, Donyau

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the hybrid processing (patterning and annealing) of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films in a one-step process using a diode-pumped-solid-state (DPSS) ultraviolet (UV) laser system. The focused laser beam had a diameter of 30 ?m and the positive defocused laser beam had a diameter of 1 mm. Both beams were adjusted using a UV laser-processing system. AZO films were deposited on Corning Eagle 2000® optical glass sheets with a thickness of 0.7 mm using a sputtering method. The deposited films were approximately 200 nm. The optoelectronic properties of machined (patterning and annealing) AZO films depend on the laser pulse frequency and galvanometer scanning speed. The surface morphology, roughness, optical transmittance, and resistivity of the films after the laser patterning and annealing processes were measured using a three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscope, a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), a spectrophotometer, and a four-point probe instrument, respectively. Experimental results indicate that the ablation depth increased as the pulse repetition frequency increased. The ablation depth also decreased as the galvanometric scanning speed increased. The transmittance spectra of the film changes slightly after laser annealing, and the average transmittance in the visible region is approximately 83%. All resistivity values of laser-patterned and annealed AZO films decreased significantly. The structural properties grain size was calculated firm the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra using the Scherrer equation that increased from 7.4 nm to 12 nm as the annealing scanning speed decreased from 800 mm/s to 400 mm/s. The root mean square (RMS) values of annealed AZO films treated with a laser scanning speed of 500 mm/s with a pulse repetition frequency of 40 kHz, 55 kHz, and 70 kHz were 1.1 nm, 1.2 nm, and 1.8 nm, respectively.

  16. Decolorization of disperse red 354 azo dye in water by several oxidation processes—a comparative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariana Neamtu; Ayfer Yediler; Ilie Siminiceanu; Matei Macoveanu; Antonius Kettrup

    2004-01-01

    The degradation of the Disperse Red 354 azo dye in water was investigated in laboratory-scale experiments, using four advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): ozonation, Fenton, UV\\/H2O2, and photo-Fenton. The photodegradation experiments were carried out in a stirred batch photoreactor equipped with an immersed low-pressure mercury lamp as UV source. Besides the conventional parameters, on acute toxicity test with a LUMIStox 300

  17. Piezoelectric Nanogenerators Based on Zinc Oxide Nanowire Arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhong Lin Wang; Jinhui Song

    2006-01-01

    We have converted nanoscale mechanical energy into electrical energy by means of piezoelectric zinc oxide nanowire (NW) arrays. The aligned NWs are deflected with a conductive atomic force microscope tip in contact mode. The coupling of piezoelectric and semiconducting properties in zinc oxide creates a strain field and charge separation across the NW as a result of its bending. The

  18. Fabrication and characterization of zinc oxide based rib waveguide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gioffrè; M. Gagliardi; M. Casalino; G. Coppola; M. Iodice; F. Della Corte

    2007-01-01

    In this work we investigate the possibility to use Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films, deposited by RF magnetron sputtering, for the realization of integrated optical structures working at 1550 nm. Structural properties of sputtered zinc oxide thin films were studied by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements, while optical properties were investigated by spectrophotometry and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE). In particular,

  19. Transient laser annealing of zinc oxide nanoparticle inks to fabricate zinc oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willemann, Michael

    Display technology, which relies exclusively on amorphous silicon as the active material for driver electronics, has reached multiple impasses that limit future progress. In order to deliver higher resolutions, higher refresh rates, new display technologies, and innovative form factors, driver electronics must transition to higher performance materials like amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs). Transient laser annealing offers an attractive means to maximize performance while minimizing thermal budget, making it compatible with flexible back plane materials and roll-to-roll processing. This research investigates the deposition and annealing of zinc oxide nanoparticle inks to form fully densified crystalline and amorphous zinc oxide films. Processing routes for nanoparticle annealing, including ligand removal, calcining, and excimer pulse laser sintering on the nanosecond time scale, will be introduced that minimize defect formation and suppress the anomalous n-conductivity which is a major challenge to zinc oxide processing. Resistivities as high as 6 x 107 O-cm have been demonstrated. Laser processing on longer millisecond time scales can control defect formation to produce ZnO films without extrinsic doping which have low resistivity for intrinsic oxides, in the range of 10-1 - 10-2 O-cm. Finally, a viable process for the production of backgated ZnO transistors with promising characteristics is presented and the future implications for AOSs and transient thermal processing will be discussed.

  20. UV irradiation-induced zinc dissociation from commercial zinc oxide sunscreen and its action in human epidermal keratinocytes

    E-print Network

    Li, Yang V.

    UV irradiation-induced zinc dissociation from commercial zinc oxide sunscreen and its action Summary Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an active ingredient in sunscreen owing to its properties of broadly filtering of solar radiation on the skin. This study investigated the dissociation of zinc (Zn2+ ) from Zn

  1. Influence of growth temperature on electrical, optical, and plasmonic properties of aluminum:zinc oxide films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondapati, Hareesh; Santiago, Kevin; Pradhan, A. K.

    2013-10-01

    We have investigated the responsible mechanism for the observation of metallic conductivity at room temperature and metal-semiconductor transition (MST) at lower temperatures for aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films. AZO films were grown on glass substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering with varying substrate temperatures (Ts). The films were found to be crystalline with the electrical resistivity close to 1.1 × 10-3 ? cm and transmittance more than 85% in the visible region. The saturated optical band gap of 3.76 eV was observed for the sample grown at Ts of 400 °C, however, a slight decrease in the bandgap was noticed above 400 °C, which can be explained by Burstein-Moss effect. Temperature dependent resistivity measurements of these highly conducting and transparent films showed a MST at ˜110 K. The observed metal-like and metal-semiconductor transitions are explained by taking into account the Mott phase transition and localization effects due to defects. All AZO films demonstrate crossover in permittivity from positive to negative and low loss in the near-infrared region, illustrating its applications for plasmonic metamaterials, including waveguides for near infrared telecommunication region. Based on the results presented in this study, the low electrical resistivity and high optical transmittance of AZO films suggested a possibility for the application in the flexible electronic devices, such as transparent conducting oxide film on LEDs, solar cells, and touch panels.

  2. Influence of growth temperature on electrical, optical, and plasmonic properties of aluminum:zinc oxide films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Dondapati, Hareesh; Santiago, Kevin; Pradhan, A. K. [Center for Materials Research, Norfolk State University, 700 Park Avenue, Norfolk, Virginia 23504 (United States)] [Center for Materials Research, Norfolk State University, 700 Park Avenue, Norfolk, Virginia 23504 (United States)

    2013-10-14

    We have investigated the responsible mechanism for the observation of metallic conductivity at room temperature and metal-semiconductor transition (MST) at lower temperatures for aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films. AZO films were grown on glass substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering with varying substrate temperatures (T{sub s}). The films were found to be crystalline with the electrical resistivity close to 1.1 × 10{sup ?3} ? cm and transmittance more than 85% in the visible region. The saturated optical band gap of 3.76 eV was observed for the sample grown at T{sub s} of 400 °C, however, a slight decrease in the bandgap was noticed above 400 °C, which can be explained by Burstein–Moss effect. Temperature dependent resistivity measurements of these highly conducting and transparent films showed a MST at ?110 K. The observed metal-like and metal-semiconductor transitions are explained by taking into account the Mott phase transition and localization effects due to defects. All AZO films demonstrate crossover in permittivity from positive to negative and low loss in the near-infrared region, illustrating its applications for plasmonic metamaterials, including waveguides for near infrared telecommunication region. Based on the results presented in this study, the low electrical resistivity and high optical transmittance of AZO films suggested a possibility for the application in the flexible electronic devices, such as transparent conducting oxide film on LEDs, solar cells, and touch panels.

  3. Antifouling properties of zinc oxide nanorod coatings.

    PubMed

    Al-Fori, Marwan; Dobretsov, Sergey; Myint, Myo Tay Zar; Dutta, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    In laboratory experiments, the antifouling (AF) properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod coatings were investigated using the marine bacterium Acinetobacter sp. AZ4C, larvae of the bryozoan Bugula neritina and the microalga Tetraselmis sp. ZnO nanorod coatings were fabricated on microscope glass substrata by a simple hydrothermal technique using two different molar concentrations (5 and 10?mM) of zinc precursors. These coatings were tested for 5?h under artificial sunlight (1060?W?m(-2) or 530?W?m(-2)) and in the dark (no irradiation). In the presence of light, both the ZnO nanorod coatings significantly reduced the density of Acinetobacter sp. AZ4C and Tetraselmis sp. in comparison to the control (microscope glass substratum without a ZnO coating). High mortality and low settlement of B. neritina larvae was observed on ZnO nanorod coatings subjected to light irradiation. In darkness, neither mortality nor enhanced settlement of larvae was observed. Larvae of B. neritina were not affected by Zn(2+) ions. The AF effect of the ZnO nanorod coatings was thus attributed to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by photocatalysis. It was concluded that ZnO nanorod coatings effectively prevented marine micro and macrofouling in static conditions. PMID:25115521

  4. Optical and Luminescence Properties of Zinc Oxide

    E-print Network

    Rodnyi, P A; 10.1134/S0030400X11120216

    2012-01-01

    We generalize and systematize basic experimental data on optical and luminescence properties of ZnO single crystals, thin films, powders, ceramics, and nanocrystals. We consider and study mechanisms by which two main emission bands occur, a short-wavelength band near the fundamental absorption edge and a broad long-wavelength band, the maximum of which usually lies in the green spectral range. We determine a relationship between the two luminescence bands and study in detail the possibility of controlling the characteristics of ZnO by varying the maximum position of the short-wavelength band. We show that the optical and luminescence characteristics of ZnO largely depend on the choice of the corresponding impurity and the parameters of the synthesis and subsequent treatment of the sample. Prospects for using zinc oxide as a scintillator material are discussed. Additionally, we consider experimental results that are of principal interest for practice.

  5. Optical and Luminescence Properties of Zinc Oxide

    E-print Network

    P. A. Rodnyi; I. V. Khodyuk

    2012-03-20

    We generalize and systematize basic experimental data on optical and luminescence properties of ZnO single crystals, thin films, powders, ceramics, and nanocrystals. We consider and study mechanisms by which two main emission bands occur, a short-wavelength band near the fundamental absorption edge and a broad long-wavelength band, the maximum of which usually lies in the green spectral range. We determine a relationship between the two luminescence bands and study in detail the possibility of controlling the characteristics of ZnO by varying the maximum position of the short-wavelength band. We show that the optical and luminescence characteristics of ZnO largely depend on the choice of the corresponding impurity and the parameters of the synthesis and subsequent treatment of the sample. Prospects for using zinc oxide as a scintillator material are discussed. Additionally, we consider experimental results that are of principal interest for practice.

  6. Zinc oxide thin film acoustic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Ali Jasim; Salih, Wafaa Mahdi; Hassan, Marwa Abdul Muhsien; Mansour, Hazim Louis; Nusseif, Asmaa Deiaa; Kadhum, Haider Abdullah

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports the implementation of (750 nm) thickness of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film for the piezoelectric pressure sensors. The film was prepared and deposited employing the spray pyrolysis technique. XRD results show that the growth preferred orientation is the (002) plane. A polycrystalline thin film (close to mono crystallite like) was obtained. Depending on the Scanning Electron Microscopy photogram, the film homogeneity and thickness were shown. The resonance frequency measured (about 19 kHz) and the damping coefficient was calculated and its value was found to be about (2.5538), the thin film be haves as homogeneous for under and over damped. The thin film pressure sensing was approximately exponentially related with frequency, the thin film was observed to has a good response for mechanical stresses also it is a good material for the piezoelectric properties.

  7. Zinc oxide thin film acoustic sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, Ali Jasim; Salih, Wafaa Mahdi; Hassan, Marwa Abdul Muhsien; Nusseif, Asmaa Deiaa; Kadhum, Haider Abdullah [Department of Physics , College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq); Mansour, Hazim Louis [Department of Physics , College of Education, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-12-16

    This paper reports the implementation of (750 nm) thickness of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film for the piezoelectric pressure sensors. The film was prepared and deposited employing the spray pyrolysis technique. XRD results show that the growth preferred orientation is the (002) plane. A polycrystalline thin film (close to mono crystallite like) was obtained. Depending on the Scanning Electron Microscopy photogram, the film homogeneity and thickness were shown. The resonance frequency measured (about 19 kHz) and the damping coefficient was calculated and its value was found to be about (2.5538), the thin film be haves as homogeneous for under and over damped. The thin film pressure sensing was approximately exponentially related with frequency, the thin film was observed to has a good response for mechanical stresses also it is a good material for the piezoelectric properties.

  8. Rapid synthesis of aligned zinc oxide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Unalan, Husnu Emrah; Hiralal, Pritesh; Rupesinghe, Nalin; Dalal, Sharvari; Milne, William I; Amaratunga, Gehan A J

    2008-06-25

    A solution growth approach for zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires is highly appealing because of the low growth temperature and possibility for large area synthesis. Reported reaction times for ZnO nanowire synthesis, however, are long, spanning from several hours to days. In this work, we report on the rapid synthesis of ZnO nanowires on various substrates (such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), silicon and glass) using a commercially available microwave oven. The average growth rate of our nanowires is determined to be as high as 100 nm min(-1), depending on the microwave power. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a defect-free single-crystalline lattice of the nanowires. A detailed analysis of the growth characteristics of ZnO nanowires as functions of growth time and microwave power is reported. Our work demonstrates the possibility of a fast synthesis route using microwave heating for nanomaterials synthesis. PMID:21828660

  9. Rapid synthesis of aligned zinc oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emrah Unalan, Husnu; Hiralal, Pritesh; Rupesinghe, Nalin; Dalal, Sharvari; Milne, William I.; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.

    2008-06-01

    A solution growth approach for zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires is highly appealing because of the low growth temperature and possibility for large area synthesis. Reported reaction times for ZnO nanowire synthesis, however, are long, spanning from several hours to days. In this work, we report on the rapid synthesis of ZnO nanowires on various substrates (such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), silicon and glass) using a commercially available microwave oven. The average growth rate of our nanowires is determined to be as high as 100 nm min-1, depending on the microwave power. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a defect-free single-crystalline lattice of the nanowires. A detailed analysis of the growth characteristics of ZnO nanowires as functions of growth time and microwave power is reported. Our work demonstrates the possibility of a fast synthesis route using microwave heating for nanomaterials synthesis.

  10. Production of nano zinc, zinc sulphide and nanocomplex of magnetite zinc oxide by Brevundimonas diminuta and Pseudomonas stutzeri.

    PubMed

    Mirhendi, Mansoureh; Emtiazi, Giti; Roghanian, Rasoul

    2013-12-01

    ZnO (Zincite) nanoparticle has many industrial applications and is mostly produced by chemical reactions, usually prepared by decomposition of zinc acetate or hot-injection and heating-up method. Synthesis of semi-conductor nanoparticles such as ZnS (Sphalerite) by ultrasonic was previously reported. In this work, high-zinc tolerant bacteria were isolated and used for nano zinc production. Among all isolated microorganisms, a gram negative bacterium which was identified as Brevundimonas diminuta could construct nano magnetite zinc oxide on bacterial surface with 22 nm in size and nano zinc with 48.29 nm in size. A piece of zinc metal was immersed in medium containing of pure culture of B. diminuta. Subsequently, a yellow-white biofilm was formed which was collected from the surface of zinc. It was dried at room temperature. The isolated biofilm was analysed by X-ray diffractometer. Interestingly, the yield of these particles was higher in the light, with pH 7 at 23°C. To the best of the authors knowledge, this is the first report about the production of nano zinc metal and nano zinc oxide that are stable and have anti-bacterial activities with magnetite property. Also ZnS (sized 12 nm) produced by Pseudomonas stutzeri, was studied by photoluminescence and fluorescent microscope. PMID:24206770

  11. DIRECT SOLAR THERMAL DISSOCIATION OF ZINC OXIDE: CONDENSATION AND CRYSTALLISATION OF ZINC IN THE PRESENCE OF OXYGEN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. WEIDENKAFF; A. STEINFELD; A. WOKAUN; P. O. AUER; B. EICHLER; A. RELLER

    1999-01-01

    The solar thermal production of zinc from zinc oxide is part of a two-step water splitting cycle. Zinc oxide thermally dissociates into zinc vapour and oxygen at elevated temperatures;ZnO(s)=Zn(g)+0.5O2In practice, the yield of zinc depends on the kinetics of dissociation and the technical feasibility of quenching its gaseous products fast enough to avoid reoxidation. As the gaseous products cool, the

  12. Fibrous zinc oxide prepared by combined electrospinning and solvothermal techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naratip Sangkhaprom; Pitt Supaphol; Varong Pavarajarn

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of novel zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure consisting of ZnO nanoparticles formed into the network of fibers was investigated. This structure was fabricated from the solvothermal reaction of the poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)\\/zinc acetate composite fibers, which were firstly prepared by electrospinning technique. It was found that zinc acetate within the PVA matrix was converted into ZnO nanoparticles in hexagonal

  13. Superhydrophobic zinc oxide surface by differential etching and hydrophobic modification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianming Hou; Feng Zhou; Bo Yu; Weimin Liu

    2007-01-01

    A superhydrophobic ZnO nanorod films on zinc substrate were fabricated by natural oxidation of zinc metal and subsequent modification with a monolayer of n-octadecyl thiol (ODT). The surface morphology and composition were studied using SEM, XRD, and XPS, respectively. The surface of ZnO films directly grown on zinc substrate was hydrophilic with a water contact angle (CA) of 40±2°, whereas

  14. Optical and electric properties of aluminum-gallium doped zinc oxide for transparent conducting film

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng-Chi Li; Chien-Cheng Kuo; Sheng-Hui Chen; Cheng-Chung Lee

    2009-01-01

    The well-known indium-tin-oxide is not suitable for solar cell, because of the chemical reduction, even without any hydrogen dilution. The inexpensive and non-toxic of transparent conducting Aluminum and Gallium doped ZnO (AZO and GZO) thin films have been investigated for the substitutes for the indium-tin-oxide thin films. AZO performs high transmittance at visible region, however, higher resistance than GZO. In

  15. A review of zinc oxide mineral beneficiation using flotation method.

    PubMed

    Ejtemaei, Majid; Gharabaghi, Mahdi; Irannajad, Mehdi

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, extraction of zinc from low-grade mining tailings of oxidized zinc has been a matter of discussion. This is a material which can be processed by flotation and acid-leaching methods. Owing to the similarities in the physicochemical and surface chemistry of the constituent minerals, separation of zinc oxide minerals from their gangues by flotation is an extremely complex process. It appears that selective leaching is a promising method for the beneficiation of this type of ore. However, with the high consumption of leaching acid, the treatment of low-grade oxidized zinc ores by hydrometallurgical methods is expensive and complex. Hence, it is best to pre-concentrate low-grade oxidized zinc by flotation and then to employ hydrometallurgical methods. This paper presents a critical review on the zinc oxide mineral flotation technique. In this paper, the various flotation methods of zinc oxide minerals which have been proposed in the literature have been detailed with the aim of identifying the important factors involved in the flotation process. The various aspects of recovery of zinc from these minerals are also dealt with here. The literature indicates that the collector type, sulfidizing agent, pH regulator, depressants and dispersants types, temperature, solid pulp concentration, and desliming are important parameters in the process. The range and optimum values of these parameters, as also the adsorption mechanism, together with the resultant flotation of the zinc oxide minerals reported in the literature are summarized and highlighted in the paper. This review presents a comprehensive scientific guide to the effectiveness of flotation strategy. PMID:23571227

  16. Toxicokinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, H. E.; Yu, J.; Baek, M.; Lee, J. A.; Kim, M. S.; Kim, S. H.; Maeng, E. H.; Lee, J. K.; Jeong, J.; Choi, S. J.

    2013-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle have been extensively applied to diverse industrial fields because they possess UV light absorption, catalytic, semi-conducting, and magnetic characteristics as well as antimicrobial property. However, up to date, toxicological effects of ZnO nanoparticles in animal models have not been completely determined. Moreover, little information is available about kinetic behaviors of ZnO nanoparticles in vivo, which will be crucial to predict their potential chronic toxicity after long-term exposure. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics of ZnO nanoparticles after single-dose and repeated dose 90-day oral administration in male and female rats, respectively. The blood samples were collected following administration of three different doses (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) and ZnO concentration was assessed by measuring zinc level with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The result showed that the plasma ZnO concentration significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner, but decreased within 24 h after single-dose oral administration up to 500 mg/kg, without any significant difference between gender. However, when repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study was performed, the elevated plasma concentrations did not return to normal control levels in all the cases, indicating their toxicity potential. These findings suggest that repeated oral exposure to ZnO nanoparticles up to the dose of 125 mg/kg could accumulate in the systemic circulation, thereby implying that the NOAEL values could be less than 125 mg/kg via oral intake.

  17. Nano-sized layered aluminium or zinc-manganese oxides as efficient water oxidizing catalysts.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Pashaei, Babak; Nayeri, Sara

    2012-06-21

    Nano-sized layered aluminium or zinc-manganese oxides were synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, dynamic light scattering and atomic absorption spectroscopy. These oxides showed efficient water oxidizing activity in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate as a non-oxo transfer oxidant. Amounts of dissolved manganese, zinc or aluminium, and water oxidation activities of these oxides were reported and compared with other manganese oxides. A mechanism for oxygen evolution and possible roles for zinc or aluminium ions are also proposed. PMID:22565665

  18. Acetone sensor based on zinc oxide hexagonal tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Hastir, Anita, E-mail: anitahastir@gmail.com; Singh, Onkar, E-mail: anitahastir@gmail.com; Anand, Kanika, E-mail: anitahastir@gmail.com; Singh, Ravi Chand, E-mail: anitahastir@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar-143005, Punjab (India)

    2014-04-24

    In this work hexagonal tubes of zinc oxide have been synthesized by co-precipitation method. For structural, morphological, elemental and optical analysis synthesized powders were characterized by using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning microscope, EDX, UV-visible and FTIR techniques. For acetone sensing thick films of zinc oxide have been deposited on alumina substrate. The fabricated sensors exhibited maximum sensing response towards acetone vapour at an optimum operating temperature of 400°C.

  19. Zinc oxide nanoflowers make new blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barui, Ayan Kumar; Veeriah, Vimal; Mukherjee, Sudip; Manna, Joydeb; Patel, Ajay Kumar; Patra, Sujata; Pal, Krishnendu; Murali, Shruthi; Rana, Rohit K.; Chatterjee, Suvro; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2012-11-01

    It is well established that angiogenesis is the process of formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels. It is a complex process, involving both pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, and plays a significant role in physiological and pathophysiological processes such as embryonic development, atherosclerosis, post-ischemic vascularization of the myocardium, tumor growth and metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis etc. This is the first report of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflowers that show significant pro-angiogenic properties (formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels), observed by in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. The egg yolk angiogenesis assay using ZnO nanoflowers indicates the presence of matured blood vessels formation. Additionally, it helps to promote endothelial cell (EA.hy926 cells) migration in wound healing assays. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)--a redox signaling molecule, might be the plausible mechanism for nanoflower-based angiogenesis. Angiogenesis by nanoflowers may provide the basis for the future development of new alternative therapeutic treatment strategies for cardiovascular and ischemic diseases, where angiogenesis plays a significant role.It is well established that angiogenesis is the process of formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels. It is a complex process, involving both pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, and plays a significant role in physiological and pathophysiological processes such as embryonic development, atherosclerosis, post-ischemic vascularization of the myocardium, tumor growth and metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis etc. This is the first report of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflowers that show significant pro-angiogenic properties (formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels), observed by in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. The egg yolk angiogenesis assay using ZnO nanoflowers indicates the presence of matured blood vessels formation. Additionally, it helps to promote endothelial cell (EA.hy926 cells) migration in wound healing assays. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)--a redox signaling molecule, might be the plausible mechanism for nanoflower-based angiogenesis. Angiogenesis by nanoflowers may provide the basis for the future development of new alternative therapeutic treatment strategies for cardiovascular and ischemic diseases, where angiogenesis plays a significant role. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32369a

  20. Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 49, December 2006, pp. S584S588 Deposition-Temperature Effects on AZO Thin Films Prepared by RF

    E-print Network

    Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    - electronic devices, we investigated aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films prepared by radio- frequency@pusan.ac.kr magnetic semiconductors [3,4]. In particular, transpar- ent conductive oxide (TCO) electrodes using Al February 2006) Transparent conductive thin films have attracted much attention due to their high

  1. Local structure of condensed zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decremps, F.; Datchi, F.; Saitta, A. M.; Polian, A.; Pascarelli, S.; di Cicco, A.; Itié, J. P.; Baudelet, F.

    2003-09-01

    The high-pressure local structure of zinc oxide has been studied at room temperature using combined energy-dispersive x-ray-diffraction and x-ray-absorption spectroscopy experiments. The structural parameter u and the lattice-parameter ratio c/a of the wurtzite phase is given as a function of pressure and compared with results from ab initio calculations based on a plane-wave pseudopotential method within the density-functional theory. It is shown that an accurate study of ZnO requires the explicit treatment of the d electrons of Zn as valence electrons. In good agreement with present calculations, our experimental data do not show any variation of u(P) in the low-pressure wurtzite phase between 0 and 9 GPa, pressure at which the phase transition to the rocksalt phase occurs. Moreover, no dramatic modification of the r-phase K-edge position up to ˜20 GPa is observed, indicating the absence of metallization. In view of all these results, theoretical models identifying the wurtzite-to-rocksalt transition as an homogeneous path are discussed.

  2. Biomedical Applications of Zinc Oxide Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Nayak, Tapas R.; Hong, Hao; Cai, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has witnessed tremendous advancement over the last several decades. Zinc oxide (ZnO), which can exhibit a wide variety of nanostructures, possesses unique semiconducting, optical, and piezoelectric properties hence has been investigated for a wide variety of applications. One of the most important features of ZnO nanomaterials is low toxicity and biodegradability. Zn2+ is an indispensable trace element for adults (~10 mg of Zn2+ per day is recommended) and it is involved in various aspects of metabolism. Chemically, the surface of ZnO is rich in -OH groups, which can be readily functionalized by various surface decorating molecules. In this review article, we summarized the current status of the use of ZnO nanomaterials for biomedical applications, such as biomedical imaging (which includes fluorescence, magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography, as well as dual-modality imaging), drug delivery, gene delivery, and biosensing of a wide array of molecules of interest. Research in biomedical applications of ZnO nanomaterials will continue to flourish over the next decade, and much research effort will be needed to develop biocompatible/biodegradable ZnO nanoplatforms for potential clinical translation. PMID:24206130

  3. Growth and Characterization of Digitally Alloyed Zinc Oxide Based TCOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigdel, Ajaya; Shaheen, Sean; Perkins, John; Ginley, David; Berry, Joseph

    2009-10-01

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) based on substitutionally doped zinc oxide and novel amorphous oxides offer the potential of high performance and low cost for organic solid-state lighting and organic photovoltaic (OPV) applications. We present studies on digitally alloyed amorphous indium zinc oxide (InZnO) with crystalline gallium doped zinc oxide (GaZnO) and zinc tin oxide (ZnSnO3). The films were grown using pulse laser deposition system with varying oxygen pressure. Alternating layers of two constituent materials are deposited with periodicity of around 5 nm. We find that the composite material has similar conductivity as the constituent species grown at similar conditions but the surface roughness and the work function are determined solely by the terminating layer. We observe that both IZO and GZO terminated stacks result in conductivity of 1.5E3 S/cm, but the surface roughness varies from 0.3 nm to 0.7 nm respectively. We also explore other possible combination of zinc based oxide materials in order to optimize the optical and the electrical properties of TCO for possible application in opto-electronic devices.

  4. Degradation of Azo Dyes by Trametes villosa Laccase over Long Periods of Oxidative Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Zille; Barbara Gornacka; Astrid Rehorek; Artur Cavaco-Paulo

    2005-01-01

    The chemical structure of dyes is comprised of a conjugated system of double bonds and aromatic rings. The major classes of dyes have antroquinoid, indigoid, and azo aromatic struc- tures. All of these structures allow strong -* transitions in the UV-visible (UV-Vis) area, with high extinction coefficients that allow us to consider these structures dye chromophores. Of all of these

  5. Electrolyte optimization for cathodic growth of zinc oxide films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masanobu Izaki; Takashi Omi

    1996-01-01

    Zinc oxide is of considerable interest to the optical and electronic industries, because of its electrical, optical, and acoustic characteristics. ZnO films can be prepared by several techniques, such as radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and molecular beam epitaxy. Preparation of oxide films by electrodeposition from aqueous solutions has several potential advantages over the other techniques. However,

  6. The photoluminescence properties of zinc oxide nanofibres prepared by electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy; Bhattarai, Narayan; Kim, Hak Yong; Lee, Douk Rae

    2004-03-01

    The morphology and optical properties of zinc oxide fibres with diameters in the nanometre to micrometre range are reported. The PVA/zinc acetate organic/inorganic hybrid nanofibres were successfully prepared by electrospinning using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and zinc acetate. Pure zinc oxide fibres were obtained by high-temperature calcination of the hybrid fibres in air. The nanofibres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The photoluminescence spectra under excitation at 325 nm showed an ultraviolet emission at 3.13 eV and a green emission at 2.21 eV. These nanofibres could be used as light emitting devices in nanoscale optoelectronic applications.

  7. Characterization of transparent zinc oxide films prepared by electrochemical reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masanobu Izaki; Takashi Omi

    1997-01-01

    Transparent zinc oxide (ZnO) films have been grown by galvanostatic cathodic deposition onto conductive glasses from a simple aqueous zinc nitrate electrolyte maintained at 335 K. The as-deposited ZnO films were characterized with Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical transmission and absorption studies, and measurement of sheet resistivity as a function of cathodic current density.

  8. Plasma in-liquid method for reduction of zinc oxide in zinc nanoparticle synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaliyah, Novriany; Mukasa, Shinobu; Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Kitamae, Tomohide

    2015-02-01

    Metal air-batteries with high-energy density are expected to be increasingly applied in electric vehicles. This will require a method of recycling air batteries, and reduction of metal oxide by generating plasma in liquid has been proposed as a possible method. Microwave-induced plasma is generated in ethanol as a reducing agent in which zinc oxide is dispersed. Analysis by energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals the reduction of zinc oxide. According to images by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cubic and hexagonal metallic zinc particles are formed in sizes of 30 to 200 nm. Additionally, spherical fiber flocculates approximately 180 nm in diameter are present.

  9. Optical cavity modes of a single crystalline zinc oxide microsphere.

    PubMed

    Moirangthem, Rakesh Singh; Cheng, Pi-Ju; Chien, Paul Ching-Hang; Ngo, Buu Trong Huynh; Chang, Shu-Wei; Tien, Chung-Hao; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2013-02-11

    A detailed study on the optical cavity modes of zinc oxide microspheres under the optical excitation is presented. The zinc oxide microspheres with diameters ranging from 1.5 to 3.0 µm are prepared using hydrothermal growth technique. The photoluminescence measurement of a single microsphere shows prominent resonances of whispering gallery modes at room temperature. The experimentally observed whispering gallery modes in the photoluminescence spectrum are compared with theoretical calculations using analytical and finite element methods in order to clarify resonance properties of these modes. The comparison between theoretical analysis and experiment suggests that the dielectric constant of the ZnO microsphere is somewhat different from that for bulk ZnO. The sharp resonances of whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide microspheres cover the entire visible window. They may be utilized in realizations of optical resonators, light emitting devices, and lasers for future chip integrations with micro/nano optoelectronic circuits, and developments of optical biosensors. PMID:23481759

  10. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Revolutionizing Agriculture: Synthesis and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sabir, Sidra; Arshad, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the most innovative field of 21st century. Extensive research is going on for commercializing nanoproducts throughout the world. Due to their unique properties, nanoparticles have gained considerable importance compared to bulk counterparts. Among other metal nanoparticles, zinc oxide nanoparticles are very much important due to their utilization in gas sensors, biosensors, cosmetics, drug-delivery systems, and so forth. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) also have remarkable optical, physical, and antimicrobial properties and therefore have great potential to enhance agriculture. As far as method of formation is concerned, ZnO NPs can be synthesized by several chemical methods such as precipitation method, vapor transport method, and hydrothermal process. The biogenic synthesis of ZnO NPs by using different plant extracts is also common nowadays. This green synthesis is quite safe and ecofriendly compared to chemical synthesis. This paper elaborates the synthesis, properties, and applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles. PMID:25436235

  11. Heterostructured nanohybrid of zinc oxide-montmorillonite clay.

    PubMed

    Hur, Su Gil; Kim, Tae Woo; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Hwang, Sung-Ho; Yang, Jae Hun; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2006-02-01

    We have synthesized heterostructured zinc oxide-aluminosilicate nanohybrids through a hydrothermal reaction between the colloidal suspension of exfoliated montmorillonite nanosheets and the sol solution of zinc acetate. According to X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, and field emission-scanning electron microscopic analyses, it was found that the intercalation of zinc oxide nanoparticles expands the basal spacing of the host montmorillonite clay, and the crystallites of the nanohybrids are assembled to form a house-of-cards structure. From UV-vis spectroscopic investigation, it becomes certain that calcined nanohybrid contains two kinds of the zinc oxide species in the interlayer space of host lattice and in mesopores formed by the house-of-cards type stacking of the crystallites. Zn K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure/extended X-ray absorption fine structure analyses clearly demonstrate that guest species in the nanohybrids exist as nanocrystalline zinc oxides with wurzite-type structure. PMID:16471722

  12. Zinc oxide based diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Shivaraman

    During my graduate research I have synthesized materials known as diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) as epitaxial thin film structures using the process of pulsed laser deposition (PLD). These materials are envisioned to be of importance in the emerging field of spintronics where the charge as well as the spin of the charge carriers can be combined to yield unique functionalities to yield novel devices including, on-chip memories, ultra-low power devices etc. The material of interest in this dissertation was zinc oxide, a wide bandgap optoelectronic semiconductor. ZnO has a bandgap of 3.3 eV. It is an ideal candidate for spintronics applications, because Zn is the last of the first row transition metals, which leads to pretty high solubility of transition metals such as Co, Mn and V in ZnO. In a diluted magnetic semiconductor a fraction of the host atoms is substituted by the transition metal dopant ion. We have found that we can synthesize very high quality, single phase and single crystalline Zn(TM)O thin films on basal plane sapphire single crystals (alpha-Al 2O3). We have analyzed the magnetic properties of the three systems of ZnVO, ZnCoO and ZnMnO and found that ZnCoO and ZnMnO exhibit ferromagnetic ordering up to room temperature, when synthesized under high vacuum. In these conditions, the samples have a reasonable concentration of point defects which drive ZnO to n-type conductivity. By a combination of in-situ and ex-situ variation of parameters we have been able to tune the electronic and magnetic properties of these systems. From these studies we conclude that the main mechanism of magnetic ordering in these DMS materials is through a combination of defect related carrier induced exchange and bound magnetic polaron exchange. Device structures were fabricated using the as deposited samples to study the possibility of spin injection through semiconductors. We have observed that at low temperatures we see a considerable effect from this phenomenon in a magnetic tunnel junction kind of configuration. Hence, this study opens up new avenues and possibilities for a variety of spintronics applications.

  13. Analysis of cellular responses of macrophages to zinc ions and zinc oxide nanoparticles: a combined targeted and proteomic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triboulet, Sarah; Aude-Garcia, Catherine; Armand, Lucie; Gerdil, Adèle; Diemer, Hélène; Proamer, Fabienne; Collin-Faure, Véronique; Habert, Aurélie; Strub, Jean-Marc; Hanau, Daniel; Herlin, Nathalie; Carrière, Marie; van Dorsselaer, Alain; Rabilloud, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Two different zinc oxide nanoparticles, as well as zinc ions, are used to study the cellular responses of the RAW 264 macrophage cell line. A proteomic screen is used to provide a wide view of the molecular effects of zinc, and the most prominent results are cross-validated by targeted studies. Furthermore, the alteration of important macrophage functions (e.g. phagocytosis) by zinc is also investigated. The intracellular dissolution/uptake of zinc is also studied to further characterize zinc toxicity. Zinc oxide nanoparticles dissolve readily in the cells, leading to high intracellular zinc concentrations, mostly as protein-bound zinc. The proteomic screen reveals a rather weak response in the oxidative stress response pathway, but a strong response both in the central metabolism and in the proteasomal protein degradation pathway. Targeted experiments confirm that carbohydrate catabolism and proteasome are critical determinants of sensitivity to zinc, which also induces DNA damage. Conversely, glutathione levels and phagocytosis appear unaffected at moderately toxic zinc concentrations.Two different zinc oxide nanoparticles, as well as zinc ions, are used to study the cellular responses of the RAW 264 macrophage cell line. A proteomic screen is used to provide a wide view of the molecular effects of zinc, and the most prominent results are cross-validated by targeted studies. Furthermore, the alteration of important macrophage functions (e.g. phagocytosis) by zinc is also investigated. The intracellular dissolution/uptake of zinc is also studied to further characterize zinc toxicity. Zinc oxide nanoparticles dissolve readily in the cells, leading to high intracellular zinc concentrations, mostly as protein-bound zinc. The proteomic screen reveals a rather weak response in the oxidative stress response pathway, but a strong response both in the central metabolism and in the proteasomal protein degradation pathway. Targeted experiments confirm that carbohydrate catabolism and proteasome are critical determinants of sensitivity to zinc, which also induces DNA damage. Conversely, glutathione levels and phagocytosis appear unaffected at moderately toxic zinc concentrations. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00319e

  14. The insert of zinc oxide thin film in indium tin oxide anode for organic electroluminescence devices q

    E-print Network

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    The insert of zinc oxide thin film in indium tin oxide anode for organic electroluminescence-746, South Korea Received 30 August 2003; accepted 7 November 2003 Available online 6 May 2004 Abstract Zinc high-purity of zinc oxide (99.99%) powder. Systematic study on dependence of target

  15. J Am Cerom Soc 73 [lo] 3026-32 (19901 Electrical Properties of Individual Zinc Oxide

    E-print Network

    Rohrer, Gregory S.

    J Am Cerom Soc 73 [lo] 3026-32 (19901 Electrical Properties of Individual Zinc Oxide Grain properties of single interfaces and grain boundaries. [Keywords: grain boundaries, zinc oxide, varistors semiconductor, zinc oxide (ZnO), which is used commercially as a varistor material. This is an excellent

  16. A new copper species based on an azo-compound utilized as a homogeneous catalyst for water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei-Bin; He, Qing-Ya; Ma, Xiu-Fang; Shi, Hua-Tian; Wei, Xianwen

    2015-01-01

    A new azo-complex [(L)Cu(II)(NO3)] [L = (E)-3-(pyridin-2-yldiazenyl)naphthalen-2-ol (HL)], was prepared via a one-pot synthetic method at 60 °C and was structurally characterized by IR, EA, PXRD and single crystal X-ray diffraction. In addition, TGA studies indicated that the complex was stable in air. The redox properties were determined by cyclic voltammetry, which revealed that the complex could be utilized as a catalyst for water oxidation under mild conditions. Subsequently, the complex was employed as a catalyst to take part in water oxidation reaction in the presence of a Ce(IV) salt utilized as an oxidant at pH 11 in PBS (Phosphate Buffered Saline) solution. The results suggested that the catalyst exhibited a high stability and activity toward water oxidation reaction under these conditions with an initial TOF of 4.0 kPa h(-1). Calculation methodology was performed to study the mechanism of the reaction, which revealed that in this catalytic process, the initial oxidation of Cu(II) to Cu(III) occurred by the formation of an intermediate "Cu(III)-O-O-Cu(III)". The formation of this intermediate, resulted in a release of oxygen and closing of the catalytic cycle. PMID:25382024

  17. High-performance liquefied petroleum gas sensing based on nanostructures of zinc oxide and zinc stannate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aarthy Sivapunniyam; Niti Wiromrat; Myo Tay Zar Myint; Joydeep Dutta

    2011-01-01

    Toxic and combustible gas detection plays a major role in environmental air quality monitoring. Real-time monitoring of hazardous gases and signal of accidental leakages is of great importance owing to the concern for safety requirements in industries and household applications. A simple and economical method for the fabrication of highly sensitive zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods based gas sensors for detecting

  18. Photoexcited emission efficiencies of zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, John Vincent

    Optoelectronic properties of the II-VI semiconductor zinc oxide (ZnO) have been studied scientifically for almost 60 years; however, many fundamental questions remain unanswered about its two primary emission bands--the exciton-related luminescence in the ultraviolet and the defect-related emission band centered in the green portion of the visible spectrum. The work in this dissertation was motivated by the surprising optical properties of a ZnO nanowire sample grown by the group of Prof. Jie Liu, Department of Chemistry, Duke University. We found that this nanowire sample exhibited defect-related green/white emission of unprecedented intensity relative to near-band-edge luminescence. The experimental work comprising this dissertation was designed to explain the optical properties of this ZnO nanowire sample. Understanding the physics underlying such exceptional intensity of green emission addresses many of the open questions of ZnO research and assesses the possibility of using ZnO nanostructures as an ultraviolet-excited, broadband visible phosphor. The goal of this dissertation is to provide insight into what factors influence the radiative and nonradiative recombination efficiencies of ZnO by characterizing simultaneously the optical properties of the near-band-edge ultraviolet and the defect-related green emission bands. Specifically, we seek to understand the mechanisms of ultraviolet and green emission, the mechanism of energy transfer between them, and the evolution of their emission efficiencies with parameters such as excitation density and sample temperature. These fundamental but unanswered questions of ZnO emission are addressed here by using a novel combination of ultrafast spectroscopic techniques in conjunction with a systematic set of ZnO samples. Through this systematic investigation, ZnO may be realistically assessed as a potential green/white light phosphor. Photoluminescence techniques are used to characterize the thermal quenching behavior of both emission bands in micrometer-scale ZnO powders. Green luminescence quenching is described by activation energies associated with bound excitons. We find that green luminescence efficiency is maximized when excitons are localized in the vicinity of green-emitting defects. Subsequent photoluminescence excitation measurements performed at multiple temperatures independently verified that green band photoluminescence intensity directly correlates with the photogenerated exciton population. The spatial distributions of green-emitting defects and nonradiative traps are elucidated by an innovative combination of quantum efficiency and time-integrated/resolved photoluminescence measurements. By combining these techniques for the first time, we take advantage of the drastically different absorption coefficients for one- and two-photon excitations to provide details about the types and concentrations of surface and bulk defects and to demonstrate the non-negligible effects of reabsorption. A comparison of results for unannealed and annealed ZnO powders indicates that the annealing process creates a high density of green-emitting defects near the surface of the sample while simultaneously reducing the density of bulk nonradiative traps. These experimental results are discussed in the context of a simple rate equation model that accounts for the quantum efficiencies of both emission bands. For both femtosecond pulsed and continuous-wave excitations, the green band efficiency is found to decrease with increasing excitation density--from 35% to 5% for pulsed excitation spanning 1-1000 muJ/cm--2, and from 60% to 5% for continuous excitation in the range 0.01-10 W/cm --2. On the other hand, near-band-edge emission efficiency increases from 0.4% to 25% for increasing pulsed excitation density and from 0.1% to 0.6% for continuous excitation. It is shown experimentally that these changes in efficiency correspond to a reduction in exciton formation efficiency. The differences in efficiencies for pulsed versus continuous-wave excitation are described by changes in the relative

  19. Nanocomposite electrical generator based on piezoelectric zinc oxide nanowires

    E-print Network

    Endres. William J.

    Nanocomposite electrical generator based on piezoelectric zinc oxide nanowires K. Momeni, G. M October 2010; published online 1 December 2010 A nanocomposite electrical generator composed of an array system and loading configuration can generate up to 160% more electric potential than the values reported

  20. Application of zinc oxide quantum dots in food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO QDs) are nanoparticles of purified powdered ZnO. The ZnO QDs were directly added into liquid foods or coated on the surface of glass jars using polylactic acid (PLA) as a carrier. The antimicrobial activities of ZnO QDs against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteriti...

  1. Interfacial electron transfer dynamics of photosensitized zinc oxide nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Murakoshi, Kei; Yanagida, Shozo [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Capel, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    The authors have prepared and characterized photosensitized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoclusters, dispersed in methanol, using carboxylated coumarin dyes for surface adsorption. Femtosecond time-resolved emission spectroscopy allows the authors to measure the photo-induced charge carrier injection rate constant from the adsorbed photosensitizer to the n-type semiconductor nanocluster. These results are compared with other photosensitized semiconductors.

  2. Effect of lattice constant of zinc oxide on antibacterial characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Osamu; Komatsu, Miyako; Sawai, Jun; Nakagawa, Zenbe-E

    2004-08-01

    Zinc oxide powders were heated in different atmospheres at 800 and 1400 degrees C, of which the characterization and the antibacterial activity were studied by X-ray diffractometry and the measurement of the change in electrical conductivity with bacterial growth. The diffraction peaks corresponding to zinc oxide with hexagonal type structure were detected in all samples, which shifted in low-angle side with the increase in the oxidizability of atmosphere during heat-treatment. From the results of calculating lattice constants, a0 and c0, it was found that the value of c0 in hexagonal structure increased with the increase in the oxidizability of atmosphere. On the samples heated at 1400 degrees C, the changes of the c0 value were less than those at 800 degrees C. However, no change of the a0 value showed, irrespective of atmosphere and temperature. Hydrogen peroxide that contributes to the occurrence of antibacterial activity was found to generate from all samples, and the generation amount increased with the increase of c0 value; incidently the amount in the samples heated at 1400 degrees C was less than that at 800 degrees C. The antibacterial activity of zinc oxide increased with the increase of c0 value; that is, it was found that the value of c0 in crystal structure affected the antibacterial activity of zinc oxide. PMID:15477735

  3. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF METAL - ZINC OXIDE - SILICON DIOXIDE - SILICON STRUCTURES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICHARD DANA CHERNE

    1983-01-01

    Two of the basic problems associated with monolithic Metal - Zinc Oxide - Silicon Dioxide - Silicon (MZOS) surface acoustic wave devices involve (1) drifting of device characteristics due to charge injection and trapping associated with the ZnO and (2) radiation damage in the Si-SiO(,2) subsystem. Both of these problems are addressed in this thesis.^ A quantitative comparison of radiation

  4. Spray pyrolysis deposition of cadmium–zinc oxide thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Vigil; L Vaillant; F Cruz; G Santana; A Morales-Acevedo; G Contreras-Puente

    2000-01-01

    Mixed thin film oxides of cadmium and zinc with different compositions were deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis. The effect of the various parameters on the growth and on the film properties is presented. The sample structure was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) having found the presence of a cubic phase resembling that of pure CdO XRD pattern for

  5. Hydrogen sensors based on zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thanittha Samerjai; C. Liewhiran; A. Wisitsoraat; Sukon Phanichphant

    2010-01-01

    Pure ZnO, pure MgO and 5 wt%MgO\\/ZnO nanocomposites were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) in a single step using zinc naphthenate and magnesium acetate tetrahydrate as Zn and Mg precursors. The particle properties were analyzed by XRD, BET and TEM analyses. The sensing films were prepared by mixing the nanoparticles into an organic paste composed of ethyl cellulose and

  6. Octadecanethiol Island Formation on Single Crystal Zinc Oxide Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yocom, Andrea

    2009-10-01

    Organic photovoltaic devices, comprised of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod electron acceptor arrays intercalated with organic polymers, could lead to low-cost renewable energy generation. Surface modifications of ZnO with octadecanethiol (ODT) monolayers can help to improve charge transfer in such devices. In the present work, single crystals of ZnO provided well-defined oxygen-terminated and zinc-terminated surfaces on which to learn fundamentally about the attachment and growth of ODT. Both bare zinc oxide and ODT-functionalized surfaces were characterized with atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and contact angle analysis. ODT seemed to form islands of multilayers on zinc-terminated surfaces, while it formed islands of monolayers on oxygen-terminated surfaces. While ODT was expected to preferentially bond along defects and terraces on oxygen-terminated surfaces, this was not observed. ODT was also expected to more effectively bond to the zinc-terminated surface, which was observed. Finally, surface preparation treatments designed to leave atomically-flat oxygen terminated surfaces were developed. This work was made possible by the National Science Foundation Division of Materials Research and the Renewable Energy Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at the Colorado School of Mines.

  7. Low resistance and transparent Ag/AZO ohmic contact to p-GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, T.; Wang, T.; Gan, X. W.; Wu, H.; Shi, Y.; Liu, C.

    2014-07-01

    Silver (Ag)/ aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were deposited on p-GaN by using electronbeam evaporation. After the annealing process, current -voltage (I-V) measurements were carried out to determine the characteristic of the contacts. The Ag/AZO films annealed at 600 °C were found to present an ohmic contact behavior. The specific contact resistance was calculated to be 9.76 × 10-4 ?cm2 and the transmittance was over 80% for visibly light. The atomic force microscope was used to measure the aggregation of Ag grains which may have been the main factor in the formation of the Ag/AZO ohmic contact to p-GaN.

