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Sample records for zinc phosphide solar cells

  1. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Allen M.; Catalano, Anthony W.; Dalal, Vikram L.; Masi, James V.; Meakin, John D.; Hall, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  2. Indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Irving

    1991-01-01

    The direction for InP solar cell research; reduction of cell cost; increase of cell efficiency; measurements needed to better understand cell performance; n/p versus p/n; radiation effects; major problems in cell contacting; and whether the present level of InP solar cell research in the USA should be maintained, decreased, or increased were considered.

  3. Zinc phosphide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc phoshide ; CASRN 1314 - 84 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  4. Determination of series resistance of indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Weinberg, Irving

    1991-01-01

    The series resistance of a solar cell is an important parameter, which must be minimized to achieve high cell efficiencies. The cell series resistance is affected by the starting material, its design, and processing. The theoretical approach proposed by Jia, et. al., is used to calculate the series resistance of indium phosphide solar cells. It is observed that the theoretical approach does not predict the series resistance correctly in all cases. The analysis was modified to include the use of effective junction ideality factor. The calculated results were compared with the available experimental results on indium phosphide solar cells processed by different techniques. It is found that the use of process dependent junction ideality factor leads to better estimation of series resistance. An accurate comprehensive series resistance model is warranted to give proper feedback for modifying the cell processing from the design state.

  5. Status of indium phosphide solar cell development at Spire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, M. B.; Keavney, C. J.; Vernon, S. M.

    1987-01-01

    On-going development of indium phosphide solar cells for space applications is presented. The development is being carried out with a view towards both high conversion efficiency and simplicity of manufacture. The cell designs comprise the ion-implanted cell, the indium tin oxide top contact cell, and the epitaxial cell grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Modelling data on the limit to the efficiency are presented and comparison is made to measured performance data.

  6. Indium phosphide solar cells for laser power beaming applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    Lasers can be used to transmit power to photovoltaic cells. Solar cell efficiencies are enhanced significantly under monochromatic light, and therefore a laser beam of proper wavelength could be a very effective source of illumination for a solar array operating at very high efficiencies. This work reviews the modeling studies made on indium phosphide solar cells for such an application. These cells are known to be very radiation resistant and have a potential for high efficiency. Effects of cell series resistance, laser intensity, and temperature on cell performance have been discussed.

  7. Zinc Phosphide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Doğan, Erdal; Güzel, Abdulmenap; Çiftçi, Taner; Aycan, İlker; Çetin, Bedri; Kavak, Gönül Ölmez

    2014-01-01

    Zinc phosphide has been used widely as a rodenticide. Upon ingestion, it gets converted to phosphine gas in the body, which is subsequently absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach and the intestines and gets captured by the liver and the lungs. Phosphine gas produces various metabolic and nonmetabolic toxic effects. Clinical symptoms are circulatory collapse, hypotension, shock symptoms, myocarditis, pericarditis, acute pulmonary edema, and congestive heart failure. In this case presentation, we aim to present the intensive care process and treatment resistance of a patient who ingested zinc phosphide for suicide purposes. PMID:25101186

  8. Radiation damage in proton irradiated indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    1986-01-01

    Indium phosphide solar cells exposed to 10 MeV proton irradiations were found to have significantly greater radiation resistance than either GaAs or Si. Performance predictions were obtained for two proton dominated orbits and one in which both protons and electrons were significant cell degradation factors. Array specific power was calculated using lightweight blanket technology, a SEP array structure, and projected cell efficiencies. Results indicate that arrays using fully developed InP cells should out-perform those using GaAs or Si in orbits where radiation is a significant cell degradation factor.

  9. Recent developments in indium phosphide space solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments and progress in indium phosphide solar cell research for space application are reviewed. Indium phosphide homojunction cells were fabricated in both the n + p and p + n configurations with total area efficiencies of 17.9 and 15.9 percent (air mass 0 and 25 C) respectively. Organometallic chemical vapor deposition, liquid phase epitaxy, ion implantation and diffusion techniques were employed in InP cell fabrication. A theoretical model of a radiation tolerant, high efficiency homojunction cell was developed. A realistically attainable AM0 efficiency of 20.5 percent was calculated using this model with emitter and base doping of 6 x 10 to the 17th power and 5 x 10 to the 16th power/cu cm, respectively. Cells of both configurations were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons and 37 MeV protons. For both proton and electron irradiation, the n + p cells are more radiation resistant at higher fluences than the p + n cells. The first flight module of four InP cells was assembled for the Living Plume Shield III satellite.

  10. Recent developments in indium phosphide space solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments and progress in indium phosphide solar cell research for space application are reviewed. Indium phosphide homojunction cells were fabricated in both the n+p and p+n configurations with total area efficiencies of 17.9 and 15.9% (air mass 0 and 25 C) respectively. Organometallic chemical vapor deposition, liquid phase epitaxy, ion implantation and diffusion techniques were employed in InP cell fabrication. A theoretical model of a radiation tolerant, high efficiency homojunction cell was developed. A realistically attainable AMO efficiency of 20.5% was calculated using this model with emitter and base doping of 6 x 10 to the 17th power and 5 x 10 the the 16th power/cu cm respectively. Cells of both configurations were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons and 37 MeV protons. For both proton and electron irradiation, the n+p cells are more radiation resistant at higher fluences than the p+n cells. The first flight module of four InP cells was assembled for the Living Plume Shield III satellite.

  11. Indium Phosphide Window Layers for Indium Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.

    2005-01-01

    Window layers help in reducing the surface recombination at the emitter surface of the solar cells resulting in significant improvement in energy conversion efficiency. Indium gallium arsenide (In(x)Ga(1-x)As) and related materials based solar cells are quite promising for photovoltaic and thermophotovoltaic applications. The flexibility of the change in the bandgap energy and the growth of InGaAs on different substrates make this material very attractive for multi-bandgap energy, multi-junction solar cell approaches. The high efficiency and better radiation performance of the solar cell structures based on InGaAs make them suitable for space power applications. This work investigates the suitability of indium phosphide (InP) window layers for lattice-matched In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As (bandgap energy 0.74 eV) solar cells. We present the first data on the effects of the p-type InP window layer on p-on-n lattice-matched InGaAs solar cells. The modeled quantum efficiency results show a significant improvement in the blue region with the InP window. The bare InGaAs solar cell performance suffers due to high surface recombination velocity (10(exp 7) cm/s). The large band discontinuity at the InP/InGaAs heterojunction offers a great potential barrier to minority carriers. The calculated results demonstrate that the InP window layer effectively passivates the solar cell front surface, hence resulting in reduced surface recombination and therefore, significantly improving the performance of the InGaAs solar cell.

  12. Indium phosphide space solar cell research: Where we are and where we are going

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, R. K.; Flood, D. J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1995-01-01

    Indium phosphide is considered to be a strong contender for many photovoltaic space applications because of its radiation resistance and its potential for high efficiency. An overview of recent progress is presented, and possible future research directions for indium phosphide space solar cells are discussed. The topics considered include radiation damage studies and space flight experiments.

  13. Progress in indium phosphide solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Irving; Swartz, Clifford K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Progress, dating from the start of the Lewis program, is reviewed emphasizing processing techniques which have achieved the highest efficiencies in a given year. To date, the most significant achievement has been attainment of AM0 total area efficiencies approaching 19 percent. Although closed tube diffusion is not considered to be an optimum process, reasonably efficient 2cm x 2cm and 1cm x 2cm InP cells have been produced in quantity by this method with a satellite to be launched in 1990 using these cells. Proton irradiation of these relatively large area cells indicates radiation resistance comparable to that previously reported for smaller InP cells. A similar result is found for the initial proton irradiations of ITO/InP cells processed by D. C. sputtering. With respect to computer modelling, a comparison of n/p homojunction InP and GaAs cells of identical geometries and dopant concentrations has confirmed the superior radiation resistance of InP cells under 1 MeV electron irradiations.

  14. Optimal design study of high efficiency indium phosphide space solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    Recently indium phosphide solar cells have achieved beginning of life AMO efficiencies in excess of 19 pct. at 25 C. The high efficiency prospects along with superb radiation tolerance make indium phosphide a leading material for space power requirements. To achieve cost effectiveness, practical cell efficiencies have to be raised to near theoretical limits and thin film indium phosphide cells need to be developed. The optimal design study is described of high efficiency indium phosphide solar cells for space power applications using the PC-1D computer program. It is shown that cells with efficiencies over 22 pct. AMO at 25 C could be fabricated by achieving proper material and process parameters. It is observed that further improvements in cell material and process parameters could lead to experimental cell efficiencies near theoretical limits. The effect of various emitter and base parameters on cell performance was studied.

  15. Comparative performance of diffused junction indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.; Ghandhi, S. K.; Borrego, J. M.; Parat, K. K.

    1987-01-01

    A comparison is made between indium phosphide solar cells whose p-n junctions were processed by open tube capped diffusion, and closed tube uncapped diffusion, of sulfur into Czochralski grown p-type substrates. Air mass zero, total area, efficiencies ranged from 10 to 14.2 percent, the latter value attributed to cells processed by capped diffusion. The radiation resistance of these latter cells was slightly better, under 1 MeV electron irradiation. However, rather than being process dependent, the difference in radiation resistance could be attributed to the effects of increased base dopant concentration. In agreement with previous results, both cells exhibited radiation resistance superior to that of gallium arsenide. The lowest temperature dependency of maximum power was exhibited by the cells prepared by open tube capped diffusion. Contrary to previous results, no correlation was found between open circuit voltage and the temperature dependency of Pmax. It was concluded that additional process optimization was necessary before concluding that one process was better than another.

  16. Indium phosphide solar cells - Recent developments and estimated performance in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Irving; Brinker, David J.

    1990-01-01

    The current status of indium phosphide solar cell research is reviewed. In the NASA research program, efficiencies of 18.8 percent were achieved for standard n/p homojunction InP cells while 17 percent was achieved for ITO/InP cells processed by sputtering n-type indium tin oxide onto p-type indium phosphide. The latter represents a cheaper, simpler processing alternative. Computer modeling calculations indicate that efficiencies of over 21 percent are feasible. Relatively large area cells are produced in Japan with a maximum efficiency of 16.6 percent.

  17. Effect of InAlAs window layer on efficiency of indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    Indium phosphide (InP) solar cell efficiencies are limited by surface recombination. The effect of a wide bandgap, lattice-matched indium aluminum arsenide (In(0.52)Al(0.48)As) window layer on the performance of InP solar cells was investigated by using the numerical code PC-1D. The p(+)n InP solar cell performance improved significantly with the use of the window layer. No improvement was seen for the n(+)p InP cells. The cell results were explained by the band diagram of the heterostructure and the conduction band energy discontinuity. The calculated current voltage and internal quantum efficiency results clearly demonstrated that In(0.52)Al(0.48)As is a very promising candidate for a window layer material for p(+)n InP solar cells.

  18. Effect of InAlAs window layer on the efficiency of indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, R. K.; Landis, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    Indium phosphide (InP) solar cell efficiencies are limited by surface recombination. The effect of a wide-bandgap lattice-matched indium aluminum arsenide (In0.52Al0.48As) window layer on the performance of InP solar cells was investigated using a numerical code PC-1D. The p(+)n InP solar cell performance improves significantly with the use of a window layer. No improvement is seen for n(+)p InP cells. Cell results are explained by the band diagram of the heterostructure and the conduction-band energy discontinuity. The calculated I-V and internal quantum efficiency results clearly demonstrate that In0.52Al0.48As is a promising candidate as a window layer material for p(+)n InP solar cells.

  19. Comparative radiation resistance, temperature dependence and performance of diffused junction indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.; Ghandhi, S. K.; Borrego, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Indium phosphide solar cells whose p-n junctions were processed by the open tube capped diffusion and by the closed tube uncapped diffusion of sulfur into Czochralski-grown p-type substrates are compared. Differences found in radiation resistance were attributed to the effects of increased base dopant concentration. Both sets of cells showed superior radiation resistance to that of gallium arsenide cells, in agreement with previous results. No correlation was, however, found between the open-circuit voltage and the temperature dependence of the maximum power.

  20. Effect of emitter parameter variation on the performance of heteroepitaxial indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, R. K.; Flood, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Metalorganic chemical-vapor-deposited heteroepitaxial indium phosphide (InP) solar cell experimental results were simulated by using a PC-1D computer model. The effect of emitter parameter variation on the performance of n(+)/p/p(+) heteroepitaxial InP/GaAs solar cell was presented. The thinner and lighter doped emitters were observed to offer higher cell efficiencies. The influence of emitter thickness and minority carrier diffusion length on the cell efficiency with respect to dislocation density was studied. Heteroepitaxial cells with efficiencies similar to present day homojunction InP efficiencies (greaater than 16 percent AM0) were shown to be attainable if a dislocation density lower than 10(exp 6)/sq cm could be achieved. A realistic optimized design study yielded InP solar cells of over 22 percent AM0 efficiency at 25 C.

  1. Effect of emitter parameter variation on the performance of heteroepitaxial indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    Metallorganic chemical-vapor-deposited heteroepitaxial indium phosphide (InP) solar cell experimental results were simulated by using a PC-1D computer model. The effect of emitter parameter variation on the performance of n(+)/p/p(+) heteroepitaxial InP/GaAs solar cell was presented. The thinner and lighter doped emitters were observed to offer higher cell efficiencies. The influence of emitter thickness and minority carrier diffusion length on the cell efficiency with respect to dislocation density was studied. Heteroepitaxial cells with efficiencies similar to present day homojunction InP efficiencies (greater than 16 percent AMO) were shown to be attainable if a dislocation density lower than 10(exp 6)/sq cm could be achieved. A realistic optimized design study yielded InP solar cells of over 22 percent AMO efficiency at 25 C.

  2. 40 CFR 180.284 - Zinc phosphide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Zinc phosphide; tolerances for... § 180.284 Zinc phosphide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the phosphine resulting from the use of the rodenticide zinc phosphide in or on the...

  3. 40 CFR 180.284 - Zinc phosphide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc phosphide; tolerances for... § 180.284 Zinc phosphide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the phosphine resulting from the use of the rodenticide zinc phosphide in or on the...

  4. 40 CFR 180.284 - Zinc phosphide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zinc phosphide; tolerances for... § 180.284 Zinc phosphide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the phosphine resulting from the use of the rodenticide zinc phosphide in or on the...

  5. 40 CFR 180.284 - Zinc phosphide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zinc phosphide; tolerances for... § 180.284 Zinc phosphide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the phosphine resulting from the use of the rodenticide zinc phosphide in or on the...

  6. Modelling and design of high performance indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoads, Sandra L.; Barnett, Allen M.

    1989-01-01

    A first principles pn junction device model has predicted new designs for high voltage, high efficiency InP solar cells. Measured InP material properties were applied and device parameters (thicknesses and doping) were adjusted to obtain optimal performance designs. Results indicate that p/n InP designs will provide higher voltages and higher energy conversion efficiencies than n/p structures. Improvements to n/p structures for increased efficiency are predicted. These new designs exploit the high absorption capabilities, relatively long diffusion lengths, and modest surface recombination velocities characteristic of InP. Predictions of performance indicate achievable open-circuit voltage values as high as 943 mV for InP and a practical maximum AM0 efficiency of 22.5 percent at 1 sun and 27 C. The details of the model, the optimal InP structure and the effect of individual parameter variations on device performance are presented.

  7. Indium phosphide solar cells: status and prospects for use in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Brinker, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of indium phosphide cell research is reviewed and state of the art efficiencies compared to those of GaAs and Si. It is shown that the radiation resistance of InP cells is superior to that of either GaAs or Si under 1 MeV electron and 10 MeV proton irradiation. Using lightweight blanket technology, a SEP array structure and projected cell efficiencies, array specific powers are obtained for all three cell types. Array performance is calculated as a function of time in orbit. The results indicate that arrays using InP cells can outperform those using GaAs or Si in orbits where radiation is a significant cell degradation factor. It is concluded that InP solar cells are excellent prospects for future use in the space radiation environment.

  8. High-efficiency indium tin oxide/indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Wanlass, M. W.; Gessert, T. A.; Emery, K. A.; Coutts, T. J.

    1989-01-01

    Improvements in the performance of indium tin oxide (ITO)/indium phosphide solar cells have been realized by the dc magnetron sputter deposition of n-ITO onto an epitaxial p/p(+) structure grown on commercial p(+) bulk substrates. The highest efficiency cells were achieved when the surface of the epilayer was exposed to an Ar/H2 plasma before depositing the bulk of the ITO in a more typical Ar/O2 plasma. With H2 processing, global efficiencies of 18.9 percent were achieved. It is suggested that the excellent performance of these solar cells results from the optimization of the doping, thickness, transport, and surface properties of the p-type base, as well as from better control over the ITO deposition procedure.

  9. Process Development of Gallium Nitride Phosphide Core-Shell Nanowire Array Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Chen

    Dilute Nitride GaNP is a promising materials for opto-electronic applications due to its band gap tunability. The efficiency of GaNxP1-x /GaNyP1-y core-shell nanowire solar cell (NWSC) is expected to reach as high as 44% by 1% N and 9% N in the core and shell, respectively. By developing such high efficiency NWSCs on silicon substrate, a further reduction of the cost of solar photovoltaic can be further reduced to 61$/MWh, which is competitive to levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of fossil fuels. Therefore, a suitable NWSC structure and fabrication process need to be developed to achieve this promising NWSC. This thesis is devoted to the study on the development of fabrication process of GaNxP 1-x/GaNyP1-y core-shell Nanowire solar cell. The thesis is divided into two major parts. In the first parts, previously grown GaP/GaNyP1-y core-shell nanowire samples are used to develop the fabrication process of Gallium Nitride Phosphide nanowire solar cell. The design for nanowire arrays, passivation layer, polymeric filler spacer, transparent col- lecting layer and metal contact are discussed and fabricated. The property of these NWSCs are also characterized to point out the future development of Gal- lium Nitride Phosphide NWSC. In the second part, a nano-hole template made by nanosphere lithography is studied for selective area growth of nanowires to improve the structure of core-shell NWSC. The fabrication process of nano-hole templates and the results are presented. To have a consistent features of nano-hole tem- plate, the Taguchi Method is used to optimize the fabrication process of nano-hole templates.

  10. A review of indium phosphide space solar cell fabrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, M. B.; Dingle, B.; Dingle, J.; Morrison, R.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the status of InP cell efficiency and of approaches to the reduction of cell cost is presented. The use of heteroepitaxial techniques such as InP-on-GaAs and InP-on-Si is discussed along with the use of chemical and mechanical techniques for removal and recovery of the substrate. The efficiency ultimately obtainable with designs made possible by such an approach is calculated.

  11. Indium phosphide/cadmium sulfide thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zanio, K.

    1980-02-01

    Thin-film InP/CdS structures were prepared by depositing, in sequence, ITO on a low-cost glass substrate, CdS on the ITO by thermal evaporation, and InP on the CdS by planar reactive deposition (PRD). Films of CdS, 15 ..mu..m thick, were recrystallized in flowing H/sub 2//H/sub 2/S at 500/sup 0/C. Lateral dimensions of typical grains were 50..mu..m with values up to 200 ..mu..m. The sheet resistance of the recrystallized CdS (RXCdS) was lowered from greater than 10/sup 5/ ..cap omega../O = cm/sup 2/ to values as low as 16 ..cap omega../O = cm/sup 2/ by annealing in either H/sub 2/ Cd atmospheres. Epitaxy of InP was undertaken on (100) InP at a substrate temperature of 320/sup 0/C. Room-temperature electron mobilities of about 2000 cm/sup 2//V-sec were found. Mobilities and hole concentrations of 60 cm/sup 2//V-sec and 10/sup 17/ cm-/sup 3/, respectively, were achieved with Be-doped films. P-type films with hole concentrations as high as a few times 10/sup 18/cm-/sup 3/ were achieved with increased doping. Be-doped InP was deposited onto the RXCdS/ITO/GLASS substrate to form a thin-film cell. However, p-type InP could not be prepared with CdS as a substrat4e, presumably due to interdiffusion or vapor transport of sulfur. Consequently, blocking action and a photovoltage could only be achieved using a gold Schottky barrier on the InP/RXCdS/ITO/GLASS structure. Plans for the next quarter include determining whether n-type doping from the CdS occurs by either interdiffusion or vapor transport, characterizing InP epitaxy on the RXCdS, and preparing additional thin-film structures.

  12. Forward-biased current annealing of radiation degraded indium phosphide and gallium arsenide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, Sherif; Cypranowski, Corinne; Anspaugh, Bruce

    1990-01-01

    The preliminary results of a novel approach to low-temperature annealing of previously irradiated indium phosphide and gallium arsenide solar cells are reported. The technique is based on forward-biased current annealing. The two types of III-V solar cells were irradiated with 1-MeV electrons to a fluence level of (1-10) x 10 to the 14th electrons/sq cm. Several annealing attempts were made, varying all conditions. Optimum annealing was achieved when cells were injected with minority currents at a constant 90 C. The current density for each type of cell was also determined. Significant recovery of degraded parameters was achieved in both cases. However, the InP cell recovery notably exceeded the recovery in GaAs cells. The recovery is thought to be caused by current-stimulated reordering of the radiator-induced displacement damage. Both types of cell were then subjected to several cycles of irradiation and annealing. The results were also very promising. The significant recovery of degraded cell parameters at low temperature might play a major role in considerably extending the end of life of future spacecraft.

  13. Diffusion length variation in 0.5- and 3-MeV-proton-irradiated, heteroepitaxial indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Weinberg, Irving; Flood, Dennis J.

    1993-01-01

    Indium phosphide (InP) solar cells are more radiation resistant than gallium arsenide (GaAs) and silicon (Si) solar cells, and their growth by heteroepitaxy offers additional advantages leading to the development of light weight, mechanically strong, and cost-effective cells. Changes in heteroepitaxial InP cell efficiency under 0.5- and 3-MeV proton irradiations have been explained by the variation in the minority-carrier diffusion length. The base diffusion length versus proton fluence was calculated by simulating the cell performance. The diffusion length damage coefficient, K(sub L), was also plotted as a function of proton fluence.

  14. Diphacinone and zinc phosphide toxicity in a flock of Peafowl.

    PubMed

    Shivaprasad, H L; Galey, F

    2001-12-01

    Toxicity probably due to a combination of diphacinone and zinc phosphide was diagnosed in a flock of peafowl, in which 35 birds in a flock of 80 died over a span of 10 days without any apparent clinical signs. Chickens and guinea fowl, 30 each on the same premises, were not affected. Plastic tubes containing diphacinone and zinc phosphide were used on the premises to control ground squirrels. Most of the six dead peafowl, which ranged in age from 6 months to 4 years, had an accumulation of serosanguinous fluid in the abdominal cavity, semi-clotted blood over the liver lobes, increased pericardial fluid, and enlarged and pale kidneys. Pellets of diphacinone and zinc phosphide were found in the crop and gizzard contents from most of the birds. Microscopically, most of the birds had mild to moderate centrolobular degeneration of hepatocytes and multifocal degeneration of myofibres in the heart with infiltration by a few mononuclear cells. Acute nephrosis and mucosal oedema in the oesophagus and crop were also observed. Toxicological analysis of the crop and gizzard contents revealed the presence of diphacinone and phosphine gas, and analysis of the crop contents from two birds for heavy metals revealed zinc levels of up to 6600 parts/10 6 . It was suspected that only the peafowl and not the chickens and guinea fowl were affected because peafowl, with their longer necks, were able to reach into the plastic tubes and eat the pellets. PMID:19184953

  15. A numerical simulation study of gallium-phosphide/silicon heterojunction passivated emitter and rear solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Hannes; Ohrdes, Tobias; Dastgheib-Shirazi, Amir; Puthen-Veettil, Binesh; König, Dirk; Altermatt, Pietro P.

    2014-01-28

    The performance of passivated emitter and rear (PERC) solar cells made of p-type Si wafers is often limited by recombination in the phosphorus-doped emitter. To overcome this limitation, a realistic PERC solar cell is simulated, whereby the conventional phosphorus-doped emitter is replaced by a thin, crystalline gallium phosphide (GaP) layer. The resulting GaP/Si PERC cell is compared to Si PERC cells, which have (i) a standard POCl{sub 3} diffused emitter, (ii) a solid-state diffused emitter, or (iii) a high efficiency ion-implanted emitter. The maximum efficiencies for these realistic PERC cells are between 20.5% and 21.2% for the phosphorus-doped emitters (i)–(iii), and up to 21.6% for the GaP emitter. The major advantage of this GaP hetero-emitter is a significantly reduced recombination loss, resulting in a higher V{sub oc}. This is so because the high valence band offset between GaP and Si acts as a nearly ideal minority carrier blocker. This effect is comparable to amorphous Si. However, the GaP layer can be contacted with metal fingers like crystalline Si, so no conductive oxide is necessary. Compared to the conventional PERC structure, the GaP/Si PERC cell requires a lower Si base doping density, which reduces the impact of the boron-oxygen complexes. Despite the lower base doping, fewer rear local contacts are necessary. This is so because the GaP emitter shows reduced recombination, leading to a higher minority electron density in the base and, in turn, to a higher base conductivity.

  16. Potential health and safety hazards associated with the production of cadmium telluride, copper indium diselenide, and zinc phosphide photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Lee, J.C.

    1985-04-01

    In large-scale manufacture of cadmium telluride, copper indium diselenide, and zinc phosphide photovoltaic cells, the materials and equipment used may present potential health and safety hazards to workers and the public. These hazards were identified by reviewing data on process materials, availability of control technology, biomedical effects, and health and environmental standards. Quantitative estimates of material inputs and outputs, and control technology costs for selected processes were based on preliminary engineering designs for hypothetical 10-MWp/yr photovoltaic cell production facilities. In the fabrication of these devices, unusually large quantities of some toxic gases may be used; large demands for phosphine and hydrogen selenide are of special concern. Because projected usage of these materials is much larger than the current one, a thorough evaluation of engineering controls will be needed before the technologies are commercialized. These materials could also present occupational health hazards. Some management options to reduce occupational exposures to these materials are presented. Although specific federal and state regulations have not been promulgated for emissions from the photovoltaic industry, prudent engineering practice should be applied to all waste streams - solid, atmospheric, or liquid - containing toxic pollutants to limit discharges of these materials. Control costs for most atmospheric waste streams should not be large (<0.01 cent per watt); for phosphine, however, costs are potentially much larger (4.4 cents per watt). Some processes may also produce large quantities of solid waste defined as toxic or hazardous under US Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. Disposal costs for these materials are presented.

  17. Solution-based synthesis and purification of zinc tin phosphide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheets, Erik J.; Balow, Robert B.; Yang, Wei-Chang; Stach, Eric A.; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2015-11-01

    The solution-based synthesis of nanoscale earth-abundant semiconductors has the potential to unlock simple, scalable, and tunable material processes which currently constrain development of novel compounds for alternative energy devices. One such promising semiconductor is zinc tin phosphide (ZnSnP2). We report the synthesis of ZnSnP2 nanowires via a solution-liquid-solid mechanism utilizing metallic zinc and tin in decomposing trioctylphosphine (TOP). Dried films of the reaction product are purified of binary phosphide phases by annealing at 345 °C. Tin is removed using a 0.1 M nitric acid treatment leaving pure ZnSnP2 nanowires. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicates ZnSnP2 has a direct bandgap energy of 1.24 eV which is optimal for solar cell applications. Using a photoelectrochemical cell, we demonstrate cathodic photocurrent generation at open circuit conditions from the ZnSnP2 nanowires upon solar simulated illumination confirming p-type conductivity.The solution-based synthesis of nanoscale earth-abundant semiconductors has the potential to unlock simple, scalable, and tunable material processes which currently constrain development of novel compounds for alternative energy devices. One such promising semiconductor is zinc tin phosphide (ZnSnP2). We report the synthesis of ZnSnP2 nanowires via a solution-liquid-solid mechanism utilizing metallic zinc and tin in decomposing trioctylphosphine (TOP). Dried films of the reaction product are purified of binary phosphide phases by annealing at 345 °C. Tin is removed using a 0.1 M nitric acid treatment leaving pure ZnSnP2 nanowires. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicates ZnSnP2 has a direct bandgap energy of 1.24 eV which is optimal for solar cell applications. Using a photoelectrochemical cell, we demonstrate cathodic photocurrent generation at open circuit conditions from the ZnSnP2 nanowires upon solar simulated illumination confirming p-type conductivity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI

  18. Simulation of high-efficiency n[sup +]p indium phosphide solar cell results and future improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, R.K.; Flood, D.J. )

    1994-12-01

    A simulation of the highest efficiency (19.1% AM0) n[sup +]p indium phosphide (InP) solar cell was made using a computer code PC-1D in order to understand it and suggest future improvements to it. Available cell design and process data was used in the simulation. Minority carrier diffusion lengths in the emitter and base have been varied to match the experimental cell I-V characteristics with the calculated results. To further understand and improve the InP cell efficiency, simulations were performed using improved values of cell material and process parameters. The authors show that the efficiency of this cell could be increased to more than 23% AM0 by incorporating the suggested cell material, design and process improvements. At these high efficiencies InP cell technology will be very attractive for space use.

  19. Successful management of zinc phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Shakoori, Vahid; Agahi, Mahsa; Vasheghani-Farahani, Maryam; Marashi, Sayed Mahdi

    2016-06-01

    Zinc phosphide (Zn2P3) rodenticide, is generally misused intentionally for suicidal purpose in Iran. For many years, scientists believe that liberation of phosphine (PH3) on contact with acidic content of the stomach is responsible for clinical presentations. However, relatively long time interval between ingestion of Zn2P3 and presentation of its systemic toxicity, and progression of acute liver failure could not be explained by the current opinion. Hence, an innovative theory intended that phosphonium, as an intermediate product will create and pass through the stomach, which then will reduce to produce PH3in the luminal tract. Here, we present a case of massive Zn2P3 poisoning. In our case, we used repeated doses of castor oil to induce bowel movement with an aim of removing unabsorbed toxin, which was proved by radiography. Interestingly, the patient presents only mild symptoms of toxicity such as transient metabolic acidosis and hepatic dysfunction. PMID:27390464

  20. Successful management of zinc phosphide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Shakoori, Vahid; Agahi, Mahsa; Vasheghani-Farahani, Maryam; Marashi, Sayed Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Zinc phosphide (Zn2P3) rodenticide, is generally misused intentionally for suicidal purpose in Iran. For many years, scientists believe that liberation of phosphine (PH3) on contact with acidic content of the stomach is responsible for clinical presentations. However, relatively long time interval between ingestion of Zn2P3 and presentation of its systemic toxicity, and progression of acute liver failure could not be explained by the current opinion. Hence, an innovative theory intended that phosphonium, as an intermediate product will create and pass through the stomach, which then will reduce to produce PH3in the luminal tract. Here, we present a case of massive Zn2P3 poisoning. In our case, we used repeated doses of castor oil to induce bowel movement with an aim of removing unabsorbed toxin, which was proved by radiography. Interestingly, the patient presents only mild symptoms of toxicity such as transient metabolic acidosis and hepatic dysfunction. PMID:27390464

  1. Effect of dislocations on the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current and efficiency of heteroepitaxial indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    Excellent radiation resistance of indium phosphide solar cells makes them a promising candidate for space power applications, but the present high cost of starting substrates may inhibit their large scale use. Thin film indium phosphide cells grown on Si or GaAs substrates have exhibited low efficiencies, because of the generation and propagation of large number of dislocations. Dislocation densities were calculated and its influence on the open circuit voltage, short circuit current, and efficiency of heteroepitaxial indium phosphide cells was studied using the PC-1D. Dislocations act as predominant recombination centers and are required to be controlled by proper transition layers and improved growth techniques. It is shown that heteroepitaxial grown cells could achieve efficiencies in excess of 18 percent AMO by controlling the number of dislocations. The effect of emitter thickness and surface recombination velocity on the cell performance parameters vs. dislocation density is also studied.

  2. Lattice-mismatched In(0. 40)Al(0. 60)As window layers for indium phosphide solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, R.K.; Landis, G.A.; Wilt, D.M.; Flood, D.J.

    1993-11-01

    The efficiency of indium phosphide (InP) solar cells is limited by its high surface recombination velocity (approximately 10(exp 7) cm/s). This might be reduced by a wide-bandgap window layer. The performance of InP solar cells with wide-bandgap (1.8 eV) lattice-mismatched In(0.40)Al(0.60)As as a window layer was calculated. Because the required window layer thickness is less than the critical layer thickness, growth of strained (pseudomorphic) layers without interfacial misfit dislocations should be possible. Calculations using the PC-lD numerical code showed that the efficiencies of baseline and optimized p(+)n (p-on-n) cells are increased to more than 22 and 24 percent, (air mass zero (AMO), 25 C), respectively for a lattice-mismatched In(0.40)Al(0.60)As window layer of 10-nm thickness. Currently, most cell development work has been focused on n(+)p (n-on-p) structures although comparatively little improvement has been found for n(+)p cells.

  3. Lattice-mismatched In(0.40)Al(0.60)As window layers for indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Wilt, David M.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1993-01-01

    The efficiency of indium phosphide (InP) solar cells is limited by its high surface recombination velocity (approximately 10(exp 7) cm/s). This might be reduced by a wide-bandgap window layer. The performance of InP solar cells with wide-bandgap (1.8 eV) lattice-mismatched In(0.40)Al(0.60)As as a window layer was calculated. Because the required window layer thickness is less than the critical layer thickness, growth of strained (pseudomorphic) layers without interfacial misfit dislocations should be possible. Calculations using the PC-lD numerical code showed that the efficiencies of baseline and optimized p(+)n (p-on-n) cells are increased to more than 22 and 24 percent, (air mass zero (AMO), 25 C), respectively for a lattice-mismatched In(0.40)Al(0.60)As window layer of 10-nm thickness. Currently, most cell development work has been focused on n(+)p (n-on-p) structures although comparatively little improvement has been found for n(+)p cells.

  4. Indium phosphide solar cell research in the United States: Comparison with non-photovoltaic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Highlights of the InP solar cell research program are presented. Homojunction cells with efficiencies approaching 19 percent are demonstrated, while 17 percent is achieved for ITO/InP cells. The superior radiation resistance of the two latter cell configurations over both Si and GaAs cells has been shown. InP cells aboard the LIPS3 satellite show no degradation after more than a year in orbit. Computed array specific powers are used to compare the performance of an InP solar cell array to solar dynamic and nuclear systems.

  5. Influence of the Dislocation Density on the Performance of Heteroepitaxial Indium Phosphide Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, R. K.; Flood, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Calculations are made to study the dependence of heteroepitaxial InP solar-cell efficiency on dislocation density. Effects of surface recombination velocity and cell emitter thickness are considered. Calculated results are compared with the available experimental results on representative InP solar cells. It is shown that heteroepitaxial InP cells with over 20 percent AM0 efficiency could be fabricated if dislocations are reduced to less than 100,000/sq cm.

  6. Theoretical modeling, near-optimum design and predicted performance of n(+)pp(+) and p(+)nn(+) indium phosphide homojunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goradia, Chandra; Thesling, William; Weinberg, Irving

    1991-01-01

    Using a detailed simulation model of p(+)nn(+) and n(+)pp(+) indium phosphide (InP) homojunction solar cells, extensive parametric variation computer simulation runs are conducted to help arrive at near-optimum designs of these two solar cell configurations. Values of all the geometrical and material parameters corresponding to the near-optimal designs of both these configurations are presented. For each configuration, results are given for parametric variation runs showing how the performance parameters JSC, VOC, and eta vary with each of the cell parameters for the near-optimally designed cell.

  7. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of indium phosphide Point-Contact Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Ralph O.

    1992-01-01

    The Point-Contact Solar Cell (PCSC) geometry has proven very effective for silicon cells. To date, it has not been implemented in III-V materials. In addition, modeling such a geometry is very difficult because of its three-dimensional nature. We have developed a three-dimensional finite element modeling code (FIESTA ROC). In this paper, we present results from a three-dimensional modeling study of InP point-contact solar cells.

  8. Indium phosphide solar cell research in the US: Comparison with nonphotovoltaic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Highlights of the InP solar cell research program are presented. Homojunction cells with AMO efficiences approaching 19 percent were demonstrated while 17 percent was achieved for indium tin oxide (ITO)/InP cells. The superior radiation resistance of these latter two cell configurations over both Si and GaAs were demonstrated. InP cells on board the LIPS III satellite show no degradation after more than a year in orbit. Computer modeling calculations were directed toward radiation damage predictions and the specification of concentrator cell parameters. Computed array specific powers, for a specific orbit, are used to compare the performance of an InP solar cell array to solar dynamic and nuclear systems.

  9. Naval Research Laboratory's programs in advanced indium phosphide solar cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Geoffrey P.

    1996-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been involved in the development of solar cells for space applications since the 1960s. It quickly became apparent in this work that radiation damage caused to solar cells by electrons and protons trapped by the earth's magnetic field would seriously degrade the power output of photovoltaic arrays in extended missions. Techniques were therefore developed to harden the cells by shielding them with coverglass, etc. Ultimately, however, there is a limit to such approaches, which is determined by the radiation response of the semiconductor material employed. A desire for high efficiency and radiation resistance led to the development of alternative cell technologies such as GaAs, which has since become the technology of choice for many applications. InP cells are currently the most radiation resistant, high efficiency, planar cells known. NRL first sponsored InP solar cell technology in 1986, when Arizona State University was contracted to grow p/n cells by liquid phase epitaxy. NRL's interest in InP cells was generated by the results presented by Yamaguchi and his co-workers in the early 1980s on the remarkable radiation resistance of cells grown by diffusion of S into Zn doped p-type InP substrates. These cells also had beginning of life (BOL) efficiencies approximately 16%(AM0). Related to the radiation resistance of the cells was the fact that radiation-induced damage could be optically annealed by sunlight. Relatively large quantities of 1 x 2 cm(exp 2) diffused junction cells were made and were used on the MUSES-A and the EXOS-D satellites. These cells were also available in the U.S. through NIMCO, and were studied at NRL and elsewhere. Workers at NASA Lewis became involved in research in InP cells about the same time as NRL.

  10. Key factors limiting the open circuit voltage of n(+)pp(+) indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goradia, Chandra; Thesling, William; Weinberg, Irving

    1990-01-01

    Solar cells made from gallium arsenide (Gaas), with a room temperature bandgap of E(sub g) = 1.43 eV have exhibited the best measured open circuit voltage (V sub oc) of 1.05 V at 1 AM0, 25 C. The material InP is in many ways similar to GaAs. A simple calculation comparing InP to GaAs then shows that solar cells made from InP, with E(sub g) = 1.35 at 300 K, should exhibit the best measured V sub oc of approximately 950 mV at 1 AM0, 300 K. However, to date, the best measured V sub oc for InP solar cells made by any fabrication method is 899 mV at AM1.5, 25 C which would translate to 912 mV at 1 AM0, 25 C. The V sub oc of an n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell is governed by several factors. Of these, some factors, such as the thickness and doping of the emitter and base regions, are easily controlled and can be adjusted to desired values dictated by a good performance optimizing model. Such factors were not considered. There are other factors which also govern V sub oc, and their values are not so easily controlled. The primary ones among these are (1) the indirect or Hall-Shockley-Read lifetimes in the various regions of the cell, (2) the low-doping intrinsic carrier concentration n(sub i) of the InP material, (3) the heavy doping factors in the emitter and BSF regions, and (4) the front surface recombination velocity S(sub F). The influence of these latter factors on the V sub oc of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell and the results were used to produce a near-optimum design of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell.

  11. Key factors limiting the open circuit voltage of n(+)pp(+) indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goradia, Chandra; Thesling, William; Weinberg, Irving

    1991-01-01

    Solar cells made from gallium arsenide (GaAs), with a room temperature bandgap of E(sub g) = 1.43 eV have exhibited the best measured open circuit voltage (V sub OC) of 1.05 V at 1 AMO, 25 C. The material InP is in many ways similar to GaAs. A simple calculation comparing InP to GaAs then shows that solar cells made from InP, with E(sub g) = 1.35 at 300 K, should exhibit the best measured (V sub OC) of approximately 950 mV at 1 AMO, 300 K. However, to date, the best measured V(sub OC) for InP solar cells made by any fabrication method is 899 mV at AM1.5, 25 C which would translate to 912 mV at 1 AMO, 25 C. The V(sub OC) of an n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell is governed by several factors. Of these, some factors, such as the thickness and doping of the emitter and base regions, are easily controlled and can be adjusted to desired values dictated by a good performance optimizing model. Such factors were not considered. There are other factors which also govern V(sub OC), and their values are not so easily controlled. The primary ones among these are (1) the indirect or Hall-Shockley-Read lifetimes in the various regions of the cell, (2) the low-doping intrinsic carrier concentration n(sub i) of the InP material, (3) the heavy doping factors in the emitter and BSF regions, and (4) the front surface recombination velocity S(sub F). The influence of these latter factors on the V(sub OC) of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell and the results were used to produce a near-optimum design of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell.

  12. Effect of zinc impurity on silicon solar-cell efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sah, C.-T.; Chan, P. C. H.; Wang, C.-K.; Yamakawa, K. A.; Lutwack, R.; Sah, R. L.-Y.

    1981-01-01

    Zinc is a major residue impurity in the preparation of solar-grade silicon material by the zinc vapor reduction of silicon tetrachloride. This paper projects that in order to get a 17-percent AM1 cell efficiency for the Block IV module of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project, the concentration of the zinc recombination centers in the base region of silicon solar cells must be less than 4 x 10 to the 11th Zn/cu cm in the p-base n+/p/p+ cell and 7 x 10 to the 11th Zn/cu cm in the n-base p+/n/n+ cell for a base dopant impurity concentration of 5 x 10 to the 14 atoms/cu cm. If the base dopant impurity concentration is increased by a factor of 10 to 5 x 10 to the 15th atoms/cu cm, then the maximum allowable zinc concentration is increased by a factor of about two for a 17-percent AM1 efficiency. The thermal equilibrium electron and hole recombination and generation rates at the double-acceptor zinc centers are obtained from previous high-field measurements as well as new measurements at zero field described in this paper. These rates are used in the exact dc-circuit model to compute the projections.

  13. Naval Research Laboratory's programs in advanced indium phosphide solar cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Geoffrey P.

    1995-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory has been involved in developing InP solar cell technology since 1988. The purpose of these programs was to produce advanced cells for use in very high radiation environments, either as a result of operating satellites in the Van Allen belts or for very long duration missions in other orbits. Richard Statler was technical representative on the first program, with Spire Corporation as the contractor, which eventually produced several hundred, high efficiency 2 x 2 sq cm single crystal InP cells. The shallow homojunction technology which was developed in this program enabled cells to be made with AMO, one sun efficiencies greater than 19%. Many of these cells have been flown on space experiments, including PASP Plus, which have confirmed the high radiation resistance of InP cells. NRL has also published widely on the radiation response of these cells and also on radiation-induced defect levels detected by DLTS, especially the work of Rob Walters and Scott Messenger. In 1990 NRL began another Navy-sponsored program with Tim Coutts and Mark Wanlass at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), to develop a one sun, two terminal space version of the InP-InGaAs tandem junction cell being investigated at NREL for terrestrial applications. These cells were grown on InP substrates. Several cells with AM0, one sun efficiencies greater than 22% were produced. Two 2 x 2 sq cm cells were incorporated on the STRV lA/B solar cell experiment. These were the only two junction, tandem cells on the STRV experiment. The high cost and relative brittleness of InP wafers meant that if InP cell technology were to become a viable space power source, the superior radiation resistance of InP would have to be combined with a cheaper and more robust substrate. The main technical challenge was to overcome the effect of the dislocations produced by the lattice mismatch at the interface of the two materials. Over the last few years, NRL and Steve Wojtczuk at

  14. Naval Research Laboratory's programs in advanced indium phosphide solar cell development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Geoffrey P.

    1995-10-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory has been involved in developing InP solar cell technology since 1988. The purpose of these programs was to produce advanced cells for use in very high radiation environments, either as a result of operating satellites in the Van Allen belts or for very long duration missions in other orbits. Richard Statler was technical representative on the first program, with Spire Corporation as the contractor, which eventually produced several hundred, high efficiency 2 x 2 sq cm single crystal InP cells. The shallow homojunction technology which was developed in this program enabled cells to be made with AMO, one sun efficiencies greater than 19%. Many of these cells have been flown on space experiments, including PASP Plus, which have confirmed the high radiation resistance of InP cells. NRL has also published widely on the radiation response of these cells and also on radiation-induced defect levels detected by DLTS, especially the work of Rob Walters and Scott Messenger. In 1990 NRL began another Navy-sponsored program with Tim Coutts and Mark Wanlass at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), to develop a one sun, two terminal space version of the InP-InGaAs tandem junction cell being investigated at NREL for terrestrial applications. These cells were grown on InP substrates. Several cells with AM0, one sun efficiencies greater than 22% were produced. Two 2 x 2 sq cm cells were incorporated on the STRV lA/B solar cell experiment. These were the only two junction, tandem cells on the STRV experiment. The high cost and relative brittleness of InP wafers meant that if InP cell technology were to become a viable space power source, the superior radiation resistance of InP would have to be combined with a cheaper and more robust substrate. The main technical challenge was to overcome the effect of the dislocations produced by the lattice mismatch at the interface of the two materials. Over the last few years, NRL and Steve Wojtczuk at

  15. Indium tin oxide and indium phosphide heterojunction nanowire array solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Masatoshi Nakai, Eiji; Fukui, Takashi; Tomioka, Katsuhiro

    2013-12-09

    Heterojunction solar cells were formed with a position-controlled InP nanowire array sputtered with indium tin oxide (ITO). The ITO not only acted as a transparent electrode but also as forming a photovoltaic junction. The devices exhibited an open-circuit voltage of 0.436 V, short-circuit current of 24.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor of 0.682, giving a power conversion efficiency of 7.37% under AM1.5 G illumination. The internal quantum efficiency of the device was higher than that of the world-record InP cell in the short wavelength range.

  16. A theoretical comparison of the near-optimum design and predicted performance of n/p and p/n indium phosphide homojunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goradia, Chandra; Thesling, William; Weinberg, Irving

    1991-01-01

    Using a detailed simulation model of p(+)nn(+) and n(+)pp(+) indium phosphide (InP) homojunction solar cells, extensive parametric variation computer simulation runs were performed to aid in making near-optimum designs for these two solar cell configurations. The values of all the geometrical and material parameters corresponding to the near-optimal designs of both these configurations are presented. The results of parametric variation runs are presented for each configuration showing how the performance parameters J(sub sc), V(sub oc), and eta vary with each of the cell design parameters for the near-optimally designed cell. Finally, the theoretically obtained results are discussed, and the relative merits and drawbacks of the two configurations are compared.

  17. Indium phosphide/cadmium sulfide thin-film solar cells. Quarterly report, July-October 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Zanio, K.

    1981-01-01

    InP thin films were deposited by planar reactive deposition on recrystallized CdS (RXCdS) and semi-insulating (100) InP substrates and evaluated as potential layers for an all-thin-film solar cell. One objective of this period was to grow InP on RXCdS at a substrate temperature which is high enough to permit the growth of p-type material but yet low enough to permit the epitaxial growth of large grains. Films prepared on RXCdS at approximately 330/sup 0/C contained a mixture of grains having both large and submicron lateral dimensions. Be-doped epitaxial films, deposited on semi-insulating InP at 330/sup 0/C, showed both n- and p-type behavior. Films prepared at higher temperatures with a freshly Be-charged indium source were p-type. However, at these temperatures, layers prepared after several runs with the same source were n-type. Analyses of the indium source and films were initiated to determine the cause of the transient doping.

  18. Indium phosphide/cadmium sulfide thin-film solar cells. Semiannual report, July 1980-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Zanio, K.

    1981-03-01

    InP thin films were deposited by planar reactive deposition on recyrstallized CdS (RXCdS) and semi-insulating (100) InP substrates and evaluated as potential layers for an all-thin-film solar cell. Films prepared on RXCdS at approximately 330/sup 0/C contained a mixture of grains having both large and submicron lateral dimensions. SIMS analysis showed the interdiffusion profiles to be well behaved and, within the resolution of the analysis, no significant difference in the profiles between structures prepared at 330/sup 0/C and 380/sup 0/C. Be-doped epitaxial films, deposited on semi-insulating InP at 330/sup 0/C, showed both n- and p-type behavior. Films prepared at higher and lower temperatures with a freshly Be-charged In source were p-type and n-type, respectively; the n-type behavior is associated with an excess of n-type native defects. SIMS analyses confirmed the presence of Be in all Be-doped films. Growth with deviation from stoichiometry was initiated at 330/sup 0/C to reduce the concentration of native defects. Growth of Be-doped films at higher substrate temperature with the same Be-doped source after several runs eventually resulted in n-type films. Analyses of the In source and films were initiated to determine the cause of the transient doping. As an alternative to Be doping, p-type Zn-doped InP films were prepared on InP semi-insulating substrates with room-temperature carrier concentration and mobilities of 6 x 10/sup 16/ cm/sup -3/, and 80 cm/sup 2//Vsec, respectively.

  19. Zinc-oxide-based nanostructured materials for heterostructure solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bobkov, A. A.; Maximov, A. I.; Moshnikov, V. A. Somov, P. A.; Terukov, E. I.

    2015-10-15

    Results obtained in the deposition of nanostructured zinc-oxide layers by hydrothermal synthesis as the basic method are presented. The possibility of controlling the structure and morphology of the layers is demonstrated. The important role of the procedure employed to form the nucleating layer is noted. The faceted hexagonal nanoprisms obtained are promising for the fabrication of solar cells based on oxide heterostructures, and aluminum-doped zinc-oxide layers with petal morphology, for the deposition of an antireflection layer. The results are compatible and promising for application in flexible electronics.

  20. Radiation and temperature effects in gallium arsenide, indium phosphide, and silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.; Statler, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of radiation on performance are determined for both n+p and p+n GaAs and InP cells and for silicon n+p cells. It is found that the radiation resistance of InP is greater than that of both GaAs and Si under 1-MeV electron irradiation. For silicon, the observed decreased radiation resistance with decreased resistivity is attributed to the presence of a radiation-induced boron-oxygen defect. Comparison of radiation damage in both p+n and n+p GaAs cells yields a decreased radiation resistance for the n+p cell attributable to increased series resistance, decreased shunt resistance, and relatively greater losses in the cell's p-region. For InP, the n+p configuration is found to have greater radiation resistance than the p+n cell. The increased loss in this latter cell is attributed to losses in the cell's emitter region. Temperature dependency results are interpreted using a theoretical relation for dVoc/dT, which predicts that increased Voc should result in decreased numerical values for dPm/dT. The predicted correlation is observed for GaAs but not for InP, a result which is attributed to variations in cell processing.

