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1

Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide  

DOEpatents

A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

Barnett, Allen M. (Newark, DE); Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE); Masi, James V. (Wilbraham, MA); Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Hall, Robert B. (Newark, DE)

1984-01-01

2

Performance Enhancement of a Graphene-Zinc Phosphide Solar Cell Using the Electric Field-Effect  

E-print Network

absorbers like Si, CdTe, and CIGS, there are other materials that have the potential for large scale solar measurements show that the efficiency conversion is increased 2-fold when we increase the gate voltage an open-circuit voltage of Voc = 0.53 V and an efficiency of 1.9% under AM 1.5 1-sun solar illumination

Javey, Ali

3

PLD growth of thin film Zinc Phosphide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of efficient, low cost solar cells to meet society's growing energy needs has triggered tremendous interest in developing photovoltaics formed from earth abundant materials. Zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) is a promising earth abundant absorber layer for photovoltaic energy conversion with a nearly ideal band gap (1.5eV) and a large absorption coefficient of 10^4/cm. In this work we examine the growth parameters, electrical and optical properties of thin film zinc phosphide produced using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) from a zinc phosphide target at laser fluencies ranging from 1-3 J/cm2. For the laser fluences explored, highly resistive amorphous zinc phosphide thin films were produced with a band gap of approximately 1.7 eV. The thin films could be transformed from amorphous to polycrystalline zinc phosphide by annealing at 400C for 15mins in a N2 atmosphere. High resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to examine the binding energies of Zn 2p3/2 and Phosphorous 2p3/2 signals and are in the range of 1021.6 eV and 127.5 eV. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDAX) revealed that the Zn3P2 thin films are nearly stoichiometric in composition. Hall mobility in these materials and Zn3P2/ZnS hetrojunction solar cell performance will be discussed.

Vaddi, Rajesh; Vasekar, Parag; Westgate, Charles; White, Bruce

2013-03-01

4

Zinc Phosphide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Zinc phosphide has been used widely as a rodenticide. Upon ingestion, it gets converted to phosphine gas in the body, which is subsequently absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach and the intestines and gets captured by the liver and the lungs. Phosphine gas produces various metabolic and nonmetabolic toxic effects. Clinical symptoms are circulatory collapse, hypotension, shock symptoms, myocarditis, pericarditis, acute pulmonary edema, and congestive heart failure. In this case presentation, we aim to present the intensive care process and treatment resistance of a patient who ingested zinc phosphide for suicide purposes. PMID:25101186

Dogan, Erdal; Guzel, Abdulmenap; Ciftci, Taner; Aycan, Ilker; Cetin, Bedri; Kavak, Gonul Olmez

2014-01-01

5

Calculated performance of indium phosphide solar cells under monochromatic illumination  

SciTech Connect

The performance of a high-efficiency indium phosphide n[sup +]p solar cell under monochromatic illumination has been modeled. The cell modeling of this experimental device gives the peak efficiency in excess of 44% at 0.87 [mu]m and 25 C. The effect of cell series resistance on its performance has also been studied. Calculated efficiencies for an optimized InP cell are in excess of 50% in the wavelength band of 0.75--0.925 [mu]m. The calculations of conversion efficiency versus source wavelength for InP solar cells are compared to other solar cell materials at a source illumination of 1 W/cm[sup 2].

Jain, R.K. (NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States))

1993-10-01

6

Recent developments in indium phosphide space solar cell research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent developments and progress in indium phosphide solar cell research for space application are reviewed. Indium phosphide homojunction cells were fabricated in both the n+p and p+n configurations with total area efficiencies of 17.9 and 15.9% (air mass 0 and 25 C) respectively. Organometallic chemical vapor deposition, liquid phase epitaxy, ion implantation and diffusion techniques were employed in InP cell fabrication. A theoretical model of a radiation tolerant, high efficiency homojunction cell was developed. A realistically attainable AMO efficiency of 20.5% was calculated using this model with emitter and base doping of 6 x 10 to the 17th power and 5 x 10 the the 16th power/cu cm respectively. Cells of both configurations were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons and 37 MeV protons. For both proton and electron irradiation, the n+p cells are more radiation resistant at higher fluences than the p+n cells. The first flight module of four InP cells was assembled for the Living Plume Shield III satellite.