  8. Rapid degradation of zinc oxide nanoparticles by phosphate ions

    PubMed Central

    García-García, F Javier; Reller, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Zinc oxide nanoparticles are highly sensitive towards phosphate ions even at pH 7. Buffer solutions and cell culture media containing phosphate ions are able to destroy ZnO nanoparticles within a time span from less than one hour to one day. The driving force of the reaction is the formation of zinc phosphate of very low solubility. The morphology of the zinc oxide particles has only a minor influence on the kinetics of this reaction. Surface properties related to different production methods and the presence and absence of labelling with a perylene fluorescent dye are more important. Particles prepared under acidic conditions are more resistant than those obtained in basic or neutral reaction medium. Surprisingly, the presence of a SiO2 coating does not impede the degradation of the ZnO core. In contrast to phosphate ions, ?-glycerophosphate does not damage the ZnO nanoparticles. These findings should be taken into account when assessing the biological effects or the toxicology of zinc oxide nanoparticles. PMID:25383310

  9. Burn-induced oxidative stress is altered by a low zinc status: kinetic study in burned rats fed a low zinc diet

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Burn-induced oxidative stress is altered by a low zinc status: kinetic study in burned rats fed a low zinc diet Richard Claeyssen1,2 , Maud Andriollo-Sanchez1 , Josiane Arnaud2,3 , Laurence Touvard1 Cedex 9, France. Keywords: Burn injury, zinc intakes, zinc status, oxidative stress, rat model

  10. Synthesis of 5-aminotetrazole-1N-oxide and its azo derivative: a key step in the development of new energetic materials.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Dennis; Klapötke, Thomas M; Piercey, Davin G; Stierstorfer, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    1-Hydroxy-5-aminotetrazole (1), which is a long-desired starting material for the synthesis of hundreds of new energetic materials, was synthesized for the first time by the reaction of aqueous hydroxylamine with cyanogen azide. The use of this unique precursor was demonstrated by the preparation of several energetic compounds with equal or higher performance than that of commonly used explosives, such as hexogen (RDX). The prepared compounds, including energetic salts of 1-hydroxy-5-aminotetrazole (hydroxylammonium (2, two polymorphs) and ammonium (3)), azo-coupled derivatives (potassium (5), hydroxylammonium (6), ammonium (7), and hydrazinium 5,5'-azo-bis(1-N-oxidotetrazolate (8, two polymorphs)), as well as neutral compounds 5,5'-azo-bis(1-oxidotetrazole) (4) and 5,5'-bis(1-oxidotetrazole)hydrazine (9), were intensively characterized by low-temperature X-ray diffraction, IR, Raman, and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and DSC. The calculated energetic performance, by using the EXPLO5 code, based on the calculated (CBS-4M) heats of formation and X-ray densities confirm the high energetic performance of tetrazole-N-oxides as energetic materials. Last but not least, their sensitivity towards impact, friction, and electrostatic discharge were explored. 5,5'-Azo-bis(1-N-oxidotetrazole) deflagrates close to the DDT (deflagration-to-detonation transition) faster than all compounds that have been investigated in our research group to date. PMID:23417994

  11. Zinc oxide's hierarchical nanostructure and its photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjwal, Muzafar A.; Sheikh, Faheem A.; Barakat, Nasser A. M.; Li, Xiaoqiang; Kim, Hak Yong; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2012-02-01

    In this study, a new hierarchical nanostructure that consists of zinc oxide (ZnO) was produced by the electrospinning process followed by a hydrothermal technique. First, electrospinning of a colloidal solution that consisted of zinc nanoparticles, zinc acetate dihydrate and poly(vinyl alcohol) was performed to produce polymeric nanofibers embedding solid nanoparticles. Calcination of the obtained electrospun nanofiber mats in air at 500 °C for 90 min produced pure ZnO nanofibers with rough surfaces. The rough surface strongly enhanced outgrowing of ZnO nanobranches when a specific hydrothermal technique was used. Methylene blue dihydrate was used to check the photocatalytic ability of the produced nanostructures. The results indicated that the hierarchical nanostructure had a better performance than the other form.

  12. Analytic bond-order potential for atomistic simulations of zinc oxide

    E-print Network

    Nordlund, Kai

    Analytic bond-order potential for atomistic simulations of zinc oxide Paul Erhart1 , Niklas Juslin2 for zinc oxide and its elemental constituents is derived based on an analytical bond-order formalism. The model potential provides a good description of the bulk properties of various solid structures of zinc

  13. A long life zinc oxide-titanium oxide sorbent for moving bed reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, R.; Cesario, M.; Dubovik, M.; Feinberg, D.; Windecker, B.; Yang, J. [TDA Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Coal Fired Gasifier Combined Cycles (GCCs) have both high efficiency and very low emissions. GCCs are in critical need of a method to remove the H{sub 2}S produced from the sulfur in the coal from the hot gases. There has been extensive research on hot gas clean-up systems, focused on the use of a zinc oxide based sorbent (e.g., zinc titanate). However, the previous sorbents show significant losses in sulfur capacity with cycling. TDA Research, Inc. recently increased the zinc oxide content and sulfur loadings while simultaneously improving the attrition resistance. The improved fabrication method produces long life, low cost sorbent containing zinc oxide. The authors are currently testing sorbents at conditions simulating a moving bed reactor for GCC [i.e., 20 atm, 482 C (900 F) to 538 C (1,000 F), and 1% H{sub 2}S].

  14. Biodecolorization of azo dye Remazol orange by Pseudomonas aeruginosa BCH and toxicity (oxidative stress) reduction in Allium cepa root cells.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Shekhar B; Surwase, Shripad N; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Gurav, Ranjit G; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2012-11-01

    In this report a textile azo dye Remazol orange was degraded and detoxified by bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa BCH in plain distilled water. This bacterial decolorization performance was found to be pH and temperature dependent with maximum decolorization observed at pH 8 and temperature 30 °C. Bacterium tolerated higher dye concentrations up to 400 mg?l(-1). Effect of initial cell mass showed that higher cell mass concentration can accelerate decolorization process with maximum of 92 % decolorization observed at 2.5 g?l(-1) cell mass within 6.5 h. Effect of various metal ions showed Mn has inducing effect whereas Zn strongly inhibited the decolorization process at 5 mM concentration. Analysis of biodegradation products carried out with UV-vis spectroscopy, HPTLC and FTIR confirmed the decolorization and degradation of Remazol orange. Possible route for the degradation of dye was proposed based on GC-MS analysis. During toxicological scrutiny in Allium cepa root cells, induction in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and inhibition of catalase (CAT) along with raised levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in dye treated samples were detected which conclusively indicated the generation of oxidative stress. Less toxic nature of the dye degraded products was observed after bacterial treatment. PMID:22948606

  15. Zinc in a +III oxidation state

    E-print Network

    Samanta, Devleena

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of Group 12 elements, such as Zn, Cd, and Hg existing in an oxidation state of +III or higher and hence transforming them into transition metals has fascinated chemists for decades. It took nearly 20 years before experiment could confirm the theoretical prediction that Hg indeed can exist in an oxidation state of +IV. While this unusual property of Hg is attributed to the relativistic effects, Zn being much lighter than Hg has not been expected to have an oxidation state higher than +II. Using density functional theory we show that an oxidation state of +III for Zn can be realized by choosing specific ligands with large electron affinities. We demonstrate this by a systematic study of the interaction of Zn with F, BO2, and AuF6 ligands whose electron affinities are progressively higher, namely, 3.4 eV, 4.5 eV, and 8.6 eV, respectively. Discovery of higher oxidation states of elements can help in the formulation of new reactions and hence in the development of new chemistry.

  16. Electrical and optical properties of zinc oxide for scintillator applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaocheng Yang

    2008-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide-band-gap semiconductor suitable for many optical and optoelectronic applications. Among these is to use single crystal, powder, or ceramic forms of ZnO as a fast UV scintillator. In this work, the electrical and optical properties of ZnO were studied using photoluminescence, X-ray-induced luminescence, optical absorption, and Hall Effect techniques. This study included single crystal ZnO

  17. Giant negative magnetoresistance in Manganese-substituted Zinc Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X. L.; Shao, Q.; Zhuravlyova, A.; He, M.; Yi, Y.; Lortz, R.; Wang, J. N.; Ruotolo, A.

    2015-01-01

    We report a large negative magnetoresistance in Manganese-substituted Zinc Oxide thin films. This anomalous effect was found to appear in oxygen-deficient films and to increase with the concentration of Manganese. By combining magnetoresistive measurements with magneto-photoluminescence, we demonstrate that the effect can be explained as the result of a magnetically induced transition from hopping to band conduction where the activation energy is caused by the sp-d exchange interaction. PMID:25783664

  18. A new method for preparation of zinc oxide whiskers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zuowan Zhou; Hai Deng; Jing Yi; Shikai Liu

    1999-01-01

    Tetrapod-shaped ZnO whiskers were prepared with high yield and good purity in a short reaction time by a new method, the oxidation of pellets or otherwise shaped metallic zinc at 500–800°C under atmospheric pressure. The reaction conditions were analyzed and compared with other methods. The products were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results

  19. Tetrapod-like Zinc Oxide Whisker Enhancement of Resin Composite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. N. Niu; M. Fang; K. Jiao; L. H. Tang; Y. H. Xiao; L. J. Shen; J. H. Chen

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for composite resins with both strong antibacterial activity and satisfactory mechanical properties. This study tested the hypothesis that the new antibacterial agent tetrapod-like zinc oxide whisker (T-ZnOw) could simultaneously enhance the antibacterial activity and mechanical properties of a two-component composite resin. The antibacterial activities of the materials were assessed by the broth dilution test and

  20. Preparation and Property Analysis of Hydrophobic Zinc Oxide Films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Chen; Li Min

    2011-01-01

    In this research, zinc oxide films were prepared on glass substrates by hydrothermal synthesis and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) respectively. A nanostructured layer of flurocarbon compounds with low surface energy was formed on the films by low-temperature dielectric barrier discharge plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (DBD-PECVD), in order to enhance the hydrophobicity of the films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  1. Giant negative magnetoresistance in Manganese-substituted Zinc Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. L.; Shao, Q.; Zhuravlyova, A.; He, M.; Yi, Y.; Lortz, R.; Wang, J. N.; Ruotolo, A.

    2015-03-01

    We report a large negative magnetoresistance in Manganese-substituted Zinc Oxide thin films. This anomalous effect was found to appear in oxygen-deficient films and to increase with the concentration of Manganese. By combining magnetoresistive measurements with magneto-photoluminescence, we demonstrate that the effect can be explained as the result of a magnetically induced transition from hopping to band conduction where the activation energy is caused by the sp-d exchange interaction.

  2. Zinc oxide-based sorbents and processes for preparing and using same

    DOEpatents

    Gangwal, Santosh Kumar; Turk, Brian Scott; Gupta, Raghubir Prasad

    2005-10-04

    Zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them are provided, wherein the sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents contain an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2 O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, containing a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

  3. Zinc-oxide-based sorbents and processes for preparing and using same

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, Santosh Kumar (Cary, NC); Turk, Brian Scott (Durham, NC); Gupta, Raghubir Prasael (Durham, NC)

    2010-03-23

    Zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them are provided. The sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents comprise an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, comprising a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

  4. Superior antibacterial activity of zinc oxide/graphene oxide composites originating from high zinc concentration localized around bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Wen; Cao, Aoneng; Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Jia-Hui; Liu, Yuanfang; Wang, Haifang

    2014-02-26

    New materials with good antibacterial activity and less toxicity to other species attract numerous research interest. Taking advantage of zinc oxide (ZnO) and graphene oxide (GO), the ZnO/GO composites were prepared by a facile one-pot reaction to achieve superior antibacterial properties without damaging other species. In the composites, ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), with a size of about 4 nm, homogeneously anchored onto GO sheets. The typical bacterium Escherichia coli and HeLa cell were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of the ZnO/GO composites, respectively. The synergistic effects of GO and ZnO NPs led to the superior antibacterial activity of the composites. GO helped the dispersion of ZnO NPs, slowed the dissolution of ZnO, acted as the storage site for the dissolved zinc ions, and enabled the intimate contact of E. coli with ZnO NPs and zinc ions as well. The close contact enhanced the local zinc concentration pitting on the bacterial membrane and the permeability of the bacterial membrane and thus induced bacterial death. In addition, the ZnO/GO composites were found to be much less toxic to HeLa cells, compared to the equivalent concentration of ZnO NPs in the composites. The results indicate that the ZnO/GO composites are promising disinfection materials to be used in surface coatings on various substrates to effectively inhibit bacterial growth, propagation, and survival in medical devices. PMID:24495147

  5. Nanocomposite electrical generator based on piezoelectric zinc oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, K.; Odegard, G. M.; Yassar, R. S.

    2010-12-01

    A nanocomposite electrical generator composed of an array of zinc oxide nanowires is considered. The electric potential distribution along zinc oxide nanowires is modeled using continuum mechanics and Maxwell's equations for the case of axial loading. A perturbation technique is used for decoupling the constitutive equations. The governing differential equations are solved using a finite difference method. It is shown that a gradient of electric potential exists along the axis of the zinc oxide nanowires. Maximum and minimum values of electric potential exist at the extreme ends along the nanowire length and have opposite signs. The positive and negative voltages are separated by a zero-valued electric potential at the middle of the nanowire. It is also shown that the electric potential is a strong function of shear stress at the interface of matrix-nanowire. The proposed system and loading configuration can generate up to 160% more electric potential than the values reported for the nanowire in the bended configuration, which results in a more sustainable energy source.

  6. Band-Gap Engineering of Zinc Oxide Colloids via Lattice Substitution with Sulfur Leading to Materials with Advanced Properties for

    E-print Network

    Nabben, Reinhard

    Band-Gap Engineering of Zinc Oxide Colloids via Lattice Substitution with Sulfur Leading requires a precise control over electronic properties. Zinc oxide is favorable for large such as zinc oxide (ZnO).3,4 At first sight, ZnO is a simple material. Unlike typical transition metals, zinc

  7. Nonohmic Properties of Zinc Oxide Ceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michio Matsuoka

    1971-01-01

    Nonohmic properties of ZnO ceramics with five additives of Bi2O3, CoO, MnO, Cr2O3, and Sb2O3 are studied in relation to sintering temperature, additive content, and temperature dependence. The observation of electron photomicrographs and X-ray microanalysis proves a ceramic microstructure such that ZnO and these five oxides form, at the grain boundaries, segregation layers which are responsible for the nonohmic properties.

  8. Ultrathin oxidized Ti to increase stability and smoothness of Al doped ZnO transparent conductors for high efficiency indium-free polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formica, N.; Ghosh, D. S.; Martinez-Otero, A.; Chen, T. L.; Martorell, Jordi; Pruneri, V.

    2013-10-01

    We propose a transparent electrode consisting of an aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) layer capped with an ultrathin oxidized Ti film for indium-free bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs). The oxidized Ti increases the chemical, environmental, stability and the surface smoothness of AZO while still maintaining its electrical and optical properties. The application potential of the proposed transparent electrode is demonstrated in an inverted PSC, which shows an efficiency of 6.3%, very close to the value (7%) obtained in a similar structure using indium tin oxide. This efficiency is the highest reported to date for PSCs incorporating AZO electrodes.

  9. Kinetics of fluoride release from zinc oxide-based cements.

    PubMed

    Billington, R W; Hadley, P C; Williams, J A; Pearson, G J

    2001-09-01

    Considerable attention has been given to the release of the cariostatic fluoride ion from glass-based dental cements (dental silicate and glass ionomer). In these, the total available fluoride content is not precisely known since fluorine is distributed between the cross-linked aqueous salt matrix, partially dissolved glass, and undissolved glass. In analogous cements based on zinc oxide the fluoride is added as highly soluble SnF2. The object of this study is to compare the F- ion release profiles of commercial zinc polycarboxylate and zinc phosphate containing 4.4 and 3.6% SnF2, respectively. Mixed cements were clamped in split ring moulds to produce discs of 10 mm x 1 mm after storage at 37 degrees C for 1 h. Each was weighed and immersed in 10 ml of deionised water. When this changed, at 13 time intervals up to 98 days, the fluoride content was measured using an ion selective electrode. The mean (N = 3) values obtained were expressed cumulatively [F] in micromol F ion/g cement. The total [F] released was 111 for the zinc polycarboxylate and 286 for zinc phosphate compared with total F in the cements of 561 and 464, respectively. When the cumulative [F] was plotted versus t(1/2) close associations were found for both cements. For the polycarboxylate the regression line [F] = 10.6t(1/2) + 9.9 fitted well over the whole 98 days (R = 0.997). For the phosphate a better fit regression line was obtained using results up to 32 days only; [F] = 36.8t(1/2) - 8.4 (R = 0.999). For t > 32 days results increasingly deviated from this line. These results fitted a regression line of the form [F] = 81.7log(e) t - 87.3 (R = 0.9997). Comparisons are made with data from previous authors both for zinc phosphate cement and glass-based cements and with diffusion theory of F ion release. It is concluded that zinc-based cements provide some indications of how glass-based cements may behave over long periods of release and that zinc phosphate is the material of clinical choice for orthodontic cementation if maximal fluoride release is the prime criterion. PMID:11516083

  10. Study of photo-induced effect on field emission from zinc oxide nanowire cold cathode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Hu; M. X. Liao; S. Z. Deng; W. J. Zai; N. S. Xu

    2011-01-01

    A fully-sealed zinc oxide nanowire cold cathode flat-panel device and a LED flat-panel lighting sources with different wavelengths have been used for investigating the photo-induced effect on field emission from zinc oxide nanowires. The results show that the photo-induced effect using red, orange, yellow, and green light on the field emission from zinc oxide nanowires was not obvious, while the

  11. Rare earth doped zinc oxide varistors

    DOEpatents

    McMillan, A.D.; Modine, F.A.; Lauf, R.J.; Alim, M.A.; Mahan, G.D.; Bartkowiak, M.

    1998-12-29

    A varistor includes a Bi-free, essentially homogeneous sintered body of a ceramic composition including, expressed as nominal weight %, 0.2--4.0% oxide of at least one rare earth element, 0.5--4.0% Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, 0.05--0.4% K{sub 2}O, 0.05--0.2% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--0.2% CaO, 0.00005--0.01% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--2% MnO, 0--0.05% MgO, 0--0.5% TiO{sub 3}, 0--0.2% SnO{sub 2}, 0--0.02% B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, balance ZnO. 4 figs.

  12. Rare earth doped zinc oxide varistors

    DOEpatents

    McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Modine, Frank A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Alim, Mohammad A. (Medina, OH); Mahan, Gerald D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bartkowiak, Miroslaw (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A varistor includes a Bi-free, essentially homogeneous sintered body of a ceramic composition including, expressed as nominal weight %, 0.2-4.0% oxide of at least one rare earth element, 0.5-4.0% Co.sub.3 O.sub.4, 0.05-0.4% K.sub.2 O, 0.05-0.2% Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3, 0-0.2% CaO, 0.00005-0.01% Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, 0-2% MnO, 0-0.05% MgO, 0-0.5% TiO.sub.3, 0-0.2% SnO.sub.2, 0-0.02% B.sub.2 O.sub.3, balance ZnO.

  13. The zinc ferrite obtained by oxidative precipitation method as a catalyst in n-butanol conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Klimkiewicz, Roman [W. Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, Wroclaw 2 50-950 (Poland)], E-mail: R.Klimkiewicz@int.pan.wroc.pl; Wolska, Jolanta; Przepiera, Aleksander; Przepiera, Krystyna; Jablonski, Maciej [Institute of Chemistry and Environmental Protection, Szczecin University of Technology, Al. Piastow 42, Szczecin 71-065 (Poland); Lenart, Stanislaw [Institute of Materials Engineering, Szczecin University of Technology, Al. Piastow 19, Szczecin 70-310 (Poland)

    2009-01-08

    This paper presents the results of catalytic properties of n-butanol conversion of the zinc ferrite obtained by oxidative precipitation method. The zinc ferrite showed good dehydrogenating activity but also catalyzed consecutive bimolecular condensation of emerged aldehyde particles into symmetrical ketone. The zinc-iron oxide of spinel structure was prepared from ferrous sulfate, which forms as a waste during the titanium dioxide production. The X-ray diffraction methods (XRD, XRF) were used in determining the structure and composition of obtained zinc ferrite, while thermogravimetry (TG-DTG), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used in the study of thermal transformations of zinc spinel in air.

  14. The synthesis and optical properties of different zinc oxide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Rifai, S. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P.

    2013-12-01

    The tetrapod-like whiskers (T-ZnO), nanoaeroplanes, nanocombs, nanobelts, bead-like nanoforms and many other forms of hexagonal zinc oxide were synthesized by the chemical deposition process (CVD). From the experimental results it can be seen that the composition of source gases and the speed of oxidation are essential to the growth of each of these morphologies of zinc oxide. By controlling the growth conditions, one novel morphology of ZnO (bead-like nanoform) has been obtained. The ZnO tetrapod-like whiskers were grown without catalysts on the walls of quartz tube. The structure and morphology of the T-ZnO was characterized. All four legs of as-grown ZnO nanotetrapods are needle-like and hexagonal shaped and grow in the ±[0001] direction. The effect of synthesis conditions on the morphology and size T-ZnO was observed. Possible mechanisms of growth were investigated. The lengths of the legs of the tetrapods range from 1 to 15 ?m and diameter varying from 0.03 to 1 ?m during the synthesis. In the photoluminescence spectra T-ZnO clearly shows two maxima at UV and visible regions. The oxygen impurity, particularly, oxygen flow rates mainly influences on increasing (decreasing) at PL peaks. The maximum near of 590-610 nm (˜2 eV), confirming the influence of native defects (oxygen vacancies and interstitials) on the PL intensity and optical quenching exciton peak.

  15. Interfacial mixing during annealing of zinc oxide nanoparticle junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ming; Giapis, Konstantinos P.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2011-05-01

    The process of forming a junction between crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles during pulsed thermal annealing in liquid tetradecane is studied using molecular dynamics simulation. Pairs of equal and unequal size particles are considered with emphasis on neck growth and atom mixing. The contact area and interface width of the junction are found to increase with heat pulse power albeit at different rates. The results suggest that it is possible to increase the junction area without significant mixing of atoms across the junction interface by tailoring the heat pulse power.

  16. Eshelby twist and magic helical zinc oxide nanowires and nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Akatyeva, E; Dumitric?, T

    2012-07-20

    Twisted zinc oxide nanowires and nanotubes were recently synthesized by screw-dislocation growth. We show theoretically that once their diameter increases above a critical size of the order of a few atomic spacings, the existence of these structures can be rationalized in terms of the energetics of surfaces and veritable Eshelby's twist linear elasticity mechanics supplemented by a nonlinear core term. For Burgers vector larger than the minimum allowed one, a twisted nanotube with well-defined thickness, rather than a nanowire, is the most stable nanostructure. Results are assistive for designing ultrathin nanostructures made out of nonlayered materials. PMID:22861867

  17. Manganese-doped zinc oxide tetratubes and their photoluminescent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. X.; Sun, X. W.; Dong, Z. L.; Tan, S. T.; Cui, Y. P.; Wang, B. P.

    2005-12-01

    Based on vapor-phase transport method, manganese-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Mn) tetropod whiskers were fabricated. The pods of the ZnO:Mn whiskers show hexagonal hollow shape with multitips at the front. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy demonstrate that the tube pods and the tips are composed of wurtzite ZnO growing along [0001] direction. The generation of the luminescent center in ZnO whiskers and electron transport between the ground state and the excitation states of Mn2+ are analyzed by Raman-scattering, photoluminescence, and photoluminescent excitation measurements.

  18. Diameter control of ultrathin zinc oxide nanofibers synthesized by electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yingjie; Fukuda, Takeshi; Kamata, Norihiko; Tokunaga, Makoto

    2014-05-01

    Electrospinning is a versatile technique, which can be used to generate nanofibers from a rich variety of materials. We investigate the variation of a zinc oxide (ZnO)-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) composite structure in morphology by electrospinning from a series of mixture solutions of ZnO sol-gel and PVP. Calcination conditions for the crystallization of ZnO nanofibers and removal of the PVP component from the ZnO-PVP composite nanofibers were also studied. The progression of the ZnO-PVP composite structure from grains to nanofibers was observed, and ZnO-PVP nanofibers as thin as 29.9 ± 0.8 nm on average were successfully fabricated. The size of the resultant ZnO-PVP composite nanofibers was considerably affected by two parameters: the concentrations of zinc acetate and PVP in the precursor solution. The concentration of zinc acetate particularly influenced the diameter distribution of the ZnO-PVP nanofibers. The ZnO-PVP nanofibers could be subsequently converted into ZnO nanofibers of a pure wurtzite phase via calcination in air at 500°C for 2 h.

  19. Diameter control of ultrathin zinc oxide nanofibers synthesized by electrospinning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Electrospinning is a versatile technique, which can be used to generate nanofibers from a rich variety of materials. We investigate the variation of a zinc oxide (ZnO)-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) composite structure in morphology by electrospinning from a series of mixture solutions of ZnO sol–gel and PVP. Calcination conditions for the crystallization of ZnO nanofibers and removal of the PVP component from the ZnO-PVP composite nanofibers were also studied. The progression of the ZnO-PVP composite structure from grains to nanofibers was observed, and ZnO-PVP nanofibers as thin as 29.9?±?0.8 nm on average were successfully fabricated. The size of the resultant ZnO-PVP composite nanofibers was considerably affected by two parameters: the concentrations of zinc acetate and PVP in the precursor solution. The concentration of zinc acetate particularly influenced the diameter distribution of the ZnO-PVP nanofibers. The ZnO-PVP nanofibers could be subsequently converted into ZnO nanofibers of a pure wurtzite phase via calcination in air at 500°C for 2 h. PMID:24948890

  20. pH-dependent growth of zinc oxide nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Sunandan; Dutta, Joydeep

    2009-04-01

    Here we study the effect of pH variation on the dimension and morphology of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods grown through hydrothermal process at temperatures less than 100 °C. ZnO nanorods were grown on pre-seeded glass substrates using zinc nitrate hexahydrate as the source of Zn ions and hexamethylenetetramine as the source of hydroxyl ions. The pH of the reaction bath was found to change gradually from 6.4 to 7.3 in 5 h during the growth process. The growth of the ZnO nanorods was observed to be faster, both laterally and longitudinally, when the growth solution was in basic conditions. However, flower petal like ZnO nanostructures were obtained when the growth process was initiated in basic condition (pH 8-12), indicating that initial acidic conditions were required to obtain nanorods with well-defined hexagonal facets. ZnO is known to erode in acidic condition and the final dimension of the nanorods is determined by a competition between crystal growth and etching. ZnO nanorods of different dimensions, both laterally (diameters ranging from 220 nm to 1 ?m) and longitudinally (lengths ranging from 1 to 5.6 ?m) were successfully synthesized using the same concentration of zinc nitrate and hexamine in the reaction bath and the same growth duration of 5 h simply through appropriate control of the pH of the reactant solution between 6 and 7.3.

  1. Zinc

    MedlinePLUS

    ... they may not get enough zinc. People with sickle cell disease because they might need more zinc. ... Children in developing countries often die from diarrhea. Studies show that zinc dietary supplements help reduce the ...

  2. A combined marginal deficiency of copper and zinc does not exacerbate oxidant stress asssociated with copper or zinc deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both copper deficiency (Cu-def) and zinc deficiency (Zn-def) result in oxidative stress. Thus, an experiment was conducted to determine whether a marginal Zn-def amplified oxidative stress responses to a marginal Cu-def, or vice versa. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to groups of 10 ...

  3. An image processing approach to approximating interface textures of microcrystalline silicon layers grown on existing aluminum-doped zinc oxide textures.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Kai; Hüpkes, Jürgen; Pflaum, Christoph

    2013-11-01

    We present an algorithm for generating a surface approximation of microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si) layers after plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) onto surface textured substrates, where data of the textured substrate surface are available as input. We utilize mathematical image processing tools and combine them with an ellipsoid generator approach. The presented algorithm has been tuned for use in thin-film silicon solar cell applications, where textured surfaces are used to improve light trapping. We demonstrate the feasibility of this method by means of optical simulations of generated surface textures, comparing them to simulations of measured atomic force microscopy (AFM) scan data of both Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO, a transparent and conductive material) and ?c-Si layers. PMID:24514939

  4. Determining adaptive and adverse oxidative stress responses in human bronical epithelial cells exposed to zinc

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining adaptive and adverse oxidative stress responses in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to zincJenna M. Currier1,2, Wan-Yun Cheng1, Rory Conolly1, Brian N. Chorley1Zinc is a ubiquitous contaminant of ambient air that presents an oxidant challenge to the human lung...

  5. The Electrical and Band-Gap Properties of Amorphous Zinc-Indium-Tin Oxide Thin Films

    E-print Network

    Shahriar, Selim

    MRSEC The Electrical and Band-Gap Properties of Amorphous Zinc-Indium-Tin Oxide Thin Films D Science & Engineering Center For zinc-indium-tin oxide (ZITO) films, grown by pulsed-laser deposition, ZITO-50 and ZITO-70 in which, respectively, 30%, 50% and 70% of the indium in the In2O3 structure

  6. Electrochemical deposition of zinc oxide nanorods for hybrid solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Damasco Ty, Jennifer; Yanagi, Hisao

    2015-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays for inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells were electrochemically deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates with a rotating disk electrode setup. The addition of a ZnO seed layer on the ITO prior to electrochemical deposition improved the morphology of the nanorods, resulting in nanorods with smaller and homogenous diameters as well as a higher degree of vertical orientation on to the substrate. The ZnO films deposited on the seeded ITO substrates had higher optical transmittance and lower concentration of defects. Chronoamperometric transient curves show that nucleation and coalescence occurred later for bare ITO substrates, indicating lower densities of initial nuclei, resulting in the growth of nanorods with larger diameters. The solar cell characteristics of the devices fabricated from the seeded ITO substrates were better. The seed layer also acts as a hole-blocking layer, preventing the direct contact between the hole-transporting polymer material and the ITO.

  7. Degradation and mineralization of azo dye reactive blue 222 by sequential Photo-Fenton's oxidation followed by aerobic biological treatment using white rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Shumaila; Ali, Shaukat; Asgher, Muhammad

    2013-02-01

    A two stage sequential Photo-Fenton's oxidation followed by aerobic biological treatment using two white rot fungi P. ostreatus IBL-02 (PO) and P. chrysosporium IBL-03 (PC) was performed to check decolorization and to enhance mineralization of azo dye Reactive Blue 222 (RB222). In the first stage, selected dye was subjected to Photo-Fenton's oxidation with decolorization percentage ?90 % which was further increased to 96.88 % and 95.23 % after aerobic treatment using two white rot fungi P. ostreatus IBL-02 (PO) and P. chrysosporium IBL-03 (PC), respectively. Mineralization efficiency was accessed by measuring the water quality assurance parameters like COD, TOC, TSS and Phenolics estimation. Reduction in COD, TOC, TSS and Phenolics were found to be 95.34 %, 90.11 %, 90.84 % and 92.22 %, respectively in two stage sequential processes. The degradation products were characterized by UV-visible and FTIR spectral techniques and their toxicity was measured. The results provide evidence that both fungal strains were able to oxidize and mineralize the selected azo dye into non-toxic metabolites. PMID:23272326

  8. ZINC

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the available information on zinc as it relates to its effects on man and his environment. Zinc is found in most soils, but some areas are deficient in it. Metallurgic operations contribute to zinc contamination in air, water and soil. Trace amounts of zinc...

  9. Transparent conductive oxides for organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, G. B.; Gao, D.; Greiner, M.; Mordoukhovski, L.; Zhang, J.; Lu, Z. H.

    2010-03-01

    Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) were systematically investigated as alternatives to indium tin oxide (ITO) for canonical poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) + [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) polymer bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Devices made with FTO performed twice as well as devices made with ITO, establishing FTO as a suitable, low-cost ITO replacement. Ozone treatment was shown to be a critical enabling element for both FTO and AZO. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and device characteristics were used to explain the effect of ozone treatment and the origin of open circuit voltage.

  10. Nearly full-dense and fine-grained AZO:Y ceramics sintered from the corresponding nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ye; Lan, Pinjun; Wang, Muqin; Wei, Tiefeng; Tan, Ruiqin; Song, Weijie

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide ceramics with yttria doping (AZO:Y) ranging from 0 to 0.2 wt.% were fabricated by pressureless sintering yttria-modified nanoparticles in air at 1,300°C. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, a physical property measurement system, and a densimeter were employed to characterize the precursor nanoparticles and the sintered AZO ceramics. It was shown that a small amount of yttria doping can remarkably retard the growth of the as-received precursor nanoparticles, further improve the microstructure, refine the grain size, and enhance the density for the sintered ceramic. Increasing the yttria doping to 0.2 wt.%, the AZO:Y nanoparticles synthetized by a coprecipitation process have a nearly sphere-shaped morphology and a mean particle diameter of 15.1 nm. Using the same amount of yttria, a fully dense AZO ceramic (99.98% of theoretical density) with a grain size of 2.2 ?m and a bulk resistivity of 4.6?×?10-3??·cm can be achieved. This kind of AZO:Y ceramic has a potential to be used as a high-quality sputtering target to deposit ZnO-based transparent conductive films with better optical and electrical properties. PMID:22929049

  11. Resistance of extremely halophilic archaea to zinc and zinc oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgaonkar, Bhakti B.; Das, Deepthi; Bragança, Judith Maria

    2015-03-01

    Industrialization as well as other anthropogenic activities have resulted in addition of high loads of metal and/or metal nanoparticles to the environment. In this study, the effect of one of the widely used heavy metal, zinc (Zn) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on extremely halophilic archaea was evaluated. One representative member from four genera namely Halococcus, Haloferax, Halorubrum and Haloarcula of the family Halobacteriaceae was taken as the model organism. All the haloarchaeal genera investigated were resistant to both ZnCl2 and ZnO NPs at varying concentrations. Halococcus strain BK6 and Haloferax strain BBK2 showed the highest resistance in complex/minimal medium of up to 2.0/1.0 mM ZnCl2 and 2.0/1.0-0.5 mM ZnO NP. Accumulation of ZnCl2/ZnO NPs was seen as Haloferax strain BBK2 (287.2/549.6 mg g-1) > Halococcus strain BK6 (165.9/388.5 mg g-1) > Haloarcula strain BS2 (93.2/28.5 mg g-1) > Halorubrum strain BS17 (29.9/16.2 mg g-1). Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analysis revealed that bulk ZnCl2 was sorbed at a higher concentration (21.77 %) on the cell surface of Haloferax strain BBK2 as compared to the ZnO NPs (14.89 %).

  12. Azo dye removal in a membrane-free up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor coupled with an aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dan; Guo, Yu-Qi; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Liang, Bin; Kong, Fan-Ying; Lee, Hyung-Sool; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2012-11-15

    Azo dyes that consist of a large quantity of dye wastewater are toxic and persistent to biodegradation, while they should be removed before being discharged to water body. In this study, Alizarin Yellow R (AYR) as a model azo dye was decolorized in a combined bio-system of membrane-free, continuous up-flow bio-catalyzed electrolysis reactor (UBER) and subsequent aerobic bio-contact oxidation reactor (ABOR). With the supply of external power source 0.5 V in the UBER, AYR decolorization efficiency increased up to 94.8±1.5%. Products formation efficiencies of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) were above 90% and 60%, respectively. Electron recovery efficiency based on AYR removal in cathode zone was nearly 100% at HRTs longer than 6 h. Relatively high concentration of AYR accumulated at higher AYR loading rates (>780 gm(-3) d(-1)) likely inhibited acetate oxidation of anode-respiring bacteria on the anode, which decreased current density in the UBER; optimal AYR loading rate for the UBER was 680 gm(-3) d(-1) (HRT 2.5 h). The subsequent ABOR further improved effluent quality. Overall the Chroma decreased from 320 times to 80 times in the combined bio-system to meet the textile wastewater discharge standard II in China. PMID:23009797

  13. Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/zinc oxide smart composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ö?üt, Erdem; Yördem, O. Sinan; Mencelo?lu, Yusuf Z.; Papila, Melih

    2007-04-01

    This work aimed at fabrication and electromechanical characterization of a smart material system composed of electroactive polymer and ceramic materials. The idea of composite material system is on account of complementary characteristics of the polymer and ceramic for flexibility and piezoelectric activity. Our preliminary work included Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) as the flexible piezoelectric polymer, and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) as the piezoelectric ceramic brittle, but capable to respond strains without poling. Two alternative processes were investigated. The first process makes use of ZnO fibrous formation achieved by sintering PVA/zinc acetate precursor fibers via electrospinning. Highly brittle fibrous ZnO mat was dipped into a PVDF polymer solution and then pressed to form pellets. The second process employed commercial ZnO nanopowder material. The powder was mixed into a PVDF/acetone polymer solution, and the resultant paste was pressed to form pellets. The free standing composite pellets with electrodes on the top and bottom surfaces were then subjected to sinusoidal electric excitation and response was recorded using a fotonic sensor. An earlier work on electrospun PVDF fiber mats was also summarized here and the electromechanical characterization is reported.

  14. Kinetics and mechanism of azo dye destruction in advanced oxidation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnárovits, L.; Pálfi, T.; Takács, E.

    2007-08-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of dye destruction in advanced oxidation processes is discussed on the example of Apollofix Red (Ar-28) radiolysis in aqueous solution. When the reactive intermediate reacts with the color bearing part of the molecule causing with nearly 100% efficiency destruction of the conjugation, the dose dependence, or time dependence of color disappearance is linear. In this case, spectrophotometry can be used to follow-up dye decomposition. Linear dependence was observed when hydrated electrons or hydrogen atoms reacted with the dye. In hydroxyl radical reactions some colored products form with spectra similar to those of the starting dye molecules. For that reason, spectrophotometry gives false result about the intact dye molecule concentration. Analysis by the HPLC reveals logarithmic time dependence in agreement with a theoretical model developed.

  15. Adsorption of isopropanol and cyclohexane on zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratchikova, I. G.; Pylinina, A. I.; Platonov, E. A.; Danilova, M. N.; Isaeva, N. Yu.; Yagodovskii, V. D.

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption isotherms of isopropanol and cyclohexane are obtained in the range of 234-303 K on an initial surface of zinc oxide and after its treatment with glow-discharge plasma in O2 and high-frequency plasma in Ar. The values of isosteric heat and adsorption entropy are shown to be only slightly affected by these treatments. It is found that the acidity of the surface increases by 38 and 97%, respectively, and the acidic sites are not adsorption sites for either adsorbate. At low degrees of occupation, the adsorption isotherms of (CH3)2CHOH are described by an equation of induced adsorption whose parameters are dependent on the plasma-chemical treatments. It is concluded that adsorbed isopropanol particles exist in positively and negatively charged forms. The adsorption of cyclohexane is described by the Hill-de Boer equation for the initial ZnO surface, and by the Langmuir equation after plasma-chemical treatments.

  16. Room temperature deposited indium zinc oxide thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.-L.; Ren, F.; Lim, Wantae; Norton, D. P.; Pearton, S. J.; Kravchenko, I. I.; Zavada, J. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Electronics Division, U.S. Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 (United States)

    2007-06-04

    Depletion-mode indium zinc oxide (IZO) channel thin film transistors were fabricated on glass substrates from layers deposited at room temperature using rf magnetron sputtering. The threshold voltage was in the range from -5.5 to -6.5 V depending on gate dielectric (SiO{sub 2}) thickness and the drain current on-to-off ratio was {approx}10{sup 5}. The maximum field effect mobility in the channel was {approx}4.5 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, lower than the Hall mobility of {approx}17 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} in the same layers, suggesting a strong influence of scattering due to trapped charges at the SiO{sub 2}-IZO interface. The low deposition and processing temperatures make these devices suitable for applications requiring flexible substrates.

  17. Green Approach for Fabrication and Applications of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are known to be one of the multifunctional inorganic compounds which are widely used in everyday applications. This study aims to fabricate ZnO-NPs using grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peel extract with particle size ranging from 12 to 72?nm. Structural, morphological, and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, TEM, DLS, and FTIR analysis. They show the significant photocatalytic degradation efficiency (>56%, 10?mg/L, 6?h) against methylene blue and antioxidant efficacy (?80% for 1.2?mM) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. From the results obtained it is suggested that green ZnO-NPs could be used effectively in environmental safety applications and also can address future medical concerns. PMID:25374484

  18. Photophysical Behaviors of Single Fluorophores Localized on Zinc Oxide Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yi; Zhang, Jian; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy has now been widely used to investigate complex dynamic processes which would normally be obscured in an ensemble-averaged measurement. In this report we studied photophysical behaviors of single fluorophores in proximity to zinc oxide nanostructures by single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC). Single fluorophores on ZnO surfaces showed enhanced fluorescence brightness to various extents compared with those on glass; the single-molecule time trajectories also illustrated pronounced fluctuations of emission intensities, with time periods distributed from milliseconds to seconds. We attribute fluorescence fluctuations to the interfacial electron transfer (ET) events. The fluorescence fluctuation dynamics were found to be inhomogeneous from molecule to molecule and from time to time, showing significant static and dynamic disorders in the interfacial electron transfer reaction processes. PMID:23109903

  19. Zinc/nickel oxide battery membrane separator studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennion, D. N.; Bradshaw, J. S.

    1986-03-01

    Fourteen different macrocyclic compounds were synthesized for possible use in anionic exchange membranes and several polymerized with polyvinylbenzyl chloride. Two others were used in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membranes. Work continued to develop a suitable polymer material for the membranes. PVA could be cross-linked using a crown-ether dialdehyde as a cross-linking agent to produce a membrane with high ionic conductivity (0.02 mho/cm) and reasonable short-term stability in strong caustic solution at room temperatures. Selectivity of the membrane for hydroxide ions was essentially the same as that in the solution itself. Two new fabrication methods for polypropylene membranes were investigated and developed. Development of a two-dimensional code of a zinc-nickel oxide cell was begun.

  20. Effect of morphology and solvent on two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kavitha, M.K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India); Haripadmam, P.C.; Gopinath, Pramod; Krishnan, Bindu [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India); John, Honey, E-mail: honey@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? ZnO nanospheres and triangular structures synthesis by novel precipitation technique. ? The effect of precursor concentration on the size and shape of nano ZnO. ? Open aperture Z-scan measurements of the ZnO nanoparticle dispersions. ? Nanospheres exhibit higher two photon absorption coefficient than triangular nanostructures. ? Nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two photon absorption coefficient than its dispersion in 2-propanol. - Abstract: In this paper, we report the effect of morphology and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide. Zinc oxide nanoparticles in two different morphologies like nanospheres and triangular nanostructures are synthesized by novel precipitation technique and their two-photon absorption coefficient is measured using open aperture Z-scan technique. Experimental results show that the zinc oxide nanospheres exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than the zinc oxide triangular nanostructures. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than that of its dispersion in 2-propanol. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water shows a decrease in two-photon absorption coefficient with an increase in on-axis irradiance. The result confirms the dependence of shape and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide.

  1. Transparent amorphous zinc oxide thin films for NLO applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzka, A.; P?óciennik, P.; Strzelecki, J.; Sahraoui, B.

    2014-11-01

    This review focuses on the growth and optical properties of amorphous zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films. A high quality ZnO films fabricated by dip-coating (sol-gel) method were grown on quartz and glass substrates at temperature equal to 350 K. The amorphous nature of the films was verified by X-ray diffraction. Atomic Force Microscopy was used to evaluate the surface morphology of the films. The optical characteristics of amorphous thin films have been investigated in the spectral range 190-1100 nm. Measurement of the polarized optical properties was shows a high transmissivity (80-99%) and low absorptivity (<5%) in the visible and near infrared regions at different angles of incidence. Linear optical properties were investigated by classic and Time-Resolved Photoluminescence (TRPL) measurements. Photoluminescence spectrum exhibits a strong ultraviolet emission while the visible emission is very weak. An innovative TRPL technique has enabled the measurement of the photoluminescence decay time as a function of temperature. TRPL measurements reveal a multiexponential decay behavior typical for amorphous thin films. Second and third harmonic generation measurements were performed by means of the rotational Maker fringe technique using Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm in picosecond regime for investigations of the nonlinear optical properties. The obtained values of second and third order nonlinear susceptibilities were found to be high enough for the potential applications in the optical switching devices based on refractive index changes. Presented spectra confirm high structural and optical quality of the investigated zinc oxide thin films.

  2. Prenatal development toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeong-Sup; Park, Myeong-Kyu; Kim, Min-Seok; Lim, Jeong-Hyeon; Park, Gil-Jong; Maeng, Eun-Ho; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Jeong, Jayoung; Park, Jin-A; Kim, Jong-Choon; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential adverse effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles ([ZnOSM20(+) NPs] zinc oxide nanoparticles, positively charged, 20 nm) on pregnant dams and embryo–fetal development after maternal exposure over the period of gestational days 5–19 with Sprague-Dawley rats. ZnOSM20(+) NPs were administered to pregnant rats by gavage at 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day. All dams were subjected to a cesarean section on gestational day 20, and all of the fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal alterations. Toxicity in the dams manifested as significantly decreased body weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs; reduced food consumption after administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day NPs; and decreased liver weight and increased adrenal glands weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. However, no treatment-related difference in: number of corpora lutea; number of implantation sites; implantation rate (%); resorption; dead fetuses; litter size; fetal deaths and placental weights; and sex ratio were observed between the groups. On the other hand, significant decreases between treatment groups and controls were seen for fetal weights after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. Morphological examinations of the fetuses demonstrated significant differences in incidences of abnormalities in the group administered 400mg/kg/day. Meanwhile, no significant difference was found in the Zn content of fetal tissue between the control and high-dose groups. These results showed that oral doses for the study with 15-days repeated of ZnOSM20(+) NPs were maternotoxic in the 200 mg/kg/day group, and embryotoxic in the 400 mg/kg/day group. PMID:25565834

  3. Texture and Topography Analysis of Doxycycline Hyclate Thermosensitive Systems Comprising Zinc Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Phaechamud, T.; Mahadlek, J.; Charoenteeraboon, J.

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the thermal behavior and texture analysis of doxycycline hyclate thermosensitive gels developed for periodontitis treatment containing zinc oxide prepared by using poloxamer (Lutrol® F127) as polymeric material and N-methyl pyrrolidone was used as cosolvent. The thermosensitive gel comprising doxycycline hyclate, Lutrol® F127, and N-methyl pyrrolidone were characterized for the thermal behavior and texture analysis. The topography of the system after the dissolution test was characterized with scanning electron microscope. Differential scanning calorimetric thermogram exhibited the endothermic peaks in the systems containing high amount of N-methyl pyrrolidone in solvent. The sol-gel transition temperature of the systems decreased as the zinc oxide amount was increased. The addition of doxycycline hyclate, zinc oxide, and N-methyl pyrrolidone affected the syringeability of systems. The addition of zinc oxide into the doxycycline hyclate-Lutrol® F127 systems decreased the diameter of inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans since zinc oxide decreased the diffusion and prolonged release of doxycycline hyclate. From scanning electron microscope analysis, the porous surface of 20% w/w Lutrol® F127 system was notably different from that of gel comprising doxycycline hyclate which had interconnected pores and smooth surfaces. The number of pores was decreased with increasing zinc oxide and the porous structure was smaller and more compact. Therefore, the addition of zinc oxide could increase the syringeability of doxycycline hyclate-Lutrol® F127 system with the temperature dependence. Zinc oxide decreased inhibition zone against test microbes because of prolongation of doxycycline hyclate release and reduced size of continuous cells. Furthermore, zinc oxide also increased the compactness of wall surfaces of Lutrol® F127. PMID:24302791

  4. Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays Grown Directly on Zinc Foils and Zinc Spheres by a Low-Temperature Oxidation Method.

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Dr Zhanjun [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Xu, Jun [ORNL; Pan, Zhengwei [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2009-01-01

    Vertically aligned, dense ZnO nanorod arrays were grown directly on zinc foils by a catalyst-free, low-temperature (450-500 C) oxidization method. The zinc foils remain conductive even after the growth of ZnO nanorods on its surface. The success of this synthesis largely relies on the level of control over oxygen introduction. By replacing zinc foils with zinc microspheres, unique and sophisticated urchin-like ZnO nanorod assemblies can be readily obtained.

  5. Assessing the antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide thin films using disk diffusion and biofilm reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gittard, Shaun D.; Perfect, John R.; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Wei, Wei; Jin, Chunming; Narayan, Roger J.

    2009-03-01

    The electronic and chemical properties of semiconductor materials may be useful in preventing growth of microorganisms. In this article, in vitro methods for assessing microbial growth on semiconductor materials will be presented. The structural and biological properties of silicon wafers coated with zinc oxide thin films were evaluated using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and MTT viability assay. The antimicrobial properties of zinc oxide thin films were established using disk diffusion and CDC Biofilm Reactor studies. Our results suggest that zinc oxide and other semiconductor materials may play a leading role in providing antimicrobial functionality to the next-generation medical devices.

  6. Optical properties of zinc peroxide and zinc oxide multilayer nanohybrid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seb?k, Dániel; Szabó, Tamás; Dékány, Imre

    2009-05-01

    Zinc peroxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared and self-assembled hybrid nanolayers were built up using layer-by-layer (LbL) technique on the surface of glass substrate using the layer silicate hectorite and an anionic polyelectrolyte, sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSS). Light absorption, interference and morphological properties of the hybrid films were studied to determine their thickness and refractive index. The influence of layer silicates and polymers on the self-organizing properties of ZnO 2 and ZnO nanoparticles was examined. X-ray diffraction revealed that ZnO 2 powders decomposed to ZnO (zincite phase) at relatively low temperatures (less than 200 °C). The optical thickness of the films ranged from 190 to 750 nm and increased linearly with the number of layers. Band gap energies of the ZnO 2/hectorite films were independent from the layer thickness and were larger than that of pure ZnO 2 nanodispersion. Decomposition of ZnO 2 to ZnO and O 2 at 400 °C resulted in the decrease of the band gap energy from 3.75 to 3.3 eV. Concomitantly, the refractive index increased in correlation with the formation of the zincite ZnO phase. In contrast, the band gap energies of the ZnO 2/PSS hybrid films decreased with the thickness of the nanohybrid layers. We ascribe this phenomenon to the steric stabilization of primary ZnO 2 particles present in the confined space between adjacent layers of hectorite sheets.

  7. EFFECT OF NANOSCALE ZINC OXIDE PARTICLES ON THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND YIELD OF PEANUT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. N. V. K. V. Prasad; P. Sudhakar; Y. Sreenivasulu; P. Latha; V. Munaswamy; K. Raja Reddy; T. S. Sreeprasad; P. R. Sajanlal; T. Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    An investigation was initiated to examine the effects of nanoscale zinc oxide particles on plant growth and development. In view of the widespread cultivation of peanut in India and in other parts of the globe and in view of the potential influence of zinc on its growth, this plant was chosen as the model system. Peanut seeds were separately treated

  8. Influence Of pH On The Transport Of Nanoscale Zinc Oxide In Saturated Porous Media

    EPA Science Inventory

    Widespread use of nanoscale zinc oxide (nZnO) in various fields causes subsurface environment contamination. Even though the transport of dissolved zinc ions in subsurface environments such as soils and sediments has been widely studied, the transport mechanism of nZnO in such e...