  1. Radiation and temperature effects in gallium arsenide, indium phosphide and silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.; Statler, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of radiation on performance are determined for both n(+)p and p(+)n GaAs and InP cells and for silicon n(+)p cells. It is found that the radiation resistance of InP is greater than that of both GaAs and Si under 1 MeV electron irradiation. For silicon, the observed decreased radiation resistance with decreased resistivity is attributed to the presence of a radiation induced boron-oxygen defect. Comparison of radiation damage in both p(+)n and n(+)p GaAs cells yields a decreased radiation resistance for the n(+)p cell attributable to increased series resistance, decreased shunt resistance, and relatively greater losses in the cell's p-region. For InP, the n(+)p configuration is found to have greater radiation resistance than the p(+)n cell. The increased loss in this latter cell is attributed to losses in the cell's emitter region. Temperature dependency results are interpreted using a theoretical relation for dVoc/cT which predicts that increased Voc should results in decreased numerical values for dPm/dT. The predicted correlation is observed for GaAs but not for InP a result which is attributed to variations in cell processing.

  2. 1-Dimensional Zinc Oxide Nanomaterial Growth and Solar Cell Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyung Woo

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) has attracted much interest during last decades as a functional material. Furthermore, ZnO is a potential material for transparent conducting oxide material competing with indium tin oxide (ITO), graphene, and carbon nanotube film. It has been known as a conductive material when doped with elements such as indium, gallium and aluminum. The solubility of those dopant elements in ZnO is still debatable; but, it is necessary to find alternative conducting materials when their form is film or nanostructure for display devices. This is a consequence of the ever increasing price of indium. In addition, a new generation solar cell (nanostructured or hybrid photovoltaics) requires compatible materials which are capable of free standing on substrates without seed or buffer layers and have the ability introduce electrons or holes pathway without blocking towards electrodes. The nanostructures for solar cells using inorganic materials such as silicon (Si), titanium oxide (TiO2), and ZnO have been an interesting topic for research in solar cell community in order to overcome the limitation of efficiency for organic solar cells. This dissertation is a study of the rational solution-based synthesis of 1-dimentional ZnO nanomaterial and its solar cell applications. These results have implications in cost effective and uniform nanomanufacturing for the next generation solar cells application by controlling growth condition and by doping transition metal element in solution.

  3. Power recovery of radiation damaged MOCVD grown indium phosphide on silicon solar cells through argon-ion laser annealing. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, L.L.

    1996-06-01

    This thesis reports the results of a laser annealing technique used to remove defect sites from radiation damaged indium phosphide on silicon MOCVD grown solar cells. This involves the illumination of damaged solar cells with a continuous wave laser to produce a large forward-biased current. The InP/Si cells were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons to a given fluence, and tested for degradation. Light from an argon laser was used to illuminate four cells with an irradiance of 2.5 W/sq cm, producing a current density 3 to 5 times larger than AMO conditions. Cells were annealed at 19 deg C with the laser and at 25 deg C under AMO conditions. Annealing under laser illumination of n/p-type cells resulted in recovery of 48%. P/n type cells lost 4 to 12% of the assumed degradaton. Annealing under AMO conditions resulted in power recovery of 70% in n/p type cells. P/n-type cells recovered approximately 16% of lost power. Results indicate that significant power recovery results from the annealing of defects within n/p type InP/Si solar cells.

  4. Results from Coupled Optical and Electrical Sentaurus TCAD Models of a Gallium Phosphide on Silicon Electron Carrier Selective Contact Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Limpert, Steven; Ghosh, Kunal; Wagner, Hannes; Bowden, Stuart; Honsberg, Christiana; Goodnick, Stephen; Bremner, Stephen; Green, Martin

    2014-06-09

    We report results from coupled optical and electrical Sentaurus TCAD models of a gallium phosphide (GaP) on silicon electron carrier selective contact (CSC) solar cell. Detailed analyses of current and voltage performance are presented for devices having substrate thicknesses of 10 μm, 50 μm, 100 μm and 150 μm, and with GaP/Si interfacial quality ranging from very poor to excellent. Ultimate potential performance was investigated using optical absorption profiles consistent with light trapping schemes of random pyramids with attached and detached rear reflector, and planar with an attached rear reflector. Results indicate Auger-limited open-circuit voltages up to 787 mV and efficiencies up to 26.7% may be possible for front-contacted devices.

  5. Amorphous silicon/polycrystalline thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H.S.

    1991-03-13

    An improved photovoltaic solar cell is described including a p-type amorphous silicon layer, intrinsic amorphous silicon, and an n-type polycrystalline semiconductor such as cadmium sulfide, cadmium zinc sulfide, zinc selenide, gallium phosphide, and gallium nitride. The polycrystalline semiconductor has an energy bandgap greater than that of the amorphous silicon. The solar cell can be provided as a single-junction device or a multijunction device.

  6. Gap/silicon Tandem Solar Cell with Extended Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A two-junction solar cell has a bottom solar cell junction of crystalline silicon, and a top solar cell junction of gallium phosphide. A three (or more) junction solar cell has bottom solar cell junctions of silicon, and a top solar cell junction of gallium phosphide. The resulting solar cells exhibit improved extended temperature operation.

  7. Thin film cadmium telluride, zinc telluride, and mercury zinc telluride solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.L. )

    1992-04-01

    This report describes research to demonstrate (1) thin film cadmium telluride solar cells with a quantum efficiency of 75% or higher at 0. 44 {mu}m and a photovoltaic efficiency of 11.5% or greater, and (2) thin film zinc telluride and mercury zinc telluride solar cells with a transparency to sub-band-gap radiation of 65% and a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5% and 8%, respectively. Work was directed at (1) depositing transparent conducting semiconductor films by solution growth and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, (2) depositing CdTe films by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) and MOCVD techniques, (3) preparing and evaluating thin film CdTe solar cells, and (4) preparing and characterizing thin film ZnTe, CD{sub 1-x}Zn{sub 1-x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te solar cells. The deposition of CdS films from aqueous solutions was investigated in detail, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. CdTe films were deposited from DMCd and DIPTe at 400{degrees}C using TEGa and AsH{sub 3} as dopants. CdTe films deposited by CSS had significantly better microstructures than those deposited by MOCVD. Deep energy states in CdTe films deposited by CSS and MOCVD were investigated. Thin films of ZnTe, Cd{sub 1- x}Zn{sub x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te were deposited by MOCVD, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. 67 refs.

  8. Predicted performance of near-optimally designed indium phosphide space solar cells at high intensities and temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goradia, Chandra; Thesling, William; Goradia, Manju Ghalla; Weinberg, Irving; Swartz, Clifford K.

    1988-01-01

    The authors calculated the expected performance dependence of near-optimally designed shallow homojunction n+pp+ InP solar cells on incident intensities up to 200 AM0 and temperatures up to 100 deg C (373 K). Both circular and rectangular cells were considered, the former for use in a Cassegrainian concentrator array at 100 AM0, 80-100 deg C and the latter for use in a Slats concentrator array at 20 AM0, 80-100 deg C. With efficiencies near 22 percent at 80 deg C, both the circular and rectangular InP shallow homojunction solar cells compare very favorably to GaAs cells of the same design and may be preferable to the GaAs cells for space applications because of the superior radiation tolerance of the InP cells.

  9. A very low resistance, non-sintered contact system for use on indium phosphide concentrator/shallow junction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is made into the possibility of providing low resistance contacts to shallow junction InP solar cells which do not require sintering and which do not cause device degradation even when subjected to extended annealing at elevated temperatures. We show that the addition of In to Au contacts in amounts that exceed the solid solubility limit lowers the as-fabricated (unsintered) contact resistivity (R sub c) to the 10(exp -5) ohm cm(exp 2) range. We next consider the contact system Au/Au2P3, which has been shown to exhibit as-fabricated R sub c values in the 10(exp -6) ohm cm(exp 2) range, but which fails quickly when heated. We show that the substitution of a refractory metal (W, Ta) for Au preserves the low R sub c values while preventing the destructive reactions that would normally take place in this system at high temperatures. We show, finally, that R sub c values in the 10(exp -7) ohm cm(exp 2) range can be achieved without sintering by combining the effects of In or Ga additions to Au contacts with the effects of introducing a thin Au2P3 layer at the metal-InP interface.

  10. A very low resistance, non-sintered contact system for use on indium phosphide concentrator/shallow junction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is made into the possibility of providing low resistance contacts to shallow junction InP solar cells which do not require sintering and which do not cause device degradation even when subjected to extended annealing at elevated temperatures. We show that the addition of In to Au contacts in amounts that exceed the solid solubility limit lowers the as-fabricated (unsintered) contact resistivity (R sub c) to the 10(exp -5) ohm cm(exp 2) range. We next consider the contact system Au/Au2P3 which has been shown to exhibit as-fabricated R sub c values in the 10(exp -6) ohm cm(exp 2) range, but which fails quickly when heated. We show that the substitution of a refractory metal (W, Ta) for Au preserves the low R sub c values while preventing the destructive reactions that would normally take place in this system at high temperatures. We show, finally, that R sub c values in the 10(exp -7) ohm cm(exp 2) range can be achieved without sintering by combining the effects of In or Ga additions to Au contacts with the effects of introducing a thin Au2P3 layer at the metal-InP interface.

  11. Low-Resistivity Zinc Selenide for Heterojunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetron reactive sputtering enables doping of this semiconductor. Proposed method of reactive sputtering combined with doping shows potential for yielding low-resistivity zinc selenide films. Zinc selenide attractive material for forming heterojunctions with other semiconductor compounds as zinc phosphide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide. Semiconductor junctions promising for future optoelectronic devices, including solar cells and electroluminescent displays. Resistivities of zinc selenide layers deposited by evaporation or chemical vapor deposition too high to form practical heterojunctions.

  12. Hepatotoxicity due to zinc phosphide poisoning in two patients: role of N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Oghabian, Zohreh; Afshar, Arefeh; Rahimi, Hamid Reza

    2016-08-01

    Zinc phosphide (Zn3P2/ZnP) is used as a rodenticide. The most common signs of toxicity are nausea, vomiting, hypotension, and metabolic acidosis; patients presenting such signs are referred to the emergency department (ED) of the hospitals. Therefore, this study aimed to report two cases of hepatotoxicity following accidental and intentional ZnP poisoning and successful management with N-acetylcysteine (NAC). PMID:27525081

  13. Efficient inverted polymer solar cells based on conjugated polyelectrolyte and zinc oxide modified ITO electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Tao; Zhu, Xiaoguang; Tu, Guoli; Zhou, Lingyu; Zhang, Jian

    2015-02-23

    Efficient inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) were constructed by utilizing a conjugated polyelectrolyte PF{sub EO}SO{sub 3}Na and zinc oxide to modify the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. The ITO electrode modified by PF{sub EO}SO{sub 3}Na and zinc oxide possesses high transparency, increased electron mobility, smoothened surface, and lower work function. PTB7:PC{sub 71}BM inverted PSCs containing the modified ITO electrode achieved a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.49%, exceeding that of the control device containing a ZnO modified ITO electrode (7.48%). Especially, PCE-10:PC{sub 71}BM inverted polymer solar cells achieved a high PCE up to 9.4%. These results demonstrate a useful approach to improve the performance of inverted polymer solar cells.

  14. Indium phosphide/cadmium sulfide thin-film solar cells. Final report, May 1979 through July 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Zanio, K.

    1980-09-01

    Thin-film InP/RXCdS/ITO/GLASS devices were prepared by depositing ITO on low-cost glass substrate, depositing CdS on the ITO by thermal evaporation, increasing the CdS lateral grain size by recrystallization, and depositing p-type InP by planar reactive deposition (PRD) on the recrystallized CdS (RXCdS). Yields of the RXCdS/ITO/GLASS substrates were increased to 90% with lateral dimensions of the RXCdS grains as large as 0.3 mm. P-type InP layers were obtained with Be doping. S-doping via vapor transport from the CdS was eliminated by capping the entire RXCdS substrate with InP. For InP deposited on RXCdS at 380/sup 0/C, devices showed blocking action with a barrier height of about 0.5 V but no light response, possibly due to an intermediate approx. 3-..mu..m-thick n-InP layer from diffusion of S from the RXCdS. These results were achieved despite poor InP epitaxy due to an approx. 0.5-..mu..m-thick In-Cd-S transition layer between the InP and the RXCdS. InP films were subsequently deposited on RXCdS at the reduced substrate temperature of 280/sup 0/C to reduce S-diffusion and improve the quality of the epitaxy. Complete InP epitaxy on RXCdS was achieved with the lateral dimensions of the InP (approx. = 40 ..mu..m) replicating that of the RXCdS. Given the increase in the concentration of n-type native defects as substrate temperature is decreased, the present lower limit for obtaining p-type InP by vacuum technologies appears to be about 300/sup 0/C. A 300 to 350/sup 0/C range of substrate temperature appears to befeasible for preparing large-grained p-type InP for both frontwall and backwall cell. However, if the thickness of the n-type layer due to S diffusion cannot be kept to less than a few thousand Angstroms, then development must be restricted to the frontwall cells.

  15. Asymmetric Zinc Phthalocyanines as Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunc, Gulenay; Yavuz, Yunus; Gurek, Aysegul; Canimkurbey, Betul; Kosemen, Arif; San, Sait Eren; Ahsen, Vefa

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have received increasing attention due to their high incident to photon efficiency, easy fabrication and low production cost . Tremendous research efforts have been devoted to the development of new and efficient sensitizers suitable for practical use. In TiO2-based DSSCs, efficiencies of up to 11.4% under simulated sunlight have been obtained with rutheniumepolypyridyl complexes. However, the main drawback of ruthenium complexes is the lack of absorption in the red region of the visible light and the high cost. For this reason, dyes with large and stable p-conjugated systems such as porphyrins and phthalocyanines are important classes of potential sensitizers for highly efficient DSSCs. Phthalocyanines (Pcs) have been widely used as sensitizers because of their improved light-harvesting properties in the far red- and near-IR spectral regions and their extraordinary robustness [1]. In this work, a series of asymmetric Zn(II) Pcs bearing a carboxylic acid group and six hexylthia groups either at the peripheral or non-peripheral positions have been designed and synthesized to investigate the influence of the COOH group and the positions of hexylthia groups on the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) performance.

  16. Porous copper zinc tin sulfide thin film as photocathode for double junction photoelectrochemical solar cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Pengcheng; Zhang, Guan; Chen, Yuncheng; Jiang, Hechun; Feng, Zhenyu; Lin, Zhaojun; Zhan, Jinhua

    2012-03-21

    Porous copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) thin film was prepared via a solvothermal approach. Compared with conventional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), double junction photoelectrochemical cells using dye-sensitized n-type TiO(2) (DS-TiO(2)) as the photoanode and porous p-type CZTS film as the photocathode shows an increased short circuit current, external quantum efficiency and power conversion efficiency. PMID:22322239

  17. Ultraflexible polymer solar cells using amorphous zinc-indium-tin oxide transparent electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nanjia; Buchholz, Donald B; Zhu, Guang; Yu, Xinge; Lin, Hui; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J; Chang, Robert P H

    2014-02-01

    Polymer solar cells are fabricated on highly conductive, transparent amorphous zinc indium tin oxide (a-ZITO) electrodes. For two representative active layer donor polymers, P3HT and PTB7, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) are comparable to reference devices using polycrystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Benefitting from the amorphous character of a-ZITO, the new devices are highly flexible and can be repeatedly bent to a radius of 5 mm without significant PCE reduction. PMID:24123578

  18. Evaluation of Potential Oxidative Stress in Egyptian Patients with Acute Zinc Phosphide Poisoning and the Role of Vitamin C

    PubMed Central

    Sagah, Ghada A.; Oreby, Merfat M.; El-Gharbawy, Rehab M.; Ahmed Fathy, Amal S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate potential oxidative stress in patients with acute phosphide poisoning and the effect of vitamin C. Methods Participants were females and divided into three groups; group I: healthy volunteers group II: healthy volunteers received vitamin C, group III: patients with acute phosphide poisoning received the supportive and symptomatic treatment and group IV: patients with acute phosphide poisoning received the supportive and symptomatic treatment in addition to vitamin C. All the participants were subjected to thorough history, clinical examination, ECG and laboratory investigations were carried on collected blood and gastric lavage samples on admission. Blood samples were divided into two parts, one for measurement of routine investigations and the second part was used for evaluation of malondialdehyde and total thiol levels before and after receiving the treatment regimen. Results Most of the cases in this study were among the age group of 15–25 years, females, single, secondary school education, from rural areas and suicidal. All vital signs were within normal range and the most common complaint was vomiting and abdominal pain. All cases in this study showed normal routine investigations. The mean MDA levels after receiving treatment decreased significantly in groups II and IV. The mean total thiol levels increased significantly after receiving treatment in groups II and IV. Conclusion It can be concluded that vitamin C has a potential benefit due to its antioxidant property on zinc phosphide induced-oxidative stress in acute zinc phosphide poisoned patients. PMID:26715917

  19. Co-solvent enhanced zinc oxysulfide buffer layers in Kesterite copper zinc tin selenide solar cells.

    PubMed

    Steirer, K Xerxes; Garris, Rebekah L; Li, Jian V; Dzara, Michael J; Ndione, Paul F; Ramanathan, Kannan; Repins, Ingrid; Teeter, Glenn; Perkins, Craig L

    2015-06-21

    A co-solvent, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), is added to the aqueous chemical "bath" deposition (CBD) process used to grow ZnOS buffer layers for thin film Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) solar cells. Device performance improves markedly as fill factors increase from 0.17 to 0.51 upon the co-solvent addition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses are presented for quasi-in situ CZTSe/CBD-ZnOS interfaces prepared under an inert atmosphere and yield valence band offsets equal to -1.0 eV for both ZnOS preparations. When combined with optical band gap data, conduction band offsets exceed 1 eV for the water and the water/DMSO solutions. XPS measurements show increased downward band bending in the CZTSe absorber layer when the ZnOS buffer layer is deposited from water only. Admittance spectroscopy data shows that the ZnOS deposited from water increases the built-in potential (Vbi) yet these solar cells perform poorly compared to those made with DMSO added. The band energy offsets imply an alternate form of transport through this junction. Possible mechanisms are discussed, which circumvent the otherwise large conduction band spike between CZTSe and ZnOS, and improve functionality with the low-band gap absorber, CZTSe (Eg = 0.96 eV). PMID:26000570

  20. Indium Zinc Oxide Mediated Wafer Bonding for III-V/Si Tandem Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tamboli, Adele C.; Essig, Stephanie; Horowitz, Kelsey A. W.; Woodhouse, Michael; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.; Norman, Andrew G.; Steiner, Myles A.; Stradins, Paul

    2015-06-14

    Silicon-based tandem solar cells are desirable as a high efficiency, economically viable approach to one sun or low concentration photovoltaics. We present an approach to wafer bonded III-V/Si solar cells using amorphous indium zinc oxide (IZO) as an interlayer. We investigate the impact of a heavily doped III-V contact layer on the electrical and optical properties of bonded test samples, including the predicted impact on tandem cell performance. We present economic modeling which indicates that the path to commercial viability for bonded cells includes developing low-cost III-V growth and reducing constraints on material smoothness. If these challenges can be surmounted, bonded tandems on Si can be cost-competitive with incumbent PV technologies, especially in low concentration, single axis tracking systems.

  1. Improvement of device performance by using zinc oxide in hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Akinobu; Sagawa, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanopowder was applied to hybrid solar cells in combination with poly(3-hexylthiophene). Stability tests of the hybrid solar cell with or without encapsulation with glass and UV cut-off films were performed under 1 sun at 63 °C at a relative humidity of 50%. It was found that the sealed cell showed worse device performance in terms of the loss of the open-circuit voltage (Voc), whereas the unsealed cell exposed to air retained an almost constant Voc for more than 3 d under dark and atmospheric conditions. Placement in O2 atmosphere in the dark led to the recovery of Voc. Cation (Sn4+) doping into ZnO was performed, and the loss of Voc was effectively suppressed through the restraint of the supply of the excited electron from the valence band to the conduction band.

  2. Organic solar cells on indium tin oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Kerstin; Maennig, Bert; Leo, Karl; Tomita, Yuto; May, Christian; Hüpkes, Jürgen; Brier, Eduard; Reinold, Egon; Bäuerle, Peter

    2007-08-01

    The authors compare organic solar cells using two different transparent conductive oxides as anode: indium tin oxide (ITO) and three kinds of aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZAO). These anodes with different work functions are used for small molecule photovoltaic devices based on an oligothiophene derivative as donor and fullerene C60 as acceptor molecule. It turns out that cells on ITO and ZAO have virtually identical properties. In particular, the authors demonstrate that the work function of the anode does not influence the Voc of the photovoltaic device due to the use of doped transport layers.

  3. The complex interface chemistry of thin-film silicon/zinc oxide solar cell structures.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, D; Wimmer, M; Wilks, R G; Félix, R; Kronast, F; Ruske, F; Bär, M

    2014-12-21

    The interface between solid-phase crystallized phosphorous-doped polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si(n(+))) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) was investigated using spatially resolved photoelectron emission microscopy. We find the accumulation of aluminum in the proximity of the interface. Based on a detailed photoemission line analysis, we also suggest the formation of an interface species. Silicon suboxide and/or dehydrated hemimorphite have been identified as likely candidates. For each scenario a detailed chemical reaction pathway is suggested. The chemical instability of the poly-Si(n(+))/ZnO:Al interface is explained by the fact that SiO2 is more stable than ZnO and/or that H2 is released from the initially deposited a-Si:H during the crystallization process. As a result, Zn (a deep acceptor in silicon) is "liberated" close to the silicon/zinc oxide interface presenting the inherent risk of forming deep defects in the silicon absorber. These could act as recombination centers and thus limit the performance of silicon/zinc oxide based solar cells. Based on this insight some recommendations with respect to solar cell design, material selection, and process parameters are given for further knowledge-based thin-film silicon device optimization. PMID:25363298

  4. Low-cost zinc-plated photoanode for fabric-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingfeng; Bao, Yunna; Guo, Wanwan; Cheng, Li; Du, Jun; Liu, Renlong; Wang, Yundong; Fan, Xing; Tao, Changyuan

    2016-02-01

    Fabric-type flexible solar cells have been recently proposed as a very promising power source for wearable electronics. To increase the photocurrent of fabric-type flexible solar cells, low-cost zinc-plated wire and mesh photoanodes are assembled for the first time through a mild wet process. Given the protection of the compact protection layer, the DSSC device could benefit from the low work function of Zn and self-repairing behavior on the Zn/ZnO interface. An evident current increase by ∼6 mA/cm2 could be observed after coating a layer of metal Zn on various metal substrates, such as traditional stainless steel wire. Given the self-repairing behavior on Zn/ZnO interface, the Zn layer can help to improve the interfacial carrier transfer, leading to better photovoltaic performance, for both liquid-type and solid-type cells.

  5. Zinc chlorophyll aggregates as hole transporters for biocompatible, natural-photosynthesis-inspired solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Sasaki, Shin-ichi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi; Liu, Cheng-Liang; Song, Jiaxing; Tian, Wenjing; Zheng, Enqiang; Wei, Yingjin; Chen, Gang; Fu, Xueqi; Wang, Xiao-Feng

    2015-11-01

    The intriguing properties of extremely efficient delocalization and migration of excitons in chlorophyll (Chl) J-type aggregates have inspired intense research activities toward their structural understanding, functional interpretation and mimicry synthesis. Herein, we demonstrated the J-aggregates of zinc methyl 3-devinyl-3-hydroxymethyl-pyropheophorbide a (ZnChl-1) generated by spin-coating method for the application as a hole transporter in titania-based solar cells using methyl trans-32-carboxypyropheophorbide a (H2Chl-2) or its zinc complex (ZnChl-2) as the sensitizer. The effective carrier mobility of the J-aggregates films was determined by the organic field-effect transistor to be 6.2 × 10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1. Solar cells sharing the architecture of FTO/H2Chl-2 or ZnChl-2 on TiO2/(ZnChl-1)n/Ag were fabricated and the factors that presumably determine their photovoltaic performances were discussed. The photovoltaic devices studied herein employing inexpensive and pollution-free biomaterials provide a unique solution of utilizing solar energy with a care of the important environmental issue.

  6. Pulse-reverse electrodeposition of transparent nickel phosphide film with porous nanospheres as a cost-effective counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Wu, Jia-Fang

    2013-12-01

    A Ni2P nanolayer with porous nanospheres was directly coated on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by pulse-reverse deposition as a low-cost counter electrode catalyst for dye-sensitized solar cells, and the photoelectron conversion efficiency of the cell was increased to 7.32% by using a porous nanosphere catalyst due to the significantly improved ion transport. PMID:24132176

  7. Fabrication and characterization of P3HT:PCBM-based thin film organic solar cells with zinc phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruhashi, Haruto; Oku, Takeo; Suzuki, Atsushi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Yamasaki, Yasuhiro

    2015-02-01

    [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester and poly(3-hexylthiophene) bulk heterojunction solar cells added with zinc-tetra-tertiary-butyl-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) were fabricated and characterized. The photovoltaic properties of the solar cells with an inverted structure were improved by the ZnPc addition, which were investigated on the bases of current density-voltage characteristics, incident photon to current conversion efficiency.

  8. Growth of Zinc Phosphide (Zn3P2) and Iron Disulfide (FeS2) using pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaddi, Rajesh

    The growing energy needs of society have triggered tremendous interest in the development of photovoltaics formed from earth abundant materials. Zinc Phosphide (Zn3P2) and Iron Pyrite (FeS2) are two materials formed from elements with large Earth crustal abundances that have nearly ideal band gap energies (1.5eV and 0.96 eV, respectively) and optical absorption coefficients (~104 /cm) for use as absorber layers in solar cells. In this work, the structural, optical, and electronic properties of these materials produced in thin film form using pulsed laser deposition have been explored. Stoichiometric Zn3P2 thin films were obtained at a laser energy density of 3 J/cm2. However, these films were found to be amorphous. Crystallization of these highly resistive amorphous thin films was possible after rapid thermal annealing (RTA). A near optimal band gap of 1.6 eV and a high absorption coefficient of >104/cm were observed for samples annealed at 500 C for 60 seconds when high ramp rates of 150 °C/sec were used for annealing. XPS studies showed the presence of a trace amount of oxygen in the samples upon depth profiling. Schottky barrier heights were extracted for samples annealed at 350 °C and 500 °C with different metals. Al and Mg showed higher barrier heights with good diode rectification behavior. Fermi level pinning was shown to be a significant concern in both cases due to the large values of interface states observed (> 1013/cm2-eV). A Schottky barrier solar cell was fabricated using these films and showed low efficiency with a low Voc of 410 mV that was impacted by Fermi level pinning. Growth of Iron pyrite thin films from an FeS target was demonstrated for the first time using pulsed laser deposition. For the different laser energy densities and substrate temperatures explored, amorphous FeS (Pyrrhotite) was mainly produced. Conversion of FeS to FeS2 was obtained by sulfurization of thin films at 350 °C for times of 30 minutes at a N2 flow rates of 200

  9. Design of a Three-Layer Antireflection Coating for High Efficiency Indium Phosphide Solar Cells Using a Chemical Oxide as First Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moulot, Jacques; Faur, Mircea; Faur, Maria; Goradia, Chandra; Goradia, Manju; Bailey, Sheila

    1995-01-01

    It is well known that the behavior of III-V compound based solar cells is largely controlled by their surface, since the majority of light generated carriers (63% for GaAs and 79% for InP) are created within 0.2 microns of the illuminated surface of the cell. Consequently, the always observed high surface recombination velocity (SRV) on these cells is a serious limiting factor for their high efficiency performance, especially for those with the p-n junction made by either thermal diffusion or ion implantation. A good surface passivation layer, ideally, a grown oxide as opposed to a deposited one, will cause a significant reduction in the SRV without adding interface problems, thus improving the performance of III-V compound based solar cells. Another significant benefit to the overall performance of the solar cells can be achieved by a substantial reduction of their large surface optical reflection by the use of a well designed antireflection (AR) coating. In this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of using a chemically grown, thermally and chemically stable oxide, not only for surface passivation but also as an integral part of a 3- layer AR coating for thermally diffused p(+)n InP solar cells. A phosphorus-rich interfacial oxide, In(PO3)3, is grown at the surface of the p(+) emitter using an etchant based on HNO3, o-H3PO4 and H2O2. This oxide has the unique properties of passivating the surface as well as serving as a fairly efficient antireflective layer yielding a measured record high AM0, 25 C, open-circuit voltage of 890.3 mV on a thermally diffused InP(Cd,S) solar cell. Unlike conventional single layer AR coatings such as ZnS, Sb2O3, SiO or double layer AR coatings such as ZnS/MgF2 deposited by e-beam or resistive evaporation, this oxide preserves the stoichiometry of the InP surface. We show that it is possible to design a three-layer AR coating for a thermally diffused InP solar cell using the In(PO3)3 grown oxide as the first layer and Al2O3, MgF2 or

  10. Design of a three-layer antireflection coating for high efficiency indium phosphide solar cells using a chemical oxide as first layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moulot, Jacques; Faur, M.; Faur, M.; Goradia, C.; Goradia, M.; Bailey, S.

    1995-01-01

    It is well known that the behavior of III-V compound based solar cells is largely controlled by their surface, since the majority of light generated carriers (63% for GaAs and 79% for InP) are created within 0.2 mu m of the surface of the illuminated cell. Consequently, the always observed high surface recombination velocity (SRV) on these cells is a serious limiting factor for their high efficiency performance, especially for those with p-n junction made by either thermal diffusion or ion implantation. A good surface passivation layer, ideally a grown oxide as opposed to a deposited one, will cause a significant reduction in the SRV without adding interface problems, thus improving the performance of III-V compound based solar cells. Another significant benefit to the overall performance of the solar cells can be achieved by a substantial reduction of their large surface optical reflection by the use of a well designed antireflection (AR) coating. In this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of using a chemically grown thermally and chemically stable oxide, not only for surface passivation but also as an integral part of a 3-layer AR coating for thermally diffused p+n InP solar cells. A phosphorus-rich interfacial oxide, In(PO3)3, is grown at the surface of the p+ emitter using an etchant based on HNO3, o-H3PO4 and H2O2. This oxide has the unique properties of passivating the surface as well as serving as an efficient antireflective layer yielding a measured record high AMO open-circuit voltage of 890.3 mV on a thermally diffused InP(Cd,S) solar cell. Unlike conventional single layer AR coatings such as ZnS, Sb2O3, SiO or double layer AR coatings such as ZnS/MgF2 deposited by e-beam or resistive evaporation, this oxide preserves the stoichiometry of the InP surface. We show that it is possible to design a three-layer AR coating for a thermally diffused InP solar cell using the In(PO3)3 grown oxide as the first layer and Al2O3 and MgF2 as the second and third

  11. Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide as Highly Stable Electron Collection Layer for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xingyue; Shen, Heping; Zhang, Ye; Li, Xin; Zhao, Xiaochong; Tai, Meiqian; Li, Jingfeng; Li, Jianbao; Li, Xin; Lin, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Although low-temperature, solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) has been widely adopted as the electron collection layer (ECL) in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) because of its simple synthesis and excellent electrical properties such as high charge mobility, the thermal stability of the perovskite films deposited atop ZnO layer remains as a major issue. Herein, we addressed this problem by employing aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) as the ECL and obtained extraordinarily thermally stable perovskite layers. The improvement of the thermal stability was ascribed to diminish of the Lewis acid-base chemical reaction between perovskite and ECL. Notably, the outstanding transmittance and conductivity also render AZO layer as an ideal candidate for transparent conductive electrodes, which enables a simplified cell structure featuring glass/AZO/perovskite/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au. Optimization of the perovskite layer leads to an excellent and repeatable photovoltaic performance, with the champion cell exhibiting an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.94 V, a short-circuit current (Jsc) of 20.2 mA cm(-2), a fill factor (FF) of 0.67, and an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.6% under standard 1 sun illumination. It was also revealed by steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence that the AZO/perovskite interface resulted in less quenching than that between perovskite and hole transport material. PMID:26960451

  12. Hybrid zinc oxide/graphene electrodes for depleted heterojunction colloidal quantum-dot solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Aashuri, Hossein; Simchi, Abdolreza; Fan, Zhiyong

    2015-10-01

    Recently, hybrid nanocomposites consisting of graphene/nanomaterial heterostructures have emerged as promising candidates for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. In this work, we have employed a facile and in situ solution-based process to prepare zinc oxide/graphene quantum dots (ZnO/G QDs) in a hybrid structure. The prepared hybrid dots are composed of a ZnO core, with an average size of 5 nm, warped with graphene nanosheets. Spectroscopic studies show that the graphene shell quenches the photoluminescence intensity of the ZnO nanocrystals by about 72%, primarily due to charge transfer reactions and static quenching. A red shift in the absorption peak is also observed. Raman spectroscopy determines G-band splitting of the graphene shell into two separated sub-bands (G(+), G(-)) caused by the strain induced symmetry breaking. It is shown that the hybrid ZnO/G QDs can be used as a counter-electrode for heterojunction colloidal quantum-dot solar cells for efficient charge-carrier collection, as evidenced by the external quantum efficiency measurement. Under the solar simulated spectrum (AM 1.5G), we report enhanced power conversion efficiency (35%) with higher short current circuit (80%) for lead sulfide-based solar cells as compared to devices prepared by pristine ZnO nanocrystals. PMID:26339693

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanosheets for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Heniti, S; Umar, Ahmad; Zaki, H M

    2015-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanosheets were synthesized by a simple and facile hydrothermal process and characterized in terms of their morphological, structural, compositional, optical and photovoltaic properties. The detailed characterization revealed that the synthesized ZnO material possess nanosheet morphologies which are grown in very high density, possessing well-crystallinity with wurtzite hexagonal phase and exhibiting good optical properties. Further, the synthesized ZnO nanosheets were used as photoanode material to fabricate efficient dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The fabricated DSSC shows an overall light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of -1.57%, open-circuit voltage (V(OC)) of 0.552 V, short-circuit currents (J(SC)) of -7.2 mA/cm2 and fill factors (FF) of 0.40. PMID:26682439

  14. High pressure study of the zinc phosphide semiconductor compound in two different phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, Ali

    2009-07-01

    Electronic and structural properties of the zinc phosphide semiconductor compound are calculated at hydrostatic pressure using the full-potential all-electron linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FP-LAPW+lo) method in both cubic and tetragonal phases. The exchange-correlation potential is treated by the generalized gradient approximation within the scheme of Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof, GGA96 (1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 3865). Also, the Engel and Vosko GGA formalism, EV-GGA (Engel and Vosko 1993 Phys. Rev. B 47 13164), is used to improve the band-gap results. Internal parameters are optimized by relaxing the atomic positions in the force directions using the Hellman-Feynman approach. The lattice constants, internal parameters, bulk modulus, cohesive energy and band structures have been calculated and compared to the available experimental and theoretical results. The structural calculations predict that the stable phase is tetragonal. The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the behavior of band parameters such as band-gap, valence bandwidths and internal gaps (the energy gap between different parts of the valence bands) are studied using both GGA96 and EV-GGA.

  15. Highly efficient copper-zinc-tin-selenide (CZTSe) solar cells by electrodeposition.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong-Ok; Lee, Kee Doo; Seul Oh, Lee; Seo, Se-Won; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, Honggon; Jeong, Jeung-hyun; Ko, Min Jae; Kim, BongSoo; Son, Hae Jung; Kim, Jin Young

    2014-04-01

    Highly efficient copper-zinc-tin-selenide (Cu2ZnSnSe4 ; CZTSe) thin-film solar cells are prepared via the electrodepostion technique. A metallic alloy precursor (CZT) film with a Cu-poor, Zn-rich composition is directly deposited from a single aqueous bath under a constant current, and the precursor film is converted to CZTSe by annealing under a Se atmosphere at temperatures ranging from 400 °C to 600 °C. The crystallization of CZTSe starts at 400 °C and is completed at 500 °C, while crystal growth continues at higher temperatures. Owing to compromises between enhanced crystallinity and poor physical properties, CZTSe thin films annealed at 550 °C exhibit the best and most-stable device performances, reaching up to 8.0 % active efficiency; among the highest efficiencies for CZTSe thin-film solar cells prepared by electrodeposition. Further analysis of the electronic properties and a comparison with another state-of-the-art device prepared from a hydrazine-based solution, suggests that the conversion efficiency can be further improved by optimizing parameters such as film thickness, antireflection coating, MoSe2 formation, and p-n junction properties. PMID:24692285

  16. Thin films and solar cells of cadmium telluride and cadmium zinc telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferekides, Christos Savva

    The objectives of this dissertation are to investigate (1) the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and properties of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (Cd(1-x)Zn(z)Te) films and junctions, and their potential application to solar cells, and (2) the fabrication and characterization of CdTe solar cells by the close spaced sublimation (CSS) technique. CdTe and Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te films have been deposited by MOCVD on a variety of substrates at 300-400 C. The effect of the deposition parameters and post deposition heat treatments on the electrical, optical, and structural properties have been investigated. Heterojunctions of the configuration CdTe/transparent conducting semiconductor (TCS) and Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te/TCS have been prepared and characterized. CdTe(MOCVD)/CdS and Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te(E sub g = 1.65eV)/Cd(1-x)Zn(x)S solar cells with efficiencies of 9.9 percent and 2.4 percent, respectively have been fabricated. The as-deposited CdTe(MOCVD)/CdS junctions exhibited high dark current densities due to deflects at the interface associated with small grain size. Their characteristics of the Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te junctions degraded with increasing Zn concentration due to the crystalline quality and very small grain size (0.3 microns) in films with high ZnTe contents (greater than 25 percent). No effective post-deposition heat treatment has been developed. CdTe/CdS solar cells have also been fabricated by the close spaced sublimation (CSS). Significant improvements in material and processing have been made, and in collaboration with fellow researchers an AM1.5 conversion efficiency of 13.4 percent has been demonstrated, the highest efficiency ever measured for such devices. The highest conversion efficiency for the CdTe(CSS)/CdS solar cell was achieved by reaching high open-circuit voltages and fill factors, while the short-circuit current densities were moderate. These results indicate that further improvements to increase the short-circuit current densities

  17. InP (Indium Phosphide): Into the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Major industry is beginning to be devoted to indium phosphide and its potential applications. Key to these applications are high speed and radiation tolerance; however the high cost of indium phosphide may be an inhibitor to progress. The broad applicability of indium phosphide to many devices will be discussed with an emphasis on photovoltaics. Major attention is devoted to radiation tolerance and means of reducing cost of devices. Some of the approaches applicable to solar cells may also be relevant to other devices. The intent is to display the impact of visionary leadership in the field and enable the directions and broad applicability of indium phosphide.

  18. Semitransparent polymer-based solar cells with aluminum-doped zinc oxide electrodes.

    PubMed

    Wilken, Sebastian; Wilkens, Verena; Scheunemann, Dorothea; Nowak, Regina-Elisabeth; von Maydell, Karsten; Parisi, Jürgen; Borchert, Holger

    2015-01-14

    With the use of two transparent electrodes, organic polymer-fullerene solar cells are semitransparent and may be combined to parallel-connected multijunction devices or used for innovative applications like power-generating windows. A challenging issue is the optimization of the electrodes, to combine high transparency with adequate electric properties. In the present work, we study the potential of sputter-deposited aluminum-doped zinc oxide as an alternative to the widely used but relatively expensive indium tin oxide (ITO) as cathode material in semitransparent polymer-fullerene solar cells. Concerning the anode, we utilized an insulator-metal-insulator structure based on ultrathin Au films embedded between two evaporated MoO3 layers, with the outer MoO3 film (capping layer) serving as a light coupling layer. The performance of the ITO-free semitransparent polymer-fullerene solar cells was systematically studied as dependent on the thickness of the capping layer and the active layer as well as the illumination direction. These variations were found to have strong impact on the obtained photocurrent densities. We performed optical simulations of the electric field distribution within the devices using the transfer-matrix method, to analyze the origin of the current density variations in detail and provide deep insight into the device physics. With the conventional absorber materials studied here, optimized ITO-free and semitransparent devices reached 2.0% power conversion efficiency and a maximum optical transmission of 60%, with the device concept being potentially transferable to other absorber materials. PMID:25495167

  19. Photoelectrochemical cell having photoanode with thin boron phosphide coating as a corrosion resistant layer

    DOEpatents

    Baughman, Richard J.; Ginley, David S.

    1984-01-01

    A surface prone to corrosion in corrosive environments is rendered anticorrosive by CVD growing a thin continuous film, e.g., having no detectable pinholes, thereon, of boron phosphide. In one embodiment, the film is semiconductive. In another aspect, the invention is an improved photoanode, and/or photoelectrochemical cell with a photoanode having a thin film of boron phosphide thereon rendering it anitcorrosive, and providing it with unexpectedly improved photoresponsive properties.

  20. A comparative field trial, conducted without pre-treatment census baiting, of the rodenticides zinc phosphide, thallium sulphate and gophacide against Rattus norvegicus.

    PubMed Central

    Rennison, B. D.

    1976-01-01

    The effectiveness of the single-dose poison treatments of farm rat infestations, analysed by comparing the weights of the post-treatment census bait takes in covariance with the weights of the prebait takes, showed that treatments with 2-5% zinc phosphide, 0-3% thallium sulphate or 0-3% gophacide were equally effective and significantly better than were treatments with 1% zinc phosphide or 0-1% thallium sulphate. The methodology and sensitivity of different analyses are also considered. PMID:1068192

  1. Window structure for passivating solar cells based on gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Allen M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Passivated gallium arsenide solar photovoltaic cells with high resistance to moisture and oxygen are provided by means of a gallium arsenide phosphide window graded through its thickness from arsenic rich to phosphorus rich.

  2. Mixed metal oxides for dye-sensitized solar cell using zinc titanium layered double hydroxide as precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianqiang; Qin, Yaowei; Zhang, Liangji; Xiao, Hongdi; Song, Jianye; Liu, Dehe; Leng, Mingzhe; Hou, Wanguo; Du, Na

    2013-12-01

    Mixed metal oxides (MMO) are always obtained from layered double hydroxide (LDH) by thermal decomposition. In the present work, a zinc titanium LDH with the zinc titanium molar ratio of 4.25 was prepared by urea method and ZnO-based mixed oxides were obtained by calcining at or over 500°C. The MMO was used as electrodes for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The cells constructed by films of prepared composite materials using a N719 as dye were prepared. The efficiency values of these cells are 0.691%, 0.572% and 0.302% with MMO prepared at 500, 600 and 700°C, respectively.

  3. Thin film cadmium telluride, zinc telluride, and mercury zinc telluride solar cells. Final subcontract report, 1 July 1988--31 December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report describes research to demonstrate (1) thin film cadmium telluride solar cells with a quantum efficiency of 75% or higher at 0. 44 {mu}m and a photovoltaic efficiency of 11.5% or greater, and (2) thin film zinc telluride and mercury zinc telluride solar cells with a transparency to sub-band-gap radiation of 65% and a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5% and 8%, respectively. Work was directed at (1) depositing transparent conducting semiconductor films by solution growth and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, (2) depositing CdTe films by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) and MOCVD techniques, (3) preparing and evaluating thin film CdTe solar cells, and (4) preparing and characterizing thin film ZnTe, CD{sub 1-x}Zn{sub 1-x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te solar cells. The deposition of CdS films from aqueous solutions was investigated in detail, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. CdTe films were deposited from DMCd and DIPTe at 400{degrees}C using TEGa and AsH{sub 3} as dopants. CdTe films deposited by CSS had significantly better microstructures than those deposited by MOCVD. Deep energy states in CdTe films deposited by CSS and MOCVD were investigated. Thin films of ZnTe, Cd{sub 1- x}Zn{sub x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te were deposited by MOCVD, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. 67 refs.

  4. Silicon nanowire arrays coupled with cobalt phosphide spheres as low-cost photocathodes for efficient solar hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiao-Qing; Fatima Cerqueira, M; Alpuim, Pedro; Liu, Lifeng

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate the first example of silicon nanowire array photocathodes coupled with hollow spheres of the emerging earth-abundant cobalt phosphide catalysts. Compared to bare silicon nanowire arrays, the hybrid electrodes exhibit significantly improved photoelectrochemical performance toward the solar-driven H2 evolution reaction. PMID:26050844

  5. Molybdenum Disulfide as a Protection Layer and Catalyst for Gallium Indium Phosphide Solar Water Splitting Photocathodes.

    PubMed

    Britto, Reuben J; Benck, Jesse D; Young, James L; Hahn, Christopher; Deutsch, Todd G; Jaramillo, Thomas F

    2016-06-01

    Gallium indium phosphide (GaInP2) is a semiconductor with promising optical and electronic properties for solar water splitting, but its surface stability is problematic as it undergoes significant chemical and electrochemical corrosion in aqueous electrolytes. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanomaterials are promising to both protect GaInP2 and to improve catalysis because MoS2 is resistant to corrosion and also possesses high activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). In this work, we demonstrate that GaInP2 photocathodes coated with thin MoS2 surface protecting layers exhibit excellent activity and stability for solar hydrogen production, with no loss in performance (photocurrent onset potential, fill factor, and light-limited current density) after 60 h of operation. This represents a 500-fold increase in stability compared to bare p-GaInP2 samples tested in identical conditions. PMID:27196435

  6. Fabrication and characterization of copper oxide-zinc oxide solar cells prepared by electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Kazuya; Oku, Takeo; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2013-04-01

    Copper oxide-based heterojunction solar cells were fabricated by electrodeposition, and the electronic and optical properties were investigated. ZnO was used as an n-type semiconductor, and copper oxides were used as p-type semiconductors. A photovoltaic device based on an FTO/ZnO/Cu2O heterojunction structure provided short-circuit current density of 2.7 mAcm-2 and open circuit voltage of 0.28 V under an air mass 1.5 illumination. Microstructures of the solar cells were investigated by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction, which indicated formation of copper oxides and ZnO. Energy levels of the solar cells were discussed.

  7. Synthesis of zinc phthalocyanine with large steric hindrance and its photovoltaic performance for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li; Peng, Bosi; Shi, Wenye; Guo, Yingying; Li, Renjie

    2015-03-28

    A zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) derivative (Zn-tri-PcNc-8) containing tri-benzonaphtho-condensed porphyrazine with one carboxylic and six diphenylphenoxy peripheral substitutions was designed and synthesized as a sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For the purpose of extending the absorption spectra while minimizing the formation of ZnPc molecular aggregates, bulky 2,6-diphenylphenoxy groups were used as electron donor moieties, and the carboxylic group as an anchoring group to graft the sensitizer onto the semiconductor. It was found that a TiO2-based solar cell sensitized by Zn-tri-PcNc-8 shows a maximum incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency in the red/near-IR light range (650-750 nm), and a solar cell sensitized at near room temperature (30 °C) for 48 h exhibits the best efficiency (3.01%). The efficiency was much higher than that (1.96%) for a solar cell sensitized by its analogue (Zn-tri-PcNc-2) having one carboxyl and three tert-butyl groups without chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), indicating that the introduction of six bulky diphenylphenoxy substitutions with large steric hindrance in the ZnPc macrocycle can effectively suppress the molecular aggregates, thus resulting in an improved conversion efficiency. The present results shed light on an effective solution to adjust the ZnPc property via chemical modification such as changing the "push-pull" effect and adding large steric hindrance substituents to further improve the efficiency of the phthalocyanine-sensitized solar cell. PMID:25716344

  8. Oxide Solar Cells Fabricated Using Zinc Oxide and Plasma-Oxidized Cuprous Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Yi-Ming; Wu, Ya-Ting; Jou, Shyankay

    2012-12-01

    Oxide heterojunction solar cells composed of an n-type Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin film on the surfaces of p-type Cu2O films were fabricated. The Cu2O films of about 0.34 to 1.67 µm thickness were grown by partial oxidation of a Cu sheet using microwave plasma. The AZO film of 400 nm thickness was deposited by magnetron sputtering. Energy conversion efficiencies of 0.12 to 0.30% were obtained in AZO/Cu2O cells under AM1.5 solar illumination.

  9. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ONE STYLE OF DENVER AGITATOR IN LOWER RIGHT CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  10. Zinc oxide modified with benzylphosphonic acids as transparent electrodes in regular and inverted organic solar cell structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, Ilja; Reiter, Sina; Kniepert, Juliane; Piersimoni, Fortunato; Brenner, Thomas; Neher, Dieter; Pätzel, Michael; Hildebrandt, Jana; Hecht, Stefan

    2015-03-16

    An approach is presented to modify the work function of solution-processed sol-gel derived zinc oxide (ZnO) over an exceptionally wide range of more than 2.3 eV. This approach relies on the formation of dense and homogeneous self-assembled monolayers based on phosphonic acids with different dipole moments. This allows us to apply ZnO as charge selective bottom electrodes in either regular or inverted solar cell structures, using poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester as the active layer. These devices compete with or even surpass the performance of the reference on indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate. Our findings highlight the potential of properly modified ZnO as electron or hole extracting electrodes in hybrid optoelectronic devices.

  11. High efficiency and high photo-stability zinc-phthalocyanine based planar heterojunction solar cells with a double interfacial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Min; Whan Kim, Ji; Shim, Hyun-Sub; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2012-09-01

    The use of CuI and MoO3 as a double interfacial layer between indium tin oxide (ITO) and a zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) layer improves the power conversion efficiency (ηp) and the photo-stability at the same time in ZnPc based solar cells. Insertion of CuI without MoO3 increased ηp more than 2 times to 3.3%. However, the photo-stability is lowered even further due to diffusion of Cu. Insertion of the MoO3 layer between the ITO and CuI prevents the diffusion of Cu under UV illumination to achieve the improved photo-stability and ηp.