Brinker, David J.; Weinberg, Irving

1987-01-01

7

Recent developments in indium phosphide space solar cell research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent developments and progress in indium phosphide solar cell research for space application are reviewed. Indium phosphide homojunction cells were fabricated in both the n + p and p + n configurations with total area efficiencies of 17.9 and 15.9 percent (air mass 0 and 25 C) respectively. Organometallic chemical vapor deposition, liquid phase epitaxy, ion implantation and diffusion techniques were employed in InP cell fabrication. A theoretical model of a radiation tolerant, high efficiency homojunction cell was developed. A realistically attainable AM0 efficiency of 20.5 percent was calculated using this model with emitter and base doping of 6 x 10 to the 17th power and 5 x 10 to the 16th power/cu cm, respectively. Cells of both configurations were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons and 37 MeV protons. For both proton and electron irradiation, the n + p cells are more radiation resistant at higher fluences than the p + n cells. The first flight module of four InP cells was assembled for the Living Plume Shield III satellite.

Brinker, David J.; Weinberg, Irving

1987-01-01

8

Progress in indium phosphide solar cell research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress, dating from the start of the Lewis program, is reviewed emphasizing processing techniques which have achieved the highest efficiencies in a given year. To date, the most significant achievement has been attainment of AM0 total area efficiencies approaching 19 percent. Although closed tube diffusion is not considered to be an optimum process, reasonably efficient 2cm x 2cm and 1cm x 2cm InP cells have been produced in quantity by this method with a satellite to be launched in 1990 using these cells. Proton irradiation of these relatively large area cells indicates radiation resistance comparable to that previously reported for smaller InP cells. A similar result is found for the initial proton irradiations of ITO/InP cells processed by D. C. sputtering. With respect to computer modelling, a comparison of n/p homojunction InP and GaAs cells of identical geometries and dopant concentrations has confirmed the superior radiation resistance of InP cells under 1 MeV electron irradiations.

Weinberg, Irving; Swartz, Clifford K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.

1989-01-01

9

Indium phosphide space solar cell research: Where we are and where we are going  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Indium phosphide is considered to be a strong contender for many photovoltaic space applications because of its radiation resistance and its potential for high efficiency. An overview of recent progress is presented, and possible future research directions for indium phosphide space solar cells are discussed. The topics considered include radiation damage studies and space flight experiments.

Jain, R. K.; Flood, D. J.; Weinberg, Irving

1995-01-01

10

Forward-biased current annealing of radiation degraded indium phosphide and gallium arsenide solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preliminary results of a novel approach to low-temperature annealing of previously irradiated indium phosphide and gallium arsenide solar cells are reported. The technique is based on forward-biased current annealing. The two types of III-V solar cells were irradiated with 1-MeV electrons to a fluence level of (1-10) x 10 to the 14th electrons\\/sq cm. Several annealing attempts were made,

Sherif Michael; Corinne Cypranowski; Bruce Anspaugh

1990-01-01

11

Power recovery of radiation-damaged Gallium Arsenide and Indium Phosphide solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation damaging to on-orbit solar arrays was found to significantly decrease power output and efficiency. By a process of annealing, these cells can recover some of the initial performance parameters. Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) and Indium Phosphide (InP) solar cells were subjected to 1 MeV electron radiation by a Dynamitron linear accelerator at two fluence levels of 1E14 and 1E15 electrons\\/sq

Corinne Cypranowski

1989-01-01

12

Power recovery of radiation-damaged gallium arsenide and indium phosphide solar cells. Master's thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation damaging to on-orbit solar arrays was found to significantly decrease power output and efficiency. By a process of annealing, these cells can recover some of the initial performance parameters. Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) and Indium Phosphide (InP) solar cells were subjected to 1 MeV electron radiation by a Dynamitron linear accelerator at two fluence levels of 1E14 and 1E15 electrons\\/sq