  9. Bioavailability of zinc oxide added to corn tortilla is similar to that of zinc sulfate and is not affected by simultaneous addition of iron

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Jorge L.; Díaz, Margarita; Muñoz, Elsa; Westcott, Jamie L.; González, Karla E.; Krebs, Nancy F.; Caamaño, María C.; Hambidge, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Corn tortilla is the staple food of Mexico and its fortification with zinc, iron, and other micronutrients is intended to reduce micronutrient deficiencies. However, no studies have been performed to determine the relative amount of zinc absorbed from the fortified product and whether zinc absorption is affected by the simultaneous addition of iron. Objective To compare zinc absorption from corn tortilla fortified with zinc oxide versus zinc sulfate and to determine the effect of simultaneous addition of two doses of iron on zinc bioavailability. Methods A randomized, double-blind, crossover design was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, 10 adult women received corn tortillas with either 20 mg/kg of zinc oxide added, 20 mg/kg of zinc sulfate added, or no zinc added. In the second phase, 10 adult women received corn tortilla with 20 mg/kg of zinc oxide added and either with no iron added or with iron added at one of two different levels. Zinc absorption was measured by the stable isotope method. Results The mean (± SEM) fractional zinc absorption from unfortified tortilla, tortilla fortified with zinc oxide, and tortilla fortified with zinc sulfate did not differ among treatments: 0.35 ± 0.07, 0.36 ± 0.05, and 0.37 ± 0.07, respectively. The three treatment groups with 0, 30, and 60 mg/kg of added iron had similar fractional zinc absorption (0.32 ± 0.04, 0.33 ± 0.02, and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively) and similar amounts of zinc absorbed (4.8 ± 0.7, 4.5 ± 0.3, and 4.8 ± 0.7 mg/day, respectively). Conclusions Since zinc oxide is more stable and less expensive and was absorbed equally as well as zinc sulfate, we suggest its use for corn tortilla fortification. Simultaneous addition of zinc and iron to corn tortilla does not modify zinc bioavailability at iron doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg of corn flour. PMID:23424892

  10. Work function measurements on nano-crystalline zinc oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmann, S.; Conrad, M.; Wolak, M. A.; Beerbom, M. M.; Schlaf, R.

    2012-06-01

    The work function of nano-crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films was examined using photoemission spectroscopy (PES). Colloidally dispersed ZnO nano-particles were electrospray-deposited in vacuum to form nano-crystalline thin films. The samples showed an immediate work function reduction by 0.35 eV during ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) measurements. This artifact was detected and quantified through low intensity x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (LIXPS) measurements, which use a very low photon flux. This prevented significant photochemical changes on the measured surface, i.e. the true work function unaffected by the UPS artifact can be measured. Annealing of an identical sample removed all ambient contamination from the ZnO surface with the effect to prevent the work function lowering artifact. This allowed the conclusion that ambient contamination is essential for the artifact to occur, similar to what was observed earlier on indium tin oxide and TiO2 surfaces. In an additional experiment, exposure of the annealed sample to the ambient resulted in a sample that again showed the artifact further demonstrating the necessity of water to be present. This experiment also demonstrated that the solubility enhancing surfactant shell of the nano-crystals does not play a significant role in the artifact, since it was removed during the annealing process.

  11. CSA doped polypyrrole-zinc oxide thin film sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chougule, M. A.; Jundale, D. M.; Raut, B. T.; Sen, Shashwati; Patil, V. B.

    2013-02-01

    The polypyrrole-zinc oxide (PPy-ZnO) hybrid sensor doped with different weight ratios of camphor sulphonic acid (CSA) were prepared by spin coating technique. These CSA doped PPy-ZnO hybrids were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) which proved the formation of polypyrrole, PPy-ZnO and the interaction between polypyrrole - ZnO (PPy-ZnO) hybrid with CSA doping. The gas sensing properties of the PPy-ZnO hybrid films doped with CSA have been studied for oxidizing (NO2) as well as reducing (H2S, NH3, CH4OH and CH3OH) gases at room temperature. We demonstrate that CSA doped PPy-ZnO hybrid films are highly selective to NO2 along with high-sensitivity at low concentration (80% to 100 ppm) and better stability, which suggested that the CSA doped PPy-ZnO hybrid films are potential candidate for NO2 detection at room temperature.

  12. Zinc poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... other materials to make industrial items such as paint, dyes, and more. These combination substances can be ... Compounds used to make paint, rubber, dyes, wood preservatives, and ... Zinc chloride Zinc oxide (relatively nonharmful) Zinc ...

  13. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Miri; Chung, Hae-Eun; Yu, Jin; Lee, Jung-A; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Oh, Jae-Min; Lee, Won-Jae; Paek, Seung-Min; Lee, Jong Kwon; Jeong, Jayoung; Choy, Jin-Ho; Choi, Soo-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background This study explored the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion profile of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles with respect to their particle size in rats. Methods Two ZnO nanoparticles of different size (20 nm and 70 nm) were orally administered to male and female rats, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve, tissue distribution, excretion, and the fate of the nanoparticles in organs were analyzed. Results The plasma zinc concentration of both sizes of ZnO nanoparticles increased during the 24 hours after administration in a dose-dependent manner. They were mainly distributed to organs such as the liver, lung, and kidney within 72 hours without any significant difference being found according to particle size or rat gender. Elimination kinetics showed that a small amount of ZnO nanoparticles was excreted via the urine, while most of nanoparticles were excreted via the feces. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies in the tissues showed no noticeable ZnO nanoparticles, while new Zn-S bonds were observed in tissues. Conclusion ZnO nanoparticles of different size were not easily absorbed into the bloodstream via the gastrointestinal tract after a single oral dose. The liver, lung, and kidney could be possible target organs for accumulation and toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles was independent of particle size or gender. ZnO nanoparticles appear to be absorbed in the organs in an ionic form rather than in a particulate form due to newly formed Zn-S bonds. The nanoparticles were mainly excreted via the feces, and smaller particles were cleared more rapidly than the larger ones. ZnO nanoparticles at a concentration below 300 mg/kg were distributed in tissues and excreted within 24 hours. These findings provide crucial information on possible acute and chronic toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in potential target organs. PMID:22811602

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using rice as soft biotemplate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rice as a renewable, abundant bio-resource with unique characteristics can be used as a bio-template to synthesize various functional nanomaterials. Therefore, the effect of uncooked rice flour as bio-template on physico-chemical properties, especially the morphology of zinc oxide nanostructures was investigated in this study. The ZnO particles were synthesized through hydrothermal-biotemplate method using zinc acetate-sodium hydroxide and uncooked rice flour at various ratios as precursors at 120°C for 18 hours. Results The results indicate that rice as a bio-template can be used to modify the shape and size of zinc oxide particles. Different morphologies, namely flake-, flower-, rose-, star- and rod-like structures were obtained with particle size at micro- and nanometer range. Pore size and texture of the resulting zinc oxide particles were found to be template-dependent and the resulting specific surface area enhanced compared to the zinc oxide synthesized without rice under the same conditions. However, optical property particularly the band gap energy is generally quite similar. Conclusion Pure zinc oxide crystals were successfully synthesized using rice flour as biotemplate at various ratios of zinc salt to rice. The size- and shape-controlled capability of rice to assemble the ZnO particles can be employed for further useful practical applications. PMID:23919386

  15. Enhanced omni-directional performance of copper zinc tin sulfide thin film solar cell by gradient index coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Zhongyang; Rajbhandari, Pravakar; Hu, Junjie; Emrani, Amin; Dhakal, Tara P.; Westgate, Charles; Klotzkin, David

    2014-03-01

    Many types of thin-film solar cells have a top, transparent conducting oxide (TCO) coating (such as aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO)) through which light is transmitted and current collected. In this paper, we demonstrate an effective antireflective coating for TCO surfaces using a gradient index coating formed from co-sputtered AZO and silicon dioxide (SiO2) targets that reduces reflection loss from the TCO. When applied to an active solar device, the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell increased by >10% when measured at normal incidence and >20% at angles 10° or greater.

  16. Biochemistry of mobile zinc and nitric oxide revealed by fluorescent sensors

    E-print Network

    Pluth, Michael D.

    Biological mobile zinc and nitric oxide (NO) are two prominent examples of inorganic compounds involved in numerous signaling pathways in living systems. In the past decade, a synergy of regulation, signaling, and translocation ...

  17. Nanohybrids of ultrathin titania nanosheets and zinc oxide nanoparticles by an electrostatic interaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunmi; Paek, Seungwoo; Lee, Seonghoon

    2010-01-01

    We synthesized ultrathin titania nanosheets and zinc oxide nanoparticles, and formed the nanohybrids of them by an electrostatic interaction. The titania nanosheets were prepared by soft chemical processes: intercalation, exfoliation, and reassembly. The zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel method. And two nano-scale inorganic materials were hybridized to form nanohybrids using an electrostatic interaction as a driving force. According to the X-ray diffraction pattern and high-resolution transmission electron microscope images, it is revealed that the nanohybrid of the titania nanosheets and zinc oxide nanoparticles has a house of cards structure in which zinc oxide nanoparticles are randomly attached to layered titania nanosheets. PMID:20352811

  18. Flexible and monolithic zinc oxide bionanocomposite foams by a bacterial cellulose mediated approach for antibacterial applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peipei; Zhao, Jun; Xuan, Ruifei; Wang, Yun; Zou, Chen; Zhang, Zhiquan; Wan, Yizao; Xu, Yan

    2014-05-14

    The use of self-assembled biomacromolecules in the development of functional bionanocomposite foams is one of the best lessons learned from nature. Here, we show that monolithic, flexible and porous zinc oxide bionanocomposite foams with a hierarchical architecture can be assembled through the mediation of bacterial cellulose. The assembly is achieved by controlled hydrolysis and solvothermal crystallization using a bacterial cellulose aerogel as a template in a non-aqueous polar medium. The bionanocomposite foam with a maximum zinc oxide loading of 70 wt% is constructed of intimately packed spheres of aggregated zinc oxide nanocrystals exhibiting a BET surface area of 92 m(2) g(-1). The zinc oxide bionanocomposite foams show excellent antibacterial activity, which give them potential value as self-supporting wound dressing and water sterilization materials. PMID:24647467

  19. Ultrathin amorphous zinc-tin-oxide buffer layer for enhancing heterojunction interface quality in

    E-print Network

    -blocking layer to enhance the performance of an Earth-abundant metal-oxide solar-cell material. A 5 nm thickUltrathin amorphous zinc-tin-oxide buffer layer for enhancing heterojunction interface quality amorphous ternary metal-oxide buffer layer reduces interface recombination, resulting in sizable open

  20. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured zinc oxide layers for sensor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Krasteva, L. K.; Dimitrov, D. Tz.; Papazova, K. I.; Nikolaev, N. K.; Peshkova, T. V. [University of Sofia (Bulgaria); Moshnikov, V. A.; Gracheva, I. E., E-mail: iegrachova@mail.ru; Karpova, S. S. [Ul'yanov (Lenin) State Electrotechnical University LETI (Russian Federation); Kaneva, N. V. [University of Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-04-15

    Fractal structures and arrays of nanowires based on zinc oxide are fabricated by two different methods, sol-gel dip-coating and chemical bath deposition combined with sol-gel synthesis. The gas-sensitive properties of the structures are analyzed. It is found that the greatest sensitivity to reducing ethanol vapor is exhibited by the structure with a lower layer in the form of an array of zinc-oxide nanowires modified by four immersions in a copper nitrate solution.

  1. Microfine zinc oxide (Z-Cote) as a photostable UVA\\/UVB sunblock agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Mitchnick; David Fairhurst; Sheldon R. Pinnell

    1999-01-01

    Background: Microfine zinc oxide (Z-Cote) is used as a transparent broad-spectrum sunblock to attenuate UV radiation (UVR), including UVA I (340-400 nm). Objective: Our purpose was to assess the suitability of microfine zinc oxide as a broad-spectrum photoprotective agent by examining those properties generally considered important in sunscreens: attenuation spectrum, sun protection factor (SPF) contribution, photostability, and photoreactivity. Methods: Attenuation

  2. XPS and X-ray diffraction studies of aluminum-doped zinc oxide transparent conducting films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. B. Ghosh; K. L. Chopra; H. N. Acharya

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide transparent conducting films are prepared by spray pyrolysis at different dopant concentrations. These films are subsequently characterized by X-ray diffractometric and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) techniques. The results are compared with those obtained from pure zinc oxide films prepared under identical conditions. X-ray diffraction measurements show an increase in lattice parameters (c and a) for aluminum-doped films

  3. Sensing of LPG with nanostructured zinc oxide thin films grown by spray pyrolysis technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Prajapati; S. N. Pandey; P. P. Sahay

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured zinc oxide thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique using Zn(NO3)2·6H2O as the precursor solution. The resulting films were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy to know crystal structure, size of crystallites and surface morphology. The films have been found to be polycrystalline zinc oxide, possessing hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure and nanocrystallite with grain size of

  4. Transport of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in a Simulated Gastric Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayfield, Ryan T.

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in the use of many types of nano sized materials in the consumer sector. Potential uses include encapsulation of nutrients, providing antimicrobial activity, altering texture, or changing bioavailability of nutrients. Engineered nanoparticles (ENP) possess properties that are different than larger particles made of the same constituents. Properties such as solubility, aggregation state, and toxicity can all be changed as a function of size. The gastric environment is an important area for study of engineered nanoparticles because of the varied physical, chemical, and enzymatic processes that are prevalent there. These all have the potential to alter those properties of ENP that make them different from their bulk counterparts. The Human Gastric Simulator (HGS) is an advanced in vitro model that can be used to study many facets of digestion. The HGS consists of a plastic lining that acts as the stomach cavity with two sets of U-shaped arms on belts that provide the physical forces needed to replicate peristalsis. Altering the position of the arms or changing the speed of the motor which powers them allows one to tightly hone and replicate varied digestive conditions. Gastric juice, consisting of salts, enzymes, and acid levels which replicate physiological conditions, is introduced to the cavity at a controllable rate. The release of digested food from the lumen of simulated stomach is controlled by a peristaltic pump. The goal of the HGS is to accurately and repeatedly simulate human digestion. This study focused on introducing foods spiked with zinc oxide ENP and bulk zinc oxide into the HGS and then monitoring how the concentration of each changed at two locations in the HGS over a two hour period. The two locations chosen were the highest point in the lumen of the stomach, which represented the fundus, and a point just beyond the equivalent of the pylorus, which represented the antrum of the stomach. These points were chosen in order to elucidate if and how two different particle sizes of the same material are transported during digestion. Results showed that particles preferentially collected at Location A; time played a minor role in the separation to the two locations while particle size did not play any role.

  5. Zinc oxide thin films and nanostructures for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Juhyung

    The objective of this research focuses on investigating optical, electrical, and structural properties of Al doped ZnO (AZO) and developing novel approaches to demonstrate and improve the photovoltaics and photodetectors by introducing AZO nanoscaled structures. ZnO has been widely studied for optoelectronic applications such as light emitting diodes, lasers and photodiodes covering the ultraviolet spectrum because of its wide and direct bandgap and high exciton binding energy. In this research, aluminum doped ZnO films were grown by a dual beam sputtering method which is a combination of RF sputtered ZnO and DC sputtered Al. Various approaches were applied to characterize its optical, electrical and structural modulation in terms of growth parameters and doping parameters. As an n-type dopant, Al doping was controlled from 5x016 to 5x0 20 cm-3 maintaining visible transparency with a wider transparency as Al increased, and high mobility ( 2 ˜ 14 cm2/V.s). For the optoelectric applications, a ZnO/Si heterojunction was demonstrated and studied regarding Al doping effects on the anisotype and isotype junction. An unlikely conventional photovoltaic structure suggested the ZnO/Si solar cell to be advantageous in terms of low cost fabrication process -- low temperature, no diffusion, and large area processing. In this structure, AZO plays a role as a transparent current spreading layer and rectifying junction with silicon (Si). Furthermore, by introducing metal nanostructures inside of the AZO film, light harvesting was enhanced because of plasmonic and light scattering effects ensuring minimized electrical and optical loss within the AZO. To improve photovoltaic performance, a transparent and conductive nanolens array was embedded on ITO film and employed on a conventional Si solar cell using large scale nanoimprint method. The proposed structure provides superior optical transparency beyond 700 nm of wavelength and omnidirectional broadband low reflectivity as well as good electrical conductivity. The nanolens array collimates the long wavelength energy into a shallow depth of Si, showing improved charge collection efficiency. Moreover, wave coupling in the nanolens uncovered region focuses the energy in a more shallow depth as an absorber.

  6. The role of intracellular zinc release in aging, oxidative stress, and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    McCord, Meghan C.; Aizenman, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Brain aging is marked by structural, chemical, and genetic changes leading to cognitive decline and impaired neural functioning. Further, aging itself is also a risk factor for a number of neurodegenerative disorders, most notably Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Many of the pathological changes associated with aging and aging-related disorders have been attributed in part to increased and unregulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain. ROS are produced as a physiological byproduct of various cellular processes, and are normally detoxified by enzymes and antioxidants to help maintain neuronal homeostasis. However, cellular injury can cause excessive ROS production, triggering a state of oxidative stress that can lead to neuronal cell death. ROS and intracellular zinc are intimately related, as ROS production can lead to oxidation of proteins that normally bind the metal, thereby causing the liberation of zinc in cytoplasmic compartments. Similarly, not only can zinc impair mitochondrial function, leading to excess ROS production, but it can also activate a variety of extra-mitochondrial ROS-generating signaling cascades. As such, numerous accounts of oxidative neuronal injury by ROS-producing sources appear to also require zinc. We suggest that zinc deregulation is a common, perhaps ubiquitous component of injurious oxidative processes in neurons. This review summarizes current findings on zinc dyshomeostasis-driven signaling cascades in oxidative stress and age-related neurodegeneration, with a focus on AD, in order to highlight the critical role of the intracellular liberation of the metal during oxidative neuronal injury. PMID:24860495

  7. Stress evolution during growth in direct-current-sputtered zinc oxide films at various oxygen flows

    SciTech Connect

    Drese, Robert J.; Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut (1A), Lehrstuhl fuer Physik neuer Materialien, Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    The evolution of stress during the growth of zinc and zinc oxide films deposited from a metallic target using direct-current magnetron sputtering has been analyzed in situ. For this purpose a two-beam wafer curvature setup attached to the sputter chamber was employed. The oxygen flow during the deposition was varied over a wide range to obtain films with stoichiometries between metallic zinc and fully stoichiometric zinc oxide. In good agreement with results from Hinze and Ellmer [J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2443 (2000)] on radio-frequency-sputtered zinc oxide from an oxidic target, the oxidic films analyzed in this work possess high levels of compressive stress. These stresses arise in the early stages of film growth and are constant above a certain film thickness. The level of stress in the films is highly dependent on the deposition pressure, which indicates that the stress originates from bombardment with energetic particles, namely, oxygen ions. In contrast to the oxidic films, metallic zinc films exhibit only very low levels of stress. The stress evolution is similar to that of evaporated high-mobility films and does not change upon variation of deposition pressure.

  8. New roles for 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7): halogenated FOX-7 and azo-bis(diahaloFOX) as energetic materials and oxidizers.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thao T; Zhang, Jiaheng; Parrish, Damon A; Twamley, Brendan; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2013-08-14

    The syntheses and full characterization of two new halogenated 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7) compounds and three halogenated azo-bridged FOX-7 derivatives are described. Some of these new structures demonstrate properties that approach those of the commonly used secondary explosive RDX (cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene-2,4,6-trinitramine). All the compounds display hypergolic properties with common hydrazine-based fuels and primary aliphatic amines (ignition delay times of 2-53 ms). This is a new role that has yet to be reported for FOX-7 and its derivatives. Their physical and energetic properties have been investigated. All compounds were characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography, elemental analysis, infrared spectra, and differential scanning calorimetry. These new molecules as energetic materials and hypergolic oxidizers contribute to the expansion of the chemistry of FOX-7. PMID:23909984

  9. Zinc-oxide charge trapping memory cell with ultra-thin chromium-oxide trapping layer

    SciTech Connect

    El-Atab, Nazek; Rizk, Ayman; Nayfeh, Ammar [Institute Center for Microsystems – iMicro, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)] [Institute Center for Microsystems – iMicro, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Okyay, Ali K. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey) [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center and Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-11-15

    A functional zinc-oxide based SONOS memory cell with ultra-thin chromium oxide trapping layer was fabricated. A 5 nm CrO{sub 2} layer is deposited between Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) steps. A threshold voltage (V{sub t}) shift of 2.6V was achieved with a 10V programming voltage. Also for a 2V V{sub t} shift, the memory with CrO{sub 2} layer has a low programming voltage of 7.2V. Moreover, the deep trapping levels in CrO{sub 2} layer allows for additional scaling of the tunnel oxide due to an increase in the retention time. In addition, the structure was simulated using Physics Based TCAD. The results of the simulation fit very well with the experimental results providing an understanding of the charge trapping and tunneling physics.

  10. The calculation of band gap energy in zinc oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Ali; Belahssen, Okba; Gareh, Salim; Benramache, Said

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the optical properties of undoped zinc oxide thin films as the n-type semiconductor; the thin films were deposited at different precursor molarities by ultrasonic spray and spray pyrolysis techniques. The thin films were deposited at different substrate temperatures ranging between 200 and 500 °C. In this paper, we present a new approach to control the optical gap energy of ZnO thin films by concentration of the ZnO solution and substrate temperatures from experimental data, which were published in international journals. The model proposed to calculate the band gap energy with the Urbach energy was investigated. The relation between the experimental data and theoretical calculation suggests that the band gap energies are predominantly estimated by the Urbach energies, film transparency, and concentration of the ZnO solution and substrate temperatures. The measurements by these proposal models are in qualitative agreements with the experimental data; the correlation coefficient values were varied in the range 0.96–0.99999, indicating high quality representation of data based on Equation (2), so that the relative errors of all calculation are smaller than 4%. Thus, one can suppose that the undoped ZnO thin films are chemically purer and have many fewer defects and less disorder owing to an almost complete chemical decomposition and contained higher optical band gap energy.

  11. Tetrapod-like zinc oxide whisker enhancement of resin composite.

    PubMed

    Niu, L N; Fang, M; Jiao, K; Tang, L H; Xiao, Y H; Shen, L J; Chen, J H

    2010-07-01

    There is an increasing demand for composite resins with both strong antibacterial activity and satisfactory mechanical properties. This study tested the hypothesis that the new antibacterial agent tetrapod-like zinc oxide whisker (T-ZnOw) could simultaneously enhance the antibacterial activity and mechanical properties of a two-component composite resin. The antibacterial activities of the materials were assessed by the broth dilution test and direct contact test. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and measurements of the flexural strength, compressive strength, and diametral tensile strength were carried out for mechanical characterization. The results revealed that T-ZnOw provided the resin with strong antibacterial activity and improved mechanical properties in all tested groups. However, the antibacterial activity of the resin with 10% T-ZnOw in the powder component significantly decreased after aging treatment. The incorporation of 5% T-ZnOw into the resin powder was optimal to give appropriate antibacterial activity, long-term antibacterial effectiveness, and mechanical properties. PMID:20439932

  12. Fungus mediated biosynthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, K. S.; Palani, N. S.; Krishnamoorthi, S. R.; Thirumal, V.; Ilangovan, R.

    2013-06-01

    Recently nanomaterials have been synthesized through biological approach due to its biocompatibility, inexpensive, eco friendly and it offers easiest experimental protocol and so on. ZnO can be potentially used in various applications. This present study reports the fungus mediated extra-cellular bio synthesis of ZnO nanorods using Fusarium Solani. The dried powder was calcined at 350°C for 1 hour in air. The thermal property of the as synthesized ZnO nanopowder was analyzed through Thermo gravimetric /Differential Thermo gravimetric (TGA / DTG) analysis. The structural and morphological properties of the calcined ZnO nanopowder were studied by XRD and SEM analysis respectively. X ray diffraction result revealed that a peak located at 2? = 36.2° with (101) plane confirms the presence of Zinc oxide with Hexagonal crystal system. The morphology of the calcined ZnO powder was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and it clearly indicates the presence of ZnO nanorods. The diameter of the nanorods is in the range of 60 to 95 nm.

  13. Biochemical responses of duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza) to zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Changwei; Liu, Yimeng; Li, Xiuling; Li, Mei

    2013-05-01

    The present study focuses on the biochemical responses of the aquatic plant duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza L.) to zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). Laboratory experiments were performed using a 96-h exposure to 25-nm NPs at different concentrations (0, 1, 10, and 50 mg/L). Growth, chlorophyll-to-pheophytin ratio (D665/D665a) and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase (POD), and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase were determined as indices to evaluate the toxicity of NPs in the culture medium. To understand better whether the Zn(2+) released from the ZnO NP suspensions plays a key role in toxicity of the NPs, we investigated particle aggregation and dissolution in the medium. Furthermore, two exposure treatments for the group with the highest concentration (50 mg/L) were performed: (1) exposure for the full 96 h (50a treatment) and (2) the medium being replaced with culture medium without NPs after 12 h (50b treatment). Our results indicate that ZnO NPs induced adverse effects in S. polyrhiza at the concentration of 50 mg/L in the culture medium. Zn(2+) released from the NPs might be the main source of its toxicity to this species. PMID:23271345

  14. Investigation of electrical and optoelectronic properties of zinc oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.; Lee, S. K.; Chava, S.; Berven, C. A.; Katkanant, V.

    2011-10-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires have been synthesized by using tubular furnace chemical vapor deposition technique. The morphology, chemical composition and crystal structure of as-synthesized ZnO nanowires were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Four-terminal current-voltage ( I- V) measurements were employed to study the electrical conductance of ZnO nanowires under various testing gas environments for gas sensing purpose. The I- V curves at temperature ranging from 150 to 300 K were recorded in the testing chamber under vacuum. The Arrhenius plot shows perfect linear relationship between the logarithm of the current I and inverse temperature 1/ T. The donor level of the semiconducting nanowires is about 326 meV. The I- V behaviors were found to be reversible and repeatable with testing gases. The electrical conductivity was enhanced by a factor of four with ambient CO gas compared to that in vacuum and other testing gases. The optoelectronic properties of the ZnO nanowires were obtained by two-terminal I- V measurement method while the nanowires were illuminated by a ruby laser. The electrical conductivity was increased by 60% when the laser was present in comparison to that when the laser was off. Those significant changes suggest that nano-devices constructed by the ZnO nanowires could be used in gas sensing and optical switching applications.

  15. Synthesis of europium-doped zinc oxide micro- and nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Rifai, S. A.; Ryabtsev, S. V.; Smirnov, M. S.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Ivanov, O. N.

    2014-01-01

    Single crystalline Eu3+-doped wurtzite ZnO micro- and nanowires were synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition method (CVD). The nanostructures were grown by autocatalytic mechanism at walls of an alumina boat. The structure and properties of the doped ZnO is fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), and photoluminescence (PL) methods. The synthesis was carried out for 10 min giving vertically aligned nanowires with mean diameter of 50-400 nm and with length of up to several microns. The nanowires were grown along ±[0001] direction. The concentration of Eu3+ dopant in the synthesized nanowires was varied from 0.7 to 0.9 at %. The crystal structure and microstructures of the doped nanomaterials were discussed and compared with undoped ZnO. The photoluminescence spectra show that emission of doped samples were shifted towards orange-red region (2.02 eV) relative to undoped zinc oxide nanostructures (2.37 eV) due to Eu3+ intraionic transitions from ZnO/Eu.

  16. Rambutan peels promoted biomimetic synthesis of bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuvakkumar, R.; Suresh, J.; Saravanakumar, B.; Joseph Nathanael, A.; Hong, Sun Ig; Rajendran, V.

    2015-02-01

    A naturally occurring rambutan peel waste was employed to synthesis bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains. Rambutan peels has the ability of ligating zinc ions as a natural ligation agent resulting in zinc oxide nanochains formation due to its extended polyphenolic system over incubation period. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanochains was confirmed employing transmission electron microscopy studies. About 60% and ?40% cell viability was lost and 50% and 10% morphological change was observed in 7 and 4 days incubated ZnO treated cells compared with control. Moreover, 50% and 55% of cell death was observed at 24 and 48 h incubation with 7 days treated ZnO cells and hence alters and disturbs the growth of cancer cells and could be used for liver cancer cell treatment.

  17. Zinc release from atomic layer deposited zinc oxide thin films and its antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kääriäinen, M.-L.; Weiss, C. K.; Ritz, S.; Pütz, S.; Cameron, D. C.; Mailänder, V.; Landfester, K.

    2013-12-01

    Zinc oxide films have been grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at different reaction temperatures and in various thicknesses. Zinc-ion release has been examined from the ZnO films in water and in phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS). Additionally, the antibacterial effect has been studied on Escherichia coli. The thickness of the ZnO film or its crystal orientation did not affect the rate of dissolution. ALD grown aluminum oxide films were deposited on top of the ZnO films and they acted as an effective barrier against zinc dissolution. The bacteriostatic effect was not dependent on the film thickness but both 45 nm and 280 nm thick ZnO films significantly reduced bacterial attachment and growth in dark conditions by 99.7% and 99.5%, respectively. The results indicated that photoirradiation is not required for to enhance antibacterial properties of inorganic films and that the elution of zinc ions is probably responsible for the antibacterial properties of the ZnO films. The duration of the antibacterial effect of ZnO can be controlled by accurate control of the film thickness, which is a feature of ALD, and the onset of the antibacterial effect can be delayed by a time which can be adjusted by controlling the thickness of the Al2O3 blocking layer. This gives the possibility of obtaining dual antibacterial release profiles through a nanolaminate structure of these two materials.

  18. Novel nanostructure zinc zirconate, zinc oxide or zirconium oxide pastes coated on fluorine doped tin oxide thin film as photoelectrochemical working electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Hossein Habibi, Mohammad; Askari, Elham; Habibi, Mehdi; Zendehdel, Mahmoud

    2013-03-01

    Zinc zirconate (ZnZrO(3)) (ZZ), zinc oxide (ZnO) (ZO) and zirconium oxide (ZrO(2)) (ZRO) nano-particles were synthesized by simple sol-gel method. ZZ, ZO and ZRO nano-particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS). Nanoporous ZZ, ZO and ZRO thin films were prepared doctor blade technique on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and used as working electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Their photovoltaic behavior were compared with standard using D35 dye and an electrolyte containing [Co(bpy)(3)](PF(6))(2), [Co(pby)(3)](PF(6))(3), LiClO(4), and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP). The properties of DSSC have been studied by measuring their short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (ff). The application of ZnZrO(3) as working electrode produces a significant improvement in the fill factor (ff) of the dye-sensitized solar cells (ff=56%) compared to ZnO working electrode (ff=40%) under the same condition. PMID:23266694

  19. Novel nanostructure zinc zirconate, zinc oxide or zirconium oxide pastes coated on fluorine doped tin oxide thin film as photoelectrochemical working electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossein Habibi, Mohammad; Askari, Elham; Habibi, Mehdi; Zendehdel, Mahmoud

    2013-03-01

    Zinc zirconate (ZnZrO3) (ZZ), zinc oxide (ZnO) (ZO) and zirconium oxide (ZrO2) (ZRO) nano-particles were synthesized by simple sol-gel method. ZZ, ZO and ZRO nano-particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS). Nanoporous ZZ, ZO and ZRO thin films were prepared doctor blade technique on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and used as working electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Their photovoltaic behavior were compared with standard using D35 dye and an electrolyte containing [Co(bpy)3](PF6)2, [Co(pby)3](PF6)3, LiClO4, and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP). The properties of DSSC have been studied by measuring their short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (ff). The application of ZnZrO3 as working electrode produces a significant improvement in the fill factor (ff) of the dye-sensitized solar cells (ff = 56%) compared to ZnO working electrode (ff = 40%) under the same condition.

  20. Human safety review of "nano" titanium dioxide and zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Karsten; Bradford, Bobbie; Castelli, Dominique; Dufour, Eric; Nash, J Frank; Pape, Wolfgang; Schulte, Stefan; Tooley, Ian; van den Bosch, Jeroen; Schellauf, Florian

    2010-04-01

    Based on the current weight of evidence of all available data, the risk for humans from the use of nano-structured titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) or zinc oxide (ZnO) currently used in cosmetic preparations or sunscreens is considered negligible. There is a large body of information that when viewed in its entirety is considered as sufficient to demonstrate that these nano-structured ultraviolet (UV) filters, irrespective of various treatments (coatings) or crystalline structure, can be regarded as safe for use at concentrations up to 25% in cosmetic products to protect the skin from harmful effects of solar UV radiation. "Nano" TiO(2) and ZnO formulated in topically applied sunscreen products exist as aggregates of primary particles ranging from 30-150 nm in size. These aggregates are bonded such that the force of sunscreen product application onto the skin would have no impact on their structure or result in the release of primary particles. Multiple studies have shown that under exaggerated test conditions neither nano-structured TiO(2) nor ZnO penetrates beyond the stratum corneum of skin. Further, the distribution and persistence of these nano-structured metal oxides is the same compared to larger pigment-grade (i.e., >100 nm) particles, demonstrating equivalence in the recognition and elimination of such material from the body. Finally, the in vitro genotoxic and photogenotoxic profiles of these nano-structured metal oxides are of no consequence to human health. Whereas the most logical, straightforward conclusion based on data from internationally-recognized guideline studies and current 20+ year history of human use is that nano-structured TiO(2) and ZnO are safe, there will continue to be questions as "nano" conjures images of technology gone awry. Despite this rather sober view, the public health benefits of sunscreens containing nano TiO(2) and/or ZnO outweigh human safety concerns for these UV filters. PMID:20354643

  1. Dual signal amplification of zinc oxide nanoparticles and quantum dots-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticles for highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence immunosensing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinxing; Liu, Suli; Bao, Jianchun; Tu, Wenwen; Dai, Zhihui

    2013-09-21

    A novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for highly sensitive detection of ?-fetoprotein (AFP) based on a dual signal amplification strategy was developed. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were employed as the carriers for immobilizing the capture AFP antibody (Ab1) and CdSe quantum dots (QDs). CdSe QDs-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles were used as the tracer to label the signal AFP antibody (Ab2). CdSe QDs-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles were prepared through an amide dehydration reaction and they were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The Ab2 was bound to the CdSe QDs-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles to obtain the detection probe. ZnO nanoparticles could accelerate electron transfer between the detection probe and the electrode, and their large surface area was beneficial for loading more CdSe QDs, leading to an enhanced ECL signal (0.9-fold increase) by a sandwich immunoreaction. This also indicated efficient association of the detection probe on the immunosensor surface. The designed immunoassay showed a wide linear range from 0.5 to 600 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.48 ng mL(-1) at a S/N ratio of 3 for AFP detection. The ECL immunosensor exhibited good analytical performance and was successfully applied to clinical sample detection, showing a promising application in ECL biosensing. PMID:23882462

  2. High performance organic photovoltaics with zinc oxide and graphene oxide buffer layers.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Abd Rashid bin Mohd; Kim, Hyeong Pil; Jang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    We report air stable inverted organic photovoltaics (OPVs) incorporating graphene oxide (GO) and solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) as hole transport and electron transport layers, respectively. Both the hole transport layer and the electron transport layer (HTL and ETL) are of advantage in high transparency and environmental stability. The use of GO and ZnO in poly(2,7-carbazole) derivative (PCDTBT):fullerene derivative (PC??BM)-based inverted OPVs leads to an improved device stability and enhanced high open circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 0.81 V, a short-circuit current density (J(sc)) of 14.10 mA cm(-2), and a fill factor (FF) of 54.44 along with a power conversion efficiency of 6.20%. PMID:24323233

  3. High performance organic photovoltaics with zinc oxide and graphene oxide buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Yusoff, Abd Rashid Bin; Kim, Hyeong Pil; Jang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    We report air stable inverted organic photovoltaics (OPVs) incorporating graphene oxide (GO) and solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) as hole transport and electron transport layers, respectively. Both the hole transport layer and the electron transport layer (HTL and ETL) are of advantage in high transparency and environmental stability. The use of GO and ZnO in poly(2,7-carbazole) derivative (PCDTBT):fullerene derivative (PC70BM)-based inverted OPVs leads to an improved device stability and enhanced high open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.81 V, a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 14.10 mA cm-2, and a fill factor (FF) of 54.44 along with a power conversion efficiency of 6.20%.

  4. Tunable infrared absorption and visible transparency of colloidal aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Buonsanti, Raffaella; Llordes, Anna; Aloni, Shaul; Helms, Brett A; Milliron, Delia J

    2011-11-01

    Plasmonic nanocrystals have been attracting a lot of attention both for fundamental studies and different applications, from sensing to imaging and optoelectronic devices. Transparent conductive oxides represent an interesting class of plasmonic materials in addition to metals and vacancy-doped semiconductor quantum dots. Herein, we report a rational synthetic strategy of high-quality colloidal aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals. The presence of substitutional aluminum in the zinc oxide lattice accompanied by the generation of free electrons is proved for the first time by tunable surface plasmon absorption in the infrared region both in solution and in thin films. PMID:21970407

  5. Oxidation of pyrite in marine clays and zinc adsorption by clays

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtsubo, Masami [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The oxidation of pyrite in marine clays exposed to a subaerial environment was confirmed and was determined to be well correlated with decreased adsorption of zinc by the clays. The production of sulfuric acid and iron oxide by this oxidation and the accompanying decrease in pH was demonstrated based on an investigation of the chemistry of the marine clay profile and laboratory incubation tests for remolded clay samples. Both pH decrease and the production of iron oxides reduced the zinc adsorption capability of the clays. This suggests that the zinc adsorbed by the marine clays would be released into the pore water due to exposure of the sediment surface to the atmosphere.

  6. Impacts of humidity and temperature on the performance of transparent conducting zinc oxide.

    SciTech Connect

    Granata, Jennifer E.; Yaklin, Melissa A.; Schneider, Duane Allen; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Norman, Kirsten

    2010-06-01

    The impact of humidity and temperature on a zinc oxide based transparent conducting oxide (TCO) was assessed under accelerated aging conditions. An in situ electroanalytical method was used to monitor the electrical properties for a conducting zinc oxide under controlled atmospheric (humidity, temperature and irradiation) conditions. A review of thin film photovoltaic (PV) literature has shown one major failure mode of cells/modules is associated with the ingress of water into modules in the field. Water contamination has been shown to degrade the performance of the TCO in addition to corroding interconnects and other conductive metals/materials associated with the module. Water ingress is particularly problematic in flexible thin film PV modules since traditional encapsulates such as poly(ethyl vinyl acetate) (EVA) have high water vapor transmission rates. The accelerated aging studies of the zinc oxide based TCOs will allow acceleration factors and kinetic parameters to be determined for reliability purposes.

  7. Phase equilibria and properties of transparent conductors in the indium-tin-zinc oxide system

    E-print Network

    Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    transparent conducting oxides (TCO's) with In, Zn, and Sn cations. Optical and electronic propertiesPhase equilibria and properties of transparent conductors in the indium-tin-zinc oxide system for applications where tradeoffs between cond. and transparency are acceptable. Proceedings of the Materials

  8. Dinuclear zinc catalysts with unprecedented activities for the copolymerization of cyclohexene oxide and CO2.

    PubMed

    Kissling, S; Lehenmeier, M W; Altenbuchner, P T; Kronast, A; Reiter, M; Deglmann, P; Seemann, U B; Rieger, B

    2015-03-01

    A variety of new dinuclear zinc catalysts was developed and tested for the copolymerization of cyclohexene oxide and carbon dioxide. Electron-withdrawing groups thereby led to unprecedented activities with turnover frequencies up to 155?000 h(-1). These are by far the highest polymerization rates ever reported for the copolymerization of cyclohexene oxide and CO2. PMID:25683286

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Dental Composites Containing Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sevinç, Berdan Aydin; Hanley, Luke

    2010-01-01

    The resin-based dental composites commonly used in restorations result in more plaque accumulation than other materials. Bacterial biofilm growth contributes to secondary caries and failure of resin-based dental composites. Methods to inhibit biofilm growth on dental composites have been sought for several decades. It is demonstrated here that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) blended at 10% (w/w) fraction into dental composites display antimicrobial activity and reduce growth of bacterial biofilms by roughly 80% for a single-species model dental biofilm. Antibacterial effectiveness of ZnO-NPs was assessed against Streptococcus sobrinus ATCC 27352 grown both planktonically and as biofilms on composites. Direct contact inhibition was observed by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy while biofilm formation was quantified by viable counts. An 80% reduction in bacterial counts was observed with 10% ZnO-NP-containing composites compared with their unmodified counterpart, indicating a statistically significant suppression of biofilm growth. Although, 20% of the bacterial population survived and could form a biofilm layer again, 10% ZnO-NP-containing composites maintained at least some inhibitory activity even after the third generation of biofilm growth. Microscopy demonstrated continuous biofilm formation for unmodified composites after one day growth, but only sparsely distributed biofilms formed on 10% ZnO-NP-containing composites. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ZnO-NPs suspended in S. sobrinus planktonic culture was 50 ?g/ml. 10% ZnO-NP-containing composites qualitatively showed less biofilm after one day anaerobic growth of a three-species initial colonizer biofilm after when compared to unmodified composites, but did not significantly reduce growth after three days. PMID:20225252

  10. Alveolar Epithelial Cell Injury Due to Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Ho; Fazlollahi, Farnoosh; Kennedy, Ian M.; Yacobi, Nazanin R.; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.; Borok, Zea; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Crandall, Edward D.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Although inhalation of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) is known to cause systemic disease (i.e., metal fume fever), little is known about mechanisms underlying injury to alveolar epithelium. Objectives: Investigate ZnO NP–induced injury to alveolar epithelium by exposing primary cultured rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayers (RAECMs) to ZnO NPs. Methods: RAECMs were exposed apically to ZnO NPs or, in some experiments, to culture fluid containing ZnCl2 or free Zn released from ZnO NPs. Transepithelial electrical resistance (RT) and equivalent short-circuit current (IEQ) were assessed as functions of concentration and time. Morphologic changes, lactate dehydrogenase release, cell membrane integrity, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial activity were measured. Measurements and Main Results: Apical exposure to 176 ?g/ml ZnO NPs decreased RT and IEQ of RAECMs by 100% over 24 hours, whereas exposure to 11 ?g/ml ZnO NPs had little effect. Changes in RT and IEQ caused by 176 ?g/ml ZnO NPs were irreversible. ZnO NP effects on RT yielded half-maximal concentrations of approximately 20 ?g/ml. Apical exposure for 24 hours to 176 ?g/ml ZnO NPs induced decreases in mitochondrial activity and increases in lactate dehydrogenase release, permeability to fluorescein sulfonic acid, increased intracellular ROS, and translocation of ZnO NPs from apical to basolateral fluid (most likely across injured cells and/or damaged paracellular pathways). Conclusions: ZnO NPs cause severe injury to RAECMs in a dose- and time-dependent manner, mediated, at least in part, by free Zn released from ZnO NPs, mitochondrial dysfunction, and increased intracellular ROS. PMID:20639441

  11. Antibacterial properties of composite resins incorporating silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    Kasraei, Shahin; Sami, Lida; Hendi, Sareh; AliKhani, Mohammad-Yousef; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Recurrent caries was partly ascribed to lack of antibacterial properties in composite resin. Silver and zinc nanoparticles are considered to be broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of composite resins containing 1% silver and zinc-oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Materials and Methods Ninety discoid tablets containing 0%, 1% nano-silver and 1% nano zinc-oxide particles were prepared from flowable composite resin (n = 30). The antibacterial properties of composite resin discs were evaluated by direct contact test. Diluted solutions of Streptococcus mutans (PTCC 1683) and Lactobacillus (PTCC 1643) were prepared. 0.01 mL of each bacterial species was separately placed on the discs. The discs were transferred to liquid culture media and were incubated at 37? for 8 hr. 0.01 mL of each solution was cultured on blood agar and the colonies were counted. Data was analyzed with Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results Composites containing nano zinc-oxide particles or silver nanoparticles exhibited higher antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The effect of zinc-oxide on Streptococcus mutans was significantly higher than that of silver (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the antibacterial activity against Lactobacillus between composites containing silver nanoparticles and those containing zinc-oxide nanoparticles. Conclusions Composite resins containing silver or zinc-oxide nanoparticles exhibited antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. PMID:24790923

  12. Feeding Low or Pharmacological Concentrations of Zinc Oxide Changes the Hepatic Proteome Profiles in Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Bondzio, Angelika; Pieper, Robert; Gabler, Christoph; Weise, Christoph; Schulze, Petra; Zentek, Juergen; Einspanier, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological levels of zinc oxide can promote growth and health of weaning piglets, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are yet not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine changes in the global hepatic protein expression in response to dietary zinc oxide in weaned piglets. Nine half-sib piglets were allocated to three dietary zinc treatment groups (50, 150, 2500 mg/kg dry matter). After 14 d, pigs were euthanized and liver samples taken. The increase in hepatic zinc concentration following dietary supplementation of zinc was accompanied by up-regulation of metallothionein mRNA and protein expression. Global hepatic protein profiles were obtained by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis following matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A total of 15 proteins were differentially (P<0.05) expressed between groups receiving control (150 mg/kg) or pharmacological levels of zinc (2500 mg/kg) with 7 down- (e.g. arginase1, thiosulfate sulfurtransferase, HSP70) and 8 up-regulated (e.g. apolipoprotein AI, transferrin, C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase) proteins. Additionally, three proteins were differentially expressed with low zinc supply (50 mg/kg Zn) in comparison to the control diet. The identified proteins were mainly associated with functions related to cellular stress, transport, metabolism, and signal transduction. The differential regulation was evaluated at the mRNA level and a subset of three proteins of different functional groups was selected for confirmation by western blotting. The results of this proteomic study suggest that zinc affects important liver functions such as blood protein secretion, protein metabolism, detoxification and redox homeostasis, thus supporting the hypothesis of intermediary effects of pharmacological levels of zinc oxide fed to pigs. PMID:24282572

  13. Antidiabetic Activity of Zinc Oxide and Silver Nanoparticles on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Alkaladi, Ali; Abdelazim, Aaser Mohamed; Afifi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles in medicine is an attractive proposition. In the present study, zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their antidiabetic activity. Fifty male albino rats with weight 120 ± 20 and age 6 months were used. Animals were grouped as follows: control; did not receive any type of treatment, diabetic; received a single intraperitoneal dose of streptozotocin (100 mg/kg), diabetic + zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs), received single daily oral dose of 10 mg/kg ZnONPs in suspension, diabetic + silver nanoparticles (SNPs); received a single daily oral dose of SNP of 10 mg/kg in suspension and diabetic + insulin; received a single subcutaneous dose of 0.6 units/50 g body weight. Zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles induce a significant reduced blood glucose, higher serum insulin, higher glucokinase activity higher expression level of insulin, insulin receptor, GLUT-2 and glucokinase genes in diabetic rats treated with zinc oxide, silver nanoparticles and insulin. In conclusion, zinc oxide and sliver nanoparticles act as potent antidiabetic agents. PMID:24477262

  14. Extracellular synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticle using seaweeds of gulf of Mannar, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles by marine resources is thought to be clean, nontoxic, and environmentally acceptable “green procedures”. Marine ecosystems are very important for the overall health of both marine and terrestrial environments. The use of natural sources like Marine biological resources essential for nanotechnology. Seaweeds constitute one of the commercially important marine living renewable resources. Seaweeds such as green Caulerpa peltata, red Hypnea Valencia and brown Sargassum myriocystum were used for synthesis of Zinc oxide nanoparticles. Result The preliminary screening of physico-chemical parameters such as concentration of metals, concentration of seaweed extract, temperature, pH and reaction time revealed that one seaweed S. myriocystum were able to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles. It was confirmed through the, initial colour change of the reaction mixture and UV visible spectrophotometer. The extracellular biosynthesized clear zinc oxide nanoparticles size 36 nm through characterization technique such as DLS, AFM, SEM –EDX, TEM, XRD and FTIR. The biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles are effective antibacterial agents against Gram-positive than the Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusion Based on the FTIR results, fucoidan water soluble pigments present in S. myriocystum leaf extract is responsible for reduction and stabilization of zinc oxide nanoparticles. by this approach are quite stable and no visible changes were observed even after 6 months. These soluble elements could have acted as both reduction and stabilizing agents preventing the aggregation of nanoparticles in solution, extracellular biological synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles of size 36 nm. PMID:24298944

  15. Enhanced ionic polymer metal composite actuator with porous nafion membrane using zinc oxide particulate leaching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sun Yong; Ko, Seong Young; Park, Jong-Oh; Park, Sukho

    2015-03-01

    In this study, to improve the performance of an ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC), we suggest a porous nafion membrane fabricated with the particulate leaching method with zinc oxide and propose an IPMC that uses the porous nafion membrane. To fabricate this membrane, the proper ratio of nafion and zinc oxide powder is dispersed in a solvent. Then the zinc oxide embedded in the nafion membrane is fabricated with a casting method. With the particulate leaching method, the embedded zinc oxide particles are dissolved by an acid solution, and the spaces of the zinc oxide particles changed to pores. Finally, through electroless plating and ion exchange procedures, an IPMC with the porous nafion membrane is fabricated. The proposed IPMC has higher water uptake (WUP) and ion exchange capacity (IEC) and can show better actuation performance compared to the conventional nafion-based IPMC. We also measure the actuation displacement and blocking forces of the proposed IPMC. Compared with the conventional nafion-based IPMC, the proposed IPMC with the porous nafion membrane has increased displacements: about 80% at ac input and about 250% at dc input, and increased blocking force about 130% at dc input.