  12. Ink jet printable silver metallization with zinc oxide for front side metallization for micro crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurk, Robert; Fritsch, Marco; Eberstein, Markus; Schilm, Jochen; Uhlig, Florian; Waltinger, Andreas; Michaelis, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Ink jet printable water based inks are prepared by a new silver nanoparticle synthesis and the addition of nanoscaled ZnO particles. For the formation of front side contacts the inks are ink jet printed on the front side of micro crystalline silicon solar cells, and contact the cell directly during the firing step by etching through the wafers’ anti-reflection coating (ARC). In terms of Ag dissolution and precipitation the mechanism of contact formation can be compared to commercial glass containing thick film pastes. This avoids additional processing steps, like laser ablation, which are usually necessary to open the ARC prior to ink jet printing. As a consequence process costs can be reduced. In order to optimize the ARC etching and contact formation during firing, zinc oxide nanoparticles are investigated as an ink additive. By utilization of in situ contact resistivity measurements the mechanism of contacting was explored. Our results show that silver inks containing ZnO particles realize a specific contact resistance below 10 mΩṡcm2. By using a multi-pass ink jet printing and plating process a front side metallization of commercial 6  ×  6 inch2 standard micro crystalline silicone solar cells with emitter resistance of 60 Ω/◽ was achieved and showed an efficiency of 15.7%.

  13. Effect of the filtration of PbI2 solution for zinc oxide nanowire based perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijanur Rahman, Md.; Uekawa, Naofumi; Shiba, Fumiyuki; Okawa, Yusuke; Sakai, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Kazunuki; Kudo, Kazuhiro; Konishi, Takehisa

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) are grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates via a simple reactive evaporation method without the presence of any catalysts or additives. The ZnO NWs show high crystallinity and preferential elongation along the c-axis of the hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. The highly crystalline NWs as electron transporting layer have been used to fabricate the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells and their photovoltaic performance were investigated. In this report, we studied the effect of filtration of PbI2-solution on surface morphology of CH3NH3PbI3 layer. Spin-coating of the filtered PbI2-solution leads to a better crystallization and relatively homogenous coverage of the CH3NH3PbI3 film, resulting in an enhancement of the solar cell efficiency compared to the cell fabricated using non-filtrated PbI2-solution. By synthesizing the CH3NH3PbI3 film using filtrated PbI2-solution, we achieved the best power conversion efficiency of 4.8% with a current density of 7.6 mA cm-2, the open circuit voltage of 0.79 V and fill factor of 0.63.

  14. Acute liver failure due to zinc phosphide containing rodenticide poisoning: Clinical features and prognostic indicators of need for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Saraf, Vivek; Pande, Supriya; Gopalakrishnan, Unnikrishnan; Balakrishnan, Dinesh; Menon, Ramachandran N; Sudheer, O V; Dhar, Puneet; Sudhindran, S

    2015-07-01

    Zinc phosphide (ZnP) containing rodenticide poisoning is a recognized cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in India. When standard conservative measures fail, the sole option is liver transplantation. Records of 41 patients admitted to a single centre with ZnP-induced ALF were reviewed to identify prognostic indicators for requirement of liver transplantation. Patients were analyzed in two groups: group I (n = 22) consisted of patients who either underwent a liver transplant (n = 14) or died without a transplant (n = 8); group II (n = 19) comprised those who survived without liver transplantation. International normalized ratio (INR) in group I was 9 compared to 3 in group II (p < 0.001). Encephalopathy occurred only in group I. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score in group I was 41 compared to 24 in group II (p < 0.001). MELD score of 36 (sensitivity of 86.7 %, specificity of 90 %) or a combination of INR of 6 and encephalopathy (sensitivity of 100 %, specificity of 83 %) were the best indicators of mortality. Such patients should undergo urgent liver transplantation. PMID:26310868

  15. A review of episodes of zinc phosphide toxicosis in wild geese (Branta spp.) in Oregon (2004−2011)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bildfell, Rob J.; Rumbeiha, Wilson K.; Schuler, Krysten L.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Gillin, Colin M.

    2013-01-01

    Epizootic mortality in several geese species, including cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis), has been recognized in the Willamette Valley of Oregon for over a decade. Birds are generally found dead on a body of water or are occasionally observed displaying neurologic clinical signs such as an inability to raise or control the head prior to death. Investigation of these epizootic mortality events has revealed the etiology to be accidental poisoning with the rodenticide zinc phosphide (Zn3P2). Gross and histologic changes are restricted to acute pulmonary congestion and edema, sometimes accompanied by distension of the upper alimentary tract by fresh grass. Geese are unusually susceptible to this pesticide; when combined with an epidemiologic confluence of depredation of specific agricultural crops by rodents and seasonal avian migration pathways, epizootic toxicosis may occur. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, appropriate sample collection and handling, plus specific test calibration for this toxicant. Interagency cooperation, education of farmers regarding pesticide use, and enforcement of regulations has been successful in greatly decreasing these mortality events since 2009.

  16. Theoretical design and screening of alkyne bridged triphenyl zinc porphyrins as sensitizer candidates for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianxi; Chen, Qianqian; Sun, Huafei; Pan, Tingting; Hu, Guiqi; Ma, Ruimin; Dou, Jianmin; Li, Dacheng; Pan, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Alkyne bridged porphyrins have been proved very promising sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with the highest photo-to-electric conversion efficiencies of 11.9% solely and 12.3% co-sensitized with other sensitizers achieved. Developing better porphyrin sensitizers with wider electronic absorption spectra to further improve the efficiencies of corresponding solar cells is still of great significance for the application of DSSCs. A series of triphenyl zinc porphyrins (ZnTriPP) differing in the nature of a pendant acceptor group and the conjugated bridge between the porphyrin nucleus and the acceptor unit were modeled and their electronic and spectral properties calculated using density functional theory. As compared with each other and the experimental results of the compounds used in DSSCs previously, the molecules with a relatively longer conjugative linker and a strong electron-withdrawing group such as cyanide adjacent to the carboxyl acid group seem to provide wider electronic absorption spectra and higher photo-to-electric conversion efficiencies. The dye candidates ZnTriPPE, ZnTriPPM, ZnTriPPQ, ZnTriPPR and ZnTriPPS designed in the current work were found promising to provide comparable photo-to-electric conversion efficiencies to the record 11.9% of the alkyne bridged porphyrin sensitizer YD2-o-C8 reported previously.

  17. High efficiency cadmium telluride and zinc telluride based thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, A.; Sudharsanan, R.; Ringel, S.A.; Chou, H.C. )

    1992-10-01

    This report describes work to improve the basic understanding of CdTe and ZnTe alloys by growing and characterizing these films along with cell fabrication. The major objective was to develop wide-band-gap (1.6--1.8 eV) material for the top cell, along with compatible window material and transparent ohmic contacts, so that a cascade cell design can be optimized. Front-wall solar cells were fabricated with a glass/SnO{sub 2}/CdS window, where the CdS film is thin to maximize transmission and current. Wide-band-gap absorber films (E{sub g} = 1.75 eV) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) techniques, which provided excellent control for tailoring the film composition and properties. CdZnTe films were grown by both MBE and MOCVD. All the as-grown films were characterized by several techniques (surface photovoltage spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)) for composition, bulk uniformity, thickness, and film and interface quality. Front-wall-type solar cells were fabricated in collaboration with Ametek Materials Research Laboratory using CdTe and CdZnTe polycrystalline absorber films. The effects of processing on ternary film were studied by AES and XPS coupled with capacitance voltage and current voltage measurements as a function of temperature. Bias-dependent spectral response and electrical measurements were used to test some models in order to identify and quantify dominant loss mechanisms.

  18. High-efficiency cadmium and zinc-telluride-based thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, A.; Sudharsanan, R.; Ringel, S. )

    1992-02-01

    This report describes research into polycrystalline CdTe solar cells grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Efficiencies of {approximately}10% were achieved using both p-i-n and p-n structures. A pre-heat treatment of CdS/SnO{sub 2}/glass substrates at 450{degrees}C in hydrogen atmosphere prior to the CdTe growth was found to be essential for high performance because this heat treatment reduces oxygen-related defects from the CdS surface. However, this treatment also resulted in a Cd-deficient CdS surface, which may in part limit the CdTe cell efficiency to 10% due to Cd vacancy-related interface defects. Preliminary model calculations suggest that removing these states can increase the cell efficiency from 10% to 13.5%. Photon absorption in the CdS film also limits the cell performance, and eliminating this loss mechanism can result in CdTe efficiencies in excess of 18%. Polycrystalline, 1.7-e, CdZnTe films were also grown for tandem-cell applications. CdZnTe/CdS cells processed using the standard CdTe cell fabrication procedure resulted in 4.4% efficiency, high series resistance, and a band-gap shift to 1.55 eV. The formation of Zn-O at and near the CdZnTe surface is the source of high contact resistance. A saturated dichromate each prior to contact deposition was found to solve the contact resistance problem. The CdCl{sub 2} treatment was identified as the cause of the observed band-gap shift due to the preferred formation of ZnCl{sub 2}. 59 refs.

  19. Stability Comparison of Perovskite Solar Cells Based on Zinc Oxide and Titania on Polymer Substrates.

    PubMed

    Dkhissi, Yasmina; Meyer, Steffen; Chen, Dehong; Weerasinghe, Hasitha C; Spiccia, Leone; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Caruso, Rachel A

    2016-04-01

    Device scale-up and long-term stability constitute two major hurdles that the emerging perovskite solar technology will have to overcome before commercialization. Here, a comparative study was performed between ZnO and TiO2 electron-selective layers, two materials that allow the low-temperature processing of perovskite solar cells on polymer substrates. Although the use of TiO2 is well established on glass substrates, ZnO was chosen because it can be readily printed at low temperature and offers the potential for the large-scale roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible photovoltaics at a low cost. However, a rapid degradation of CH3 NH3 PbI3 was observed if it was deposited on ZnO, therefore, the influence of the perovskite film preparation conditions on its morphology and degradation kinetics was investigated. This study showed that CH3 NH3 PbI3 could withstand a higher temperature on TiO2 than ZnO and that TiO2 -based perovskite devices were more stable than their ZnO analogues. PMID:26893225

  20. Dye-sensitized solar cell employing zinc oxide aggregates grown in the presence of lithium

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Qifeng; Cao, Guozhong

    2013-10-15

    Provided are a novel ZnO dye-sensitized solar cell and method of fabricating the same. In one embodiment, deliberately added lithium ions are used to mediate the growth of ZnO aggregates. The use of lithium provides ZnO aggregates that have advantageous microstructure, morphology, crystallinity, and operational characteristics. Employing lithium during aggregate synthesis results in a polydisperse collection of ZnO aggregates favorable for porosity and light scattering. The resulting nanocrystallites forming the aggregates have improved crystallinity and more favorable facets for dye molecule absorption. The lithium synthesis improves the surface stability of ZnO in acidic dyes. The procedures developed and disclosed herein also help ensure the formation of an aggregate film that has a high homogeneity of thickness, a high packing density, a high specific surface area, and good electrical contact between the film and the fluorine-doped tin oxide electrode and among the aggregate particles.

  1. Gallium-doped zinc oxide films as transparent electrodes for organic solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhosle, V.; Prater, J. T.; Yang, Fan; Burk, D.; Forrest, S. R.; Narayan, J.

    2007-07-01

    We report microstructural characteristics and properties of gallium-doped ZnO films deposited on glass by pulsed laser deposition. The Zn0.95Ga0.05O film deposited at 200 °C and 1×10-3 Torr showed predominant ⟨0001⟩ orientation with a metallic behavior and a resistivity of 2×10-4 Ω cm at room temperature. Low resistivity of the ZnGaO films has been explained in terms of optimal combination of carrier concentration and minimized scattering, and is correlated with the microstructure and the deposition parameters. Power conversion efficiency comparable to indium tin oxide-based devices (1.25±0.05%) is achieved on a Zn0.95Ga0.05O/Cu-phthalocyanine/C60 double-heterojunction solar cell.

  2. Phase separation analysis of bulk heterojunctions in small-molecule organic solar cells using zinc-phthalocyanine and C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schünemann, Christoph; Wynands, David; Wilde, Lutz; Hein, Moritz Philipp; Pfützner, Steffen; Elschner, Chris; Eichhorn, Klaus-Jochen; Leo, Karl; Riede, Moritz

    2012-06-01

    To achieve efficient organic solar cells, donor and acceptor molecules are mixed in the photoactive layer to form a so-called bulk heterojunction. Due to molecular interactions, a certain degree of phase separation between donor and acceptor domains arises, which is necessary to achieve efficient charge extraction within the absorber layer. However, the mechanism that induces the phase separation is not fully understood and gaining detailed information about the molecular arrangement within these blend layers is quite challenging. We show that grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, combined with variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry is a suitable way to investigate the molecular structure of blend layers in detail, consisting of a mixture of zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and C60. The degree of phase separation within the blend layer is influenced by substrate heating during the co-evaporation of ZnPc and C60 and by a variation of the mixing ratio. The effect of different blend layer morphologies on optical and electrical device performance is investigated by solar cell characterization and mobility measurements. We find that the molecular arrangement of C60 provides the essential driving force for efficient phase separation. Whereas spherical C60 molecules are able to form crystalline domains when deposited at elevated substrate temperatures, no ZnPc crystallites are observed, although the planar ZnPc molecules are not randomly oriented but standing upright within its domains. Comparing specular and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, we find that only the latter method is able to detect nanocrystalline C60 in thin films due to its polycrystalline nature and small sized nanocrystallites. Solar cell measurements show an increase in fill factor and external quantum efficiency signal for blends with enhanced phase separation, induced by higher substrate temperatures. However, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements reveal that ZnPc and C60 already form

  3. Synthesis and characterisation of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) compound for absorber material in solar-cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheraj, Vipul; Patel, K. K.; Patel, S. J.; Shah, D. V.

    2013-01-01

    The development of thin-film semiconductor compounds, such as Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS), has caused remarkable progress in the field of thin-film photovoltaics. However, the scarcity and the increasing prices of indium impose the hunt for alternative materials. The Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) is one of the promising emerging materials with Kesterite-type crystal structure and favourable material properties like high absorption co-efficient and direct band-gap. Moreover, all the constituent elements of CZTS are non-toxic and aplenty on the earth-crust, making it a potential candidate for the thin-film photovoltaics. Here we report the synthesis of CZTS powder from its constituent elements, viz. copper, zinc, tin and sulphur, in an evacuated Quartz ampoule at 1030 K temperature. The sulphur content in the raw mixture in the ampoule was varied and optimised in order to attain the desired atomic stoichiometry of the compound. The synthesised powder was characterised by X-Ray diffraction technique (XRD), Raman Scattering Spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-Ray (EDAX) and UV-Visible Absorption Spectra. The XRD Patterns of the synthesised compound show the preferred orientation of (112), (220) and (312) planes, confirming the Kesterite structure of CZTS. The chemical composition of the powder was analysed by EDAX and shows good atomic stoichiometry of the constituent elements in the CZTS compound. The UV-Vis absorption spectra confirm the direct band-gap of about 1.45 eV, which is quite close to the optimum value for the semiconductor material as an absorber in solar-cells.

  4. Porphyrin Dye-Sensitized Zinc Oxide Aggregated Anodes for Use in Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Syu, Yu-Kai; Tingare, Yogesh; Lin, Shou-Yen; Yeh, Chen-Yu; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Porphyrin YD2-o-C8-based dyes were employed to sensitize room-temperature (RT) chemical-assembled ZnO aggregated anodes for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). To reduce the acidity of the YD2-o-C8 dye solution, the proton in the carboxyl group of a porphyrin dye was replaced with tetrabuthyl ammonium (TBA⁺) in this work. The short-circuit current density (Jsc) of the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO DSSCs is higher than that of the YD2-o-C8-sensitized cells, resulting in the improvement of the efficiency of the YD2-o-C8-based ZnO DSSCs. With an appropriate incorporation of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) as coadsorbate, the Jsc and efficiency of the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO DSSC are enhanced due to the improvement of the incident-photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) values in the wavelength range of 400-450 nm. Moreover, a considerable increase in Jsc is achieved by the addition of a light scattering layer in the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO photoanodes. Significant IPCE enhancement in the range 475-600 nm is not attainable by tuning the YD2-o-C8-TBA sensitization processes for the anodes without light scattering layers. Using the RT chemical-assembled ZnO aggregated anode with a light scattering layer, an efficiency of 3.43% was achieved in the YD2-o-C8-TBA-sensitized ZnO DSSC. PMID:27527136

  5. Thin film solar cell module

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, R.R.

    1987-01-20

    A thin film solar cell module is described comprising a first solar cell panel containing an array of solar cells consisting of a TFS semiconductor sandwiched between a transparent conductive zinc oxide layer and a transparent conductive layer selected from the group consisting of tin oxide, indium tin oxide, and zinc oxide deposited upon a transparent superstrate, and a second solar cell panel containing an array of solar cells consisting of a CIS semiconductor layer sandwiched between a zinc oxide semiconductor layer and a conductive metal layer deposited upon an insulating substrate. The zinc oxide semiconductor layer contains a first relatively thin layer of high resistivity zinc oxide adjacent the CIS semiconductor and a second relatively thick layer of low resistivity zinc oxide overlying the high resistivity zinc oxide layer. The transparent conductive zinc oxide layer of the first panel faces the low resistivity zinc oxide layer of the second panel, the first and second panels being positioned optically in series and separated by a transparent insulating layer.

  6. Dye-sensitized solar cell characteristics of nanocomposite zinc ferrite working electrode: Effect of composite precursors and titania as a blocking layer on photovoltaic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Habibi, Amir Hossein; Zendehdel, Mahmoud; Habibi, Mehdi

    2013-06-01

    This research investigates the performance of a zinc ferrite (ZF) as working electrodes in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). This ZF working electrode was prepared by sol-gel and thermal decomposition of four different precursors including: zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH3COO)2ṡ2H2O), ferric nitrate nonahydrate (Fe(NO3)3ṡ9H2O), iron(III) acetate; Fe(C2H3O2)3, and zinc nitrate hexahydrate, Zn(NO3)2ṡ6H2O. The effects of annealing temperature and precursors on the structural, morphological, and optical properties were investigated. The field emission scanning electron microscope images (FESEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show that ZFe films are polycrystalline in nature and homogeneous with densely packed grains. Nanoporous zinc ferrite coatings were prepared by doctor blade technique on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and used as working electrodes in DSSC. In all DSSCs, platinized FTO and [Co(bpy)3]2+/3+ in 3-methoxy proponitrile were used as counter electrode and redox mediator system respectively. Comparing the fill factors of four different zinc ferrite nanocomposites, the highest fill factor was for ZnFe2O4-TBL sample. Cell fabricated with ZnFeA working electrode shows relatively higher Jsc.

  7. Nanostructuring on zinc phthalocyanine thin films for single-junction organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Dhirendra K.; Kumar, Lokendra

    2016-05-01

    Vertically aligned and random oriented crystalline molecular nanorods of organic semiconducting Zinc Phthalocyanine (ZnPc) have been grown on ITO coated glass substrate using solvent volatilization method. Interesting changes in surface morphology were observed under different solvent treatment. Vertically aligned nanorods of ZnPc thin film were observed in the films treated with acetone, where as the random oriented nanorods were observed in the films treated with chloroform. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used for characterization of nanostructures. The optical properties of the nanorods have been investigated by UV-Vis. absorption spectroscopy.

  8. Highly porous Zinc Stannate (Zn2SnO4) nanofibers scaffold photoelectrodes for efficient methyl ammonium halide perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Mali, Sawanta S; Shim, Chang Su; Hong, Chang Kook

    2015-01-01

    Development of ternary metal oxide (TMO) based electron transporting layer (ETL) for perovskite solar cell open a new approaches toward efficient a unique strategy for solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs). In the present investigation, highly porous zinc tin oxide (Zn2SnO4) scaffold nanofibers has been synthesized by electrospinning technique and successfully used for methyl ammonium lead halide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite sensitized solid state solar cells. The fabricated optimized perovskite solar cell devices exhibited 7.38% power conversion efficiency (PCE) with open circuit voltage (VOC) 0.986 V, current density (JSC) = 12.68 mAcm(-2) and fill factor (FF) 0.59 under AM 1.5 G sunlight (100 mWcm(-2)) which is higher than Zn2SnO4 nanoparticle (η = 2.52%) based perovskite solar cells. This improvement is achieved due to high porosity of Zn2SnO4 nanofibers and high crystallinity of the nanofibers synthesized at 700 °C. These results are remarkably higher than reported perovskite solar cells based on such type of ternary metal oxide ETLs. PMID:26094863

  9. Highly porous Zinc Stannate (Zn2SnO4) nanofibers scaffold photoelectrodes for efficient methyl ammonium halide perovskite solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Mali, Sawanta S.; Su Shim, Chang; Kook Hong, Chang

    2015-01-01

    Development of ternary metal oxide (TMO) based electron transporting layer (ETL) for perovskite solar cell open a new approaches toward efficient a unique strategy for solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs). In the present investigation, highly porous zinc tin oxide (Zn2SnO4) scaffold nanofibers has been synthesized by electrospinning technique and successfully used for methyl ammonium lead halide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite sensitized solid state solar cells. The fabricated optimized perovskite solar cell devices exhibited 7.38% power conversion efficiency (PCE) with open circuit voltage (VOC) 0.986 V, current density (JSC) = 12.68 mAcm-2 and fill factor (FF) 0.59 under AM 1.5 G sunlight (100 mWcm−2) which is higher than Zn2SnO4 nanoparticle (η = 2.52%) based perovskite solar cells. This improvement is achieved due to high porosity of Zn2SnO4 nanofibers and high crystallinity of the nanofibers synthesized at 700 °C. These results are remarkably higher than reported perovskite solar cells based on such type of ternary metal oxide ETLs. PMID:26094863

  10. Highly porous Zinc Stannate (Zn2SnO4) nanofibers scaffold photoelectrodes for efficient methyl ammonium halide perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mali, Sawanta S.; Su Shim, Chang; Kook Hong, Chang

    2015-06-01

    Development of ternary metal oxide (TMO) based electron transporting layer (ETL) for perovskite solar cell open a new approaches toward efficient a unique strategy for solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs). In the present investigation, highly porous zinc tin oxide (Zn2SnO4) scaffold nanofibers has been synthesized by electrospinning technique and successfully used for methyl ammonium lead halide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite sensitized solid state solar cells. The fabricated optimized perovskite solar cell devices exhibited 7.38% power conversion efficiency (PCE) with open circuit voltage (VOC) 0.986 V, current density (JSC) = 12.68 mAcm-2 and fill factor (FF) 0.59 under AM 1.5 G sunlight (100 mWcm-2) which is higher than Zn2SnO4 nanoparticle (η = 2.52%) based perovskite solar cells. This improvement is achieved due to high porosity of Zn2SnO4 nanofibers and high crystallinity of the nanofibers synthesized at 700 °C. These results are remarkably higher than reported perovskite solar cells based on such type of ternary metal oxide ETLs.

  11. Growth and characterization of thin film zinc-silicon-arsenide for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igwe, G. A.

    Conditions for good morphology synthesis and epilayer growth of thin film Zinc Silicon Arsenide (ZnSiAs2) by the metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD) technique have been investigated. Structural, electrical and optical properties of such ZnSiAs2 layers were studied using several diverse methods including electron microprobe, X-ray diffraction, auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, electron beam induced currents, photovoltaic spectral response, current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics of heterostructures. Many problems generally associated with heteroepitaxial growth of semiconducting materials were much in evidence. In particular, interfacial diffusion resulting in autodoping of both substrate and the grown epilayer precluded rectifying heterojunction formation for ZnSiAs2 layers grown on Ge, GaAs or Si substrate. The lattice mismatch of about three percent between silicon and ZnSiAs2 provided additional problems of microcracks in and nonadherence of the epilayers.

  12. Effects of target angle on the properties of aluminum doped zinc oxide films prepared by DC magnetron sputtering for thin film solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeongsik; Iftiquar, S M; Thuy, Trinh Than; Jang, Juyeon; Ahn, Shihyun; Kim, Sunbo; Lee, Jaehyeong; Jung, Junhee; Shin, Chonghoon; Kim, Minbum; Yi, Junsin

    2014-10-01

    An aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) films for front contacts of thin film solar cells, in this work, were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering with different target angles. Effects of target angles on the structural and electro-optical properties of AZO films were investigated. Also, to clarify the light trapping of textured AZO film, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells were fabricated on the textured AZO/glass substrate and the performance of solar cells were studied. The surface became more irregular with increasing the target angle due to larger grains. The self-surface textured morphology, which is a favorable property as front layer of solar cell, exhibited at target angle of 72.5 degrees. We obtained the films with various opto-electronic properties by controlling target angle from 32.5 degrees to 72.5 degrees. The spectral haze increased substantially with the target angle, whereas the electrical resistivity was increased. The conversion efficiency of amorphous silicon solar cells with textured AZO film as a front electrode was improved by the increase of short-circuit current density and fill factor, compared to cell with relatively flat AZO films. PMID:25942853

  13. Solution Processing of Cadmium Sulfide Buffer Layer and Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide Window Layer for Thin Films Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Mahboob; Islam, Mohammad; Achour, Amine; Hayat, Ansar; Ahsan, Bilal; Rasheed, Haroon; Salam, Shahzad; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (Al:ZnO) thin films are used as buffer layer and front window layer, respectively, in thin film solar cells. CdS and Al:ZnO thin films were produced using chemical bath deposition (CBD) and sol-gel technique, respectively. For CBD CdS, the effect of bath composition and temperature, dipping time and annealing temperature on film properties was investigated. The CdS films are found to be polycrystalline with metastable cubic crystal structure, dense, crack-free surface morphology and the crystallite size of either few nanometers or 12-17 nm depending on bath composition. In case of CdS films produced with 1:2 ratio of Cd and S precursors, spectrophotometer studies indicate quantum confinement effect, owing to extremely small crystallite size, with an increase in Eg value from 2.42 eV (for bulk CdS) to 3.76 eV along with a shift in the absorption edge toward 330 nm wavelength. The optimum annealing temperature is 400°C beyond which film properties deteriorate through S evaporation and CdO formation. On the other hand, Al:ZnO films prepared via spin coating of precursor sols containing 0.90-1.10 at.% Al show that, with an increase in Al concentration, the average grain size increases from 28 nm to 131 nm with an associated decrease in root-mean-square roughness. The minimum value of electrical resistivity, measured for the films prepared using 0.95 at.% Al in the precursor sol, is 2.7 × 10-4 Ω ṡ cm. The electrical resistivity value rises upon further increase in Al doping level due to introduction of lattice defects and Al segregation to the grain boundary area, thus limiting electron transport through it.

  14. Theoretical Characterization of Zinc Phthalocyanine and Porphyrin Analogs for Organic Solar Cell Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Rebekah

    The absorption spectra of metal-centered phthalocyanines (MPc's) have been investigated since the early 1960's. With improved experimental techniques to characterize this class of molecules the band assignments have advanced. The characterization remains difficult with historic disagreements. A new push for characterization came with a wave of interest in using these molecules for absorption/donor molecules in organic photovoltaics. The use of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) became of particular interest, in addition to novel research being done for azaporphyrin analogs of ZnPc. A theoretical approach is taken to research the excited states of these molecules using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Most theoretical results for the first excited state in ZnPc are in only limited agreement with experiment (errors near 0.1 eV or higher). This research investigates ZnPc and 10 additional porphyrin analogs. Excited-state properties are predicted for 8 of these molecules using ab initio computational methods and symmetry breaking for accurate time- dependent self-consistent optimization. Franck-Condon analysis is used to predict the Q-band absorption spectra for all 8 of these molecules. This is the first time that Franck-Condon analysis has been reported in absolute units for any of these molecules. The first excited-state energy for ZnPc is found to be the closest to experiment thus far using a range-separated meta-GGA hybrid functional. The theoretical results are used to find a trend in the novel design of new porphyrin analog molecules.

  15. Suppression of zinc dendrites in zinc electrode power cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damjanovic, A.; Diggle, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    Addition of various tetraalkyl quarternary ammonium salts, to alkaline zincate electrolyte of cell, prevents formation of zinc dendrites during charging of zinc electrode. Electrode capacity is not impaired and elimination of dendrites prolongs cell life.

  16. High efficiency cadmium and zinc telluride-based thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohatgi, A.; Summers, C. J.; Erbil, A.; Sudharsanan, R.; Ringel, S.

    1990-10-01

    Polycrystalline Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te and Cd(1-x)Mn(x)Te films with a band gap of 1.7 eV were successfully grown on glass/SnO2/CdS substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), respectively. Polycrystalline Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te films grown by MBE resulted in uniform composition and sharp interfaces. However, polycrystalline Cd(1-x)Mn(x)Te films grown by MOCVD showed nonuniform compositions and evidence of manganese accumulation at the Cd(1-x)Mn(x)Te/CdS interface. We found that manganese interdiffuses and replaces cadmium in the CdS film. By improving the CdTe/CdS interface and, thus, reducing the collection function effects, the efficiency of the MOCVD CdTe cell can be improved to about 13.5 percent. MBE-grown CdTe cells also produced 8 to 9 percent efficiencies. The standard CdTe process was not optimum for ternary films and resulted in a decrease in the band gap. Recent results indicate that CdCl2 + ZnCl2 chemical treatment may prevent the band-gap reduction, and that chromate etch (rather than bromine etch) may provide the solution to contact resistance in the ternary cells.

  17. High efficiency cadmium and zinc telluride-based thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, A.; Summers, C.J.; Erbil, A.; Sudharsanan, R.; Ringel, S. . School of Electrical Engineering)

    1990-10-01

    Polycrystalline Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te and Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te films with a band gap of 1.7 eV were successfully grown on glass/SnO{sub 2}/CdS substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), respectively. Polycrystalline Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te films grown by MBE resulted in uniform composition and sharp interfaces. However, polycrystalline Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te films grown by MOCVD showed nonuniform compositions and evidence of manganese accumulation at the Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te/CdS interface. We found that manganese interdiffuses and replaces cadmium in the CdS film. By improving the CdTe/CdS interface and, thus, reducing the collection function effects, the efficiency of the MOCVD CdTe cell can be improved to about 13.5%. MBE-grown CdTe cells also produced 8%--9% efficiencies. The standard CdTe process was not optimum for ternary films and resulted in a decrease in the band gap. Recent results indicate that CdCl{sub 2} + ZnCl{sub 2} chemical treatment may prevent the band-gap reduction, and that chromate etch (rather than bromine etch) may provide the solution to contact resistance in the ternary cells.

  18. Gallium phosphide energy converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, P. E.; Dinetta, L. C.; Goetz, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    Gallium phosphide (GaP) energy converters may be successfully deployed to provide new mission capabilities for spacecraft. Betavoltaic power supplies based on the conversion of tritium beta decay to electricity using GaP energy converters can supply long term low-level power with high reliability. High temperature solar cells, also based on GaP, can be used in inward-bound missions greatly reducing the need for thermal dissipation. Results are presented for GaP direct conversion devices powered by Ni-63 and compared to the conversion of light emitted by tritiarated phosphors. Leakage currents as low as 1.2 x 10(exp -17) A/sq cm have been measured and the temperature dependence of the reverse saturation current is found to have ideal behavior. Temperature dependent IV, QE, R(sub sh), and V(sub oc) results are also presented. These data are used to predict the high-temperature solar cell and betacell performance of GaP devices and suggest appropriate applications for the deployment of this technology.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of P3HT:PCBM-based thin film organic solar cells with zinc phthalocyanine

    SciTech Connect

    Maruhashi, Haruto Oku, Takeo Suzuki, Atsushi Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Yamasaki, Yasuhiro

    2015-02-27

    [6,6]–phenyl C{sub 61}–butyric acid methyl ester and poly(3–hexylthiophene) bulk heterojunction solar cells added with zinc–tetra–tertiary–butyl–phthalocyanine (ZnPc) were fabricated and characterized. The photovoltaic properties of the solar cells with an inverted structure were improved by the ZnPc addition, which were investigated on the bases of current density–voltage characteristics, incident photon to current conversion efficiency.

  20. Aluminum phosphide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Aluminum phosphide ; CASRN 20859 - 73 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  1. Efficient and ultraviolet durable inverted organic solar cells based on an aluminum-doped zinc oxide transparent cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hanxiao; Wu, Zhenghui; Hu, Jianqiao; Song, Qunliang; Wu, Bo; Lam Tam, Hoi; Yang, Qingyi; Hong Choi, Wing; Zhu, Furong

    2013-07-01

    High performance inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs), based on the blend of poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy] benzo [1,2-b:4,5-b'] dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  2. Solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuquel, A.; Roussel, M.

    The physical and electronic characteristics of solar cells are discussed in terms of space applications. The principles underlying the photovoltaic effect are reviewed, including an analytic model for predicting the performance of individual cells and arrays of cells. Attention is given to the effects of electromagnetic and ionizing radiation, micrometeors, thermal and mechanical stresses, pollution and degassing encountered in space. The responses of different types of solar cells to the various performance-degrading agents are examined, with emphasis on techniques for quality assurance in the manufacture and mounting of Si cells.

  3. Low-Symmetrical Zinc(II) Benzonaphthoporphyrazine Sensitizers for Light-Harvesting in Near-IR Region of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi, Takuro; Mori, Shogo; Kobayashi, Nagao; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2016-05-16

    Two ring-expanded naphthalocyanine-based sensitizers NcS1 and NcS2 have been designed and synthesized to harvest near-IR light energy in dye-sensitized solar cells. Low-symmetrical "push-pull" structures of NcS1 and NcS2 enable the red-shift of absorption spectrum as well as the defined Q-band splitting. The zinc benzonaphthoporphyrazine sensitizer NcS1 possessing one carboxylic acid and six 2,6-diisopropylphenoxy units showed a PCE value of 3.2% when used as a light-harvesting dye on a TiO2 electrode under one sun condition. The NcS1 cell showed a broad photoresponse at wavelengths from 600 to 850 nm. PMID:27120343

  4. Routes to copper zinc tin sulfide Cu2ZnSnS4 a potential material for solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Karthik; Malik, Mohammad A; O'Brien, Paul

    2012-06-11

    Power generation through photovoltaics (PV) has been growing at an average rate of 40% per year over the last decade; but has largely been fuelled by conventional Si-based technologies. Such cells involve expensive processing and many alternatives use either toxic, less-abundant and or expensive elements. Kesterite Cu(2)ZnSnS(4) (CZTS) has been identified as a solar energy material composed of both less toxic and more available elements. Power conversion efficiencies of 8.4% (vacuum processing) and 10.1% (non-vacuum processing) from cells constructed using CZTS have been achieved to date. In this article, we review various deposition methods for CZTS thin films and the synthesis of CZTS nanoparticles. Studies of direct relevance to solar cell applications are emphasised and characteristic properties are collated. PMID:22531115

  5. Very High Efficiency Triple Junction Solar Cells Based On (AL)InGaP Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Gabriele; Campesato, Roberta; Casale, Maria Cristina; Gabetta, Giuseppe

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we report the theoretical and experimental results related to the use of Aluminium Gallium Indium Phosphide (AlInGaP) as substitute of Gallium Indium Phosphide (InGaP) semiconductor, in the realization of high efficiency triple junction solar cells for space applications. The (Al)InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar cells have been modelled and manufactured on standard and thin Germanium wafers; the measurements under AM0 spectrum 25 °C, showed efficiencies above 30% both on standard and thin Ge wafers.

  6. Comparative modeling of InP solar cell structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, R. K.; Weinberg, I.; Flood, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The comparative modeling of p(+)n and n(+)p indium phosphide solar cell structures is studied using a numerical program PC-1D. The optimal design study has predicted that the p(+)n structure offers improved cell efficiencies as compared to n(+)p structure, due to higher open-circuit voltage. The various cell material and process parameters to achieve the maximum cell efficiencies are reported. The effect of some of the cell parameters on InP cell I-V characteristics was studied. The available radiation resistance data on n(+)p and p(+)p InP solar cells are also critically discussed.

  7. Wurtzite copper-zinc-tin sulfide as a superior counter electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Wurtzite and kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals were employed as counter electrode (CE) materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Compared to kesterite CZTS, the wurtzite CZTS exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity for catalyzing reduction of iodide electrolyte and better conductivity. Accordingly, the DSSC with wurtzite CZTS CE generated higher power conversion efficiency (6.89%) than that of Pt (6.23%) and kesterite CZTS (4.89%) CEs. PMID:24191954

  8. Wurtzite copper-zinc-tin sulfide as a superior counter electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jun; Zhou, Zheng-Ji; Li, Mei; Zhou, Wen-Hui; Yuan, Sheng-Jie; Yao, Rong-Yue; Zhao, Yang; Wu, Si-Xin

    2013-11-01

    Wurtzite and kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals were employed as counter electrode (CE) materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Compared to kesterite CZTS, the wurtzite CZTS exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity for catalyzing reduction of iodide electrolyte and better conductivity. Accordingly, the DSSC with wurtzite CZTS CE generated higher power conversion efficiency (6.89%) than that of Pt (6.23%) and kesterite CZTS (4.89%) CEs.

  9. Wurtzite copper-zinc-tin sulfide as a superior counter electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kong, Jun; Zhou, Zheng-Ji; Li, Mei; Zhou, Wen-Hui; Yuan, Sheng-Jie; Yao, Rong-Yue; Zhao, Yang; Wu, Si-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Wurtzite and kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals were employed as counter electrode (CE) materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Compared to kesterite CZTS, the wurtzite CZTS exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity for catalyzing reduction of iodide electrolyte and better conductivity. Accordingly, the DSSC with wurtzite CZTS CE generated higher power conversion efficiency (6.89%) than that of Pt (6.23%) and kesterite CZTS (4.89%) CEs. PMID:24191954

  10. Efficient indium-tin-oxide free inverted organic solar cells based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide cathode and low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide electron extraction layer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu Wang, Zhizhe; Zhang, Jincheng; Tang, Shi; Wei, Wei; Sun, Li; Hao, Yue

    2014-06-16

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) cathode, low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron extraction layer, and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl):[6, 6]-phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester blend were realized in this work. The resulted IOSC with ZnO annealed at 150 °C shows the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.01%, if decreasing the ZnO annealing temperature to 100 °C, the obtained IOSC also shows a PCE of 2.76%, and no light soaking issue is observed. It is found that this ZnO film not only acts as an effective buffer layer but also slightly improves the optical transmittance of AZO substrates. Further, despite the relatively inferior air-stability, these un-encapsulated AZO/ZnO IOSCs show comparable PCEs to the referenced ITO/ZnO IOSCs, which demonstrates that the AZO cathode is a potential alternative to ITO in IOSCs. Meanwhile, this simple ZnO process is compatible with large area deposition and plastic substrates, and is promising to be widely used in IOSCs and other relative fields.

  11. Efficient indium-tin-oxide free inverted organic solar cells based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide cathode and low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide electron extraction layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu; Wang, Zhizhe; Zhang, Jincheng; Tang, Shi; Wei, Wei; Sun, Li; Hao, Yue

    2014-06-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) cathode, low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron extraction layer, and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl):[6, 6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester blend were realized in this work. The resulted IOSC with ZnO annealed at 150 °C shows the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.01%, if decreasing the ZnO annealing temperature to 100 °C, the obtained IOSC also shows a PCE of 2.76%, and no light soaking issue is observed. It is found that this ZnO film not only acts as an effective buffer layer but also slightly improves the optical transmittance of AZO substrates. Further, despite the relatively inferior air-stability, these un-encapsulated AZO/ZnO IOSCs show comparable PCEs to the referenced ITO/ZnO IOSCs, which demonstrates that the AZO cathode is a potential alternative to ITO in IOSCs. Meanwhile, this simple ZnO process is compatible with large area deposition and plastic substrates, and is promising to be widely used in IOSCs and other relative fields.

  12. Solar Hydrogen Production Using Molecular Catalysts Immobilized on Gallium Phosphide (111)A and (111)B Polymer-Modified Photocathodes.

    PubMed

    Beiler, Anna M; Khusnutdinova, Diana; Jacob, Samuel I; Moore, Gary F

    2016-04-20

    We report the immobilization of hydrogen-producing cobaloxime catalysts onto p-type gallium phosphide (111)A and (111)B substrates via coordination to a surface-grafted polyvinylimidazole brush. Successful grafting of the polymeric interface and subsequent assembly of cobalt-containing catalysts are confirmed using grazing angle attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Photoelectrochemical testing in aqueous conditions at neutral pH shows that cobaloxime modification of either crystal face yields a similar enhancement of photoperformance, achieving a greater than 4-fold increase in current density and associated rates of hydrogen production as compared to results obtained using unfunctionalized electrodes tested under otherwise identical conditions. Under simulated solar illumination (100 mW cm(-2)), the catalyst-modified photocathodes achieve a current density ≈ 1 mA cm(-2) when polarized at 0 V vs the reversible hydrogen electrode reference and show near-unity Faradaic efficiency for hydrogen production as determined by gas chromatography analysis of the headspace. This work illustrates the modularity and versatility of the catalyst-polymer-semiconductor approach for directly coupling light harvesting to fuel production and the ability to export this chemistry across distinct crystal face orientations. PMID:26998554

  13. Correlation of open-circuit voltage and energy levels in zinc-phthalocyanine: C60 bulk heterojunction solar cells with varied mixing ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tietze, Max L.; Tress, Wolfgang; Pfützner, Steffen; Schünemann, Christoph; Burtone, Lorenzo; Riede, Moritz; Leo, Karl; Vandewal, Koen; Olthof, Selina; Schulz, Philip; Kahn, Antoine

    2013-08-01

    The maximum open-circuit voltage VOC of bulk-heterojunction solar cells is limited by the effective HOMO(donor)-LUMO(acceptor) gap of the photoactive absorber blend. We investigate blend layers comprising zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and the buckminster fullerene C60 with ultraviolet, x-ray, and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy. By varying the volume mixing ratio ZnPc:C60 from 6:1 to 1:6, we observe a linear increase of the HOMO(ZnPc)-LUMO(C60) gap by 0.25 eV. The trend in this gap correlates with the change in the charge transfer energy measured by Fourier-transform photocurrent spectroscopy as well as with the observed open-circuit voltage of solar cells containing ZnPc:C60 as the photoactive absorber layer. Furthermore, the morphology of different ZnPc:C60 blend layers is investigated by grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction. As physical origins for the changed energy levels, a suppressed crystallization of the C60 phase in the presence of donor molecules as well as concentration-dependent growth modes of the ZnPc phase are suggested.

  14. Solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treble, F. C.

    1980-11-01

    The history, state of the art, and future prospects of solar cells are reviewed. Solar cells are already competitive in a wide range of low-power applications, and during the 1980's they are expected to become cheaper to run than diesel or gasoline generators, the present mainstay of isolated communities. At this stage they will become attractive for water pumping, irrigation, and rural electrification, particularly in developing countries. With further cost reduction, they may be used to augment grid supplies in domestic, commercial, institutional, and industrial premises. Cost reduction to the stage where photovoltaics becomes economic for large-scale power generation in central stations depends on a technological breakthrough in the development of thin-film cells. DOE aims to reach this goal by 1990, so that by the end of the century about 20% of the estimated annual additions to their electrical generating capacity will be photovoltaic.

  15. Chemisorption of a thiol-functionalized ruthenium dye on zinc oxide nanoparticles: Implications for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jagdeep; Im, Jisun; Whitten, James E.; Soares, Jason W.; Steeves, Diane M.

    2010-09-01

    ZnO is an alternative to TiO 2-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Adsorption of cis-ruthenium-bis[2,2'-bipyridine]-bis[4-thiopyridine] onto ZnO nanorods has been studied using X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS and UPS). XPS indicates chemisorption with a surface density of ca. 1 × 10 15 molecules/cm 2, confirming the possibility of using thiol-terminated dyes for ZnO-based DSSC devices. The energy level diagram, based on UPS and absorbance spectroscopy, indicates that the LUMO of this dye is lower in energy than the ZnO conduction band edge, providing minimal enthalpic driving force for photovoltaic electron injection. However, optimization of thiol-functionalized Ru dyes could result in competitive ZnO-based DSSCs.

  16. Preparation of n-ZnO/ p-Si solar cells by oxidation of zinc nanoparticles: effect of oxidation temperature on the photovoltaic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Raid A.; Al-Jawad, Selma M. H.; Hussein, Naba

    2014-12-01

    In this study, n-ZnO/ p-Si solar cells were fabricated by spraying ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) film synthesised by dissolving of high purity zinc in hydrogen peroxide H2O2 followed by thermal oxidation in air on p-type silicon substrates. The oxidation was carried out at different temperatures (200-500) °C. The crystalline structure of the ZnO NPs films was investigated by X-ray diffraction which indicated wurtzite structure films along (100) plane. The morphology of the NPs was studied by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The result showed an average grain size of ZnO NPs in the range of (72.7-95.8) nm and the surface roughness increasing with oxidation temperature. Three peaks located at ultraviolet, violet and green emission regions were noticed in the photoluminescence spectra of ZnO NPs. From optical studies, it was shown that the direct optical band gap is found to be in the range of (3.85-3.96) eV depended on the oxidation temperature. The synthesised ZnO films have n-type conductivity, and the mobility was in the range of (7-24) cm2 V-1 s-1. Current-voltage I- V and capacitance-voltage C- V of ZnO NPs/Si heterojunction solar cell were investigated as function of oxidation temperature. The spectral response of n-ZnO NPs/ p-Si solar cell showed two peaks of response and its maximum value approaching 0.62 mA W-1 at λ = 800 nm. Solar cell oxidized at 500 °C gave open circuit voltage V OC of 375 mV, short circuit current density J SC of 25 mA cm-2, a fill factor FF of 0.72, and conversion efficiency η of 6.79 % under illumination of 100 mW cm-2.

  17. Aluminium phosphide-induced leukopenia.

    PubMed

    Ntelios, Dimitrios; Mandros, Charalampos; Potolidis, Evangelos; Fanourgiakis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Acute intoxication from the pesticide aluminium phosphide is a relatively rare, life-threatening condition in which cardiovascular decompensation is the most feared problem. We report the case of a patient exposed to aluminium phosphide-liberated phosphine gas. It resulted in the development of a gastroenteritis-like syndrome accompanied by severe reduction in white blood cell numbers as an early and prominent manifestation. By affecting important physiological processes such as mitochondrial function and reactive oxygen species homeostasis, phosphine could cause severe toxicity. After presenting the characteristics of certain leucocyte subpopulations we provide the current molecular understanding of the observed leukopenia which in part seems paradoxical. PMID:24172776

  18. Aluminium phosphide-induced leukopenia

    PubMed Central

    Ntelios, Dimitrios; Mandros, Charalampos; Potolidis, Evangelos; Fanourgiakis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Acute intoxication from the pesticide aluminium phosphide is a relatively rare, life-threatening condition in which cardiovascular decompensation is the most feared problem. We report the case of a patient exposed to aluminium phosphide-liberated phosphine gas. It resulted in the development of a gastroenteritis-like syndrome accompanied by severe reduction in white blood cell numbers as an early and prominent manifestation. By affecting important physiological processes such as mitochondrial function and reactive oxygen species homeostasis, phosphine could cause severe toxicity. After presenting the characteristics of certain leucocyte subpopulations we provide the current molecular understanding of the observed leukopenia which in part seems paradoxical. PMID:24172776

  19. Indium-gallium-zinc-oxide layer used to increase light transmittance efficiency of adhesive layer for stacked-type multijunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshidomi, Shinya; Kimura, Shunsuke; Hasumi, Masahiko; Sameshima, Toshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    We report the increase in transmittance efficiency of the intermediate layer for multijunction solar cells caused by the indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) layer used as the antireflection layer. Si substrates coated with a 200-nm-thick IGZO layer with a refractive index of 1.85 were prepared. The resistivity of the IGZO layer was increased from 0.0069 (as-deposited) to 0.032 Ω cm by heat treatment at 350 °C for 1 h to prevent free-carrier optical absorption. Samples with the Si/IGZO/adhesive/IGZO/Si structure were fabricated. The average transmissivity for wavelengths between 1200 and 1600 nm was 49%, which was close to 55% of single-crystal silicon substrates. A high effective transmittance efficiency of 89% was experimentally achieved. The numerical calculation showed in an effective transmittance efficiency of 99% for 170-nm-thick antireflection layers with a resistivity of 0.6 Ω cm and a refractive index of 2.1.

  20. Acute changes in cellular zinc alters zinc uptake rates prior to zinc transporter gene expression in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Holland, Tai C; Killilea, David W; Shenvi, Swapna V; King, Janet C

    2015-12-01

    A coordinated network of zinc transporters and binding proteins tightly regulate cellular zinc levels. Canonical responses to zinc availability are thought to be mediated by changes in gene expression of key zinc transporters. We investigated the temporal relationships of actual zinc uptake with patterns of gene expression in membrane-bound zinc transporters in the human immortalized T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line. Cellular zinc levels were elevated or reduced with exogenous zinc sulfate or N,N,N',N-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), respectively. Excess zinc resulted in a rapid 44 % decrease in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of metallothionein (positive control) increased, as well as the zinc exporter, ZnT1; however, the expression of zinc importers did not change during this time period. Zinc chelation with TPEN resulted in a rapid twofold increase in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of ZnT1 decreased, while again the expression of zinc importers did not change. Overall, zinc transporter gene expression kinetics did not match actual changes in cellular zinc uptake with exogenous zinc or TPEN treatments. This suggests zinc transporter regulation may be the initial response to changes in zinc within Jurkat cells. PMID:26420239

  1. GaAsP on GaP top solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcneely, J. B.; Negley, G. H.; Barnett, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    GaAsP on GaP top solar cells as an attachment to silicon bottom solar cells are being developed. The GaAsP on GaP system offers several advantages for this top solar cell. The most important is that the gallium phosphide substrate provides a rugged, transparent mechanical substrate which does not have to be removed or thinned during processing. Additional advantages are that: (1) gallium phosphide is more oxidation resistant than the III-V aluminum compounds, (2) a range of energy band gaps higher than 1.75 eV is readily available for system efficiency optimization, (3) reliable ohmic contact technology is available from the light-emitting diode industry, and (4) the system readily lends itself to graded band gap structures for additional increases in efficiency.