Cypranowski

1989-01-01

13

Synthesis of optimized indium phosphide/zinc sulfide core/shell nanocrystals and titanium dioxide nanotubes for quantum dot sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthesis of InP/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals and TiO 2 nanotubes and the optimization study to couple them together were explored for quantum dot sensitized solar cells. Its intrinsic nontoxicity makes the direct band gap InP/ZnS core/shell be one of the most promising semiconductor nanocrystals for optoelectric applications, with the advantage of tuning the optical absorption range in the desired solar spectrum region. Highly luminescent and monodisperse InP/ZnS nanocrystals were synthesized in a non-coordinating solvent. By varying the synthesis scheme, different size InP/ZnS nanocrystals with emission peaks ranging from 520 nm to 620 nm were grown. For the purpose of ensuring air stability, a ZnS shell was grown. The ZnS shell improves the chemical stability in terms of oxidation prevention. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image shows that the nanocrystals are highly crystalline and monodisperse. Free-standing TiO2 nanotubes were produced by an anodization method using ammonium fluoride. The free-standing nanotubes were formed under the condition that the chemical dissolution speed associated with fluoride concentration was faster than the speed of Ti oxidation. Highly ordered free-standing anatase form TiO2 nanotubes, which are transformed by annealing at the optimized temperature, are expected to be ideal for coupling with the prepared InP/ZnS nanocrystals. Electrophoretic deposition was carried out to couple the InP/ZnS nanocrystals with the TiO2 nanotubes. Under the adjusted applied voltage condition, the current during the electrophoretic deposition decreased continuously with time. The amount of the deposited nanocrystals was estimated by calculation and the evenly deposited nanocrystals on the TiO2 nanotubes were observed by TEM.

Lee, Seungyong

14

Abdominal imaging in zinc phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Radiography has been proved to be a good diagnostic tool in visualization of many radiopaque xenobiotics in clinical toxicology. Zinc is a potentially radiopaque material which is a constituent of the zinc phosphide (ZN2P3) rodenticide. We report two cases of zinc phosphide poisoning with positive abdominal X-rays in whom the diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal imaging. Positive abdominal imaging was an indication for aggressive management; however, aggressive treatment was not lifesaving in one of them. We aim to emphasize the diagnostic value of abdominal X-rays in zinc phosphide-poisoned patients. We also would like to suggest that zinc phosphide (ZP)-poisoned patients with positive X-rays have more chance to become unstable even if they are symptom free on presentation and should be more aggressively managed. PMID:24477450

Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Shahnazi, Makhtoom; Zamani, Nasim; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

2014-06-01

15

Effect of InAlAs window layer on efficiency of indium phosphide solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Indium phosphide (InP) solar cell efficiencies are limited by surface recombination. The effect of a wide bandgap, lattice-matched indium aluminum arsenide (In(0.52)Al(0.48)As) window layer on the performance of InP solar cells was investigated by using the numerical code PC-1D. The p(+)n InP solar cell performance improved significantly with the use of the window layer. No improvement was seen for the n(+)p InP cells. The cell results were explained by the band diagram of the heterostructure and the conduction band energy discontinuity. The calculated current voltage and internal quantum efficiency results clearly demonstrated that In(0.52)Al(0.48)As is a very promising candidate for a window layer material for p(+)n InP solar cells.

Jain, R.K.; Landis, G.A.

1992-01-01

16

Influence of the dislocation density on the performance of heteroepitaxial indium phosphide solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Heteroepitaxial indium phosphide solar cells developed to date have low efficiency due to misfit dislocations. Dislocations act as recombination centers and strongly influence the solar cell performance. Calculations have been made to study the dependence of heteroepitaxial InP solar cell efficiency on dislocation density. The effects of surface recombination velocity and cell emitter thickness are also considered. Calculated results are compared with the available experimental results on representative InP solar cells. It is shown that heteroepitaxial InP cells with over 20% AMO efficiency could be fabricated if dislocation density can be reduced to < 10[sup 5] cm [sup [minus]2] and the surface recombination velocity reduced to < 10[sup 5] cm/s.

Jain, R.K.; Flood, D.J. (NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States))

1993-11-01

17

Design modeling of high-efficiency p[sup +]-n indium phosphide solar cells  

SciTech Connect

A parametric study of p[sup +]-n indium phosphide solar cells has been conducted using the PC-1D computer program. The effect of base doping on cell efficiency has been studied, and it is found that cell efficiency is a maximum for impurity concentrations around 10[sup 17] cm[sup [minus]3]. The variation of minority-carrier diffusion length as a function of base doping has been included. Using realistic values of electronic and material parameters, cell efficiencies in excess of 24% AMO (25[degree] C) are predicted.