  16. Comparing Inhaled Ultrafine versus Fine Zinc Oxide Particles in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Beckett, William S.; Chalupa, David F.; Pauly-Brown, Andrea; Speers, Donna M.; Stewart, Judith C.; Frampton, Mark W.; Utell, Mark J.; Huang, Li-Shan; Cox, Christopher; Zareba, Wojciech; Oberdörster, Günter

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Zinc oxide is a common, biologically active constituent of particulate air pollution as well as a workplace toxin. Ultrafine particles (< 0.1 ?m diameter) are believed to be more potent than an equal mass of inhaled accumulation mode particles (0.1–1.0 ?m diameter). Objectives: We compared exposure–response relationships for respiratory, hematologic, and cardiovascular endpoints between ultrafine and accumulation mode zinc oxide particles. Methods: In a human inhalation study, 12 healthy adults inhaled 500 ?g/m3 of ultrafine zinc oxide, the same mass of fine zinc oxide, and filtered air while at rest for 2 hours. Measurements and Main Results: Preexposure and follow-up studies of symptoms, leukocyte surface markers, hemostasis, and cardiac electrophysiology were conducted to 24 hours post-exposure. Induced sputum was sampled 24 hours after exposure. No differences were detected between any of the three exposure conditions at this level of exposure. Conclusions: Freshly generated zinc oxide in the fine or ultrafine fractions inhaled by healthy subjects at rest at a concentration of 500 ?g/m3 for 2 hours is below the threshold for acute systemic effects as detected by these endpoints. PMID:15735058

  17. The interaction of zinc oxide-based dental cements with aqueous solutions of potassium fluoride.

    PubMed

    Pawluk, K; Booth, S E; Coleman, N J; Nicholson, J W

    2008-09-01

    The ability of zinc oxide-based dental cements (zinc phosphate and zinc polycarboxylate) to take up fluoride from aqueous solution has been studied. Only zinc phosphate cement was found to take up any measurable fluoride after 5 h exposure to the solutions. The zinc oxide filler of the zinc phosphate also failed to take up fluoride from solution. The key interaction for this uptake was thus shown to involve the phosphate groups of the set cement. However, whether this took the form of phosphate/fluoride exchange, or the formation of oxyfluoro-phosphate groups was not clear. Fluoride uptake followed radicaltime kinetics for about 2 h in some cases, but was generally better modelled by the Elovich equation, dq(t)/dt = alpha exp(-betaq(t)). Values for alpha varied from 3.80 to 2.48 x 10(4), and for beta from 7.19 x 10(-3) to 0.1946, though only beta showed any sort of trend, becoming smaller with increasing fluoride concentration. Fluoride was released from the zinc phosphate cements in processes that were diffusion based up to M(t)/M(infinity) of about 0.4. No further release occurred when specimens were placed in fresh volumes of deionised water. Only a fraction of the fluoride taken up was re-released, demonstrating that most of the fluoride taken up becomes irreversibly bound within the cement. PMID:18389342

  18. Zinc-phthalocyaninetetraphosphonic acid as a novel transparent-conducting-oxide passivation for organic photovoltaic devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Johnev; K. Fostiropoulos

    2008-01-01

    A novel monolayer chemical passivation improving the surface electronic properties of indium-tin oxide (ITO), used as an electrode in organic solar cells (OSC), is reported. Deposition of zinc-phthalocyaninetetraphosphonic acid on ITO substrates, from a water solution, creates a chemically bound organic monolayer passivation, which improves the charge transfer through the ITO\\/zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) interface in ZnPc\\/C60 OSC. Current–voltage measurements on devices

  19. Zinc Oxide Nanostructures and High Electron Mobility Nanocomposite Thin Film Transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flora M. Li; Gen-Wen Hsieh; Sharvari Dalal; Marcus C. Newton; James E. Stott; Pritesh Hiralal; Arokia Nathan; Paul A. Warburton; Husnu Emrah Unalan; Paul Beecher; Andrew J. Flewitt; Ian Robinson; Gehan Amaratunga; William I. Milne

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures and examines the performance of nanocomposite thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated using ZnO dispersed in both n- and p-type polymer host matrices. The ZnO nanostructures considered here comprise nanowires and tetrapods and were synthesized using vapor phase deposition techniques involving the carbothermal reduction of solid-phase zinc-containing compounds. Measurement results of

  20. Fabrication of a super-hydrophobic nanofibrous zinc oxide film surface by electrospinning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Ding; Tasuku Ogawa; Jinho Kim; Kouji Fujimoto; Seimei Shiratori

    2008-01-01

    We report a new approach for fabricating a super-hydrophobic nanofibrous zinc oxide (ZnO) film surface. The pure poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and composite PVA\\/ZnO nanofibrous films can be obtained by electrospinning the PVA and PVA\\/zinc acetate solutions, respectively. After the calcination of composite fibrous films, the inorganic fibrous ZnO films with a reduced fiber diameter were fabricated. The wettability of three

  1. Zinc (hydr)oxide/graphite oxide/AuNPs composites: role of surface features in H?S reactive adsorption.

    PubMed

    Giannakoudakis, Dimitrios A; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2014-12-15

    Zinc hydroxide/graphite oxide/AuNPs composites with various levels of complexity were synthesized using an in situ precipitation method. Then they were used as H2S adsorbents in visible light. The materials' surfaces were characterized before and after H2S adsorption by various physical and chemical methods (XRD, FTIR, thermal analysis, potentiometric titration, adsorption of nitrogen and SEM/EDX). Significant differences in surface features and synergistic effects were found depending on the materials' composition. Addition of graphite oxide and the deposition of gold nanoparticles resulted in a marked increase in the adsorption capacity in comparison with that on the zinc hydroxide and zinc hydroxide/AuNP. Addition of AuNPs to zinc hydroxide led to a crystalline ZnO/AuNP composite while the zinc hydroxide/graphite oxide/AuNP composite was amorphous. The ZnOH/GO/AuNPs composite exhibited the greatest H2S adsorption capacity due to the increased number of OH terminal groups and the conductive properties of GO that facilitated the electron transfer and consequently the formation of superoxide ions promoting oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. AuNPs present in the composite increased the conductivity, helped with electron transfer to oxygen, and prevented the fast recombination of the electrons and holes. PMID:25306297

  2. Sorption behavior of microamounts of zinc on titanium oxide from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hasany, S.M.; Ghaffar, A. (Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)); Chughtai, F.A. (Univ. of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan))

    1991-08-01

    To correlate soil response toward zinc, it is necessary to study its adsorption in detail on soils or on their constituents. The adsorption of microamounts of zinc on titanium oxide, prepared and characterized in this laboratory, has been studied in detail. Zinc adsorption has been found to be dependent on the pH of the aqueous solution, amount of oxide, and zinc concentration. Maximum adsorption is from pH 10 buffer. EDTA and cyanide ions inhibit adsorption significantly. The adsorption of other elements under optimal conditions has also been measured on this oxide. Sc(III) and Cs(I) show almost negligible adsorption. Zinc adsorption follows the linear form of the Freundlich adsorption isotherm: log C{sub Ads} = log A + (1/n) log C{sub Bulk} with A = 0.48 mol/g and n = 1. Except at a very low bulk concentration (3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} mol/dm{sup 3}), Langmuir adsorption isotherm is also linear for the entire zinc concentration investigated. The limiting adsorbed concentration is estimated to be 0.18 mol/g.

  3. AZO thin film-based UV sensors: effects of RF power on the films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, Nihan; Ceren Baskose, U.; Kinaci, Baris; Cakmak, Mehmet; Ozcelik, Suleyman

    2015-02-01

    Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films of thickness 150 nm were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method under various RF powers in the range of 25-100 W. Structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the films were investigated by X-ray diffractometer, atomic force microscope, UV-Vis spectrometer and Hall effect measurement system. All the obtained films had a highly preferred orientation along [002] direction of the c-axis perpendicular to the flexible PET substrate and had a high-quality surface. The energy band gap (E g) values of the films varied in the range of 3.30-3.43 eV. The minimum resistivity of 1.84 × 10-4 ? cm was obtained at a 50 W RF power. The small changes in the RF power had a critical important role on the structural, optical and electrical properties of the sputtered AZO thin films on flexible PET substrate. In addition, UV sensing of the fabricated AZO thin film-based sensors was explored by using current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. The sensors were sensitive in the UV region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  4. Defect Mediated Ferromagnetism in Zinc Oxide Thin Film Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mal, Siddhartha

    Recent developments in the field of spintronics (spin based electronics) have led to an extensive search for materials in which semiconducting properties can be integrated with magnetic properties to realize the objective of successful fabrication of spin-based devices. Since zinc oxide (ZnO) posits a promising player, it is important to elucidate the critical issues regarding the origin and nature of magnetism in ZnO thin film heterostructures. Another critical issue in the development of practical devices based on metal oxides is the integration of high quality epitaxial thin films on the existing technology based on Si (100) substrates, which requires appropriate substrate templates. The present research work is focused on the study of room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) caused by intrinsic defects and precise control of RTFM using thermal treatments and laser and ion irradiation. We performed a systematic study of the structural, chemical, electrical, optical and magnetic properties of undoped ZnO films grown under different conditions as well as the films that were annealed in various environments. Oxygen annealed films displayed a sequential transition from ferromagnetism to diamagnetism as a function of the annealing temperature. An increase in the green band intensity has been observed in oxygen annealed ZnO films. Reversible switching of room-temperature ferromagnetism and n-type conductivity have been demonstrated by oxygen and vacuum annealing. Detailed electron energy loss spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy studies have been presented to rule out the possibility of external source of magnetism. Electron-Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) measurements indicate the presence of a broad peak at g=2.01. This would be most consistent with the magnetic moment arising from the oxygen vacancies (g=1.996), although the possible contribution from Zn vacancies (g=2.013) cannot be entirely ruled out. The magnetic moment in these films may arise from the unpaired 2p electrons at the O sites surrounding the zinc vacancy with each nearest-neighbor O atom carrying a magnetic moment ranging from 0.49 to 0.74 muB and the oxygen vacancies may provide the coupling mechanism. Results of EPR study are found to be in agreement with the results of magnetization and conductivity measurements. The effect of UV Excimer laser irradiation on electrical, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO thin films has been studied. Increases in the electrical conductivity and magnetic moment have been controlled precisely with the number of laser pulses, without altering the Wurtzite crystal structure and n-type semiconducting characteristics of the films. The laser-induced ferromagnetism and concomitant conductivity enhancement can be reversed through subsequent thermal annealing. It has also been shown that heavy swift ion irradiation can also create room temperature ferromagnetism in oxygen annealed insulating ZnO films. Saturation magnetic moments increase with increasing ion dose. A systematic study of the thickness dependency of the structural, electrical and magnetic properties of undoped ZnO thin films has been presented. The role of film/substrate interface in magnetism has been discussed. It has been shown by EPR study and oxidative quenching of ferromagnetism that oxygen vacancies are the key mediating defect in ferromagnetic ZnO thin films. Finally growth of epitaxial ZnO on Si (100) substrates has been achieved using a titanium nitride (TiN)/strontium titanate (STO) template layer. It has been shown that TiN can be grown epitaxially on silicon substrates. It was observed that, crystallographic orientations of ZnO on STO can be controlled by the oxygen pressure and substrate temperature during the deposition. The detailed x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electrical and magnetic characterization results for the deposited films have been carried out. The above mentioned methods provide a controlled way to study changes in magnetic, electrical and optical properties of ZnO films and determine the mechanis

  5. Effect of the temperature on structural and optical properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hadia, N M A; García-Granda, Santiago; García, José R

    2014-07-01

    Zinc nitrate hexahydrate, Zn(NO3)2 x 6H2O was used as a precursor with urea NH2CONH2 to prepare hydrozincite Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6 powder using hydrothermal method for 8 h at 90 degrees C. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by thermal annealing of hydrozincite powder at different annealing temperatures, i.e., 350, 550 750 and 950 degrees C in air for 2 h. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The optical properties of the products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. It was found that the particle size increased from - 33 to 250 nm with increasing in the annealing temperatures. FTIR results showed that the standard peaks of zinc oxide were presented at 428.17 and 532.32 cm(-1). Thermal analysis study showed that the primary weight loss starts at - 93 degrees C is due to solvent evaporation. The secondary weight loss, observed at - 378 degrees C, is due to phase transition from hydrated zinc oxide to zinc oxide. The band gaps of the products were in the range - 3.26-3.30 eV. The PL spectrum showed that the as-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles had UV (381 nm) and green (537 nm) emissions. PMID:24758046

  6. EXAMINATION OF THE OXIDATION PROTECTION OF ZINC COATINGS FORMED ON COPPER ALLOYS AND STEEL SUBSTRATES

    SciTech Connect

    Papazoglou, M.; Chaliampalias, D.; Vourlias, G.; Pavlidou, E.; Stergioudis, G. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Skolianos, S. [Physical Metallurgy Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2010-01-21

    The exposure of metallic components at aggressive high temperature environments, usually limit their usage at similar application because they suffer from severe oxidation attack. Copper alloys are used in a wide range of high-quality indoor and outdoor applications, statue parts, art hardware, high strength and high thermal conductivity applications. On the other hand, steel is commonly used as mechanical part of industrial set outs or in the construction sector due to its high mechanical properties. The aim of the present work is the examination of the oxidation resistance of pack cementation zinc coatings deposited on copper, leaded brass and steel substrates at elevated temperature conditions. Furthermore, an effort made to make a long-term evaluation of the coated samples durability. The oxidation results showed that bare substrates appear to have undergone severe damage comparing with the coated ones. Furthermore, the mass gain of the uncoated samples was higher than this of the zinc covered ones. Particularly zinc coated brass was found to be more resistant to oxidation conditions in which it was exposed as it has the lower mass gain as compared to the bare substrates and zinc coated copper. Zinc coated steel was also proved to be more resistive than the uncoated steel.

  7. Electrical and optical properties of zinc oxide for scintillator applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaocheng

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide-band-gap semiconductor suitable for many optical and optoelectronic applications. Among these is to use single crystal, powder, or ceramic forms of ZnO as a fast UV scintillator. In this work, the electrical and optical properties of ZnO were studied using photoluminescence, X-ray-induced luminescence, optical absorption, and Hall Effect techniques. This study included single crystal ZnO and ZnO:Ga samples grown from high-pressure-melt (HPM), seeded chemical-vapor-transport (SCVT), and hydrothermal (HYD) techniques; powder samples synthesized using both solution and solid-state processes, and purchased from different commercial sources; and ceramic samples prepared by hot-uni-axial-pressing and spark-plasma-sintering methods. Temperature-dependent PL and Hall measurements were combined to establish the luminescence origins in the n-type ZnO and ZnO:Ga single crystals. Based on a PL line-shape analysis, including band-gap renormalization, the direct (e,h) transition is the main luminescent channel in highly n-type ZnO:Ga, while FX and FX-LO recombinations are responsible for the UV PL from as-grown ZnO. An intrinsic mobility limit for n-type ZnO was established by including three major phonon-scattering mechanisms. Analysis of Hall data from single-crystal samples including both neutral- and ionized-impurity scatterings provided donor and acceptor concentrations and energy levels. High n-type single-crystal ZnO samples prepared either by Ga doping and co-doping, or by after-growth treatments, were also studied. Absorption and reflectance data were used to obtain free carrier concentrations from the Ga-doped and co-doped crystals, and it was found that several samples with n ˜ high-1018 to low-1019 cm -3 had optimum UV luminescence. Anneal treatments in reducing atmospheres increased free carrier concentrations in HPM and HYD samples, but an induced absorption band due to oxygen vacancies limited the UV emission from these samples. PL and X-ray-induced luminescence studies on powder ZnO:Ga samples demonstrated that high Ga-doping levels and H-anneal treatments can improve UV emission, while impurities such as Cu and Li enhance the lower energy visible emissions and affect the UV output. For ceramic forms of ZnO, reduction of scattering losses remains as the main challenge for improved scintillation.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and luminescence properties of zinc oxide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Aurangzeb

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) represents an important semiconductor material due to its wideband gap (3.37 eV at room temperature), large exciton binding energy (60 meV), high optical gain, and luminescence as well as piezoelectric properties [1]. From the 1960s, ZnO thin films have been extensively studied because of their applications as sensors, transducers and catalysts [2]. Since a few decades, one-dimensional nanostructures have become the focus point in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Nanostructures are considered to have unique physical, chemical, catalytic and optical properties that are profoundly different from their bulk counterparts. Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in 1991, a string of research activities led to the growth and characterization of nanostructures of various materials including semiconductors such as Si, Ge and also compound semiconductors such as InP, GaAs, GaN and ZnO. ZnO is a versatile material and has shown potential for the synthesis of various types of nanostructures such as nanocombs, nanorings, nanohelices/nanosprings, nanobelts, nanowires and nanocages under specific growth conditions and probably has the richest family of nanostructures among all materials, both in structure and properties. This dissertation presents the synthesis, characterization and luminescence properties of ZnO nanostructures with the development of a PVD system. The nanostructures of ZnO are synthesized on various kinds of substrates such as Silicon, Sapphire and Alumina. We have synthesized a large family of nanostructures such as nanowires, nanorods, nanobelts, aligned nanorods, nanosheets, nanospheres, nanocombs, microspheres, hexagons etc. The nanostructures are then characterized by SEM, EDX, TEM, HRTEM, XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, PL and CL. From the characterization of the materials, we observed that these nanostructures are of good crystalline quality. PL and CL spectra reveal that all the nanostructures emit a ˜380 nm (UV) usually called the near band edge emission and a broad green band related to the defects and surface states at about 500 nm. Ultra-fine nanowires/belts show band edge emission of about 367 nm, with a blue shift of 124 meV relative to the other structures (380 nm). This dissertation gives an overview of the optical properties of ZnO nanostructures, in addition to the issues such as controlled growth, band-gap engineering, synthesis and characterization of these nanostructures.

  9. Cytotoxicity of nitric oxide is alleviated by zinc-mediated expression of antioxidant genes.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mi Ja; Hogstrand, Christer; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2006-10-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich zinc binding proteins that are powerful antioxidants. In this study, we investigated the interaction between zinc, MTs, and other components of the antioxidant defense system in HepG2 cells. Cells were preincubated with zinc and then exposed to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor. Both zinc pretreatment and SNP exposure separately induced transcription of MT genes (MT1A, MT2A, MT1E, MT1X), as measured using real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after reverse transcription (RT). Pretreatment of HepG2 cells with zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) followed by SNP exposure caused MT and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) mRNA levels to increase more than in cells only exposed to SNP. However, when cells were incubated with N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethyl-enediamine (TPEN), a membrane-permeant Zn2+ chelator, the stimulation of MT transcription by SNP was blocked, suggesting that SNP-induced upregulation of these genes is zinc-dependent. Human glutathione-S-transferase (hGSTA1) and G6PD mRNA levels in the cells treated with 5 microM TPEN decreased. Additionally, the induction of MT by SNP after zinc pretreatment appears to be mediated by metal-activated transcription factor-1 (MTF-1), which is induced by labile zinc in the cytosol. SNP cytotoxicity was inhibited by preincubation with zinc. Taken together, these results suggest that NO plays an important role in regulation of cellular zinc homeostasis and that NO-mediated release of protein-bound Zn2+ may be an important signal in antioxidant defense. PMID:17018880

  10. An efficient non-Lambertian organic light-emitting diode using imprinted submicron-size zinc oxide pillar arrays

    E-print Network

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    An efficient non-Lambertian organic light-emitting diode using imprinted submicron-size zinc oxide://apl.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;An efficient non-Lambertian organic light-emitting diode using imprinted submicron-size zinc oxide 2013; published online 8 February 2013) We report phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes

  11. Molecular Orbital Studies of Zinc Oxide Chemical Vapor Deposition: Gas-Phase Hydrolysis of Diethyl Zinc,

    E-print Network

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Zinc, Elimination Reactions, and Formation of Dimers and Tetramers Stanley M. Smith and H. Bernhard Schlegel* Department of Chemistry, and Institute for Scientific Computing, Wayne State University, Detroit University Press: Cambridge, U.K., 1994. (7) Huang, M. H.; Mao, S.; Feick, H.; Yan, H.; Wu, Y.; Kind, H

  12. Using C??? Sputtering to Improve Detection Limit of Nitrogen in Zinc Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zihua; Shutthanandan, V.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy

    2010-05-11

    C??? sputtering was firstly used to determine depth profile of nitrogen in zinc oxide materials by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Compared to traditional Cs+ sputtering depth profiling, the C??? sputtering provides over 200 times of effective signal intensity and the detection limit is about 10 times better. In addition, our X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that sputtering zinc oxide materials by 10 keV C??? leads to very weak carbon deposition at bottom of the sputter crater.

  13. Synthesis of Silicon and Zinc Oxide Nanowhiskers and Studies of Their Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbyk, P. P.; Dubrovin, I. V.; Dadykin, A. A.; Demchenko, Yu. A.

    The conditions and mechanisms for purposeful pattern formation on the surface of single-crystal silicon wafers by building up silicon or zinc oxide by the vapor-liquid-crystal (VLC) mechanism were studied. For the polished silicon surface we developed a procedure for preparation of areas with randomly distributed nanosized gold metal particles - whisker growth initiators. The arrays of randomly distributed silicon and zinc oxide whiskers were grown. The emission cells with a pointed surface pattern were fabricated. The morphology, structure, and field electron emission properties of the fabricated structures were studied.

  14. Oxidative degradation of acid orange 7 using Ag-doped zinc oxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Shinde, S S; Bhosale, C H; Rajpure, K Y

    2012-12-01

    Ag-doped ZnO thin films with preferred c-axis orientation along (002) have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique in aqueous medium on to the corning glass substrates. The effect of Ag-doping on to the photoelectrochemical, structural, morphological, optical, luminescence, electrical and thermal properties has been investigated. XRD and Raman study indicates that the films have hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure. The effect of Ag loading on the photocatalytic activity of Ag-doped ZnO in the degradation of azo dye is studied and results are compared with pure ZnO. The results show that the rate of degradation of azo dye over Ag-doped ZnO is much higher as compared to pure ZnO. Ag doping in ZnO is highly effective and can significantly enhance the photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of azo dye. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity of Ag-doped ZnO thin films is mainly due to their smaller crystallite size and capability for reducing the electron-hole pair recombination. Kinetic parameters have been investigated in terms of a first order rate equation. The rate constant (-k) for this heterogeneous photocatalysis is evaluated as a function of the initial concentration of original species. Substantial reduction in azo dye is achieved as analyzed from COD and TOC studies. PMID:23165170

  15. Zinc-catalyzed copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide

    E-print Network

    Katsurao, Takumi

    1994-01-01

    precaution to exclude thoroughly water or acid in the system should be taken. In the preparation of the zinc catalyst, an excess of ZnO relative to acid should be used and the reaction should be followed by IR until all of the acid is consumed... Strem Chemicals, Incorporation. 2. Synthesized Reagents a. Synthesis of Znx(02C(CH2)sCOs)x Zinc glutarate was prepared according to the Patent literature. The typical preparation is as follows. In a 300 mL round bottom flask, a slurry of ZnO (8. 5g...

  16. Migration of point defects and a defect pair in zinc oxide using the dimer method

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dong; Gao, Fei; Dong, Mingdong; Liu, Bo

    2012-09-24

    The migration mechanism and the minimum energy path of vacancies, interstitials and an interstitial-vacancy pair in zinc oxide have been studied by the dimer method. The in-plane and out-of-plane migrations of zinc and oxygen vacancies are found to be anisotropic. The kick-out mechanism is energetically preferred to zinc and oxygen interstitials that can easily migrate through the ZnO crystal lattice. In addition, the migration process of an interstitial-vacancy pair as a complex of an octahedral oxygen interstitial and a zinc vacancy is dominated by an oxygen interstitial/zinc vacancy successive migration. The energy barriers indicate that the existence of oxygen interstitial in the defect pair can promote the mobility of zinc vacancy, whereas the migration of oxygen interstitial is slowed down due to the presence of zinc vacancy. In the end, we show a possible migration path of the interstitial-vacancy pair that can be dissociated through a set of displacement movements.

  17. Zinc regulates iNOS-derived nitric oxide formation in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Cortese-Krott, Miriam M.; Kulakov, Larissa; Opländer, Christian; Kolb-Bachofen, Victoria; Kröncke, Klaus-D.; Suschek, Christoph V.

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. Mechanisms responsible for the fine-tuning of iNOS activity in inflammation are still not fully understood. Zinc is an important structural element of NOS enzymes and is known to inhibit its catalytical activity. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of zinc on iNOS activity and expression in endothelial cells. We found that zinc down-regulated the expression of iNOS (mRNA+protein) and decreased cytokine-mediated activation of the iNOS promoter. Zinc-mediated regulation of iNOS expression was due to inhibition of NF-?B transactivation activity, as determined by a decrease in both NF-?B-driven luciferase reporter activity and expression of NF-?B target genes, including cyclooxygenase 2 and IL-1?. However, zinc did not affect NF-?B translocation into the nucleus, as assessed by Western blot analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. Taken together our results demonstrate that zinc limits iNOS-derived high output NO production in endothelial cells by inhibiting NF-?B-dependent iNOS expression, pointing to a role of zinc as a regulator of iNOS activity in inflammation. PMID:25180171

  18. Growth of high-quality, uniform c-axis-oriented zinc oxide nano-wires on a-plane sapphire substrate with zinc oxide templates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Reiser; V. Raeesi; G. M. Prinz; M. Schirra; M. Feneberg; U. Röder; R. Sauer; K. Thonke

    2009-01-01

    High-quality, vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-wires were grown by the vapour-transport method on (112¯0) (a-plane) sapphire substrate covered by a uniform ZnO nano-crystalline seed layer which was deposited in a preceding growth step via simple chemical vapour deposition. A thin layer of close-packed nano-seeds with an average size of 12nm was formed rapidly on the substrate by sublimation and

  19. Performance improvement of tin-doped zinc oxide thin-film transistor by novel channel modulation layer of indium tin oxide/tin zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhuofa; Han, Dedong; Zhao, Nannan; Wu, Jing; Cong, Yingying; Dong, Junchen; Zhao, Feilong; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi; Liu, Lifeng

    2015-04-01

    By applying a novel active modulation layer of indium tin oxide/tin zinc oxide (ITO/TZO), we have successfully fabricated high-performance bottom-gate-type dual-active-layer thin-film transistors (TFTs) on a glass substrate at a low temperature by a simple process. The as-fabricated dual-active-layer ITO/TZO TFTs exhibited excellent electrical properties compared with single-active-layer TZO TFTs. We found that the dual-layer ITO/TZO TFT with an optimized stack structure of ITO (5 nm)/TZO (45 nm) as the channel layer exhibits excellent properties, namely, a high saturation mobility of 204 cm2 V?1 s?1, a steep subthreshold slope of 219 mV/dec, a low threshold voltage of 0.8 V, and a high on–off current ratio of 4.3 × 107. A physical mechanism for the electrical improvement is also deduced. Owing to its advantages, namely, a low processing temperature, a high electrical performance, a simple process, and a low cost, this novel active modulation layer is highly promising for the manufacture of oxide semiconductor TFT and transparent displays.

  20. Novel synthetic methodology for controlling the orientation of zinc oxide nanowires grown on silicon oxide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jinhyun; Salleh, Najah; Blanco, Carlos; Yang, Sungwoo; Lee, Chul-Jin; Kim, Young-Woo; Kim, Jungsang; Liu, Jie

    2014-03-01

    This study presents a simple method to reproducibly obtain well-aligned vertical ZnO nanowire arrays on silicon oxide (SiOx) substrates using seed crystals made from a mixture of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and zinc acetate (Zn(O2CCH3)2) solution. In comparison, high levels of OH- concentration obtained using NaOH or KOH solutions lead to incorporation of Na or K atoms into the seed crystals, destroying the c-axis alignment of the seeds and resulting in the growth of misaligned nanowires. The use of NH4OH eliminates the metallic impurities and ensures aligned nanowire growth in a wide range of OH- concentrations in the seed solution. The difference of crystalline orientations between NH4OH- and NaOH-based seeds is directly observed by lattice-resolved images and electron diffraction patterns using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This study obviously suggests that metallic impurities incorporated into the ZnO nanocrystal seeds are one of the factors that generates the misaligned ZnO nanowires. This method also enables the use of silicon oxide substrates for the growth of vertically aligned nanowires, making ZnO nanostructures compatible with widely used silicon fabrication technology.This study presents a simple method to reproducibly obtain well-aligned vertical ZnO nanowire arrays on silicon oxide (SiOx) substrates using seed crystals made from a mixture of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and zinc acetate (Zn(O2CCH3)2) solution. In comparison, high levels of OH- concentration obtained using NaOH or KOH solutions lead to incorporation of Na or K atoms into the seed crystals, destroying the c-axis alignment of the seeds and resulting in the growth of misaligned nanowires. The use of NH4OH eliminates the metallic impurities and ensures aligned nanowire growth in a wide range of OH- concentrations in the seed solution. The difference of crystalline orientations between NH4OH- and NaOH-based seeds is directly observed by lattice-resolved images and electron diffraction patterns using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This study obviously suggests that metallic impurities incorporated into the ZnO nanocrystal seeds are one of the factors that generates the misaligned ZnO nanowires. This method also enables the use of silicon oxide substrates for the growth of vertically aligned nanowires, making ZnO nanostructures compatible with widely used silicon fabrication technology. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional SEM images, photographs of seed solution and XRD peaks and XPS. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03694d

  1. Heat-sterilized silver oxide-zinc cells: Cycle life studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arms, J. T.

    1973-01-01

    A JPL study was conducted to evaluate the cell design parameters that contribute to the cycle life of sealed, heat-sterilized silver oxide-zinc cells. Test cells having a rated capacity of 4.2 A-h were fabricated using zinc oxide electrodes prepared by the sintered Teflon process. Two separator variations were evaluated, one having acrylic acid and the other methacrylic acid grafted to irradiated polyethylene film. Significant results of this study include the following: (1) cycle life in excess of 300 cycles was attained; (2) a zinc oxide/silver stoichiometric ratio of 1.5 resulted in greater cycle life than a ratio of 1.1, and similar cycle life to cells having a ratio of 2; (3) cells having methacrylic acid grafted separators suffered somewhat less in capacity loss due to zinc electrode shape change than cells having acrylic acid type; (4) use of acrylic acid grafted separators was slightly superior to the methacrylic acid type in respect to silver penetration; and (5) the inclusion of a layer of potassium titanate paper adjacent to the zinc electrodes resulted in cells that achieved higher cycle life before any of the group failed than that reached by cells of any other construction.

  2. High mobility undoped amorphous indium zinc oxide transparent thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Bhupendra; Gong, Hao; Akkipeddi, Ramam

    2005-10-01

    We investigated the amorphous region of the In2O3-ZnO material system. The composition dependence of the amorphous region was explored and the films exhibited an n-type semiconductor behavior with low resistivities in the range of 4×10-4-6.33×10-4 ?cm. These amorphous films have a very wide transmittance window range of 300-2500 nm, and the transmittance is higher than 85% in the fiber-optics telecommunication window of 1.30-1.55 ?m. The band gap of amorphous films can be engineered from 2.66 to 3.05 eV, by varying the zinc/(zinc+indium) atomic ratio. A monotonous decrease in mobility from 71.6 to 59.4 cm2/V s was observed with an increase in zinc/(zinc+indium) atomic ratio from 0.19 to 0.43 in the amorphous region. This trend was explained on the basis of percolation theory and overlap integral calculations. The effective mass of these amorphous films was calculated using the Drude model in the free-carrier absorption region and correlated with composition as well as the carrier concentration of the films.

  3. Zinc stable isotope fractionation upon accelerated oxidative weathering of sulfidic mine waste.

    PubMed

    Matthies, R; Krahé, L; Blowes, D W

    2014-07-15

    Accelerated oxidative weathering in a reaction cell (ASTM D 5744 standard protocol) was performed over a 33 week period on well characterized, sulfidic mine waste from the Kidd Creek Cu-Zn volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, Canada. The cell leachate was monitored for physicochemical parameters, ion concentrations and stable isotope ratios of zinc. Filtered zinc concentrations (<0.45 ?m) in the leachate ranged between 4.5 mg L(-1) and 1.9 g L(-1)-potentially controlled by pH, mineral solubility kinetics and (de)sorption processes. The zinc stable isotope ratios varied mass-dependently within +0.1 and +0.52‰ relative to IRMM 3702, and were strongly dependent on the pH (rpH-d66Zn=0.65, p<0.005, n=31). At a pH below 5, zinc mobilization was governed by sphalerite oxidation and hydroxide dissolution-pointing to the isotope signature of sphalerite (+0.1 to +0.16‰). Desorption processes resulted in enrichment of (66)Zn in the leachate reaching a maximum offset of +0.32‰ compared to the proposed sphalerite isotope signature. Over a period characterized by pH=6.1 ± 0.6, isotope ratios were significantly more enriched in (66)Zn with an offset of ? 0.23‰ compared to sphalerite, suggesting that zinc release may have been derived from a second zinc source, such as carbonate minerals, which compose 8 wt.% of the tailings. This preliminary study confirms the benefit of applying zinc isotopes alongside standard monitoring parameters to track principal zinc sources and weathering processes in complex multi-phase matrices. PMID:24784733

  4. High-Performance Indium–Gallium–Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Based on Anodic Aluminum Oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linfeng Lan; Junbiao Peng

    2011-01-01

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on indium- gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) active layer and anodic aluminum oxide (Al2O3) gate dielectric were investigated. The anodic Al2O3 gate dielectric possesses low leakage current and relatively high dielectric constant. The IGZO TFT based on anodic Al2O3 shows a mobility of as high as 21.6 cm 2 \\/V · s, an on\\/off current ratio of as

  5. The production of zinc by thermal dissociation of zinc oxide—solar chemical reactor design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Haueter; S. Moeller; R. Palumbo; A. Steinfeld

    1999-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and preliminary test of a novel solar chemical reactor for conducting the thermal dissociation of ZnO into zinc and oxygen at above 2000 K. The reactor configuration features a windowed rotating cavity-receiver lined with ZnO particles that are held by centrifugal force. With this arrangement, ZnO is directly exposed to high-flux solar irradiation and serves

  6. Hybrid p-type copper sulphide coated zinc oxide nanowire heterojunction device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Ian Y. Y.

    2014-11-01

    A novel heterojunction was formed between zinc oxide nanowires and copper sulphide. The proposed device was fabricated by a fully solution-based process that consists of hydrothermal growth method and chemical bath deposition. The optoelectronic properties of the proposed heterojunction were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence measurements and current voltage characteristics.

  7. Synthesis of carbon and zinc oxide nanotubes and their applications in electronic devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaikun Yang

    2010-01-01

    Nanostructured materials, including single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs), zinc oxide (ZnO) nanotubes (NTs) and graphene, have been successfully synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or wet chemistry routines, and used to fabricate nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices, including field effect transistors (FETs) and heterojunction solar cells. Both nanomaterials properties and devices performances have been characterized. Vertically aligned multiwalled

  8. Structural and optical properties of direct current sputtered zinc aluminum oxides with a high Al concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Mohamed; R. Drese

    2006-01-01

    Zinc aluminum oxide films were deposited by reactive dc magnetron sputtering from Zn\\/Al target containing 30 wt.% Al. Sputtering was carried out on glass and Si(100) substrates held at room temperature. The effect of oxygen flow on structural and optical properties was studied. The properties of the films were strongly dependent on oxygen flow. Amorphous, highly transparent and very smooth

  9. Preparation and mechanical properties of aluminum-doped zinc oxide transparent conducting films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shou-Yi Chang; Yen-Chih Hsiao; Yi-Chung Huang

    2008-01-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide transparent conducting films were deposited in this study by magnetron sputtering under different sputtering powers and substrate temperatures. At low sputtering powers and substrate temperatures, the deposited films were constructed by spherical grains. With increasing power and temperature, the grains became facet with an obvious (002) preferred orientation. The crystallinity and grain size of the films increased

  10. Optimization and Characterization of RF Sputtered Piezoelectric Zinc Oxide Thin Film for

    E-print Network

    Tang, William C

    Optimization and Characterization of RF Sputtered Piezoelectric Zinc Oxide Thin Film for Transducer on the piezoelectric and crystalline qualities of the ZnO thin films. Experimental results showed that the multilayer film with the most preferred crystalline orientation. The thermally grown amorphous silicon dioxide

  11. Degradation of wastewaters containing organic dyes photocatalysed by zinc oxide: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sze-Mun Lam; Jin-Chung Sin; Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah; Abdul Rahman Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Organic dyes are one of the largest groups of pollutants discharged into wastewaters from textile and other industrial processes. Owing to the potential toxicity of the dyes and their visibility in surface waters, removal and degradation of them have attracted considerable attention worldwide. A wide range of approaches have been developed, amongst which the heterogeneous photocatalysis involving zinc oxide (ZnO)

  12. Deposition of Aluminum---Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devendra Goyal; Parag Solanki; Balkrishna Marathe; Murlidhar Takwale; Vishnu Bhide

    1992-01-01

    Aluminum---doped zinc oxide films were prepared on Corning 7059 by an inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique. Variation in structural, electrical and optical properties with doping concentration is investigated in detail. The films were highly transparent to the visible radiation and electrically conductive. X-ray diffraction results show that all films were polycrystalline in nature with [002] preferred orientation. Texture coefficient and grain

  13. Influence of the doping and annealing atmosphere on zinc oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Nunes; A Malik; B Fernandes; E Fortunato; P Vilarinho; R Martins

    1999-01-01

    Undoped and doped (indium and aluminium) zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis, and the effect of the doping and annealing atmosphere on the electrical, optical and structural properties of the produced films has been investigated. The deposited films have a high resistivity. Annealing the films in an argon atmosphere or under vacuum leads to a

  14. Effect of aluminium doping on zinc oxide thin films grown by spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. El Manouni; F. J. Manjón; M. Mollar; B. Marí; R. Gómez; M. C. López; J. R. Ramos-Barrado

    2006-01-01

    We report the structural, optical, and electrical characterization of aluminium-doped zinc oxide thin films grown by the spray pyrolysis method. We report the effect of Al concentration on the resistivity and on the X-ray diffraction, transmittance, photoluminescence and Raman scattering spectra of the films. The minimum resistivity is obtained for the sample with nominal Al concentration of 1%. An increase

  15. Performances presented by zinc oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Nunes; B Fernandes; E Fortunato; P Vilarinho; R Martins

    1999-01-01

    The effect of doping and annealing atmosphere on the performances of zinc oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis have been studied. The results show that the way doping influences the electrical and structural properties depends also on the characteristics of the doping element. Annealing the as-deposited films in an inert atmosphere leads to a substantial reduction in the resistivity

  16. LASER ABLATION SYNTHESIS OF ZINC OXIDE CLUSTERS: A NEW FAMILY OF FULLERENES?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 LASER ABLATION SYNTHESIS OF ZINC OXIDE CLUSTERS: A NEW FAMILY OF FULLERENES? Alexander V stoichiometry were synthesized in the gas phase by excimer ArF laser ablation of a ZnO target and investigatedOm clusters of different stoichiometry in a laser-ablation plasma plume. The effect of ablation conditions

  17. Vapor-phase growth of transparent zinc oxide ceramics with c -axis orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Noritake, F.; Yamamoto, N.; Horiguchi, Y. (Dept. of Research and Development, Lion Corporation, Tokyo, 132 (JP)); Fujitsu, S.; Koumoto, K. (Dept. of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 (JP)); Yanagida, H. (Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo 153 (JP))

    1991-01-01

    Large transparent specimens of polycrystalline zinc oxide with c-axis orientation have been prepared by the vapor transport method. Optical transmittance is 80% to 90% at 800 nm. X-ray diffraction peaks from faces other than (001) are negligible.

  18. The cytotoxic effects of titanium oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles oh Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironava, Tatsiana; Applebaum, Ariella; Applebaum, Eliana; Guterman, Shoshana; Applebaum, Kayla; Grossman, Daniel; Gordon, Chris; Brink, Peter; Wang, H. Z.; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2013-03-01

    The importance of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO), inorganic metal oxides nanoparticles (NPs) stems from their ubiquitous applications in personal care products, solar cells and food whitening agents. Hence, these NPs come in direct contact with the skin, digestive tracts and are absorbed into human tissues. Currently, TiO2 and ZnO are considered safe commercial ingredients by the material safety data sheets with no reported evidence of carcinogenicity or ecotoxicity, and do not classify either NP as a toxic substance. This study examined the direct effects of TiO2 and ZnO on HeLa cells, a human cervical adenocarcinonma cell line, and their membrane mechanics. The whole cell patch-clamp technique was used in addition to immunohistochemistry staining, TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Additionally, we examined the effects of dexamethasone (DXM), a glucocorticoid steroid known to have an effect on cell membrane mechanics. Overall, TiO2 and ZnO seemed to have an adverse effect on cell membrane mechanics by effecting cell proliferation, altering cellular structure, decreasing cell-cell adhesion, activating existing ion channels, increasing membrane permeability, and possibly disrupting cell signaling.

  19. The synthesis and photoluminescence of multipod-like zinc oxide whiskers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Gao; Yanhong Huang; Taihong Wang

    2004-01-01

    Multipod-like zinc oxide (M-ZnO) whiskers were produced in bulk quantity by the thermal oxidation of metal Zn powders that had been etched by an NiSO4 aqueous solution. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis investigations showed that the M-ZnO whiskers had pure hexagonal structure with several needle-like legs united at a common junction. A weak photoluminescence emission

  20. Aging in chemically prepared divalent silver oxide electrodes for silver\\/zinc reserve batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David F. Smith; Curtis Brown

    2001-01-01

    The instability of silver(II) oxide electrodes used in silver\\/zinc reserve batteries is the well known cause of capacity loss and delayed activation in reserve batteries after they are stored in the dry, unactivated state for extended periods of time. Metal contaminants in sintered\\/electroformed electrodes destabilize the oxide and the solid state reaction between AgO and elemental silver results in the

  1. Nanocrystalline zinc oxide: Pyrolytic synthesis and spectroscopic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demyanets, L. N.; Li, L. E.; Lavrikov, A. S.; Nikitin, S. V.

    2010-01-01

    Nanocrystalline and microcrystalline ZnO powders are synthesized by the pyrolysis of organic zinc salts in the presence of a reducing catalyst represented by a porous cellulose carrier. The specimens obtained are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, energy dispersive analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and pulse cathodoluminescence. Lasing characteristics of the specimens are studied. The synthesis conditions, under which specimens with the crystallite morphology optimal for a low-threshold lasing are obtained, are found.

  2. Zinc Oxide Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Krunks; O. Bijakina; V. Mikli; T. Varema; E. Mellikov

    1999-01-01

    ZnO thin films were deposited by spraying of zinc acetate solution onto heated glass substrates at 670K. Highly textured in the (002) direction undoped ZnO films, exhibiting exciton emission bands in photoluminescence spectra at 8K, were grown. The initial stages of the thin film growth and effect of doping with In, Ce and Eu were studied. A spraying time of

  3. Octadecanethiol Island Formation on Single Crystal Zinc Oxide Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yocom, Andrea; Collins, Reuben; Furtak, Thomas; Baker, Darick; Ohno, Timothy

    2010-03-01

    Organic photovoltaic devices, containing ZnO nanorod electron acceptor arrays intercalated with organic polymers, could lead to low-cost solar cells. Surface modifications of ZnO with octadecanethiol (ODT) monolayers have been shown to improve charge transfer in such devices. The present work is an effort to understand these monolayers through studies of ODT on single crystals of ZnO with well-defined oxygen-terminated or zinc-terminated surfaces. Both bare and ODT- functionalized surfaces were characterized with atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurements. ODT seemed to form islands of multilayers on zinc-terminated surfaces and islands of monolayers on oxygen- terminated surfaces. While ODT was expected to preferentially bond along defects and terraces on oxygen-terminated surfaces, this was not observed. ODT was also expected to more effectively bond to the zinc-terminated surface, which was observed. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Division of Materials Research DMR-0606054, DMR-0907409, and the Renewable Energy Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at the Colorado School of Mines.

  4. Effect of solvents on the synthesis of nano-size zinc oxide and its properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kanade, K.G. [Department of Chemistry, Mahatma Phule College, Pimpri, Pune 411017 (India); Kale, B.B. [Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), Department of Information Technology, Govt. of India, Panchawati, Off Pashan Road, Pune 411008 (India)]. E-mail: kbbb1@yahoo.com; Aiyer, R.C. [Department of Physics, Pune University, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Das, B.K. [Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), Department of Information Technology, Govt. of India, Panchawati, Off Pashan Road, Pune 411008 (India)

    2006-03-09

    The effect of the solvents on particle size and morphology of ZnO is investigated. The optical properties of nano ZnO were studied extensively. During this study, zinc oxalate was prepared in aqueous and organic solvents using zinc acetate and oxalic acid as precursors. The thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA) showed formation of ZnO at 400 deg. C. Nano-size zinc oxide was obtained by thermal decomposition of aqueous and organic mediated zinc oxalate at 450 deg. C. The phase purity was confirmed by XRD and crystal size determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was found to be 22-25 nm for the aqueous and 14 -17 nm in organic mediated ZnO. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) also revealed different nature of surfaces and microstructures for zinc oxide obtained in aqueous and organic solvents. The UV absorption spectra showed sharp absorption peaks with a blue shift for organic mediated ZnO, due to monodispersity and lower particle size. Sharp peaks and absence of any impurity peaks in photoluminescence spectra (PLS) complement the above observations.

  5. Oxidation of zinc-thiolate complexes of biological interest by hydrogen peroxide: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Rima; Ramseyer, Christophe; Enescu, Mironel

    2011-06-20

    Zinc-thiolate complexes play a major structural and functional role in the living cell. Their stability is directly related to the thiolate reactivity toward reactive oxygen species naturally present in the cell. Oxidation of some zinc-thiolate complexes has a functional role, as is the case of zinc finger redox switches. Herein, we report a theoretical investigation on the oxidation of thiolate by hydrogen peroxide in zinc finger cores of CCCC, CCHC, and CCHH kinds containing either cysteine or histidine residues. In the case of the CCCC core, the calculated energy barrier for the oxidation to sulfenate of the complexed thiolate was found to be 16.0 kcal mol(-1), which is 2 kcal mol(-1) higher than that for the free thiolate. The energy barrier increases to 19.3 and 22.2 kcal mol(-1) for the monoprotonated and diprotonated CCCC cores, respectively. Substitution of cysteine by histidine also induces an increase in the magnitude of the reaction energy barrier: It becomes 20.0 and 20.9 kcal mol(-1) for the CCCH and CCHH cores, respectively. It is concluded that the energy barrier for the oxidation of zinc fingers is strictly dependent on the type of ligands coordinated to zinc and on the protonation state of the complex. These changes in the thiolate reactivity can be explained by the lowering of the nucleophilicity of complexed sulfur and by the internal reorganization of the complex (changes in the metal-ligand distances) upon oxidation. The next reaction steps subsequent to sulfenate formation are also considered. The oxidized thiolate (sulfenate) is predicted to dissociate very fast: For all complexes, the calculated dissociation energy barrier is lower than 3 kcal mol(-1). It is also shown that the dissociated sulfenic acid can interact with a free thiolate to form a sulfur-sulfur (SS) bridge in a reaction that is predicted to be quasi-diffusion limited. The interesting biological consequences of the modulation of thiolate reactivity by the chemical composition of the zinc finger cores are discussed. PMID:21598974

  6. Extracellular zinc competitively inhibits manganese uptake and compromises oxidative stress management in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Eijkelkamp, Bart A; Morey, Jacqueline R; Ween, Miranda P; Ong, Cheryl-lynn Y; McEwan, Alastair G; Paton, James C; McDevitt, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae requires manganese for colonization of the human host, but the underlying molecular basis for this requirement has not been elucidated. Recently, it was shown that zinc could compromise manganese uptake and that zinc levels increased during infection by S. pneumoniae in all the niches that it colonized. Here we show, by quantitative means, that extracellular zinc acts in a dose dependent manner to competitively inhibit manganese uptake by S. pneumoniae, with an EC50 of 30.2 µM for zinc in cation-defined media. By exploiting the ability to directly manipulate S. pneumoniae accumulation of manganese, we analyzed the connection between manganese and superoxide dismutase (SodA), a primary source of protection for S. pneumoniae against oxidative stress. We show that manganese starvation led to a decrease in sodA transcription indicating that expression of sodA was regulated through an unknown manganese responsive pathway. Intriguingly, examination of recombinant SodA revealed that the enzyme was potentially a cambialistic superoxide dismutase with an iron/manganese cofactor. SodA was also shown to provide the majority of protection against oxidative stress as a S. pneumoniae ?sodA mutant strain was found to be hypersensitive to oxidative stress, despite having wild-type manganese levels, indicating that the metal ion alone was not sufficiently protective. Collectively, these results provide a quantitative assessment of the competitive effect of zinc upon manganese uptake and provide a molecular basis for how extracellular zinc exerts a 'toxic' effect on bacterial pathogens, such as S. pneumoniae. PMID:24558498

  7. Surface morphology and electrical transport of rapid thermal annealed chromium-doped indium zinc oxides: The influence of zinc interstitials and out-diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C. Y., E-mail: cyhsu00@gmail.com [Physics Department, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-09

    We investigate the complex impedance (CI) spectra of chromium-doped indium zinc oxide (CIZO) films with different rapid thermal annealing (RTA) temperatures. The CI spectra drawn from the impedance contributions of Zn-O and In-O bondings in CIZO films were analyzed by two sets of parallel resistance and capacitance components in series. The result demonstrates that zinc interstitials controls electron concentration and transition of electrical transport from semiconducting to metallic. At higher RTA temperature, high-density zinc interstitial promotes Zn atom diffusion from the surface, modifying surface morphology.

  8. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films as transparent conductive electrode for organic light-emitting devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Jiang; F. L. Wong; M. K. Fung; S. T. Lee

    2003-01-01

    Highly transparent conductive, aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) films were deposited on glass substrates by midfrequency magnetron sputtering of metallic aluminum-doped zinc target. ZnO:Al films with surface work functions between 3.7 and 4.4 eV were obtained by varying the sputtering conditions. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated on these ZnO:Al films. A current efficiency of higher than 3.7 cd\\/A, was achieved.

  9. Structural and Optical Properties of Nanostructured Zinc Oxide Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis and Ethanol Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, J.; Lawrence, N.; Thiruvenkadam, S.

    Polycrystalline Zinc Oxide thin films were deposited on a glass substrate by Spray Pyrolysis technique using zinc acetate dehydrate precursor at 220?C substrate temperature. The concentration of the solution was 0.05 M, the deposited films are annealed at 300?C temperature in air atmosphere. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows that the films are in the hexagonal Wurtzite phase with preferential orientation (002) along the c-axis. It confirms polycrystalline nature and grain size is 14.666 nm. Scanning Electron Microscope images reveals that the surface of the films are flat and smooth, spherical and wheat in shape and grain size is about 30- 50 nm. Optical spectrum shows that the films are having high transmittance and low absorption in the visible region. Ultra violet-visible spectra shown that the optical energy gaps for ZnO films were estimated in the range 3.25 and 3.31 eV. It confirms zinc oxide thin films are semiconductors with wide band gap energy. The applications of zinc oxide thin films are sensing towards various concentrations of ethanol at an operating temperature of 100 °C. It shows that the resistance increases with increasing the concentration of Ethanol gas.