  2. First-principles study on the electronic and optical properties of Si and Al co-doped zinc oxide for solar cell devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbassi, A.; El Amrani, A.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.; El Amraoui, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Electronic and optical properties of co-doped zinc oxide ZnO with silicon (Si) and aluminum (Al), in Zn1-2 x Si x Al x O (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.0625) original structure forms, are investigated by the first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT). The optical constants and dielectric functions are investigated with the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) by WIEN2k package. The complex dielectric functions, refractive index and band gap of the pure as well as doped and co-doped ZnO were investigated, which are in good agreement with the available experimental results for the undoped ZnO. Thus, the maximum optical transmittance of the co-doped ZnO of about 95 % was achieved; it is higher than that of pure ZnO. Thus, we showed for the Si-Al co-doped ZnO with x = 0.0315 that the optical transmittance can cover a larger range in the visible light region. In addition, an occurrence of important energy levels around Fermi levels was showed, which is mainly due to doping atoms that lead to an overlap between valence and conduction bands, and consequently to the significant conductor behavior of the Si-Al co-doped ZnO. The original Zn1-2 x Si x Al x O structure reveals promising optical and electronic properties, and it can be investigated as good candidates for practical uses as transparent and conducting electrodes in solar cell devices.

  3. Nanowire-based All Oxide Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang*, Benjamin D. Yuhas and Peidong; Yang, Peidong

    2008-12-07

    We present an all-oxide solar cell fabricated from vertically oriented zinc oxide nanowires and cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solar cell consists of vertically oriented n-type zinc oxide nanowires, surrounded by a film constructed from p-type cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solution-based synthesis of inexpensive and environmentally benign oxide materials in a solar cell would allow for the facile production of large-scale photovoltaic devices. We found that the solar cell performance is enhanced with the addition of an intermediate oxide insulating layer between the nanowires and the nanoparticles. This observation of the important dependence of the shunt resistance on the photovoltaic performance is widely applicable to any nanowire solar cell constructed with the nanowire array in direct contact with one electrode.

  4. Topotactic Conversion of Copper(I) Phosphide Nanowires for Sensitive Electrochemical Detection of H2O2 Release from Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenzhen; Xin, Yanmei; Wu, Wenlong; Fu, Baihe; Zhang, Zhonghai

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we clearly demonstrate for the first time the use of transition-metal phosphides to set up a new cathodic analysis platform for sensitive and selective electrochemical nonenzymatic detection of H2O2. With the help of a facile topotactic conversion method, the noble metal-free electrocatalyst of copper(I) phosphide nanowires on three-dimensional porous copper foam (Cu3P NWs/CF) is fabricated with electrochemical anodized Cu(OH)2 NWs as precursor. The Cu3P NWs/CF-based sensor presents excellent electrocatalytic activity for H2O2 reduction with a detection limit of 2 nM, the lowest detection limit achieved by noble-metal free electrocatalyst, which guarantees the possibility of sensitive and reliable detection of H2O2 release from living tumorigenic cells, thus showing the potential application as a sensitive cancer cell detection probe. PMID:27377605

  5. Photoelectronic properties of zinc phosphide crystals, films, and heterojunctions. Quarterly progress report No. 11, October 1-December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Bube, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Variations in crystal growth techniques are continuing with the goal of: (1) improving single crystal quality; and (2) producing variations in crystal properties by doping and post-growth variations of stoichiometry. DLTS measurements using Mg/Zn/sub 3/P/sub 2/ Schottky diodes gave information on three deep levels between 0.55 and 0.66 eV above the valence band in sublimation grown crystals with densities in the 10/sup 15/ to 10/sup 16/ cm/sup -3/ range, and a shallower level at 0.12 eV with a density of 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -3/ in an iodine-transport grown crystal. Investigation of surface properties of Zn/sub 3/P/sub 2/ indicate that a Br-MeOH etch leaves a Zn-rich surface for both sublimation-grown and iodine-transport grown crystals. Detailed measurements were made on thick Mg/Zn/sub 3/P/sub 2/ junctions on sublimation-grown and iodine-transport grown crystals of log J-V characteristics as a function of temperature, for crystal substrates as etched, and after heat treatment in hydrogen at several temperatures. A systematic change in the junction transport mechanism from tunneling at heat-treatment temperatures less than 300/sup 0/C to recombination/generation for heat-treatment temperatures between 300 and 500/sup 0/C was found for Zn/sub 3/P/sub 2/ crystals grown by both growth techniques. A simple model involving a depletion of free carrier density near the surface as a result of heat treatment in hydrogen is proposed. Thin film Mg/Zn/sub 3/P/sub 2/ cells showed log J-V characteristics that are strongly light dependent, indicating an increase in tunneling with illumination. Evidence that the barrier height of the Mg/Zn/sub 3/P/sub 2/ junction is actually of the order of 0.9 to 1.0 eV was obtained. Attempts to prepare ITO/Zn/sub 3/P/sub 2/ junctions by electron-beam evaporation of ITO on single crystal substrates yielded poor diodes and negligible photovoltaic behavior.

  6. Development of GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Solar cells and mesa diodes were fabricated by the implantation of zinc or beryllium ions into n-type gallium arsenide. Annealing temperatures above 750 C (zinc) or 650 C (beryllium) were found to produce 50% to 100% activation of the implanted ions. Junction depths of about 0.4 micron were produced by 600 keV zinc implants or 70 keV beryllium implants. P-layer sheet resistance was about 150 ohms for 2 x 10 to the 15th power cm/2 zinc or 1 x 10 to the 15th power cm/2 beryllium implants. This is sufficiently low for efficient solar cell fabrication. Contacting procedures were improved to yield reproducibly adherent, low resistance front and back contacts.

  7. Effects of growth temperature and device structure on GaP solar cells grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaisman, M.; Tomasulo, S.; Masuda, T.; Lang, J. R.; Faucher, J.; Lee, M. L.

    2015-02-01

    Gallium phosphide (GaP) is an attractive candidate for wide-bandgap solar cell applications, possessing the largest bandgap of the III-arsenide/phosphides without aluminum. However, GaP cells to date have exhibited poor internal quantum efficiency (IQE), even for photons absorbed by direct transitions, motivating improvements in material quality and device structure. In this work, we investigated GaP solar cells grown by molecular beam epitaxy over a range of substrate temperatures, employing a much thinner emitter than in prior work. Higher growth temperatures yielded the best solar cell characteristics, indicative of increased diffusion lengths. Furthermore, the inclusion of an AlGaP window layer improved both open-circuit voltage and short wavelength IQE.

  8. Effects of growth temperature and device structure on GaP solar cells grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Vaisman, M.; Tomasulo, S.; Masuda, T.; Lang, J. R.; Faucher, J.; Lee, M. L.

    2015-02-09

    Gallium phosphide (GaP) is an attractive candidate for wide-bandgap solar cell applications, possessing the largest bandgap of the III-arsenide/phosphides without aluminum. However, GaP cells to date have exhibited poor internal quantum efficiency (IQE), even for photons absorbed by direct transitions, motivating improvements in material quality and device structure. In this work, we investigated GaP solar cells grown by molecular beam epitaxy over a range of substrate temperatures, employing a much thinner emitter than in prior work. Higher growth temperatures yielded the best solar cell characteristics, indicative of increased diffusion lengths. Furthermore, the inclusion of an AlGaP window layer improved both open-circuit voltage and short wavelength IQE.

  9. Improvements in InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keavney, Christopher; Vernon, Stanley M.; Haven, Victor E.

    1988-01-01

    Indium phosphide solar cells with very thin n-type emitters have been made by both ion implantation and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Air mass zero efficiencies as high as 18.8 percent (NASA measurement) have been achieved. The best cells, which were those made by ion implantation, show an open-circuit voltage of 873 mV, short-circuit current of 35.7 mA/sq cm, and fill factor of 0.829. Improvements are anticipated in all three of these parameters. Internal quantum efficiency peaks at over 90 percent in the red end of the spectrum, but drops to 54 percent in the blue end. Other cells have achieved 74 percent in the blue end. A preliminary investigation of InP solar cells on foreign substrates has been carried out. Although problems have been encountered with doping of the InP by the substrate, cells of 7.1 percent efficiency on silicon and cells of 9.4 percent, efficiency on GaAs have been made.

  10. Zinc

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  11. Solar Photovoltaic Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

  12. Effect of resveratrol and zinc on intracellular zinc status in normal human prostate epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the influence of resveratrol on cellular zinc status, normal human prostate epithelial (NHPrE) cells were treated with 6 levels of resveratrol (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 microM) and 4 levels of zinc [0, 4, 16, and 32 microM for zinc-deficient (ZD), zinc-normal (ZN), zinc-adequate (ZA), an...

  13. Optoelectronic characterization of wide-bandgap (AgCu)(InGa)Se 2 thin-film polycrystalline solar cells including the role of the intrinsic zinc oxide layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obahiagbon, Uwadiae

    Experiments and simulations were conducted to vary the thickness and the sheet resistance of the high resistance (HR) ZnO layer in polycrystalline thin film (AgCu)(GaIn)Se2 (ACIGS) solar cells. The effect of varying these parameters on the electric field distribution, depletion width and hence capacitance were studied by SCAPS simulation. Devices were then fabricated and characterized by a number of optoelectronic techniques. Thin film CIGS has received a lot of attention, for its use as an absorber layer for thin film solar cells. However, the addition of Silver (Ag) to the CIGS alloy system increases the band gap as indicated from optical transmission measurements and thus higher open circuit voltage (Voc) could be obtained. Furthermore, addition of Ag lowers the melting temperature of the alloy and it is expected that this lowers the defect densities in the absorber and thus leads to higher performance. Transient photocapacitance analysis on ACIGS devices shows sharper band edge indicating lower disorder than CIGS. Presently there is a lack of fundamental knowledge relating film characteristics to device properties and performance. This is due to the fact that some features in the present solar cell structure have been optimized empirically. The goal of this research effort was to develop a fundamental and detailed understanding of the device operation as well as the loss mechanism(s) limiting these devices. Recombination mechanisms in finished ACIGS solar cell devices was studied using advanced admittance techniques (AS, DLCP, CV) to identify electronically active defect state(s) and to study their impact on electronic properties and device performance. Analysis of various optoelectronic measurements of ACIGS solar cells provided useful feedback regarding the impact on device performance of the HR ZnO layer. It was found that thickness between 10-100 nm had negligible impact on performance but reducing the thickness to 0 nm resulted in huge variability in all

  14. Influence of DNA-methylation on zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells: Regulation of zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Kessels, Jana Elena; Wessels, Inga; Haase, Hajo; Rink, Lothar; Uciechowski, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of intracellular zinc, predominantly regulated through zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins, is required to support an efficient immune response. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are involved in the expression of these genes. In demethylation experiments using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) increased intracellular (after 24 and 48h) and total cellular zinc levels (after 48h) were observed in the myeloid cell line HL-60. To uncover the mechanisms that cause the disturbed zinc homeostasis after DNA demethylation, the expression of human zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins were investigated. Real time PCR analyses of 14 ZIP (solute-linked carrier (SLC) SLC39A; Zrt/IRT-like protein), and 9 ZnT (SLC30A) zinc transporters revealed significantly enhanced mRNA expression of the zinc importer ZIP1 after AZA treatment. Because ZIP1 protein was also enhanced after AZA treatment, ZIP1 up-regulation might be the mediator of enhanced intracellular zinc levels. The mRNA expression of ZIP14 was decreased, whereas zinc exporter ZnT3 mRNA was also significantly increased; which might be a cellular reaction to compensate elevated zinc levels. An enhanced but not significant chromatin accessibility of ZIP1 promoter region I was detected by chromatin accessibility by real-time PCR (CHART) assays after demethylation. Additionally, DNA demethylation resulted in increased mRNA accumulation of zinc binding proteins metallothionein (MT) and S100A8/S100A9 after 48h. MT mRNA was significantly enhanced after 24h of AZA treatment also suggesting a reaction of the cell to restore zinc homeostasis. These data indicate that DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism affecting zinc binding proteins and transporters, and, therefore, regulating zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells. PMID:26905204

  15. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-09-08

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  16. Fullerene derivative-doped zinc oxide nanofilm as the cathode of inverted polymer solar cells with low-bandgap polymer (PTB7-Th) for high performance.

    PubMed

    Liao, Sih-Hao; Jhuo, Hong-Jyun; Cheng, Yu-Shan; Chen, Show-An

    2013-09-14

    Modification of a ZnO cathode by doping it with a hydroxyl-containing derivative - giving a ZnO-C60 cathode - provides a fullerene-derivative-rich surface and enhanced electron conduction. Inverted polymer solar cells with the ZnO-C60 cathode display markedly improved power conversion efficiency compared to those with a pristine ZnO cathode, especially when the active layer includes the low-bandgap polymer PTB7-Th. PMID:23939927

  17. Enhanced EOS photovoltaic power system capability with InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Weinberg, Irving; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), which is part of the International Mission to Planet Earth, is NASA's main contribution to the Global Change Research Program which opens a new era in international cooperation to study the Earth's environment. Five large platforms are to be launched into polar orbit, two by NASA, two by ESA, and one by the Japanese. In such an orbit the radiation resistance of indium phosphide solar cells combined with the potential of utilizing five micron cell structures yields an increase of 10 percent in the payload capability. If further combined with the advanced photovoltaic solar array the payload savings approaches 12 percent.

  18. Solar cell device

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiura, M.; Haruki, H.; Miyagi, M.; Sakai, H.; Uchida, Y.

    1984-06-26

    A solar cell array is equipped with serially or parallel connected reverse polarity diodes formed simultaneously with the array. The diodes are constituted by one or more solar cells of the array which may be shaded to prevent photoelectric conversion, and which are electrically connected in reverse polarity with respect to the remaining cells.

  19. Heterojunction solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Jerry M.

    1994-01-01

    A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion effiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer.

  20. Heterojunction solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Olson, J.M.

    1994-08-30

    A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell is described wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga[sub 0.52]In[sub 0.48]P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer. 1 fig.

  1. Solar cell encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Amitava (Inventor); Ingham, John D. (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A polymer syrup for encapsulating solar cell assemblies. The syrup includes uncrosslinked poly(n-butyl)acrylate dissolved in n-butyl acrylate monomer. Preparation of the poly(n-butyl)acrylate and preparation of the polymer syrup is disclosed. Methods for applying the polymer syrup to solar cell assemblies as an encapsulating pottant are described. Also included is a method for solar cell construction utilizing the polymer syrup as a dual purpose adhesive and encapsulating material.

  2. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Sachin; Rani, Yashoda

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law. PMID:27486362

  3. Solar cell shingle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Sidorak, L. G. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A solar cell shingle was made of an array of solar cells on a lower portion of a substantially rectangular shingle substrate made of fiberglass cloth or the like. The solar cells may be encapsulated in flourinated ethylene propylene or some other weatherproof translucent or transparent encapsulant to form a combined electrical module and a roof shingle. The interconnected solar cells were connected to connectors at the edge of the substrate through a connection to a common electrical bus or busses. An overlap area was arranged to receive the overlap of a cooperating similar shingle so that the cell portion of the cooperating shingle may overlie the overlap area of the roof shingle. Accordingly, the same shingle serves the double function of an ordinary roof shingle which may be applied in the usual way and an array of cooperating solar cells from which electrical energy may be collected.

  4. Efficient water reduction with gallium phosphide nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Standing, Anthony; Assali, Simone; Gao, Lu; Verheijen, Marcel A.; van Dam, Dick; Cui, Yingchao; Notten, Peter H. L.; Haverkort, Jos E. M.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from solar energy and water offers a clean and sustainable fuel option for the future. Planar III/V material systems have shown the highest efficiencies, but are expensive. By moving to the nanowire regime the demand on material quantity is reduced, and new materials can be uncovered, such as wurtzite gallium phosphide, featuring a direct bandgap. This is one of the few materials combining large solar light absorption and (close to) ideal band-edge positions for full water splitting. Here we report the photoelectrochemical reduction of water, on a p-type wurtzite gallium phosphide nanowire photocathode. By modifying geometry to reduce electrical resistance and enhance optical absorption, and modifying the surface with a multistep platinum deposition, high current densities and open circuit potentials were achieved. Our results demonstrate the capabilities of this material, even when used in such low quantities, as in nanowires. PMID:26183949

  5. Efficient water reduction with gallium phosphide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Standing, Anthony; Assali, Simone; Gao, Lu; Verheijen, Marcel A.; van Dam, Dick; Cui, Yingchao; Notten, Peter H. L.; Haverkort, Jos E. M.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from solar energy and water offers a clean and sustainable fuel option for the future. Planar III/V material systems have shown the highest efficiencies, but are expensive. By moving to the nanowire regime the demand on material quantity is reduced, and new materials can be uncovered, such as wurtzite gallium phosphide, featuring a direct bandgap. This is one of the few materials combining large solar light absorption and (close to) ideal band-edge positions for full water splitting. Here we report the photoelectrochemical reduction of water, on a p-type wurtzite gallium phosphide nanowire photocathode. By modifying geometry to reduce electrical resistance and enhance optical absorption, and modifying the surface with a multistep platinum deposition, high current densities and open circuit potentials were achieved. Our results demonstrate the capabilities of this material, even when used in such low quantities, as in nanowires.

  6. Porphyrin-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu-Lin; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2013-01-01

    Nature has chosen chlorophylls in plants as antennae to harvest light for the conversion of solar energy in complicated photosynthetic processes. Inspired by natural photosynthesis, scientists utilized artificial chlorophylls - the porphyrins - as efficient centres to harvest light for solar cells sensitized with a porphyrin (PSSC). After the first example appeared in 1993 of a porphyrin of type copper chlorophyll as a photosensitizer for PSSC that achieved a power conversion efficiency of 2.6%, no significant advance of PSSC was reported until 2005; beta-linked zinc porphyrins were then reported to show promising device performances with a benchmark efficiency of 7.1% reported in 2007. Meso-linked zinc porphyrin sensitizers in the first series with a push-pull framework appeared in 2009; the best cell performed comparably to that of a N3-based device, and a benchmark 11% was reported for a porphyrin sensitizer of this type in 2010. With a structural design involving long alkoxyl chains to envelop the porphyrin core to suppress the dye aggregation for a push-pull zinc porphyrin, the PSSC achieved a record 12.3% in 2011 with co-sensitization of an organic dye and a cobalt-based electrolyte. The best PSSC system exhibited a panchromatic feature for light harvesting covering the visible spectral region to 700 nm, giving opportunities to many other porphyrins, such as fused and dimeric porphyrins, with near-infrared absorption spectral features, together with the approach of molecular co-sensitization, to enhance the device performance of PSSC. According to this historical trend for the development of prospective porphyrin sensitizers used in PSSC, we review systematically the progress of porphyrins of varied kinds, and their derivatives, applied in PSSC with a focus on reports during 2007-2012 from the point of view of molecular design correlated with photovoltaic performance. PMID:23023240

  7. AC solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Schutten, H.P.; Benjamin, J.A.; Lade, R.W.

    1986-03-18

    An AC solar cell is described comprising: a pair of PN junction type solar cells connected in antiparallel between a pair of main terminals; and means for electrically directing light alternatingly without mechanical movement on the PN junctions to generate an alternating potential across the main terminals.

  8. Heterostructure solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, K. I.; Yeh, Y. C. M.; Iles, P. A.; Morris, R. K.

    1987-01-01

    The performance of gallium arsenide solar cells grown on Ge substrates is discussed. In some cases the substrate was thinned to reduce overall cell weight with good ruggedness. The conversion efficiency of 2 by 2 cm cells under AMO reached 17.1 percent with a cell thickness of 6 mils. The work described forms the basis for future cascade cell structures, where similar interconnecting problems between the top cell and the bottom cell must be solved. Applications of the GaAs/Ge solar cell in space and the expected payoffs are discussed.

  9. 3. Right side of Zinc Plant, from Cell Room midpoint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Right side of Zinc Plant, from Cell Room midpoint to Plant Office (foreground) and #5 Roaster and Concentrate Handling (background). View is to the east. - Sullivan Electrolytic Zinc Plant, Government Gulch, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  10. The silicon/zinc oxide interface in amorphous silicon-based thin-film solar cells: Understanding an empirically optimized contact

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, D.; Wilks, R. G.; Wimmer, M.; Felix, R.; Gorgoi, M.; Lips, K.; Rech, B.; Wippler, D.; Mueck, A.; Meier, M.; Huepkes, J.; Lozac'h, M.; Ueda, S.; Sumiya, M.; Yoshikawa, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Baer, M.

    2013-07-08

    The electronic structure of the interface between the boron-doped oxygenated amorphous silicon 'window layer' (a-SiO{sub x}:H(B)) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) was investigated using hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and compared to that of the boron-doped microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si:H(B))/ZnO:Al interface. The corresponding valence band offsets have been determined to be (-2.87 {+-} 0.27) eV and (-3.37 {+-} 0.27) eV, respectively. A lower tunnel junction barrier height at the {mu}c-Si:H(B)/ZnO:Al interface compared to that at the a-SiO{sub x}:H(B)/ZnO:Al interface is found and linked to the higher device performances in cells where a {mu}c-Si:H(B) buffer between the a-Si:H p-i-n absorber stack and the ZnO:Al contact is employed.

  11. The silicon/zinc oxide interface in amorphous silicon-based thin-film solar cells: Understanding an empirically optimized contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, D.; Wilks, R. G.; Wippler, D.; Wimmer, M.; Lozac'h, M.; Félix, R.; Mück, A.; Meier, M.; Ueda, S.; Yoshikawa, H.; Gorgoi, M.; Lips, K.; Rech, B.; Sumiya, M.; Hüpkes, J.; Kobayashi, K.; Bär, M.

    2013-07-01

    The electronic structure of the interface between the boron-doped oxygenated amorphous silicon "window layer" (a-SiOx:H(B)) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) was investigated using hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and compared to that of the boron-doped microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H(B))/ZnO:Al interface. The corresponding valence band offsets have been determined to be (-2.87 ± 0.27) eV and (-3.37 ± 0.27) eV, respectively. A lower tunnel junction barrier height at the μc-Si:H(B)/ZnO:Al interface compared to that at the a-SiOx:H(B)/ZnO:Al interface is found and linked to the higher device performances in cells where a μc-Si:H(B) buffer between the a-Si:H p-i-n absorber stack and the ZnO:Al contact is employed.

  12. Morphology control of zinc regeneration for zinc-air fuel cell and battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Xu, Huachi; Li, Pengcheng; Wang, Xizhong

    2014-12-01

    Morphology control is crucial both for zinc-air batteries and for zinc-air fuel cells during zinc regeneration. Zinc dendrite should be avoided in zinc-air batteries and zinc pellets are yearned to be formed for zinc-air fuel cells. This paper is mainly to analyze the mechanism of shape change and to control the zinc morphology during charge. A numerical three-dimensional model for zinc regeneration is established with COMSOL software on the basis of ionic transport theory and electrode reaction electrochemistry, and some experiments of zinc regeneration are carried out. The deposition process is qualitatively analyzed by the kinetics Monte Carlo method to study the morphological change from the electrocrystallization point of view. Morphological evolution of deposited zinc under different conditions of direct currents and pulse currents is also investigated by simulation. The simulation shows that parametric variables of the flowing electrolyte, the surface roughness and the structure of the electrode, the charging current and mode affect morphological evolution. The uniform morphology of deposited zinc is attained at low current, pulsating current or hydrodynamic electrolyte, and granular morphology is obtained by means of an electrode of discrete columnar structure in combination with high current and flowing electrolyte.

  13. High-efficiency solar cell and method for fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Hou, H.Q.; Reinhardt, K.C.

    1999-08-31

    A high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell is disclosed with a theoretical AM0 energy conversion efficiency of about 40%. The solar cell includes p-n junctions formed from indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) separated by n-p tunnel junctions. An optional germanium (Ge) p-n junction can be formed in the substrate upon which the other p-n junctions are grown. The bandgap energies for each p-n junction are tailored to provide substantially equal short-circuit currents for each p-n junction, thereby eliminating current bottlenecks and improving the overall energy conversion efficiency of the solar cell. Additionally, the use of an InGaAsN p-n junction overcomes super-bandgap energy losses that are present in conventional multi-junction solar cells. A method is also disclosed for fabricating the high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). 4 figs.

  14. High-efficiency solar cell and method for fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Hou, Hong Q.; Reinhardt, Kitt C.

    1999-01-01

    A high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell is disclosed with a theoretical AM0 energy conversion efficiency of about 40%. The solar cell includes p-n junctions formed from indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) separated by n-p tunnel junctions. An optional germanium (Ge) p-n junction can be formed in the substrate upon which the other p-n junctions are grown. The bandgap energies for each p-n junction are tailored to provide substantially equal short-circuit currents for each p-n junction, thereby eliminating current bottlenecks and improving the overall energy conversion efficiency of the solar cell. Additionally, the use of an InGaAsN p-n junction overcomes super-bandgap energy losses that are present in conventional multi-junction solar cells. A method is also disclosed for fabricating the high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD).

  15. NREL Scientists Spurred the Success of Multijunction Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Before 1984, many scientists believed that high-quality gallium indium phosphide (GaInP) alloys could not be grown for use as semiconductors because the alloys would separate. One researcher at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) thought differently. His name was Jerry Olson, and his innovative thinking changed solar history. Olson identified a material combination that allowed the multijunction cell to flourish. It is now the workhorse that powers satellites and the catalyst for renewed interest in concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) products.

  16. Solar cell radiation handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Solar cell theory cells are manufactured, and how they are modeled mathematically is reviewed. The interaction of energetic charged particle radiation with solar cells is discussed in detail and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Finally, an extensive body of data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence is presented.

  17. Electrochemical Characterization of InP and GaAs Based Structures for Space Solar Cell Applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faur, Maria; Faur, Mircea; Jenkins, Philip P.; Goradia, Manju; Wilt, David M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the emphasis is on accurate majority carrier concentration EC-V profiling of structures based on Indium Phosphide and Gallium Arsenide, using a newly developed electrolyte based on Hydrogen Flouride, Acetic Acid, Phosphoric Acid, 1-phenyl-2-propanamine and Ammonia Diflouride. Some preliminary data on the use of this electrolyte for determining the energy distribution of surface and deep states of these structures, applicable to fabrication process optimization and radiation induced defects studies of solar cells, are also provided.

  18. High-efficiency cadmium and zinc-telluride-based thin-film solar cells. Annual subcontract report, 1 March 1990--28 February 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, A.; Sudharsanan, R.; Ringel, S.

    1992-02-01

    This report describes research into polycrystalline CdTe solar cells grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Efficiencies of {approximately}10% were achieved using both p-i-n and p-n structures. A pre-heat treatment of CdS/SnO{sub 2}/glass substrates at 450{degrees}C in hydrogen atmosphere prior to the CdTe growth was found to be essential for high performance because this heat treatment reduces oxygen-related defects from the CdS surface. However, this treatment also resulted in a Cd-deficient CdS surface, which may in part limit the CdTe cell efficiency to 10% due to Cd vacancy-related interface defects. Preliminary model calculations suggest that removing these states can increase the cell efficiency from 10% to 13.5%. Photon absorption in the CdS film also limits the cell performance, and eliminating this loss mechanism can result in CdTe efficiencies in excess of 18%. Polycrystalline, 1.7-e, CdZnTe films were also grown for tandem-cell applications. CdZnTe/CdS cells processed using the standard CdTe cell fabrication procedure resulted in 4.4% efficiency, high series resistance, and a band-gap shift to 1.55 eV. The formation of Zn-O at and near the CdZnTe surface is the source of high contact resistance. A saturated dichromate each prior to contact deposition was found to solve the contact resistance problem. The CdCl{sub 2} treatment was identified as the cause of the observed band-gap shift due to the preferred formation of ZnCl{sub 2}. 59 refs.

  19. Simulation of a thin film solar cell based on copper zinc tin sulfo-selenide Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmir, Abdelkader; Aida, Mohamed Salah

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work is to do a simulation of a Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin film photovoltaic solar cell to link the characteristics of this cell with the materials parameters in order to improve its performances. It is found that, the cell performances are almost invariables while the thickness of the buffer layer is equal to or less than the space charge zone width of its side. But, as soon as it exceeds this width, a slight reduction in these performances is observed. However, the absorber layer thickness must have a value at least equal to the space charge region width of its side and at most equal to the sum of this space charge region width and the electrons diffusion length. An optimum value of the absorber band gap around 1.5 eV is obtained. This value is the compromise between the decreases of the short circuit current density and the increases of the open circuit voltage with the increases of the gap. This leads to a maximum cell efficiency of 12.1%.

  20. Investigation of surface phase formation during tin-rich growth of Copper2ZincTinSulfer4 polycrystlalline thin films for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolke, Joseph Glenn

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a semiconductor material made of nontoxic, earth abundant elements, making it a promising topic of research for absorber layers in thin film solar cells. We observed that rapid thermal annealing of tin (Sn)-rich co-sputtered CZTS films resulted in crystalline, hexagonal platelets of tin-disulfide (SnS2) 5-30 µm long at the surface of the film. In this work, the formation mechanisms of these surface crystallites and their implications for CZTS absorber layer processing were investigated. The formation and decomposition of these platelets were studied by observing the changes in their structural, morphological, compositional, and vibrational properties accompanying the imposition of lateral temperature gradients as well as different annealing atmospheres. The homogeneous co-sputtered films were annealed in a graphite boat in a quartz reactor using a base heater and halogen lamp. Interrupting annealings to examine stages of crystal formation showed at around 400 °C SnS2 began to form on the surface of films. Near the edges of the film, where temperatures were found to be higher, crystals melted into an amorphous unknown tin-sulfide phase. Diffusion of species from the film into the base of the crystals formed long CZTS grains of which the amorphous phase left behind as it coalesced. Annealing without sulfur (S) increased Sn and S losses from the film and increased the number of crystals nucleated on the surface of the film. For solar cell device applications of CZTS thin films, removal of these SnS2 surface crystallites is necessary; thus wet chemical and thermal decomposition etching techniques were studied. Wet etching attempts with KCN and NH4OH solutions did little to etch crystals. HCl solution damaged the CZTS film as much as the crystals and therefore was also unsuitable. Thermal etching by evacuating the chamber near the end of annealing transformed the SnS2 crystals into a grainy, S-poor Sn phase via the decomposition of SnS2 by removing

  1. Development and interface/surface characterization of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide electron-collection interlayer materials for organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Kai-Lin

    My research on metal oxide electron-harvesting interlayers for organic solar cells was focused as three interrelated projects in this dissertation: i) development of a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system for TiO 2 film; ii) an electrochemical methodology to evaluate ZnO thin film charge (hole) blocking ability; iii) the effects of plasma modifications on sol-gel ZnO and sol-gel ZnO/organic (active layer) interfaces. In i), we showed that nanoscale (12-36 nm) CVD TiO2 film deposited at 210 oC obtains properties of conformal growth, superior hole blocking ability, stoichiometric metal to oxide ratio. The introduction of CVD TiO2 film as an electron transport layer into organic solar cell significantly improves its J-V characteristics. The optimum TiO2 thickness in the OPV device applications was found to be 24 nm with a high fill factor (0.58) and power conversion efficiency (3.7%) obtained. In ii), simple electrochemical methods, i.e., cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy have been used to evaluate sol-gel derived ZnO (sg-ZnO) and sputtered ZnO (sp-ZnO) porosity and pinhole density. We showed that sg-ZnO with high surface area porous structure allows the probe molecules and poly-thiophene (P3HT) thin layer to direct contact ITO substrate, whereas sp-ZnO with dense structural property efficiently eliminates these electroactivities. This electrochemical property difference also directly reflects on the device shunt resistance (Rp), where we observed larger leakage current for the devices using sg-ZnO than that of devices using sp-ZnO. In iii), we demonstrated low power radio frequency (RF) O2 and Ar plasma treatments have significant impacts on sg-ZnO near-surface chemical compositions, which in turn influence the onset potential of sg-ZnO electron injection and its energetic alignment with electron acceptors, e.g., C60. Using UPS, we found the presence of localized mid-gap states near the Fermi-level of sg-ZnO, which induces the most favorable band bending

  2. Solar cell activation system

    SciTech Connect

    Apelian, L.

    1983-07-05

    A system for activating solar cells involves the use of phosphorescent paint, the light from which is amplified by a thin magnifying lens and used to activate solar cells. In a typical system, a member painted with phosphorescent paint is mounted adjacent a thin magnifying lens which focuses the light on a predetermined array of sensitive cells such as selenium, cadmium or silicon, mounted on a plastic board. A one-sided mirror is mounted adjacent the cells to reflect the light back onto said cells for purposes of further intensification. The cells may be coupled to rechargeable batteries or used to directly power a small radio or watch.

  3. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  4. Dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO(2), ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  5. Solar cell radiation handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.; Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.

  6. Solar cell radiation handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Tada, H.Y.; Carter, J.R. Jr.; Anspaugh, B.E.

    1982-11-01

    The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.

  7. Thin boron phosphide coating as a corrosion-resistant layer

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-08-25

    A surface prone to corrosion in corrosive environments is rendered anticorrosive by CVD growing a thin continuous film, e.g., having no detectable pinholes, thereon, of boron phosphide. In one embodiment, the film is semiconductive. In another aspect, the invention is an improved photoanode, and/or photoelectrochemical cell with a photoanode having a thin film of boron phosphide thereon rendering it anticorrosive, and providing it with unexpectedly improved photoresponsive properties.

  8. Rechargeable zinc cell with alkaline electrolyte which inhibits shape change in zinc electrode

    DOEpatents

    Adler, Thomas C.; McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

    1994-01-01

    An improved rechargeable zinc cell is described comprising a zinc electrode and another electrode such as, for example, a nickel-containing electrode, and having an electrolyte containing KOH and a combination of KF and K.sub.2 CO.sub.3 salts which inhibits shape change in the zinc electrode, i.e., the zinc electrode exhibits low shape change, resulting in an improved capacity retention of the cell over an number of charge-discharge cycles, while still maintaining high discharge rate characteristics.

  9. Rechargeable zinc cell with alkaline electrolyte which inhibits shape change in zinc electrode

    DOEpatents

    Adler, T.C.; McLarnon, F.R.; Cairns, E.J.

    1994-04-12

    An improved rechargeable zinc cell is described comprising a zinc electrode and another electrode such as, for example, a nickel-containing electrode, and having an electrolyte containing KOH and a combination of KF and K[sub 2]CO[sub 3] salts which inhibits shape change in the zinc electrode, i.e., the zinc electrode exhibits low shape change, resulting in an improved capacity retention of the cell over an number of charge-discharge cycles, while still maintaining high discharge rate characteristics. 8 figures.

  10. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  11. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J

    2014-05-20

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  12. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOEpatents

    Carey, P.G.; Thompson, J.B.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.

    1995-11-14

    Electrical interconnects are disclosed for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value. 4 figs.

  13. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOEpatents

    Carey, Paul G.; Thompson, Jesse B.; Colella, Nicolas J.; Williams, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  14. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-12-15

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  15. Thin silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.B.; Bacon, C.; DiReda, V.; Ford, D.H.; Ingram, A.E.; Cotter, J.; Hughes-Lampros, T.; Rand, J.A.; Ruffins, T.R.; Barnett, A.M.

    1992-12-01

    The silicon-film design achieves high performance by using a dun silicon layer and incorporating light trapping. Optimally designed thin crystalline solar cells (<50 microns thick) have performance advantages over conventional thick devices. The high-performance silicon-film design employs a metallurgical barrier between the low-cost substrate and the thin silicon layer. Light trapping properties of silicon-film on ceramic solar cells are presented and analyzed. Recent advances in process development are described here.

  16. Lightweight solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Hotaling, S.P.

    1993-06-22

    A lightweight solar cell is described comprising: (a) an LD aerogel substrate having a density of between 10-1,000 mg/cc, the surface of the substrate being polished (b) a dielectric planarization layer being applied to the polished surface, and (c) at least one layer of PV material deposited thereon. The solar cell having a plurality of PV layers deposited on the planarization layer.

  17. Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDevitt, John T.

    1984-01-01

    This introduction to photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells reviews topics pertaining to solar energy conversion and demonstrates the ease with which a working PEC cell can be prepared with n-type silicon as the photoanode and a platinum counter electrode (both immersed in ethanolic ferrocene/ferricenium solutions). Experiments using the cell are…

  18. Sliver solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Evan; Blakers, Andrew; Everett, Vernie; Weber, Klaus

    2007-12-01

    Sliver solar cells are thin, mono-crystalline silicon solar cells, fabricated using micro-machining techniques combined with standard solar cell fabrication technology. Sliver solar modules can be efficient, low cost, bifacial, transparent, flexible, shadow-tolerant, and lightweight. Sliver modules require only 5 to 10% of the pure silicon and less than 5% of the wafer starts per MW p of factory output when compared with conventional photovoltaic modules. At ANU, we have produced 20% efficient Sliver solar cells using a robust, optimised cell fabrication process described in this paper. We have devised a rapid, reliable and simple method for extracting Sliver cells from a Sliver wafer, and methods for assembling modularised Sliver cell sub-modules. The method for forming these Sliver sub-modules, along with a low-cost method for rapidly forming reliable electrical interconnections, are presented. Using the sub-module approach, we describe low-cost methods for assembling and encapsulating Sliver cells into a range of module designs.

  19. Screening of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Chait, A.; Thompson, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    Because solar cells in a production batch are not identical, screening is performed to obtain similar cells for aggregation into arrays. A common technique for screening is based on a single operating point of the I-V characteristic of the cell, usually the maximum power point. As a result, inferior cell matching may occur at the actual operating points. Screening solar cells based on the entire I-V characteristic will inherently result in more similar cells in the array. An array consisting of more similar cells is likely to have better overall characteristics and more predictable performance. Solar cell screening methods and cell ranking are discussed. The concept of a mean cell is defined as a cell 'best' representing all the cells in the production batch. The screening and ranking of all cells are performed with respect to the mean cell. The comparative results of different screening methods are illustrated on a batch of 50 silicon cells of the Space Station Freedom.

  20. Screening of solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Appelbaum, J.; Chait, A.; Thompson, D.A.

    1993-07-01

    Because solar cells in a production batch are not identical, screening is performed to obtain similar cells for aggregation into arrays. A common technique for screening is based on a single operating point of the I-V characteristic of the cell, usually the maximum power point. As a result, inferior cell matching may occur at the actual operating points. Screening solar cells based on the entire I-V characteristic will inherently result in more similar cells in the array. An array consisting of more similar cells is likely to have better overall characteristics and more predictable performance. Solar cell screening methods and cell ranking are discussed. The concept of a mean cell is defined as a cell 'best' representing all the cells in the production batch. The screening and ranking of all cells are performed with respect to the mean cell. The comparative results of different screening methods are illustrated on a batch of 50 silicon cells of the Space Station Freedom.

  1. Properties of double-layered Ga-doped Al-zinc-oxide/titanium-doped indium-tin-oxide thin films prepared by dc magnetron sputtering applied for Si-based thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chao-Chun; Wuu, Dong-Sing; Lin, Yang-Shih; Lien, Shui-Yang; Huang, Yung-Chuan; Liu, Chueh-Yang; Chen, Chia-Fu; Nautiyal, Asheesh; Lee, Shuo-Jen

    2011-11-15

    In this article, Ga-doped Al-zinc-oxide (GAZO)/titanium-doped indium-tin-oxide (ITIO) bi-layer films were deposited onto glass substrates by direct current (dc) magnetron sputtering. The bottom ITIO film, with a thickness of 200 nm, was sputtered onto the glass substrate. The ITIO film was post-annealed at 350 deg. C for 10-120 min as a seed layer. The effect of post-annealing conditions on the morphologies, electrical, and optical properties of ITIO films was investigated. A GAZO layer with a thickness of 1200 nm was continuously sputtered onto the ITIO bottom layer. The results show that the properties of the GAZO/ITIO films were strongly dependent on the post-annealed conditions. The spectral haze (T{sub diffuse}/T{sub total}) of the GAZO/ITIO bi-layer films increases upon increasing the post-annealing time. The haze and resistivity of the GAZO/ITIO bi-layer films were improved with the post-annealed process. After optimizing the deposition and annealing parameters, the GAZO/ITIO bi-layer film has an average transmittance of 83.20% at the 400-800 nm wavelengths, a maximum haze of 16%, and the lowest resistivity of 1.04 x 10{sup -3}{Omega} cm. Finally, the GAZO/ITIO bi-layer films, as a front electrode for silicon-based thin film solar cells, obtained a maximum efficiency of 7.10%. These encouraging experimental results have potential applications in GAZO/ITIO bi-layer film deposition by in-line sputtering without the wet-etching process and enable the production of highly efficient, low-cost thin film solar cells.

  2. Zinc air refuelable battery: alternative zinc fuel morphologies and cell behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Krueger, R.

    1997-01-01

    Multicell zinc/air batteries have been tested previously in the laboratory and as part of the propulsion system of an electric bus; cut zinc wire was used as the anode material. This battery is refueled by a hydraulic transport of 0.5-1 mm zinc particles into hoppers above each cell. We report an investigation concerning alternative zinc fuel morphologies, and energy losses associated with refueling and with overnight or prolonged standby. Three types of fuel pellets were fabricated, tested and compared with results for cut wire: spheres produced in a fluidized bed electrolysis cell; elongated particles produced by gas-atomization; and pellets produced by chopping 1 mm porous plates made of compacted zinc fines. Relative sizes of the particles and cell gap dimensions are critical. All three types transported within the cell 1553 and showed acceptable discharge characteristics, but a fluidized bed approach appears especially attractive for owner/user recovery operations.

  3. Spray deposited copper zinc tin sulphide (Cu2ZnSnS4) film as a counter electrode in dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Chaturvedi, Neha; Kumar, Anuj; Chander, Nikhil; Dutta, Viresh; Kumar, D Kishore; Ivaturi, A; Senthilarasu, S; Upadhyaya, Hari M

    2014-11-21

    Stoichiometric thin films of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) were deposited by the spray technique on a FTO coated glass substrate, with post-annealing in a H2S environment to improve the film properties. CZTS films were used as a counter electrode (CE) in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSCs) with N719 dye and an iodine electrolyte. The DSC of 0.25 cm(2) area using a CE of CZTS film annealed in a H2S environment under AM 1.5G illumination (100 mW cm(-2)) exhibited a short circuit current density (JSC) = 18.63 mA cm(-2), an open circuit voltage (VOC) = 0.65 V and a fill factor (FF) = 0.53, resulting in an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) = 6.4%. While the DSC using as deposited CZTS film as a CE showed the PCE = 3.7% with JSC = 13.38 mA cm(-2), VOC = 0.57 V and FF = 0.48. Thus, the spray deposited CZTS films can play an important role as a CE in the large area DSC fabrication. PMID:25286339

  4. A novel triple-layer zinc oxide/carbon nanotube architecture for dye-sensitized solar cells with excellent power conversion efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jing; Xie, Yahong; Bai, Te; Zhang, Chunyang; Wang, Jide

    2015-07-01

    A novel triple-layer photoanode architecture, composed of ZnO and ZnO/CNT nanostructure semiconductor films for dye-sensitized solar cell with excellent power conversion efficiency is fabricated by a simple strategy. A convenient and effective method is applied to disperse the multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT). The structure, morphology and light absorption of the novel hybrid photoanode are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy analyze. Results indicate that the ZnO has a typical wurtzite structure and the MWCNTs are homogeneously dispersed in ZnO. Current-voltage curves demonstrate CNT-0.5 with 0.05wt% of carbon nanotube (CNT) is the most suitable in improving the performance of DSSCs, and the power conversion efficiency of ZnO/CNT-0.5-0.05wt% is 6.25%, which is 35.57% higher than those without CNTs (4.61%). Finally, electrochemical impedance spectra confirms that the abundant dyes absorption by the ZnO layer and large numbers of direct pathway for electron transport provided by the MWCNTs are attributed to the high efficiency of this new DSSC. This result is remarkable and provides a novel triple-layer ZnO/CNT architecture in improving the performance of DSSCs.

  5. Ingestion of gallium phosphide nanowires has no adverse effect on Drosophila tissue function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolfsson, Karl; Schneider, Martina; Hammarin, Greger; Häcker, Udo; Prinz, Christelle N.

    2013-07-01

    Engineered nanoparticles have been under increasing scrutiny in recent years. High aspect ratio nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes and nanowires have raised safety concerns due to their geometrical similarity to asbestos fibers. III-V epitaxial semiconductor nanowires are expected to be utilized in devices such as LEDs and solar cells and will thus be available to the public. In addition, clean-room staff fabricating and characterizing the nanowires are at risk of exposure, emphasizing the importance of investigating their possible toxicity. Here we investigated the effects of gallium phosphide nanowires on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila larvae and/or adults were exposed to gallium phosphide nanowires by ingestion with food. The toxicity and tissue interaction of the nanowires was evaluated by investigating tissue distribution, activation of immune response, genome-wide gene expression, life span, fecundity and somatic mutation rates. Our results show that gallium phosphide nanowires applied through the diet are not taken up into Drosophila tissues, do not elicit a measurable immune response or changes in genome-wide gene expression and do not significantly affect life span or somatic mutation rate.

  6. Broad spectrum solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Yu, Kin Man; Wu, Junqiao; Schaff, William J.

    2007-05-15

    An alloy having a large band gap range is used in a multijunction solar cell to enhance utilization of the solar energy spectrum. In one embodiment, the alloy is In.sub.1-xGa.sub.xN having an energy bandgap range of approximately 0.7 eV to 3.4 eV, providing a good match to the solar energy spectrum. Multiple junctions having different bandgaps are stacked to form a solar cell. Each junction may have different bandgaps (realized by varying the alloy composition), and therefore be responsive to different parts of the spectrum. The junctions are stacked in such a manner that some bands of light pass through upper junctions to lower junctions that are responsive to such bands.

  7. Parameterization of solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Chait, A.; Thompson, D.

    1992-10-01

    The aggregation (sorting) of the individual solar cells into an array is commonly based on a single operating point on the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve. An alternative approach for cell performance prediction and cell screening is provided by modeling the cell using an equivalent electrical circuit, in which the parameters involved are related to the physical phenomena in the device. These analytical models may be represented by a double exponential I-V characteristic with seven parameters, by a double exponential model with five parameters, or by a single exponential equation with four or five parameters. In this article we address issues concerning methodologies for the determination of solar cell parameters based on measured data points of the I-V characteristic, and introduce a procedure for screening of solar cells for arrays. We show that common curve fitting techniques, e.g., least squares, may produce many combinations of parameter values while maintaining a good fit between the fitted and measured I-V characteristics of the cell. Therefore, techniques relying on curve fitting criteria alone cannot be directly used for cell parameterization. We propose a consistent procedure which takes into account the entire set of parameter values for a batch of cells. This procedure is based on a definition of a mean cell representing the batch, and takes into account the relative contribution of each parameter to the overall goodness of fit. The procedure is demonstrated on a batch of 50 silicon cells for Space Station Freedom.

  8. Parameterization of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Chait, A.; Thompson, D.

    1992-01-01

    The aggregation (sorting) of the individual solar cells into an array is commonly based on a single operating point on the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve. An alternative approach for cell performance prediction and cell screening is provided by modeling the cell using an equivalent electrical circuit, in which the parameters involved are related to the physical phenomena in the device. These analytical models may be represented by a double exponential I-V characteristic with seven parameters, by a double exponential model with five parameters, or by a single exponential equation with four or five parameters. In this article we address issues concerning methodologies for the determination of solar cell parameters based on measured data points of the I-V characteristic, and introduce a procedure for screening of solar cells for arrays. We show that common curve fitting techniques, e.g., least squares, may produce many combinations of parameter values while maintaining a good fit between the fitted and measured I-V characteristics of the cell. Therefore, techniques relying on curve fitting criteria alone cannot be directly used for cell parameterization. We propose a consistent procedure which takes into account the entire set of parameter values for a batch of cells. This procedure is based on a definition of a mean cell representing the batch, and takes into account the relative contribution of each parameter to the overall goodness of fit. The procedure is demonstrated on a batch of 50 silicon cells for Space Station Freedom.

  9. Solar cell radiation handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. R., Jr.; Tada, H. Y.

    1973-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting the degradation of a solar array in a space radiation environment. Solar cell technology which emphasizes the cell parameters that degrade in a radiation environment, is discussed along with the experimental techniques used in the evaluation of radiation effects. Other topics discussed include: theoretical aspects of radiation damage, methods for developing relative damage coefficients, nature of the space radiation environment, method of calculating equivalent fluence from electron and proton energy spectrums and relative damage coefficients, and comparison of flight data with estimated degradation.

  10. Monolithic tandem solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1991-01-01

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, and (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched. The solar cell can be provided as a two-terminal device or a three-terminal device.

  11. Flexible Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Solar cell "modules" are plastic strips coated with thin films of photovoltaic silicon that collect solar energy for instant conversion into electricity. Lasers divide the thin film coating into smaller cells to build up voltage. Developed by Iowa Thin Film Technologies under NASA and DOE grants, the modules are used as electrical supply for advertising displays, battery rechargers for recreational vehicles, and to power model airplanes. The company is planning other applications both in consumer goods and as a power source in underdeveloped countries.

  12. Diffusion length variation and proton damage coefficients for InP/In(x)Ga(1-x)As/GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, R. K.; Weinberg, I.; Flood, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    Indium phosphide solar cells are more radiation resistant than gallium arsenide and silicon solar cells, and their growth by heteroepitaxy offers additional advantages leading to the development of lighter, mechanically strong and cost-effective cells. Changes in heteroepitaxial InP cell efficiency under 0.5 and 3 MeV proton irradiations are explained by the variation in the minority-carrier diffusion length. The base diffusion length versus proton fluence is calculated by simulating the cell performance. The diffusion length damage coefficient K(L) is plotted as a function of proton fluence.

  13. Making Ultrathin Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, George W.; Christel, Lee A.; Merchant, J. Thomas; Gibbons, James F.

    1991-01-01

    Process produces extremely thin silicon solar cells - only 50 micrometers or less in thickness. Electrons and holes have less opportunity to recombine before collected at cell surfaces. Efficiency higher and because volume of silicon small, less chance of radiation damage in new cells. Initial steps carried out at normal thickness to reduce breakage and avoid extra cost of special handling. Cells then thinned mechanically and chemically. Final cell includes reflective layer on back surface. Layer bounces unabsorbed light back into bulk silicon so it absorbs and produces useful electrical output.

  14. TJ Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Daniel

    2009-04-17

    This talk will discuss recent developments in III-V multijunction photovoltaic technology which have led to the highest-efficiency solar cells ever demonstrated. The relationship between the materials science of III-V semiconductors and the achievement of record solar cell efficiencies will be emphasized. For instance, epitaxially-grown GAInP has been found to form a spontaneously-ordered GaP/InP (111) superlattice. This ordering affects the band gap of the material, which in turn affects the design of solar cells which incorporate GaInP. For the next generation of ultrahigh-efficiency III-V solar cells, we need a new semiconductor which is lattice-matched to GaAs, has a band gap of 1 eV, and has long minority-carrier diffusion lengths. Out of a number of candidate materials, the recently-discovered alloy GaInNAs appears to have the greatest promise. This material satisfies the first two criteria, but has to date shown very low diffusion lengths, a problem which is our current focus in the development of these next-generation cells.