Jain, R.K.; Flood, D.J. (NASA, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center)

1993-01-01

18

Modelling and design of high performance indium phosphide solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A first principles pn junction device model has predicted new designs for high voltage, high efficiency InP solar cells. Measured InP material properties were applied and device parameters (thicknesses and doping) were adjusted to obtain optimal performance designs. Results indicate that p/n InP designs will provide higher voltages and higher energy conversion efficiencies than n/p structures. Improvements to n/p structures for increased efficiency are predicted. These new designs exploit the high absorption capabilities, relatively long diffusion lengths, and modest surface recombination velocities characteristic of InP. Predictions of performance indicate achievable open-circuit voltage values as high as 943 mV for InP and a practical maximum AM0 efficiency of 22.5 percent at 1 sun and 27 C. The details of the model, the optimal InP structure and the effect of individual parameter variations on device performance are presented.

Rhoads, Sandra L.; Barnett, Allen M.

1989-01-01

19

Analysis of radiation damaged and annealed gallium arsenide and indium phosphide solar cells using deep level transient spectroscopy. Master's thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power loss in spacecraft solar cells due to radiation damage was investigated. The mechanisms behind the degradation and based on deep-level defects in the crystalline lattice structure of the solar cell. Through a process known as Deep Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS), a correlation can be made between damage\\/recovery and trap energy of the cell. Gallium (GaAs\\/Ge) and Indium Phosphide (InP) solar

Bruening

1993-01-01

20

Indium phosphide solar cells: status and prospects for use in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of indium phosphide cell research is reviewed and state of the art efficiencies compared to those of GaAs and Si. It is shown that the radiation resistance of InP cells is superior to that of either GaAs or Si under 1 MeV electron and 10 MeV proton irradiation. Using lightweight blanket technology, a SEP array structure and projected cell efficiencies, array specific powers are obtained for all three cell types. Array performance is calculated as a function of time in orbit. The results indicate that arrays using InP cells can outperform those using GaAs or Si in orbits where radiation is a significant cell degradation factor. It is concluded that InP solar cells are excellent prospects for future use in the space radiation environment.

Weinberg, I.; Brinker, D. J.

1986-01-01

21

Indium phosphide solar cells - Status and prospects for use in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of indium phosphide cell research is reviewed and state of the art efficiencies compared to those of GaAs and Si. It is shown that the radiation resistance of InP cells is superior to that of either GaAs or Si under 1 MeV electron and 10 MeV proton irradiation. Using lightweight blanket technology, a SEP array structure and projected cell efficiencies, array specific powers are obtained for all three cell types. Array performance is calculated as a function of time in orbit. The results indicate that arrays using InP cells can outperform those using GaAs or Si in orbits where radiation is a significant cell degradation factor. It is concluded that InP solar cells are excellent prospects for future use in the space radiation environment.

Weinberg, I.; Brinker, D. J.

1986-01-01

22

High-efficiency indium tin oxide/indium phosphide solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvements in the performance of indium tin oxide (ITO)/indium phosphide solar cells have been realized by the dc magnetron sputter deposition of n-ITO onto an epitaxial p/p(+) structure grown on commercial p(+) bulk substrates. The highest efficiency cells were achieved when the surface of the epilayer was exposed to an Ar/H2 plasma before depositing the bulk of the ITO in a more typical Ar/O2 plasma. With H2 processing, global efficiencies of 18.9 percent were achieved. It is suggested that the excellent performance of these solar cells results from the optimization of the doping, thickness, transport, and surface properties of the p-type base, as well as from better control over the ITO deposition procedure.

Li, X.; Wanlass, M. W.; Gessert, T. A.; Emery, K. A.; Coutts, T. J.

1989-01-01

23

Forward-biased current annealing of radiation degraded indium phosphide and gallium arsenide solar cells [for space power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preliminary results of a novel approach to low-temperature annealing of previously irradiated indium phosphide and gallium arsenide solar cells are reported. The technique is based on forward-biased current annealing. The two types of III-V semiconductor solar cells were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons to a fluence level of (1-10)×10 14 electrons\\/cm2. Several annealing attempts were made, varying all conditions.