  10. Effects of Zinc Supplementation on Plasma Copper/Zinc Ratios, Oxidative Stress, and Immunological Status in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chih-Hung; Wang, Chia-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) have low plasma levels of zinc (Zn), high plasma levels of copper (Cu), and exhibit increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune abnormalities. We evaluated the effects of Zn supplementation on abnormal plasma Cu/Zn ratios and clinical outcomes in HD patients. Design and Methods: Patients on long-term HD with lower than normal plasma concentrations of Zn (< 80 mg/dL) were randomized to receive daily oral Zn supplements (n = 40) or no supplements (n = 25) for eight weeks. Age- and sex-matched healthy individuals served as a control group (n = 38). A number of clinical parameters were measured before and after the supplementation period. Results: Compared with healthy subjects, patients had significantly elevated plasma Cu concentrations and Cu/Zn ratios, as well as higher levels of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Patients who received Zn supplements for eight weeks had higher plasma concentrations of Zn and lower concentrations of Cu, along with reduced Cu/Zn ratios, oxidative stress status, and inflammatory responses compared to patients who did not receive Zn. Patients receiving Zn also showed significantly higher percentages of CD4 and CD19 lymphocytes, and elevated CD4/CD8 ratios. Conclusions: Zn supplementation ameliorates abnormally high plasma Cu/Zn ratios and may reduce oxidative stress, improve inflammatory status, and maintain immune function in patients undergoing long-term HD. PMID:23289009

  11. Efficient inverted polymer solar cells based on conjugated polyelectrolyte and zinc oxide modified ITO electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Tao; Zhu, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Lingyu; Zhang, Jian; Tu, Guoli

    2015-02-01

    Efficient inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) were constructed by utilizing a conjugated polyelectrolyte PFEOSO3Na and zinc oxide to modify the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. The ITO electrode modified by PFEOSO3Na and zinc oxide possesses high transparency, increased electron mobility, smoothened surface, and lower work function. PTB7:PC71BM inverted PSCs containing the modified ITO electrode achieved a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.49%, exceeding that of the control device containing a ZnO modified ITO electrode (7.48%). Especially, PCE-10:PC71BM inverted polymer solar cells achieved a high PCE up to 9.4%. These results demonstrate a useful approach to improve the performance of inverted polymer solar cells.

  12. Effects of Li and Cu dopants on structural properties of zinc oxide nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Ho; Jin, Zhuguang; Abe, Yoshio; Kawamura, Midori

    2015-01-01

    We fabricated undoped zinc oxide (ZnO), Li-doped zinc oxide (LZO), and Cu-doped zinc oxide (CZO) nanorods (NRs) on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates using chemical solution deposition and investigated their structural properties. With the incorporation of the Li dopant, the length and crystallinity of LZO NRs increased and improved, respectively, compared to that of the ZnO NRs. The average optical transmittance of LZO NRs was slightly lower than that of the ZnO NRs, but otherwise very similar over the visible wavelength region. With the incorporation of the Cu dopant, however, the morphology of the CZO sample was remarkably different from that of the pure ZnO NRs. Rods with a length of ?12 ?m and a diameter of 0.5-1.2 ?m were randomly oriented on the substrate, and copper oxide (CuO) nanocrystals were uniformly grown on the surface of substrate. This paper presents a simple way to tune the growth behaviors of the ZnO NRs by adding dopants.

  13. Structural Properties of Ultrasonically Sprayed Al-Doped ZnO (AZO) Thin Films: Effect of ZnO Buffer Layer on AZO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, B. J.; Velumani, S.; Arenas-Alatorre, J.; Kassiba, A.; Chavez, Jose; Park, Hyeonsik; Hussain, Shahzada Qamar; Yi, Junsin; Asomoza, R.

    2015-02-01

    Transparent aluminium-doped ZnO (AZO)-conducting oxide films were deposited on a glass substrate, using an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) system at 475°C. We investigated the effects of the Al/Zn atomic ratios on the structural properties of the AZO films. All the deposited AZO thin films presented hexagonal wurtzite structure. As Al doping increased in the film, the preferential orientation switched from [002] to [101], and crystallite sizes varied from 31.90 nm to 34.5 nm. Field emission scanning electron microscopy showed a change in the surface morphology of the AZO films with respect to the Al/Zn ratio, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy showed that the amount of Al incorporated into the films was proportional to the concentration of the starting solution. A fast Fourier transform of the AZO film measurements confirmed the presence of (100), (102), and (200) reflections, corresponding to a wurtzite structure of the AZO thin films. The plane corresponding to AZO was simulated, and matched the experimental pattern obtained from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. An un-doped ZnO layer was deposited onto the AZO film using USP at 400°C, and a bilayer of AZO/ZnO was annealed in vacuum for 20 min at 350°C. The resistivity of these bilayer films was lower than that of a single-layered AZO film, and it further decreased by vacuum annealing.

  14. Magnetic Mn substituted cobalt zinc ferrite systems: Structural, electrical and magnetic properties and their role in photo-catalytic degradation of methyl orange azo dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhukal, Santosh; Bansal, S.; Singhal, Sonal

    2014-07-01

    The present work focuses on the effect of replacement of Fe3+ ions by the Mn3+ ions in cobalt zinc ferrites (Co0.6Zn0.4MnxFe2-xO4 (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) on the structural, magnetic, electrical and catalytic properties. Powder X-ray diffraction studies confirmed that all the samples possessed cubic spinel structure with Fd-3m space groups. The saturation magnetization was found to decrease with increase in Mn3+ ions concentration. The drift mobility of all compositions was found to decrease with increase in temperature which could be attributed to the semiconductor nature of nanoferrites. The photo-catalytic activity of all the nanoferrites was evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange dye and it was observed that the degradation of methyl orange dye was enhanced with increase in Mn3+ ions concentration from 0.2 to 1.0. This might be due to the octahedral site preference and higher redox potential of manganese ion as compared those of iron.

  15. Evaluation of growth and biochemical indicators of Salvinia natans exposed to zinc oxide nanoparticles and zinc accumulation in plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Changwei; Liu, Xu; Li, Xiuling; Zhao, Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    The adverse effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) with an average diameter of 25 nm on the aquatic plant Salvinia natans (L.) All. were determined. Growth, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, peroxidase activity, and chlorophyll content of the plants were measured after 7 days of exposure to different concentrations of ZnO NPs (1 to 50 mg L(-1)). The particle distribution in the culture medium (without plants) during the first 24 h was determined using a Nanotrac 250 particle analyzer. We also investigated the zinc accumulation in leaves and roots of the plant after 7 days of exposure. Exposure to 50 mg L(-1) ZnO NPs significantly increased SOD and CAT activities (P??0.05). NPs completely precipitated at the bottom of the container at 8 h except for the portions of dissolution and aggregation on the roots. ZnO NPs at a concentration of 50 mg L(-1) can adversely affect S. natans, and their stress is affected by their aggregation and dissolution. PMID:23860598

  16. Morphologies of zinc oxide particles and their effects on photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Di; Haneda, Hajime

    2003-04-01

    ZnO powders with different morphologies were synthesized by alkali precipitation, organo-zinc hydrolysis, and spray pyrolysis. Acetaldehyde decomposition was used as a probe reaction to evaluate the photocatalysis of these ZnO powders. We investigated the relationship between photocatalytic activity and crystallinity, surface area, or morphology. Results indicate that the photocatalytic activity of ZnO powder depends on crystallinity rather than surface area for the same original ZnO powders prepared by equal conditions other than the difference in calcination temperature. However, no direct relationship between photocatalytic activity and crystallinity or surface area was found for the differently original ZnO powders prepared by different methods, or the same method with different conditions. Instead, we find that the particle morphology significantly affects its photocatalysis. PMID:12586145

  17. Gills are an initial target of zinc oxide nanoparticles in oysters Crassostrea gigas, leading to mitochondrial disruption and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Rafael; Delapedra, Gabriel; Mello, Danielle F; Arl, Miriam; Schmidt, Éder C; Meder, Fabian; Monopoli, Marco; Cargnin-Ferreira, Eduardo; Bouzon, Zenilda L; Fisher, Andrew S; Sheehan, David; Dafre, Alcir L

    2014-08-01

    The increasing industrial use of nanomaterials during the last decades poses a potential threat to the environment and in particular to organisms living in the aquatic environment. In the present study, the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) was investigated in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. The nanoscale of ZnONP, in vehicle or ultrapure water, was confirmed, presenting an average size ranging from 28 to 88 nm. In seawater, aggregation was detected by TEM and DLS analysis, with an increased average size ranging from 1 to 2 ?m. Soluble or nanoparticulated zinc presented similar toxicity, displaying a LC50 (96 h) around 30 mg/L. High zinc dissociation from ZnONP, releasing ionic zinc in seawater, is a potential route for zinc assimilation and ZnONP toxicity. To investigate mechanisms of toxicity, oysters were treated with 4 mg/L ZnONP for 6, 24 or 48 h. ZnONP accumulated in gills (24 and 48 h) and digestive glands (48 h). Ultrastructural analysis of gills revealed electron-dense vesicles near the cell membrane and loss of mitochondrial cristae (6 h). Swollen mitochondria and a more conspicuous loss of mitochondrial cristae were observed after 24 h. Mitochondria with disrupted membranes and an increased number of cytosolic vesicles displaying electron-dense material were observed 48 h post exposure. Digestive gland showed similar changes, but these were delayed relative to gills. ZnONP exposure did not greatly affect thiol homeostasis (reduced and oxidized glutathione) or immunological parameters (phagocytosis, hemocyte viability and activation and total hemocyte count). At 24 h post exposure, decreased (-29%) glutathione reductase (GR) activity was observed in gills, but other biochemical responses were observed only after 48 h of exposure: lower GR activity (-28%) and levels of protein thiols (-21%), increased index of lipid peroxidation (+49%) and GPx activity (+26%). In accordance with ultrastructural changes and zinc load, digestive gland showed delayed biochemical responses. Except for a decreased GR activity (-47%) at 48 h post exposure, the biochemical alterations seen in gills were not present in digestive gland. The results indicate that gills are able to incorporate zinc prior (24 h) to digestive gland (48 h), leading to earlier mitochondrial disruption and oxidative stress. Our data suggest that gills are the initial target of ZnONP and that mitochondria are organelles particularly susceptible to ZnONP in C. gigas. PMID:24745718

  18. The histopathology of rat lung following exposure to zinc oxide/hexachloroethane smoke or installation with zinc chloride followed by treatment with 70% oxygen.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R F; Marrs, T C; Rice, P; Masek, L C

    1990-01-01

    The effects of inhaled zinc oxide/hexachloroethane smoke (11,580 mg x min/m3) and intratracheally instilled zinc chloride (2.5 mg/kg body weight) have been studied in rat lung. The effects of subsequent treatment with 70% oxygen have been studied after both procedures. Both the inhalation of the smoke and instillation of zinc chloride produced similar effects that included pulmonary edema, alveolitis and, at a later stage, some fibrosis. After zinc chloride instillation, the pathological changes largely spared the periphery of the lung, while following smoke inhalation they were more diffuse. Subsequent oxygen administration had little effect on the development or progression of the pathological changes. Images FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. PMID:2384070

  19. Carbon-Incorporated Amorphous Indium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthiban, S.; Park, K.; Kim, H.-J.; Yang, S.; Kwon, J.-Y.

    2014-11-01

    We propose the use of amorphous-carbon indium zinc oxide (a-CIZO) as a channel material for thin-film transistor (TFT) fabrication. This study chose a carbon dopant as a carrier suppressor and strong oxygen binder in amorphous-indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) channel material. a-CIZO thin films were deposited using radiofrequency (RF) sputtering and postannealed at 150°C. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that the film remained amorphous even after postannealing. The a-CIZO TFT postannealed at 150°C exhibited saturation field-effect mobility of 16.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 and on-off current ratio of ˜4.3 × 107.

  20. Inductively coupled plasma etching of hafnium-indium-zinc oxide using chlorine based gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yong-Hee; Jang, Ho-Kyun; Jin, Jun-Eon; Joo, Min-Kyu; Piao, Mingxing; Shin, Jong Mok; Kim, Jae-Sung; Na, Junhong; Kim, Gyu Tae

    2014-04-01

    We report the etching characteristics of a stacked hafnium-indium-zinc oxide (HIZO) with a photoresist using the gas mixture of chlorine and argon (Cl2/Ar). The etching behaviors of HIZO have been investigated in terms of a source power, a bias power and a chamber pressure. As the concentration of Cl2 was increased compared to pure Ar, the etch rate of HIZO film was found slightly different from that of indium-zinc oxide (IZO) film. Moreover, to investigate the etching mechanism systematically, various inspections were carried out such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depending on the portion of Cl2. Additionally, we compared the etching mechanism of HIZO film with IZO film to confirm the difference of chemical bonds caused by the influence of hafnium doping.

  1. Conjugated phosphonic acid modified zinc oxide electron transport layers for improved performance in organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Braid, Jennifer L; Koldemir, Unsal; Sellinger, Alan; Collins, Reuben T; Furtak, Thomas E; Olson, Dana C

    2014-11-12

    Phosphonic acid modification of zinc oxide (ZnO) electron transport layers in inverted P3HT:ICBA solar cells was studied to determine the effect of conjugated linkages between the aromatic and phosphonic acid attachment groups. For example, zinc oxide treated with 2,6-difluorophenylvinylphosphonic acid, having a conjugated vinyl group connecting the aromatic moiety to the phosphonic acid group, showed a 0.78 eV decrease in the effective work function versus unmodified ZnO, whereas nonconjugated 2,6-difluorophenylethylphosphonic acid resulted in a 0.57 eV decrease, as measured by Kelvin probe. This resulted in an average power conversion efficiency of 5.89% for conjugated 2,6-difluorophenyvinylphosphonic acid modified solar cells, an improvement over unmodified (5.24%) and nonconjugated phosphonic acid modified devices (5.64%), indicating the importance of the conjugated linkage. PMID:25329245

  2. Synthesis and dielectric properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles using a biotemplate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P, Sharmila P.; Tharayil, Nisha J.

    2014-10-01

    Zinc Oxide nanoparticles are synthesized using DNA as capping agent. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are synthesized using DNA as a capping agent. Structural and morphological characterizations are done using SEM, FTIR and XRD. The particle size and lattice parameters are calculated from the diffraction data. The optical properties are studied using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and bandgap variation with temperature is determined. The dielectric property of nanoparticles is studied by varying temperature and frequency. The dielectric constant and dispersion parameters are found out. Method of Cole-Cole analysis is used to study the high temperature dispersion of relaxation time. The variation of both AC and DC conductivity are studied and activation energy calculated.

  3. Synthesis and dielectric properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles using a biotemplate

    SciTech Connect

    P, Sharmila P, E-mail: sharmilavishram@gmail.com [Sree Narayana College, Kollam, Kerala, India and T.K Madhva Memorial College, Nangiarkulungara, Alapuzha, Kerala (India); Tharayil, Nisha J., E-mail: nishajohntharayil@gmail.com [Sree Narayana College for Women Kollam, Kerala (India)

    2014-10-15

    Zinc Oxide nanoparticles are synthesized using DNA as capping agent. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are synthesized using DNA as a capping agent. Structural and morphological characterizations are done using SEM, FTIR and XRD. The particle size and lattice parameters are calculated from the diffraction data. The optical properties are studied using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and bandgap variation with temperature is determined. The dielectric property of nanoparticles is studied by varying temperature and frequency. The dielectric constant and dispersion parameters are found out. Method of Cole-Cole analysis is used to study the high temperature dispersion of relaxation time. The variation of both AC and DC conductivity are studied and activation energy calculated.

  4. Tribology of tungsten disulfide–nanocrystalline zinc oxide adaptive lubricant films from ambient to 500°C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V Prasad; N. T McDevitt; J. S Zabinski

    2000-01-01

    Tungsten disulfide (WS2)–zinc oxide (ZnO) composite is a candidate material that exhibits adaptive lubricant behavior. Adaptive lubricants undergo chemical changes with changing environment to provide lubrication in extreme environments. In the current study, the tribological characteristics of WS2–nanocrystalline ZnO films have been investigated from ambient to 500°C. The composite films were powder burnished on inconel substrates. Using a ball-on-flat tribometer,

  5. FTIR spectroscopy of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane adsorbed and co-adsorbed on zinc oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Scarano; S Bertarione; G Spoto; A Zecchina; C Otero Areán

    2001-01-01

    Adsorption of dihydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane, and co-adsorption of H2\\/CO, H2\\/CH4 and CO\\/CH4 on zinc oxide was studied by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Besides the already known dissociation of dihydrogen and molecular adsorption of CO, methane was found to be adsorbed molecularly on coordinatively unsaturated Zn2+ ions. Adsorption lowers the CH4 symmetry from Td to C3v, which

  6. Zinc(II) oxide solubility and phase behavior in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Ziemniak; M. E. Jones; K. E. S. Combs

    1992-01-01

    A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility is used to investigate the solubility\\/phase behavior of zinc(II) oxide in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at temperatures between 17 and 287°C. ZnO solubilities are observed to increase continuously with temperature and phosphate concentration. At higher phosphate concentrations, a solid phase transformation to NaZnPO4 is observed. NaZnPO4 solubilities are retrograde with temperature. The measured solubility behavior

  7. Room-temperature fabrication of highly transparent conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Chen; Y. C. Chen; S. F. Hong; C. L. Wang; W. C. Shih; C. P. Tsai; Y. C. Wu; C. H. Lai; C. N. Wei; H. Y. Bor

    2010-01-01

    Room temperature fabricated aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) films were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering under pure Ar ambient. By investigating and controlling the sputtering parameters, such as relative position between target and substrate, and working pressure, high quality ZnO:Al films were obtained. Even without substrate heating during deposition or post annealing process, we were able to fabricate ZnO:Al films on

  8. Substrate effect on mechanical characterizations of aluminum-doped zinc oxide transparent conducting films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Chung Huang; Shou-Yi Chang

    2010-01-01

    The measurements of thin-film mechanical properties are generally influenced by the elastic and plastic responses of substrates and consequently may be inaccurate. Thus in this study, the effects of three different substrates, including sapphire, glass and polyimide, on the mechanical characterizations of aluminum-doped zinc oxide transparent conducting films are evaluated. From nanoindentation tests, it was found that a high film\\/substrate

  9. The influence of oxygen on the optical properties of RF-sputtered zinc oxide thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gioffre; M. Angeloni; M. Gagliardi; M. Iodice; G. Coppola; C. Aruta; F. G. Della Corte

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effects of oxygen partial pressure in the deposition chamber on the optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films; in particular, we examine the variation of the refractive index with oxygen flux.ZnO thin films were deposited by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). We

  10. Highly stable transparent and conducting gallium-doped zinc oxide thin films for photovoltaic applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Fortunato; L. Raniero; L. Silva; A. Gonçalves; A. Pimentel; P. Barquinha; H. Águas; L. Pereira; G. Gonçalves; I. Ferreira; E. Elangovan; R. Martins

    2008-01-01

    Transparent and highly conducting gallium zinc oxide (GZO) films were successfully deposited by RF sputtering at room temperature. A lowest resistivity of ?2.8×10?4?cm was achieved for a film thickness of 1100nm (sheet resistance ?2.5?\\/?), with a Hall mobility of 18cm2\\/Vs and a carrier concentration of 1.3×1021cm?3. The films are polycrystalline with a hexagonal structure having a strong crystallographic c-axis orientation.

  11. Transparent and conductive aluminum doped zinc oxide films prepared by mid-frequency reactive magnetron sputtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Szyszka

    1999-01-01

    In this study, aluminum doped zinc oxide films were prepared by reactive mid-frequency (MF) magnetron sputtering (Leybold TwinMagTM) at deposition rate of approx. 9 nm\\/s and substrate temperature of 100 to 300°C. Process stabilization in the metallic mode was performed by the control of plasma impedance due to adjustment of oxygen flow. Metallic Zn:Al targets with different aluminum content were

  12. Effects of an Electrically Conducting Layer at the Zinc Oxide Surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Schmidt; Peter Kiesel; Chris G. Van de Walle; Noble M. Johnson; Jeff Nause; Gottfried H. Döhler

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of the electrical properties of high-resistivity zinc oxide (ZnO) are strongly influenced by the sample ambient. Temperature-dependent Hall-effect measurements were performed on Li- and Cu-doped bulk crystals in both air and vacuum. Repeating the measurements under a given test ambient produced stable results. Changing the ambient systematically changed the measured results. We explain this behavior in terms of a

  13. Analysis of a conducting channel at the native zinc oxide surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Schmidt; Arnd Geis; Peter Kiesel; Chris. G. Van de Walle; Noble M. Johnson; Andrey Bakin; Andreas Waag; Gottfried H. Döhler

    2006-01-01

    The electrical properties of high-resistivity zinc oxide (ZnO) bulk and epi-samples are strongly influenced by the sample ambient. Bulk samples that are highly resistive in ambient air can be reversibly transformed into a high conducting state under vacuum. As an explanation we suggest a conducting electron channel at the ZnO surface. Under vacuum this channel appears upon annealing. Exposure to

  14. Studies on the mutagenicity of a zinc oxide-hexachloroethane smoke.

    PubMed

    Clode, S A; Riley, R A; Blowers, S D; Marrs, T C; Anderson, D

    1991-01-01

    1. A suitable method has been developed for generating atmospheres of zinc oxide/hexachloroethane smoke (ZnHCE). 2. The smoke was investigated using the Ames test and the micronucleus assay. 3. It was weakly mutagenic to the bacteria, but in the bone marrow no increases in micronuclei were detected up to toxic levels of the smoke. 4. The method used here could be applied to other pyrotechnic mixtures which give rise to complex mixtures of products. PMID:1673625

  15. Studies on the antistatic mechanism of tetrapod-shaped zinc oxide whisker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zuowan Zhou; Longsheng Chu; Wenming Tang; Lixia Gu

    2003-01-01

    Antistatic composites of polyurethane, polyvinyl and natural rubber with the electrical resistivity of 106–1010?cm were prepared using tetrapod-shaped zinc oxide whisker as the conducting additives. The conductive behavior of this system has been analyzed and the results show that the tetrapod-shaped ZnO whisker is an effective antistatic additive for polymer materials. A formula of critical volume fraction of ZnO whisker

  16. Impact of Al doping on microstructure and optical characteristics of tetrapod-like zinc oxide whiskers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. M. Fan; L. Zhao; Z. W. Zhou; H. G. Zhang; J. Wang

    2010-01-01

    Al-doped tetrapod-like zinc oxide whiskers with different Al dopant concentration (0.3˜1.0 mol%) were prepared by solid state reaction method using T-ZnOw and AlCl3 powder as raw materials. X-ray diffraction and SEM microscopy were applied to characterize the structure and surface morphology of the T-ZnOw. The shift of diffraction peaks of ZnO towards high angle indicated the increase of Al-doping concentration.

  17. Comparison of tribological behavior of nylon composites filled with zinc oxide particles and whiskers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shibo Wang; Shirong Ge; Dekun Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical properties and tribological behavior of nylon composites filled with zinc oxides were investigated in this paper. Different effects of ZnO particles and ZnO whiskers filling on the friction and wear behavior of nylon 1010 (PA1010) composites under dry friction condition were observed. The hardness, tensile strength and scratch coefficients of two kinds of nylon composites filled with the ZnO

  18. Mechanical properties and morphology of nylon 11\\/tetrapod-shaped zinc oxide whisker composite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guosheng Hu; Yalin Ma; Biaobing Wang

    2009-01-01

    Nylon 11\\/tetrapod-shaped zinc oxide whisker (T-ZnOw) composites were prepared via melt blending in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. The mechanical properties, morphology and crystal structure were investigated. The tensile strength was increased by 15.7% as adding of 15phr T-ZnOw, while the optimum values of room temperature and low temperature (?40°C) notched Izod impact strength was increased by 281% and 65% as

  19. Effect of zinc oxide on flame retardant finishing of plasma pre-treated cotton fabric

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. L. Lam; C. W. Kan; C. W. M. Yuen

    2011-01-01

    An organic phosphorus compound (flame retardant agent, FR) in combination with a melamine resin (crosslinking agent, CL),\\u000a phosphoric acid (catalyst, PA) and zinc oxide (co-catalyst, ZnO\\/nano-ZnO) imparted effective and durable flame retardant properties.\\u000a Also, atmospheric pressure plasma jet was applied as pre-treatment to improve post-finishing (flame retardant finishing) on\\u000a cotton fabrics. In the present paper, surface morphology, chemical structure analysis,

  20. Zinc oxide nanowires in chemical bath on seeded substrates: Role of hexamine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abhilash Sugunan; Hemant C. Warad; Mats Boman; Joydeep Dutta

    2006-01-01

    We report a study of the role of hexamine in the seeded growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires by hydrothermal route. We show\\u000a that the growth can be made highly anisotropic (aspect ratio >150) with almost no detectable increase in diameter (with time\\u000a of hydrothermal growth) of the obtained nanowires. Results indicate that hexamine acts as a shape inducing molecule,

  1. Production and characterization of zinc oxide thin films for room temperature ozone sensing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bender; E. Gagaoudakis; E. Douloufakis; E. Natsakou; N. Katsarakis; V. Cimalla; G. Kiriakidis; E. Fortunato; P. Nunes; A. Marques; R Martins

    2002-01-01

    The room temperature ozone sensing properties of polycrystalline undoped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been investigated. ZnO thin films have been produced by the d.c. and r.f. magnetron sputtering technique as well as with spray pyrolysis with a variety of parameters. The as-grown films were brought to a high conducting state through a reversible photoreduction process by UV light

  2. Photoluminescence characteristics of zinc oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ki Hyun Yoon; Joon Yeob Cho

    2000-01-01

    The photoluminescence characteristics of zinc oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique were studied as a function of the substrate temperature, film thickness, and post heat treatment. The ZnO films with the (002) plane oriented wurtzite structure were formed in the temperature range 250–350°C and post heat treatment did not affect the crystal structure of the films. It was observed

  3. Low temperature growth and photoluminescence of well-aligned zinc oxide nanowires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung Chul Lyu; Ye Zhang; Hyun Ruh; Hwack-Joo Lee; Hyun-Wook Shim; Eun-Kyung Suh; Cheol Jin Lee

    2002-01-01

    Well-aligned single-crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires with high density were successfully synthesized on nickel monoxide (NiO) catalyzed alumina substrate through a simple metal–vapor deposition method at an extremely low temperature (450 °C). The single-crystalline ZnO nanowires had a hexagonal wurzite structure and diameters of about 55 nm, and lengths up to 2.6 ?m. The photoluminescence spectra under excitation 325 nm

  4. Resistive Switching Characteristics of Sol–Gel Zinc Oxide Films for Flexible Memory Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sungho Kim; Hanul Moon; Dipti Gupta; Seunghyup Yoo; Yang-Kyu Choi

    2009-01-01

    Unipolar resistive switching devices are investigated for nonvolatile memory applications in a metal-insulator-metal structure in which the insulator layer is based on sol-gel-derived zinc oxide (ZnO) films prepared by a simple spin-coating process followed by thermal annealing. Fast programming ( les 50 ns) and a high off-to-on resistance ratio ( ges 104) is demonstrated. The influences on the switching behaviors

  5. Stimulatory effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on visual sensitivity and electroretinography b-waves in the bullfrog eye.

    PubMed

    Wahid, Fazli; Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Khan, Romana; Khan, Taous; Khattak, Waleed Ahmad; Hwang, Kyung-Hee; Park, Jong Seok; Chang, Su-Chan; Kim, You Young

    2013-08-01

    During the last decade, a large number of studies have focused on the development of nanomaterials for medical applications. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the stimulatory effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles in the vertebrate visual system. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized through photoluminescence, ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. Furthermore, various electrophysiological recordings were obtained from the bullfrog eyecup preparations under various treatment conditions. Photoluminescence data showed a central peak at 386 nm while the UV-visible spectrum showed a sharp absorption band centered around 367 nm. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements showed that synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles have a polycrystalline wurtzite structure, with a round to oval shape and an average particle size of > 40 nm. Electroretinography (ERG) demonstrated that zinc oxide nanoparticles significantly increased the ERG b-wave amplitude in dark-adapted bullfrog eyecups and in the presence of background illumination. Zinc oxide nanoparticles also improved the visual sensitivity by 0.7 log unit of light intensity and shortened the duration of rhodopsin regeneration. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that zinc oxide nanoparticles may be used to improve visual functions. The present study may add new dimensions to the biomedical applications of nanomaterials in eye research. PMID:23926809

  6. Bacillus cereus as a biotemplating agent for the synthesis of zinc oxide with raspberry- and plate-like structures.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmin, Wan Haizum Wan Nor; Mustafa, Muskhazli; Yahaya, Asmah Hj

    2009-08-01

    Currently the development of green chemistry approach with the use of biomaterial-based activities of microbial cells in the synthesis of various nanostructures has attracted a great attention. In this study, we report on the use of bacterium, Bacillus cereus as a biotemplating agent for the formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles with raspberry- and plate-like structures through a simple thermal decomposition of zinc acetate by maintaining the original pH of the reaction mixtures. Possible mechanism on the formation of the nanostructures is proposed based on the surface chemistry and biochemistry processes involved organic-inorganic interactions between zinc oxide and the microbial cells. PMID:19577306

  7. PEGylated silver doped zinc oxide nanoparticles as novel photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy against Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Nadhman, Akhtar; Nazir, Samina; Khan, Malik Ihsanullah; Arooj, Syeda; Bakhtiar, Muhammad; Shahnaz, Gul; Yasinzai, Masoom

    2014-12-01

    We describe daylight responsive silver (Ag) doped semiconductor nanoparticles of zinc oxide (DSNs) for photodynamic therapy (PDT) against Leishmania. The developed materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Rutherford backscattering (RBS), diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and band-gap analysis. The Ag doped semiconductor nanoparticles of zinc oxide were PEGylated to enhance their biocompatibility. The DSNs demonstrated effective daylight response in the PDT of Leishmania protozoans, through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a quantum yield of 0.13 by nondoped zinc oxide nanoparticles (NDSN) whereas 0.28 by DSNs. None of the nanoparticles have shown any antileishmanial activity in dark, confirming that only ROS produced in the daylight were involved in the killing of leishmanial cells. Furthermore, the synthesized nanoparticles were found biocompatible. Using reactive oxygen species scavengers, cell death was attributable mainly to 77-83% singlet oxygen and 18-27% hydroxyl radical. The nanoparticles caused permeability of the cell membrane, leading to the death of parasites. Further, the uptake of nanoparticles by Leishmania cells was confirmed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). We believe that these DSNs are widely applicable for the PDT of leishmaniasis, cancers, and other infections due to daylight response. PMID:25266330

  8. The complex interface chemistry of thin-film silicon/zinc oxide solar cell structures.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, D; Wimmer, M; Wilks, R G; Félix, R; Kronast, F; Ruske, F; Bär, M

    2014-12-21

    The interface between solid-phase crystallized phosphorous-doped polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si(n(+))) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) was investigated using spatially resolved photoelectron emission microscopy. We find the accumulation of aluminum in the proximity of the interface. Based on a detailed photoemission line analysis, we also suggest the formation of an interface species. Silicon suboxide and/or dehydrated hemimorphite have been identified as likely candidates. For each scenario a detailed chemical reaction pathway is suggested. The chemical instability of the poly-Si(n(+))/ZnO:Al interface is explained by the fact that SiO2 is more stable than ZnO and/or that H2 is released from the initially deposited a-Si:H during the crystallization process. As a result, Zn (a deep acceptor in silicon) is "liberated" close to the silicon/zinc oxide interface presenting the inherent risk of forming deep defects in the silicon absorber. These could act as recombination centers and thus limit the performance of silicon/zinc oxide based solar cells. Based on this insight some recommendations with respect to solar cell design, material selection, and process parameters are given for further knowledge-based thin-film silicon device optimization. PMID:25363298

  9. High quality ZnO:Al transparent conducting oxide films synthesized by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Lim, Sunnie H.N.; Yu, Kin Man; Andersson, Joakim; Rosen, Johanna; McFarland, Mike; Brown, Jeff

    2009-04-24

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide, ZnO:Al or AZO, is a well-known n-type transparent conducting oxide with great potential in a number of applications currently dominated by indium tin oxide (ITO). In this study, the optical and electrical properties of AZO thin films deposited on glass and silicon by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition are systematically studied. In contrast to magnetron sputtering, this technique does not produce energetic negative ions, and therefore ion damage can be minimized. The quality of the AZO films strongly depends on the growth temperature while only marginal improvements are obtained with post-deposition annealing. The best films, grown at a temperature of about 200?C, have resistivities in the low to mid 10-4 Omega cm range with a transmittance better than 85percent in the visible part of the spectrum. It is remarkable that relatively good films of small thickness (60 nm) can be fabricated using this method.

  10. Zinc oxide nanoparticles toxicity to Daphnia magna: size-dependent effects and dissolution.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Sílvia; Ribeiro, Fabianne; Wojnarowicz, Jacek; ?ojkowski, Witold; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Crossley, Alison; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2014-01-01

    As the production of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) and other metal oxides is exponentially increasing, it is important to investigate potential environmental and health impacts of such nanoparticles. Nanoparticles' properties (e.g., size, dissolution rate) may change in different water media, and their characterization is essential to derive conclusions about toxicity results. Therefore, an aquatic model organism, Daphnia magna, was used to investigate the effect of ZnO-NPs with 2 different particle sizes (30?nm and 80-100?nm) and then compare these effects with ZnO microsized particles (>200?nm) and the ionic counterpart (in the form of ZnCl2 ) on immobilization, feeding inhibition, and reproduction endpoints. The 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) for immobilization ranged between 0.76?mg Zn L(-1) for the ionic zinc and 1.32?mg Zn L(-1) for ZnO-NPs of 80?nm to 100?nm. For the chronic exposures, the reproduction output was impaired similarly among zinc exposures and possibly driven mainly by the zinc ionic form. The concentrations used showed a total dissolution after 48?h. On the other hand, feeding activity was more affected by the 30?nm ZnO-NPs than by the ionic zinc, showing that the particulate form was also playing an important role in the feeding inhibition of D. magna. Dissolution and particle size in the daphnia test media were found to be essential to derive conclusions on toxicity. Therefore, they can possibly be considered critical for evaluating nanoparticles' toxicity and fate. PMID:24123301

  11. 40 CFR 721.9538 - Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene...Chemical Substances § 721.9538 Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene...substance identified generically as lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9538 - Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene...Chemical Substances § 721.9538 Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene...substance identified generically as lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9538 - Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene...Chemical Substances § 721.9538 Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene...substance identified generically as lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo...

  14. Characterization of Zinc Oxide and Pentacene Thin Film Transistors for CMOS Inverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iechi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Yasuyuki; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kudo, Kazuhiro

    We fabricated both thin film transistors (TFTs) and diodes using zinc oxide (ZnO) and pentacene, and investigated their basic characteristics. We found that field-effect mobility is influenced by the interface state between the semiconductor and dielectric layers. Furthermore, the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) inverter using a p-channel pentacene field-effect transistor (FET) and an n-channel ZnO FET showed a relatively high voltage gain (8 - 12) by optimizing the device structure. The hybrid complementary inverters described here are expected for application in flexible displays, radio frequency identification cards (RFID) tags, and others.

  15. Cardiopulmonary toxicity of pulmonary exposure to occupationally relevant zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Juan, Hung-Tzu; Chang, Chun-Nung; Yan, Yuan-Horng; Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Chen, Hao-Cheng; Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lee, Chii-Hong; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to zinc oxide (ZnO) metal fumes is linked to adverse human health effects; however, the hazards of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) remain unclear. To determine pulmonary exposure to occupationally relevant ZnONPs cause cardiopulmonary injury, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to ZnONPs via intratracheal (IT) instillation and inhalation. The relationship between intrapulmonary zinc levels and pulmonary oxidative-inflammatory responses 72 h after ZnONP instillation was determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Instilled ZnONPs altered zinc balance and increased the levels of total cells, neutrophils, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and total protein in BALF and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in blood after 72 h. The ZnONPs accumulated predominantly in the lungs over 24 h, and trivial amounts of zinc were determined in the heart, liver, kidneys and blood. Furthermore, the inflammatory-oxidative responses induced by occupationally relevant levels of 1.1 and 4.9 mg/m(3) of ZnONP inhalation for 2 weeks were determined in BALF and blood at 1, 7 and 30 days post-exposure. Histopathological examinations of the rat lungs and hearts were performed. Inhalation of ZnONP caused an inflammatory cytological profile. The total cell, neutrophil, LDH and total protein levels were acutely increased in the BALF, and there was an inflammatory pathology in the lungs. There were subchronic levels of white blood cells, granulocytes and 8-OHdG in the blood. Cardiac inflammation and the development of fibrosis were detected 7 days after exposure. Degeneration and necrosis of the myocardium were detected 30 days after exposure. The results demonstrate that ZnONPs cause cardiopulmonary impairments. These findings highlight the occupational health effects for ZnONP-exposed workers. PMID:23738974

  16. Toxicity to woodlice of zinc and lead oxides added to soil litter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Anderson, A.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that high concentrations of metals in soil are associated with reductions in decomposer populations. We have here determined the relation between the concentrations of lead and zinc added as oxides to soil litter and the survival and reproduction of a decomposer population under controlled conditions. Laboratory populations of woodlice (Porcellio scaber Latr) were fed soil litter treated with lead or zinc at concentrations that ranged from 100 to 12,800 ppm. The survival of the adults, the maximum number of young alive, and the average number of young alive, were recorded over 64 weeks. Lead at 12,800 ppm and zinc at 1,600 ppm or more had statistically significant (p < 0.05) negative effects on the populations. These results agree with field observations suggesting that lead and zinc have reduced populations of decomposers in contaminated forest soil litter, and concentrations are similar to those reported to be associated with reductions in natural populations of decomposers. Poisoning of decomposers may disrupt nutrient cycling, reduce the numbers of invertebrates available to other wildlife for food, and contribute to the contamination of food chains.

  17. Electrical effect of titanium diffusion on amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Seung-Ha [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Development Group of Oxide Semiconductor, Samsung Display, Yongin 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Woo-Shik [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Park, Jin-Hong [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-19

    In this work, thermal diffusion phenomenon of Ti into amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide ({alpha}-IGZO) was carefully investigated with secondary ion mass spectroscopy, I-V, and R{sub s} measurement systems and HSC chemistry simulation tool. According to the experimental and simulated results, the diffused Ti atoms were easily oxidized due to its lowest oxidation free energy. Since oxygen atoms were decomposed from the {alpha}-IGZO during the oxidation of Ti, the number of oxygen vacancies working as electron-donating sites in {alpha}-IGZO was dramatically increased, contributing to the decrease of resistivity ({rho}) from 1.96 {Omega} cm (as-deposited {alpha}-IGZO) to 1.33 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}{Omega} cm (350 Degree-Sign C annealed {alpha}-IGZO).

  18. High stability mechanisms of quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide multicomponent oxide films and thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ching-Ting; Lin, Yung-Hao; Lin, Jhong-Ham

    2015-01-01

    Quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide (IGZAO) multicomponent oxide films were deposited using indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) target and Al target by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering system. An extra carrier transport pathway could be provided by the 3 s orbitals of Al cations to improve the electrical properties of the IGZO films, and the oxygen instability could be stabilized by the strong Al-O bonds in the IGZAO films. The electron concentration change and the electron mobility change of the IGZAO films for aging time of 10 days under an air environment at 40 °C and 75% humidity were 20.1% and 2.4%, respectively. The experimental results verified the performance stability of the IGZAO films. Compared with the thin film transistors (TFTs) using conventional IGZO channel layer, in conducting the stability of TFTs with IGZAO channel layer, the transconductance gm change, threshold voltage VT change, and the subthreshold swing S value change under the same aging condition were improved to 7.9%, 10.5%, and 14.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the stable performances of the IGZAO TFTs were also verified by the positive gate bias stress. In this research, the quinary IGZAO multicomponent oxide films and that applied in TFTs were the first studied in the literature.

  19. Zinc sorption by iron oxides and soil samples

    E-print Network

    Yli-Halla, Markku Juhani

    1989-01-01

    is supposed to dissolve primarily poorly crystalline Fe oxide material. The samples for the x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were 13 suspended in acetone and pipetted onto glass slides. The XRD patterns of the +our material were obtained using a Philips... to the glass slides were prepared and air dried. A sample of Mg + saturated clay was also solvated with 10 ethylene glycol and this suspension was used for makina a slide. The xRD patterns were run (2 degrees per minute) using a Philips-Norelco goniometer...

  20. Improved zinc oxide surge arresters using high voltage gradient 300 V\\/mm, 400 V\\/mm ZnO elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shingo Shirakawa; Seiichi Yamada; Shigeru Tanaka; Iwao Ejiri; Satoshi Watahiki; Shinichi Kondo

    2000-01-01

    Zinc oxide surge arresters using zinc oxide (ZnO) elements have been widely used for insulation coordination in the world's power systems. These ZnO elements have basically reference voltage of about 200 V\\/mm. Recently, new ZnO elements having about 1.5, 2 times high voltage gradient zinc oxide element have been developed. This paper describes applications of high voltage gradient 300 V\\/mm

  1. Silver ions induce oxidative stress and intracellular zinc release in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Cortese-Krott, Miriam M; Münchow, Meike; Pirev, Elvis; Hessner, Florian; Bozkurt, Ahmed; Uciechowski, Peter; Pallua, Norbert; Kröncke, Klaus-D; Suschek, Christoph V

    2009-12-01

    Silver compounds used as topical antimicrobial agents are known to exert toxic effects on skin cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the toxicity of silver ions, in analogy to other transition metal ions, depends on pro-oxidant effects. We treated human skin fibroblasts with concentrations of AgNO(3) not affecting cell proliferation, mitochondrial activity, or cell viability and found that Ag(+) strongly increases the production of reactive oxygen species, including superoxide anion radicals. These effects correspond to a strong decrease in intracellular reduced glutathione and to an increased susceptibility to H(2)O(2)-induced cell death. In addition, AgNO(3) down-regulates the expression of antioxidant genes such as the transcription factor Nrf2 and its target gene glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit. Furthermore Ag(+) induces a transient intracellular zinc release and increases the mRNA and protein expression of the zinc-binding protein metallothionein by activating the metal-responsive transcription factor 1, as verified by RNA interference. In conclusion, we show for the first time that Ag(+) induces oxidative stress and affects intracellular zinc homeostasis in human skin fibroblasts. The understanding of the mechanism involved in silver toxicity might contribute to new strategies for managing the therapy of skin infections. PMID:19733233

  2. Pencil-like zinc oxide micro/nano-scale structures: Hydrothermal synthesis, optical and photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Moulahi, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée, IPEIT, Université de Tunis, 2 rue Jawaher Lel Nehru 1008, B. P. 229 Montfleury (Tunisia); Sediri, F., E-mail: faouzi.sediri@ipeit.rnu.tn [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée, IPEIT, Université de Tunis, 2 rue Jawaher Lel Nehru 1008, B. P. 229 Montfleury (Tunisia); Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université de Tunis El Manar, 2092 El Manar (Tunisia)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Zinc oxide micro/nanopencils have been synthesized hydrothermally. • Photocatalytic activity has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation. • ZnO nanopencils exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity than the commercial ZnO. - Abstract: Zinc oxide micro/nanopencils have been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal process using zinc acetate and diamines as structure-directing agents. The morphology, the structure, the crystallinity and the composition of the materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optical properties of synthesized ZnO were investigated by UV–vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the material has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. As a result, after the lapse of 150 min, around 82% bleaching was observed, with ZnO nanopencils yielding more photodegradation compared to that of commercial ZnO (61%)

  3. Effects of size and surface of zinc oxide and aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles on cell viability inferred by proteomic analyses

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chih-Hong; Liu, Wen-Te; Bien, Mauo-Ying; Lin, I-Chan; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Ma, Chih-Ming; Lai, Ching-Huang; Chen, Mei-Chieh; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Although the health effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on the respiratory system have been reported, the fate, potential toxicity, and mechanisms in biological cells of these particles, as related to particle size and surface characteristics, have not been well elucidated. To determine the physicochemical properties of ZnONPs that govern cytotoxicity, we investigated the effects of size, electronic properties, zinc concentration, and pH on cell viability using human alveolar-basal epithelial A549 cells as a model. We observed that a 2-hour or longer exposure to ZnONPs induced changes in cell viability. The alteration in cell viability was associated with the zeta potentials and pH values of the ZnONPs. Proteomic profiling of A549 exposed to ZnONPs for 2 and 4 hours was used to determine the biological mechanisms of ZnONP toxicity. p53-pathway activation was the core mechanism regulating cell viability in response to particle size. Activation of the Wnt and TGF? signaling pathways was also important in the cellular response to ZnONPs of different sizes. The cadherin and Wnt signaling pathways were important cellular mechanisms triggered by surface differences. These results suggested that the size and surface characteristics of ZnONPs might play an important role in their observed cytotoxicity. This approach facilitates the design of more comprehensive systems for the evaluation of nanoparticles. PMID:25120361

  4. Oxidation reactivity of zinc-cysteine clusters in metallothionein.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Rima; Ramseyer, Christophe; Enescu, Mironel

    2013-03-01

    Evaluating the reactivity of the metal-thiolate clusters in metallothionein (MT) is a key step in understanding the biological functions of this protein. The effects of the metal clustering and protein environment on the thiolate reactivity with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) were investigated by performing quantum theory calculations with chemical accuracy at two levels of complexity. At the first level, the reactivity with H(2)O(2) of a model system ([(Zn)(3)(MeS)(9)](3-), MeS is methanethiolate) of the ? domain cluster of MT was evaluated using density functional theory (DFT) with the mPW1PW91 functional. At the second level of complexity, the protein environment was included in the reactant system and the calculations were performed with the hybrid ONIOM method combining the DFT-mPW1PW91 and the semiempirical PM6 levels of theory. In these conditions, the energy barrier for the oxidation of the most reactive terminal thiolate was 21.5 kcal mol(-1). This is 3 kcal mol(-1) higher than that calculated for the terminal thiolate in the model system [(Zn)(3)(MeS)(9)](3-) and about 7 kcal mol(-1) higher than that obtained for the free thiolate. In spite of this rise of the energy barrier induced by the protein environment, the thiolate oxidation by H(2)O(2) is confirmed as a possible way for metal release from MT. On the other hand, the results suggest that the antioxidant role of MT in the living cell cannot be as important as that of glutathione (which bears a free thiol). PMID:23334196

  5. Bio-fabrication of zinc oxide nanoparticles using leaf extract of Parthenium hysterophorus L. and its size-dependent antifungal activity against plant fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rajiv, P; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Venckatesh, Rajendran

    2013-08-01

    The study reports the synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles from weed plant by a novel method. The aim of this work is to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles from Parthenium hysterophorus L. by inexpensive, ecofriendly and simple method. Highly stable, spherical and hexagonal zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by using different concentrations of 50% and 25% parthenium leaf extracts. Both the concentrations of the leaf extract act as reducing and capping agent for conversion of nanoparticles. Formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles have been confirmed by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier trans-form infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). SEM, TEM and EDX analysis reveals that spherical and hexagonal zinc oxide nanoparticle sizes were 27±5 nm and 84±2 nm respectively and chemical composition of zinc oxide were present. We synthesized different sized zinc oxide nanoparticles and explored the size-dependent antifungal activity against plant fungal pathogens. Highest zone of inhibition was observed in 25 ?g/ml of 27±5 nm size zinc oxide nanoparticles against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. Parthenium mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and proved to be good antifungal agents and environment friendly. PMID:23686093

  6. Bio-Fabrication of zinc oxide nanoparticles using leaf extract of Parthenium hysterophorus L. and its size-dependent antifungal activity against plant fungal pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajiv, P.; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Venckatesh, Rajendran

    2013-08-01

    The study reports the synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles from weed plant by a novel method. The aim of this work is to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles from Parthenium hysterophorus L. by inexpensive, ecofriendly and simple method. Highly stable, spherical and hexagonal zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by using different concentrations of 50% and 25% parthenium leaf extracts. Both the concentrations of the leaf extract act as reducing and capping agent for conversion of nanoparticles. Formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles have been confirmed by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier trans-form infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). SEM, TEM and EDX analysis reveals that spherical and hexagonal zinc oxide nanoparticle sizes were 27 ± 5 nm and 84 ± 2 nm respectively and chemical composition of zinc oxide were present. We synthesized different sized zinc oxide nanoparticles and explored the size-dependent antifungal activity against plant fungal pathogens. Highest zone of inhibition was observed in 25 ?g/ml of 27 ± 5 nm size zinc oxide nanoparticles against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. Parthenium mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and proved to be good antifungal agents and environment friendly.

  7. Observation of the amorphous zinc oxide recrystalline process by molecular dynamics simulation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ken-Huang; Sun, Shih-Jye; Ju, Shin-Pon; Tsai, Jen-Yu; Chen, Hsin-Tsung; Hsieh, Jin-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The detailed structural variations of amorphous zinc oxide (ZnO) as well as wurtzite (B4) and zinc blende (B3) crystal structures during the temperature elevation process were observed by molecular dynamics simulation. The amorphous ZnO structure was first predicted through the simulated-annealing basin-hopping algorithm with the criterion to search for the least stable structure. The density and X-ray diffraction profiles of amorphous ZnO of the structure were in agreement with previous reports. The local structural transformation among different local structures and the recrystalline process of amorphous ZnO at higher temperatures are observed and can explain the structural transformation and recrystalline mechanism in a corresponding experiment [Bruncko et al., Thin Solid Films 520, 866-870 (2011)]. PMID:23509413

  8. Effect of Supersaturation on the Growth of Zinc Oxide Nanostructured Films by Electrochemical Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Illy, B.; Ingham, B; Ryan, M

    2010-01-01

    The changes in crystal growth habit of electrodeposited zinc oxide with zinc nitrate concentration are explained by changes in the levels of saturation at the electrode. Three growth regimes are found between 0.5 and 50 mM. For concentrations less than 2 mM, the growth is one-dimensional. Nanorods grow by screw dislocations from the outside inward, no coalescence is observed, and their surface shows pyramid-like features. For concentrations above 20 mM, the growth is two-dimensional. Large levels of supersaturation favor the nucleation on the low indexes faces and large sheets are observed. In the intermediate regime of growth, the growth is pseudo three-dimensional. Nanorods with a conical ends grow initially before coalescing and forming dense films.

  9. Nanocrystalline order of zinc oxide thin films grown on optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E. Y. M.; Tran, N.; Russell, J.; Lamb, R. N.