  15. Gallium phosphide energy converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, P. E.; DiNetta, Louis C.; DuganCavanagh, K.; Goetz, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Betavoltaic power supplies based on gallium phosphide can supply long term low-level power with high reliability. Results are presented for GaP devices powered by Ni-63 and tritiarated phosphors. Leakage currents as low as 1.2 x 10(exp -17) A/cm(exp 2) have been measured and the temperature dependence of the reverse saturation current is found to have ideal behavior. A small demonstration system has been assembled that generates and stores enough electricity to light up an LED.

  16. Surface passivation of InP solar cells with InAlAs layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Flood, Dennis J.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    The efficiency of indium phosphide solar cells is limited by high values of surface recombination. The effect of a lattice-matched In(0.52)Al(0.48)As window layer material for InP solar cells, using the numerical code PC-1D is investigated. It was found that the use of InAlAs layer significantly enhances the p(+)n cell efficiency, while no appreciable improvement is seen for n(+)p cells. The conduction band energy discontinuity at the heterojunction helps in improving the surface recombination. An optimally designed InP cell efficiency improves from 15.4 percent to 23 percent AMO for a 10 nm thick InAlAs layer. The efficiency improvement reduces with increase in InAlAs layer thickness, due to light absorption in the window layer.

  17. Amorphous semiconductor solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Dalal, Vikram L.

    1981-01-01

    A solar cell comprising a back electrical contact, amorphous silicon semiconductor base and junction layers and a top electrical contact includes in its manufacture the step of heat treating the physical junction between the base layer and junction layer to diffuse the dopant species at the physical junction into the base layer.

  18. NASA Facts, Solar Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The design and function of solar cells as a source of electrical power for unmanned space vehicles is described in this pamphlet written for high school physical science students. The pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook. Review…

  19. Thin, Lightweight Solar Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Weinberg, Irving

    1991-01-01

    Improved design for thin, lightweight solar photovoltaic cells with front contacts reduces degradation of electrical output under exposure to energetic charged particles (protons and electrons). Increases ability of cells to maintain structural integrity under exposure to ultraviolet radiation by eliminating ultraviolet-degradable adhesives used to retain cover glasses. Interdigitated front contacts and front junctions formed on semiconductor substrate. Mating contacts formed on back surface of cover glass. Cover glass and substrate electrostatically bonded together.

  20. Schottky barrier solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.J.; Harris, J.S.

    1980-10-14

    A solar cell is constructed by coating an n-type conductivity semiconductor with a thin layer of bromine doped, polymeric sulfur-nitride, (SnBr/sub 0/ /sub 4/)/sub x/. Metal deposits are provided on both materials for making electrical contact to the cell. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconductor is silicon. In a second preferred embodiment, the semiconductor is GaAs on an n+-type conductivity GaAs substrate.

  1. [Zinc].

    PubMed

    Couinaud, C

    1984-10-01

    Zinc is indispensable for life from bacteria to man. As a trace element it is included in numerous enzymes or serves as their activator (more than 80 zinc metallo-enzymes). It is necessary for nucleic acid and protein synthesis, the formation of sulphated molecules (insulin, growth hormone, keratin, immunoglobulins), and the functioning of carbonic anhydrase, aldolases, many dehydrogenases (including alcohol-dehydrogenase, retinal reductase indispensable for retinal rod function), alkaline phosphatase, T cells and superoxide dismutase. Its lack provokes distinctive signs: anorexia, diarrhea, taste, smell and vision disorders, skin lesions, delayed healing, growth retardation, delayed appearance of sexual characteristics, diminished resistance to infection, and it may be the cause of congenital malformations. Assay is now simplified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in blood or hair. There is a latent lack prior to any disease because of the vices of modern eating habits, and this increases during stress, infections or tissue healing processes. Its lack is accentuated during long-term parenteral feeding or chronic gastrointestinal affections. Correction is as simple as it is innocuous, and zinc supplements should be given more routinely during surgical procedures. PMID:6210294

  2. Modeling of high efficiency solar cells under laser pulse for power beaming applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    Solar cells have been used to convert sunlight to electrical energy for many years and also offer great potential for non-solar energy conversion applications. Their greatly improved performance under monochromatic light compared to sunlight, makes them suitable as photovoltaic (PV) receivers in laser power beaming applications. Laser beamed power to a PV array receiver could provide power to satellites, an orbital transfer vehicle, or a lunar base. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium phosphide (InP) solar cells have calculated efficiencies of more than 50 percent under continuous illumination at the optimum wavelength. Currently high power free-electron lasers are being developed which operate in pulsed conditions. Understanding cell behavior under a laser pulse is important in the selection of the solar cell material and the laser. An experiment by NAsA lewis and JPL at the AVLIS laser facility in Livermore, CA presented experimental data on cell performance under pulsed laser illumination. Reference 5 contains an overview of technical issues concerning the use of solar cells for laser power conversion, written before the experiments were performed. As the experimental results showed, the actual effects of pulsed operation are more complicated. Reference 6 discusses simulations of the output of GaAs concentrator solar cells under pulsed laser illumination. The present paper continues this work, and compares the output of Si and GaAs solar cells.

  3. ZINC

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the available information on zinc as it relates to its effects on man and his environment. Zinc is found in most soils, but some areas are deficient in it. Metallurgic operations contribute to zinc contamination in air, water and soil. Trace amounts of zinc...

  4. Rechargeable zinc cell with alkaline electrolyte which inhibits shape change in zinc electrode

    DOEpatents

    Adler, Thomas C.; McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

    1995-01-01

    An improved rechargeable zinc cell is described comprising a zinc electrode and another electrode such as, for example, a nickel-containing electrode, and having an electrolyte containing one or more hydroxides having the formula M(OH), one or more fluorides having the formula MF, and one or more carbonates having the formula M.sub.2 CO.sub.3, where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of alkali metals. The electrolyte inhibits shape change in the zinc electrode, i.e., the zinc electrode exhibits low shape change, resulting in an improved capacity retention of the cell over an number of charge-discharge cycles, while still maintaining high discharge rate characteristics.

  5. EDITORIAL: Nanostructured solar cells Nanostructured solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenham, Neil C.; Grätzel, Michael

    2008-10-01

    Conversion into electrical power of even a small fraction of the solar radiation incident on the Earth's surface has the potential to satisfy the world's energy demands without generating CO2 emissions. Current photovoltaic technology is not yet fulfilling this promise, largely due to the high cost of the electricity produced. Although the challenges of storage and distribution should not be underestimated, a major bottleneck lies in the photovoltaic devices themselves. Improving efficiency is part of the solution, but diminishing returns in that area mean that reducing the manufacturing cost is absolutely vital, whilst still retaining good efficiencies and device lifetimes. Solution-processible materials, e.g. organic molecules, conjugated polymers and semiconductor nanoparticles, offer new routes to the low-cost production of solar cells. The challenge here is that absorbing light in an organic material produces a coulombically bound exciton that requires dissociation at a donor-acceptor heterojunction. A thickness of at least 100 nm is required to absorb the incident light, but excitons only diffuse a few nanometres before decaying. The problem is therefore intrinsically at the nano-scale: we need composite devices with a large area of internal donor-acceptor interface, but where each carrier has a pathway to the respective electrode. Dye-sensitized and bulk heterojunction cells have nanostructures which approach this challenge in different ways, and leading research in this area is described in many of the articles in this special issue. This issue is not restricted to organic or dye-sensitized photovoltaics, since nanotechnology can also play an important role in devices based on more conventional inorganic materials. In these materials, the electronic properties can be controlled, tuned and in some cases completely changed by nanoscale confinement. Also, the techniques of nanoscience are the natural ones for investigating the localized states, particularly at

  6. Very high efficiency solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Allen; Kirkpatrick, Douglas; Honsberg, Christiana

    2006-08-01

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency has initiated the Very High Efficiency Solar Cell (VHESC) program to address the critical need of the soldier for power in the field. Very High Efficiency Solar Cells for portable applications that operate at greater than 55 percent efficiency in the laboratory and 50 percent in production are being developed. We are integrating the optical design with the solar cell design, and have entered previously unoccupied design space that leads to a new architecture paradigm. An integrated team effort is now underway that requires us to invent, develop and transfer to production these new solar cells. Our approach is driven by proven quantitative models for the solar cell design, the optical design and the integration of these designs. We start with a very high performance crystalline silicon solar cell platform. Examples will be presented. Initial solar cell device results are shown for devices fabricated in geometries designed for this VHESC Program.

  7. Framework to predict optimal buffer layer pairing for thin film solar cell absorbers: A case study for tin sulfide/zinc oxysulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Mangan, Niall M.; Brandt, Riley E.; Steinmann, Vera; Jaramillo, R.; Poindexter, Jeremy R.; Chakraborty, Rupak; Buonassisi, Tonio; Yang, Chuanxi; Park, Helen Hejin; Zhao, Xizhu; Gordon, Roy G.

    2015-09-21

    An outstanding challenge in the development of novel functional materials for optoelectronic devices is identifying suitable charge-carrier contact layers. Herein, we simulate the photovoltaic device performance of various n-type contact material pairings with tin(II) sulfide (SnS), a p-type absorber. The performance of the contacting material, and resulting device efficiency, depend most strongly on two variables: conduction band offset between absorber and contact layer, and doping concentration within the contact layer. By generating a 2D contour plot of device efficiency as a function of these two variables, we create a performance-space plot for contacting layers on a given absorber material. For a simulated high-lifetime SnS absorber, this 2D performance-space illustrates two maxima, one local and one global. The local maximum occurs over a wide range of contact-layer doping concentrations (below 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −3}), but only a narrow range of conduction band offsets (0 to −0.1 eV), and is highly sensitive to interface recombination. This first maximum is ideal for early-stage absorber research because it is more robust to low bulk-minority-carrier lifetime and pinholes (shunts), enabling device efficiencies approaching half the Shockley-Queisser limit, greater than 16%. The global maximum is achieved with contact-layer doping concentrations greater than 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}, but for a wider range of band offsets (−0.1 to 0.2 eV), and is insensitive to interface recombination. This second maximum is ideal for high-quality films because it is more robust to interface recombination, enabling device efficiencies approaching the Shockley-Queisser limit, greater than 20%. Band offset measurements using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and carrier concentration approximated from resistivity measurements are used to characterize the zinc oxysulfide contacting layers in recent record-efficiency SnS devices. Simulations representative of these

  8. Nanowire Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnett, Erik C.; Brongersma, Mark L.; Cui, Yi; McGehee, Michael D.

    2011-08-01

    The nanowire geometry provides potential advantages over planar wafer-based or thin-film solar cells in every step of the photoconversion process. These advantages include reduced reflection, extreme light trapping, improved band gap tuning, facile strain relaxation, and increased defect tolerance. These benefits are not expected to increase the maximum efficiency above standard limits; instead, they reduce the quantity and quality of material necessary to approach those limits, allowing for substantial cost reductions. Additionally, nanowires provide opportunities to fabricate complex single-crystalline semiconductor devices directly on low-cost substrates and electrodes such as aluminum foil, stainless steel, and conductive glass, addressing another major cost in current photovoltaic technology. This review describes nanowire solar cell synthesis and fabrication, important characterization techniques unique to nanowire systems, and advantages of the nanowire geometry.

  9. Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Hepp, Aloysius; Bailey, Sheila G.

    2002-10-01

    We have been investigating the synthesis of quantum dots of CdSe, CuInS2, and CuInSe2 for use in an intermediate bandgap solar cell. We have prepared a variety of quantum dots using the typical organometallic synthesis routes pioneered by Bawendi, et. al., in the early 1990's. However, unlike previous work in this area we have also utilized single-source precursor molecules in the synthesis process. We will present XRD, TEM, SEM and EDS characterization of our initial attempts at fabricating these quantum dots. Investigation of the size distributions of these nanoparticles via laser light scattering and scanning electron microscopy will be presented. Theoretical estimates on appropriate quantum dot composition, size, and inter-dot spacing along with potential scenarios for solar cell fabrication will be discussed.

  10. Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Hepp, Aloysius; Bailey, Sheila G.

    2002-01-01

    We have been investigating the synthesis of quantum dots of CdSe, CuInS2, and CuInSe2 for use in an intermediate bandgap solar cell. We have prepared a variety of quantum dots using the typical organometallic synthesis routes pioneered by Bawendi, et. al., in the early 1990's. However, unlike previous work in this area we have also utilized single-source precursor molecules in the synthesis process. We will present XRD, TEM, SEM and EDS characterization of our initial attempts at fabricating these quantum dots. Investigation of the size distributions of these nanoparticles via laser light scattering and scanning electron microscopy will be presented. Theoretical estimates on appropriate quantum dot composition, size, and inter-dot spacing along with potential scenarios for solar cell fabrication will be discussed.

  11. ZnSe Films in GaAs Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kachare, Ram H.

    1987-01-01

    ZnSe increases efficiency and conserves material. Two proposed uses of zinc selenide films promise to boost performance and reduce cost of gallium arsenide solar cells. Accordingly ZnSe serves as surface-passivation layer and as sacrificial layer enabling repeated use of costly GaAs substrate in fabrication.

  12. Novel chlorophyll solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlow, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    A novel solar battery is being developed which uses chlorophyll a for the generation of a voltage. The battery consists of platinum foil electrode, onto which a mixture of chlorophyll a and lipoic acid is deposited, and a platinum current collector. With such a device, voltages greater than 0.35 volts can reproducibly generated. The dependence of the output of the cell as a function of chlorophyll levels and light intensity has been determined. 9 refs.

  13. Solar cell grid patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasui, R. K.; Berman, P. A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A grid pattern is described for a solar cell of the type which includes a semiconductive layer doped to a first polarity and a top counter-doped layer. The grid pattern comprises a plurality of concentric conductive grids of selected geometric shapes which are centered about the center of the exposed active surface of the counter-doped layer. Connected to the grids is one or more conductors which extend to the cell's periphery. For the pattern area, the grids and conductors are arranged in the pattern to minimize the maximum distance which any injected majority carriers have to travel to reach any of the grids or conductors. The pattern has a multiaxes symmetry with respect to the cell center to minimize the maximum temperature differentials between points on the cell surface and to provide a more uniform temperature distribution across the cell face.

  14. Solar-cell defect analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauthier, M. K.; Miller, E. L.; Shumka, A.

    1980-01-01

    Laser-Scanning System pinpoints imperfections in solar cells. Entire solar panels containing large numbers of cells can be scanned. Although technique is similar to use of scanning electron microscope (SEM) to locate microscopic imperfections, it differs in that large areas may be examined, including entire solar panels, and it is not necessary to remove cover glass or encapsulants.

  15. Zinc and silver migration during rechargeable silver-zinc cell cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, H.L.; Wharton, S.P.

    1997-12-01

    A study has been established at NAVSURFWARCENDIV Crane to obtain zinc and silver migration rate data on cellulosic separators derived from a variety of cellulose and cellophane sources, in silver-zinc alkaline rechargeable cells. These data are to be related to cycle and wet life data from the model electrochemical cells as a function of separator composition for the rechargeable cell set. The first examples used in this program are cells of 28 Ahr capacity, identical in every respect except for the separator composition, which are being tested in statistically significant numbers under identical temperature and relative humidity conditions, with 45% KOH as the electrolyte. The cycle life test regime is C/5 discharge to 1.30 V and C/30 and C/60 charge to 2.03 V continuous cycling, while the wet life test regime includes a 30-day wet stand at full charge between cycles. At the outset of the cell testing, a baseline cell was selected from each set in the matrix after the formation cycling was complete, and the silver and zinc migration through successive separator layers were determined. Also, at intervals during life cycle and wet life, and as cells fail the life tests, the measurements will be repeated. In this way a correlation may be established between silver and zinc migration rates under charge discharge conditions in actual cells and the cycle and wet life of the respective cell types. Eight separator compositions, all cellulose-based, are being evaluated. The purpose of the study is to utilize the cycle and wet life data to designate a best separator for incorporation into actual production cells. The recommendations will take the form of minimum separator physical properties which are beneficial to cell performance and long life, resulting in an improvement in the assets available for Navy Fleet use. This paper will discuss the data available on silver and zinc migration and their relationship to cell cycling at several stages during the cell life.

  16. Silicon Solar Cell Turns 50

    SciTech Connect

    Perlin, J.

    2004-08-01

    This short brochure describes a milestone in solar (or photovoltaic, PV) research-namely, the 50th anniversary of the invention of the first viable silicon solar cell by three researchers at Bell Laboratories.

  17. Development and fabrication of large vented nickel-zinc cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnel, C. P., III

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary cell design for a 300AH vented nickel-zinc cell was established based on volume requirements and cell component materials selected by NASA Lewis Research Center. A 100AH cell configuration was derived from the 300AH cell design utilizing the same size electrodes, separators, and cell terminal hardware. The first cells fabricated were four groups of three cells each in the 100AH size. These 100AH experimental nickel-zinc cells had as common components the nickel positive electrodes (GFM), flexible inorganic separator (GFM) bags on the negative electrodes, pressed powder zinc oxide electrodes, and cell containers with hardware. The variations introduced were four differing electrolyte absorber (interseparator) systems used to encase the nickel positive electrodes of each cell group. The four groups of 100AH experimental vented nickel-zinc cells were tested to determine, based on cell performance, the best two interseparator systems. Using the two interseparator systems, two groups of experimental 300AH cells were fabricated. Each group of three cells differed only in the interseparator material used. The six cells were filled, formed and tested to evaluate the interseparator materials and investigate the performance characteristics of the 300AH cell configuration and its components.

  18. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

  19. High-efficiency GaAs and GaInP solar cells grown by all solid-state molecular-beam-epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report the initial results of GaAs and GaInP solar cells grown by all solid-state molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) technique. For GaAs single-junction solar cell, with the application of AlInP as the window layer and GaInP as the back surface field layer, the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 26% at one sun concentration and air mass 1.5 global (AM1.5G) is realized. The efficiency of 16.4% is also reached for GaInP solar cell. Our results demonstrate that the MBE-grown phosphide-contained III-V compound semiconductor solar cell can be quite comparable to the metal-organic-chemical-vapor-deposition-grown high-efficiency solar cell. PMID:22040124

  20. Gate tunable monolayer MoS{sub 2}/InP heterostructure solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shisheng Wang, Peng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Zhiqian; Xu, Zhijuan; Zhang, Shengjiao; Xu, Wenli

    2015-10-12

    We demonstrate monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2})/indium phosphide (InP) van der Waals heterostructure with remarkable photovoltaic response. Furthermore, benefiting from the atomically thin and semiconductor nature of MoS{sub 2}, we have designed the gate tunable MoS{sub 2}/InP heterostructure. Applied with a top gate voltage, the Fermi level of MoS{sub 2} is effectively tuned, and the barrier height at the MoS{sub 2}/InP heterojunction correspondingly changes. The power conversion efficiency of MoS{sub 2}/InP solar cells has reached a value of 7.1% under AM 1.5G illumination with a gate voltage of +6 V. The tunable MoS{sub 2}/InP heterostructure may be promising for highly efficient solar cells.

  1. Enhanced monolayer MoS2/InP heterostructure solar cells by graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Lin, Shisheng; Ding, Guqiao; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Zhiqian; Zhang, Shengjiao; Xu, Zhijuan; Xu, Sen; Lu, Yanghua; Xu, Wenli; Zheng, Zheyang

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate significantly improved photovoltaic response of monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)/indium phosphide (InP) van der Waals heterostructure induced by graphene quantum dots (GQDs). Raman and photoluminescence measurements indicate that effective charge transfer takes place between GQDs and MoS2, which results in n-type doping of MoS2. The doping effect increases the barrier height at the MoS2/InP heterojunction, thus the averaged power conversion efficiency of MoS2/InP solar cells is improved from 2.1% to 4.1%. The light induced doping by GQD provides a feasible way for developing more efficient MoS2 based heterostructure solar cells.

  2. Epitaxial solar cells fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daiello, R. V.; Robinson, P. H.; Kressel, H.

    1975-01-01

    Silicon epitaxy has been studied for the fabrication of solar cell structures, with the intent of optimizing efficiency while maintaining suitability for space applications. SiH2CL2 yielded good quality layers and junctions with reproducible impurity profiles. Diode characteristics and lifetimes in the epitaxial layers were investigated as a function of epitaxial growth conditions and doping profile, as was the effect of substrates and epitaxial post-gettering on lifetime. The pyrolytic decomposition of SiH4 was also used in the epitaxial formation of highly doped junction layers on bulk Si wafers. The effects of junction layer thickness and bulk background doping level on cell performance, in particular, open-circuit voltage, were investigated. The most successful solar cells were fabricated with SiH2 CL2 to grow p/n layers on n(+) substrates. The best performance was obtained from a p(+)/p/n/n(+) structure grown with an exponential grade in the n-base layer.

  3. Zinc modulates cytokine-induced lung epithelial cell barrier permeability.

    PubMed

    Bao, Shenying; Knoell, Daren L

    2006-12-01

    Apoptosis plays a causative role in acute lung injury in part due to epithelial cell loss. We recently reported that zinc protects the lung epithelium during inflammatory stress whereas depletion of intracellular zinc enhances extrinsic apoptosis. In this investigation, we evaluated the relationship between zinc, caspase-3, and cell-to-cell contact via proteins that form the adherens junction complex. Cell adhesion proteins are directly responsible for formation of the mechanical barrier of the lung epithelium. We hypothesized that exposure to inflammatory cytokines, in conjunction with zinc deprivation, would induce caspase-3, leading to degradation of junction proteins, loss of cell-to-cell contact, and compromised barrier function. Primary human upper airway and type I/II alveolar epithelial cultures were obtained from multiple donors and exposed to inflammatory stimuli that provoke extrinsic apoptosis in addition to depletion of intracellular zinc. We observed that zinc deprivation combined with tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, and Fas receptor ligation accelerates caspase-3 activation, proteolysis of E-cadherin and beta-catenin, and cellular apoptosis, leading to increased paracellular leak across monolayers of both upper airway and alveolar lung epithelial cultures. Zinc supplementation inhibited apoptosis and paracellular leak, whereas caspase inhibition was less effective. We conclude that zinc is a vital factor in the lung epithelium that protects against death receptor-mediated apoptosis and barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, our findings suggest that although caspase-3 inhibition reduces lung epithelial apoptosis it does not prevent mechanical dysfunction. These findings facilitate future studies aimed at developing therapeutic strategies to prevent acute lung injury. PMID:16844947

  4. Copper and Zinc Oxide Composite Nanostructures for Solar Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fei

    Solar energy is a clean and sustainable energy source to counter global environmental issues of rising atmospheric CO2 levels and depletion of natural resources. To extract useful work from solar energy, silicon-based photovoltaic devices are extensively used. The technological maturity and the high quality of silicon (Si) make it a material of choice. However limitations in Si exist, ranging from its indirect band gap to low light absorption coefficient and energy and capital intensive crystal growth schemes. Therefore, alternate materials that are earth-abundant, benign and simpler to process are needed for developing new platforms for solar energy harvesting applications. In this study, we explore oxides of copper (CuO and Cu2O) in a nanowire morphology as alternate energy harvesting materials. CuO has a bandgap of 1.2 eV whereas Cu2O has a bandgap of 2.1 eV making them ideally suited for absorbing solar radiation. First, we develop a method to synthesize vertical, single crystalline CuO and Cu2O nanowires of ~50 microm length and aspect ratios of ~200. CuO nanowire arrays are synthesized by thermal oxidation of Cu foils. Cu2O nanowire arrays are synthesized by thermal reduction of CuO nanowires. Next, surface engineering of these nanowires is achieved using atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO. By depositing 1.4 nm of ZnO, a highly defective surface is produced on the CuO nanowires. These defects are capable of trapping charge as is evident through persistent photoconductivity measurements of ZnO coated CuO nanowires. The same nanowires serve as efficient photocatalysts reducing CO2 to CO with a yield of 1.98 mmol/g-cat/hr. Finally, to develop a robust platform for flexible solar cells, a protocol to transfer vertical CuO nanowires inside flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is demonstrated. Embedded CuO nanowires-ZnO pn junctions show a VOC of 0.4 V and a JSC of 10.4 microA/cm2 under white light illumination of 5.7 mW/cm2. Thus, this research provides broad

  5. Solar cell module lamination process

    DOEpatents

    Carey, Paul G.; Thompson, Jesse B.; Aceves, Randy C.

    2002-01-01

    A solar cell module lamination process using fluoropolymers to provide protection from adverse environmental conditions and thus enable more extended use of solar cells, particularly in space applications. A laminate of fluoropolymer material provides a hermetically sealed solar cell module structure that is flexible and very durable. The laminate is virtually chemically inert, highly transmissive in the visible spectrum, dimensionally stable at temperatures up to about 200.degree. C. highly abrasion resistant, and exhibits very little ultra-violet degradation.

  6. Monolithic tandem solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1994-06-21

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell; and (d) an optically transparent prismatic cover layer over the second subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched. 9 figs.

  7. Floating emitter solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chih, Sah (Inventor); Cheng, Li-Jen (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A front surface contact floating emitter solar cell transistor is provided in a semiconductor body (n-type), in which floating emitter sections (p-type) are diffused or implanted in the front surface. Between the emitter sections, a further section is diffused or implanted in the front surface, but isolated from the floating emitter sections, for use either as a base contact to the n-type semiconductor body, in which case the section is doped n+, or as a collector for the adjacent emitter sections.

  8. Photoelectric solar cell array

    SciTech Connect

    Lidorenko, N.S.; Afian, V.V.; Martirosian, R.G.; Ryabikov, S.V.; Strebkov, D.S.; Vartanian, A.V.

    1983-11-29

    A photoelectric solar cell device comprises a dispersing element exposed to the sun's radiation and followed in the optical path by photocells having different spectral sensitivities. Each photocell has its working surface so oriented that the light beam with the wavelength corresponding to the maximum spectral sensitivity of that photocell impinges on its working surface. The dispersing element is a hologram representing light sources with different wavelengths. The photocells are positioned in the image planes of the light sources producing the light beams of the corresponding wavelengths.

  9. Diffused P+-N solar cells in bulk GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borrego, J. M.; Ghandhi, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    Recently melt grown GaAs, made by liquid encapsulation techniques, has become available. This material is of sufficiently good quality to allow the fabrication of solar cells by direct diffusion. Results obtained with p(+)/n junction solar cells made by zinc diffusion are described. The quality of bulk GaAs for this application is evaluated.

  10. Open Zinc Freezing-Point Cell Assembly and Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žužek, V.; Batagelj, V.; Drnovšek, J.; Bojkovski, J.

    2014-07-01

    An open metal freezing-point cell design has been developed in the Laboratory of Metrology and Quality. According to our design, a zinc cell was successfully assembled. The paper presents the needed parts for the cell, the cleaning process, and sealing of the cell. The assembled cell was then evaluated by comparison with two commercial closed zinc cells of different manufacturers. The freezing plateaus of the cells were measured, and a direct cell comparison was made. It was shown that the assembled open cell performed better than the used closed cell and was close to the brand new closed cell. The nominal purity of the zinc used for the open cell was 7 N, but the freezing plateau measurement suggests a higher impurity concentration. It was assumed that the zinc was contaminated to some extent during the process of cutting as its original shape was an irregular cylinder. The uncertainty due to impurities for the assembled cell is estimated to be 0.3 mK. Furthermore, the immersion profile and the pressure coefficient were measured. Both results are close to their theoretical values.

  11. "Pelled-film" solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Cells are lighter and less expensive than conventional cells. GaAs cells are deposited on GaAs substrate coated with thin etchable layer that allows completed cell film to be peeled away from substrate. At estimated conversion of 18 percent, array of cells delivers about 1 kW of electricity per kilogram of cell material. Blanket of cells delivers energy at power-to-weight ratio about 4 times that of conventional 2-mil (0.5-mm) silicon solar cells. GaAs solar cells have better radiation resistance than silicon cells.

  12. Schottky barrier solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.; Yeh, Y. C. M. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A method of fabricating a Schottky barrier solar cell is described. The cell consists of a thin substrate of low cost material with at least the top surface of the substrate being electrically conductive. A thin layer of heavily doped n-type polycrystalling germanium is deposited on the substrate after a passivation layer is deposited to prevent migration of impurities into the polycrystalline germanium. The polycrystalline germanium is recrystallized to increase the crystal sizes to serve as a base layer on which a thin layer of gallium arsenide is vapor-epitaxilly grown followed by a thermally-grown oxide layer. A metal layer is deposited on the oxide layer and a grid electrode is deposited to be in electrical contact with the top surface of the metal layer.

  13. Schottky barrier solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Stirn, R.J.; Yeh, Y.C.M.

    1981-07-01

    A method of fabricating a Schottky barrier solar cell is described. The cell consists of a thin substrate of low cost material with at least the top surface of the substrate being electrically conductive. A thin layer of heavily doped n-type polycrystalling germanium is deposited on the substrate after a passivation layer is deposited to prevent migration of impurities into the polycrystalline germanium. The polycrystalline germanium is recrystallized to increase the crystal sizes to serve as a base layer on which a thin layer of gallium arsenide is vapor-epitaxilly grown followed by a thermally-grown oxide layer. A metal layer is deposited on the oxide layer and a grid electrode is deposited to be in electrical contact with the top surface of the metal layer. Official Gazette of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

  14. Advancing tandem solar cells by spectrally selective multilayer intermediate reflectors.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Andre; Paetzold, Ulrich W; Zhang, Chao; Merdzhanova, Tsvetelina; Lambertz, Andreas; Ulbrich, Carolin; Bittkau, Karsten; Rau, Uwe

    2014-08-25

    Thin-film silicon tandem solar cells are composed of an amorphous silicon top cell and a microcrystalline silicon bottom cell, stacked and connected in series. In order to match the photocurrents of the top cell and the bottom cell, a proper photon management is required. Up to date, single-layer intermediate reflectors of limited spectral selectivity are applied to match the photocurrents of the top and the bottom cell. In this paper, we design and prototype multilayer intermediate reflectors based on aluminum doped zinc oxide and doped microcrystalline silicon oxide with a spectrally selective reflectance allowing for improved current matching and an overall increase of the charge carrier generation. The intermediate reflectors are successfully integrated into state-of-the-art tandem solar cells resulting in an increase of overall short-circuit current density by 0.7 mA/cm(2) in comparison to a tandem solar cell with the standard single-layer intermediate reflector. PMID:25322181

  15. Quantum junction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jiang; Liu, Huan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Wang, Xihua; Furukawa, Melissa; Levina, Larissa; Sargent, Edward H

    2012-09-12

    Colloidal quantum dot solids combine convenient solution-processing with quantum size effect tuning, offering avenues to high-efficiency multijunction cells based on a single materials synthesis and processing platform. The highest-performing colloidal quantum dot rectifying devices reported to date have relied on a junction between a quantum-tuned absorber and a bulk material (e.g., TiO(2)); however, quantum tuning of the absorber then requires complete redesign of the bulk acceptor, compromising the benefits of facile quantum tuning. Here we report rectifying junctions constructed entirely using inherently band-aligned quantum-tuned materials. Realizing these quantum junction diodes relied upon the creation of an n-type quantum dot solid having a clean bandgap. We combine stable, chemically compatible, high-performance n-type and p-type materials to create the first quantum junction solar cells. We present a family of photovoltaic devices having widely tuned bandgaps of 0.6-1.6 eV that excel where conventional quantum-to-bulk devices fail to perform. Devices having optimal single-junction bandgaps exhibit certified AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies of 5.4%. Control over doping in quantum solids, and the successful integration of these materials to form stable quantum junctions, offers a powerful new degree of freedom to colloidal quantum dot optoelectronics. PMID:22881834

  16. Carbon Nanotube Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Klinger, Colin; Patel, Yogeshwari; Postma, Henk W. Ch.

    2012-01-01

    We present proof-of-concept all-carbon solar cells. They are made of a photoactive side of predominantly semiconducting nanotubes for photoconversion and a counter electrode made of a natural mixture of carbon nanotubes or graphite, connected by a liquid electrolyte through a redox reaction. The cells do not require rare source materials such as In or Pt, nor high-grade semiconductor processing equipment, do not rely on dye for photoconversion and therefore do not bleach, and are easy to fabricate using a spray-paint technique. We observe that cells with a lower concentration of carbon nanotubes on the active semiconducting electrode perform better than cells with a higher concentration of nanotubes. This effect is contrary to the expectation that a larger number of nanotubes would lead to more photoconversion and therefore more power generation. We attribute this to the presence of metallic nanotubes that provide a short for photo-excited electrons, bypassing the load. We demonstrate optimization strategies that improve cell efficiency by orders of magnitude. Once it is possible to make semiconducting-only carbon nanotube films, that may provide the greatest efficiency improvement. PMID:22655070

  17. Silicon MINP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, L. C.; Addis, F. W.; Miller, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The MINP solar cell concept refers to a cell structure designed to be a base region dominated device. Thus, it is desirable that recombination losses are reduced to the point that they occur only in the base region. The most unique feature of the MINP cell design is that a tunneling contact is utilized for the metallic contact on the front surface. The areas under the collector grid and bus bar are passivated by a thin oxide of tunneling thickness. Efforts must also be taken to minimize recombination at the surface between grid lines, at the junction periphery and within the emitter. Results of both theoretical and experimental studies of silicon MINP cells are given. Performance calculations are described which give expected efficiencies as a function of base resistivity and junction depth. Fabrication and characterization of cells are discussed which are based on 0.2 ohm-cm substrates, diffused emitters on the order of 0.15 to 0.20 microns deep, and with Mg MIS collector grids. A total area AM 1 efficiency of 16.8% was achieved. Detailed analyses of photocurrent and current loss mechanisms are presented and utilized to discuss future directions of research. Finally, results reported by other workers are discussed.

  18. Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings

    PubMed Central

    Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO4, coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management. PMID:21887030

  19. Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings.

    PubMed

    Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

    2011-07-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO(4), coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management. PMID:21887030

  20. Lunar production of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Perino, Maria Antonietta

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of manufacturing of solar cells on the moon for spacecraft applications is examined. Because of the much lower escape velocity, there is a great advantage in lunar manufacture of solar cells compared to Earth manufacture. Silicon is abundant on the moon, and new refining methods allow it to be reduced and purified without extensive reliance on materials unavailable on the moon. Silicon and amorphous silicon solar cells could be manufactured on the moon for use in space. Concepts for the production of a baseline amorphous silicon cell are discussed, and specific power levels are calculated for cells designed for both lunar and Earth manufacture.

  1. Inversion layer MOS solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Fat Duen

    1986-01-01

    Inversion layer (IL) Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) solar cells were fabricated. The fabrication technique and problems are discussed. A plan for modeling IL cells is presented. Future work in this area is addressed.

  2. Thin film solar cell workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Joe; Jeffrey, Frank

    1993-01-01

    A summation of responses to questions posed to the thin-film solar cell workshop and the ensuing discussion is provided. Participants in the workshop included photovoltaic manufacturers (both thin film and crystalline), cell performance investigators, and consumers.

  3. Low zinc environment induces stress signaling, senescence and mixed cell death modalities in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Emil; Rudolf, Kamil

    2015-12-01

    Currently it is not clear what type of the final cellular response (i.e. cell death modality or senescence) is induced upon chronic intracellular zinc depletion in colon cancer cells. To address this question, isogenic colon cancer lines SW480 and SW620 exposed to low zinc environment were studied over the period of 6 weeks. Low zinc environment reduced total as well as free intracellular zinc content in both cell lines. Decreased intracellular zinc content resulted in changes in cellular proliferation, cell cycle distribution and activation of stress signaling. In addition, colonocytes with low zinc content displayed increased levels of oxidative stress, changes in mitochondrial activity but in the absence of significant DNA damage. Towards the end of treatment (4th-6th week), exposed cells started to change morphologically, and typical markers of senescence as well as cell death appeared. Of two examined colon cancer cell lines, SW480 cells proved to activate predominantly senescent phenotype, with frequent form of demise being necrosis and mixed cell death modality but not apoptosis. Conversely, SW620 cells activated mostly cell death, with relatively equal distribution of apoptosis and mixed types, while senescent phenotypes and necrosis were present only in a small fraction of cell populations. Addition of zinc at the beginning of 4th week of treatment significantly suppressed cell death phenotypes in both cell lines but had no significant effect on senescence. In conclusion, presented results demonstrate variability of responses to chronic zinc depletion in colon cancer as modeled in vitro. PMID:26446979

  4. An Introduction to Solar Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Most likely, solar cells will play a significant role in this country's strategy to address the two interrelated issues of global warming and dependence on imported oil. The purpose of this paper is to present an explanation of how solar cells work at an introductory high school, college, or university physics course level. The treatment presented…

  5. Facility for testing solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasui, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    Primary components of facility are test chamber and external solar simulator. Voltage--current performance characteristics of solar cells at various combinations of temperature and light intensity are plotted on X-Y recorder. Data are fed into computer for calculation of maximum power, curve shape factor, cell efficiency, and averages of each parameter.

  6. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of zinc: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for zinc ( ...

  7. GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.

    1996-01-01

    History of GaAs solar cell development is provided. Photovoltaic equations are described along with instrumentation techniques for measuring solar cells. Radiation effects in solar cells, electrical performance, and spacecraft flight data for solar cells are discussed. The space radiation environment and solar array degradation calculations are addressed.

  8. InP shallow-homojunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keavney, Christopher; Spitzer, Mark B.; Vernon, Stanley M.; Haven, Victor E.; Augustine, Godfrey

    1989-01-01

    Indium phosphide solar cells with very thin n-type emitters have been made by both ion implantation and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Air mass zero efficiencies as high as 18.8 percent (NASA measurement) have been achieved. Although calculations show that, as is the case with GaAs, a heterostructure is expected to be required for the highest efficiencies attainable, the material properties of InP give the shallow-homojunction structure a greater potential than in the case of GaAs. The best cells, which were those made by ion implantation, show open-circuit voltage (V sub oc) of 873 mV, short-circuit current of 357 A/sq m (35.7 mA/sq cm), and fill factor of 0.829. Improvements are anticipated in all three of these parameters. Internal quantum efficiency peaks at over 90 percent in the red end of the spectrum, but drops to 54 percent in the blue end. Other cells have achieved 74 percent in the blue end. Detailed modeling of the data indicates that a high front surface recombination velocity is responsible for the low blue response, that the carrier lifetime is high enough to allow good carrier collection from both the base and the emitter, and that the voltage is base-limited.

  9. Controlled reflectance solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, H.G.; Lillington, D.R.

    1989-06-13

    A solar cell is described comprising: A semiconductor body having a front layer of a first conductivity type and an adjacent back layer of a second conductivity type opposite of the first conductivity type. The front and back layers form front and back major surfaces, respectively the semiconductor body further having openings through the back major surface and back layer which form recesses extending to the front layer. The recesses having walls which are doped to the first conductivity type; a first electrical contact disposed in the recesses making electrical contact the first conductivity type layer; and a second electrical contact disposed on the back major surface making electrical contact to the second conductivity type layer.

  10. Back wall solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar cell is disclosed which comprises a first semiconductor material of one conductivity type with one face having the same conductivity type but more heavily doped to form a field region arranged to receive the radiant energy to be converted to electrical energy, and a layer of a second semiconductor material, preferably highly doped, of opposite conductivity type on the first semiconductor material adjacent the first semiconductor material at an interface remote from the heavily doped field region. Instead of the opposite conductivity layer, a metallic Schottky diode layer may be used, in which case no additional back contact is needed. A contact such as a gridded contact, previous to the radiant energy may be applied to the heavily doped field region of the more heavily doped, same conductivity material for its contact.

  11. Germanium Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Zachary Charles

    Greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere are approaching historically unprecedented levels from burning fossil fuels to meet the ever-increasing world energy demand. A rapid transition to clean energy sources is necessary to avoid the potentially catastrophic consequences of global warming. The sun provides more than enough energy to power the world, and solar cells that convert sunlight to electricity are commercially available. However, the high cost and low efficiency of current solar cells prevent their widespread implementation, and grid parity is not anticipated to be reached for at least 15 years without breakthrough technologies. Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) show promise for cheap multi-junction photovoltaic devices. To compete with photovoltaic materials that are currently commercially available, NCs need to be inexpensively cast into dense thin films with bulk-like electrical mobilities and absorption spectra that can be tuned by altering the NC size. The Group II-VI and IV-VI NC communities have had some success in achieving this goal by drying and then chemically treating colloidal particles, but the more abundant and less toxic Group IV NCs have proven more challenging. This thesis reports thin films of plasma-synthesized Ge NCs deposited using three different techniques, and preliminary solar cells based on these films. Germanium tetrachloride is dissociated in the presence of hydrogen in a nonthermal plasma to nucleate Ge NCs. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction indicate that the particles are nearly monodisperse (standard deviations of 10-15% the mean particle diameter) and the mean diameter can be tuned from 4-15 nm by changing the residence time of the Ge NCs in the plasma. In the first deposition scheme, a Ge NC colloid is formed by reacting nanocrystalline powder with 1-dodecene and dispersing the functionalized NCs in a solvent. Films are then formed on substrates by drop-casting the colloid and allowing it to dry

  12. Upconversion in solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The possibility to tune chemical and physical properties in nanosized materials has a strong impact on a variety of technologies, including photovoltaics. One of the prominent research areas of nanomaterials for photovoltaics involves spectral conversion. Modification of the spectrum requires down- and/or upconversion or downshifting of the spectrum, meaning that the energy of photons is modified to either lower (down) or higher (up) energy. Nanostructures such as quantum dots, luminescent dye molecules, and lanthanide-doped glasses are capable of absorbing photons at a certain wavelength and emitting photons at a different (shorter or longer) wavelength. We will discuss upconversion by lanthanide compounds in various host materials and will further demonstrate upconversion to work for thin-film silicon solar cells. PMID:23413889

  13. Zinc-oxygen primary cell yields high energy density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, C. B.

    1968-01-01

    Zinc-oxygen primary cell yields high energy density for battery used as an auxiliary power source in space vehicle systems. Maximum reliability and minimum battery weight is achieved by using a stacking configuration of 23 series-connected modules with 6 parallel-connected cells per module.

  14. Transient fluctuations of intracellular zinc ions in cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuan; Maret, Wolfgang

    2009-08-15

    Zinc is essential for cell proliferation, differentiation, and viability. When zinc becomes limited for cultured cells, DNA synthesis ceases and the cell cycle is arrested. The molecular mechanisms of actions of zinc are believed to involve changes in the availability of zinc(II) ions (Zn{sup 2+}). By employing a fluorescent Zn{sup 2+} probe, FluoZin-3 acetoxymethyl ester, intracellular Zn{sup 2+} concentrations were measured in undifferentiated and in nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Intracellular Zn{sup 2+} concentrations are pico- to nanomolar in PC12 cells and are higher in the differentiated than in the undifferentiated cells. When following cellular Zn{sup 2+} concentrations for 48 h after the removal of serum, a condition that is known to cause cell cycle arrest, Zn{sup 2+} concentrations decrease after 30 min but, remarkably, increase after 1 h, and then decrease again to about one half of the initial concentration. Cell proliferation, measured by an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay, decreases after both serum starvation and zinc chelation. Two peaks of Zn{sup 2+} concentrations occur within one cell cycle: one early in the G1 phase and the other in the late G1/S phase. Thus, fluctuations of intracellular Zn{sup 2+} concentrations and established modulation of phosphorylation signaling, via an inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases at commensurately low Zn{sup 2+} concentrations, suggest a role for Zn{sup 2+} in the control of the cell cycle. Interventions targeted at these picomolar Zn{sup 2+} fluctuations may be a way of controlling cell growth in hyperplasia, neoplasia, and diseases associated with aberrant differentiation.

  15. InGaP Heterojunction Barrier Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welser, Roger E.

    2010-01-01

    A new solar-cell structure utilizes a single, ultra-wide well of either gallium arsenide (GaAs) or indium-gallium-phosphide (InGaP) in the depletion region of a wide bandgap matrix, instead of the usual multiple quantum well layers. These InGaP barrier layers are effective at reducing diode dark current, and photogenerated carrier escape is maximized by the proper design of the electric field and barrier profile. With the new material, open-circuit voltage enhancements of 40 and 100 mV (versus PIN control systems) are possible without any degradation in short-circuit current. Basic tenets of quantum-well and quantum- dot solar cells are utilized, but instead of using multiple thin layers, a single wide well works better. InGaP is used as a barrier material, which increases open current, while simultaneously lowering dark current, reducing both hole diffusion from the base, and space charge recombination within the depletion region. Both the built-in field and the barrier profile are tailored to enhance thermionic emissions, which maximizes the photocurrent at forward bias, with a demonstrated voltage increase. An InGaP heterojunction barrier solar cell consists of a single, ultra-wide GaAs, aluminum-gallium-arsenide (AlGaAs), or lower-energy-gap InGaP absorber well placed within the depletion region of an otherwise wide bandgap PIN diode. Photogenerated electron collection is unencumbered in this structure. InGaAs wells can be added to the thick GaAs absorber layer to capture lower-energy photons.

  16. Multiple Exciton Generation Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, J. M.; Semonin, O. E.; Beard, M. C.; Gao, J.; Nozik, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Heat loss is the major factor limiting traditional single junction solar cells to a theoretical efficiency of 32%. Multiple Exciton Generation (MEG) enables efficient use of the solar spectrum yielding a theoretical power conversion efficiency of 44% in solar cells under 1-sun conditions. Quantum-confined semiconductors have demonstrated the ability to generate multiple carriers but present-day materials deliver efficiencies far below the SQ limit of 32%. Semiconductor quantum dots of PbSe and PbS provide an active testbed for developing high-efficiency, inexpensive solar cells benefitting from quantum confinement effects. Here, we will present recent work of solar cells employing MEG to yield external quantum efficiencies exceeding 100%.

  17. Heteroepitaxial InP, and ultrathin, directly glassed, GaAs 3-5 solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardingham, C. M.; Cross, T. A.

    1993-01-01

    The commercial application of Indium Phosphide solar cells in practical space missions is crucially dependent upon achieving a major cost reduction which could be offered by heteroepitaxy on cheaper, more rugged substrates. Furthermore, significant mass reduction, compatibility with mechanically stacked multijunction cells, and elimination of the current loss through glue discoloration, is possible in III-V solar cells by the development of ultrathin, directly glassed cells. The progress of a UK collaborative program to develop high efficiency, homojunction InP solar cells, grown by MOCVD on Si substrates, is described. Results of homoepitaxial cells (is greater than 17 percent 1 Sun AM0) are presented, together with progress in achieving low dislocation density heteroepitaxy. Also, progress in a UK program to develop ultrathin directly-glassed GaAs cells is described. Ultrathin (5 micron) GaAs cells, with 1 Sun AM0 efficiencies up to 19.1 percent, are presented, together with progress in achieving a direct (adhesive-less) bond between the cell and coverglass. Consequential development to, for example, cell grids, are also discussed.

  18. Mechanically refuelable zinc/air electric vehicle cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noring, J.; Gordon, S.; Maimoni, A.; Spragge, M.; Cooper, J. F.

    1992-12-01

    Refuelable zinc/air batteries have long been considered for motive as well as stationary power because of a combination of high specific energy, low initial cost, and the possibility of mechanical recharge by electrolyte exchange and additions of metallic zinc. In this context, advanced slurry batteries, stationary packed bed cells, and batteries offering replaceable cassettes have been reported recently. The authors are developing self-feeding, particulate-zinc/air batteries for electric vehicle applications. Emissionless vehicle legislation in California motivated efforts to consider a new approach to providing an electric vehicle with long range (400 km), rapid refueling (10 minutes) and highway safe acceleration - factors which define the essential functions of common automobiles. Such an electric vehicle would not compete with emerging secondary battery vehicles in specialized applications (commuting vehicles, delivery trucks). Rather, different markets would be sought where long range or rapid range extension are important. Examples are: taxis, continuous-duty fork-lift trucks and shuttle busses, and general purpose automobiles having modest acceleration capabilities. In the long range, a mature fleet would best use regional plants to efficiently recover zinc from battery reaction products. One option would be to use chemical/thermal reduction to recover the zinc. The work described focuses on development of battery configurations which efficiently and completely consume zinc particles, without clogging or changing discharge characteristics.

  19. Mechanically refuelable zinc/air electric vehicle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Noring, J.; Gordon, S.; Maimoni, A.; Spragge, M.; Cooper, J.F.

    1992-12-01

    Refuelable zinc/air batteries have long been considered for motive as well as stationary power because of a combination of high specific energy, low initial cost, and the possibility of mechanical recharge by electrolyte exchange and additions of metallic zinc. In this context, advanced slurry batteries, stationary packed bed cells and batteries offering replaceable cassettes have been reported recently. The authors are developing self-feeding, particulate-zinc/air batteries for electric vehicle applications. Emissionless vehicle legislation in California motivated efforts to consider a new approach to providing an electric vehicle with long range (400 km), rapid refueling (10 minutes) and highway safe acceleration -- factors which define the essential functions of common automobiles. Such a electric vehicle would not compete with emerging secondary battery vehicles in specialized applications (commuting vehicles, delivery trucks). Rather, different markets would be sought where long range or rapid range extension are important. Examples are: taxis, continuous-duty fork-lift trucks and shuttle busses, and general purpose automobiles having modest acceleration capabilities. In the long range, a mature fleet would best use regional plants to efficiently recover zinc from battery reaction products. One option would be to use chemical/thermal reduction to recover the zinc. The work described in this report focuses on development of battery configurations which efficiently and completely consume zinc particles, without clogging or changing discharge characteristics.

  20. Module level solutions to solar cell polarization

    DOEpatents

    Xavier, Grace , Li; Bo

    2012-05-29

    A solar cell module includes interconnected solar cells, a transparent cover over the front sides of the solar cells, and a backsheet on the backsides of the solar cells. The solar cell module includes an electrical insulator between the transparent cover and the front sides of the solar cells. An encapsulant protectively packages the solar cells. To prevent polarization, the insulator has resistance suitable to prevent charge from leaking from the front sides of the solar cells to other portions of the solar cell module by way of the transparent cover. The insulator may be attached (e.g., by coating) directly on an underside of the transparent cover or be a separate layer formed between layers of the encapsulant. The solar cells may be back junction solar cells.