S. Michael; C. Cypranowski; B. Anspaugh

1990-01-01

24

Forward-biased current annealing of radiation degraded indium phosphide and gallium arsenide solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary results of a novel approach to low-temperature annealing of previously irradiated indium phosphide and gallium arsenide solar cells are reported. The technique is based on forward-biased current annealing. The two types of III-V solar cells were irradiated with 1-MeV electrons to a fluence level of (1-10) x 10 to the 14th electrons/sq cm. Several annealing attempts were made, varying all conditions. Optimum annealing was achieved when cells were injected with minority currents at a constant 90 C. The current density for each type of cell was also determined. Significant recovery of degraded parameters was achieved in both cases. However, the InP cell recovery notably exceeded the recovery in GaAs cells. The recovery is thought to be caused by current-stimulated reordering of the radiator-induced displacement damage. Both types of cell were then subjected to several cycles of irradiation and annealing. The results were also very promising. The significant recovery of degraded cell parameters at low temperature might play a major role in considerably extending the end of life of future spacecraft.

Michael, Sherif; Cypranowski, Corinne; Anspaugh, Bruce

1990-01-01

25

Diffusion length variation in 0. 5- and 3-MeV-proton-irradiated, heteroepitaxial indium phosphide solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Indium phosphide (InP) solar cells are more radiation resistant than gallium arsenide (GaAs) and silicon (Si) solar cells, and their growth by heteroepitaxy offers additional advantages leading to the development of light weight, mechanically strong, and cost-effective cells. Changes in heteroepitaxial InP cell efficiency under 0.5- and 3-MeV proton irradiations have been explained by the variation in the minority-carrier diffusion length. The base diffusion length versus proton fluence was calculated by simulating the cell performance. The diffusion length damage coefficient, K[sub L], was also plotted as a function of proton fluence.

Jain, R.K.; Weinberg, I.; Flood, D.J.

1993-04-01

26

Simulation of high-efficiency n[sup +]p indium phosphide solar cell results and future improvements  

SciTech Connect

A simulation of the highest efficiency (19.1% AM0) n[sup +]p indium phosphide (InP) solar cell was made using a computer code PC-1D in order to understand it and suggest future improvements to it. Available cell design and process data was used in the simulation. Minority carrier diffusion lengths in the emitter and base have been varied to match the experimental cell I-V characteristics with the calculated results. To further understand and improve the InP cell efficiency, simulations were performed using improved values of cell material and process parameters. The authors show that the efficiency of this cell could be increased to more than 23% AM0 by incorporating the suggested cell material, design and process improvements. At these high efficiencies InP cell technology will be very attractive for space use.

Jain, R.K.; Flood, D.J. (NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States))

1994-12-01

27

Analysis of radiation damaged and annealed gallium arsenide and indium phosphide solar cells using deep level transient spectroscopy. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

Power loss in spacecraft solar cells due to radiation damage was investigated. The mechanisms behind the degradation and based on deep-level defects in the crystalline lattice structure of the solar cell. Through a process known as Deep Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS), a correlation can be made between damage/recovery and trap energy of the cell. Gallium (GaAs/Ge) and Indium Phosphide (InP) solar cells were subjected to 1 MeV electron irradiation, to fluences of 1[times]10[sup 16] electrons/sq cm. Attempts at recovery included thermal annealing, alone, and with an applied forward bias current, and injection annealing. Various cycles of irradiation, annealing and DLTS were performed, in an attempt to correlate damage to trap energy level and growth. The results show that DLTS cannot be performed on GaAs/Ge, and no recovery was apparent in these cells. DLTS analysis of InP indicated excellent photoinjection annealing recovery at a variety of temperatures. Lower energy level defects are associated with the recovery of the cells while the higher energy traps are indicative of permanent degradation in the InP solar cells. Applying this information to future research could increase satellite mission life, and significantly reduce space mission costs.

Bruening, J.A.

1993-09-01

28

Annealing of defect sites in radiation damaged indium phosphide solar cells through laser illumination. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis reports the results of a laser annealing technique used to remove defect sites from radiation damaged indium phosphide diffused junction solar cells. This involves the illumination of damaged solar cells with a continuous wave laser to produce a moderate heating and a large forward-biased current. The InP cells were irradiated with 27 MeV electrons to a given fluence, and tested for degradation. Light from an argon laser was used to illuminate each cell with an irradiance of 2.5 W/sq cm, producing a current density 7 to 10 times larger than under AMO conditions. Cells were annealed at 48.5 deg C, 60 deg C, and 75 deg C for periods of 15 to 60 minutes, and cooled to 25 deg C for power recovery determination. Annealing at 48.5 deg C resulted in a recovery of 17 to 18% of the power lost due to irradiation, and annealing cells at 60 deg C produced a recovery of 43 to 48%. A single test of the technique at 75 deg C produced a net recovery of only 21% of the power lost. These results indicate that significant power recovery results from the annealing of defects within InP solar cells. Continuing research should involve the repeating of the test at 75 deg C, and irradiations with electrons or protons of energies expected in the space environment.