    2002-09-01

    The crystallographic orientation of polycrystalline zinc oxide films grown on optical fibers using single-source chemical vapor deposition (SS CVD) of basic zinc acetate have been studied. The films have been characterized using near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure. For the SS CVD ZnO growth on planar substrates, the film orientation can be varied from randomly oriented to highly c-axis oriented. In contrast, the films grown on optical fibers were either randomly oriented or a,b-axis oriented, depending on growth conditions. The correlations between growth conditions and the crystallographic properties of the films on fibers were discussed. The results suggest that factors such as curvature may have an effect on the crystallinity of film growth.

  10. Synthesis of monocrystalline zinc oxide microrods by wet chemical method for light confinement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thankappan, Aparna; Hari, Misha; Mathew, S.; Joseph, Santhi Ani; Rolf, Erni; Bora, Debajeet; Braun, Artur; Nampoori, V. P. N.

    2012-07-01

    The growth of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) microrods by wet chemical method, under prolonged treatment of zinc nitrate for 22 h in low temperature (80 °C) with hexamine is presented. The purpose was to obtain large microrods that can act as laser resonators with emission in the blue region. The electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction observations reveal that the ZnO microrods are single crystalline. We have done various optical characterizations in order to assess the suitability of the rods in photonic applications. Studies include optical absorption, fluorescence and photon backscattering. Room temperature optical measurements reveal that they have a large direct band gap of 3.7 eV and an emission at the visible and ultraviolet region and have excitation wavelength dependence. The backscattering studies clearly reveal the photon confinement effects, which is the first test of the material's self lasing action.

  11. Solvothermal synthesis of gallium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles with tunable infrared absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haifeng; Wang, Hua; Tian, Xingyou; Zheng, Kang; Xu, Fei; Su, Zheng; Tian, Konghu; li, Qiulong; Fang, Fei

    2014-12-01

    The doping of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) has been attracting a lot of attention both for fundamental studies and potential applications. In this manuscript, we report the preparation of gallium doped zinc oxide (GZO) NPs through the solvothermal method. In order to obtain the effective Ga doping in the ZnO crystalline lattice, we identified the optimal reaction conditions in terms of different Zn precursors, temperature, and heating rate. The results show that GZO NPs with tunable infrared absorption can be received using different molar ratios of Ga(NO3)3 and zinc stearate (Zn[CH3(CH2)16COO]2, ZnSt2) kept in the sealed autoclaves at 160 °C for 8 h. Furthermore, the growth of the GZO NPs was investigated by monitoring the optical absorption spectral and the corresponding chemical composition of aliquots extracted at different reaction time intervals.

  12. Zinc protects HepG2 cells against the oxidative damage and DNA damage induced by ochratoxin A

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Juanjuan; Zhang, Yu [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, Wentao, E-mail: xuwentaoboy@sina.com [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China); Luo, YunBo [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China); Hao, Junran [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Shen, Xiao Li [The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, Xuan [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Xiaohong [The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China); Huang, Kunlun, E-mail: hkl009@163.com [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Oxidative stress and DNA damage are the most studied mechanisms by which ochratoxin A (OTA) induces its toxic effects, which include nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity and genotoxicity. Zinc, which is an essential trace element, is considered a potential antioxidant. The aim of this paper was to investigate whether zinc supplement could inhibit OTA-induced oxidative damage and DNA damage in HepG2 cells and the mechanism of inhibition. The results indicated that that exposure of OTA decreased the intracellular zinc concentration; zinc supplement significantly reduced the OTA-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity but did not affect the OTA-induced decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential (??{sub m}). Meanwhile, the addition of the zinc chelator N,N,N?,N?-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) strongly aggravated the OTA-induced oxidative damage. This study also demonstrated that zinc helped to maintain the integrity of DNA through the reduction of OTA-induced DNA strand breaks, 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation and DNA hypomethylation. OTA increased the mRNA expression of metallothionein1-A (MT1A), metallothionein2-A (MT2A) and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Zinc supplement further enhanced the mRNA expression of MT1A and MT2A, but it had no effect on the mRNA expression of SOD1 and catalase (CAT). Zinc was for the first time proven to reduce the cytotoxicity of OTA through inhibiting the oxidative damage and DNA damage, and regulating the expression of zinc-associated genes. Thus, the addition of zinc can potentially be used to reduce the OTA toxicity of contaminated feeds. - Highlights: ? OTA decreased the intracellular zinc concentration. ? OTA induced the formation of 8-OHdG in HepG2 cells. ? It was testified for the first time that OTA induced DNA hypomethylation. ? Zinc protects against the oxidative damage and DNA damage induced by OTA in vitro.

  13. Enhancement of the electrical characteristics of thin-film transistors with indium-zinc-tin oxide/Ag/indium-zinc-tin oxide multilayer electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Dohyun; Yun, Dong Yeol; Cho, Woon-Jo; Kim, Tae Whan

    2014-08-01

    Transparent indium-zinc-tin oxide (IZTO)-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes were fabricated on glass substrates using a tilted dual-target radio-frequency magnetron sputtering system. The IZTO TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes exhibited a high optical transmittance in a visible region. The threshold voltage, the mobility, and the on/off-current ratio of the TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes were enhanced in comparison with those of the TFTs with ITO electrodes. The source/drain contact resistance of the IZTO TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes was smaller than that of the IZTO TFTs with ITO electrodes, resulting in enhancement of their electrical characteristics.

  14. Nitric oxide and zinc-mediated protein assemblies involved in mu opioid receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Garzón, Javier

    2013-12-01

    Opioids are among the most effective analgesics in controlling the perception of intense pain, although their continuous use decreases their potency due to the development of tolerance. The glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor system is currently considered to be the most relevant functional antagonist of morphine analgesia. In the postsynapse of different brain regions the C terminus of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) associates with NR1 subunits of NMDARs, as well as with a series of signaling proteins, such as neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)/nitric oxide (NO), protein kinase C (PKC), calcium and calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). NO is implicated in redox signaling and PKC falls under the regulation of zinc metabolism, suggesting that these signaling elements might participate in the regulation of MOR activity by the NMDAR. In this review, we discuss the influence of redox signaling in the mechanisms whose plasticity triggers opioid tolerance. Thus, the MOR C terminus assembles a series of signaling proteins around the homodimeric histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1). The NMDAR NR1 subunit and the regulator of G protein signaling RGSZ2 bind HINT1 in a zinc-independent manner, with RGSZ2 associating with nNOS and regulating MOR-induced production of NO. This NO acts on the RGSZ2 zinc finger, providing the zinc ions that are required for PKC/Raf-1 cysteine-rich domains to simultaneously bind to the histidines present in the HINT1 homodimer. The MOR-induced activation of phospholipase ? (PLC?) regulates PKC, which increases the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by acting on NOX/NADPH, consolidating the long-term PKC activation required to regulate the Raf-1/MAPK cascade and enhancing NMDAR function. Thus, RGSZ2 serves as a Redox Zinc Switch that converts NO signals into Zinc signals, thereby modulating Redox Sensor Proteins like PKC? and Raf-1. Accordingly, redox-dependent and independent processes weave together to situate the MOR under the negative control of the NMDAR. PMID:23666425

  15. Highly conductive indium zinc oxide prepared by reactive magnetron cosputtering technique using indium and zinc metallic targets

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, T. K.; Chen, H. C.; Lee, J. H.; Huang, Y. Y.; Fang, J. S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China); LinCo Technology, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-15

    Zn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} film is frequently deposited from an oxide target; but the use of metallic target is increasingly expected as preparing the film with comparable properties. This work aimed to prepare a highly conductive and transparent Zn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film on Corning Eagle{sup 2000} glass substrate by magnetron cosputtering method using indium and zinc targets. Structural characterization was performed using x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The film had an amorphous structure when the film was prepared on an unheated substrate, but had an In{sub 2}O{sub 3} polycrystalline structure when the film was deposited on 150 and 300 deg. C substrates. The electrical properties of the film were greatly affected by annealing; the Zn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} film had a low resistivity of 6.1x10{sup -4} {Omega} cm and an average transmittance of 81.7% when the film was deposited without substrate heating and followed a 600 deg. C annealing.

  16. Inkjet printed ambipolar transistors and inverters based on carbon nanotube/zinc tin oxide heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Bongjun; Jang, Seonpil; Dodabalapur, Ananth, E-mail: ananth.dodabalapur@engr.utexas.edu [Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Geier, Michael L.; Prabhumirashi, Pradyumna L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Hersam, Mark C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2014-02-10

    We report ambipolar field-effect transistors (FETs) consisting of inkjet printed semiconductor bilayer heterostructures utilizing semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO). The bilayer structure allows for electron transport to occur principally in the amorphous oxide layer and hole transport to occur exclusively in the SWCNT layer. This results in balanced electron and hole mobilities exceeding 2 cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1} at low operating voltages (<5?V) in air. We further show that the SWCNT-ZTO hybrid ambipolar FETs can be integrated into functional inverter circuits that display high peak gain (>10). This work provides a pathway for realizing solution processable, inkjet printable, large area electronic devices, and systems based on SWCNT-amorphous oxide heterostructures.

  17. Metal Catalyst for Low-Temperature Growth of Controlled Zinc Oxide Nanowires on Arbitrary Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Baek Hyun; Kwon, Jae W.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanowires generated by hydrothermal method present superior physical and chemical characteristics. Quality control of the growth has been very challenging and controlled growth is only achievable under very limited conditions using homogeneous seed layers with high temperature processes. Here we show the controlled ZnO nanowire growth on various organic and inorganic materials without the requirement of a homogeneous seed layer and a high temperature process. We also report the discovery of an important role of the electronegativity in the nanowire growth on arbitrary substrates. Using heterogeneous metal oxide interlayers with low-temperature hydrothermal methods, we demonstrate well-controlled ZnO nanowire arrays and single nanowires on flat or curved surfaces. A metal catalyst and heterogeneous metal oxide interlayers are found to determine lattice-match with ZnO and to largely influence the controlled alignment. These findings will contribute to the development of novel nanodevices using controlled nanowires. PMID:24625584

  18. Metal Catalyst for Low-Temperature Growth of Controlled Zinc Oxide Nanowires on Arbitrary Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Baek Hyun; Kwon, Jae W.

    2014-03-01

    Zinc oxide nanowires generated by hydrothermal method present superior physical and chemical characteristics. Quality control of the growth has been very challenging and controlled growth is only achievable under very limited conditions using homogeneous seed layers with high temperature processes. Here we show the controlled ZnO nanowire growth on various organic and inorganic materials without the requirement of a homogeneous seed layer and a high temperature process. We also report the discovery of an important role of the electronegativity in the nanowire growth on arbitrary substrates. Using heterogeneous metal oxide interlayers with low-temperature hydrothermal methods, we demonstrate well-controlled ZnO nanowire arrays and single nanowires on flat or curved surfaces. A metal catalyst and heterogeneous metal oxide interlayers are found to determine lattice-match with ZnO and to largely influence the controlled alignment. These findings will contribute to the development of novel nanodevices using controlled nanowires.

  19. Molybdenum as a contact material in zinc tin oxide thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, W.; Peterson, R. L., E-mail: blpeters@umich.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122 (United States)

    2014-05-12

    Amorphous oxide semiconductors are of increasing interest for a variety of thin film electronics applications. Here, the contact properties of different source/drain electrode materials to solution-processed amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin-film transistors are studied using the transmission line method. The width-normalized contact resistance between ZTO and sputtered molybdenum is measured to be 8.7 ?-cm, which is 10, 20, and 600 times smaller than that of gold/titanium, indium tin oxide, and evaporated molybdenum electrodes, respectively. The superior contact formed using sputtered molybdenum is due to a favorable work function lineup, an insulator-free interface, bombardment of ZTO during molybdenum sputtering, and trap-assisted tunneling. The transfer length of the sputtered molybdenum/ZTO contact is 0.34??m, opening the door to future radio-frequency sub-micron molybdenum/ZTO thin film transistors.

  20. Ecotoxicological evaluation of sewage sludge contaminated with zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Concepción; Fernández, María Dolores; Babin, Mar

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the ecotoxicological qualitative risk associated with the use of sewage sludge containing Zn oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) as soil amendment. A sludge-untreated soil and two sludge-treated soils were spiked with ZnO-NPs (0-1,000 mg/kg soil). Soil ecotoxicity was assessed with Eisenia fetida (acute and sublethal end points), and the unfilterable and filterable (0.02 ?m) soil leachates were tested with a battery of biomarkers using Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia magna, and the fish cell line RTG-2 (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The production of E. fetida cocoons in sludge-treated soils was lower than that in sludge-untreated soils. The highest effect in the algal growth inhibition test was detected in sludge-untreated soil, most likely caused by the loss of organic matter in these samples. The D. magna results were always negative. Toxic effects (lysosomal cell function and production of reactive oxygen species) in RTG-2 cells were only observed in sludge-treated soils. In general, the toxicity of ZnO-NPs in sludge-treated soils was similar to that of sludge-untreated soil, and the filterable leachate fraction [Zn salt (Zn(2+))] did not produce greater effects than the unfilterable fraction (ZnO-NPs). Thus, after the addition of ZnO-NP--enriched sewage sludge to agricultural soil, the risk of toxic effects for soil and aquatic organisms was shown to be low. These findings are important because repeated use of organic amendments such as sewage sludge may cause more and more increased concentrations of ZnO-NPs in soils over the long-term. PMID:25185842

  1. Atmospheric pressure based electrostatic spray deposition of transparent conductive ZnO and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films: Effects of Al doping and annealing treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Park, Seung Bin

    2013-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were prepared by electrostatic spray deposition method at atmospheric pressure followed by annealing. The effects of annealing and Al doping on the structural, electrical and optical properties of the films were investigated. The results show that films have random orientation with compact hexagonal wurtzite structure. It also implies that the annealing and the Al doping help to improve the electrical conductivity and optical properties as well. The minimum value of resistivity was 1.10 × 10-4 ? cm for 0.5 at. % AZO film and transmittance was greater than 96% in the visible region. The present value of resistivity is comparable to the lowest values for AZO films reported in open literatures. All the films prepared by this method have a good crystalline structure and homogenous surface. We proposed that the substitution of Al in the ZnO lattice has positive effects in terms of increasing the free electron concentration. At atmospheric pressure, the electrospraying method was confirmed to be suitable for the preparation of AZO films with low resistivity and high transmittance.

  2. Morphology and optical properties of tetrapod-like zinc oxide whiskers synthesized via equilibrium gas expanding method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xi-mei FAN; Zuo-wan ZHOU; Jie WANG; Ke TIAN

    2011-01-01

    The zinc oxide whiskers were synthesized by the equilibrium gas expanding method at the temperature of 700 °C with metallic zinc as the main raw material without any catalysts. The effects of the growth time on microstructure and photoluminescence properties were investigated. The results show that the as-grown samples are composed of uniform tetrapod-like ZnO whiskers. The length and diameter

  3. Growth and characterization of zinc oxide nanowires and thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Young-Woo

    ZnO was studied in this dissertation for use in one-dimensional nanoscale devices, optoelectronics, and electronic applications. The synthesis, structural, and optical properties of ZnO and MgO nanowires as nanoscale materials were investigated. The crystallinity, electrical, optical and magnetic properties of undoped and phosphorous doped ZnO thin films for p-type ZnO were examined. The ZnO nanowires were fabricated using catalyst-driven molecular beam epitaxy. Site specific growth of ZnO and MgO nanowires was observed on Ag coated Si and Al2O3 substrates. The structural and compositional studies indicated that the deposition of Zn and Mg resulted in two different types of radial heterostructured (Zn,Mg)O nanowires. The effect of phosphorus doping on the electrical and optical properties of ZnO grown via pulsed laser beam deposition was studied. Phosphorus doping yields enhanced n-type behavior in as-deposited films, indicating the formation of shallow donor states. Annealing in 100 mTorr of oxygen led to the conversion of n-type behavior in as-deposited films to semi-insulating behavior in the annealed films. For the annealed film, these results appear to reflect phosphorus substitution on the O sites. The characteristics of device structures that employ phosphorus-doped (Zn,Mg)O have been examined in a effort to delineate the carrier type behavior in this material. The capacitance-voltage properties of metal/insulator/P-doped (Zn,Mg)O diode structures were measured and found to exhibit a polarity consistent with the P-doped (Zn,Mg)O layer being p-type. The photo-response of ZnO doped with phosphorus was investigated. A correlation between near band-edge emission and carrier density is observed. This is similar to results found for ZnO in which the carrier density is increased via annealing in a reducing ambient. Upon annealing in an oxidizing environment, the near band-edge emission decreased for both the undoped and phosphorus doped ZnO films. The magnetic properties of phosphorus doped ZnO thin films were examined after high dose Mn implantation. Films show room temperature hysteresis in magnetization loops. The saturation magnetization and coercivity of the implanted single-phase films were both strong functions of the initial annealing temperature. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  4. Greener syntheses of metallic nanoparticles and zinc oxide nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, Jacopo

    In recent years, nanotechnology and nanomaterials synthesis have attracted a great deal of attention in the scientific community. Nanomaterials display size and morphology-related optical properties that differ from their bulk counterparts and therefore can be used for many applications in different fields such as biomedicine, electronics, antibacterial agents, and energy. Attempts to fabricate different morphologies of metallic and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have successfully yielded attractive nanostructures such as particles, rods, helices, combs, tetra-pods, and flowers, all displaying properties mainly related to their enhanced surface area and/or aspect ratios. Most of the above mentioned nanomaterials productions have employed harsh synthetic routes such as high temperatures, low pressures, and the use of costly equipments. Here we show how a greener approach to nanomaterials synthesis is feasible with both minimization of aqueous precursors, energy and employment of a multi-block heater for temperature control. We present in this thesis several methods for the preparation of NPs of several materials that focus on minimizing the environmental impact of the synthesis itself. First, we describe the use of the toroidal form of plasmid DNA as a rigid narrowly dispersed bio-polymeric nanocavity, which mold the formation of disc-shaped nanoparticles of several types of metals. This approach exploits several properties of plasmid DNA: (a) DNA affinity for metal cations, (b) toroidal plasmid DNA structures which are favored by metal ionic binding, and (c) the ability to vary plasmid size. Herein, we present a complementary synthetic method based on a kinetic approach wherein the plasmid DNA acts as a template to initiate and control the formation of Au and other metallic NPs by incubation at elevated temperatures. Also reported herein is a simple, scalable hydrothermal method to make ZnO NPs that exploits temperature to precisely control the range of pH values of an organic amine buffer. The presence or absence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in the tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer further modulates the morphology of the ZnO nanomaterials since both compounds can serve as nucleating sites, and as stabilizing agents that prevents agglomeration.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of single-crystalline zinc tin oxide nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Crystalline zinc tin oxide (ZTO; zinc oxide with heavy tin doping of 33 at.%) nanowires were first synthesized using the electrodeposition and heat treatment method based on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, which has an average diameter of about 60 nm. According to the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) results, the synthesized ZTO nanowires are highly ordered and have high wire packing densities. The length of ZTO nanowires is about 4 ?m, and the aspect ratio is around 67. ZTO nanowires with a Zn/(Zn?+?Sn) atomic ratio of 0.67 (approximately 2/3) were observed from an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and corresponding selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns demonstrated that the ZTO nanowire is hexagonal single-crystalline. The study of ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/Vis/NIR) absorption showed that the ZTO nanowire is a wide-band semiconductor with a band gap energy of 3.7 eV. PMID:24872800

  6. Synthesis and characterization of single-crystalline zinc tin oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jen-Bin; Wu, Po-Feng; Lin, Hsien-Sheng; Lin, Ya-Ting; Lee, Hsuan-Wei; Kao, Chia-Tze; Liao, Wei-Hsiang; Young, San-Lin

    2014-05-01

    Crystalline zinc tin oxide (ZTO; zinc oxide with heavy tin doping of 33 at.%) nanowires were first synthesized using the electrodeposition and heat treatment method based on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, which has an average diameter of about 60 nm. According to the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) results, the synthesized ZTO nanowires are highly ordered and have high wire packing densities. The length of ZTO nanowires is about 4 ?m, and the aspect ratio is around 67. ZTO nanowires with a Zn/(Zn + Sn) atomic ratio of 0.67 (approximately 2/3) were observed from an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and corresponding selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns demonstrated that the ZTO nanowire is hexagonal single-crystalline. The study of ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/Vis/NIR) absorption showed that the ZTO nanowire is a wide-band semiconductor with a band gap energy of 3.7 eV.

  7. Improved conductivity and mechanism of carrier transport in zinc oxide with embedded silver layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, H.; Theodore, N. D.; Alford, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of an embedded silver layer on the electrical and optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO)/silver (Ag)/zinc oxide (ZnO) layered composite structures on polymer substrates have been investigated. We have engineered transparent conducting oxide structures with greatly improved conductivity. Optical and electrical properties are correlated with Ag thickness. Film thicknesses were determined using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Hall effect, four-point probe, and UV-Vis spectrophotometer analyses were used to characterize electrical and optical properties. The results show that carrier concentration, mobility, and conductivity increase with Ag thickness. Increasing Ag thickness from 8to14nm enhances sheet resistance and resistivity by six orders of magnitude. The optical transmittance of the composite structure decreases when compared to a single ZnO layer of comparable thickness. However, a composite with 12nm of Ag provides conductivity and transmittance values that are acceptable for optoelectronic devices. We describe of the influence of Ag thickness on electrical and optical properties of the ZnO /Ag/ZnO composite and propose a conduction mechanism for this system.

  8. In-vitro antibacterial study of zinc oxide nanostructures on Streptococcus sobrinus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo; Sirelkhatim, Amna; Hasan, Habsah; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Masudi, Sam'an Malik; Seeni, Azman; Rahman, Rosliza Abd

    2014-10-01

    Zinc oxide nanostructures were prepared using a pilot plant of zinc oxide boiling furnace. Generally, it produced two types of nanostructures different in morphology; one is rod-like shaped (ZnO-1) and a plate-like shape (ZnO-2). The properties of ZnO were studied by structural, optical and morphological using XRD, PL and FESEM respectively. The XRD patterns confirmed the wurtzite structures of ZnO with the calculated crystallite size of 41 nm (ZnO-1) and 42 nm (ZnO-2) using Scherrer formula. The NBE peaks were determined by photoluminescence spectra which reveal peak at 3.25 eV and 3.23 eV for ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 respectively. Prior to that, the morphologies for both ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 were demonstrated from FESEM micrographs. Subsequently the antibacterial study was conducted using in-vitro broth dilution technique towards a gram positive bacterium Streptococcus sobrinus (ATCC 33478) to investigate the level of antibacterial effect of zinc oxide nanostructures as antibacterial agent. Gradual increment of ZnO concentrations from 10-20 mM affected the inhibition level after twenty four hours of incubation. In conjunction with concentration increment of ZnO, the percentage inhibition towards Streptococcus sobrinus was also increased accordingly. The highest inhibition occurred at 20 mM of ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 for 98% and 77% respectively. It showed that ZnO has good properties as antibacterial agent and relevancy with data presented by XRD, PL and FESEM were determined.

  9. Evaluation of zinc oxide nanoparticles toxicity on marine algae chlorella vulgaris through flow cytometric, cytotoxicity and oxidative stress analysis.

    PubMed

    Suman, T Y; Radhika Rajasree, S R; Kirubagaran, R

    2015-03-01

    The increasing industrial use of nanomaterials during the last decades poses a potential threat to the environment and in particular to organisms living in the aquatic environment. In the present study, the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was investigated in Marine algae Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris). High zinc dissociation from ZnONPs, releasing ionic zinc in seawater, is a potential route for zinc assimilation and ZnONPs toxicity. To examine the mechanism of toxicity, C. vulgaris were treated with 50mg/L, 100mg/L, 200mg/L and 300 mg/L ZnO NPs for 24h and 72h. The detailed cytotoxicity assay showed a substantial reduction in the viability dependent on dose and exposure. Further, flow cytometry revealed the significant reduction in C. vulgaris viable cells to higher ZnO NPs. Significant reductions in LDH level were noted for ZnO NPs at 300 mg/L concentration. The activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased in the C. vulgaris exposed to 200mg/L and 300 mg/L ZnO NPs. The content of non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) significantly decreased in the groups with a ZnO NPs concentration of higher than 100mg/L. The level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was found to increase as the ZnO NPs dose increased. The FT-IR analyses suggested surface chemical interaction between nanoparticles and algal cells. The substantial morphological changes and cell wall damage were confirmed through microscopic analyses (FESEM and CM). PMID:25483368

  10. Photoluminescence characteristics of undoped and terbium chloride doped zinc oxide films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcony, C.; Ortiz, A.; García, M.; Helman, J. S.

    1988-04-01

    The photoluminescence characteristics of undoped and TbCl3-doped zinc oxide films deposited by the spray pyrolysis technique are reported. Undoped films present the characteristic blue-green emission peak at ˜508 nm observed in single-crystal and powder ZnO. The TbCl3-doped films present a luminescence peak at ˜540 nm. The light emission of the doped films decreases with time of exposure of the sample to the excitation light. The phenomenon is interpreted in terms of a simple model in which a competitive process of hole trapping and phototrapping occurs at a radiative recombination center generated by the TbCl3.

  11. Constrained, aqueous growth of three-dimensional single crystalline zinc oxide structures

    SciTech Connect

    Pooley, Kathryn J., E-mail: greenber@fas.harvard.edu; Joo, John H.; Hu, Evelyn L. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We study low temperature (90?°C) aqueous growth of single crystal zinc oxide structures through patterned PMMA molds of different sizes, shapes, and orientations. We demonstrate the ability to create 3D shapes with smooth vertical sidewalls. Although the unconstrained growth is influenced by the hexagonal geometry of the underlying crystal structure, the ZnO is shown to conform exactly to any shape patterned. Using electron backscatter diffraction and scanning electron microscopy we show that the mold orientation, in conjunction with control of the growth rates of the c and m planes of the ZnO, is crucial in determining the final structure shape.

  12. Structural and optical properties of zinc oxide film using RF-sputtering technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hashim, A. J.; Jaafar, M. S.; Ghazai, Alaa J. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pinang (Malaysia); Physics Department, Science College, Thi-Qar University (Iraq)

    2012-11-27

    This paper reports the fabrication of zinc oxide (ZnO) film using RF-sputtering technique. Determination of the structural properties using High Resolution X-ray Diffraction (HRXRD) confirmed that ZnO film deposited on silicon (Si) substrate has a high quality. This result is in line with the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) which were used to image the morphology of the film, in which a rough surface was demonstrated. Photoluminescence (PL) emission is included to study the optical properties of ZnO film that shows two PL peak in the UV region at 371 nm and in visible region at 530 nm respectively.

  13. Zinc(II) oxide stability in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen E. Ziemniak; Edward P. Opalka

    1994-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is shown to transform into either of two phosphate-containing compounds in relatively dilute alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via ZnO(s) + Na[sup +] + H[sub 2]PO[sub 4]- [l reversible] NaZnPO[sub 4](s) + H[sub 2]O or 2ZnO(s) + H[sub 3]PO[sub 4](aq) [l reversible] Zn[sub 2](OH)PO[sub 4](s) + H[sub 2]O. X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that NaZnPO[sub 4

  14. Constrained, aqueous growth of three-dimensional single crystalline zinc oxide structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pooley, Kathryn J.; Joo, John H.; Hu, Evelyn L.

    2014-01-01

    We study low temperature (90 °C) aqueous growth of single crystal zinc oxide structures through patterned PMMA molds of different sizes, shapes, and orientations. We demonstrate the ability to create 3D shapes with smooth vertical sidewalls. Although the unconstrained growth is influenced by the hexagonal geometry of the underlying crystal structure, the ZnO is shown to conform exactly to any shape patterned. Using electron backscatter diffraction and scanning electron microscopy we show that the mold orientation, in conjunction with control of the growth rates of the c and m planes of the ZnO, is crucial in determining the final structure shape.

  15. Profile-broaden ultraviolet lasing from whispering gallery mode cavity in crown-like zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ma-hua; Zhu, Guang-ping; Ju, Yong-feng; Ji, Ren-dong; Fu, Li-hui

    2015-03-01

    The crown-like zinc oxide (ZnO) samples, which are composed of a hexagonal cap and a tower-like shaft, are prepared by vapor transport method. The hexagonal cap, working as a whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonant cavity, demonstrates density-dependent ultraviolet (UV) lasing emission with a broadened and squared photoluminescence (PL) profile under UV excitation at 355 nm. Theoretical analyses based on Fermi golden rule show that the broadened spectrum profile results from the special optical mode density characteristics in a WGM micro-cavity, which is in agreement with the observed results.

  16. Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated at Low Temperature by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Yesul; Pearson, Christopher; Lee, Yong Uk; Winchester, Lee; Hwang, Jaeeun; Kim, Hongdoo; Do, Lee-Mi; Petty, Michael C.

    2014-11-01

    We report the electrical behavior of undoped zinc oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated by low-temperature chemical spray pyrolysis. An aerosol system utilizing aerodynamic focusing was used to deposit the ZnO. Polycrystalline films were subsequently formed by annealing at the relatively low temperature of 140°C. The saturation mobility of the TFTs was 2 cm2/Vs, which is the highest reported for undoped ZnO TFTs manufactured below 150°C. The devices also had an on/off ratio of 104 and a threshold voltage of -3.5 V. These values were found to depend reversibly on measurement conditions.

  17. Field emission from well-aligned zinc oxide nanowires grown at low temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Lee; T. J. Lee; S. C. Lyu; Y. Zhang; H. Ruh; H. J. Lee

    2002-01-01

    Field electron emission from vertically well-aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires, which were grown by the vapor deposition method at a low temperature of 550 degC, was investigated. The high-purity ZnO nanowires showed a single crystalline wurtzite structure. The turn-on voltage for the ZnO nanowires was found to be about 6.0 V\\/mum at current density of 0.1 muA\\/cm2. The emission current

  18. Growth mechanism of atomic layer deposition of zinc oxide: A density functional theory approach

    SciTech Connect

    Afshar, Amir; Cadien, Kenneth C., E-mail: kcadien@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada)

    2013-12-16

    Atomic layer deposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) using diethylzinc (DEZ) and water is studied using density functional theory. The reaction pathways between the precursors and ZnO surface sites are discussed. Both reactions proceed by the formation of intermediate complexes on the surface. The Gibbs free energy of the formation of these complexes is positive at temperatures above ?120?°C and ?200?°C for DEZ and water half-reactions, respectively. Spectroscopic ellipsometry results show that the growth per cycle changes at approximately the same temperatures.

  19. Origin of ferromagnetism enhancement in bi-layer chromium-doped indium zinc oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C. Y. [Physics Department, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-06

    This work demonstrates that by controlling the rapid thermal annealing temperature, amorphous chromium-doped indium zinc oxide films develop an amorphous-crystalline bi-layer structure and show magnetization up to {approx}30 emu/cm{sup 3}. The crystalline layer arises from significant out-diffusion of Zn from surfaces, leading to a large difference in the Zn:In ratio in amorphous and crystalline layers. Doped Cr ions in amorphous and crystalline layers form different valence configurations, creating a charge reservoir which transfers electrons through amorphous-crystalline interfaces and in turn enhances ferromagnetism.

  20. High-pressure Pulsed Laser Deposition and Structural Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahm, Andreas; Nobis, Thomas; Kaidashev, Evgeni M.; Lorenz, Michael; Wagner, Gerald; Lenzner, Jörg; Grundmann, Marius

    2005-06-01

    Various zinc oxide nanostructures have been grown by high-pressure PLD on gold coated sapphire substrates. Depending on growth parameters, a wide range of geometries is obtained in a controlled fashion. The whisker diameter depends on the target-to-substrate distance. The well aligned epitaxial growth of the nanowires on sapphire without rotational domains is proved by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Our growth mechanism seems to be different from the usually assumed vapor-liquid-solid process, because of the absence of any gold drops on top of the nanowires.

  1. Impact of Al doping on microstructure and optical characteristics of tetrapod-like zinc oxide whiskers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. M. Fan; L. Zhao; Z. W. Zhou; H. G. Zhang; J. Wang

    2010-01-01

    Al-doped tetrapod-like zinc oxide whiskers with different Al dopant concentration (0.3?1.0mol%) were prepared by solid state reaction method using T-ZnOw and AlCl3 powder as raw materials. X-ray diffraction and SEM microscopy were applied to characterize the structure and surface morphology of the T-ZnOw. The shift of diffraction peaks of ZnO towards high angle indicated the increase of Al-doping concentration. The

  2. The conductivity and magnetic properties of zinc oxide thin films doped with cobalt

    SciTech Connect

    Kytin, V. G., E-mail: kytin@mig.phys.msu.ru; Kulbachinskii, V. A.; Glebov, D. S.; Burova, L. I. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Kaul, A. R.; Reukova, O. V. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Chemistry (Russian Federation)

    2010-02-15

    The magnetic properties, temperature dependences of the resistivity, Hall constant, and magnetoresistance of epitaxial zinc oxide films doped with cobalt are studied. The ferromagnetism of the films is observed at room temperature. The conduction and magnetoresistance of the films are attributed to transport of electrons in the conduction band at high temperatures and to hopping transport at low temperatures. With increasing concentration of cobalt dopants, the resistivity of the films increases and the concentration of electrons decreases. This is due to the increase in the ionization energy of donor states because of the increase in the energy of exchange interaction between electrons at donor states and electrons of the d shell of cobaltions.

  3. Mapping of two-photon luminescence amplification in zinc-oxide microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Semin, S. V., E-mail: sv_semin@mail.ru; Sherstyuk, N. E.; Mishina, E. D. [Moscow State Technical University of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Automation (Russian Federation); Gherman, C.; Kulyuk, L. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of); Rasing, Th. [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Molecules and Materials (Netherlands); Peng, L.-H. [National Taiwan University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics (China)

    2012-03-15

    The mapping of two-photon excited luminescence in aggregations of free-standing zinc oxide microrods has been carried out at room temperature. Two-photon luminescence spectra in the excitonic region for individual microrods have been recorded. The luminescence intensity exhibits a power-law dependence on the optical pump power with the exponent n > 2. This fact, along with the existence of a threshold power above which the dependence in the exciton region deviates from a quadratic one, indicates the onset of light amplification in individual ZnO microrods and the conditions preceding laser oscillation.

  4. Zinc oxide integrated area efficient high output low power wavy channel thin film transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, A. N.; Ghoneim, M. T.; Bahabry, R. R.; Hussain, A. M.; Hussain, M. M., E-mail: muhammadmustafa.hussain@kaust.edu.sa [Integrated Nanotechnology Lab, Electrical Engineering, Computer Electrical Mathematical Science and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-11-25

    We report an atomic layer deposition based zinc oxide channel material integrated thin film transistor using wavy channel architecture allowing expansion of the transistor width in the vertical direction using the fin type features. The experimental devices show area efficiency, higher normalized output current, and relatively lower power consumption compared to the planar architecture. This performance gain is attributed to the increased device width and an enhanced applied electric field due to the architecture when compared to a back gated planar device with the same process conditions.

  5. Electron transport and low-temperature electrical and galvanomagnetic properties of zinc oxide and indium oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulbachinskii, V. A.; Kytin, V. G.; Reukova, O. V.; Burova, L. I.; Kaul, A. R.; Ulyashin, A. G.

    2015-02-01

    The electrical and galvanomagnetic properties of zinc oxide films with and without gallium, aluminum, and cobalt doping and of tin-doped indium oxide films are studied over a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields. It is shown that the mechanism for electron transport in these films changes from band to hopping transport as the degree of crystallinity of the films is reduced because of the methods and conditions for their synthesis. The change in the dimensionality of the films with band electron transport at low temperatures is studied in terms of the weak localization induced by a magnetic field. The localization radius and density of electron states in the Fermi level are estimated for the films with a hopping electron transport.

  6. Effect of nitrogen doping on wetting and photoactive properties of laser processed zinc oxide-graphene oxide nanocomposite layers

    SciTech Connect

    György, E., E-mail: egyorgy@icmab.es [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona (CSIC-ICMAB), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P. O. Box MG 36, 76900 Bucharest V (Romania); Pérez del Pino, A. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona (CSIC-ICMAB), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Logofatu, C. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P. O. Box MG. 7, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Duta, A.; Isac, L. [Transilvania University of Brasov, Research Centre for Renewable Energy Systems and Recycling, Eroilor 29, 500036, Brasov (Romania)

    2014-07-14

    Zinc oxide-graphene oxide nanocomposite layers were submitted to laser irradiation in air or controlled nitrogen atmosphere using a frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG (??=?266?nm, ?{sub FWHM}???3?ns, ??=?10?Hz) laser source. The experiments were performed in air at atmospheric pressure or in nitrogen at a pressure of 2?×?10{sup 4} Pa. The effect of the irradiation conditions, incident laser fluence value, and number of subsequent laser pulses on the surface morphology of the composite material was systematically investigated. The obtained results reveal that nitrogen incorporation improves significantly the wetting and photoactive properties of the laser processed layers. The kinetics of water contact angle variation when the samples are submitted to laser irradiation in nitrogen are faster than that of the samples irradiated in air, the surfaces becoming super-hydrophilic under UV light irradiation.

  7. 40 CFR 721.9538 - Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9538 Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene...chemical substance identified generically as lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9538 - Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9538 Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene...chemical substance identified generically as lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl...

  9. Origin of deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Sallis, S.; Williams, D. S. [Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Butler, K. T.; Walsh, A. [Center for Sustainable Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Quackenbush, N. F. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Junda, M.; Podraza, N. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Fischer, D. A.; Woicik, J. C. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); White, B. E.; Piper, L. F. J., E-mail: lpiper@binghamton.edu [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States)

    2014-06-09

    The origin of the deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO), whether intrinsic to the amorphous structure or not, has serious implications for the development of p-type transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors. We report that the deep subgap feature in a-IGZO originates from local variations in the oxygen coordination and not from oxygen vacancies. This is shown by the positive correlation between oxygen composition and subgap intensity as observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that the subgap feature is not intrinsic to the amorphous phase because the deep subgap feature can be removed by low-temperature annealing in a reducing environment. Atomistic calculations of a-IGZO reveal that the subgap state originates from certain oxygen environments associated with the disorder. Specifically, the subgap states originate from oxygen environments with a lower coordination number and/or a larger metal-oxygen separation.

  10. Hydrogen plasma treatment for improved conductivity in amorphous aluminum doped zinc tin oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Masis, M.; Ding, L.; Dauzou, F.; Jeangros, Q.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; Nicolay, S.; Ballif, C.

    2014-09-01

    Improving the conductivity of earth-abundant transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) remains an important challenge that will facilitate the replacement of indium-based TCOs. Here, we show that a hydrogen (H2)-plasma post-deposition treatment improves the conductivity of amorphous aluminum-doped zinc tin oxide while retaining its low optical absorption. We found that the H2-plasma treatment performed at a substrate temperature of 50 °C reduces the resistivity of the films by 57% and increases the absorptance by only 2%. Additionally, the low substrate temperature delays the known formation of tin particles with the plasma and it allows the application of the process to temperature-sensitive substrates.

  11. Reduced contact resistance in inkjet printed high-performance amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide transistors.

    PubMed

    Hennek, Jonathan W; Xia, Yu; Everaerts, Ken; Hersam, Mark C; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2012-03-01

    Solution processing of amorphous metal oxide materials to fabricate thin-film transistors (TFTs) has received great recent interest. We demonstrate here an optimized "ink" and printing process for inkjet patterning of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) TFTs and investigate the effects of device structure on derived electron mobility. Bottom-gate top-contact (BGTC) TFTs are fabricated and shown to exhibit electron mobilities comparable to a-Si:H. Furthermore, a record electron mobility of 2.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) is demonstrated for bottom-gate bottom-contact (BGBC) TFTs. The mechanism underlying such impressive performance is investigated using transmission line techniques, and it is shown that the semiconductor-source/drain electrode interface contact resistance is nearly an order of magnitude lower for BGBC transistors versus BGTC devices. PMID:22321212

  12. Hydrogen plasma treatment for improved conductivity in amorphous aluminum doped zinc tin oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Morales-Masis, M., E-mail: monica.moralesmasis@epfl.ch; Ding, L.; Dauzou, F. [Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory (PVLab), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne - EPFL, Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Jeangros, Q. [Interdisciplinary Centre for Electron Microscopy, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Hessler-Wyser, A. [Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory (PVLab), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne - EPFL, Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Interdisciplinary Centre for Electron Microscopy, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Nicolay, S. [Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique (CSEM) SA, Rue Jaquet-Droz 1, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Ballif, C. [Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory (PVLab), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne - EPFL, Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique (CSEM) SA, Rue Jaquet-Droz 1, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2014-09-01

    Improving the conductivity of earth-abundant transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) remains an important challenge that will facilitate the replacement of indium-based TCOs. Here, we show that a hydrogen (H{sub 2})-plasma post-deposition treatment improves the conductivity of amorphous aluminum-doped zinc tin oxide while retaining its low optical absorption. We found that the H{sub 2}-plasma treatment performed at a substrate temperature of 50?°C reduces the resistivity of the films by 57% and increases the absorptance by only 2%. Additionally, the low substrate temperature delays the known formation of tin particles with the plasma and it allows the application of the process to temperature-sensitive substrates.

  13. Transient characteristics for proton gating in laterally coupled indium-zinc-oxide transistors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Zhu, Li Qiang; Xiao, Hui; Wan, Chang Jin; Liu, Yang Hui; Chao, Jin Yu

    2015-03-25

    The control and detection over processing, transport and delivery of chemical species is of great importance in sensors and biological systems. The transient characteristics of the migration of chemical species reflect the basic properties in the processings of chemical species. Here, we observed the field-configurable proton effects in a laterally coupled transistor gated by phosphorosilicate glass (PSG). The bias on the lateral gate would modulate the interplay between protons and electrons at the PSG/indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) channel interface. Due to the modulation of protons flux within the PSG films, the IZO channel current would be modified correspondingly. The characteristic time for the proton gating is estimated to be on the order of 20 ms. Such laterally coupled oxide based transistors with proton gating are promising for low-cost portable biosensors and neuromorphic system applications. PMID:25741771

  14. Low-voltage zinc oxide thin-film transistors with solution-processed channel and dielectric layers below 150 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoli; Cui, Qingyu; Jin, Yizheng; Guo, Xiaojun

    2012-11-01

    In this letter, solution processed low voltage (<3 V) zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film transistors with the maximum process temperature not exceeding 150 °C were achieved. In the devices, an ultra-thin zirconium oxide layer was formed as the gate dielectric via ultraviolet irradiation assisted sol-gel processes, and the ZnO channel was processed from an aqueous precursor of ammine-hydroxo zinc complex. The devices can be operated under a voltage of 3 V, and show decent device performance with the field effect mobility of 0.45 cm2/V . s and an ON/OFF current ratio of 105.

  15. Dual operation characteristics of resistance random access memory in indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jyun-Bao; Chen, Yu-Ting; Chu, Ann-Kuo [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Huang, Jheng-Jie; Chen, Yu-Chun; Tseng, Hsueh-Chih [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Sze, Simon M. [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-14

    In this study, indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors can be operated either as transistors or resistance random access memory devices. Before the forming process, current-voltage curve transfer characteristics are observed, and resistance switching characteristics are measured after a forming process. These resistance switching characteristics exhibit two behaviors, and are dominated by different mechanisms. The mode 1 resistance switching behavior is due to oxygen vacancies, while mode 2 is dominated by the formation of an oxygen-rich layer. Furthermore, an easy approach is proposed to reduce power consumption when using these resistance random access memory devices with the amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor.

  16. Protein Biosensors Based on Polymer Nanowires, Carbon Nanotubes and Zinc Oxide Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    M., Anish Kumar; Jung, Soyoun; Ji, Taeksoo

    2011-01-01

    The development of biosensors using electrochemical methods is a promising application in the field of biotechnology. High sensitivity sensors for the bio-detection of proteins have been developed using several kinds of nanomaterials. The performance of the sensors depends on the type of nanostructures with which the biomaterials interact. One dimensional (1-D) structures such as nanowires, nanotubes and nanorods are proven to have high potential for bio-applications. In this paper we review these three different kinds of nanostructures that have attracted much attention at recent times with their great performance as biosensors. Materials such as polymers, carbon and zinc oxide have been widely used for the fabrication of nanostructures because of their enhanced performance in terms of sensitivity, biocompatibility, and ease of preparation. Thus we consider polymer nanowires, carbon nanotubes and zinc oxide nanorods for discussion in this paper. We consider three stages in the development of biosensors: (a) fabrication of biomaterials into nanostructures, (b) alignment of the nanostructures and (c) immobilization of proteins. Two different methods by which the biosensors can be developed at each stage for all the three nanostructures are examined. Finally, we conclude by mentioning some of the major challenges faced by many researchers who seek to fabricate biosensors for real time applications. PMID:22163892

  17. Valence band structure in boron-zinc oxide films characterized by secondary electron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Choi, Joon H.; Yoo, Ha J.; Kwon, Gi C.; Choi, Eun H.

    2012-03-01

    Properties of the valence band structure in boron-zinc oxide (BZO) films were investigated using the secondary electron emission due to the Auger neutralization of helium ions, with respect to the application of BZO films to the development of solar cells, in which the conductivity of the BZO films plays a critical role in improving cell performance. The characteristic energy ?0 corresponding to the peak density of states in the valence band showed that BZO film prepared with a 3000 SCCM B2H6 gas flow rate (SCCM denotes cubic centimeters per minute at standard temperature and pressure) had a shallow characteristic energy ?0 = 5 eV, whereas film without boron doping had a deep characteristic energy ?0 = 8.2 eV, suggesting that a high concentration of boron impurity in BZO films might enhance the transition of electrons and holes through the bandgap from the valence to the conduction band in zinc oxide crystals, thereby improving the conductivity of the film. The measurement method developed here demonstrates that the secondary electron emission is very useful in the determination of the band structure in various synthetic films.

  18. Solvothermal synthesis of gallium-indium-zinc-oxide nanoparticles for electrolyte-gated transistors.

    PubMed

    Santos, Lídia; Nunes, Daniela; Calmeiro, Tomás; Branquinho, Rita; Salgueiro, Daniela; Barquinha, Pedro; Pereira, Luís; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2015-01-14

    Solution-processed field-effect transistors are strategic building blocks when considering low-cost sustainable flexible electronics. Nevertheless, some challenges (e.g., processing temperature, reliability, reproducibility in large areas, and cost effectiveness) are requirements that must be surpassed in order to achieve high-performance transistors. The present work reports electrolyte-gated transistors using as channel layer gallium-indium-zinc-oxide nanoparticles produced by solvothermal synthesis combined with a solid-state electrolyte based on aqueous dispersions of vinyl acetate stabilized with cellulose derivatives, acrylic acid ester in styrene and lithium perchlorate. The devices fabricated using this approach display a ION/IOFF up to 1 × 10(6), threshold voltage (VTh) of 0.3-1.9 V, and mobility up to 1 cm(2)/(V s), as a function of gallium-indium-zinc-oxide ink formulation and two different annealing temperatures. These results validates the usage of electrolyte-gated transistors as a viable and promising alternative for nanoparticle based semiconductor devices as the electrolyte improves the interface and promotes a more efficient step coverage of the channel layer, reducing the operating voltage when compared with conventional dielectrics gating. Moreover, it is shown that by controlling the applied gate potential, the operation mechanism of the electrolyte-gated transistors can be modified from electric double layer to electrochemical doping. PMID:25517251

  19. Large-scale synthesis of zinc oxide rose-like structures and their optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Wei; Yu, Ke; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhu, Xia; Peng, Deyan; Zhu, Ziqiang; Dai, Ning; Sun, Yan

    2008-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) rose-like structures, which are composed of several or tens of nanoplates, have been successfully synthesized on a large scale through the hydrothermal decomposed method. The influences of the pH and the concentration of the reaction precursors on the morphology, orientation and density of the obtained ZnO nanocrystals were investigated. It was found that the pH and the concentration significantly affected the morphology, orientation and density of the as-grown ZnO nanostructures. The obtained zinc oxide rose-like structures were investigated by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction and photoluminescence. The possible growth mechanism of the rose-like structures was briefly discussed. This facile low-cost controllable growth procedure should promise us a future large-scale synthesis of ZnO nanostructures for many important applications in nano-/micro-scale devices. Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra from the ZnO rose- and daisy-like nanostructures reveal similar photoluminescence features: a strong UV emission peak at about 378 nm and a weak green emission band at ?500 nm. The strong UV photoluminescence and the weak green emission indicate the good crystallization quality of the rose-like nanostructures.