  1. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... women taking iron and folic acid supplements. Prostate cancer. Early research suggests that taking zinc along with other vitamins and minerals may prevent prostate cancer in some men. However, other research suggests that ...

  2. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... by mouth does not improve sperm count or sperm movement in men with fertility problems. However, other early research suggests that zinc supplementation increases sperm count, testosterone levels, and pregnancy rates in infertile ...

  3. Bifacial space silicon solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobl, G.; Kasper, C.; Rasch, K.-D.; Roy, K.

    A bifacial light sensitive solar cell for use in space solar generators is presented. A bifacial cell is almost transparent for infrared radiation, resulting in a low solar absorptance (0.63 for a bare cell). The operating temperature in space is estimated to be 10-20 C lower than for BSR cells. This advantage holds for both LEO and GEO missions. In addition to the direct sun radiation the bifacial cell converts the albedo radiation reflected by the earth and illuminates the back side of the bifacial cell. This is particularly important for LEO missions. The efficiency of experimental cells, 50 to 180 microns thick, was found to be up to 40 percent higher than for conventional BSFR cells.

  4. Sensibilization of polymer/fullerene photovoltaic cells using Zinc Phtalocyanine studied by combinatorial technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godovsky, D.; Chen, L.; Petterson, L.; Inganäs, O.

    2000-11-01

    The influence of Zinc Phtalocyanine admixture to fullerene layers on top of PTOPT to the photovoltaic cells performance was studied. In order to investigate all the possible combinations of ZnPc and C60 the combinatorial technique was developed consisting in thermal co-evaporation of ZnPc and C60 from two different boats. The significant increase in solar cells photocurrent was observed, coming from ZnPc absorbance bands, especially for the layers containing 1:1 molar ratio of the components.

  5. Ab-initio Calculations of Electronic Properties of Boron Phosphide (BP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejembi, John; Franklin, Lashaunda; Malozovsky, Yuriy; Bagayoko, Diola

    2014-03-01

    We present results from ab-initio, self consistent local density approximation (LDA) calculations of electronic and related properties of zinc blende boron phosphide (BP). We employed a local density approximation (LDA) potential and implemented the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) formalism. This implementation followed the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams (BZW) method, as enhanced by Ekuma and Franklin (BZW-EF). We discuss our preliminary results for the indirect band gap, from Γ to X, of Boron Phosphide. We also report calculated electron and hole effective masses for Boron Phosphide and total (DOS) and partial (pDOS) density of states. Acknowledgments: This research is funded in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Louisiana Board of Regents, through LASiGMA [Award Nos. EPS- 1003897, NSF (2010-15)-RII-SUBR] and NSF HRD-1002541, the US Department of Energy - National, Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) (Award No. DE-NA0001861), LaSPACE, and LONI-SUBR.

  6. Fundamentals of thin solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yablonovitch, E.

    1995-08-01

    It is now widely recognized that thin solar cells can present certain advantages for performance and cost. This is particularly the case when light trapping in the semiconductor film is incorporated, as compensation for the diminished single path thickness of the solar cell. In a solar cell thinner than a minority carrier diffusion length, the current collection is of course very easy. More importantly the concentration of an equivalent number of carriers in a thinner volume results in a higher Free Energy, or open circuit voltage. This extra Free Energy may be regarded as due to the concentration factor, just as it would be for photons, electrons, or for any chemical species. The final advantage of a thin solar cell is in the diminished material usage, a factor of considerable importance when we consider the material cost of the high quality semiconductors which we hope to employ.

  7. Dust removal from solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David E. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A solar panel cleaning device includes a solar panel having a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged in rows and embedded in the solar panel with space between the rows. A transparent dielectric overlay is affixed to the solar panel. A plurality of electrode pairs each of which includes an upper and a lower electrode are arranged on opposite sides of the transparent dielectric and are affixed thereto. The electrodes may be transparent electrodes which may be arranged without concern for blocking sunlight to the solar panel. The solar panel may be a dielectric and its dielectric properties may be continuously and spatially variable. Alternatively the dielectric used may have dielectric segments which produce different electrical field and which affects the wind "generated."

  8. Dust Removal from Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David E. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A solar panel cleaning device includes a solar panel having a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged in rows and embedded in the solar panel with space between the rows. A transparent dielectric overlay is affixed to the solar panel. A plurality of electrode pairs each of which includes an upper and a lower electrode are arranged on opposite sides of the transparent dielectric and are affixed thereto. The electrodes may be transparent electrodes which may be arranged without concern for blocking sunlight to the solar panel. The solar panel may be a dielectric and its dielectric properties may be continuously and spatially variable. Alternatively the dielectric used may have dielectric segments which produce different electrical field and which affects the wind "generated."

  9. Solar cell with back side contacts

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

    2013-12-24

    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  10. Plasma Etching Improves Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunyan, S. M.

    1982-01-01

    Etching front surfaces of screen-printed silicon photovoltaic cells with sulfur hexafluoride plasma found to increase cell performance while maintaining integrity of screen-printed silver contacts. Replacement of evaporated-metal contacts with screen-printed metal contacts proposed as one way to reduce cost of solar cells for terrestrial applications.

  11. Electrolyte Loss Tendencies of Primary Silver-Zinc Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Juvinall, Gordon L.

    1997-01-01

    Since silver zinc cells are not hermetically sealed, care must be taken to prevent the loss of electrolyte which can result in shorting paths within the battery box. Prelaunch battery processing is important in being able to minimize any problems with expelled electrolyte.

  12. Fabrication and testing of large size nickel-zinc cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M.

    1977-01-01

    The design and construction of nickel zinc cells, containing sintered nickel electrodes and asbestos coated inorganic separator materials, were outlined. Negative electrodes were prepared by a dry pressing process while various inter-separators were utilized on the positive electrodes, consisting of non-woven nylon, non-woven polypropylene, and asbestos.

  13. Diffusion lengths in irradiated N/P InP-on-Si solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtczuk, Steven; Colerico, Claudia; Summers, Geoffrey P.; Walters, Robert J.; Burke, Edward A.

    1995-01-01

    Indium phosphide (InP) solar cells are being made on silicon (Si) wafers (InP/Si) to take advantage of both the radiation-hardness properties of the InP solar cell and the light weight and low cost of Si wafers compared to InP or germanium (Ge) wafers. The InP/Si cell application is for long duration and/or high radiation orbit space missions. InP/Si cells have higher absolute efficiency after a high radiation dose than gallium arsenide (GaAs) or silicon (Si) solar cells. In this work, base electron diffusion lengths in the N/P cell are extracted from measured AM0 short-circuit photocurrent at various irradiation levels out to an equivalent 1 MeV fluence of 1017 1 MeV electrons/sq cm for a 1 sq cm 12% BOL InP/Si cell. These values are then checked for consistency by comparing measured Voc data with a theoretical Voc model that includes a dark current term that depends on the extracted diffusion lengths.

  14. Effect of zinc supplementation on serum zinc concentration and T cell proliferation in nursing home elderly:A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Zinc is essential for the regulation of immune response. T cell function declines with age. Zinc supplementation has the potential to improve serum zinc concentrations and immunity of nursing home elderly with low serum zinc concentration. Objective: We aimed to determine the effect of ...

  15. Long-term temperature effects on GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, J. H.; Hong, K. H.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal degradation of AlGaAs solar cells resulting from a long-term operation in a space environment is investigated. The solar cell degradation effects caused by zinc and aluminum diffusion as well as deterioration by arsenic evaporation are presented. Also, the results are presented of experimental testing and measurements of various GaAs solar cell properties while the solar cell was operating in the temperature range of 27 C to 350 C. In particular, the properties of light current voltage curves, dark current voltage curves, and spectral response characteristics are given. Finally, some theoretical models for the annealing of radiation damage over various times and temperatures are included.

  16. Terrestrial concentrator solar cell module

    SciTech Connect

    Fraas, L.M.; Mansoori, N.; Kim, N.B.; Avery, J.E.

    1992-06-02

    This patent describes a solar cell module having a plurality of discrete cell units wherein each cell unit constitutes a tandem cell comprising an upper cell of a first semiconductive material and a lower cell of a second semiconductive material. It comprises a housing having a base and an upper portion; primary outer lens elements supported by the housing upper portion; a secondary radiant energy concentrating element associated with each primary lens element for protecting the carrier tape against incident light; each of the solar cell units being thermally coupled to the base; and parallel spaced strips of conductive material carried by the tape with means for separately connecting the strips to predetermined contact surfaces of the upper and lower cells of each cell unit.

  17. Silicon solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Hovel, H.J.

    1983-03-01

    A high efficiency silicon solar cell may be constructed by providing a two-stage drift field emitter with a 1 micron thickness on a drift field base region with a back surface field region. The stage of the drift field emitter adjacent to the junction is moderately doped from 1018 to 1016 atoms/cc adjacent the junction to minimize bandgap shrin and to maximize carrier lifetime while the stage of the emitter adjacent the surface is highly doped at 1019 atoms/cc to minimize sheet resistance. The drift field is aiding in both the emitter and base regions. The size of the base is less than an effective diffusion length. There is a difference in doping level in the base depending on the conductivity type of the silicon. For n-conductivity type the base is doped 1013 atoms/cc at the pn junction, increasing to 1016 atoms/cc in the drift field region. For p-conductivity type the base is doped 1016 at the junction, increasing to 1018 atoms/cc in the drift field. A back surface field is provided adjacent the ohmic contact on the part of the base remote from the junction by doping to 1020 to 1021 atoms/cc. A passivating antireflective layer is added to the light incident surface. The 1 micron emitter region contains a 0.1 to 0.2 mu m thick high conducting region adjacent the antireflective coating on the light incident surface and a drift field region 0.3 to 0.9 mu m thick. The base region has a drift field region 20 to 100 mu m thick and the overall base region is 50 to 450 mu m thick. The back surface field region is 1 mu m thick.

  18. NREL Spurred the Success of Multijunction Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-08-01

    Many scientists once believed that high-quality gallium indium phosphide (GaInP) alloys could not be grown for use as semiconductors because the alloys would separate. However, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) thought differently, and they employed GaInP in a material combination that allowed the multijunction cell to flourish. The multijunction cell is now the workhorse that powers satellites and the catalyst for renewed interest in concentrator photovoltaic products.

  19. Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Martin A.

    2015-10-01

    The following sections are included: * Overview * Silicon cell development * Substrate production * Cell processing * Cell costs * Opportunities for improvement * Silicon-supported thin films * Summary * Acknowledgement * References

  20. Device Architecture and Lifetime Requirements for High Efficiency Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.; Hofstetter, J.; Mitchell, B.; Altermatt, P.; Buonassisi, T.

    2015-03-23

    We present a numerical simulation study of different multicrystalline silicon materials and solar cell architectures to understand today's efficiency limitations and future efficiency possibilities. We compare conventional full-area BSF and PERC solar cells to future cell designs with a gallium phosphide heteroemitter. For all designs, mc-Si materials with different excess carrier lifetime distributions are used as simulation input parameters to capture a broad range of materials. The results show that conventional solar cell designs are sufficient for generalized mean lifetimes between 40 – 90 μs, but do not give a clear advantage in terms of efficiency for higher mean lifetime mc-Si material because they are often limited by recombination in the phosphorus diffused emitter region. Heteroemitter designs instead increase in cell efficiency considerable up to generalized mean lifetimes of 380 μs because they are significantly less limited by recombination in the emitter and the bulk lifetime becomes more important. In conclusion, to benefit from increasing mc-Si lifetime, new cell designs, especially heteroemitter, are desirable.

  1. Stray thermal influences in zinc fixed-point cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rudtsch, S.; Aulich, A.; Monte, C.

    2013-09-11

    The influence of thermal effects is a major uncertainty contribution to the calibration of Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers (SPRTs) in fixed-point cells. Axial heat losses strongly depend on the fixed-point temperature, constructional details of cells and SPRTs and the resulting heat transfer between cell, thermometer, furnace and environment. At the zinc point contributions by heat conduction and thermal radiation must be considered. Although the measurement of temperature gradients in the re-entrant well of a fixed-point cell provides very important information about the influence of axial heat losses, further investigations are required for a reliable estimate of the resulting uncertainty contribution. It is shown that specific modifications of a zinc fixed-point cell, following generally accepted principles, may result in systematic deviations of the measured fixed-point temperatures larger than typically stated in the uncertainty budget of National Metrology Institutes (NMIs). The underlying heat transport processes are investigated and the consequences for the construction of zinc cells are discussed.

  2. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of indium phosphide (CAS No. 22398-90-7) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (inhalation studies).

    PubMed

    2001-07-01

    Indium phosphide is used to make semiconductors,injection lasers, solar cells, photodiodes, and light-emittingdiodes. Indium phosphide was nominated for study because of its widespread use in the microelectronics industry, the potential for worker exposure,and the absence of chronic toxicity data. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to indium phosphide (greater than 99% pure) by inhalation for 14 weeks or 2 years. The frequency of micronuclei was determined in the peripheral blood of mice exposed to indium phosphide for 14 weeks. 14-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were exposed to particulate aerosols of indium phosphide with amass median aerodynamic diameter of approximately 1.2 microm at concentrations of 0, 1, 3, 10, 30, or 100 mg/m3 by inhalation, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week (weeks 1 through 4 and weeks 10 through 14) or 7 days per week (weeks 5 through 9) to accommodate a concurrent teratology study. One male in the 100 mg/m3 group died before the end of the study. Body weight gains of all males and females exposed to 100 mg/m3 were less than those of the chamber controls. As a result of indium phosphide exposure, the lungs of all exposed rats had a gray to black discoloration and were significantly enlarged, weighing 2.7- to 4.4-fold more than those of the chamber controls. Indium phosphide particles were observed throughout the respiratory tract and in the lung-associated lymph nodes. A spectrum of inflammatory and proliferative lesions generally occurred in the lungs of all exposed groups of rats and consisted of alveolar proteinosis, chronic inflammation, interstitial fibrosis, and alveolar epithelial hyperplasia. Pulmonary inflammation was attended by increased leukocyte and neutrophil counts in the blood. The alveolar proteinosis was the principal apparent reason for the increase in lung weights. Indium phosphide caused inflammation at the base of the epiglottis of the larynx and hyperplasia of the

  3. Estimation of minority carrier diffusion lengths in InP/GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, R. K.; Flood, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Minority carrier diffusion length is one of the most important parameters affecting the solar cell performance. An attempt is made to estimate the minority carrier diffusion lengths is the emitter and base of InP/GaAs heteroepitaxial solar cells. The PC-1D computer model was used to simulate the experimental cell results measured at NASA Lewis under AMO (air mass zero) spectrum at 25 C. A 16 nm hole diffusion length in the emitter and a 0.42 micron electron diffusion length in the base gave very good agreement with the I-V curve. The effect of varying minority carrier diffusion lengths on cell short current, open circuit voltage, and efficiency was studied. It is also observed that the front surface recombination velocity has very little influence on the cell performance. The poor output of heteroepitaxial cells is caused primarily by the large number of dislocations generated at the interfaces that propagate through the bulk indium phosphide layers. Cell efficiency as a function of dislocation density was calculated and the effect of improved emitter bulk properties on cell efficiency is presented. It is found that cells with over 16 percent efficiencies should be possible, provided the dislocation density is below 10(exp 6)/sq cm.

  4. Improving the efficiency of copper indium gallium (Di-)selenide (CIGS) solar cells through integration of a moth-eye textured resist with a refractive index similar to aluminum doped zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burghoorn, M.; Kniknie, B.; van Deelen, J.; Xu, M.; Vroon, Z.; van Ee, R.; van de Belt, R.; Buskens, P.

    2014-12-01

    Textured transparent conductors are widely used in thin-film silicon solar cells. They lower the reflectivity at interfaces between different layers in the cell and/or cause an increase in the path length of photons in the Si absorber layer, which both result in an increase in the number of absorbed photons and, consequently, an increase in short-circuit current density (Jsc) and cell efficiency. Through optical simulations, we recently obtained strong indications that texturing of the transparent conductor in copper indium gallium (di-)selenide (CIGS) solar cells is also optically advantageous. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that the Jsc and efficiency of CIGS solar cells with an absorber layer thickness (dCIGS) of 0.85 μm, 1.00 μm and 2.00 μm increase through application of a moth-eye textured resist with a refractive index that is sufficiently similar to AZO (nresist = 1.792 vs. nAZO = 1.913 at 633 nm) to avoid large optical losses at the resist-AZO interface. On average, Jsc increases by 7.2%, which matches the average reduction in reflection of 7.0%. The average relative increase in efficiency is slightly lower (6.0%). No trend towards a larger relative increase in Jsc with decreasing dCIGS was observed. Ergo, the increase in Jsc can be fully explained by the reduction in reflection, and we did not observe any increase in Jsc based on an increased photon path length.

  5. Improving the efficiency of copper indium gallium (Di-)selenide (CIGS) solar cells through integration of a moth-eye textured resist with a refractive index similar to aluminum doped zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Burghoorn, M.; Kniknie, B.; Deelen, J. van; Ee, R. van; Xu, M.; Vroon, Z.; Belt, R. van de; Buskens, P. E-mail: buskens@dwi.rwth-aachen.de

    2014-12-15

    Textured transparent conductors are widely used in thin-film silicon solar cells. They lower the reflectivity at interfaces between different layers in the cell and/or cause an increase in the path length of photons in the Si absorber layer, which both result in an increase in the number of absorbed photons and, consequently, an increase in short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) and cell efficiency. Through optical simulations, we recently obtained strong indications that texturing of the transparent conductor in copper indium gallium (di-)selenide (CIGS) solar cells is also optically advantageous. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that the J{sub sc} and efficiency of CIGS solar cells with an absorber layer thickness (d{sub CIGS}) of 0.85 μm, 1.00 μm and 2.00 μm increase through application of a moth-eye textured resist with a refractive index that is sufficiently similar to AZO (n{sub resist} = 1.792 vs. n{sub AZO} = 1.913 at 633 nm) to avoid large optical losses at the resist-AZO interface. On average, J{sub sc} increases by 7.2%, which matches the average reduction in reflection of 7.0%. The average relative increase in efficiency is slightly lower (6.0%). No trend towards a larger relative increase in J{sub sc} with decreasing d{sub CIGS} was observed. Ergo, the increase in J{sub sc} can be fully explained by the reduction in reflection, and we did not observe any increase in J{sub sc} based on an increased photon path length.

  6. Zinc electrowinning analysis in a modified Hull cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McColm, Thomas Dean

    The Hull cell is an analytical cell designed with trapezoidal geometry to incorporate a range of current densities into a single experiment. It was conceived to examine electroplating processes rather than mass production processes. A modified analytical cell was designed, developed and applied to the diagnosis of zinc electrowinning. Emphasis was placed on obtaining the quantitative variation of current efficiency with current density and the associated microscopic variation in deposit morphology. Current density distributions came by placing an insulating baffle in between parallel electrodes. The baffle position and length were easily adjusted, allowing the generation of 12 different distributions for a single applied potential. Ten electrically isolated 1 cm2 segments comprised the cathode. Measurement of the potential drop across I ohm resistors in each of the ten isolated parallel branches permitted direct quantitative determination of current densities. The small segments permitted simple SEM and X-ray analysis of deposits. The cell was designed to allow the continual cycling of electrolyte. In conjunction with experimental analysis, a technique for the determination of current efficiency was tested and developed. The technique involved the comparison of charge passed for the electrodeposition and subsequent electrodissolution of a given mass of zinc and removed the necessity to determine the mass directly. In no prior studies on zinc electrowinning had current efficiencies been determined this way. The cell and technique were developed and verified by the correct diagnosis of industrial zinc electrowinning. Successful determination of the effects of key variables including temperature, acid to zinc ratio and impurity effects on current efficiency and deposit morphology was demonstrated. In parallel with experimental work, cell electrochemistry was modeled. Primary and secondary input parameters were those pertinent to zinc electrowinning. The resultant

  7. Phthalocyanine with Trifluoroethoxy Substituents for Organic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Ichiko; Iida, Norihito; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Soga, Tetsuo; Shibata, Norio

    2013-05-01

    The properties of soluble zinc phthalocyanines with trifluoroethoxy substituents (TFEO-ZnPcs) were studied to evaluate their possible use in organic thin-film solar cells. We prepared five TFEO-ZnPcs with different numbers and positions of the TFEO substituents. The solubilities, UV-visible absorption spectra, and cyclic voltammograms of these ZnPcs varied with their substituents. TFEO-ZnPc thin-films fabricated by spin-casting exhibited photocurrent generation at wavelengths between 600 and 850 nm. Flat heterojunction solar cells consisting of a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) layer as a donor and a TFEO-ZnPc layer as an acceptor exhibited photocurrent generation over a wide range of wavelengths corresponding to both the P3HT and TFEO-ZnPc absorption spectra. The best solar cell performance was obtained with (β-TFEO)4ZnPc film.

  8. Aluminium compound additives to reduce zinc corrosion in anodes of electrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jacus, R.J.

    1991-07-23

    This patent describes an electrochemical cell. It comprises an alkaline anode/electrolyte mixture, the anode/electrolyte mixture comprising zinc anode material containing less than 1% mercury by weight of zinc and a source of aluminum ions.

  9. High efficiency InP solar cells from low toxicity tertiarybutylphosphine and trimethylindium by OMVPE

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R.W. Jr.; Fatemi, N.S.; Wilt, D.M.; Brinker, D.J.; Jenkins, P.P.; Scheiman, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    Large scale manufacture of phosphide based compound semiconductor devices by organo-metallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) typically requires the use of highly toxic phosphine. Advancements in phosphine substitutes have identified tertiarybutylphosphine (TBP) as an excellent precursor for OMVPE of InP. High quality undoped and doped InP films were grown using TBP and trimethylindium. Impurity doped InP films were achieved utilizing diethylzinc and silane for p-type and n-type respectively. 16% efficient solar cells under air mass zero, one sun intensity were demonstrated with V{sub oc} of 871 mV and fill factor of 82.6%. It was shown that TBP could replace phosphine, without adversely affecting device quality, in OMVPE deposition of InP thus significantly reducing toxic gas exposure risk.

  10. High efficiency InP solar cells from low toxicity tertiarybutylphosphine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Richard W., Jr.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Wilt, David M.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Brinker, David J.; Scheiman, David A.

    1994-05-01

    Large scale manufacture of phosphide based semiconductor devices by organo-metallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) typically requires the use of highly toxic phosphine. Advancements in phosphine substitutes have identified tertiarybutylphosphine (TBP) as an excellent precursor for OMVPE of InP. High quality undoped and doped InP films were grown using TBP and trimethylindium. Impurity doped InP films were achieved utilizing diethylzinc and silane for p and n type respectively. 16 percent efficient solar cells under air mass zero, one sun intensity were demonstrated with Voc of 871 mV and fill factor of 82.6 percent. It was shown that TBP could replace phosphine, without adversely affecting device quality, in OMVPE deposition of InP thus significantly reducing toxic gas exposure risk.

  11. High Efficiency InP Solar Cells from Low Toxicity Tertiarybutylphosphine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Richard W., Jr.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Wilt, David M.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Brinker, David J.; Scheiman, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Large scale manufacture of phosphide based semiconductor devices by organo-metallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) typically requires the use of highly toxic phosphine. Advancements in phosphine substitutes have identified tertiarybutylphosphine (TBP) as an excellent precursor for OMVPE of InP. High quality undoped and doped InP films were grown using TBP and trimethylindium. Impurity doped InP films were achieved utilizing diethylzinc and silane for p and n type respectively. 16 percent efficient solar cells under air mass zero, one sun intensity were demonstrated with Voc of 871 mV and fill factor of 82.6 percent. It was shown that TBP could replace phosphine, without adversely affecting device quality, in OMVPE deposition of InP thus significantly reducing toxic gas exposure risk.

  12. Multicrystalline silicon bifacial solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimeno, J. C.; Luque, A.

    The results of several batches of multicrystalline silicon bifacial solar cells (HEM and cast) are analyzed. I-V curves are measured under front and back illuminations and also in the dark, at several temperatures. It is concluded that HEM wafers might be used to manufacture commercial bifacial cells, while the high base recombination prevents the use of cast wafers for this purpose.

  13. Spectral reflectance properties of electroplated and converted zinc for use as a solar selective coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Curtis, H. B.; Gianelos, L.

    1975-01-01

    The spectral reflectance properties of electroplated and chemically converted zinc were measured for both chromate and chloride conversion coatings. The reflectance properties were measured for various times of conversion and for conversion at various chromate concentrations. The values of absorptance, integrated over the solar spectrum, and of infrared emittance, integrated over black body radiation at 250 F were then calculated from the measured reflectance values. The interdependent variations of absorptance and infrared emittance were plotted. The results indicate that the optimum combination of the highest absorptance in the solar spectrum and the lowest emittance in the infrared of the converted electroplated zinc is produced by chromate conversion at 1/2 concentration of the standard NEOSTAR chromate black solution for 0.50 minute or by chloride conversion for 0.50 minute.

  14. Spectral reflectance properties of electroplated and converted zinc for use as a solar selective coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Curtis, H. B.; Gianelos, L.

    1975-01-01

    The spectral reflectance properties of electroplated and chemically converted zinc were measured for both chromate and chloride conversion coatings. The reflectance properties were measured for various times of conversion and for conversion at various chromate concentrations. The values of absorptance, alpha, integrated over the solar spectrum, and of infrared emittance, epsilon, integrated over black body radiation at 250 F were then calculated from the measured reflectance values. The interdependent variations of alpha and epsilon were plotted. The results indicate that the optimum combination of the highest absorptance in the solar spectrum and the lowest emittance in the infrared of the converted electroplated zinc is produced by chromate conversion at 1/2 concentration of the standard NEOSTAR chromate black solution for 0.50 minute or by chloride conversion for 0.50 minute.

  15. Histopathological changes in cases of aluminium phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sinha, U S; Kapoor, A K; Singh, A K; Gupta, A; Mehrotra, Ravi

    2005-04-01

    Of a total of 205 poisoning deaths in our hospital in 2003, 83 cases were due to Aluminium phosphide poisoning and were further analyzed. Most vulnerable age group was 21-40 years and M:F ratio was 2:1. On naked eye examination, almost all the vital organs were found to be congested. On microscopic study, the liver showed central venous congestion, degeneration, haemorrhage, sinusoidal dilation, bile stasis, centrilobular necrosis, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, infiltration by mononuclear cells and fatty change. Microscopy of the lungs revealed alveolar thickening, oedema, dilated capillaries, collapsed alveoli and haemorrhage. In the kidney, changes were degeneration, infiltration, tubular dilation and cloudy swelling. Changes in the brain included congestion and coagulative necrosis and in the stomach, congestion and haemorrhage. Easy availability of this cheap and highly toxic substance was responsible for the sudden spurt of poisoning with aluminium phosphide. PMID:16758658

  16. Nanocrystal-polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Wendy Uyen

    The ability to structure materials on a nanometer dimension enables the processes of solar energy conversion to be optimized at their most fundamental length scale. In semiconducting nanocrystals, optical absorption and electrical transport can be tailored by changing their radius and length, respectively. The unique features of quantum confinement and shape manipulation characteristic for inorganic nanocrystals can be utilized to fabricate solar cells with properties not observed in organic or conventional inorganic solar cells. Furthermore, their solution processibility provides fabrication advantages in the production of low cost, large area, and flexible solar cells. By blending organic conjugated polymers with CdSe nanocrystals efficient thin film solar cells have been constructed. Intimate contact for efficient charge transfer between the polymer and nanocrystal components of the blend was achieved by removing the organic ligands on the surface of the nanocrystal and by using solvent mixtures. Control of the nanocrystal length and therefore the distance on which electrons are transported directly through a thin film device enabled the creation of direct pathways for the transport of electrons. In addition, tuning the band gap by altering the nanocrystal radius as well as using alternate materials such as CdTe the overlap between the absorption spectrum of the cell and the solar emission spectrum could be optimized. A photovoltaic device consisting of 7nm by 60nm CdSe nanorods and the conjugated polymer poly-3(hexylthiophene) was assembled from solution with an external quantum efficiency of over 54% and a monochromatic power conversion efficiency of up to 7% under illumination at low light intensity. Under AM 1.5 Global solar conditions, we obtained a power conversion efficiency of 1.7%.

  17. Silicon concentrator solar cell research

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Zhao, J.; Wang, A.; Dai, X.; Milne, A.; Cai, S.; Aberle, A.; Wenham, S.R.

    1993-06-01

    This report describes work conducted between December 1990 and May 1992 continuing research on silicon concentrator solar cells. The objectives of the work were to improve the performance of high-efficiency cells upon p-type substrates, to investigate the ultraviolet stability of such cells, to develop concentrator cells based on n-type substrates, and to transfer technology to appropriate commercial environments. Key results include the identification of contact resistance between boron-defused areas and rear aluminum as the source of anomalously large series resistance in both p- and n-type cells. A major achievement of the present project was the successful transfer of cell technology to both Applied Solar Energy Corporation and Solarex Corporation.

  18. Development of concentrator solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    A limited pilot production run on PESC silicon solar cells for use at high concentrations (200 to 400 suns) is summarized. The front contact design of the cells was modified for operation without prismatic covers. The original objective of the contract was to systematically complete a process consolidation phase, in which all the, process improvements developed during the contract would be combined in a pilot production run. This pilot run was going to provide, a basis for estimating cell costs when produced at high throughput. Because of DOE funding limitations, the Photovoltaic Concentrator Initiative is on hold, and Applied Solar`s contract was operated at a low level of effort for most of 1993. The results obtained from the reduced scope pilot run showed the effects of discontinuous process optimization and characterization. However, the run provided valuable insight into the technical areas that can be optimized to achieve the original goals of the contract.

  19. Solar cell spectral response characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalewski, E. F.; Geist, J.

    1979-01-01

    The absolute spectral response of solar cells is reported in the 400-1000-nm spectral region. Measurements were performed using two different types of monochromatic sources: amplitude-stabilized CW laser lines and interference filters with an incandescent lamp. Both types of calibration procedures use electrical substitution radiometry as the basis of traceability to absolute SI units. The accuracy of the calibration is shown to be limited by the nonideal characteristics of the solar cells themselves, specifically spatial nonuniformities and nonlinearities induced by high light levels.

  20. Solar cell circuit and method for manufacturing solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, Nick (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The invention is a novel manufacturing method for making multi-junction solar cell circuits that addresses current problems associated with such circuits by allowing the formation of integral diodes in the cells and allows for a large number of circuits to readily be placed on a single silicon wafer substrate. The standard Ge wafer used as the base for multi-junction solar cells is replaced with a thinner layer of Ge or a II-V semiconductor material on a silicon/silicon dioxide substrate. This allows high-voltage cells with multiple multi-junction circuits to be manufactured on a single wafer, resulting in less array assembly mass and simplified power management.

  1. Crystal and electronic structures of CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type rare-earth copper zinc phosphides RECuZnP{sub 2} (RE=Pr, Nd, Gd-Tm, Lu)

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, Peter E.R.; Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Cavell, Ronald G.; Mar, Arthur

    2011-01-15

    The quaternary rare-earth phosphides RECuZnP{sub 2} (RE=Pr, Nd, Gd-Tm, Lu) have been prepared by reaction of the elements at 900 {sup o}C, completing this versatile series which forms for nearly all RE metals. They adopt the trigonal CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure (Pearson symbol hP5, space group P3-bar m1, Z=1), as confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis on ErCuZnP{sub 2} and powder X-ray diffraction analysis on the remaining members. The Cu and Zn atoms are assumed to be disordered over the single transition-metal site. Band structure calculations on a hypothetically ordered YCuZnP{sub 2} model suggest a semimetal, with a zero band gap between the valence and conduction bands. This electronic structure is supported by XPS valence band spectra for RECuZnP{sub 2} (RE=Gd-Er), in which the intensity drops off smoothly at the Fermi edge. The absence of a band gap permits the electron count to deviate from the precise value of 16 e{sup -} per formula unit, as demonstrated by the formation of a solid solution in GdCu{sub x}Zn{sub 2-x}P{sub 2} (1.0{<=}x{<=}1.3), while still retaining the CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure. Because the Cu 2p XPS spectra indicate that the Cu atoms are always monovalent, the substitution of Cu for Zn leads to a decrease in electron count and a lowering of the Fermi level in the valence band. The magnetic susceptibility of RECuZnP{sub 2} (RE=Gd-Er), which obeys the Curie-Weiss law, confirms the presence of trivalent RE atoms. -- Graphical abstract: The absence of a band gap in the semimetallic quaternary rare-earth phosphides RECuZnP{sub 2} permits the formation of a solid solution such as GdCu{sub x}Zn{sub 2-x}P{sub 2} through hole-doping of the valence band. Display Omitted

  2. Recent Developments in Silver/Zinc Rechargeable Cell Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Harlan L.

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses silver/zinc cell casing configurations and test results examining discharge capacity and silver migration comparisons. The following recommendations were proposed: 1) Use silver-treated cellophane instead of clear cellophane; 2) Use split wrap for cellophane whenever possible; and 3) Strongly consider use of sausage casing with PVA film in the following configuration: 1-mil (tubular) SC/1-mil PVA film/2.3-mil plain or 6-mil fiber-reinforced SC tubular.

  3. Coupling light to solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luque, A. |

    1993-11-01

    Efficiencies of more than 33% have been achieved today in the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy into electricity. Part of this achievement is due to a effective coupling of sunlight to the solar cell. In particular three aspects of light-cell coupling are studied here: (a) the achievement of high irradiance on the cell; that is, the study of concentration; (b) the increase of the absorption in the cell and (c) the matching of the sun spectrum to the cell, with the use of several cells or thermo-photovoltaic devices. Finally, the ultimate limits of the efficiency of solar cells, and photovoltaic devices in general, are studied. It is found that efficiencies in the range of 85% (depending on the spectrum of the sun) are theoretically possible. Also the conditions for thermodynamically reversible operation are analyzed. Some laboratory results are presented and the role of the light-cell coupling in the achievement of this high efficiency is stressed. 70 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Impurities in silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Metallic impurities, both singly and in combinations, affect the performance of silicon solar cells. Czochralski silicon web crystals were grown with controlled additions of secondary impurities. The primary electrical dopants were boron and phosphorus. The silicon test ingots were grown under controlled and carefully monitored conditions from high-purity charge and dopant material to minimize unintentional contamination. Following growth, each crystal was characterized by chemical, microstructural, electrical, and solar cell tests to provide a detailed and internally consistent description of the relationships between silicon impurity concentration and solar cell performance. Deep-level spectroscopy measurements were used to measure impurity concentrations at levels below the detectability of other techniques and to study thermally-induced changes in impurity activity. For the majority of contaminants, impurity-induced performance loss is due to a reduction of the base diffusion length. From these observations, a semi-empirical model which predicts cell performance as a function of metal impurity concentration was formulated. The model was then used successfully to predict the behavior of solar cells bearing as many as 11 different impurities.

  5. Phonon properties of americium phosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arya, B. S.; Aynyas, Mahendra; Sanyal, S. P.

    2016-05-01

    Phonon properties of AmP have been studied by using breathing shell models (BSM) which includes breathing motion of electrons of the Am atoms due to f-d hybridization. The phonon dispersion curves, specific heat calculated from present model. The calculated phonon dispersion curves of AmP are presented follow the same trend as observed in uranium phosphide. We discuss the significance of this approach in predicting the phonon dispersion curves of these compounds and examine the role of electron-phonon interaction.

  6. Dietary Zinc Deficiency in Rodents: Effects on T-Cell Development, Maturation and Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Blewett, Heather J.; Taylor, Carla G.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for developing disease and yet we do not have a clear understanding of the mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility to infection. This review will examine the interrelationships among the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal stress axis, p56lck, and T-cell maturation in both zinc deficiency and responses during zinc repletion. We will highlight differences between the adult mouse model (wasting malnutrition) and growing rat model (stunting malnutrition) of dietary zinc deficiency and discuss the use of various controls to separate out the effects of zinc deficiency from the associated malnutrition. Elevated serum corticosterone in both zinc deficient and pair-fed rats does not support the hypothesis that zinc deficiency per se leads to corticosterone-induced apoptosis and lymphopenia. In fact, the zinc deficient rat does not have lymphopenia. Thymocytes from zinc deficient mice and rats have elevated levels of p56lck, a signalling protein with a zinc clasp structure, but this does not appear to affect thymocyte maturation. However, post-thymic T-cell maturation appears to be altered based on the lower proportion of splenic late thymic emigrants in zinc deficient rats. Fewer new T-cells in the periphery could adversely affect the T-cell repertoire and contribute to immunodeficiency in zinc deficiency. PMID:22822446

  7. Alining Solder Pads on a Solar Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazzery, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    Mechanism consisting of stylus and hand-operated lever incorporated into screening machine to precisely register front and back solder pads during solar-cell assembly. Technique may interest those assembling solar cells manually for research or prototype work.

  8. Solar-Cell Slide Rule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamakawa, K. A.

    1983-01-01

    Slide rule relates efficiency, impurity types, impurity concentrations, and process types. Solar cell slide rule calculations are determination of allowable impurity concentration for nonredistributive process, determination of impurity buildup factor for redistributive process and determination of allowable impurity concentration for redistributive process.

  9. Organic solar cells: Going green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Guoping; Wu, Hongbin

    2016-02-01

    High-performance polymer solar cells are normally processed with halogenated solvents, which are toxic and hazardous. Now, high power-conversion efficiency in bulk-heterojunction devices is achieved by using a non-toxic hydrocarbon solvent through an environmentally friendly processing route.

  10. Fishy Business: Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Zinc Transporters and Free Zinc Availability in Human Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    De Mel, Damitha; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids are one of the two main families of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The main omega-3 fatty acids in the mammalian body are α-linolenic acid (ALA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Central nervous tissues of vertebrates are characterized by a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Moreover, in the human brain, DHA is considered as the main structural omega-3 fatty acid, which comprises about 40% of the PUFAs in total. DHA deficiency may be the cause of many disorders such as depression, inability to concentrate, excessive mood swings, anxiety, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, dry skin and so on. On the other hand, zinc is the most abundant trace metal in the human brain. There are many scientific studies linking zinc, especially excess amounts of free zinc, to cellular death. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, are characterized by altered zinc metabolism. Both animal model studies and human cell culture studies have shown a possible link between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc transporter levels and free zinc availability at cellular levels. Many other studies have also suggested a possible omega-3 and zinc effect on neurodegeneration and cellular death. Therefore, in this review, we will examine the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and the importance of free zinc for human neuronal cells. Moreover, we will evaluate the collective understanding of mechanism(s) for the interaction of these elements in neuronal research and their significance for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegeneration. PMID:25195602

  11. Fishy business: effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and free zinc availability in human neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    De Mel, Damitha; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2014-08-01

    Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids are one of the two main families of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The main omega-3 fatty acids in the mammalian body are α-linolenic acid (ALA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Central nervous tissues of vertebrates are characterized by a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Moreover, in the human brain, DHA is considered as the main structural omega-3 fatty acid, which comprises about 40% of the PUFAs in total. DHA deficiency may be the cause of many disorders such as depression, inability to concentrate, excessive mood swings, anxiety, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, dry skin and so on. On the other hand, zinc is the most abundant trace metal in the human brain. There are many scientific studies linking zinc, especially excess amounts of free zinc, to cellular death. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, are characterized by altered zinc metabolism. Both animal model studies and human cell culture studies have shown a possible link between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc transporter levels and free zinc availability at cellular levels. Many other studies have also suggested a possible omega-3 and zinc effect on neurodegeneration and cellular death. Therefore, in this review, we will examine the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and the importance of free zinc for human neuronal cells. Moreover, we will evaluate the collective understanding of mechanism(s) for the interaction of these elements in neuronal research and their significance for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegeneration. PMID:25195602

  12. Low cost solar cell arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iles, P. A.; Mclennan, H.

    1975-01-01

    Limitations in both space and terrestial markets for solar cells are described. Based on knowledge of the state-of-the-art, six cell options are discussed; as a result of this discussion, the three most promising options (involving high, medium and low efficiency cells respectively) were selected and analyzed for their probable costs. The results showed that all three cell options gave promise of costs below $10 per watt in the near future. Before further cost reductions can be achieved, more R and D work is required; suggestions for suitable programs are given.

  13. Alternative separation evaluations in model rechargeable silver-zinc cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Harlan L.; Danko, Thomas; Himy, Albert; Johnson, William

    Several varieties of standard and reinforced, cellulose-based, sausage casing films derived from wood pulp have been evaluated in model (nominal 28 A h) rechargeable silver-zinc cells. The cell performance data for both cycle life and wet stand life have been compared with cells equipped with conventional 1 mil (0.025 mm) cellophane. Although shorting was the most common failure mode in the cells with sausage casing separation, remarkably good cycle and wet life were obtained when the separation wrap also included PVA film. This paper reports the cycle and wet life comparison data for these substitute separators, with respect to conventional cellophane separation, as well as separation physical property data and silver migration rates in the cells as a function of cell life.

  14. Process of making solar cell module

    DOEpatents

    Packer, M.; Coyle, P.J.

    1981-03-09

    A process is presented for the manufacture of solar cell modules. A solution comprising a highly plasticized polyvinyl butyral is applied to a solar cell array. The coated array is dried and sandwiched between at last two sheets of polyvinyl butyral and at least two sheets of a rigid transparent member. The sandwich is laminated by the application of heat and pressure to cause fusion and bonding of the solar cell array with the rigid transparent members to produce a solar cell module.

  15. Key Physical Mechanisms in Nanostructured Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dr Stephan Bremner

    2010-07-21

    The objective of the project was to study both theoretically and experimentally the excitation, recombination and transport properties required for nanostructured solar cells to deliver energy conversion efficiencies well in excess of conventional limits. These objectives were met by concentrating on three key areas, namely, investigation of physical mechanisms present in nanostructured solar cells, characterization of loss mechanisms in nanostructured solar cells and determining the properties required of nanostructured solar cells in order to achieve high efficiency and the design implications.

  16. Zinc uptake by brain cells: `surface' versus `bulk'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeStasio, Gelsomina; Pochon, S.; Lorusso, G. F.; Tonner, B. P.; Mercanti, Delio; Ciotti, M. Teresa; Oddo, Nino; Galli, Paolo; Perfetti, P.; Margaritondo, G.

    1996-08-01

    The uptake of zinc by cerebellar rat cultures upon exposure to 0022-3727/29/8/023/img12 solutions was comparatively investigated using two well known condensed matter physics techniques: synchrotron photoelectron spectromicroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The objective was to apply a strategy - well known in surface physics - to distinguish between `surface' and `bulk' phenomena. The results clearly demonstrate that exposure significantly enhances the bulk (cell cytoplasm) Zn concentration with respect to the physiological level, whereas the effect on the surface (cell membrane) is negligible.

  17. ITO/InP solar cells: A comparison of devices fabricated by ion beam and RF sputtering of the ITO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coutts, T. J.

    1987-01-01

    This work was performed with the view of elucidating the behavior of indium tin oxide/indium phosphide (ITO/InP) solar cells prepared by RF and ion beam sputtering. It was found that using RF sputter deposition of the ITO always leads to more efficient devices than ion beam sputter deposition. An important aspect of the former technique is the exposure of the single crystal p-InP substrates to a very low plasma power prior to deposition. Substrates treated in this manner have also been used for ion beam deposition of ITO. In this case the cells behave very similarly to the RF deposited cells, thus suggesting that the lower power plasma exposure (LPPE) is the crucial process step.

  18. Sheet plastic filters for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wizenick, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVF) film protects solar cells on Mars surface from radiation and prevents degradation of solar cell surfaces by Martian dust storms. PVF films may replace glass or quartz windows on solar cell arrays used to generate power on earth.

  19. Silicon solar cells: Physical metallurgy principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauk, Michael G.

    2003-05-01

    This article reviews the physical metallurgy aspects of silicon solar cells. The production of silicon solar cells relies on principles of thermochemical extractive metallurgy, phase equilibria, solidification, and kinetics. The issues related to these processes and their impact on solar cell performance and cost are discussed.

  20. Nanostructured Materials for Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Raffaelle, Ryne; Castro, Stephanie; Fahey, S.; Gennett, T.; Tin, P.

    2003-01-01

    The use of both inorganic and organic nanostructured materials in producing high efficiency photovoltaics is discussed in this paper. Recent theoretical results indicate that dramatic improvements in device efficiency may be attainable through the use of semiconductor quantum dots in an ordinary p-i-n solar cell. In addition, it has also recently been demonstrated that quantum dots can also be used to improve conversion efficiencies in polymeric thin film solar cells. A similar improvement in these types of cells has also been observed by employing single wall carbon nanotubes. This relatively new carbon allotrope may assist both in the disassociation of excitons as well as carrier transport through the composite material. This paper reviews the efforts that are currently underway to produce and characterize these nanoscale materials and to exploit their unique properties.

  1. A novel chlorophyll solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludlow, J. C.

    The photosynthetic process is reviewed in order to produce a design for a chlorophyll solar cell. In a leaf, antenna chlorophyll absorbs light energy and conducts it to an energy trap composed of a protein and two chlorophyll molecules, which perform the oxidation-reduction chemistry. The redox potential of the trap changes from 0.4 to -0.6 V, which is sufficient to reduce nearby molecules with redox potentials in that range. The reduction occurs by transfer of an electron, and a chlorophyll solar cell would direct the transferred electron to a current carrier. Chlorophyll antenna and traps are placed on a metallic support immersed in an electron acceptor solution, and resulting electrons from exposure to light are gathered by a metallic current collector. Spinach chlorophyll extracted, purified, and applied in a cell featuring a Pt collector and an octane water emulsion resulted in intensity independent voltages.

  2. Development of high band gap materials for tandem solar cells and simulation studies on mechanical tandem solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, Vishnuvardhanan

    Development of low cost, high efficiency tandem solar cells is essential for large scale adoption of solar energy especially in densely populated regions of the world. In this thesis four-terminal mechanical (stack like) tandem solar cells were evaluated using detailed simulation models and design criteria for selecting candidate materials were established. Since silicon solar cells are low cost and have a multi-giga watt global manufacturing and supply chain capacity already in place then only tandem stacks incorporating silicon as one of the layers in the device was investigated. Two candidate materials which have high band gaps that could be used as top cells in the mechanical tandem device were explored as part of the thesis. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) sensitized with N719 dye (one of the candidates for the top cell) were fabricated with the goal of enabling a flexible processing path to lower cost. Stainless steel (SS) mesh substrates were used to fabricate anodes for flexible DSSC in order to evaluate them as replacements for more expensive Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCO's). Loss mechanisms in DSSC's due to SS mesh oxidation were quantified and protective coatings to prevent oxidation of SS mesh were developed. The second material which was evaluated for use as the top cell was copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS). CZTS was deposited through a solution deposition route. Detailed investigations were done on the deposited films to understand the chemistry, crystal structure and its opto-electronic properties. Deposited CZTS films were found to be highly crystalline in <112> direction. The films had a direct band gap of 1.5 eV with absorption coefficient greater than 104 cm -1 in agreement with published values. In the second part of the thesis detailed electrical and optical simulation models of the mechanical tandem solar cells were developed based on the most up-to-date materials physical constants available for each layer. The modeling was used to

  3. Calculated performance of p(+)n InP solar cells with In(0.52)Al(0.48)As window layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, R. K.; Landis, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of indium phosphide solar cells with lattice matched wide band-gap In(0.52)Al(0.48)As window layers was calculated using the PC-1D computer code. The conversion efficiency of p(+)n InP solar cells is improved significantly by the window layer. No improvement is seen for n(+)p structures. The improvement in InP cell efficiency was studied as a function of In(0.52)Al(0.48)As layer thickness. The use of the window layer improves both the open circuit voltage and short circuit current.For a typical In(0.52)Al(0.48)As window layer thickness of 20 nm, the cell efficiency improves in excess of 27 percent to a value of 18.74 percent.

  4. Growth and Photoelectrochemical Energy Conversion of Wurtzite Indium Phosphide Nanowire Arrays.

    PubMed

    Kornienko, Nikolay; Gibson, Natalie A; Zhang, Hao; Eaton, Samuel W; Yu, Yi; Aloni, Shaul; Leone, Stephen R; Yang, Peidong

    2016-05-24

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen is a promising strategy to absorb solar energy and directly convert it into a dense storage medium in the form of chemical bonds. The continual development and improvement of individual components of PEC systems is critical toward increasing the solar to fuel efficiency of prototype devices. Within this context, we describe a study on the growth of wurtzite indium phosphide (InP) nanowire (NW) arrays on silicon substrates and their subsequent implementation as light-absorbing photocathodes in PEC cells. The high onset potential (0.6 V vs the reversible hydrogen electrode) and photocurrent (18 mA/cm(2)) of the InP photocathodes render them as promising building blocks for high performance PEC cells. As a proof of concept for overall system integration, InP photocathodes were combined with a nanoporous bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) photoanode to generate an unassisted solar water splitting efficiency of 0.5%. PMID:27124203

  5. Crystal and electronic structures of CaAl 2Si 2-type rare-earth copper zinc phosphides RECuZnP 2 ( RE=Pr, Nd, Gd-Tm, Lu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Peter E. R.; Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Cavell, Ronald G.; Mar, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    The quaternary rare-earth phosphides RECuZnP 2 ( RE=Pr, Nd, Gd-Tm, Lu) have been prepared by reaction of the elements at 900 °C, completing this versatile series which forms for nearly all RE metals. They adopt the trigonal CaAl 2Si 2-type structure (Pearson symbol hP5, space group P3¯ m1, Z=1), as confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis on ErCuZnP 2 and powder X-ray diffraction analysis on the remaining members. The Cu and Zn atoms are assumed to be disordered over the single transition-metal site. Band structure calculations on a hypothetically ordered YCuZnP 2 model suggest a semimetal, with a zero band gap between the valence and conduction bands. This electronic structure is supported by XPS valence band spectra for RECuZnP 2 ( RE=Gd-Er), in which the intensity drops off smoothly at the Fermi edge. The absence of a band gap permits the electron count to deviate from the precise value of 16 e - per formula unit, as demonstrated by the formation of a solid solution in GdCu xZn 2- xP 2 (1.0≤ x≤1.3), while still retaining the CaAl 2Si 2-type structure. Because the Cu 2 p XPS spectra indicate that the Cu atoms are always monovalent, the substitution of Cu for Zn leads to a decrease in electron count and a lowering of the Fermi level in the valence band. The magnetic susceptibility of RECuZnP 2 ( RE=Gd-Er), which obeys the Curie-Weiss law, confirms the presence of trivalent RE atoms.