Chase, C.T.

1995-12-01

29

Anthraquinone repellent to reduce take of non-target birds from zinc phosphide rodenticide applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated anthraquinone as an avian repellent to reduce take of non-target birds from zinc phosphide rodenticide applications. We observed zero mortalities and no overt signs of zinc phosphide toxicosis among 20 Canada geese (Branta canadensis), 24 horned larks (Eremophila alpestris), and 47 ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) offered baits treated with 1% or 2% anthraquinone and 2% zinc phosphide (target

Scott J. Werner; Shelagh K. Tupper; Susan E. Pettit; James C. Carlson; George M. Linz

30

Responses of Siberian ferrets to secondary zinc phosphide poisoning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hazard of operational-type applications of zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) on a species closely related to the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), was evaluated by feeding 16 Siberian ferrets (M. eversmanni) rats that had been killed by consumption of 2% zinc phosphide treated bait or by an oral dose of 40, 80, or 160 mg of Zn3P2. All ferrets accepted rats and a single emesis by each of 3 ferrets was the only evidence of acute intoxication. All ferrets learned to avoid eating gastrointestinal tracts of the rats. Subacute zinc phosphide toxicity in the ferrets was indicated by significant decreases (18-48%) in hemoglobin, increases of 35-91 % in serum iron, and elevated levels of serum globulin, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Hemoglobin/iron, urea nitrogen/creatinine, and albumin/globulin ratios also were altered by the treatments. This study demonstrated that Siberian ferrets, or other species with a sensitive emetic reflex, are afforded a degree of protection from acute zinc phosphide poisoning due to its emetic action. The importance of toxicity associated with possible respiratory, liver, and kidney damage indicated by altered blood chemistries is not known.

Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.

1982-01-01

31

Naval Research Laboratory's programs in advanced indium phosphide solar cell development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been involved in the development of solar cells for space applications since the 1960s. It quickly became apparent in this work that radiation damage caused to solar cells by electrons and protons trapped by the earth's magnetic field would seriously degrade the power output of photovoltaic arrays in extended missions. Techniques were therefore developed to harden the cells by shielding them with coverglass, etc. Ultimately, however, there is a limit to such approaches, which is determined by the radiation response of the semiconductor material employed. A desire for high efficiency and radiation resistance led to the development of alternative cell technologies such as GaAs, which has since become the technology of choice for many applications. InP cells are currently the most radiation resistant, high efficiency, planar cells known. NRL first sponsored InP solar cell technology in 1986, when Arizona State University was contracted to grow p/n cells by liquid phase epitaxy. NRL's interest in InP cells was generated by the results presented by Yamaguchi and his co-workers in the early 1980s on the remarkable radiation resistance of cells grown by diffusion of S into Zn doped p-type InP substrates. These cells also had beginning of life (BOL) efficiencies approximately 16%(AM0). Related to the radiation resistance of the cells was the fact that radiation-induced damage could be optically annealed by sunlight. Relatively large quantities of 1 x 2 cm(exp 2) diffused junction cells were made and were used on the MUSES-A and the EXOS-D satellites. These cells were also available in the U.S. through NIMCO, and were studied at NRL and elsewhere. Workers at NASA Lewis became involved in research in InP cells about the same time as NRL.

Summers, Geoffrey P.

1996-01-01

32

Neuropsychiatric syndromes and occupational exposure to zinc phosphide in Egypt.  