  20. Rational design of amorphous indium zinc oxide/carbon nanotube hybrid film for unique performance transistors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingqiang; Wang, Chunlan; Cai, Bo; Xiao, Xiangheng; Guo, Shishang; Fan, Zhiyong; Li, Jinchai; Duan, Xiangfeng; Liao, Lei

    2012-07-11

    Here we report unique performance transistors based on sol-gel processed indium zinc oxide/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) composite thin films. In the composite, SWNTs provide fast tracks for carrier transport to significantly improve the apparent field effect mobility. Specifically, the composite thin film transistors with SWNT weight concentrations in the range of 0-2 wt % have been investigated with the field effect mobility reaching as high as 140 cm(2)/V·s at 1 wt % SWNTs while maintaining a high on/off ratio ?10(7). Furthermore, the introduction SWNTs into the composite thin film render excellent mechanical flexibility for flexible electronics. The dynamic loading test presents evidently superior mechanical stability with only 17% variation at a bending radius as small as 700 ?m, and the repeated bending test shows only 8% normalized resistance variation after 300 cycles of folding and unfolding, demonstrating enormous improvement over the basic amorphous indium zinc oxide thin film. The results provide an important advance toward high-performance flexible electronics applications. PMID:22694726

  1. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Selective Destruction of Tumor Cells and Potential for Drug Delivery Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, John W.; Martinez, Ezequiel; Louka, Panagiota; Wingett, Denise G.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Metal oxide nanoparticles, including zinc oxide, are versatile platforms for biomedical applications and therapeutic intervention. There is an urgent need to develop new classes of anticancer agents, and recent studies demonstrate that ZnO nanomaterials hold considerable promise. Areas covered in this review This review analyzes the biomedical applications of metal oxide and ZnO nanomaterials under development at the experimental, preclinical, and clinical levels. A discussion regarding the advantages, approaches, and limitations surrounding the use of metal oxide nanoparticles for cancer applications and drug delivery is presented. The scope of this article is focused on ZnO, and other metal oxide nanomaterial systems, and their proposed mechanisms of cytotoxic action, as well as current approaches to improve their targeting and cytotoxicity against cancer cells. Take home message Through a better understanding of the mechanisms of action and cellular consequences resulting from nanoparticles interactions with cells, the inherent toxicity and selectivity of ZnO nanoparticles against cancer may be further improved to make them attractive new anti-cancer agents. PMID:20716019

  2. Growth of layered basic zinc acetate in methanolic solutions and its pyrolytic transformation into porous zinc oxide films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiji Hosono; Shinobu Fujihara; Toshio Kimura; Hiroaki Imai

    2004-01-01

    Layered basic zinc acetate (LBZA), Zn5(OH)8(CH3COO)2·2H2O, was deposited on glass substrates by a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method using methanolic solutions of zinc acetate dihydrate. The substrates were put into bottles filled with the solutions and sealed up and were kept at 60°C in a drying oven. Immersion time necessary for the deposition of LBZA films was typically more than

  3. Antibacterial activity of root canal filling materials for primary teeth: zinc oxide and eugenol cement, Calen paste thickened with zinc oxide, Sealapex and EndoREZ.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino de; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra da; Assed, Sada; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da; Ito, Izabel Yoko

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated in vitro the antibacterial activity of 4 root canal filling materials for primary teeth - zinc oxide and eugenol cement (ZOE), Calen paste thickened with zinc oxide (Calen/ZO), Sealapex sealer and EndoREZ sealer - against 5 bacterial strains commonly found in endodontic infections (Kocuria rhizophila, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) using the agar diffusion test (agar-well technique). Calen paste, 1% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and distilled water served as controls. Seven wells per dish were made at equidistant points and immediately filled with the test and control materials. After incubation of the plates at 37 degrees C for 24 h, the diameter of the zones of bacterial growth inhibition produced around the wells was measured (in mm) with a digital caliper under reflected light. Data were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test (alpha=0.05). There were statistically significant differences (p<0.0001) among the zones of bacterial growth inhibition produced by the different materials against all target microorganisms. K. rhizophila was inhibited more effectively (p<0.05) by ZOE, while Calen/ZO had its highest antibacterial activity against E. faecalis (p<0.05). S. mutans was inhibited by Calen/ZO, Sealapex and ZOE in the same intensity (p>0.05). E. coli was inhibited more effectively (p<0.05) by ZOE, followed by Calen/ZO and Sealapex. Calen/ZO and ZOE were equally effective (p>0.05) against S. aureus, while Sealapex had the lowest antibacterial efficacy (p<0.05) against this microorganism. EndoREZ presented antibacterial activity only against K. rhizophila and S. aureus. The Calen paste and Calen/ZO produced larger zones of inhibition than 1% CHX when the marker microorganism was E faecalis. In conclusion, the in vitro antibacterial activity of the 4 root canal filling materials for primary teeth against bacterial strains commonly found in endodontic infections can be presented in a decreasing order of efficacy as follows: ZOE>Calen/ZO>Sealapex>EndoREZ. PMID:20069251

  4. Improving the Li-ion storage performance of layered zinc silicate through the interlayer carbon and reduced graphene oxide networks.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jin; Yan, Yang; Yin, Ya-Xia; Guo, Yu-Guo; Song, Wei-Guo

    2013-06-26

    A novel layered zinc silicate/carbon composite was fabricated through carbon embedment into the interlayers of zinc silicate through a hydrothermal method. The interlayer space could be effectively tuned from 1.22 to 3.37 nm by controlling the amount of carbon precursors. Such a layered zinc silicate/carbon structure promoted the lithium ions and electron transportation within the nanostructures, while the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) network improved the conductivity between nanostructures. Such a 3-D carbon based conductive network improved zinc silicates' lithium storage property. After 50 cycles, two composite samples with different carbon loadings showed 778 mA h/g and 704 mA h/g, respectively. PMID:23701368

  5. Photoluminescence properties of zinc oxide in paints: a study of the effect of self-absorption and passivation.

    PubMed

    Clementi, Catia; Rosi, Francesca; Romani, Aldo; Vivani, Riccardo; Brunetti, Brunetto G; Miliani, Costanza

    2012-10-01

    Zinc oxide has been widely used as a white artist pigment since the end of the eighteenth century. The luminescence properties of this compound have received great interest during the last decades for promising applications in different fields of material science, but their diagnostic implications in the cultural-heritage context have been poorly exploited. This paper is intended to provide a clear picture of the luminescence behavior of zinc white in oil paintings. With this aim, three white pigments and three highly pure (analytical grade) zinc oxides were studied as powder substrates and as painting models by ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The quenching of the luminescence intensity of the UV excitonic emission due to self-absorption and multiple scattering phenomena has been investigated, pointing out the possible difficulty of detecting this signal with negative consequences in the diagnostics of works of art. By contrast, the UV emission is notably enhanced by interaction with the binder, whereas the visible emission decreases. This phenomenon is probably due to the formation of covalent bonds between zinc atoms and carboxylates from the lipidic medium that are chemisorbed on zinc oxide surfaces. PMID:23031708

  6. Local vapor transport synthesis of zinc oxide nanowires for ultraviolet-enhanced gas sensing This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-print Network

    Lin, Liwei

    Local vapor transport synthesis of zinc oxide nanowires for ultraviolet-enhanced gas sensing.1088/0957-4484/21/49/495502 Local vapor transport synthesis of zinc oxide nanowires for ultraviolet-enhanced gas sensing Lei Luo of nanowires into functional devices. The single-crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires are grown locally

  7. 40 CFR 721.10107 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, [amino-hydroxy-[(substituted)azo-sulfo-naphthaleneyl]azo]-hydroxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...methoxy-sulfophenyl)azo], metal salt (generic). 721.10107 Section 721...methoxy-sulfophenyl)azo], metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...methoxy-sulfophenyl)azo], metal salt (PMN P-04-495) is subject to...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10107 - Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, [amino-hydroxy-[(substituted)azo-sulfo-naphthaleneyl]azo]-hydroxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...methoxy-sulfophenyl)azo], metal salt (generic). 721.10107 Section 721...methoxy-sulfophenyl)azo], metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...methoxy-sulfophenyl)azo], metal salt (PMN P-04-495) is subject to...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2577 - Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt (generic). 721.2577 Section 721...substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt (generic). Link to an amendment published...substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt (PMNs P-00-0364 and...

  10. Effect of dietary zinc oxide on morphological characteristics, mucin composition and gene expression in the colon of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Pieper, Robert; Rieger, Juliane; Vahjen, Wilfried; Davin, Roger; Plendl, Johanna; Meyer, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The trace element zinc is often used in the diet of weaned piglets, as high doses have resulted in positive effects on intestinal health. However, the majority of previous studies evaluated zinc supplementations for a short period only and focused on the small intestine. The hypothesis of the present study was that low, medium and high levels of dietary zinc (57, 164 and 2,425 mg Zn/kg from zinc oxide) would affect colonic morphology and innate host defense mechanisms across 4 weeks post-weaning. Histological examinations were conducted regarding the colonic morphology and neutral, acidic, sialylated and sulphated mucins. The mRNA expression levels of mucin (MUC) 1, 2, 13, 20, toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4, interleukin (IL)-1?, 8, 10, interferon-? (IFN-?) and transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) were also measured. The colonic crypt area increased in an age-depending manner, and the greatest area was found with medium concentration of dietary zinc. With the high concentration of dietary zinc, the number of goblet cells containing mixed neutral-acidic mucins and total mucins increased. Sialomucin containing goblet cells increased age-dependently. The expression of MUC2 increased with age and reached the highest level at 47 days of age. The expression levels of TLR2 and 4 decreased with age. The mRNA expression of TLR4 and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 were down-regulated with high dietary zinc treatment, while piglets fed with medium dietary zinc had the highest expression. It is concluded that dietary zinc level had a clear impact on colonic morphology, mucin profiles and immunological traits in piglets after weaning. Those changes might support local defense mechanisms and affect colonic physiology and contribute to the reported reduction of post-weaning diarrhea. PMID:24609095

  11. Effect of Dietary Zinc Oxide on Morphological Characteristics, Mucin Composition and Gene Expression in the Colon of Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Pieper, Robert; Rieger, Juliane; Vahjen, Wilfried; Davin, Roger; Plendl, Johanna; Meyer, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The trace element zinc is often used in the diet of weaned piglets, as high doses have resulted in positive effects on intestinal health. However, the majority of previous studies evaluated zinc supplementations for a short period only and focused on the small intestine. The hypothesis of the present study was that low, medium and high levels of dietary zinc (57, 164 and 2,425 mg Zn/kg from zinc oxide) would affect colonic morphology and innate host defense mechanisms across 4 weeks post-weaning. Histological examinations were conducted regarding the colonic morphology and neutral, acidic, sialylated and sulphated mucins. The mRNA expression levels of mucin (MUC) 1, 2, 13, 20, toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4, interleukin (IL)-1?, 8, 10, interferon-? (IFN-?) and transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) were also measured. The colonic crypt area increased in an age-depending manner, and the greatest area was found with medium concentration of dietary zinc. With the high concentration of dietary zinc, the number of goblet cells containing mixed neutral-acidic mucins and total mucins increased. Sialomucin containing goblet cells increased age-dependently. The expression of MUC2 increased with age and reached the highest level at 47 days of age. The expression levels of TLR2 and 4 decreased with age. The mRNA expression of TLR4 and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 were down-regulated with high dietary zinc treatment, while piglets fed with medium dietary zinc had the highest expression. It is concluded that dietary zinc level had a clear impact on colonic morphology, mucin profiles and immunological traits in piglets after weaning. Those changes might support local defense mechanisms and affect colonic physiology and contribute to the reported reduction of post-weaning diarrhea. PMID:24609095

  12. Properties of solid solutions, doped film, and nanocomposite structures based on zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashkarev, G. V.; Shtepliuk, I. I.; Ievtushenko, A. I.; Khyzhun, O. Y.; Kartuzov, V. V.; Ovsiannikova, L. I.; Karpyna, V. A.; Myroniuk, D. V.; Khomyak, V. V.; Tkach, V. N.; Timofeeva, I. I.; Popovich, V. I.; Dranchuk, N. V.; Khranovskyy, V. D.; Demydiuk, P. V.

    2015-02-01

    A study of the properties of materials based on the wide bandgap zinc oxide semiconductor, which are promising for application in optoelectronics, photovoltaics and nanoplasmonics. The structural and optical properties of solid solution Zn1-xCdxO films with different cadmium content, are studied. The samples are grown using magnetron sputtering on sapphire backing. Low-temperature photoluminescence spectra revealed emission peaks associated with radiative recombination processes in those areas of the film that have varying amounts of cadmium. X-ray phase analysis showed the presence of a cadmium oxide cubic phase in these films. Theoretical studies of the solid solution thermodynamic properties allowed for a qualitative interpretation of the observed experimental phenomena. It is established that the growth of the homogeneous solid solution film is possible only at high temperatures, whereas regions of inhomogeneous composition can be narrowed through elastic deformation, caused by the mismatch of the film-backing lattice constants. The driving forces of the spinodal decomposition of the Zn1-xCdxO system are identified. Fullerene-like clusters of Znn-xCdxOn are used to calculate the bandgap and the cohesive energy of ZnCdO solid solutions. The properties of transparent conductive ZnO films, doped with Group III donor impurities (Al, Ga, In), are examined. It is shown that oxygen vacancies are responsible for the hole trap centers in the zinc oxide photoconductivity process. We also examine the photoluminescence properties of metal-ZnO nanocomposite structures, caused by surface plasmons.

  13. Intrinsic and interfacial effect of electrode metals on the resistive switching behaviors of zinc oxide films.

    PubMed

    Xue, W H; Xiao, W; Shang, J; Chen, X X; Zhu, X J; Pan, L; Tan, H W; Zhang, W B; Ji, Z H; Liu, G; Xu, X-H; Ding, J; Li, R-W

    2014-10-24

    Exploring the role of electrode metals on the resistive switching properties of metal electrode/oxide/metal electrode sandwiched structures provides not only essential information to understand the underlying switching mechanism of the devices, but also useful guidelines for the optimization of the switching performance. A systematic study has been performed to investigate the influence of electrodes on the resistive switching characteristics of zinc oxide (ZnO) films in this contribution, in terms of both the intrinsic and interfacial effects. It has been found that the low-resistance state resistances (?(LRS)) of all the investigated devices are below 50 ?, which can be attributed to the formation of highly conductive channels throughout the ZnO films. On the other hand, the high-resistance state resistances (?(HRS)) depend on the electronegativity and ionic size of the employed electrode metals. Devices with electrode metals of high electronegativity and large ionic size possess high ?(HRS) values, while those with electrode metals of low electronegativity and small ionic size carry low ?(HRS) values. A similar trend of the set voltages has also been observed, while the reset voltages are all distributed in a narrow range close to ±0.5 V. Moreover, the forming voltages of the switching devices strongly depend on the roughness of the metal/ZnO and/or ZnO/metal interface. The present work provides essential information for better understanding the switching mechanism of zinc oxide based devices, and benefits the rational selection of proper electrode metals for the device performance optimization. PMID:25274278

  14. Physiology and biochemistry of reduction of azo compounds by Shewanella strains relevant to electron transport chain

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ji-Dong

    2010-01-01

    Azo dyes are toxic, highly persistent, and ubiquitously distributed in the environments. The large-scale production and application of azo dyes result in serious environmental pollution of water and sediments. Bacterial azo reduction is an important process for removing this group of contaminants. Recent advances in this area of research reveal that azo reduction by Shewanella strains is coupled to the oxidation of electron donors and linked to the electron transport and energy conservation in the cell membrane. Up to date, several key molecular components involved in this reaction have been identified and the primary electron transportation system has been proposed. These new discoveries on the respiration pathways and electron transfer for bacterial azo reduction has potential biotechnological implications in cleaning up contaminated sites. PMID:20706834

  15. Physiology and biochemistry of reduction of azo compounds by Shewanella strains relevant to electron transport chain.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yi-Guo; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2010-10-01

    Azo dyes are toxic, highly persistent, and ubiquitously distributed in the environments. The large-scale production and application of azo dyes result in serious environmental pollution of water and sediments. Bacterial azo reduction is an important process for removing this group of contaminants. Recent advances in this area of research reveal that azo reduction by Shewanella strains is coupled to the oxidation of electron donors and linked to the electron transport and energy conservation in the cell membrane. Up to date, several key molecular components involved in this reaction have been identified and the primary electron transportation system has been proposed. These new discoveries on the respiration pathways and electron transfer for bacterial azo reduction has potential biotechnological implications in cleaning up contaminated sites. PMID:20706834

  16. Degradation of Azo Dyes by Laccase and Ultrasound Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael M. Tauber; Georg M. Guebitz; Astrid Rehorek

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this work was to investigate the decomposition of azo dyes by oxidative methods, such as laccase and ultrasound treatments. Each of these methods has strong and feeble sides. The laccase treatment showed high decolorization rates but cannot degrade all investigated dyes (reactive dyes), and high anionic strength led to enzyme deactivation. Ultrasound treatment can decolorize all tested

  17. Sol-Gel Zinc Oxide Humidity Sensors Integrated with a Ring Oscillator Circuit On-a-Chip

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

    2014-01-01

    The study develops an integrated humidity microsensor fabricated using the commercial 0.18 ?m complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The integrated humidity sensor consists of a humidity sensor and a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip. The humidity sensor is composed of a sensitive film and branch interdigitated electrodes. The sensitive film is zinc oxide prepared by sol-gel method. After completion of the CMOS process, the sensor requires a post-process to remove the sacrificial oxide layer and to coat the zinc oxide film on the interdigitated electrodes. The capacitance of the sensor changes when the sensitive film adsorbs water vapor. The circuit is used to convert the capacitance of the humidity sensor into the oscillation frequency output. Experimental results show that the output frequency of the sensor changes from 84.3 to 73.4 MHz at 30 °C as the humidity increases 40 to 90 %RH. PMID:25353984

  18. Sol-gel zinc oxide humidity sensors integrated with a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

    2014-01-01

    The study develops an integrated humidity microsensor fabricated using the commercial 0.18 ?m complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The integrated humidity sensor consists of a humidity sensor and a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip. The humidity sensor is composed of a sensitive film and branch interdigitated electrodes. The sensitive film is zinc oxide prepared by sol-gel method. After completion of the CMOS process, the sensor requires a post-process to remove the sacrificial oxide layer and to coat the zinc oxide film on the interdigitated electrodes. The capacitance of the sensor changes when the sensitive film adsorbs water vapor. The circuit is used to convert the capacitance of the humidity sensor into the oscillation frequency output. Experimental results show that the output frequency of the sensor changes from 84.3 to 73.4 MHz at 30 °C as the humidity increases 40 to 90%RH. PMID:25353984

  19. Role of water temperature in the fate and transport of zinc oxide nanoparticles in aquatic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majedi, Seyed Mohammad; Lee, Hian Kee; Kelly, Barry C.

    2013-04-01

    The influence of water temperature on the aggregation and dissolution kinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) (mean diameter ~40 nm) was investigated. Samples of 100 mg.L-1 ZnO NPs were incubated at 15, 25 and 35 °C, similar to the surface temperature of cold freshwater, temperate estuarine, and tropical/sub-tropical coastal marine ecosystems, respectively. The natural organic matter (NOM) content, pH, electrolyte type, and ionic strength (IS), were adjusted on the basis of the water chemistries of typical aqueous systems. Specifically, the time-dependent hydrodynamic diameters (HDDs) and sedimentation plots were obtained over the first 3 h and after 24 h using time-resolved dynamic light scattering (TR-DLS) and UV-visible spectroscopy, respectively. The settling distance was further modeled for the aggregates with various HDDs according to the Stokes' sedimentation equation. The dissolution kinetics was studied over the first 12 h and after 48 h in term of percentage of released zinc ions. The results showed that the HDD increased at elevated temperatures, termed as temperature-induced aggregation, while dissolution was reduced. The aggregation at higher temperatures further hindered the dissolution due to the decrease in the surface area of the NPs. We express this process as "aggregate-suppressed dissolution". The maximum aggregation was reached in the tropical coastal marine environment with the HDD >3 ?m, and the released zinc ion of 9.2% was obtained in the cold freshwater. Based on the results, the aggregation rate of 1.57 nm.s-1 was estimated for the former, and the dissolution rate of 7.44 × 10-5 mol.L-1.h-1 was calculated for the latter, respectively. The predicted values successfully fitted to genuine water samples (<26% deviation). This study provides useful data for environmental risk assessment of exposure of ZnO NPs to water column and benthic organisms.

  20. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Zinc Oxide Quantum Dots Against Listeria Monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO QDs) in a powder form, a ZnO-polystyrene (PS) film form and a polyvinylprolidone capped ZnO (ZnO-PVP) gel form were prepared and their antibacterial activities against foodborne pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cul...

  1. Human Skin Penetration of Sunscreen Nanoparticles: In-vitro Assessment of a Novel Micronized Zinc Oxide Formulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheree E. Cross; Brian Innes; Michael S. Roberts; Takuya Tsuzuki; Terry A. Robertson; Paul McCormick

    2007-01-01

    The extent to which topically applied solid nanoparticles can penetrate the stratum corneum and access the underlying viable epidermis and the rest of the body is a great potential safety concern. Therefore, human epidermal penetration of a novel, transparent, nanoparticulate zinc oxide sunscreen formulation was determined using Franz-type diffusion cells, 24-hour exposure and an electron microscopy to verify the location

  2. Influence of tetrapod-shaped zinc oxide whisker on poly(vinylidene fluoride) based gel polymer electrolyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biaobing Wang; Zuowan Zhou; Lixia Gu

    2003-01-01

    The influence of zinc oxide whisker (ZnOw) on the ionic conductivity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) based gel polymer composite electrolyte was investigated by impedance spectroscopy. The critical volume content (Vc) to constitute the ideal network channel was calculated theoretically, and it was found that Vc was higher than that of the experimental result.

  3. A Retrospective Assessment of Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Pulpectomies in Vital Maxillary Primary Incisors Successfully Restored With Composite Resin Crowns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Primosch; Anissa Ahmadi; Barry Setzer

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate, via clinical and radio- graphic assessments, the treatment outcome of zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) pulpectomies performed in vital maxillary primary incisors successfully restored with composite resin crowns. Methods: Pulpectomized vital primary incisors were treated by a uniformed technique, filled with ZOE paste, and successfully restored with composite resin crowns. Those that

  4. Effect of doping level and spray time on zinc oxide thin films produced by spray pyrolysis for transparent electrodes applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Ben Achour; T. Ktari; B. Ouertani; O. Touayar; B. Bessais; J. Ben Brahim

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of optical, electrical and structural properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) semiconductors thin layers with various aluminium (Al) doping level and deposited at different spray time using the spray pyrolysis technique in atmospheric pressure. The study of optical properties from reflection and transmission spectra shows a high transmission value a band gap energy of

  5. Influence of the semiconductor thickness on the electrical properties of transparent TFTs based on indium zinc oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Barquinha; A. Pimentel; A. Marques; L. Pereira; R. Martins; E. Fortunato

    2006-01-01

    Multicomponent amorphous oxides are starting to emerge as a class of appealing semiconductor materials for application in transparent electronics. In this work, a high performance bottom-gate n-type transparent thin-film transistors are reported, being the discussion primarily focused on the influence of the indium zinc oxide active layer thickness on the properties of the devices. For this purpose, transparent transistors with

  6. Dissolution kinetics of macronutrient fertilizers coated with manufactured zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Milani, Narges; McLaughlin, Mike J; Stacey, Samuel P; Kirby, Jason K; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Beak, Douglas G; Cornelis, Geert

    2012-04-25

    The solubility of Zn in Zn fertilizers plays an important role in the agronomic effectiveness of the fertilizer. On the basis of thermodynamics, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) should dissolve faster and to a greater extent than bulk ZnO particles (equivalent spherical diameter >100 nm). These novel solubility features of ZnO NPs might be exploited to improve the efficiency of Zn fertilizers. In this study, we compared the Zn solubility and dissolution kinetics of ZnO nanoparticles and bulk ZnO particles coated onto two selected granular macronutrient fertilizers, urea and monoammonium phosphate (MAP). The main Zn species on coated MAP and urea granules were zinc ammonium phosphate and ZnO, respectively. Coated MAP granules showed greater Zn solubility and faster dissolution rates in sand columns compared to coated urea granules, which may be related to pH differences in the solution surrounding the fertilizer granules. The kinetics of Zn dissolution was not affected by the size of the ZnO particles applied for coating of either fertilizer type, possibly because solubility was controlled by formation of the same compounds irrespective of the size of the original ZnO particles used for coating. PMID:22480134

  7. Zinc(II) oxide solubility and phase behavior in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemniak, S.E.; Jones, M.E.; Combs, K.E.S.

    1990-02-01

    A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility is used to investigate the solubility/phase behavior of zinc(II) oxide in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at temperatures between 290 and 560 K. ZnO solubilities are observed to increase continuously with temperature and phosphate concentration. At higher phosphate concentrations, a solid phase transformation to NaZnPO{sub 4} is observed. NaZnPO{sub 4} solubilities are retrograde with temperature. The measured solubility behavior is examined via a Zn(II) ion hydrolysis/complexing model and thermodynamic functions for the hydrolysis/complexing reaction equilibria are obtained from a least-squares analysis of the data. The existence of two new zinc(II) ion complexes is reported for the first time: Zn(OH){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sup 2{minus}} and Zn(OH){sub 3}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sup 2{minus}}. A summary of thermochemical properties for species in the systems ZnO-H{sub 2}O and ZnO-Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-H{sub 2}O is also provided. 21 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Chromium and Ruthenium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films for Propane Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Pozos, Heberto; González-Vidal, José Luis; Torres, Gonzalo Alberto; Rodríguez-Baez, Jorge; Maldonado, Arturo; de la Luz Olvera, María; Acosta, Dwight Roberto; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Castañeda, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Chromium and ruthenium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Cr) and (ZnO:Ru) thin solid films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by the sol-gel dip-coating method. A 0.6 M solution of zinc acetate dihydrate dissolved in 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine was used as basic solution. Chromium (III) acetylacetonate and Ruthenium (III) trichloride were used as doping sources. The Ru incorporation and its distribution profile into the films were proved by the SIMS technique. The morphology and structure of the films were studied by SEM microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements, respectively. The SEM images show porous surfaces covered by small grains with different grain size, depending on the doping element, and the immersions number into the doping solutions. The sensing properties of ZnO:Cr and ZnO:Ru films in a propane (C3H8) atmosphere, as a function of the immersions number in the doping solution, have been studied in the present work. The highest sensitivity values were obtained for films doped from five immersions, 5.8 and 900, for ZnO:Cr and ZnO:Ru films, respectively. In order to evidence the catalytic effect of the chromium (Cr) and ruthenium (Ru), the sensing characteristics of undoped ZnO films are reported as well. PMID:23482091

  9. Continuous synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles in a microfluidic system for photovoltaic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun Wook; Leem, Juyoung; Yoon, Sang Youl; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2014-02-01

    This study describes the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using a microfluidic system. A continuous and efficient synthetic process was developed based on a microfluidic reactor in which was implemented a time pulsed mixing method that had been optimized using numerical simulations and experimental methods. Numerical simulations revealed that efficient mixing conditions could be obtained over the frequency range 5-15 Hz. This system used ethanol solutions containing 30 mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or 10 mM dehydrated zinc acetate (Zn(OAc)2) under 5 Hz pulsed conditions, which provided the optimal mixing performance conditions. The ZnO NPs prepared using the microfluidic synthetic system or batch-processed system were validated by several analytical methods, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV/VIS NIR and zeta (?) potential analysis. Bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells were fabricated with the synthesized ZnO NPs to investigate the practicability and compared with batch-process synthesized ZnO NPs. The results showed that microfluidic synthesized ZnO NPs had good preservability and stability in working solution and the synthetic microfluidic system provided a low-cost, environmentally friendly approach to the continuous production of ZnO NPs.

  10. The repeated dose toxicity of a zinc oxide/hexachloroethane smoke.

    PubMed

    Marrs, T C; Colgrave, H F; Edginton, J A; Brown, R F; Cross, N L

    1988-01-01

    Mice, rats and guinea pigs were exposed to the smoke produced by ignition of a zinc oxide/hexachloroethane pyrotechnic composition, 1 h/day, 5 days/week, at three different dose levels, together with controls. The animals received 100 exposures except for the high dose guinea pigs, which underwent 15 exposures, because of high death rate during the first few days of exposure. The test material had very little effect on weight gain, but there was a high rate of early deaths in the top dose of mice. A variety of incidental findings was seen in both decedents and survivors, but organ specific toxicity was, with one exception, confined to the respiratory tract. The most important of these findings was a statistically significant increase in the frequency of alveologenic carcinoma in the high dose group mice (p less than 0.01) and a statistically significant trend in the prevalence of the same tumour over all dose groups and the controls. A variety of inflammatory changes was seen in the lungs of all species and some appeared to be treatment-related. Fatty change in the mouse liver was more common in the middle and high dose groups than the controls. The aetiology of the tumour incidence is discussed and it is pointed out that hexachloroethane and zinc, as well as carbon tetrachloride, which may be present in the smoke, may be animal carcinogens in appropriate circumstances. Carbon tetrachloride is a known human carcinogen. PMID:3196147

  11. Continuous synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles in a microfluidic system for photovoltaic application.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Wook; Leem, Juyoung; Yoon, Sang Youl; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2014-03-01

    This study describes the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using a microfluidic system. A continuous and efficient synthetic process was developed based on a microfluidic reactor in which was implemented a time pulsed mixing method that had been optimized using numerical simulations and experimental methods. Numerical simulations revealed that efficient mixing conditions could be obtained over the frequency range 5-15 Hz. This system used ethanol solutions containing 30 mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or 10 mM dehydrated zinc acetate (Zn(OAc)2) under 5 Hz pulsed conditions, which provided the optimal mixing performance conditions. The ZnO NPs prepared using the microfluidic synthetic system or batch-processed system were validated by several analytical methods, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV/VIS NIR and zeta (?) potential analysis. Bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells were fabricated with the synthesized ZnO NPs to investigate the practicability and compared with batch-process synthesized ZnO NPs. The results showed that microfluidic synthesized ZnO NPs had good preservability and stability in working solution and the synthetic microfluidic system provided a low-cost, environmentally friendly approach to the continuous production of ZnO NPs. PMID:24469327

  12. Structural, optical and electrical properties of zinc oxide thin films deposited by a spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoun, Yacine; Benhaoua, Boubaker; Gasmi, Brahim; Benramache, Said

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique decomposition of zinc acetate dihydrate in an ethanol solution with 30 mL of deposition rate, the ZnO thin films were deposited at two different temperatures: 300 and 350 °C. The substrates were heated using the solar cells method. The substrate was R217102 glass, whose size was 30 × 17.5 × 1 mm3. The films exhibit a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a strong (002) preferred orientation. The higher value of crystallite size is attained for sprayed films at 350 °C, which is probably due to an improvement of the crystallinity of the films at this point. The average transmittance of obtain films is about 90%–95%, as measured by a UV—vis analyzer. The band gap energy varies from 3.265 to 3.294 eV for the deposited ZnO thin film at 300 and 350 °C, respectively. The electrical resistivity measured of our films are in the order 0.36 ?·cm.

  13. Effects of physicochemical properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles on cellular uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Baek, M.; Chung, H. E.; Choi, S. J.

    2011-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have been used as a source of zinc, an essential trace element in food industry and also widely applied to various cosmetic products. However, there are few researches demonstrating that the cellular uptake behaviours of ZnO with respect to the physicochemical characteristics such as particle size and surface charge in human cells. In this study, we evaluated the cellular uptake of ZnO with two different sizes (20 and 70 nm) and different charges (positive and negative). Human lung epithelial cells were exposed to ZnO for a given time, and then the uptake amount of ZnO was measured with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results showed that the smaller sized ZnO could more easily enter the cells than the larger sized ZnO. In terms of surface charge, positively charged ZnO showed high cellular uptake compared to ZnO with negative charge. The internalization pathway of positively charged ZnO nanoparticles was determined to be primarily related to the energy-dependent endocytosis. It is, therefore, concluded that the particle size and surface charge of ZnO nanoparticles are critical factors influencing on their cellular uptake. Understanding the cellular uptake behaviours of nanoparticles with respect to physicochemical properties may be important to predict their toxicity potential on human.

  14. Structural and photoluminescence properties of terbium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ningthoujam Surajkumar, Singh; Shougaijam Dorendrajit, Singh; Sanoujam Dhiren, Meetei

    2014-05-01

    We present in this paper a study of the structural and photoluminescence (PL) properties of terbium (Tb) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles synthesized by a simple low temperature chemical precipitation method, using zinc acetate and terbium nitrate in an isopropanol medium with diethanolamine (DEA) as the capping agent at 60 °C. The as-prepared samples were heat treated and the PL of the annealed samples were studied. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD patterns show the pattern of typical ZnO nanoparticles and correspond with the standard XRD pattern given by JCPDS card No. 36-1451, showing the hexagonal phase structure. The PL intensity was enhanced due to Tb3+ doping, and it decreased at higher concentrations of Tb3+ doping after reaching a certain optimum concentration. The PL spectra of Tb3+ doped samples exhibited blue, bluish green, and green emissions at 460 nm (5D3 - 7F3), 484 nm (5D4 - 7F6), and 530 nm (5D4 - 7F5), respectively, which were more intense than the emissions for the undoped ZnO sample. Based on the results, an energy level schematic diagram was proposed to explain the possible electron transition processes.

  15. Preventive effects of zinc against psychological stress-induced iron dyshomeostasis, erythropoiesis inhibition, and oxidative stress status in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingjie; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Qian, Jianxin; Chen, Xinmin; Shen, Zhilei; Tao, Liping; Li, Hongxia; Qin, Haihong; Li, Min; Shen, Hui

    2012-06-01

    Psychological stress (PS) could cause decreased iron absorption and iron redistribution in body resulting in low iron concentration in the bone marrow and inhibition of erythropoiesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of zinc supplementation on the iron metabolism, erythropoiesis, and oxidative stress status in PS-induced rats. Thirty-two rats were divided into two groups randomly: control group and zinc supplementation group. Each group was subdivided into two subgroups: control group and PS group. Rats received zinc supplementation before PS exposure established by a communication box. We investigated the serum corticosterone (CORT) level; iron apparent absorption; iron contents in liver, spleen, cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and serum; hematological parameters; malondialdehyde (MDA); reduced glutathione (GSH); and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Compared to PS-treated rats with normal diet, the PS-treated rats with zinc supplementation showed increased iron apparent absorption, serum iron, hemoglobin, red blood cell, GSH, and SOD activities; while the serum CORT; iron contents in liver, spleen, and regional brain; and MDA decreased. These results indicated that dietary zinc supplementation had preventive effects against PS-induced iron dyshomeostasis, erythropoiesis inhibition, and oxidative stress status in rats. PMID:22274754

  16. Effect that the relative abundance of copper oxide and zinc oxide corrosion has on the visualization of fingerprints formed from fingerprint sweat corrosion of brass.

    PubMed

    Bond, John W

    2011-07-01

    From an examination of the fingerprint sweat corrosion of 40 different individuals on ? phase brass, we show that an increase in visualization can be achieved by applying a negative potential to the brass followed by the introduction of a conducting powder. Previously, this technique has been demonstrated only for a positive applied potential and a corrosion product that was dominated by p-type copper (I) oxide. X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopic analyses of the surface of the corroded brass show that an increase in visualization with a negative applied potential corresponds with an increase in the concentration of n-type zinc oxide relative to p-type copper (I) oxide with the Cu:Zn ratio <0.8:1. Work function conditions for the formation of an n-type zinc oxide/brass rectifying Schottky barrier are fulfilled. PMID:21470225

  17. Ultra-long multicolor belts and unique morphologies of tin-doped zinc oxide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zia, S.; Amin, M.; Manzoor, U.; Bhatti, A. S.

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate the synthesis, characterization and application of pure and tin (Sn) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures with unique optical properties. Pencil-shaped nanorods were synthesized using a mixture of pure ZnO and carbon as starting material. The growth mechanism of these nanorods is discussed in detail. Sn-doped ultra-long belt-shape ZnO structures show many different colors in a single belt under fluorescent light in an optical microscope. These different colors are attributed to the presence of different defects in the ZnO lattice. X-ray diffraction and UV-VIS spectroscopy results are in good agreement with each other. A major application for these belts is likely to be in a single-particle sensor. A single belt based UV sensor is also fabricated and the results suggest that these photoconducting belts can serve as highly sensitive UV-light detectors.

  18. Analysis of printed silver electrode on amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueoka, Yoshihiro; Nishibayashi, Takahiro; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Yamazaki, Haruka; Osada, Yukihiro; Horita, Masahiro; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2014-01-01

    Silver (Ag) electrodes printed on amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-InGaZnO) were investigated to analyze their effect on thin-film transistor (TFT) characteristics. The TFT characteristics of samples annealed at 250 °C deteriorated seriously owing to an aggregation of Ag. In addition, the TFT characteristics deteriorated even for 200 °C annealing with oxygen and nitrogen atmospheres. From measurements of secondary ion mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, we found that carbon and hydrogen contained in printed Ag electrodes seriously affect the TFT characteristics. The reduction and protection against these impurities in Ag ink is the key point in the application of printed Ag electrodes to a-InGaZnO TFTs.

  19. Electroluminescence from isolated defects in zinc oxide, towards electrically triggered single photon sources at room temperature

    E-print Network

    Choi, Sumin; Gentle, Angus; Ton-That, Cuong; Phillips, Matthew R; Aharonovich, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Single photon sources are required for a wide range of applications in quantum information science, quantum cryptography and quantum communications. However, so far majority of room temperature emitters are only excited optically, which limits their proper integration into scalable devices. In this work, we overcome this limitation and present room temperature electrically triggered light emission from localized defects in zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and thin films. The devices emit at the red spectral range and show excellent rectifying behavior. The emission is stable over an extensive period of time, providing an important prerequisite for practical devices. Our results open up possibilities to build new ZnO based quantum integrated devices that incorporate solid-state single photon sources for quantum information technologies.

  20. In situ analyses on negative ions in the indium-gallium-zinc oxide sputtering process

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Junjun; Torigoshi, Yoshifumi; Shigesato, Yuzo [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    The origin of negative ions in the dc magnetron sputtering process using a ceramic indium-gallium-zinc oxide target has been investigated by in situ analyses. The observed negative ions are mainly O{sup -} with energies corresponding to the target voltage, which originates from the target and barely from the reactive gas (O{sub 2}). Dissociation of ZnO{sup -}, GaO{sup -}, ZnO{sub 2}{sup -}, and GaO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals also contributes to the total negative ion flux. Furthermore, we find that some sputtering parameters, such as the type of sputtering gas (Ar or Kr), sputtering power, total gas pressure, and magnetic field strength at the target surface, can be used to control the energy distribution of the O{sup -} ion flux.

  1. Impact of temperature on zinc oxide particle size by using sol-gel process

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Keanchuan, E-mail: lee.kc@petronas.com.my; Ching, Dennis Ling Chuan, E-mail: dennis.ling@petronas.com.my [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Saipolbahri, Zulhilmi Akmal bin, E-mail: zulhilmiakmal@gmail.com [Geoscience and Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Guan, Beh Hoe, E-mail: beh.hoeguan@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hassan.soleimani@petronas.com.my; Soleimani, Hassan, E-mail: beh.hoeguan@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hassan.soleimani@petronas.com.my

    2014-10-24

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were prepared and synthesized via sol-gel method, by using citric acid as a precursor. The impact of annealing on the particle size was investigated. Based on the results from the Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), three different annealing temperature which is 500, 600 and 700 °C were chosen followed by the characterization of the ZnO nanoparticle by using Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Results showed that the crystallite size estimated from PXRD increased with the annealing temperature which was hexagonal structure for ZnO. TEM further revealed the same tendency which the Zn NPs size also increased with the annealing temperature.

  2. High sensitive formaldehyde graphene gas sensor modified by atomic layer deposition zinc oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Mu, Haichuan; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Keke; Xie, Haifen, E-mail: hfxie@ecust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao, Xiaojing; Liu, Feng [Department of Physics, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China)

    2014-07-21

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with various thicknesses were fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition on Chemical Vapor Deposition grown graphene films and their response to formaldehyde has been investigated. It was found that 0.5?nm ZnO films modified graphene sensors showed high response to formaldehyde with the resistance change up to 52% at the concentration of 9 parts-per-million (ppm) at room temperature. Meanwhile, the detection limit could reach 180 parts-per-billion (ppb) and fast response of 36?s was also obtained. The high sensitivity could be attributed to the combining effect from the highly reactive, top mounted ZnO thin films, and high conductive graphene base network. The dependence of ZnO films surface morphology and its sensitivity on the ZnO films thickness was also investigated.

  3. The E3 center in zinc oxide: Evidence for involvement of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Hupfer, A.; Bhoodoo, C.; Vines, L.; Svensson, B. G. [Physics Department/Center for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, Oslo N-0316 (Norway)

    2014-03-03

    Proton implantation is shown to increase the concentration of the so called and commonly observed E3 defect level in zinc oxide (ZnO). Box and single profiles of protons with doses ranging from 6×10{sup 10}?cm{sup ?2} to 4.3×10{sup 12}?cm{sup ?2} were implanted into hydrothermally grown ZnO samples with original concentrations of E3 below 5×10{sup 14}?cm{sup ?3}. Capacitance-Voltage profiling and junction spectroscopy measurements showed that the charge carrier concentration and absolute concentration of E3 centers increase by more than one order of magnitude compared to the as-grown samples as well as control samples implanted with He ions. The results provide strong evidence for the involvement of H in the formation of the E3 center, and a complex involving interstitial H and an oxygen sub-lattice primary defect are discussed.

  4. Improved Stability Of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Thin Film Transistors Using Molecular Passivation

    SciTech Connect

    Rajachidambaram, Meena Suhanya; Pandey, Archana; Vilayur Ganapathy, Subramanian; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Herman, Gregory S.

    2013-10-21

    The role of back channel surface chemistry on amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO) bottom gate thin film transistors (TFT) have been characterized by positive bias-stress measurements and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Positive bias-stress turn-on voltage shifts for ZTO-TFTs were significantly reduced by passivation of back channel surfaces with self-assembled monolayers of n-hexylphosphonic acid (n-HPA) when compared to ZTO-TFTs with no passivation. These results indicate that adsorption of molecular species on exposed back channel of ZTO-TFTs strongly influence observed turn-on voltage shifts, as opposed to charge injection into the dielectric or trapping due to oxygen vacancies.

  5. Contact resistance improvement using interfacial silver nanoparticles in amorphous indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Rui; He, Jian [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Song, Yang [Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Li, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Zaslavsky, A. [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Paine, D. C., E-mail: David-Paine@brown.edu [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We describe an approach to reduce the contact resistance at compositional conducting/semiconducting indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) homojunctions used for contacts in thin film transistors (TFTs). By introducing silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) at the homojunction interface between the conducting IZO electrodes and the amorphous IZO channel, we reduce the specific contact resistance, obtained by transmission line model measurements, down to ?10{sup ?2?}??cm{sup 2}, ?3 orders of magnitude lower than either NP-free homojunction contacts or solid Ag metal contacts. The resulting back-gated TFTs with Ag NP contacts exhibit good field effect mobility of ?27?cm{sup 2}/V?s and an on/off ratio >10{sup 7}. We attribute the improved contact resistance to electric field concentration by the Ag NPs.

  6. Electrical and optical properties of indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin films by continuous composition spread.

    PubMed

    Lee, J J; Kim, J S; Yoon, S J; Cho, Y S; Choi, J W

    2013-05-01

    Indium zinc oxide (IZO) films were deposited on glass substrate at room temperature using off-axis RF sputtering-continuous composition spread (CCS) system. The full range composition of IZO films were controlled by the deposition rate and thickness profiles of In2O3 and ZnO target. The structural, electrical and optical properties of IZO thin films were measured as functions of position. IZO thin film had the lowest resistivity and highest carrier concentration at the position of 15 mm (5.02 x 10(-4) omega cm, 3.9 x 10(20)/cm3). And IZO thin film had high transmittance in visible region at measured all positions. This study has investigated to explore the new composition of IZO films using CCS system. PMID:23858851

  7. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized using Polygala tenuifolia root extract.

    PubMed

    Nagajyothi, P C; Cha, Sang Ju; Yang, In Jun; Sreekanth, T V M; Kim, Kwang Joong; Shin, Heung Mook

    2015-05-01

    The exploitation of various plant materials for the green synthesis of nanoparticles is considered an eco-friendly technology because it does not involve toxic chemicals. In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were synthesized using the root extract of Polygala tenuifolia. Synthesized ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, TGA, TEM, SEM and EDX. Anti-inflammatory activity was investigated in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, whereas antioxidant activity was examined using a DPPH free radical assay. ZnO NPs demonstrated moderate antioxidant activity by scavenging 45.47% DPPH at 1mg/mL and revealed excellent anti-inflammatory activity by dose-dependently suppressing both mRNA and protein expressions of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?. PMID:25777265

  8. Electroluminescence from localized defects in zinc oxide: toward electrically driven single photon sources at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sumin; Berhane, Amanuel M; Gentle, Angus; Ton-That, Cuong; Phillips, Matthew R; Aharonovich, Igor

    2015-03-18

    Single photon sources are required for a wide range of applications in quantum information science, quantum cryptography, and quantum communications. However, the majority of room temperature emitters to date are only excited optically, which limits their proper integration into scalable devices. In this work, we overcome this limitation and present room temperature electrically driven light emission from localized defects in zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and thin films. The devices emit in the red spectral range and show excellent rectifying behavior. The emission is stable over an extensive period of time, providing an important prerequisite for practical devices. Our results open possibilities for building new ZnO-based quantum integrated devices that incorporate solid-state single photon sources for quantum information technologies. PMID:25741632

  9. Water-soluble thin film transistors and circuits based on amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sung Hun; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Cho, In-Tak; Han, Sang Youn; Chung, Ha Uk; Lee, Dong Joon; Shin, Jongmin; Baek, Geun Woo; Kim, Tae-Il; Lee, Jong-Ho; Rogers, John A

    2015-04-22

    This paper presents device designs, circuit demonstrations, and dissolution kinetics for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) comprised completely of water-soluble materials, including SiNx, SiOx, molybdenum, and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Collections of these types of physically transient a-IGZO TFTs and 5-stage ring oscillators (ROs), constructed with them, show field effect mobilities (?10 cm(2)/Vs), on/off ratios (?2 × 10(6)), subthreshold slopes (?220 mV/dec), Ohmic contact properties, and oscillation frequency of 5.67 kHz at supply voltages of 19 V, all comparable to otherwise similar devices constructed in conventional ways with standard, nontransient materials. Studies of dissolution kinetics for a-IGZO films in deionized water, bovine serum, and phosphate buffer saline solution provide data of relevance for the potential use of these materials and this technology in temporary biomedical implants. PMID:25805699

  10. Production of porous nanostructured zinc oxide thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. W.; Tsui, Y. Y.

    2007-04-01

    Pulsed laser deposition has been used to produce porous nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films. A laser produced ZnO plasma plume was deposited at a highly oblique incident angle onto rotating silicon (Si) substrates resulting in porous thin films consist of isolated ZnO posts or helices with diameters around 100 nm. These posts and helices were formed due to a self-shadowing mechanism, at fast and slow substrate rotation speeds, respectively. These films were deposited on Si substrates at room temperature at the presence of 0.07 Torr oxygen and the films were annealed at 600 °C for 2 h after deposition. Strong UV and negligible visible photoluminescence emissions were observed from these ZnO films.

  11. Cholesterol biosensor based on rf sputtered zinc oxide nanoporous thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S. P.; Arya, Sunil K.; Pandey, Pratibha; Malhotra, B. D.; Saha, Shibu; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay [BECPRG, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2007-08-06

    Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) has been immobilized onto zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoporous thin films grown on gold surface. A preferred c-axis oriented ZnO thin film with porous surface morphology has been fabricated by rf sputtering under high pressure. Optical studies and cyclic voltammetric measurements show that the ChOx/ZnO/Au bioelectrode is sensitive to the detection of cholesterol in 25-400 mg/dl range. A relatively low value of enzyme's kinetic parameter (Michaelis-Menten constant) {approx}2.1 mM indicates enhanced enzyme affinity of ChOx to cholesterol. The observed results show promising application of nanoporous ZnO thin film for biosensing application without any functionalization.

  12. Study of breakdown voltage of indium-gallium-zinc-oxide-based Schottky diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Qian; Yan, Linlong; Luo, Yi; Song, Aimin

    2015-03-01

    In contrast to the intensive studies on thin-film transistors based on indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO), the research on IGZO-based diodes is still very limited, particularly on their behavior and stability under high bias voltages. Our experiments reveal a sensitive dependence of the breakdown voltage of IGZO Schottky diodes on the anode metal and the IGZO film thickness. Devices with an Au anode are found to breakdown easily at a reverse bias as low as -2.5 V, while the devices with a Pd anode and a 200-nm, fully depleted IGZO layer have survived up to -15 V. All diodes are fabricated by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature without any thermal treatment, yet showing an ideality factor as low as 1.14, showing the possibility of achieving high-performance Schottky diodes on flexible plastic substrate.

  13. A novel glutamine biosensor based on zinc oxide nanorod and glutaminase enzyme from Hypocria jecorina.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Dilruba; Karaku?, Emine

    2014-05-21

    A novel biosensor for determination of L-glutamine in pharmaceutical glutamine powder was developed via immobilizing our produced glutaminase enzyme from Hypocria jecorina onto our prepared zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod and chitosan. ZnO nanorods were prepared as surface-dependent and surface-independent and both were used. The biosensor is specific for L-glutamine and the peculiar analytical properties (linearity range, reproducibility, and accuracy) of it were experimentally determined. The optimum operating conditions of the biosensor such as buffer concentration, buffer pH, and medium temperature effect on the response of biosensor were studied. Km and Vmax values for the our-producing glutaminase enzyme from Hypocria jecorina immobilized on the biosensor were also determined as 0.29 mM and 208.33 mV/min., respectively, from Lineweaver-Burk plot. The biosensor was then used for the determination of glutamine contained in pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:24848995

  14. Influence of substrate temperature on the performance of zinc oxide thin film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junwei, Ma; Feng, Ran; Meihua, Xu; Huijied, Ji

    2011-04-01

    Top-contact thin film transistors (TFTs) using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering zinc oxide (ZnO) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) films as the active channel layer and gate insulator layer, respectively, were fabricated. The performances of ZnO TFTs with different ZnO film deposition temperatures (room temperature, 100 °C and 200 °C) were investigated. Compared with the transistor with room-temperature deposited ZnO films, the mobility of the device fabricated at 200 °C is improved by 94% and the threshold voltage shift is reduced from 18 to 3 V (after 1 h positive gate voltage stress). Experimental results indicate that substrate temperature plays an important role in enhancing the field effect mobility, sharping the subthreshold swing and improving the bias stability of the devices. Atomic force microscopy was used to investigate the ZnO film properties. The reasons for the device performance improvement are discussed.

  15. High-speed, inkjet-printed carbon nanotube/zinc tin oxide hybrid complementary ring oscillators.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bongjun; Jang, Seonpil; Geier, Michael L; Prabhumirashi, Pradyumna L; Hersam, Mark C; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2014-06-11

    The materials combination of inkjet-printed single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and zinc tin oxide (ZTO) is very promising for large-area thin-film electronics. We compare the characteristics of conventional complementary inverters and ring oscillators measured in air (with SWCNT p-channel field effect transistors (FETs) and ZTO n-channel FETs) with those of ambipolar inverters and ring oscillators comprised of bilayer SWCNT/ZTO FETs. This is the first such comparison between the performance characteristics of ambipolar and conventional inverters and ring oscillators. The measured signal delay per stage of 140 ns for complementary ring oscillators is the fastest for any ring oscillator circuit with printed semiconductors to date. PMID:24849313

  16. Impact of temperature on zinc oxide particle size by using sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Keanchuan; Saipolbahri, Zulhilmi Akmal bin; Guan, Beh Hoe; Soleimani, Hassan; Ching, Dennis Ling Chuan

    2014-10-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were prepared and synthesized via sol-gel method, by using citric acid as a precursor. The impact of annealing on the particle size was investigated. Based on the results from the Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), three different annealing temperature which is 500, 600 and 700 °C were chosen followed by the characterization of the ZnO nanoparticle by using Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Results showed that the crystallite size estimated from PXRD increased with the annealing temperature which was hexagonal structure for ZnO. TEM further revealed the same tendency which the Zn NPs size also increased with the annealing temperature.