  6. Towards stable silicon nanoarray hybrid solar cells

    PubMed Central

    He, W. W.; Wu, K. J.; Wang, K.; Shi, T. F.; Wu, L.; Li, S. X.; Teng, D. Y.; Ye, C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nanoarray hybrid solar cells benefit from the ease of fabrication and the cost-effectiveness of the hybrid structure, and represent a new research focus towards the utilization of solar energy. However, hybrid solar cells composed of both inorganic and organic components suffer from the notorious stability issue, which has to be tackled before the hybrid solar cells could become a viable alternative for harvesting solar energy. Here we show that Si nanoarray/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells with improved stability can be fabricated via eliminating the water inclusion in the initial formation of the heterojunction between Si nanoarray and PEDOT:PSS. The Si nanoarray hybrid solar cells are stable against rapid degradation in the atmosphere environment for several months without encapsulation. This finding paves the way towards the real-world applications of Si nanoarray hybrid solar cells. PMID:24430057

  7. GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.

    1996-01-01

    The handbook discusses the history of GaAs solar cell development, presents equations useful for working with GaAs solar cells, describes commonly used instrumentation techniques for assessing radiation effects in solar cells and fundamental processes occurring in solar cells exposed to ionizing radiation, and explains why radiation decreases the electrical performance of solar cells. Three basic elements required to perform solar array degradation calculations: degradation data for GaAs solar cells after irradiation with 1 MeV electrons at normal incidence; relative damage coefficients for omnidirectional electron and proton exposure; and the definition of the space radiation environment for the orbit of interest, are developed and used to perform a solar array degradation calculation.

  8. Mixed ternary heterojunction solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Wen S.; Stewart, John M.

    1992-08-25

    A thin film heterojunction solar cell and a method of making it has a p-type layer of mixed ternary I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor material in contact with an n-type layer of mixed binary II-VI semiconductor material. The p-type semiconductor material includes a low resistivity copper-rich region adjacent the back metal contact of the cell and a composition gradient providing a minority carrier mirror that improves the photovoltaic performance of the cell. The p-type semiconductor material preferably is CuInGaSe.sub.2 or CuIn(SSe).sub.2.

  9. Double-sided solar-cell package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelpuk, B.

    1978-01-01

    Cost-effective solar-cell package is proposed for development of practical solar-cell system. Since cells are enclosed in inexpensive plastic tubes, forced-air-cooling loop is proposed to maintain cell temperature at adequate levels. Loop must include desiccant to remove moisture from hermetic enclosures to prevent cell corrosion.

  10. Can Ni phosphides become viable hydroprocessing catalysts?

    SciTech Connect

    Soled, S.; Miseo, S.; Baumgartner, J.; Guzman, J.; Bolin, T.; Meyer, R.

    2015-05-15

    We prepared higher surface area nickel phosphides than are normally found by reducing nickel phosphate. To do this, we hydrothermally synthesized Ni hydroxy phosphite precursors with low levels of molybdenum substitution. The molybdenum substitution increases the surface area of these precursors. During pretreatment in a sulfiding atmosphere (such as H2S/H2) dispersed islands of MoS2 segregate from the precursor and provide a pathway for H2 dissociation that allows reduction of the phosphite precursor to nickel phosphide at substantially lower temperatures than in the absence of MoS2. The results reported here show that to create nickel phosphides with comparable activity to conventional supported sulfide catalysts, one would have to synthesize the phosphide with surface areas exceeding 400 m2/g (i.e. with nanoparticles less than 30 Å in lateral dimension).

  11. Down-regulation of zinc transporter 8 (SLC30A8) in pancreatic beta-cells promotes cell survival.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pancreatic islet contains high levels of zinc in granular vesicles of ß-cells where insulin is matured, crystallized, and stored before secretion. Zinc is an essential co-factor for insulin crystallization forming dense cores in secretory granules. In insulin-containing secretory granules, zinc ...

  12. Design Rules for Efficient Organic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Z.; Mühlbacher, D.; Morana, M.; Koppe, M.; Scharber, M. C.; Waller, D.; Dennler, G.; Brabec, C. J.

    There has been an intensive search for cost-effective photovoltaics since the development of the first solar cells in the 1950s [1-3]. Among all the alternative technologies to silicon-based pn-junction solar cells, organic solar cells are the approach that could lead to the most significant cost reduction [4]. The field of organic photovoltaics (OPV) is composed of organic/inorganic nanostructures, like the dyesensitized solar cell, multilayers of small organic molecules and mixtures of organic materials (bulk-heterojunction solar cell). A review of several so-called organic photovoltaic (OPV) technologies was recently presented [5].

  13. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  14. Zinc/air fuel cell for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Cherepy, N. J.; Krueger, R.; Cooper, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    We are conducting tests of an advanced zinc/air fuel cell design to determine effectiveness in various commercial applications. Our 322-cm2 cell uses gravity-fed zinc pellets as the anode, 12 M KOH electrolyte, and an air cathode catalyzed by a cobalt-porphyrin complex on carbon black. A single 322 cm2 cell runs at a standard operating power of 38 W (1200 W/m2) at 39 A (1245 A/m2) and 0.96 V with a power density of 2400 W/m2 at 0.67 V. With improved current collection hardware, already demonstrated in the laboratory, power generation increases to -3600 W/m2 at 1V. We conducted a 50-hour test in which a cell generated 587 Ah and 569 Wh. The power that may be generated increases by a factor of 2.5 between T = 28 °C and 52 °C. Electrolyte capacity, without stabilization additives, was measured at 147 Ah/L

  15. The effect of process conditions on the performance of epitaxial InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borrego, J. M.; Ghandi, S. K.

    1991-01-01

    Indium phosphide solar cells have a higher resistance to electron irradiation than Si or GaAs cells of comparable junction depth. As a result, there is much interest in the use of this material for space applications. Cells of this material were made in bulk InP by a number of techniques, including ion implantation, direct diffusion in sealed ampoules, and by open tube diffusion. However, it is generally considered that the epitaxial approach will be superior to all of these techniques. The epitaxy of InP is considerably more difficult than that of gallium arsenide, for a number of reasons. Perhaps the most important is the fact that the native oxides of Indium are extremely difficult to remove, as compared to that of Gallium. In addition, thermal treatments for the desorption of these oxides often result in the formation of phosphorus vacancies and free indium on the surface. Thus, inadequate sample preparation before epitaxy, poor reactor cleaning procedures, or poor transition procedures between the growth of successive layers, all give rise to trap phenomena and to high interface recombination velocities. Moreover, the lifetime of the grown material is dominated by the occurrence of native defects, so that it is a strong function of growth parameters. These problems are of special interest to the fabrication of solar cells, where long life-time, combined with the absence of traps, is highly desirable. A study of this problem is described using a non-invasive diagnostic technique which was developed.

  16. Nanosized zinc oxide particles induce neural stem cell apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaoyong; Luan, Qixia; Chen, Wenting; Wang, Yanli; Wu, Minghong; Zhang, Haijiao; Jiao, Zheng

    2009-03-01

    Given the intensive application of nanoscale zinc oxide (ZnO) materials in our life, growing concerns have arisen about its unintentional health and environmental impacts. In this study, the neurotoxicity of different sized ZnO nanoparticles in mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) was investigated. A cell viability assay indicated that ZnO nanoparticles manifested dose-dependent, but no size-dependent toxic effects on NSCs. Apoptotic cells were observed and analyzed by confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy examination, and flow cytometry. All the results support the viewpoint that the ZnO nanoparticle toxicity comes from the dissolved Zn2+ in the culture medium or inside cells. Our results highlight the need for caution during the use and disposal of ZnO manufactured nanomaterials to prevent the unintended environmental and health impacts.

  17. 22. 8% efficient silicon solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Blakers, A.W.; Wang, A.; Milne, A.M.; Zhao, J.; Green, M.A. )

    1989-09-25

    A new silicon solar cell structure, the passivated emitter and rear cell, is described. The cell structure has yielded independently confirmed efficiencies of up to 22.8%, the highest ever reported for a silicon cell.

  18. The monitoring possibility of some mammalian cells for zinc concentrations on metallic materials.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Akiko; Okuda, Naoaki; Hio, Katsuya; Kanematsu, Hideyuki; Tamauchi, Hidekazu

    2012-05-01

    Zinc plating is widely used to protect steels against corrosion. However, the possibility of a high environmental risk for zinc has been recently discussed among advanced countries and more environmentally-friendly substitutes are required urgently. Therefore, monitoring zinc concentration changes on metallic materials such as steel is very important. We chose to measure zinc concentration changes in some mammalian cells and confirmed that V79 cells were highly sensitive to changes in zinc concentrations. In this study, the following process was applied to the proprietary production for tin-zinc alloy films on steel using V79 cells. Specimens were immersed in PBS to produce extracts. Zinc concentrations in the extracts almost corresponded to zinc concentrations on steel surfaces. When extracts were added to a V79 cell culture, colony formation was inhibited, and inhibition increased with increases in zinc concentrations. Changes in zinc concentrations on steel surfaces with heat treatment could be monitored relatively well by V79 cells, even though the results were still semi-quantitative. PMID:22331507

  19. Cellular Zinc Homeostasis Contributes to Neuronal Differentiation in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pfaender, Stefanie; Föhr, Karl; Lutz, Anne-Kathrin; Putz, Stefan; Achberger, Kevin; Linta, Leonhard; Liebau, Stefan; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Grabrucker, Andreas M.

    2016-01-01

    Disturbances in neuronal differentiation and function are an underlying factor of many brain disorders. Zinc homeostasis and signaling are important mediators for a normal brain development and function, given that zinc deficiency was shown to result in cognitive and emotional deficits in animal models that might be associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. One underlying mechanism of the observed detrimental effects of zinc deficiency on the brain might be impaired proliferation and differentiation of stem cells participating in neurogenesis. Thus, to examine the molecular mechanisms regulating zinc metabolism and signaling in differentiating neurons, using a protocol for motor neuron differentiation, we characterized the expression of zinc homeostasis genes during neurogenesis using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and evaluated the influence of altered zinc levels on the expression of zinc homeostasis genes, cell survival, cell fate, and neuronal function. Our results show that zinc transporters are highly regulated genes during neuronal differentiation and that low zinc levels are associated with decreased cell survival, altered neuronal differentiation, and, in particular, synaptic function. We conclude that zinc deficiency in a critical time window during brain development might influence brain function by modulating neuronal differentiation. PMID:27247802

  20. Compensated amorphous silicon solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Devaud, Genevieve

    1983-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell including an electrically conductive substrate, a layer of glow discharge deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon over said substrate and having regions of differing conductivity with at least one region of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has opposed first and second major surfaces where the first major surface contacts the electrically conductive substrate and an electrode for electrically contacting the second major surface. The intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon region is deposited in a glow discharge with an atmosphere which includes not less than about 0.02 atom percent mono-atomic boron. An improved N.I.P. solar cell is disclosed using a BF.sub.3 doped intrinsic layer.

  1. The cytotoxic effects of titanium oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles oh Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironava, Tatsiana; Applebaum, Ariella; Applebaum, Eliana; Guterman, Shoshana; Applebaum, Kayla; Grossman, Daniel; Gordon, Chris; Brink, Peter; Wang, H. Z.; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2013-03-01

    The importance of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO), inorganic metal oxides nanoparticles (NPs) stems from their ubiquitous applications in personal care products, solar cells and food whitening agents. Hence, these NPs come in direct contact with the skin, digestive tracts and are absorbed into human tissues. Currently, TiO2 and ZnO are considered safe commercial ingredients by the material safety data sheets with no reported evidence of carcinogenicity or ecotoxicity, and do not classify either NP as a toxic substance. This study examined the direct effects of TiO2 and ZnO on HeLa cells, a human cervical adenocarcinonma cell line, and their membrane mechanics. The whole cell patch-clamp technique was used in addition to immunohistochemistry staining, TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Additionally, we examined the effects of dexamethasone (DXM), a glucocorticoid steroid known to have an effect on cell membrane mechanics. Overall, TiO2 and ZnO seemed to have an adverse effect on cell membrane mechanics by effecting cell proliferation, altering cellular structure, decreasing cell-cell adhesion, activating existing ion channels, increasing membrane permeability, and possibly disrupting cell signaling.

  2. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on multichromophoric supramolecular light-harvesting materials.

    PubMed

    Panda, Dillip K; Goodson, Flynt S; Ray, Shuvasree; Saha, Sourav

    2014-05-25

    Multichromophoric dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) comprised of a supramolecular zinc-phthalocyanineperyleneimide (ZnPc···PMI) dyad convert light to electrical energy with much higher power conversion efficiency (PCE = 2.3%) and incident-photon-to-current-efficiency (IPCE = ca. 40%) than the devices made of individual dyes. PMID:24409457

  3. High Temperature Solar Cell Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Merritt, Danielle

    2004-01-01

    The majority of satellites and near-earth probes developed to date have used photovoltaic arrays for power generation. If future mission to probe environments close to the sun will be able to use photovoltaic power, solar cells that can function at high temperatures, under high light intensity, and high radiation conditions must be developed. In this paper, we derive the optimum bandgap as a function of the operating temperature.

  4. Solar Cells for Lunar Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freundlich, Alex; Ignatiev, Alex

    1997-01-01

    In this work a preliminary study of the vacuum evaporation of silicon extracted from the lunar regolith has been undertaken. An electron gun vacuum evaporation system has been adapted for this purpose. Following the calibration of the system using ultra high purity silicon deposited on Al coated glass substrates, thin films of lunar Si were evaporated on a variety of crystalline substrates as well as on glass and lightweight 1 mil (25 microns) Al foil. Extremely smooth and featureless films with essentially semiconducting properties were obtained. Optical absorption analysis sets the bandgap (about 1.1 eV) and the refractive index (n=3.5) of the deposited thin films close to that of crystalline silicon. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis indicated that these films are essentially comparable to high purity silicon and that the evaporation process resulted in a substantial reduction of impurity levels. All layers exhibited a p-type conductivity suggesting the presence of a p-type dopant in the fabricated layers. While the purity of the 'lunar waste material' is below that of the 'microelectronic-grade silicon', the vacuum evaporated material properties seems to be adequate for the fabrication of average performance Si-based devices such as thin film solar cells. Taking into account solar cell thickness requirements (greater than 10 microns) and the small quantities of lunar material available for this study, solar cell fabrication was not possible. However, the high quality of the optical and electronic properties of evaporated thin films was found to be similar to those obtained using ultra-high purity silicon suggest that thin film solar cell production on the lunar surface with in situ resource utilization may be a viable approach for electric power generation on the moon.

  5. Silicon Carbide Solar Cells Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.

    2001-01-01

    The semiconductor silicon carbide (SiC) has long been known for its outstanding resistance to harsh environments (e.g., thermal stability, radiation resistance, and dielectric strength). However, the ability to produce device-quality material is severely limited by the inherent crystalline defects associated with this material and their associated electronic effects. Much progress has been made recently in the understanding and control of these defects and in the improved processing of this material. Because of this work, it may be possible to produce SiC-based solar cells for environments with high temperatures, light intensities, and radiation, such as those experienced by solar probes. Electronics and sensors based on SiC can operate in hostile environments where conventional silicon-based electronics (limited to 350 C) cannot function. Development of this material will enable large performance enhancements and size reductions for a wide variety of systems--such as high-frequency devices, high-power devices, microwave switching devices, and high-temperature electronics. These applications would supply more energy-efficient public electric power distribution and electric vehicles, more powerful microwave electronics for radar and communications, and better sensors and controls for cleaner-burning, more fuel-efficient jet aircraft and automobile engines. The 6H-SiC polytype is a promising wide-bandgap (Eg = 3.0 eV) semiconductor for photovoltaic applications in harsh solar environments that involve high-temperature and high-radiation conditions. The advantages of this material for this application lie in its extremely large breakdown field strength, high thermal conductivity, good electron saturation drift velocity, and stable electrical performance at temperatures as high as 600 C. This behavior makes it an attractive photovoltaic solar cell material for devices that can operate within three solar radii of the Sun.

  6. High Efficiency Cascade Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shuguang Deng, Seamus Curran, Igor Vasiliev

    2010-09-28

    This report summarizes the main work performed by New Mexico State University and University of Houston on a DOE sponsored project High Efficiency Cascade Solar Cells. The main tasks of this project include materials synthesis, characterization, theoretical calculations, organic solar cell device fabrication and test. The objective of this project is to develop organic nano-electronic-based photovoltaics. Carbon nanotubes and organic conjugated polymers were used to synthesize nanocomposites as the new active semiconductor materials that were used for fabricating two device architectures: thin film coating and cascade solar cell fiber. Chemical vapor deposition technique was employed to synthesized a variety of carbon nanotubes (single-walled CNT, doubled-walled CNT, multi-walled CNT, N-doped SWCNT, DWCNT and MWCNT, and B-doped SWCNT, DWCNT and MWCNT) and a few novel carbon structures (CNT-based nanolance, nanocross and supported graphene film) that have potential applications in organic solar cells. Purification procedures were developed for removing amorphous carbons from carbon nanotubes, and a controlled oxidation method was established for partial truncation of fullerene molecules. Carbon nanotubes (DWCNT and DWCNT) were functionalized with fullerenes and dyes covalently and used to form nanocomposites with conjugated polymers. Biologically synthesized Tellurium nanotubes were used to form composite with the conjugated polymers as well, which generated the highest reported optical limiting values from composites. Several materials characterization technique including SEM/TEM, Raman, AFM, UV-vis, adsorption and EDS were employed to characterize the physical and chemical properties of the carbon nanotubes, the functionalized carbon nanotubes and the nanocomposites synthesized in this project. These techniques allowed us to have a spectroscopic and morphological control of the composite formation and to understand the materials assembled. A parallel 136-CPU

  7. Noise Diagnostics of Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koktavy, Pavel; Raska, Michal; Sadovsky, Petr; Krcal, Ondrej

    2007-07-01

    This paper deals with the use of micro-plasma noise for solar cells diagnostic purposes. When a high electric field is applied to a PN junction containing some technological imperfections, enhanced impact ionization arises in micro-sized regions, thus producing so-called micro-plasmas, which in turn can lead to the deterioration in quality or destruction of the PN junction. It is therefore advisable to use methods which can indicate the presence of micro-plasma in the junction and make the quality assessment and quantitative description of the tested cells possible.

  8. Three-junction solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Ludowise, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    A photovoltaic solar cell is formed in a monolithic semiconductor. The cell contains three junctions. In sequence from the light-entering face, the junctions have a high, a medium, and a low energy gap. The lower junctions are connected in series by one or more metallic members connecting the top of the lower junction through apertures to the bottom of the middle junction. The upper junction is connected in voltage opposition to the lower and middle junctions by second metallic electrodes deposited in holes 60 through the upper junction. The second electrodes are connected to an external terminal.

  9. Recent Advances in Solar Cell Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The advances in solar cell efficiency, radiation tolerance, and cost over the last decade are reviewed. Potential performance of thin-film solar cells in space are discussed, and the cost and the historical trends in production capability of the photovoltaics industry are considered with respect to the requirements of space power systems. Concentrator cells with conversion efficiency over 30%, and nonconcentrating solar cells with efficiency over 25% are now available, and advanced radiation-tolerant cells and lightweight, thin-film arrays are both being developed. Nonsolar applications of solar cells, including thermophotovoltaics, alpha- and betavoltaics, and laser power receivers, are also discussed.

  10. Spectral sensitization of nanocrystalline solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Spitler, Mark T.; Ehret, Anne; Stuhl, Louis S.

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to dye sensitized polycrystalline photoelectrochemical solar cells for use in energy transduction from light to electricity. It concerns the utility of highly absorbing organic chromophores as sensitizers in such cells and the degree to which they may be utilized alone and in combination to produce an efficient photoelectrochemical cell, e.g., a regenerative solar cell.

  11. Interface engineering for efficient fullerene-free organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shivanna, Ravichandran; Narayan, K. S. E-mail: narayan@jncasr.ac.in; Rajaram, Sridhar E-mail: narayan@jncasr.ac.in

    2015-03-23

    We demonstrate the role of zinc oxide (ZnO) morphology and addition of an acceptor interlayer to achieve high efficiency fullerene-free bulk heterojunction inverted organic solar cells. Nanopatterning of the ZnO buffer layer enhances the effective light absorption in the active layer, and the insertion of a twisted perylene acceptor layer planarizes and decreases the electron extraction barrier. Along with an increase in current homogeneity, the reduced work function difference and selective transport of electrons prevent the accumulation of charges and decrease the electron-hole recombination at the interface. These factors enable an overall increase of efficiency to 4.6%, which is significant for a fullerene-free solution-processed organic solar cell.

  12. Solar Coronal Cells as Seen by STEREO

    NASA Video Gallery

    The changes of a coronal cell region as solar rotation carries it across the solar disk as seen with NASA's STEREO-B spacecraft. The camera is fixed on the region (panning with it) and shows the pl...

  13. Zinc deficiency enhanced inflammatory response by increasing immune cell activation and inducing IL6 promoter demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Carmen P.; Rinaldi, Nicole A.; Ho, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Scope Zinc deficiency results in immune dysfunction and promotes systemic inflammation. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of zinc deficiency on cellular immune activation and epigenetic mechanisms that promote inflammation. This work is potentially relevant to the aging population given that age-related immune defects, including chronic inflammation, coincide with declining zinc status. Methods and results An in vitro cell culture system and the aged mouse model were used to characterize immune activation and DNA methylation profiles that may contribute to the enhanced proinflammatory response mediated by zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency up-regulated cell activation markers ICAM1, MHC class II, and CD86 in THP1 cells, that coincided with increased IL1β and IL6 responses following LPS stimulation. A decreased zinc status in aged mice was similarly associated with increased ICAM1 and IL6 gene expression. Reduced IL6 promoter methylation was observed in zinc deficient THP1 cells, as well as in aged mice and human lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from aged individuals. Conclusion Zinc deficiency induced inflammatory response in part by eliciting aberrant immune cell activation and altered promoter methylation. Our results suggested potential interactions between zinc status, epigenetics, and immune function, and how their dysregulation could contribute to chronic inflammation. PMID:25656040

  14. Extended Temperature Solar Cell Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, David; Rafaelle, Ryne

    2004-01-01

    Future NASA missions will require solar cells to operate both in regimes closer to the sun, and farther from the sun, where the operating temperatures will be higher and lower than standard operational conditions. NASA Glenn is engaged in testing solar cells under extended temperature ranges, developing theoretical models of cell operation as a function of temperature, and in developing technology for improving the performance of solar cells for both high and low temperature operation.

  15. The advanced solar cell orbital test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, D. C.; Gates, M.

    1991-01-01

    The motivation for advanced solar cell flight experiments is discussed and the Advanced Solar Cell Orbital Test (ASCOT) flight experiment is described. Details of the types of solar cells included in the test and the kinds of data to be collected are given. The orbit will expose the cells to a sufficiently high radiation dose that useful degradation data will be obtained in the first year.

  16. Work Station For Inverting Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feder, H.; Frasch, W.

    1982-01-01

    Final work station along walking-beam conveyor of solar-array assembly line turns each pretabbed solar cell over, depositing it back-side-up onto landing pad, which centers cell without engaging collector surface. Solar cell arrives at inverting work station collector-side-up with two interconnect tabs attached to collector side. Cells are inverted so that second soldering operation takes place in plain view of operator. Inversion protects collector from damage when handled at later stages of assembly.

  17. Status of multijunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Y. C. M.; Chu, C. L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes Applied Solar's present activity on Multijunction (MJ) space cells. We have worked on a variety of MJ cells, both monolithic and mechanically stacked. In recent years, most effort has been directed to GaInP2/GaAs monolithic cells, grown on Ge substrates, and the status of this cell design will be reviewed here. MJ cells are in demand to provide satellite power because of the acceptance of the overwhelming importance of high efficiency to reduce the area, weight and cost of space PV power systems. The need for high efficiencies has already accelerated the production of GaAs/Ge cells, with efficiencies 18.5-19%. When users realized that MJ cells could provide higher efficiencies (from 22% to 26%) with only fractional increase in costs, the demand for production MJ cells increased rapidly. The main purpose of the work described is to transfer the MOCVD growth technology of MJ high efficiency cells to a production environment, providing all the space requirements of users.

  18. Supramolecular photochemistry and solar cells

    PubMed

    Iha

    2000-01-01

    Supramolecular photochemistry as well as solar cells are fascinating topics of current interest in Inorganic Photochemistry and very active research fields which have attracted wide attention in last two decades. A brief outline of the investigations in these fields carried out in our Laboratory of Inorganic Photochemistry and Energy Conversion is given here with no attempt of an exhaustive coverage of the literature. The emphasis is placed on recent work and information on the above mentioned subjects. Three types of supramolecular systems have been the focus of this work: (i) cage-type coordination compounds; (ii) second-sphere coordination compounds, exemplified by ion-pair photochemistry of cobalt complexes and (iii) covalently-linked systems. In the latter, modulation of the photoluminescence and photochemistry of some rhenium complexes are discussed. Solar energy conversion and development of thin-layer photoelectrochemical solar cells based on sensitization of nanocrystalline semiconductor films by some ruthenium polypyridyl complexes are presented as an important application that resulted from specifically engineered artificial assemblies. PMID:10932106

  19. DETAIL OF ZINC CLEANER CELL INTERIOR (EXPOSED AT F/45 FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ZINC CLEANER CELL INTERIOR (EXPOSED AT F/45 FOR DEPTH OF FIELD PURPOSES). NOTE GALIGHER STYLE BAFFLES AND TENDENCY OF ZINC TO BUILD UP ON CELL COMPONENTS. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  20. Energy Conversion: Nano Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahaya, Muhammad; Yap, Chi Chin; Mat Salleh, Muhamad

    2009-09-01

    Problems of fossil-fuel-induced climate change have sparked a demand for sustainable energy supply for all sectors of economy. Most laboratories continue to search for new materials and new technique to generate clean energy at affordable cost. Nanotechnology can play a major role in solving the energy problem. The prospect for solar energy using Si-based technology is not encouraging. Si photovoltaics can produce electricity at 20-30 c//kWhr with about 25% efficiency. Nanoparticles have a strong capacity to absorb light and generate more electrons for current as discovered in the recent work of organic and dye-sensitized cell. Using cheap preparation technique such as screen-printing and self-assembly growth, organic cells shows a strong potential for commercialization. Thin Films research group at National University Malaysia has been actively involved in these areas, and in this seminar, we will present a review works on nanomaterials for solar cells and particularly on hybrid organic solar cell based on ZnO nanorod arrays. The organic layer consisting of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] (MEHPPV) and [6, 6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid 3-ethylthiophene ester (PCBE) was spin-coated on ZnO nanorod arrays. ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on FTO glass substrates which were pre-coated with ZnO nanoparticles using a low temperature chemical solution method. A gold electrode was used as the top contact. The device gave a short circuit current density of 2.49×10-4 mA/cm2 and an open circuit voltage of 0.45 V under illumination of a projector halogen light at 100 mW/cm2.

  1. Angiotensin II Requires Zinc and Downregulation of the Zinc Transporters ZnT3 and ZnT10 to Induce Senescence of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Patrushev, Nikolay; Seidel-Rogol, Bonnie; Salazar, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Senescence, a hallmark of mammalian aging, is associated with the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease. Angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling and zinc homeostasis dysfunction are increased with age and are linked to cardiovascular disease, but the relationship among these processes has not been investigated. We used a model of cellular senescence induced by Ang II in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to explore the role of zinc in vascular dysfunction. We found that Ang II-induced senescence is a zinc-dependent pathway mediated by the downregulation of the zinc transporters ZnT3 and ZnT10, which work to reduce cytosolic zinc. Zinc mimics Ang II by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS), activating NADPH oxidase activity and Akt, and by downregulating ZnT3 and ZnT10 and inducing senescence. Zinc increases Ang II-induced senescence, while the zinc chelator TPEN, as well as overexpression of ZnT3 or ZnT10, decreases ROS and prevents senescence. Using HEK293 cells, we found that ZnT10 localizes in recycling endosomes and transports zinc into vesicles to prevent zinc toxicity. Zinc and ZnT3/ZnT10 downregulation induces senescence by decreasing the expression of catalase. Consistently, ZnT3 and ZnT10 downregulation by siRNA increases ROS while downregulation of catalase by siRNA induces senescence. Zinc, siZnT3 and siZnT10 downregulate catalase by a post-transcriptional mechanism mediated by decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2. These data demonstrate that zinc homeostasis dysfunction by decreased expression of ZnT3 or ZnT10 promotes senescence and that Ang II-induced senescence is a zinc and ROS-dependent process. Our studies suggest that zinc might also affect other ROS-dependent processes induced by Ang II, such as hypertrophy and migration of smooth muscle cells. PMID:22427991

  2. Boron phosphide under pressure: In situ study by Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Solozhenko, Vladimir L.; Kurakevych, Oleksandr O.; Le Godec, Yann; Kurnosov, Aleksandr V.; Oganov, Artem R.

    2014-07-21

    Cubic boron phosphide, BP, has been studied in situ by X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering up to 55 GPa at 300 K in a diamond anvil cell. The bulk modulus of B{sub 0} = 174(2) GPa has been established, which is in excellent agreement with our ab initio calculations. The data on Raman shift as a function of pressure, combined with equation-of-state (EOS) data, allowed us to estimate the Grüneisen parameters of the TO and LO modes of zinc-blende structure, γ{sub G}{sup TO }= 1.26 and γ{sub G}{sup LO }= 1.13, just like in the case of other A{sup III}B{sup V} diamond-like phases, for which γ{sub G}{sup TO }> γ{sub G}{sup LO }≅ 1. We also established that the pressure dependence of the effective electro-optical constant α is responsible for a strong change in relative intensities of the TO and LO modes from I{sub TO}/I{sub LO} ∼ 0.25 at 0.1 MPa to I{sub TO}/I{sub LO} ∼ 2.5 at 45 GPa, for which we also find excellent agreement between experiment and theory.

  3. Soybean extracts increase cell surface ZIP4 abundance and cellular zinc levels: a potential novel strategy to enhance zinc absorption by ZIP4 targeting.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ayako; Ohkura, Katsuma; Takahashi, Masakazu; Kizu, Kumiko; Narita, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Shuichi; Miyamae, Yusaku; Masuda, Seiji; Nagao, Masaya; Irie, Kazuhiro; Ohigashi, Hajime; Andrews, Glen K; Kambe, Taiho

    2015-12-01

    Dietary zinc deficiency puts human health at risk, so we explored strategies for enhancing zinc absorption. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter ZIP4 functions as an essential component of zinc absorption. Overexpression of ZIP4 protein increases zinc uptake and thereby cellular zinc levels, suggesting that food components with the ability to increase ZIP4 could potentially enhance zinc absorption via the intestine. In the present study, we used mouse Hepa cells, which regulate mouse Zip4 (mZip4) in a manner indistinguishable from that in intestinal enterocytes, to screen for suitable food components that can increase the abundance of ZIP4. Using this ZIP4-targeting strategy, two such soybean extracts were identified that were specifically able to decrease mZip4 endocytosis in response to zinc. These soybean extracts also effectively increased the abundance of apically localized mZip4 in transfected polarized Caco2 and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and, moreover, two apically localized mZip4 acrodermatitis enteropathica mutants. Soybean components were purified from one extract and soyasaponin Bb was identified as an active component that increased both mZip4 protein abundance and zinc levels in Hepa cells. Finally, we confirmed that soyasaponin Bb is capable of enhancing cell surface endogenous human ZIP4 in human cells. Our results suggest that ZIP4 targeting may represent a new strategy to improve zinc absorption in humans. PMID:26385990

  4. Eutectic Contact Inks for Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.

    1985-01-01

    Low-resistance electrical contacts formed on solar cells by melting powders of eutectic composition of semiconductor and dopant. Process improves cell performance without subjecting cell to processing temperatures high enough to degrade other characteristics.

  5. Impaired Calcium Entry into Cells Is Associated with Pathological Signs of Zinc Deficiency12

    PubMed Central

    O’Dell, Boyd L.; Browning, Jimmy D.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element whose deficiency gives rise to specific pathological signs. These signs occur because an essential metabolic function is impaired as the result of failure to form or maintain a specific metal-ion protein complex. Although zinc is a component of many essential metalloenzymes and transcription factors, few of these have been identified with a specific sign of incipient zinc deficiency. Zinc also functions as a structural component of other essential proteins. Recent research with Swiss murine fibroblasts, 3T3 cells, has shown that zinc deficiency impairs calcium entry into cells, a process essential for many cell functions, including proliferation, maturation, contraction, and immunity. Impairment of calcium entry and the subsequent failure of cell proliferation could explain the growth failure associated with zinc deficiency. Defective calcium uptake is associated with impaired nerve transmission and pathology of the peripheral nervous system, as well as the failure of platelet aggregation and the bleeding tendency of zinc deficiency. There is a strong analogy between the pathology of genetic diseases that result in impaired calcium entry and other signs of zinc deficiency, such as decreased and cyclic food intake, taste abnormalities, abnormal water balance, skin lesions, impaired reproduction, depressed immunity, and teratogenesis. This analogy suggests that failure of calcium entry is involved in these signs of zinc deficiency as well. PMID:23674794

  6. Impaired calcium entry into cells is associated with pathological signs of zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Boyd L; Browning, Jimmy D

    2013-05-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element whose deficiency gives rise to specific pathological signs. These signs occur because an essential metabolic function is impaired as the result of failure to form or maintain a specific metal-ion protein complex. Although zinc is a component of many essential metalloenzymes and transcription factors, few of these have been identified with a specific sign of incipient zinc deficiency. Zinc also functions as a structural component of other essential proteins. Recent research with Swiss murine fibroblasts, 3T3 cells, has shown that zinc deficiency impairs calcium entry into cells, a process essential for many cell functions, including proliferation, maturation, contraction, and immunity. Impairment of calcium entry and the subsequent failure of cell proliferation could explain the growth failure associated with zinc deficiency. Defective calcium uptake is associated with impaired nerve transmission and pathology of the peripheral nervous system, as well as the failure of platelet aggregation and the bleeding tendency of zinc deficiency. There is a strong analogy between the pathology of genetic diseases that result in impaired calcium entry and other signs of zinc deficiency, such as decreased and cyclic food intake, taste abnormalities, abnormal water balance, skin lesions, impaired reproduction, depressed immunity, and teratogenesis. This analogy suggests that failure of calcium entry is involved in these signs of zinc deficiency as well. PMID:23674794

  7. Solar cell system having alternating current output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A monolithic multijunction solar cell was modified by fabricating an integrated circuit inverter on the back of the cell to produce a device capable of generating an alternating current output. In another embodiment, integrated curcuit power conditioning electronics was incorporated in a module containing a solar cell power supply.

  8. Search for new solar cell heats up

    SciTech Connect

    Lipkin, R.

    1990-11-05

    Researchers are in the process of developing an organic solar energy cell with a plasticlike material that simplifies the complicated process of creating a working cell - one that is cheap, easy to produce and has a variety of potential applications. The chemical is polyacetylene and can be painted on anything to become a solar cell.

  9. New experimental techniques for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenk, R.

    1993-01-01

    Solar cell capacitance has special importance for an array controlled by shunting. Experimental measurements of solar cell capacitance in the past have shown disagreements of orders of magnitude. Correct measurement technique depends on maintaining the excitation voltage less than the thermal voltage. Two different experimental methods are shown to match theory well, and two effective capacitances are defined for quantifying the effect of the solar cell capacitance on the shunting system.

  10. Bypass diode for a solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Rim, Seung Bum; Kim, Taeseok; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter J.

    2012-03-13

    Bypass diodes for solar cells are described. In one embodiment, a bypass diode for a solar cell includes a substrate of the solar cell. A first conductive region is disposed above the substrate, the first conductive region of a first conductivity type. A second conductive region is disposed on the first conductive region, the second conductive region of a second conductivity type opposite the first conductivity type.

  11. Ultrasonic Bonding of Solar-Cell Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frasch, W.

    1984-01-01

    Rolling ultrasonic spot-bonding method successfully joins aluminum interconnect fingers to silicon solar cells with copper metalization. Technique combines best features of ultrasonic rotary seam welding and ultrasonic spot bonding: allows fast bond cycles and high indexing speeds without use of solder or flux. Achieves reliable bonds at production rates without damage to solar cells. Bonding system of interest for all solar-cell assemblies and other assemblies using flat leads (rather than round wires).

  12. Status of polycrystalline solar cell technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapur, Vijay K.; Basol, Bulent M.

    Thin-film cadmium telluride (CdTe) and thin-film copper indium diselenide (CIS) solar cells are discussed. The issues these technologies face before commercialization are addressed. High-efficiency (15-18 percent) polycrystalline silicon modules could dominate the market in the near future, and impressive results for thin-film CdTe and CIS solar cells and their outdoor stability can attract increased interest in these solar cells, which will accelerate their development.

  13. Solar Cell Modules With Improved Backskin

    DOEpatents

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C.

    2003-12-09

    A laminated solar cell module comprises a front light transmitting support, a plurality of interconnected solar cells encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant material, and an improved backskin formed of an ionomer/nylon alloy. The improved backskin has a toughness and melting point temperature sufficiently great to avoid any likelihood of it being pierced by any of the components that interconnect the solar cells.

  14. Improved monolithic tandem solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1991-04-23

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surf ace of the InP substrate, (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell; and (d) an optically transparent prismatic cover layer over the second subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched.

  15. Zinc Induced G2/M Blockage is p53 and p21 Dependent in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The involvement of the p53 and p21 signal pathway in the G2/M cell cycle progression of zinc supplemented normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells was examined using the siRNA approach. Cells were cultured for one passage in different concentrations of zinc: <0.4 microM (ZD) as zinc-deficient;...

  16. Noise of Reverse Biased Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarvada, P.; Macku, R.; Koktavy, P.; Raska, M.

    2009-04-01

    The non-destructive testing and analysis of single crystal silicon solar cell is the focal point of our research. The noise spectroscopy and I-V curve measurement of reverse biased pn junction provide information that is connected with solar cell reliability and that provide for not only local defect characterization. We propose a new electric solar cell model, as a base for an enhanced noise model, which is in accordance with the experimentally obtained I-V curves. We suggest the physical nature of an unconventional behavior in reverse I-V characteristics, which is typical for solar cells without apparent local avalanche breakdowns.

  17. Laser-assisted solar cell metallization processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, A.; Gupta, S.; Mcmullin, P. G.; Palaschak, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    Laser-assisted processing techniques for producing high-quality solar cell metallization patterns are being investigated, developed, and characterized. The tasks comprising these investigations are outlined.

  18. Very High Efficiency Solar Cell Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, A.; Kirkpatrick, D.; Honsberg, C.; Moore, D.; Wanlass, M.; Emery, K.; Schwartz, R.; Carlson, D.; Bowden, S.; Aiken, D.; Gray, A.; Kurtz, S.; Kazmerski, L., et al

    2009-01-01

    The Very High Efficiency Solar Cell (VHESC) program is developing integrated optical system - PV modules for portable applications that operate at greater than 50% efficiency. We are integrating the optical design with the solar cell design, and have entered previously unoccupied design space. Our approach is driven by proven quantitative models for the solar cell design, the optical design, and the integration of these designs. Optical systems efficiency with an optical efficiency of 93% and solar cell device results under ideal dichroic splitting optics summing to 42.7 {+-} 2.5% are described.

  19. Sublethal effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on male reproductive cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Xu, Cheng; Ji, Guixiang; Liu, Hui; Mo, Yiqun; Tollerud, David J; Gu, Aihua; Zhang, Qunwei

    2016-09-01

    Environmental exposure to nanomaterials is inevitable as nanomaterials become part of our daily life, and as a result, nanotoxicity research is gaining attention. Most investigators focused on the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on human health, while limited information was available on the male reproductive system. Herein, mouse Sertoli cell line (TM-4) and spermatocyte cell line (GC2-spd) were used as in vitro models to explore the reproductive effects of ZnO NPs at sublethal dose and its underlying mechanisms. Cells were treated with different concentrations of ZnO NPs. By cell viability assay, a dose of 8μg/mL was found as a sublethal dose and increased the ROS levels in both cells. The decreased glutathione level and increased MDA level were also found in ZnO NPs treated group. In TM4 cells, the expressions of BTB proteins (ZO-1, occludin, claudin-5, and connexin-43) were lower in the ZnO NPs group. The increased cell permeability and increased TNF-α secretion were also observed in ZnO NPs group. In GC2-spd cells, S phase arrest and DNA damage occurred in ZnO NPs group, which could be partially rescued by NAC. Our findings demonstrated that exposure to ZnO NPs induced ROS generation, caused DNA damage of germ cells, and down-regulated the expression of BTB proteins in Sertoli cells which could compromise the integrity of the blood-testis barrier. All these contributed to the male reproductive cytotoxic effects of ZnO NPs that could be partially rescued by anti-oxidants. PMID:27247145

  20. Zinc Induces Apoptosis of Human Melanoma Cells, Increasing Reactive Oxygen Species, p53 and FAS Ligand.

    PubMed

    Provinciali, Mauro; Pierpaoli, Elisa; Bartozzi, Beatrice; Bernardini, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro effect of zinc on the apoptosis of human melanoma cells, by studying the zinc-dependent modulation of intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of p53 and FAS ligand proteins. We showed that zinc concentrations ranging from 33.7 μM to 75 μM Zn(2+) induced apoptosis in the human melanoma cell line WM 266-4. This apoptosis was associated with an increased production of intracellular ROS, and of p53 and FAS ligand protein. Treatment of tumor cells with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine was able to prevent Zn(2+)-induced apoptosis, as well as the increase of p53 and FAS ligand protein induced by zinc. Zinc induces apoptosis in melanoma cells by increasing ROS and this effect may be mediated by the ROS-dependent induction of p53 and FAS/FAS ligand. PMID:26408691

  1. Front contact solar cell with formed emitter

    DOEpatents

    Cousins, Peter John

    2014-11-04

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

  2. Front contact solar cell with formed emitter

    DOEpatents

    Cousins, Peter John

    2012-07-17

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

  3. Monolithic and mechanical multijunction space solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, R.K.; Flood, D.J. )

    1993-05-01

    High-efficiency, lightweight, radiation-resistant solar cells are essential to meet the large power requirements of future space missions. Single-junction cells are limited in efficiency. Higher cell efficiencies could be realized by developing multijunction, multibandgap solar cells. Monolithic and mechanically stacked tandem solar cells surpassing single-junction cell efficiencies have been fabricated. This article surveys the current status of monolithic and mechanically stacked multibandgap space solar cells, and outlines problems yet to be resolved. The monolithic and mechanically stacked cells each have their own problems related to size, processing, current and voltage matching, weight, and other factors. More information is needed on the effect of temperature and radiation on the cell performance. Proper reference cells and full-spectrum range simulators are also needed to measure efficiencies correctly. Cost issues are not addressed, since the two approaches are still in the developmental stage.

  4. Monolithic and mechanical multijunction space solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, R.K.; Flood, D.J.

    1992-08-01

    High-efficiency, lightweight, radiation-resistant solar cells are essential to meet the large power requirements of future space missions. Single-junction cells are limited in efficiency. Higher cell efficiencies could be realized by developing multijunction, multibandgap solar cells. Monolithic and mechanically stacked tandem solar cells surpassing single-junction cell efficiencies have been fabricated. This article surveys the current status of monolithic and mechanically stacked multibandgap space solar cells, and outlines problems yet to be resolved. The monolithic and mechanically stacked cells each have their own problems related to size, processing, current and voltage matching, weight, and other factors. More information is needed on the effect of temperature and radiation on the cell performance. Proper reference cells and full-spectrum range simulators are also needed to measure efficiencies correctly. Cost issues are not addressed, since the two approaches are still in the developmental stage.

  5. Monolithic and mechanical multijunction space solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1992-01-01

    High-efficiency, lightweight, radiation-resistant solar cells are essential to meet the large power requirements of future space missions. Single-junction cells are limited in efficiency. Higher cell efficiencies could be realized by developing multijunction, multibandgap solar cells. Monolithic and mechanically stacked tandem solar cells surpassing single-junction cell efficiencies have been fabricated. This article surveys the current status of monolithic and mechanically stacked multibandgap space solar cells, and outlines problems yet to be resolved. The monolithic and mechanically stacked cells each have their own problems related to size, processing, current and voltage matching, weight, and other factors. More information is needed on the effect of temperature and radiation on the cell performance. Proper reference cells and full-spectrum range simulators are also needed to measure efficiencies correctly. Cost issues are not addressed, since the two approaches are still in the developmental stage.

  6. Degradation characteristics of air cathode in zinc air fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ze; Pei, Pucheng; Wang, Keliang; Wang, Xizhong; Xu, Huachi; Liu, Yongfeng; peng, Guanlin

    2015-01-01

    The zinc air fuel cell (ZAFC) is a promising candidate for electrical energy storage and electric vehicle propulsion. However, its limited durability has become a major obstacle for its successful commercialization. In this study, 2-cell stacks, 25 cm² cells and three-electrode half-cells are constructed to experimentally investigate the degradation characteristics of the air cathode. The results of electrochemical tests reveal that the peak power density for the 25 cm2 cell with a new air cathode is 454 mW cm-2, which is twice as the value of the used air cathode. The electrochemical impedance analysis shows that both the charge transfer resistance and the mass transfer resistance of the used air cathodes have increased, suggesting that the catalyst surface area and gas diffusion coefficient have decreased significantly. Additionally, the microstructure and morphology of the catalytic layer (CL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) are characterized by scanning electron microscopes (SEM). SEM results confirm that the micropores in CL and GDL of the used air cathode are seriously clogged, and many catalyst particles are lost. Therefore, the performance degradation is mainly due to the clogging of micropores and loss of catalyst particles. Furthermore, hypotheses of degradation mechanism and mitigation strategies for GDL and CL are discussed briefly.

  7. Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous silicon solar cells. Annual subcontract report, April 1, 1994--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G.

    1995-10-01

    Transparent and reflecting electrodes are important parts of the structure of amorphous silicon solar cells. We report improved methods for depositing zinc oxide, deposition of tin nitride as a potential reflection-enhancing diffusion barrier between the a-Si and back metal electrodes. Highly conductive and transparent fluorine-doped zinc oxide was successfully produced on small areas by atmospheric pressure CVD from a less hazardous zinc precursor, zinc acetylacetonate. The optical properties measured for tin nitride showed that the back-reflection would be decreased if tin nitride were used instead of zinc oxide as a barrier layer over silver on aluminum. Niobium-doped titanium dioxide was produced with high enough electrical conductivity so that normal voltages and fill factors were obtained for a-Si cells made on it.

  8. Zinc inhibits the reproductive toxicity of Zearalenone in immortalized murine ovarian granular KK-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yijia; He, Xiaoyun; Yang, Xuan; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Liye; Li, Yuzhe; Xu, Wentao

    2015-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) mainly injures the reproductive system of mammals. In the present study, we aimed to explore the mechanism by which zinc inhibits ZEA-induced reproductive damage in KK-1 cells for the first time. The results shown that both zinc sulfate and zinc gluconate addition increased the intracellular zinc concentration and influenced the expression of zinc transporters (Slc30a1 and Slc39a1) in a time-dependent manner. Co-incubation of zinc with ZEA significantly reduced the ZEA-induced reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde elevation by promoting the transcription of Mtf1 and Mt2. Meanwhile, two different zincs inhibited the ZEA-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and elevation of late-stage apoptosis via activating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by recovering the mRNA and protein expression of pro-apoptotic genes (Bax, Casp3, Casp9). Zinc also recovered cells from S-phase cell cycle arrest. In addition, both of them promoted the ZEA-induced estrogen production but regulated the expression of steroidogenic enzymes (Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1) in different way. All these results indicated that zinc could inhibit the reproductive toxicity of ZEA. PMID:26395757

  9. Zinc inhibits the reproductive toxicity of Zearalenone in immortalized murine ovarian granular KK-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yijia; He, Xiaoyun; Yang, Xuan; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Liye; Li, Yuzhe; Xu, Wentao

    2015-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) mainly injures the reproductive system of mammals. In the present study, we aimed to explore the mechanism by which zinc inhibits ZEA-induced reproductive damage in KK-1 cells for the first time. The results shown that both zinc sulfate and zinc gluconate addition increased the intracellular zinc concentration and influenced the expression of zinc transporters (Slc30a1 and Slc39a1) in a time-dependent manner. Co-incubation of zinc with ZEA significantly reduced the ZEA-induced reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde elevation by promoting the transcription of Mtf1 and Mt2. Meanwhile, two different zincs inhibited the ZEA-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and elevation of late-stage apoptosis via activating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by recovering the mRNA and protein expression of pro-apoptotic genes (Bax, Casp3, Casp9). Zinc also recovered cells from S-phase cell cycle arrest. In addition, both of them promoted the ZEA-induced estrogen production but regulated the expression of steroidogenic enzymes (Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1) in different way. All these results indicated that zinc could inhibit the reproductive toxicity of ZEA. PMID:26395757

  10. Solar power satellites - Heat engine or solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, H.; Gregory, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    A solar power satellite is the energy-converting element of a system that can deliver some 10 GW of power to utilities on the earth's surface. We evaluated heat engines and solar cells for converting sunshine to electric power at the satellite. A potassium Rankine cycle was the best of the heat engines, and 50 microns thick single-crystal silicon cells were the best of the photovoltaic converters. Neither solar cells nor heat engines had a clear advantage when all factors were considered. The potassium-turbine power plant, however, was more difficult to assemble and required a more expensive orbital assembly base. We therefore based our cost analyses on solar-cell energy conversion, concluding that satellite-generated power could be delivered to utilities for around 4 to 5 cents a kWh.