  17. Coherent diffractive imaging of solid state reactions in zinc oxide crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leake, Steven J.; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the doping of zinc oxide (ZnO) microcrystals with iron and nickel via in situ coherent x-ray diffractive imaging (CXDI) in vacuum. Evaporated thin metal films were deposited onto the ZnO microcrystals. A single crystal was selected and tracked through annealing cycles. A solid state reaction was observed in both iron and nickel experiments using CXDI. A combination of the shrink wrap and guided hybrid-input-output phasing methods were applied to retrieve the electron density. The resolution was 33 nm (half order) determined via the phase retrieval transfer function. The resulting images are nevertheless sensitive to sub-angstrom displacements. The exterior of the microcrystal was found to degrade dramatically. The annealing of ZnO microcrystals coated with metal thin films proved an unsuitable doping method. In addition the observed defect structure of one crystal was attributed to the presence of an array of defects and was found to change upon annealing.

  18. Biokinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles: toxicokinetics, biological fates, and protein interaction

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soo-Jin; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Biokinetic studies of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles involve systematic and quantitative analyses of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in plasma and tissues of whole animals after exposure. A full understanding of the biokinetics provides basic information about nanoparticle entry into systemic circulation, target organs of accumulation and toxicity, and elimination time, which is important for predicting the long-term toxic potential of nanoparticles. Biokinetic behaviors can be dependent on physicochemical properties, dissolution property in biological fluids, and nanoparticle–protein interaction. Moreover, the determination of biological fates of ZnO nanoparticles in the systemic circulation and tissues is critical in interpreting biokinetic behaviors and predicting toxicity potential as well as mechanism. This review focuses on physicochemical factors affecting the biokinetics of ZnO nanoparticles, in concert with understanding bioavailable fates and their interaction with proteins. PMID:25565844

  19. Applications of zinc oxide nanowires for bio-photonics and bio-electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willander, Magnus; Nur, O.; Fakhar-e-Alam, M.; Sadaf, J. R.; Israr, M. Q.; Sultana, K.; Ali, Syed M. Usman; Asif, M. H.

    2011-02-01

    Using zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures, nanorods (NRs) and nanoparticles (NPs) grown on different substrates (sub-micrometer glass pipettes, thin silver wire and on plastic substrate) different bio-sensors were demonstrated. The demonstrated sensors are based on potentiometric approach and are sensitive to the ionic metals and biological analyte in question. For each case a selective membrane or enzyme was used. The measurements were performed for intracellular environment as well as in some cases (cholesterol and uric acid). The selectivity in each case is tuned according to the element to be sensed. Moreover we also developed photodynamic therapy approach based on the use of ZnO NRs and NPs. Necrosis/apoptosis was possible to achieve for different types of cancerous cell. The results indicate that the ZnO with its UV and white band emissions is beneficial to photodynamic therapy technology.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of a narrow size distribution of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zak, A Khorsand; Razali, R; Majid, WH Abd; Darroudi, Majid

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were synthesized via a solvothermal method in triethanolamine (TEA) media. TEA was utilized as a polymer agent to terminate the growth of ZnO-NPs. The ZnO-NPs were characterized by a number of techniques, including X-ray diffraction analysis, transition electron microscopy, and field emission electron microscopy. The ZnO-NPs prepared by the solvothermal process at 150°C for 18 hours exhibited a hexagonal (wurtzite) structure, with a crystalline size of 33 ± 2 nm, and particle size of 48 ± 7 nm. The results confirm that TEA is a suitable polymer agent to prepare homogenous ZnO-NPs. PMID:21796242

  1. Impact of Al doping on microstructure and optical characteristics of tetrapod-like zinc oxide whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, X. M.; Zhao, L.; Zhou, Z. W.; Zhang, H. G.; Wang, J.

    2010-06-01

    Al-doped tetrapod-like zinc oxide whiskers with different Al dopant concentration (0.3?1.0 mol%) were prepared by solid state reaction method using T-ZnO w and AlCl 3 powder as raw materials. X-ray diffraction and SEM microscopy were applied to characterize the structure and surface morphology of the T-ZnO w. The shift of diffraction peaks of ZnO towards high angle indicated the increase of Al-doping concentration. The ZnO whiskers with 0.5 mol% Al doping concentration exhibit good photoluminescence properties with a large PL intensity ratio value (24) and a narrow FWHM value (15 nm). The improvement photoluminescence properties are attributed to the doping of Al element in the ZnO lattice. It is thought that the visible emission with the wavelength of 517 nm is attributed to the electronics transition from Al atoms to Zn vacancy level.

  2. A benign hydrothermal synthesis of nanopencils-like zinc oxide nanoflowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhoon, S. A.; Rubab, S.; Shah, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    Synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflowers and nanopencils is normally carried out with the help of structure-directing chemicals and templates. Besides releasing environmentally toxic substances, the use of these chemicals restricts the practical applications of nanostructures. In this paper, we report a typical template-free and environmentally benign synthesis of ZnO nanoflowers with nanopencils-like petals through a facile hydrothermal method. The as-synthesized ZnO nanoflowers were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, tunneling electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. The results reveal high quality and impurity-free hexagonal wurtzite phase ZnO nanoflowers of nanopencils-like petals having a length of 100-150 nm and a diameter of 45-60 nm.

  3. Coating and enhanced photocurrent of vertically aligned zinc oxide nanowire arrays with metal sulfide materials.

    PubMed

    Volokh, Michael; Diab, Mahmud; Magen, Osnat; Jen-La Plante, Ilan; Flomin, Kobi; Rukenstein, Pazit; Tessler, Nir; Mokari, Taleb

    2014-08-27

    Hybrid nanostructures combining zinc oxide (ZnO) and a metal sulfide (MS) semiconductor are highly important for energy-related applications. Controlled filling and coating of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays with different MS materials was achieved via the thermal decomposition approach of single-source precursors in the gas phase by using a simple atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition system. Using different precursors allowed us to synthesize multicomponent structures such as nanowires coated with alloy shell or multishell structures. Herein, we present the synthesis and structural characterization of the different structures, as well as an electrochemical characterization and a photovoltaic response of the ZnO-CdS system, in which the resulting photocurrent upon illumination indicates charge separation at the interface. PMID:25133933

  4. [Research progress on biological toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticle and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xia; Jiang, Mi-zu

    2014-03-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticle (nano-ZnO) has a size between 1 and 100 nm. Nano-ZnO has some special effects, such as small size effect, surface effect, quantum size effect, which makes it different from the ordinary ZnO, and is widely used in rubber industry, food processing, cosmetics and pharmaceutical fields. It has been reported that nano-ZnO has toxic effects in vitro and in vivo, but the mechanism of toxicity is still unclear. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the safety nano-ZnO by studying its biological toxic effects and related mechanisms. In this paper, we summarize the characterization, ingestion pathway, metabolism, systematic toxicity of nano-ZnO and its mechanisms, which may provide us with new strategy for the toxic research of nano-ZnO. PMID:24782381

  5. Liquid crystal orientation on solution processed zinc oxide inorganic films according to molecular concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Jin; Han, Jae-Jun; Park, Hong-Gyu; Kim, Dai-Hyun; Byun, Sang-Un; Seo, Dae-Shik

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we present the characteristics of molar concentration-dependent zinc oxide (ZnO) inorganic films deposited by the solution process for application in liquid crystal displays. ZnO surfaces supported homogeneously aligned liquid crystal (LC) molecules based on an ion-beam (IB) irradiation system. Uniform LC alignment was obtained at ZnO molar concentrations greater than 0.25 mol l-1. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis revealed that changes in the orientation of LC molecules occurred on the ZnO layer. The electro-optic characteristics of the aligned homogenous LCs and twisted nematic (TN) mode based on the ZnO layer were comparable to those based on polyimide, which showed good potential as ZnO surfaces as an alignment layer.

  6. Preparation and characterization of molybdenum-doped indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhao; Wang, NaiQian; Qu, MingYue; Pu, HaiFeng; Zhang, Qun

    2015-04-01

    In this study, amorphous molybdenum-doped indium zinc oxide (a-IZMO) thin film transistors (TFTs) were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature. It was found that molybdenum doping increased the optical bandgap of the a-IZMO films, improved the current on/off ratio and subthreshold swing value of the a-IZMO-TFTs. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows that Mo-doping can efficiently suppress the formation of oxygen vacancies. When an appropriate Mo content at molar ratio of 2.9% was doped into the IZO active layer, the TFTs with field effect mobility of 2.62 cm2 V?1s?1, and current on/off ratio of larger than 106 was obtained.

  7. Unipolar assembly of zinc oxide rods manifesting polarity-driven collective luminescence

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Ujjal K.; Imura, Masataka; Rout, Chandra Sekhar; Bando, Yoshio; Fang, Xiaosheng; Dierre, Benjamin; Sakharov, Leonid; Govindaraj, A.; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Golberg, Dmitri; Rao, C. N. R.

    2010-01-01

    Oriented assemblies of small crystals forming larger structures are common in nature and crucial for forthcoming technologies as they circumvent the difficulties of structural manipulation at microscopic scale. We have discovered two distinctive concentric assemblies of zinc oxide rods, wherein each rod has an intrinsically positive and a negative polar end induced by the noncentrosymmetric arrangement of Zn and O atoms. All the rods in a single assembly emanate out of a central core maintaining a single polar direction. Due to growth along the two polar surfaces with different atomic arrangements, these assemblies are distinct in their intrinsic properties and exhibit strong UV luminescence in the exterior of Zn-polar assemblies, unlike the O-polar assemblies. Although novel applications can be envisioned, these observations suggest that hierarchical organization with respect to internal asymmetry might be widespread in natural crystal assemblies. PMID:20643960

  8. Red fluorescent zinc oxide nanoparticle: a novel platform for cancer targeting.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hao; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Yin; Graves, Stephen A; Eddine, Savo Bou Zein; Yang, Yunan; Theuer, Charles P; Nickles, Robert J; Wang, Xudong; Cai, Weibo

    2015-02-11

    Multifunctional zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) with well-integrated multimodality imaging capacities have generated increasing research interest in the past decade. However, limited progress has been made in developing ZnO NP-based multimodality tumor-imaging agents. Here we developed novel red fluorescent ZnO NPs and described the successful conjugation of (64)Cu (t1/2 = 12.7 h) and TRC105, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against CD105, to these ZnO NPs via well-developed surface engineering procedures. The produced dual-modality ZnO NPs were readily applicable for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and fluorescence imaging of the tumor vasculature. Their pharmacokinetics and tumor-targeting efficacy/specificity in mice bearing murine breast 4T1 tumor were thoroughly investigated. ZnO NPs with dual-modality imaging properties can serve as an attractive candidate for future cancer theranostics. PMID:25607242

  9. Zinc oxide nanowire arrays for photovoltaic and light-emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janfeshan, Bita; Sadeghimakki, Bahareh; Jahed, Navid M. S.; Sivoththaman, Siva

    2013-03-01

    Knowledge of carrier transfer, in quantum dot sensitized solar cells, is the key to engineering the device structure and architecture optimization. In this work, Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire (NW) arrays were synthesized on glass wafers and on GaN thin films for application in photovoltaic and light-emitting devices. The nanowires grown on glass wafers were incorporated with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QD) and their steady state and lifetime photoluminescence (PL) were studied to investigate the feasibility of electron transfer from excited QDs to ZnO NWs. The results provide an indication that the injected electrons, from excited high quantum efficiency QDs, live longer and hence facilitate electron transport without undergoing non-radiative recombination at surface trap states. Morphology and optical properties of the ZnO nanowires on GaN film were also studied for application in light-emitting devices.

  10. Surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic detection of chlorine utilizing polyvinylpyrolidone supported zinc oxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Rana; Gupta, Banshi D

    2015-03-01

    A highly sensitive chlorine sensor for an aqueous medium is fabricated using an optical fiber surface plasmon resonance (OFSPR) system. An OFSPR-based chlorine sensor is designed with a multilayer-type platform by zinc oxide (ZnO) and polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP) film morphology manipulations. Among all the methodologies of transduction reported in the field of solid state chemical and biochemical sensing, our attention is focused on the Kretschmann configuration optical fiber sensing technique using the mechanism of surface plasmon resonance. The optical fiber surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chlorine sensor is developed using a multimode optical fiber with the PVP-supported ZnO film deposited over a silver-coated unclad core of the fiber. A spectral interrogation mode of operation is used to characterize the sensor. In an Ag/ZnO/PVP multilayer system, the absorption of chlorine in the vicinity of the sensing region is performed by the PVP layer and the zinc oxide layer enhances the shift in resonance wavelength. It is, experimentally, demonstrated that the SPR wavelength shifts nonlinearly towards the red side of the visible region with an increase in the chlorine concentration in an aqueous medium while the sensitivity of the sensor decreases linearly with an increase in the chlorine concentration. As the proposed sensor utilizes an optical fiber, it possesses the additional advantages of fiber such as less signal degradation, less susceptibility to electromagnetic interference, possibility of remote sensing, probe miniaturization, probe re-usability, online monitoring, small size, light weight and low cost. PMID:25635269

  11. Routes to Novel Azo compounds 

    E-print Network

    Iannarelli, Paul M.

    Routes to novel heterocyclic azo compounds and components of use as potential inkjet dyes were investigated. A new route to fluorenones from biphenyl acid chlorides using FVP (Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis) has been discovered. ...

  12. Synthesis mechanism of low-voltage praseodymium oxide doped zinc oxide varistor ceramics prepared through modified citrate gel coating.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Wan Rafizah Wan; Zakaria, Azmi; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd

    2012-01-01

    High demands on low-voltage electronics have increased the need for zinc oxide (ZnO) varistors with fast response, highly non-linear current-voltage characteristics and energy absorption capabilities at low breakdown voltage. However, trade-off between breakdown voltage and grain size poses a critical bottle-neck in the production of low-voltage varistors. The present study highlights the synthesis mechanism for obtaining praseodymium oxide (Pr(6)O(11)) based ZnO varistor ceramics having breakdown voltages of 2.8 to 13.3 V/mm through employment of direct modified citrate gel coating technique. Precursor powder and its ceramics were examined by means of TG/DTG, FTIR, XRD and FESEM analyses. The electrical properties as a function of Pr(6)O(11) addition were analyzed on the basis of I-V characteristic measurement. The breakdown voltage could be adjusted from 0.01 to 0.06 V per grain boundary by controlling the amount of Pr(6)O(11) from 0.2 to 0.8 mol%, without alteration of the grain size. The non-linearity coefficient, ?, varied from 3.0 to 3.5 and the barrier height ranged from 0.56 to 0.64 eV. Breakdown voltage and ? lowering with increasing Pr(6)O(11) content were associated to reduction in the barrier height caused by variation in O vacancies at grain boundary. PMID:22606043

  13. On the possibility to grow zinc oxide-based transparent conducting oxide films by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Abrutis, Adulfas, E-mail: adulfas.abrutis@chf.vu.lt; Silimavicus, Laimis; Kubilius, Virgaudas; Murauskas, Tomas; Saltyte, Zita; Kuprenaite, Sabina; Plausinaitiene, Valentina [Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, LT-03225 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2014-03-15

    Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HW-CVD) was applied to grow zinc oxide (ZnO)-based transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films. Indium (In)-doped ZnO films were deposited using a cold wall pulsed liquid injection CVD system with three nichrome wires installed at a distance of 2?cm from the substrate holder. The wires were heated by an AC current in the range of 0–10 A. Zn and In 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionates dissolved in 1,2-dimethoxyethane were used as precursors. The hot wires had a marked effect on the growth rates of ZnO, In-doped ZnO, and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films; at a current of 6–10 A, growth rates were increased by a factor of ?10–20 compared with those of traditional CVD at the same substrate temperature (400?°C). In-doped ZnO films with thickness of ?150?nm deposited on sapphire-R grown at a wire current of 9?A exhibited a resistivity of ?2?×?10{sup ?3} ?cm and transparency of >90% in the visible spectral range. These initial results reveal the potential of HW-CVD for the growth of TCOs.

  14. 40 CFR 721.5930 - Phenylenebis[imino (chlorotriazinyl)imino(substituted naphthyl)azo(substituted phenyl)azo, sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...azo(substituted phenyl)azo, sodium salt (generic name). 721.5930 Section...azo(substituted phenyl)azo, sodium salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance...azo (substituted phenyl) azo, sodium salt (PMN P-95-274) is subject to...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5930 - Phenylenebis[imino (chlorotriazinyl)imino(substituted naphthyl)azo(substituted phenyl)azo, sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...azo(substituted phenyl)azo, sodium salt (generic name). 721.5930 Section...azo(substituted phenyl)azo, sodium salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance...azo (substituted phenyl) azo, sodium salt (PMN P-95-274) is subject to...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5930 - Phenylenebis[imino (chlorotriazinyl)imino(substituted naphthyl)azo(substituted phenyl)azo, sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...azo(substituted phenyl)azo, sodium salt (generic name). 721.5930 Section...azo(substituted phenyl)azo, sodium salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance...azo (substituted phenyl) azo, sodium salt (PMN P-95-274) is subject to...

  17. Recovery of manganese oxides from spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries. An application as catalysts for VOCs elimination

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, María V., E-mail: plapimu@yahoo.com.ar [Pla.Pi.Mu-Planta Piloto Multipropósito, (CICPBA-UNLP) Cno. Centenario y 505, M.B. Gonnet, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Falco, Lorena R., E-mail: mlfalco@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [Pla.Pi.Mu-Planta Piloto Multipropósito, (CICPBA-UNLP) Cno. Centenario y 505, M.B. Gonnet, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Peluso, Miguel A., E-mail: apelu@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas, “Dr. J. Ronco” CINDECA (CONICET CCT La Plata), 47 N°257, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sambeth, Jorge E., E-mail: sambeth@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas, “Dr. J. Ronco” CINDECA (CONICET CCT La Plata), 47 N°257, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Thomas, Horacio J. [Pla.Pi.Mu-Planta Piloto Multipropósito, (CICPBA-UNLP) Cno. Centenario y 505, M.B. Gonnet, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Manganese oxides were synthesized using spent batteries as raw materials. • Spent alkaline and zinc–carbon size AA batteries were used. • A biohydrometallurgical process was employed to bio-lixiviate batteries. • Manganese oxides were active in the oxidation of VOCs (ethanol and heptane). - Abstract: Manganese, in the form of oxide, was recovered from spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries employing a biohydrometallurgy process, using a pilot plant consisting in: an air-lift bioreactor (containing an acid-reducing medium produced by an Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans bacteria immobilized on elemental sulfur); a leaching reactor (were battery powder is mixed with the acid-reducing medium) and a recovery reactor. Two different manganese oxides were recovered from the leachate liquor: one of them by electrolysis (EMO) and the other by a chemical precipitation with KMnO{sub 4} solution (CMO). The non-leached solid residue was also studied (RMO). The solids were compared with a MnO{sub x} synthesized in our laboratory. The characterization by XRD, FTIR and XPS reveal the presence of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the EMO and the CMO samples, together with some Mn{sup 4+} cations. In the solid not extracted by acidic leaching (RMO) the main phase detected was Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The catalytic performance of the oxides was studied in the complete oxidation of ethanol and heptane. Complete conversion of ethanol occurs at 200 °C, while heptane requires more than 400 °C. The CMO has the highest oxide selectivity to CO{sub 2}. The results show that manganese oxides obtained using spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries as raw materials, have an interesting performance as catalysts for elimination of VOCs.

  18. Effect of high dietary zinc oxide on the caecal and faecal short-chain fatty acids and tissue zinc and copper concentration in pigs is reversible after withdrawal of the high zinc oxide from the diet.

    PubMed

    Janczyk, P; Büsing, K; Dobenecker, B; Nöckler, K; Zeyner, A

    2015-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) used in high ('pharmacological') levels to prevent diarrhoea in pigs is assumed to reduce copper (Cu) in tissues and inhibits large intestinal microbial fermentation. To test it, German Landrace pigs were weaned on d28 of age and fed diets containing either 100 (LowZinc, LZn, n = 10) or 3100 mg ZnO/kg (HighZinc, HZn, n = 10). The mixed feed (13.0 MJ ME, 18.5% crude protein) was based on wheat, barley, soya bean meal and maize. After 4 weeks, the HZn group was further fed 100 mg ZnO/kg for another 2 weeks. Caecal contents, faeces and tissues were collected after 4 weeks (n = 5 and n = 10 respectively) and 6 weeks (n = 5 and n = 5 respectively). Faeces and caecal content were analysed for dry matter (DM), pH, ammonia, lactic acid (LA) and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) on native water basis. anova was performed to elucidate significant differences at p < 0.05. No diarrhoea occurred. After 4 weeks, the caecal contents' pH increased (p < 0.001) and butyric (p < 0.05) and valeric acid (p < 0.01) decreased in the HZn group in comparison with LZn. In faeces, a decrease of acetic (p = 0.009), butyric (p = 0.007) and valeric acid (p = 0.046), as well as reduced acetic:propionic acid (A:P) ratio (p = 0.025) was observed in the HZn group in comparison with LZn. Faecal ammonia decreased in HZn (p = 0.018). No differences (p > 0.05) were recorded in caecal contents after 6 weeks. In faeces, acetic acid remained lower in the HZn group in comparison with LZn (p = 0.006), as did the A:P ratio (p = 0.004). Zn concentration in liver, kidneys and ribs, and Cu concentrations in kidneys increased in HZn. Withdrawal of ZnO resulted in reversibility of the changes. The effect on butyric acid should be discussed critically regarding the energetic support for the enterocytes. High Zn and Cu tissue concentrations should be considered by pet food producers. PMID:25865418

  19. Optimization of experimental parameters based on the Taguchi robust design for the formation of zinc oxide nanocrystals by solvothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Yiamsawas, Doungporn; Boonpavanitchakul, Kanittha [National Nanotechnology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 111 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)] [National Nanotechnology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 111 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Kangwansupamonkon, Wiyong, E-mail: wiyong@nanotec.or.th [National Nanotechnology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 111 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)] [National Nanotechnology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 111 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Taguchi robust design can be applied to study ZnO nanocrystal growth. {yields} Spherical-like and rod-like shaped of ZnO nanocrystals can be obtained from solvothermal method. {yields} [NaOH]/[Zn{sup 2+}] ratio plays the most important factor on the aspect ratio of prepared ZnO. -- Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and nanorods were successfully synthesized by a solvothermal process. Taguchi robust design was applied to study the factors which result in stronger ZnO nanocrystal growth. The factors which have been studied are molar concentration ratio of sodium hydroxide and zinc acetate, amount of polymer templates and molecular weight of polymer templates. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction technique were used to analyze the experiment results. The results show that the concentration ratio of sodium hydroxide and zinc acetate ratio has the greatest effect on ZnO nanocrystal growth.

  20. Synthesis of multifunctional nanostructured zinc-iron mixed oxide photocatalyst by a simple solution-combustion technique.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Gajendra Kumar; Martha, Satyabadi; Parida, K M

    2012-02-01

    A series of nanostructure zinc-iron mixed oxide photocatalysts have been fabricated by solution-combustion method using urea as the fuel, and nitrate salts of both iron and zinc as the metal source. Different characterization tools, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectra (DRUV-vis), electron microscopy, and photoelectrochemical measurement were employed to establish the structural, electronic, and optical properties of the material. Electron microscopy confirmed the nanostructure of the photocatalyst. The synthesized photocatalysts were examined towards photodegradation of 4-chloro-2-nitro phenol (CNP), rhodamine 6G (R6G), and photocatalytic hydrogen production under visible light (? ? 400 nm). The photocatalyst having zinc to iron ratio of 50:50 showed best photocatalytic activity among all the synthesized photocatalysts. PMID:22201304

  1. Microwave-electrochemical formation of colloidal zinc oxide at fluorine doped tin oxide electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liza Rassaei; Robben Jaber; Stephen E. Flower; Karen J. Edler; Richard G. Compton; Tony D. James; Frank Marken

    2010-01-01

    Colloidal ZnO is obtained during microwave-enhanced electrochemical deposition experiments from an aqueous solution containing 0 1 M Zn(NO(3))(2) and 0 02 M H(2)O(2) via repetitive negative going potential cycles from 03 to 0 8 V vs SCE The effects of temperature and temperature gradients on ZnO electro formation at fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) electrodes are investigated with both a

  2. Label-free detection of zinc oxide nanowire using a graphene wrapping method.

    PubMed

    You, Juneseok; Jang, Kuewhan; Lee, Sangmyung; Bang, Doyeon; Haam, Seungjoo; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Park, Jinsung; Na, Sungsoo

    2015-06-15

    Zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) have been attempted to various applications, such as piezoelectric devices, energy harvesting devices, self-powered nanosensors, and biomedical devices. However, recent reports have shown the toxic effect of ZnO NWs. In this report, we described the detection of ZnO NWs, for the first time using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) wrapping method. By wrapping RGO to ZnO NW (RGO-ZnO NW), we are able to aggregate ZnO NWs and increase the sensing performance. The detection measurement is based on the resonance frequency shift derived from mass variation of RGO-ZnO NW adsorption on the DNA immobilized resonator. The resonator is able to detect ZnO NWs with detection limit of 100ngmL(-1) which is 2 order below the fatal toxic concentration of ZnO NWs in Human Monocyte Macrophages (HMMs). Furthermore, the resonator is able to detect ZnO NWs in real tap water, showing the potential as ZnO NWs screening platform in real environmental aqua system. PMID:25636019

  3. Enhancement of oxygen vacancies and solar photocatalytic activity of zinc oxide by incorporation of nonmetal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Ashokrao B.; Patil, Kashinath R.; Pardeshi, Satish K.

    2011-12-01

    B-doped ZnO and N-doped ZnO powders have been synthesized by mechanochemical method and characterized by TG-DTA, XRD, SEM-EDX, XPS, UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. X-ray diffraction data suggests the hexagonal wurtzite structure for modified ZnO crystallites and the incorporation of nonmetal expands the lattice constants of ZnO. The room temperature PL spectra suggest more number of oxygen vacancies exist in nonmetal-doped ZnO than that of undoped zinc oxide. XPS analysis shows the substitution of some of the O atoms of ZnO by nonmetal atoms. Solar photocatalytic activity of B-doped ZnO, N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO was compared by means of oxidative photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of Bisphenol A (BPA). B-doped ZnO showed better solar PCD efficiency as compare to N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO. The PCD of BPA follows first order reaction kinetics. The detail mechanism of PCD of Bisphenol A was proposed with the identification of intermediates such as hydroquinone, benzene-1,2,4-triol and 4-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl) phenol.

  4. Zinc oxide nanocrystal quenching of emission from electron-rich ruthenium-bipyridine complexes.

    PubMed

    Hue, Ryan J; Vatassery, Rajan; Mann, Kent R; Gladfelter, Wayne L

    2015-02-24

    A series of heteroleptic bipyridine ruthenium complexes were prepared using known synthetic methods. Each compound incorporated one electron withdrawing 4,4'-dicarboxylic acid-2,2'-bipyridine and two bipyridines each of which had electron donating dialkylamine substituents in the 4 and 4' positions. The electronic absorption spectra exhibited absorptions that moved to lower energy as the donor ability of the amine substituent increased. Density functional calculations established that the HOMO was delocalized over the metal and two pyridine groups located trans to the pyridines of the dicarboxylic acid bipyridine. The LUMO was delocalized over the dicarboxylic acid bipyridine. Cyclic voltammetry of the deprotonated compounds exhibit one quasi-reversible oxidation and three reductions. Coupled with the emission data, the excited state reduction potentials were estimated to range from -0.93 to -1.03 V vs. NHE. Monodispersed 3.2 nm diameter nanocrystals (NCs) of zinc oxide were found to quench partially the excited state of the dyes via a static quenching electron transfer process involving the formation of a dyad of the complex and the NC. The magnitude of the partial quenching of complexed dyes was correlated to the distribution of band gaps for the NCs, which is an inverse function of diameter. Dyes attached to the NCs on the small end of the particle size distribution had electron transfer rates that were uncompetitive with radiative and nonradiative decay mechanisms. PMID:25655833

  5. Does zinc in livestock wastewater reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from mangrove soils?

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang C; Tam, Nora F Y; Ye, Yong

    2014-11-15

    Zinc (Zn) affects nitrogen cycling but the effect of Zn in wastewater on the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) from the soil has not been reported. This study compared N2O emissions from mangrove soil receiving livestock wastewater containing various Zn(2+) concentrations and evaluated how long the effects of Zn would last in these soil-wastewater microcosms. Significant increases in N2O flux were observed soon after the discharge of wastewater with a low Zn content. On the other hand, the flux was reduced significantly in the wastewater with high Zn levels but such inhibitory effect was not observed after tidal flushing. Continuous monitoring of the N2O fluxes also confirmed that the inhibitory effect of Zn was confined within a few hours and the fluxes recovered in 6-9 h after the wastewater was completely drained away. These results indicated that the inhibitory effect of Zn on N2O fluxes occurred immediately after wastewater discharge and disappeared gradually. In the surface soil, nitrate levels increased with the addition of wastewater but there was no significant accumulation of NH4(+)-N, irrespective of the Zn content in the wastewater. The study also showed that nitrification potential and immediate N2O emissions were inhibited by high Zn levels in the soil, but the total oxidation of ammonium to nitrate was not affected. PMID:25171729

  6. Zinc oxide nanoparticles cause inhibition of microbial denitrification by affecting transcriptional regulation and enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Chen, Yinguang; Wan, Rui; Liu, Kun; Li, Mu; Yin, Daqiang

    2014-12-01

    Over the past few decades, human activities have accelerated the rates and extents of water eutrophication and global warming through increasing delivery of biologically available nitrogen such as nitrate and large emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. In particular, nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of the most important greenhouse gases, because it has a 300-fold higher global warming potential than carbon dioxide. Microbial denitrification is a major pathway responsible for nitrate removal, and also a dominant source of N2O emissions from terrestrial or aquatic environments. However, whether the release of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) into the environment affects microbial denitrification is largely unknown. Here we show that the presence of ZnO NPs lead to great increases in nitrate delivery (9.8-fold higher) and N2O emissions (350- and 174-fold higher in the gas and liquid phases, respectively). Our data further reveal that ZnO NPs significantly change the transcriptional regulations of glycolysis and polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis, which causes the decrease in reducing powers available for the reduction of nitrate and N2O. Moreover, ZnO NPs substantially inhibit the gene expressions and catalytic activities of key denitrifying enzymes. These negative effects of ZnO NPs on microbial denitrification finally cause lower nitrate removal and higher N2O emissions, which is likely to exacerbate water eutrophication and global warming. PMID:25384038

  7. High-performance Ge quantum dot decorated graphene/zinc-oxide heterostructure infrared photodetector.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Ji, Xiangbing; Liu, Mingju; Liu, Nianze; Tao, Zhi; Dai, Qing; Wei, Lei; Li, Chi; Zhang, Xiaobing; Wang, Baoping

    2015-02-01

    A novel size-controllable germanium quantum dot (Ge QD) is synthesized and decorated onto reduced graphene oxide (RGO) fragments to overcome the low infrared (IR) photoresponses (?0.1 A/W)13,14 of pristine graphene. With the integration of flexible substrate, monolayer graphene (MLG) electrode and n-type zinc oxide (ZnO), a high-performance QD-decorated-RGO/ZnO heterostructure infrared photodetector is reported in this study. The Ge QD-decorated-RGO hybrid photosensitive composite improves the responsivity (?9.7 A/W, 1400 nm) in IR waveband without sacrificing the response speed (?40 ?s rise time and 90 ?s recovery time). In addition, the effective barrier formed between graphene and ZnO interface restricts the dark current (?1.4 nA, -3 V) to guarantee the relatively excellent rectifying behavior and high on/off ratio (?10(3)) for this IR photodetector. With these superior inherent properties and micron-sized sensing active area, this photodetector manifests great potential in the future application of graphene-based IR photodetector. PMID:25561422

  8. Zinc modulates high glucose-induced apoptosis by suppressing oxidative stress in renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuli; Zhao, Yue; Chu, Qingqing; Wang, Zhan-You; Li, Hongjuan; Chi, Zhi-Hong

    2014-05-01

    Hyperglycemia is a characteristic of diabetic nephropathy, inducing renal tubular cell apoptosis by eliciting oxidative stress and inflammation. Zinc (Zn) is known as an essential trace element in many enzymes and proteins involved in antioxidant defenses, electron transport, and exerting antiapoptotic or cytoprotective effects. In this study, the underlying mechanisms involved in the protective effects of Zn on high glucose-induced cytotoxicity were explored using cultured renal tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E). The authors discovered that Zn supplementation inhibited high glucose (HG)-induced NRK-52E cell apoptosis by attenuating reactive oxygen species production, inhibiting HG-induced caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation, and inhibiting the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol. Further analysis revealed that Zn supplementation facilitated cell survival through increasing nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), leading to increased regulation of levels of two antioxidant enzymes, hemeoxygenase-1 and glutamate cysteine ligase, which provided an adaptive survival response against the HG-induced oxidative cytotoxicity. Moreover, the Zn-mediated increases in Nrf2 activity were suppressed by the pharmacological inhibition of Akt or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Taken together, these findings suggest that Zn antiapoptosis capacity through the activation of Akt and ERK signal pathways leads to Nrf2 activation and, subsequently, Nrf2 target gene induction, thereby protecting the NRK-52E cells from HG-induced apoptosis. PMID:24591003

  9. Zinc oxide nanoparticles, a novel candidate for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ho; Seo, Jun-Ho; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2014-09-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace metal for eukaryotes. The roles of Zn in the numerous physiological functions have been elucidated. Bamboo salt contains Zn that was shown to have anti-inflammatory effect and other health benefits. Nanoparticles of various types have found application in the biology, medicine, and physics. Here we synthesized tetrapod-like, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZO-NP; diameter 200 nm, source of Zn) using a radio frequency thermal plasma system and investigated its effects on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory reactions. ZO-NP was found to inhibit the productions and mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-? on the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells. In these stimulated cells, caspase-1 and nuclear factor-?B activations were abolished by ZO-NP, and the expressions of receptor interacting protein2 (RIP2) and I?B kinase? (IKK?) induced by PAMCI were reduced. On the other hand, ZO-NP alone increased the expressions of RIP2 and IKK? in normal condition. ZO-NP inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase in the PMACI-stimulated HMC-1 cells. Furthermore, ZO-NP significantly inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti-dinitrophenyl IgE. These findings indicate that ZO-NP effectively ameliorates mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory reaction, and suggest that ZO-NP be considered a potential therapeutic for the treatment of mast cell-mediated allergic diseases. PMID:24877691

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by zinc oxide nanoparticles is an earlier biomarker for nanotoxicological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Huo, Lingling; Shi, Xiaofei; Bai, Ru; Zhang, Zhenjiang; Zhao, Yuliang; Chang, Yanzhong; Chen, Chunying

    2014-03-25

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been widely used in cosmetics and sunscreens, advanced textiles, self-charging and electronic devices; the potential for human exposure and the health impact at each stage of their manufacture and use are attracting great concerns. In addition to pulmonary damage, nanoparticle exposure is also strongly correlated with the increase in incidences of cardiovascular diseases; however, their toxic potential remains largely unclear. Herein, we investigated the cellular responses and endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress induced by ZnO NPs in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in comparison with the Zn2+ ions and CeO2 NPs. We found that the dissolved zinc ion was the most significant factor for cytotoxicity in HUVECs. More importantly, ZnO NPs at noncytotoxic concentration, but not CeO2 NPs, can induce significant cellular ER stress response with higher expression of spliced xbp-1, chop, and caspase-12 at the mRNA level, and associated ER marker proteins including BiP, Chop, GADD34, p-PERK, p-eIF2?, and cleaved Caspase-12 at the protein levels. Moreover, ER stress was widely activated after treatment with ZnO NPs, while six of 84 marker genes significantly increased. ER stress response is a sensitive marker for checking the interruption of ER homeostasis by ZnO NPs. Furthermore, higher dosage of ZnO NPs (240 ?M) quickly rendered ER stress response before inducing apoptosis. These results demonstrate that ZnO NPs activate ER stress-responsive pathway and the ER stress response might be used as an earlier and sensitive end point for nanotoxicological study. PMID:24490819

  11. Effect of nano-zinc oxide on doxorubicin- induced oxidative stress and sperm disorders in adult male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Badkoobeh, Puran; Parivar, Kazem; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi; Hosseini, Seyed Davood; Salabat, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antibiotic, is a widely used anticancer agent. In spite of its high antitumor efficacy, the use of DOX in clinical chemotherapy is limited due to diverse toxicities, including gonadotoxicity. Objective: We investigated the protective effect of nano-zinc oxide (nZnO) as an established antioxidant on DOX-induced testicular disorders. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 24 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups including one control and three experimentals (6 rats per group). They received saline (as control), DOX alone (6 mg/kg body weight, i.p.), nZnO alone (5 mg/kg body weight, i.p.), and nZnO followed by DOX. Animals were sacrificed 28 days after treatment and evaluations were made by sperm count and measuring sex hormone levels in plasma. Also total antioxidant power (TAP) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in plasma were tested. Data was analyzed with SPSS-14 and one way ANOVA test. P<0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: In the DOX-exposed rats significant differences were found compared with the control group (p=0.001) in plasma total antioxidant power (TAP) (425.50±32.33 vs. 493.33±18.54 mmol/mL), Lipid peroxidation (LPO) (3.70±0.44 vs. 2.78±0.68 ?mol/mL), plasma testosterone (3.38±0.69 vs. 5.40±0.89 ng/dl), LH (0.26±0.05 vs. 0.49±0.18 mlU/mL), sperm count (157.98±6.29 vs. 171.71±4.42×106/mL) and DNA damage (11.51±3.45 vs. 6.04±2.83%). Co-administration of nZnO significantly improved DOX-induced changes (p=0.013) in plasma TAP (471.83±14.51 mmol/mL), LPO (2.83±0.75 ?mol/mL), plasma testosterone (5.00±1.07 ng/dl), LH (0.52±0.08 mlU/mL), sperm count (169.13±5.01×106/mL) and DNA damage (7.00±1.67%). Conclusion: At the dose designed in the present investigation cytoprotective role of nano-zinc oxide through its antioxidant potential is illuminated in DOX-induced male gonadotoxicity. PMID:24639766

  12. Novel transparent conductors based on molybdenum oxide and gallium doped zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhosle, Vikram

    The primary aim of the present work is to gain a better understanding of the fundamentals and factors affecting the properties of alternative transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) in order to grow films with controlled properties. The two systems studied here as substitutes for indium tin oxide (ITO) are molybdenum oxide and gallium doped ZnO. The two systems not only offer commercial benefits but also some key technical advantages compared to ITO. To investigate the fundamentals properties, the novel TCO films have been grown on various substrates (sapphire, glass and polymer) and under different deposition conditions using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Film have been characterized in detail using combination of tools (XRD, TEM, XPS, 4-probe resistivity measurements, Hall measurements and absorption/transmission spectroscopy) in order to establish processing---structure---property relationship. A novel class of TCOs based on MoOx films is proposed for development, where the electrical and optical properties can be controlled by controlling the fraction of molybdenum ions in different oxidation states (Mo4+, Mo5+ and Mo6+). The structural characterization confirmed the epitaxial growth of monoclinic MoOx films on (0001) sapphire (corundum structure) substrates, which is explained via domain matching epitaxy (DME). MoOx films annealed in air at 250°C for 1h possessed an optimal combination of high transmittance (~65%) and electrical resistivity (in the range of 1 x 10-3 O-cm) and the relative concentration of Mo4+, Mo5+ and Mo6+ states is determined to be 17.2%, 8.4% and 74%, respectively. In case of doped ZnO, the effect of Ga on the electrical and optical properties of ZnO films has been studied systematically as a function of Ga concentration. A 5%Ga:ZnO film deposited at 400°C and 2x10-2 torr of oxygen exhibited %T > 80% and a room temperature value of resistivity ~1.4x10 -4 O-cm. A VOC = 0.5 V and power efficiency of 1.25+/-0.05% achieved for non-optimized device structures with ZnGaO anodes suggests that these TCO materials can provide potential substitutes for ITO.

  13. Adsorption of Textile Dye on Zinc Stannate Oxide: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamics Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edson Luiz Foletto; Gabriela Carvalho Collazzo; Marcio Antônio Mazutti; Sérgio Luiz Jahn

    2011-01-01

    Zn2SnO4 powder was prepared by hydrothermal process at 200°C for 12 h. The material was characterized by X-ray-diffraction and surface area. The synthesized sample presented a pure phase and a surface area of 48.8 m.g. It was used as adsorbent to remove the Reactive Red 141 that is a azo textile dye. The adsorption kinetics of the textile dye on Zn2SnO4 followed

  14. Gold-Catalyzed Synthesis of Aromatic Azo Compounds from Anilines and Nitroaromatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdessamad Grirrane; Avelino Corma; Hermenegildo García

    2008-01-01

    The selective formation of aromatic azo compounds at preparative or industrial levels requires stoichiometric amounts of environmentally unfriendly transition metals or nitrites. Here, we show that gold nanoparticles supported on titanium dioxide (TiO2) and nanoparticulated cerium dioxide (CeO2) catalyze the aerobic oxidation of aromatic anilines to aromatic azo compounds with yields above 98% under mild reaction conditions. Gold on TiO2

  15. Aging in chemically prepared divalent silver oxide electrodes for silver/zinc reserve batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David F.; Brown, Curtis

    The instability of silver(II) oxide electrodes used in silver/zinc reserve batteries is the well known cause of capacity loss and delayed activation in reserve batteries after they are stored in the dry, unactivated state for extended periods of time. Metal contaminants in sintered/electroformed electrodes destabilize the oxide and the solid state reaction between AgO and elemental silver results in the formation of the lower capacity monovalent oxide Ag 2O. Chemically prepared (CP) AgO can be used to avoid the metal contaminants and to minimize the interfacial contact area between AgO and Ag, thus minimizing the affects of aging on the electrodes. Electrodes were fabricated with CP AgO and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder and expanded silver metal current collectors. Experimentally, both electrode active material compacts (AgO and binder only) and electrodes complete with AgO/binder and silver current collector were tested to evaluate the influence of the current collector on aging. The electrode samples were discharged at a constant rate of 50 mA cm -2 before and after storage at 60°C for 21 days as well as after storage at room ambient temperature conditions for 91 months. The results indicate that the affects of aging upon the AgO/binder compacts are insignificant for long term storage at room temperature. However, thermally accelerated aging at high temperature (60°C) affects both transient and stabilized load voltage as well as capacity. In terms of capacity, the AgO/binder mix itself looses about 5% capacity after 21 days dry storage at 60°C while electrodes complete with current collector loose about 8%. The 60% increase in capacity loss is attributed to the solid state reaction between AgO and elemental silver.

  16. Effect of doping concentration on the properties of aluminium doped zinc oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis for transparent electrode applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Muiva; T. S. Sathiaraj; K. Maabong

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide possesses many interesting properties, such as modifiable conductivity, wide band gap, high excitonic binding energy, piezo-electric polarisation and cathodoluminiscence. In this study transparent conducting aluminium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) thin films were deposited on float glass substrates by tailor made spray pyrolysis with adaptation for measuring the actual temperature of the substrate surface during deposition. The films were

  17. Synthesis of carbon and zinc oxide nanotubes and their applications in electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kaikun

    Nanostructured materials, including single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs), zinc oxide (ZnO) nanotubes (NTs) and graphene, have been successfully synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or wet chemistry routines, and used to fabricate nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices, including field effect transistors (FETs) and heterojunction solar cells. Both nanomaterials properties and devices performances have been characterized. Vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) have been synthesized using both the pre-deposited iron films and the continuous supply of catalytic species via gas flow in pyrolytic decomposition of hydrocarbons by CVD. High quality VACNTs have been obtained after the optimization of synthesis parameters. Using metal nanoparticles as catalysts, centimeter-long SWCNTs have been synthesized on a silicon wafer with a thin thermal oxide layer. A series of FETs have been fabricated directly on a single SWCNT by inkjet printing of Pd nanoparticles to form both source and drain electrodes. The devices exhibit typical Schottky barrier p-type conductance characteristics. The line density and field mobility of charge carriers, as well as the effect of gate field modulation have been shown to strongly depend on thermal treatment of the SWCNT-FETs, implying the effect of carrier doping and interfacial reconstruction. ZnO NTs have been synthesized in an aqueous solution of zinc nitrate at 60ºC. A novel core-shell growth mechanism was hypothesized to explain the synthesis of ZnO NTs. The crystalline microstructures and optical properties of ZnO NTs upon thermal annealing in air at various temperatures have been examined. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra reveal a slightly redshift of the direct band gap upon annealing. Solution structure of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (RR-P3HT) in toluene has been examined using optical spectroscopy in situ and atomic force microscopy upon casting films on a clean substrate. Time-resolved absorption and emission spectra indicate an increasing conjugation length with the storage time for an initially homogeneous solution. AFM micrographs show growing rod-like aggregates in solution over time. Bulk heterojunction solar cells have been fabricated with a layered structure of glass-substrate/graphene/ZnO NTs/P3HT/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS)/Au, in which vertically aligned ZnO NTs are electron donors, P3HT is the acceptor, and a highly conductive graphene film is the transparent electrode. The open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, fill factor, and power conversion efficiency have been measured to discuss the potential of such energy harvesting devices.

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW: Zinc oxide: bulk growth, role of hydrogen and Schottky diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monakhov, E. V.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu; Svensson, B. G.

    2009-08-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconductor material with attractive features for light emitting devices, photovoltaics, chemical sensors and spintronics. In the past 10 yr ZnO has attracted tremendous interest from the materials science and semiconductor physics research communities, and in this review recent progress in (i) bulk growth, (ii) understanding of the role of hydrogen and (iii) formation of high-quality Schottky barrier (SB) diodes, are discussed for single crystalline ZnO. In (i), the emphasis is put on hydrothermally grown material and how the concentration of intentional and unintentional impurities, such as In and Li, can be controlled and modified by high temperature treatment and defect engineering involving vacancy clusters. In (ii), different possible configurations of hydrogen as a shallow donor are evaluated based on results from calculations employing the density-functional-theory as well as from experimental studies of local vibrational modes using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Further, hydrogen is demonstrated to be very reactive and the interaction with zinc vacancies, group I and group V elements, and transition metals are elucidated. Moreover, the diffusion of hydrogen is found to be rapid and limited by the concentration of traps in hydrothermal samples, and it is argued that isolated (free) hydrogen is not very likely to exist in ZnO at room temperature. In (iii), a compilation of the literature data illustrates that the SB heights for metals deposited on n-type samples have no correlation with the metal work function, violating the fundamental Schottky-Mott model. The role of surface preparation cannot be overestimated and in several cases an oxidation of the surface prior to metal deposition is shown to be beneficial for the formation of high barrier SB diodes. The effects of near-surface defects, such as oxygen vacancies, and contact inhomogeneity are also addressed. However, in spite of the significant progress made in the past 5-7 years, a thorough understanding of the SB formation to ZnO is still lacking. Finally, results from characterization of electrically active point defects employing the SB contacts and junction spectroscopic techniques are reviewed and the identification of some prominent bandgap states is critically evaluated.

  19. Interaction between nanoparticles generated by zinc chloride treatment and oxidative responses in rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Azzouz, Inès; Trabelsi, Hamdi; Hanini, Amel; Ferchichi, Soumaya; Tebourbi, Olfa; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction of zinc chloride (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [ip]) in rat liver in terms of the biosynthesis of nanoparticles. Zinc treatment increased zinc content in rat liver. Analysis of fluorescence revealed the presence of red fluorescence in the liver following zinc treatment. Interestingly, the co-exposure to zinc (3 mg/kg, ip) and selenium (0.20 mg/L, per os [by mouth]) led to a higher intensity of red fluorescence compared to zinc-treated rats. In addition, X-ray diffraction measurements carried out on liver fractions of zinc-treated rats point to the biosynthesis of zinc sulfide and/or selenide nanocomplexes at nearly 51.60 nm in size. Moreover, co-exposure led to nanocomplexes of about 72.60 nm in size. The interaction of zinc with other mineral elements (S, Se) generates several nanocomplexes, such as ZnS and/or ZnSe. The nanocomplex ZnX could interact directly with enzyme activity or indirectly by the disruption of mineral elements’ bioavailability in cells. Subacute zinc or selenium treatment decreased malondialdehyde levels, indicating a drop in lipid peroxidation. In addition, antioxidant enzyme assays showed that treatment with zinc or co-treatment with zinc and selenium increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. Consequently, zinc complexation with sulfur and/or selenium at nanoscale level could enhance antioxidative responses, which is correlated to the ratio of number of ZnX nanoparticles (X=sulfur or X=selenium) to malondialdehyde level in rat liver. PMID:24403828

  20. Interaction between nanoparticles generated by zinc chloride treatment and oxidative responses in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Azzouz, Inès; Trabelsi, Hamdi; Hanini, Amel; Ferchichi, Soumaya; Tebourbi, Olfa; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction of zinc chloride (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [ip]) in rat liver in terms of the biosynthesis of nanoparticles. Zinc treatment increased zinc content in rat liver. Analysis of fluorescence revealed the presence of red fluorescence in the liver following zinc treatment. Interestingly, the co-exposure to zinc (3 mg/kg, ip) and selenium (0.20 mg/L, per os [by mouth]) led to a higher intensity of red fluorescence compared to zinc-treated rats. In addition, X-ray diffraction measurements carried out on liver fractions of zinc-treated rats point to the biosynthesis of zinc sulfide and/or selenide nanocomplexes at nearly 51.60 nm in size. Moreover, co-exposure led to nanocomplexes of about 72.60 nm in size. The interaction of zinc with other mineral elements (S, Se) generates several nanocomplexes, such as ZnS and/or ZnSe. The nanocomplex ZnX could interact directly with enzyme activity or indirectly by the disruption of mineral elements' bioavailability in cells. Subacute zinc or selenium treatment decreased malondialdehyde levels, indicating a drop in lipid peroxidation. In addition, antioxidant enzyme assays showed that treatment with zinc or co-treatment with zinc and selenium increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. Consequently, zinc complexation with sulfur and/or selenium at nanoscale level could enhance antioxidative responses, which is correlated to the ratio of number of ZnX nanoparticles (X=sulfur or X=selenium) to malondialdehyde level in rat liver. PMID:24403828