  11. Coupling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators to Plasmonic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shu-Yi

    To make inexpensive solar cells is a continuous goal for solar photovoltaic (PV) energy industry. Thin film solar cells of various materials have been developed and continue to emerge in order to replace bulk silicon solar cells. A thin film solar cell not only uses less material but also requires a less expensive refinery process. In addition, other advantages coming along with small thickness are higher open circuit voltage and higher conversion efficiency. However, thin film solar cells, especially those made of silicon, have significant optical losses. In order to address this problem, this thesis investigates the spectral coupling of thin films PV to luminescent solar concentrators (LSC). LSC are passive devices, consisting of plastic sheets embedded with fluorescent dyes which absorb part of the incoming radiation spectrum and emit at specific wavelength. The emitted light is concentrated by total internal reflection to the edge of the sheet, where the PVs are placed. Since the light emitted from the LSC edge is usually in a narrow spectral range, it is possible to employ diverse strategies to enhance PV absorption at the peak of the emission wavelength. Employing plasmonic nanostructures has been shown to enhance absorption of thin films via forward scattering, diffraction and localized surface plasmon. These two strategies are theoretically investigated here for improving the absorption and elevating the output power of a thin film solar cell. First, the idea of spectral coupling of luminescent solar concentrators to plasmonic solar cells is introduced to assess its potential for increasing the power output. This study is carried out employing P3HT/PC60BM organic solar cells and LSC with Lumogen Red dyes. A simplified spectral coupling analysis is employed to predict the power density, considering the output spectrum of the LSC equivalent to the emission spectrum of the dye and neglecting any angular dependence. Plasmonic tuning is conducted to enhance

  12. Solar cell modules for plasma interaction evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A plasma interaction analysis in support of the solar electric propulsion subsystem examined the effects of a large high voltage solar array interacting with an ion thruster produced plasma. Two solar array test modules consisting of 36 large area wraparound contact solar cells welded to a flexible Kapton integrated circuit substrate were abricated. The modules contained certain features of the effects of insulation, din-holes, and bonding of the cell to the substrate and a ground plane. The possibility of a significant power loss occurring due to the collection of charged particles on the solar array interconnects was the focus of the research.

  13. Method for processing silicon solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Landry, M.D.; Pitts, J.R.

    1997-05-06

    The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystalline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation. 2 figs.

  14. Method for processing silicon solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Tsuo, Y. Simon; Landry, Marc D.; Pitts, John R.

    1997-01-01

    The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystallline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation.

  15. General Strategy for the Synthesis of Transition Metal Phosphide Films for Electrocatalytic Hydrogen and Oxygen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Read, Carlos G; Callejas, Juan F; Holder, Cameron F; Schaak, Raymond E

    2016-05-25

    Transition metal phosphides recently have been identified as promising Earth-abundant electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Here, we present a general and scalable strategy for the synthesis of transition metal phosphide electrodes based on the reaction of commercially available metal foils (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and NiFe) with various organophosphine reagents. The resulting phosphide electrodes were found to exhibit excellent electrocatalytic HER and OER performance. The most active electrodes required overpotentials of only -128 mV for the HER in acid (Ni2P), -183 mV for the HER in base (Ni2P), and 277 mV for the OER in base (NiFeP) to produce operationally relevant current densities of 10 mA cm(-2). Such HER and OER performance compares favorably with samples prepared using significantly more elaborate and costly procedures. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the approach can also be utilized to obtain highly active and conformal metal phosphide coatings on photocathode materials, such as highly doped Si, that are relevant to solar fuels production. PMID:27156388

  16. Plasmonic silicon solar cells: impact of material quality and geometry.

    PubMed

    Pahud, Celine; Isabella, Olindo; Naqavi, Ali; Haug, Franz-Josef; Zeman, Miro; Herzig, Hans Peter; Ballif, Christophe

    2013-09-01

    We study n-i-p amorphous silicon solar cells with light-scattering nanoparticles in the back reflector. In one configuration, the particles are fully embedded in the zinc oxide buffer layer; In a second configuration, the particles are placed between the buffer layer and the flat back electrode. We use stencil lithography to produce the same periodic arrangement of the particles and we use the same solar cell structure on top, thus establishing a fair comparison between a novel plasmonic concept and its more traditional counterpart. Both approaches show strong resonances around 700 nm in the external quantum efficiency the position and intensity of which vary strongly with the nanoparticle shape. Moreover, disagreement between simulations and our experimental results suggests that the dielectric data of bulk silver do not correctly represent the reality. A better fit is obtained by introducing a porous interfacial layer between the silver and zinc oxide. Without the interfacial layer, e.g. by improved processing of the nanoparticles, our simulations show that the nanoparticles concept could outperform traditional back reflectors. PMID:24104574

  17. Current and lattice matched tandem solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Jerry M.

    1987-01-01

    A multijunction (cascade) tandem photovoltaic solar cell device is fabricated of a Ga.sub.x In.sub.1-x P (0.505.ltoreq.X.ltoreq.0.515) top cell semiconductor lattice matched to a GaAs bottom cell semiconductor at a low-resistance heterojunction, preferably a p+/n+ heterojunction between the cells. The top and bottom cells are both lattice matched and current matched for high efficiency solar radiation conversion to electrical energy.

  18. Current status of silicon solar cell technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    In quest of higher efficiency, major progress has occurred in solar cell technology. Cell efficiency has climbed about 50 percent. Technical approaches leading to increased output include back surface fields, shallow junctions, improved antireflection coatings, surface texturizing, and fine grid patterns on the cell surface. The status of current solar cell technology and its incorporation into cell production is discussed. Research and development leading to improved performance and reduced cost are also described.

  19. [Zinc and insulin level in islet cells under various functional state of insular apparatus].

    PubMed

    Berehova, T V; Hryhorova, N V; Ieshchenko, Iu V; Bovt, V D; Ieshchenko, V A

    2007-01-01

    The work is devoted to the study of zinc role in pancreas incretory function. Golden hamster and human pancreatic beta cells were investigated under varions functional state of insular apparatus. An increase of zinc and insulin content in islet beta cells was observed during inhibition of its' secretory activity and decrease of both components content in the cells occurred after intensifying of its' activity. Under pancreatic diabetes zinc and insulin quantities in beta cells were significantly less the norm. The results of comparative investigations confirm the thesis concerning this metal and hormone connection in beta-insulocytes. PMID:17902378

  20. Isoelectronic Traps in Gallium Phosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Theresa; Alberi, Kirstin; Beaton, Daniel; Fluegel, Brian; Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2015-03-01

    Isoelectronic substitutional dopants can result in strongly localized exciton traps within a host bandstructure such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium phosphide (GaP). These traps have received great attention for their role in the anomalous bandgap bowing of nitrogen or bismuth-doped GaAs, creating the dramatic bandgap tunability of these unusual dilute alloys. In the wider, indirect-bandgap host material GaP, these same isoelectronic dopants create bound states within the gap that can have very high radiative efficiency and a wealth of discrete spectral transitions illuminating the symmetry of the localized excitonic trap state. We will present a comparative study of nitrogen and bismuth isoelectronic traps in GaP. Research was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division under contract DE-AC36-08GO28308 and by the Department of Energy Office of Science Graduate Fellowship Program (DOE SCGF), made possible in part by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, administered by ORISE-ORAU under contract no. DE-AC05-06OR23100.

  1. Life testing of secondary silver-zinc cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Doreswamy, Rajiv

    Testing on a variety of secondary silver-zinc (Ag-Zn) cells has been in progress at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for over six years. The latest test involves a 350-Ah cell design that has been cycled at 10 C for 16 months. This design has achieved over 7200 low-earth-orbit (LEO) cycles as well as 17 deep discharges at an 85 percent depth of discharge. This test not only is a life test on these cells but also addresses different methods of storing these cells between the deep discharges. As the test is approaching completion, some interesting results are being seen. In particular, two of the four packs currently on test have failed to meet the 35-h (295-Ah) deep discharge requirement that was arbitrarily set at the beginning of the test. This capacity loss failure is likely a result of the storage method used on these two packs between deep discharges. The two packs are LEO cycled in such a way as to minimize overcharge in an attempt to prolong life.

  2. Life testing of secondary silver-zinc cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Doreswamy, Rajiv

    1991-01-01

    Testing on a variety of secondary silver-zinc (Ag-Zn) cells has been in progress at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for over six years. The latest test involves a 350-Ah cell design that has been cycled at 10 C for 16 months. This design has achieved over 7200 low-earth-orbit (LEO) cycles as well as 17 deep discharges at an 85 percent depth of discharge. This test not only is a life test on these cells but also addresses different methods of storing these cells between the deep discharges. As the test is approaching completion, some interesting results are being seen. In particular, two of the four packs currently on test have failed to meet the 35-h (295-Ah) deep discharge requirement that was arbitrarily set at the beginning of the test. This capacity loss failure is likely a result of the storage method used on these two packs between deep discharges. The two packs are LEO cycled in such a way as to minimize overcharge in an attempt to prolong life.

  3. Targeted chromosomal deletions in human cells using zinc finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Joo; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel approach for generating targeted deletions of genomic segments in human and other eukaryotic cells using engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs). We found that ZFNs designed to target two different sites in a human chromosome could introduce two concurrent DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the chromosome and give rise to targeted deletions of the genomic segment between the two sites. Using this method in human cells, we were able to delete predetermined genomic DNA segments in the range of several-hundred base pairs (bp) to 15 mega-bp at frequencies of 10(-3) to 10(-1). These high frequencies allowed us to isolate clonal populations of cells, in which the target chromosomal segments were deleted, by limiting dilution. Sequence analysis revealed that many of the deletion junctions contained small insertions or deletions and microhomologies, indicative of DNA repair via nonhomologous end-joining. Unlike other genome engineering tools such as recombinases and meganucleases, ZFNs do not require preinsertion of target sites into the genome and allow precise manipulation of endogenous genomic scripts in animal and plant cells. Thus, ZFN-induced genomic deletions should be broadly useful as a novel method in biomedical research, biotechnology, and gene therapy. PMID:19952142

  4. Alteration of Cell Cycle Mediated by Zinc in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zinc (Zn2+), a ubiquitous ambient air contaminant, presents an oxidant challenge to the human lung and is linked to adverse human health effects. To further elucidate the adaptive and apoptotic cellular responses of human airway cells to Zn2+, we performed pilot studies to examin...

  5. Plasmon Enhanced Hetero-Junction Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Gen; Ching, Levine; Sadoqi, Mostafa; Xu, Huizhong

    2015-03-01

    Here we report a systematic study of plasmon-enhanced hetero-junction solar cells made of colloidal quantum dots (PbS) and nanowires (ZnO), with/without metal nanoparticles (Au). The structure of solar cell devices was characterized by AFM, SEM and profilometer, etc. The power conversion efficiencies of solar cell devices were characterized by solar simulator (OAI TriSOL, AM1.5G Class AAA). The enhancement in the photocurrent due to introduction of metal nanoparticles was obvious. We believe this is due to the plasmonic effect from the metal nanoparticles. The correlation between surface roughness, film uniformity and device performance was also studied.

  6. Transparent conductive oxides for nano-SIS solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füchsel, K.; Bingel, A.; Kaiser, N.; Tünnermann, A.

    2011-05-01

    As a reason of their electrical conductivity and transparency in the visible spectral range transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) are well known as electrodes for OLEDs or LCD displays. Another promising application is a semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor (SIS) solar cell, in which the TCO induces the pn junction and realises a low cost solar cell on crystalline silicon. By using nanostructured silicon interfaces broadband antireflection properties with effective light coupling into the silicon can be achieved. Combined with the SIS concept it is possible to fabricate a low cost and high efficient PV device. For the deposition of thin films of indium tin oxide (ITO) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) pulsed dc magnetron sputtering is used. The paper presents the surface modification of silicon by inductive coupled plasma (ICP) etching technology, discusses the influence of different TCO materials to the device, and analyses the optical and structural properties of the cells. Furthermore, the solar cell performance under AM1.5G illumination will be shown.

  7. Perovskite Solar Cells with Large-Area CVD-Graphene for Tandem Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Lang, Felix; Gluba, Marc A; Albrecht, Steve; Rappich, Jörg; Korte, Lars; Rech, Bernd; Nickel, Norbert H

    2015-07-16

    Perovskite solar cells with transparent contacts may be used to compensate for thermalization losses of silicon solar cells in tandem devices. This offers a way to outreach stagnating efficiencies. However, perovskite top cells in tandem structures require contact layers with high electrical conductivity and optimal transparency. We address this challenge by implementing large-area graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition as a highly transparent electrode in perovskite solar cells, leading to identical charge collection efficiencies. Electrical performance of solar cells with a graphene-based contact reached those of solar cells with standard gold contacts. The optical transmission by far exceeds that of reference devices and amounts to 64.3% below the perovskite band gap. Finally, we demonstrate a four-terminal tandem device combining a high band gap graphene-contacted perovskite top solar cell (Eg = 1.6 eV) with an amorphous/crystalline silicon bottom solar cell (Eg = 1.12 eV). PMID:26266857

  8. Zinc transporter 7 is located in the cis-Golgi apparatus of mouse choroid epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cellular localization of zinc transporter 7 protein in the mouse choroid plexus, an area on the ventricles of the brain where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced, was examined in this study. Zinc transporter 7 expressing cells were detected in the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the m...

  9. Determining adaptive and adverse oxidative stress responses in human bronical epithelial cells exposed to zinc

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining adaptive and adverse oxidative stress responses in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to zincJenna M. Currier1,2, Wan-Yun Cheng1, Rory Conolly1, Brian N. Chorley1Zinc is a ubiquitous contaminant of ambient air that presents an oxidant challenge to the human lung...

  10. Zinc sparks are triggered by fertilization and facilitate cell cycle resumption in mammalian eggs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Alison M.; Bernhardt, Miranda L.; Kong, Betty Y.; Ahn, Richard W.; Vogt, Stefan; Woodruff, Teresa K.; O’Halloran, Thomas V.

    2011-01-01

    In last few hours of maturation, the mouse oocyte takes up over twenty billion zinc atoms and arrests after the first meiotic division, until fertilization or pharmacological intervention stimulates cell cycle progression towards a new embryo. Using chemical and physical probes, we show that fertilization of the mature, zinc-enriched egg triggers the ejection of zinc into the extracellular milieu in a series of coordinated events termed zinc sparks. These events immediately follow the well-established series of calcium oscillations within the activated egg and are evolutionarily conserved in several mammalian species, including rodents and non-human primates. Functionally, the zinc sparks mediate a decrease in intracellular zinc content that is necessary for continued cell cycle progression, as increasing zinc levels within the activated egg results in the reestablishment of cell cycle arrest at metaphase. The mammalian egg thus uses a zinc-dependent switch mechanism to toggle between metaphase arrest and resumption of the meiotic cell cycle at the initiation of embryonic development. PMID:21526836

  11. The effects of zinc status on early growth in infants with sickle cell disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth failure, maturational delay, and alterations in body composition occur in older children and adults with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). Poor nutritional status, specifically zinc deficiency, has been widely implicated, although infants with SCD have not been studied. We determined zinc status in ...

  12. Monolithic cells for solar fuels.

    PubMed

    Rongé, Jan; Bosserez, Tom; Martel, David; Nervi, Carlo; Boarino, Luca; Taulelle, Francis; Decher, Gero; Bordiga, Silvia; Martens, Johan A

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid energy generation models based on a variety of alternative energy supply technologies are considered the best way to cope with the depletion of fossil energy resources and to limit global warming. One of the currently missing technologies is the mimic of natural photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water into chemical fuel using sunlight. This idea has been around for decades, but artificial photosynthesis of organic molecules is still far away from providing real-world solutions. The scientific challenge is to perform in an efficient way the multi-electron transfer reactions of water oxidation and carbon dioxide reduction using holes and single electrons generated in an illuminated semiconductor. In this tutorial review the design of photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells that combine solar water oxidation and CO2 reduction is discussed. In such PEC cells simultaneous transport and efficient use of light, electrons, protons and molecules has to be managed. It is explained how efficiency can be gained by compartmentalisation of the water oxidation and CO2 reduction processes by proton exchange membranes, and monolithic concepts of artificial leaves and solar membranes are presented. Besides transferring protons from the anode to the cathode compartment the membrane serves as a molecular barrier material to prevent cross-over of oxygen and fuel molecules. Innovative nano-organized multimaterials will be needed to realise practical artificial photosynthesis devices. This review provides an overview of synthesis techniques which could be used to realise monolithic multifunctional membrane-electrode assemblies, such as Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), and porous silicon (porSi) engineering. Advances in modelling approaches, electrochemical techniques and in situ spectroscopies to characterise overall PEC cell performance are discussed. PMID:24526085

  13. Amorphous silicon solar cell allowing infrared transmission

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David E.

    1979-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell with a layer of high index of refraction material or a series of layers having high and low indices of refraction material deposited upon a transparent substrate to reflect light of energies greater than the bandgap energy of the amorphous silicon back into the solar cell and transmit solar radiation having an energy less than the bandgap energy of the amorphous silicon.

  14. Low-Reflectance Surfaces For Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Fatemi, Navid; Jenkins, Phillip P.

    1994-01-01

    Improved method for increasing solar cell efficiency has potential application for space-based and terrestrial solar power systems and optoelectronic devices. Etched low-angle grooves help recover reflected light. Light reflected from v-grooved surface trapped in cover glass and adhesive by total internal reflection. Reflected light redirected onto surface, and greater fraction of incident light absorbed, producing more electrical energy in InP solar photovoltaic cell.

  15. Si concentrator solar cell development. [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Krut, D.D.

    1994-10-01

    This is the final report of a program to develop a commercial, high-efficiency, low-cost concentrator solar cell compatible with Spectrolab`s existing manufacturing infrastructure for space solar cells. The period covered is between 1991 and 1993. The program was funded through Sandia National Laboratories through the DOE concentrator initiative and, was also cost shared by Spectrolab. As a result of this program, Spectrolab implemented solar cells achieving an efficiency of over 19% at 200 to 300X concentration. The cells are compatible with DOE guidelines for a cell price necessary to achieve a cost of electricity of 12 cents a kilowatthour.

  16. Molecular design rule of phthalocyanine dyes for highly efficient near-IR performance in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Mutsumi; Nomoto, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Ikeuchi, Takuro; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Takuro N; Furube, Akihiko; Masaki, Naruhiko; Griffith, Matthew J; Mori, Shogo

    2013-06-01

    A series of zinc-phthalocyanine sensitizers (PcS16-18) with different adsorption sites have been designed and synthesized in order to investigate the dependence of adsorption-site structures on the solar-cell performances in zinc-phthalocyanine based dye-sensitized solar cells. The change of adsorption site affected the electron injection efficiency from the photoexcited dye into the nanocrystalline TiO2 semiconductor, as monitored by picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The zinc-phthalocyanine sensitizer PcS18, possessing one carboxylic acid directly attached to the ZnPc ring and six 2,6-diisopropylphenoxy units, showed a record power conversion efficiency value of 5.9 % when used as a light-harvesting dye on a TiO2 electrode under one simulated solar condition. PMID:23576330

  17. Monolithic cascade-type solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Shibukawa, A.; Yamaguchi, M.

    1985-01-01

    Solar cells consist of a semiconductor base, a bottom cell with a band-gap energy of E1, and a top cell with a band-gap energy of E2, and 0.96 E1 1.36 eV and (0.80 E + 0.77) eV E2 (0.80 E1 + 0.92) eV. A monolithic cascade-type solar cell was prepared with an n(+)-type GaAs base, a GaInAs bottom solar cell, and a GaAiInAs top solar cell. The surface of the cell is coated with a SiO antireflection film. The efficiency of the cell is 32%.

  18. Introduction to basic solar cell measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The basic approaches to solar cell performance and diagnostic measurements are described. The light sources, equipment for I-V curve measurement, and the test conditions and procedures for performance measurement are detailed. Solar cell diagnostic tools discussed include analysis of I-V curves, series resistance and reverse saturation current determination, spectral response/quantum yield measurement, and diffusion length/lifetime determination.

  19. Perovskite solar cells: Different facets of performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eperon, Giles E.; Ginger, David S.

    2016-08-01

    The electronic properties of halide perovskites vary significantly between crystalline grains, but the impact of this heterogeneity on solar cell performance is unclear. Now, this variability is shown to limit the photovoltaic properties of solar cells, and its origins are linked to differing properties between crystal facets.

  20. Theory of bifacial sunlit silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparyan, Ferdinand V.; Aroutiounian, Vladimir M.

    2001-11-01

    Bifacial sunlit solar cells made of silicon p+nn+ structures are investigated theoretically. It is shown that the short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill-factor and efficiency strongly depend on both p+n junction parameters and n+n isojunction. Possibilities of manufacturing high-efficiency bifacial solar cells using silicon p+nn+ structures are discussed.

  1. Double-sided solar cell package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelpuk, B. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    In a solar cell array of terrestrial use, an improved double-sided solar cell package, consisting of a photovoltaic cell having a metallized P-contact strip and an N-contact grid, provided on opposite faces of the cell, a transparent tubular body forming an enclosure for the cell. A pedestal supporting the cell from within the enclosure comprising an electrical conductor connected with the P-contact strip provided for each face of the cell, and a reflector having an elongated reflective surface disposed in substantially opposed relation with one face of the cell for redirecting light were also included.

  2. A simplified solar cell array modelling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    As part of the energy conversion/self sufficiency efforts of DSN engineering, it was necessary to have a simplified computer model of a solar photovoltaic (PV) system. This article describes the analysis and simplifications employed in the development of a PV cell array computer model. The analysis of the incident solar radiation, steady state cell temperature and the current-voltage characteristics of a cell array are discussed. A sample cell array was modelled and the results are presented.

  3. Fullerene surfactants and their use in polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jen, Kwan-Yue; Yip, Hin-Lap; Li, Chang-Zhi

    2015-12-15

    Fullerene surfactant compounds useful as interfacial layer in polymer solar cells to enhance solar cell efficiency. Polymer solar cell including a fullerene surfactant-containing interfacial layer intermediate cathode and active layer.

  4. Zinc promotes proliferation and activation of myogenic cells via the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Ohashi, Kazuya; Nagata, Yosuke; Wada, Eiji; Zammit, Peter S.; Shiozuka, Masataka; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2015-05-01

    Skeletal muscle stem cells named muscle satellite cells are normally quiescent but are activated in response to various stimuli, such as injury and overload. Activated satellite cells enter the cell cycle and proliferate to produce a large number of myogenic progenitor cells, and these cells then differentiate and fuse to form myofibers. Zinc is one of the essential elements in the human body, and has multiple roles, including cell growth and DNA synthesis. However, the role of zinc in myogenic cells is not well understood, and is the focus of this study. We first examined the effects of zinc on differentiation of murine C2C12 myoblasts and found that zinc promoted proliferation, with an increased number of cells incorporating EdU, but inhibited differentiation with reduced myogenin expression and myotube formation. Furthermore, we used the C2C12 reserve cell model of myogenic quiescence to investigate the role of zinc on activation of myogenic cells. The number of reserve cells incorporating BrdU was increased by zinc in a dose dependent manner, with the number dramatically further increased using a combination of zinc and insulin. Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) are downstream of insulin signaling, and both were phosphorylated after zinc treatment. The zinc/insulin combination-induced activation involved the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and ERK cascade. We conclude that zinc promotes activation and proliferation of myogenic cells, and this activation requires phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and ERK as part of the signaling cascade. - Highlights: • Zinc has roles for promoting proliferation and inhibition differentiation of C2C12. • Zinc promotes activation of reserve cells. • Insulin and zinc synergize activation of reserve cells. • PI3K/Akt and ERK cascade affect zinc/insulin-mediated activation of reserve cells.

  5. Zinc(ii)-induced control of the internalization of a near-infrared fluorescent probe by live cells.

    PubMed

    König, Sandra G; Öz, Simin; Krämer, Roland

    2016-04-22

    We describe zinc-promoted cellular uptake of a near-infrared fluorophore modified with a terpyridine ligand. In response to varying concentrations of exogenous zinc(ii), we observed increasing cellular uptake in live HeLa cells as well as other cell lines, whereas only negligible staining was detected in the absence of zinc(ii). PMID:26902388

  6. Bonder for Solar-Cell Strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garwood, G.; Frasch, W.

    1982-01-01

    String bonder for solar-cell arrays eliminates tedious manual assembly procedure that could damage cell face. Vacuum arm picks up face-down cell from cell-inverting work station and transfers it to string conveyor without changing cell orientation. Arm is activated by signal from microprocessor.

  7. Epitaxial silicon growth for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daiello, R. V.; Robinson, P. H.; Richman, D.

    1979-01-01

    The epitaxial procedures, solar cell fabrication, and evaluation techniques are described. The development of baseline epitaxial solar cell structures grown on high quality conventional silicon substrates is discussed. Diagnostic layers and solar cells grown on four potentially low cost silicon substrates are considered. The crystallographic properties of such layers and the performance of epitaxially grown solar cells fabricated on these materials are described. An advanced epitaxial reactor, the rotary disc, is described along with the results of growing solar cell structures of the baseline type on low cost substrates. The add on cost for the epitaxial process is assessed and the economic advantages of the epitaxial process as they relate to silicon substrate selection are examined.

  8. High Radiation Resistance IMM Solar Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Noren

    2015-01-01

    Due to high launch costs, weight reduction is a key driver for the development of new solar cell technologies suitable for space applications. This project is developing a unique triple-junction inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) technology that enables the manufacture of very lightweight, low-cost InGaAsP-based multijunction solar cells. This IMM technology consists of indium (In) and phosphorous (P) solar cell active materials, which are designed to improve the radiation-resistant properties of the triple-junction solar cell while maintaining high efficiency. The intrinsic radiation hardness of InP materials makes them of great interest for building solar cells suitable for deployment in harsh radiation environments, such as medium Earth orbit and missions to the outer planets. NASA Glenn's recently developed epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process also will be applied to this new structure, which will enable the fabrication of the IMM structure without the substrate.

  9. Methodologies for high efficiency perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Nam-Gyu

    2016-06-01

    Since the report on long-term durable solid-state perovskite solar cell in 2012, perovskite solar cells based on lead halide perovskites having organic cations such as methylammonium CH3NH3PbI3 or formamidinium HC(NH2)2PbI3 have received great attention because of superb photovoltaic performance with power conversion efficiency exceeding 22 %. In this review, emergence of perovskite solar cell is briefly introduced. Since understanding fundamentals of light absorbers is directly related to their photovoltaic performance, opto-electronic properties of organo lead halide perovskites are investigated in order to provide insight into design of higher efficiency perovskite solar cells. Since the conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cell is found to depend significantly on perovskite film quality, methodologies for fabricating high quality perovskite films are particularly emphasized, including various solution-processes and vacuum deposition method.

  10. Silicon film solar cell process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, R. B.; Mcneely, J. B.; Barnett, A. M.

    1984-01-01

    The most promising way to reduce the cost of silicon in solar cells while still maintaining performance is to utilize thin films (10 to 20 microns thick) of crystalline silicon. The method of solution growth is being employed to grow thin polycrystalline films of silicon on dissimilar substrates. The initial results indicate that, using tin as the solvent, this growth process only requires operating temperatures in the range of 800 C to 1000 C. Growth rates in the range of 0.4 to 2.0 microns per minute and grain sizes in the range of 20 to 100 microns were achieved on both quartz and coated steel substrates. Typically, an aspect ratio of two to three between the width and the Si grain thickness is seen. Uniform coverage of Si growth on quartz over a 2.5 x 2.5 cm area was observed.

  11. Coating Processes Boost Performance of Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    NASA currently has spacecraft orbiting Mercury (MESSENGER), imaging the asteroid Vesta (Dawn), roaming the red plains of Mars (the Opportunity rover), and providing a laboratory for humans to advance scientific research in space (the International Space Station, or ISS). The heart of the technology that powers those missions and many others can be held in the palm of your hand - the solar cell. Solar, or photovoltaic (PV), cells are what make up the panels and arrays that draw on the Sun s light to generate electricity for everything from the Hubble Space Telescope s imaging equipment to the life support systems for the ISS. To enable NASA spacecraft to utilize the Sun s energy for exploring destinations as distant as Jupiter, the Agency has invested significant research into improving solar cell design and efficiency. Glenn Research Center has been a national leader in advancing PV technology. The Center s Photovoltaic and Power Technologies Branch has conducted numerous experiments aimed at developing lighter, more efficient solar cells that are less expensive to manufacture. Initiatives like the Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiments I and II in which PV cells developed by NASA and private industry were mounted outside the ISS have tested how various solar technologies perform in the harsh conditions of space. While NASA seeks to improve solar cells for space applications, the results are returning to Earth to benefit the solar energy industry.

  12. High-Temperature Solar Cell Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Merritt, Danielle

    2004-01-01

    The vast majority of satellites and near-earth probes developed to date have relied upon photovoltaic power generation. If future missions to probe environments close to the sun will be able to use photovoltaic power, solar cells that can function at high temperatures, under high light intensity, and high radiation conditions must be developed. For example, the equilibrium temperature of a Mercury surface station will be about 450 C, and the temperature of solar arrays on the proposed "Solar Probe" mission will extend to temperatures as high as 2000 C (although it is likely that the craft will operate on stored power rather than solar energy during the closest approach to the sun). Advanced thermal design principles, such as replacing some of the solar array area with reflectors, off-pointing, and designing the cells to reflect rather than absorb light out of the band of peak response, can reduce these operating temperature somewhat. Nevertheless, it is desirable to develop approaches to high-temperature solar cell design that can operate under temperature extremes far greater than today's cells. Solar cells made from wide bandgap (WBG) compound semiconductors are an obvious choice for such an application. In order to aid in the experimental development of such solar cells, we have initiated a program studying the theoretical and experimental photovoltaic performance of wide bandgap materials. In particular, we have been investigating the use of GaP, SiC, and GaN materials for space solar cells. We will present theoretical results on the limitations on current cell technologies and the photovoltaic performance of these wide-bandgap solar cells in a variety of space conditions. We will also give an overview of some of NASA's cell developmental efforts in this area and discuss possible future mission applications.

  13. Nickel hydrogen and silver zinc battery cell modeling at the Aerospace Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, A.H.

    1996-02-01

    A nickel hydrogen battery cell model has been fully developed and implemented at The Aerospace Corporation. Applications of this model to industry needs for the design of better cells, power system design and charge control thermal management, and long-term performance trends will be described. Present efforts will be described that are introducing the silver and zinc electrode reactions into this model architecture, so that the model will be able to predict performance for not only silver zinc cells, but also nickel zinc, silver hydrogen, and silver cadmium cells. The silver zinc cell modeling effort is specifically designed to address the concerns that arise most often in launch vehicle applications: transient response, power-on voltage regulation, hot or cold operation, electrolyte spewing, gas venting, self-discharge, separator oxidation, and oxalate crystal growth. The specific model features that are being employed to address these issues will be described.

  14. Hybrid solar cells of micro/mesoporous Zn( and its graphite composites sensitized by CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, SM Z.; Gayen, Taposh; Tint, Naing; Shi, Lingyan; Ebrahim, Amani M.; Seredych, Mykola; Bandosz, Teresa J.; Alfano, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Quantum efficiencies (QEs) of innovative hybrid solar cells fabricated using micro/mesoporous zinc (hydr)oxide and its graphite-based composites sensitized by semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) are reported. High absorption coefficient of CdSe SQDs and the wide band gap of zinc (hydr)oxide and its composites with graphite oxide (GO) are essential to achieve solar cells of higher QEs. Hybrid solar cells are fabricated from zinc (hydr)oxide and its composites (with 2 and 5 wt.% of graphite oxides, termed as, ZnGO-2 and ZnGO-5, respectively) while using potassium iodide or perovskite as an electrolyte. A two-photon fluorescence (TPF) imaging technique was used to determine the internal structure of the solar cell device. The photocurrent and current-voltage measurements were used to measure short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage to calculate the fill factor and QE of these solar cells. The highest QE (up to ˜10.62%) is realized for a ZnGO-2-based solar cell using potassium iodide as its electrolyte and the CdSe quantum dot as its sensitizer.

  15. Zinc deficiency induced in Swiss 3T3 cells by a low-zinc medium impairs calcium entry and two mechanisms of entry are involved.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Boyd L; Browning, Jimmy D

    2013-04-01

    Zinc deficiency in 3T3 cells induced by the use of diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) has been shown to impair calcium entry associated with failure of proliferation when the cells are stimulated with polypeptide growth factors (GF). These functions of zinc have been evaluated here in the same clone of cells by simple depletion using a low-zinc medium (0.05 μmol/L zinc) without chelator. Confluent cells were maintained for 1 day in the low-zinc medium without GF, then loaded with Fluo-4, and stimulated with GF. Calcium entry was measured by the increase in sustained fluorescence. It was preceded by the release of stored calcium as observed in the previous study using DTPA. Zinc deprivation decreased calcium entry when calcium was added at 0 or 0.05 mmol/L but not when 0.1 mmol/L or higher. Cell proliferation reflected similar effects of zinc and calcium concentrations. In a newly acquired clone of 3T3 cells, GF did not induce internal calcium release but thapsigargin (TG) did. When added in a low-calcium medium, both agonists stimulated calcium entry when external calcium was added, suggesting that two different mechanisms of entry were impaired by zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency produced by DTPA in the newer clones gave similar results, decreasing calcium entry induced by both agonists. The effects of GF and TG were not additive. The results confirm the earlier observation that zinc deficiency impairs calcium entry into 3T3 cells when stimulated by GF and show that the cells can take up calcium by either store-operated or receptor-operated mechanisms. PMID:23292302

  16. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  17. Solar Cell Panel and the Method for Manufacturing the Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Sarver, Charles F. (Inventor); Naidenkova, Maria (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    According to an aspect of an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a solar cell panel and a method for manufacturing the same. The solar cell panel comprises: a solar cell for generating electric power from sunlight; a coverglass for covering the solar cell; transparent shims, which are disposed between the solar cell and the coverglass at the points where the distance between the solar cell and the coverglass needs to be controlled, and form a space between the solar cell and the coverglass; and adhesive layer, which fills the space between the solar cell and the coverglass and has the thickness the same as that of the transparent shims.

  18. Research on crystalline silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Milstein, J.B.; Tsuo, Y.S.

    1984-06-01

    Since the 16th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, the focus of the Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Task at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) has narrowed somewhat. Responsibility for silicon material preparation and ribbon growth were consolidated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) at the end of FY 1983. Five subcontracts were awarded under RFP No. RB-2-02090, Research on Basic Understanding of High Efficiency in Silicon Solar Cells. JPL and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are also working on high-efficiency solar cell research under SERI subcontract. Reports of past solar cell improvements have prompted appreciable interest in the physical, chemical, and electrical transport properties of grain boundaries and other electrically active defects. Studies to achieve better understanding of the hydrogen passivation process are being conducted at various subcontractors, and our in-house research continues. This paper presents the results of these efforts as well as future directions.

  19. Semiconductor quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jianjun; Cao, Guozhong

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been drawing great attention recently as a material for solar energy conversion due to their versatile optical and electrical properties. The QD-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) is one of the burgeoning semiconductor QD solar cells that shows promising developments for the next generation of solar cells. This article focuses on recent developments in QDSCs, including 1) the effect of quantum confinement on QDSCs, 2) the multiple exciton generation (MEG) of QDs, 3) fabrication methods of QDs, and 4) nanocrystalline photoelectrodes for solar cells. We also make suggestions for future research on QDSCs. Although the efficiency of QDSCs is still low, we think there will be major breakthroughs in developing QDSCs in the future. PMID:24191178

  20. Organic siliconate additive for alkaline zinc electrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dopp, R.B.

    1986-10-14

    This patent describes an alkaline electrochemical comprising an air cathode sub-assembly, with a means for supplying air to the cathode sub-assembly, a zinc anode an organic siliconate in contact with the anode, an electrolyte in contact with the zinc anode and a non-metallic separator between the cathode and the anode.

  1. Enhancement of oxygen vacancies and solar photocatalytic activity of zinc oxide by incorporation of nonmetal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Ashokrao B.; Patil, Kashinath R.; Pardeshi, Satish K.

    2011-12-01

    B-doped ZnO and N-doped ZnO powders have been synthesized by mechanochemical method and characterized by TG-DTA, XRD, SEM-EDX, XPS, UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. X-ray diffraction data suggests the hexagonal wurtzite structure for modified ZnO crystallites and the incorporation of nonmetal expands the lattice constants of ZnO. The room temperature PL spectra suggest more number of oxygen vacancies exist in nonmetal-doped ZnO than that of undoped zinc oxide. XPS analysis shows the substitution of some of the O atoms of ZnO by nonmetal atoms. Solar photocatalytic activity of B-doped ZnO, N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO was compared by means of oxidative photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of Bisphenol A (BPA). B-doped ZnO showed better solar PCD efficiency as compare to N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO. The PCD of BPA follows first order reaction kinetics. The detail mechanism of PCD of Bisphenol A was proposed with the identification of intermediates such as hydroquinone, benzene-1,2,4-triol and 4-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl) phenol.

  2. Transition Metal Phosphide Hydroprocessing Catalysts: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, S.; Gott, T; Zhao, H; Lee, Y

    2009-01-01

    The diminishing quality of oil feedstocks coupled with increasingly more stringent environmental regulations limiting the content of sulfur in transportation fuels have given rise to a need for improved hydroprocessing technology. This review begins with a summary of the major improvements in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) catalysts and processes that have been reported in recent years. It then describes a new class of hydroprocessing catalysts, the transition metal phosphides, which have emerged as a promising group of high-activity, stable catalysts. The phosphides have physical properties resembling ceramics, so are strong and hard, yet retain electronic and magnetic properties similar to metals. Their crystal structures are based on trigonal prisms, yet they do not form layered structures like the sulfides. They display excellent performance in HDS and HDN, with the most active phosphide, Ni{sub 2}P, having activity surpassing that of promoted sulfides on the basis of sites titrated by chemisorption (CO for the phosphides, O{sub 2} for the sulfides). In the HDS of difficult heteroaromatics like 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene Ni{sub 2}P operates by the hydrogenation pathway, while in the HDN of substituted nitrogen compounds like 2-methylpiperidine it carries out nucleophilic substitution. The active sites for hydrogenation in Ni{sub 2}P have a square pyramidal geometry, while those for direct hydrodesulfurization have a tetrahedral geometry. Overall, Ni{sub 2}P is a promising catalyst for deep HDS in the presence of nitrogen and aromatic compounds.

  3. Sinterless Formation Of Contacts On Indium Phosphide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1995-01-01

    Improved technique makes it possible to form low-resistivity {nearly equal to 10(Sup-6) ohm cm(Sup2)} electrical contacts on indium phosphide semiconductor devices without damaging devices. Layer of AgP2 40 Angstrom thick deposited on InP before depositing metal contact. AgP2 interlayer sharply reduces contact resistance, without need for sintering.

  4. Development of gallium aluminum phosphide electroluminescent diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicotka, R. J.; Lorenz, M. R.; Nethercot, A. H.; Pettit, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    Work done on the development of gallium aluminum phosphide alloys for electroluminescent light sources is described. The preparation of this wide band gap semiconductor alloy, its physical properties (particularly the band structure, the electrical characteristics, and the light emitting properties) and work done on the fabrication of diode structures from these alloys are broadly covered.

  5. Efficient direct ZnO/CIS solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Larry C.; William Addis, F.; Lei, Wenhua; Li, Jun

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes investigations of CIS solar cells with ZnO window layers deposited by MOCVD. These studies have been conducted with graded absorber CIS substrates obtained from Siemens Solar. Cell fabrication involves surface preparation of the Siemens substrate, growth of 200 to 400 Å of undoped ZnO by MOCVD, deposition of a highly conducting ZnO top contact layer and deposition of a Ni/Ag collector grid. MOCVD growth of ZnO is accomplished in a SPIRE 500XT reactor by reacting a zinc adduct and tetrahydrofuran. Processing development has been conducted by forming test cells on ZnO/CIS structures by depositing thin, transparent Al contacts 2.8 mm in diameter on top of the ZnO window layer to serve as contacts. Several cells have been completed with a total area efficiency ≥11.0%, with the best result being 11.3%. The best active area efficiency is approximately 12%. Other topics discussed include current-voltage characteristics of direct ZnO/CIS cells.

  6. Zinc deprivation impairs growth factor-stimulated calcium influx into murine 3T3 cells associated with decreased cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Boyd L; Browning, Jimmy D

    2011-06-01

    Zinc plays a critical role in growth, a process that depends primarily on cell proliferation. Murine fibroblasts, Swiss 3T3 cells, were used to explore the hypothesis that a critical role of zinc in cell proliferation relates to its function in calcium influx. Cells were deprived of zinc by an impermeant chelator, diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (0.6 mmol/L), and low-calcium status was achieved by using a low- (<5 μmol/L) calcium medium. Cells were stimulated by a composite of growth factors (GF): platelet-derived GF, insulin-like GF-I, and epidermal GF. GF stimulation of cell proliferation was assessed by the incorporation of tritiated thymidine and calcium influx by the increase in fluorescence of cells loaded with Fluo-4. Proliferation was dependent on both zinc and calcium and they interacted in this process. GF stimulated an immediate sharp increase in intracellular calcium, indicative of internal calcium release, which peaked within 1 min and decreased to an elevated plateau, a pattern typical of a store-operated calcium channel. The sustained calcium influx of zinc-deprived cells was markedly lower than that of supplemented cells. Verapamil, a calcium channel blocker, also depressed both cell proliferation and calcium influx. In summary, zinc deficiency impaired GF-stimulated calcium influx into murine fibroblasts in association with decreased cell proliferation. PMID:21508206

  7. LDEF solar cell radiation effects analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rives, Carol J.; Azarewicz, Joseph L.; Massengill, Lloyd

    1993-01-01

    Because of the extended time that the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission stayed in space, the solar cells on the satellite experienced greater environments than originally planned. The cells showed an overall degradation in performance that is due to the combined effects of the various space environments. The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the effect of the accumulated radiation on the solar cells, thereby helping Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to unravel the relative power degradation from the different environments.

  8. Development of gallium arsenide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The potential of ion implantation as a means of developing gallium arsenide solar cells with high efficiency performance was investigated. Computer calculations on gallium arsenide cell characteristics are presented to show the effects of surface recombination, junction space-charge recombination, and built-in fields produced by nonuniform doping of the surface region. The fabrication technology is summarized. Electrical and optical measurements on samples of solar cells are included.

  9. Mechanistic studies of the toxicity of zinc gluconate in the olfactory neuronal cell line Odora.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Heidi; Vignesh, Kavitha Subramanian; Deepe, George S; Choubey, Divaker; Shertzer, Howard G; Genter, Mary Beth

    2016-09-01

    Zinc is both an essential and potentially toxic metal. It is widely believed that oral zinc supplementation can reduce the effects of the common cold; however, there is strong clinical evidence that intranasal (IN) zinc gluconate (ZG) gel treatment for this purpose causes anosmia, or the loss of the sense of smell, in humans. Using the rat olfactory neuron cell line, Odora, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which zinc exposure exerts its toxic effects on olfactory neurons. Following treatment of Odora cells with 100 and 200μM ZG for 0-24h, RNA-seq and in silico analyses revealed up-regulation of pathways associated with zinc metal response, oxidative stress, and ATP production. We observed that Odora cells recovered from zinc-induced oxidative stress, but ATP depletion persisted with longer exposure to ZG. ZG exposure increased levels of NLRP3 and IL-1β protein levels in a time-dependent manner, suggesting that zinc exposure may cause an inflammasome-mediated cell death, pyroptosis, in olfactory neurons. PMID:27179668

  10. Down-regulation of zinc transporter 8 (SLC30A8) in pancreatic beta-cells promotes cell survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pancreatic islet contains high levels of zinc in granular vesicles of beta-cells where insulin is matured, crystallized, and stored before secretion. Zinc is an essential co-factor for insulin crystallization forming dense core in secretory granules. In insulin-containing secretory granules, zin...

  11. Silicon solar cells improved by lithium doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, P. A.

    1970-01-01

    Results of conference on characteristics of lithium-doped silicon solar cells and techniques required for fabrication indicate that output of cells has been improved to point where cells exhibit radiation resistance superior to those currently in use, and greater control and reproducibility of cell processing have been achieved.

  12. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    In the past decade, research on organic solar cells has gone through an important development stage leading to major enhancements in power conversion efficiency, from 4% to 9% in single-junction devices. During this period, there are many novel processing techniques and device designs that have been proposed and adapted in organic solar-cell devices. One well-known device architecture that helps maximize the solar cell efficiency is the multi-junction tandem solar-cell design. Given this design, multiple photoactive absorbers as subcells are stacked in a monolithic fashion and assembled via series connection into one complete device, known as the tandem solar cell. Since multiple absorbers with different optical energy bandgaps are being applied in one tandem solar-cell device, the corresponding solar cell efficiency is maximized through expanded absorption spectrum and reduced carrier thermalization loss. In Chapter 3, the architecture of solution-processible, visibly transparent solar cells is introduced. Unlike conventional organic solar-cell devices with opaque electrodes (such as silver, aluminum, gold and etc.), the semi-transparent solar cells rely on highly transparent electrodes and visibly transparent photoactive absorbers. Given these two criteria, we first demonstrated the visibly transparent single-junction solar cells via the polymer absorber with near-infrared absorption and the top electrode based on solution-processible silver nanowire conductor. The highest visible transparency (400 ˜ 700 nm) of 65% was achieved for the complete device structure. More importantly, power conversion efficiency of 4% was also demonstrated. In Chapter 4, we stacked two semi-transparent photoactive absorbers in the tandem architecture in order to realize the semi-transparent tandem solar cells. A noticeable performance improvement from 4% to 7% was observed. More importantly, we modified the interconnecting layers with the incorporation of a thin conjugated

  13. JPL lithium doped solar cell development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    One of the most significant problems encountered in the use of silicon solar cells in space is the sensitivity of the device to electron and proton radiation exposure. The p-diffused-into-n-base solar cells were replaced with the more radiation tolerant n-diffused-into-p-base solar cells. Another advancement in achieving greater radiation tolerance was the discovery that the addition of lithium to n-base silicon resulted in what appeared to be annealing of radiation-induced defects. This phenomenon is being exploited to develop a high efficiency radiation resistant lithium-doped solar cell. Lithium-doped solar cells fabricated from oxygen-lean and oxygen-rich silicon were obtained with average initial efficiencies of 11.9% at air mass zero and 28 C, as compared to state-of-the-art n-p cells fabricated from 10 ohm cm silicon with average efficiencies of 11.3% under similar conditions. Lithium-doped cells demonstrated the ability to withstand three to five times the fluence of 1-MeV electrons before degrading to a power equivalent to state-of-the-art solar cells. The principal investigations are discussed with respect to fabrication of high efficiency radiation resistant lithium-doped cells, including starting material, p-n junction diffusion, lithium source introduction, and lithium diffusion.

  14. Improved conversion efficiency of amorphous Si solar cells using a mesoporous ZnO pattern

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To provide a front transparent electrode for use in highly efficient hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film solar cells, porous flat layer and micro-patterns of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle (NP) layers were prepared through ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) and deposited on Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layers. Through this, it was found that a porous micro-pattern of ZnO NPs dispersed in resin can optimize the light-trapping pattern, with the efficiency of solar cells based on patterned or flat mesoporous ZnO layers increased by 27% and 12%, respectively. PMID:25276101

  15. Electron irradiation of modern solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Miyahira, T. F.

    1977-01-01

    A number of modern solar cell types representing 1976 technology (as well as some older types) were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons (and a limited number with 2 MeV electrons and 10 MeV protons). After irradiation, the cells were annealed, with I-V curves measured under AMO at 30 C. The purpose was to provide data to be incorporated in the revision of the solar cell radiation handbook. Cell resistivities ranged from 2 to 20 ohm-cm, and cell thickness from 0.05 to 0.46 mm. Cell types examined were conventional, shallow junction, back surface field (BSF), textured, and textured with BSF.

  16. Zip4 Mediated Zinc Influx Stimulates Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Alexandre B.; Prentice, Kacey J.; Froese, Sean; Liu, Ying; Andrews, Glen K.; Wheeler, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Zinc has an important role in normal pancreatic beta cell physiology as it regulates gene transcription, insulin crystallization and secretion, and cell survival. Nevertheless, little is known about how zinc is transported through the plasma membrane of beta cells and which of the class of zinc influx transporters (Zip) is involved. Zip4 was previously shown to be expressed in human and mouse beta cells; however, its function there is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define the zinc transport role of Zip4 in beta cells. To investigate this, Zip4 was over-expressed in MIN6 beta cells using a pCMV6-Zip4GFP plasmid. Organelle staining combined with confocal microscopy showed that Zip4 exhibits a widespread localization in MIN6 cells. Time-lapse zinc imaging experiments showed that Zip4 increases cytoplasmic zinc levels. This resulted in increased granular zinc content and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Interestingly, it is unlikely that the increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion was triggered by a modulation of mitochondrial function, as mitochondrial membrane potential remained unchanged. To define the role of Zip4 in-vivo, we generated a beta cell-specific knockout mouse model (Zip4BKO). Deletion of the Zip4 gene was confirmed in Zip4BKO islets by PCR, RT-PCR, and immuno-histochemistry. Zip4BKO mice showed slightly improved glucose homeostasis but no change in insulin secretion during an oral glucose tolerance test. While Zip4 was not found to be essential for proper glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion in vivo in mice, this study also found that Zip4 mediates increases in cytoplasmic and granular zinc pools and stimulates glucose dependant insulin secretion in-vitro. PMID:25806541

  17. Development of GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnally, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    Calculations of GaAs solar cell output parameters were refined and a computer model was developed for parameter optimization. The results were analyzed to determine the material characteristics required for a high efficiency solar cell. Calculated efficiencies for a P/N cell polarity are higher than an N/P cell. Both cell polarities show efficiency to have a larger dependence on short circuit current than an open circuit voltage under nearly all conditions considered. The tolerances and requirements of a cell fabrication process are more critical for an N/P type than for a P/N type cell. Several solar cell fabrication considerations relative to junction formation using ion implantation are also discussed.

  18. Bypass diode for a solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Rim, Seung Bum; Kim, Taeseok; Smith, David D; Cousins, Peter J

    2013-11-12

    Methods of fabricating bypass diodes for solar cells are described. In once embodiment, a method includes forming a first conductive region of a first conductivity type above a substrate of a solar cell. A second conductive region of a second conductivity type is formed on the first conductive region. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a first conductive region of a first conductivity type above a substrate of a solar cell. A second conductive region of a second conductivity type is formed within, and surrounded by, an uppermost portion of the first conductive region but is not formed in a lowermost portion of the first conductive region.

  19. Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Jerry M.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    1994-01-01

    A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer.

  20. Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface

    DOEpatents

    Olson, J.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1994-05-31

    A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell is described wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga[sub 0.52]In[sub 0.48]P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer. 1 fig.