PubMed

Eighty-six workers exposed to zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) pesticide were studied for evidence of neuropsychiatric manifestations. They were evaluated clinically, by electroencephalography (EEG), and, in some cases, by electromyography (EMG). All were males (mean age, 35.8 years; mean duration of exposure to zinc phosphide, 11.3 years). Most presented with one (or more) neuropsychiatric symptom(s), including fear of poisoning, anxiety, impotence, and easy fatigue. About half showed evidence of neuropsychiatric signs, including hyperreflexia, polyneuropathy, lumber radiculopathy, and cervical myelopathy, as well as anxious mood, impaired attention, and psychomotor stimulation. EEG recordings showed abnormal findings in 17.4% of the subjects. The mean age in that group was 39.1 years; mean duration of exposure to Zn3P2 was 15.1 years. EMG studies showed evidence of partial denervation of the anterior tibial group of muscles and flexor digiti minimi in 2 of the 30 workers (6.7%) who underwent EMG examination. Serum levels of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Ca) were significantly higher in exposed workers than in controls (P < 0.005). Serum copper (Cu), iron (Fe), phosphorus (P), and magnesium (Mg) were significantly lower in exposed workers than in controls. Electrophoretic pattern of globulin showed that gammaglobulin fraction was significantly increased (P < 0.005); alpha2 and beta-globulin were decreased (P < 0.005) in exposed workers. Lipoprotein pattern showed that the total lipids, B-lipoprotein, and B/alpha ratio were significantly increased (P < 0.005) in exposed workers; the alpha1 lipoprotein was decreased. Triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly increased (P < 0.001), and phospholipids and phospholipid/cholesterol ratio were significantly decreased (P < 0.005) in exposed workers compared to controls. The study findings indicated that exposure to Zn3P2 not only caused mild acute and subacute liver cell damage, but also affected renal function and perhaps B-cells of the pancreas. A total of 68.6% of the exposed workers had chest symptoms; only 24.4% presented with chest or cardiac signs. Ventilatory functions were abnormal in 70% of the exposed workers; abnormal ECG findings were present in 12.8%. PMID:9311548

Amr, M M; Abbas, E Z; El-Samra, M; El Batanuoni, M; Osman, A M

1997-01-01

33

Key factors limiting the open circuit voltage of n(+)pp(+) indium phosphide solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cells made from gallium arsenide (Gaas), with a room temperature bandgap of E(sub g) = 1.43 eV have exhibited the best measured open circuit voltage (V sub oc) of 1.05 V at 1 AM0, 25 C. The material InP is in many ways similar to GaAs. A simple calculation comparing InP to GaAs then shows that solar cells made from InP, with E(sub g) = 1.35 at 300 K, should exhibit the best measured V sub oc of approximately 950 mV at 1 AM0, 300 K. However, to date, the best measured V sub oc for InP solar cells made by any fabrication method is 899 mV at AM1.5, 25 C which would translate to 912 mV at 1 AM0, 25 C. The V sub oc of an n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell is governed by several factors. Of these, some factors, such as the thickness and doping of the emitter and base regions, are easily controlled and can be adjusted to desired values dictated by a good performance optimizing model. Such factors were not considered. There are other factors which also govern V sub oc, and their values are not so easily controlled. The primary ones among these are (1) the indirect or Hall-Shockley-Read lifetimes in the various regions of the cell, (2) the low-doping intrinsic carrier concentration n(sub i) of the InP material, (3) the heavy doping factors in the emitter and BSF regions, and (4) the front surface recombination velocity S(sub F). The influence of these latter factors on the V sub oc of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell and the results were used to produce a near-optimum design of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell.

Goradia, Chandra; Thesling, William; Weinberg, Irving

1990-01-01

34

Key factors limiting the open circuit voltage of n(+)pp(+) indium phosphide solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cells made from gallium arsenide (GaAs), with a room temperature bandgap of E(sub g) = 1.43 eV have exhibited the best measured open circuit voltage (V sub OC) of 1.05 V at 1 AMO, 25 C. The material InP is in many ways similar to GaAs. A simple calculation comparing InP to GaAs then shows that solar cells made from InP, with E(sub g) = 1.35 at 300 K, should exhibit the best measured (V sub OC) of approximately 950 mV at 1 AMO, 300 K. However, to date, the best measured V(sub OC) for InP solar cells made by any fabrication method is 899 mV at AM1.5, 25 C which would translate to 912 mV at 1 AMO, 25 C. The V(sub OC) of an n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell is governed by several factors. Of these, some factors, such as the thickness and doping of the emitter and base regions, are easily controlled and can be adjusted to desired values dictated by a good performance optimizing model. Such factors were not considered. There are other factors which also govern V(sub OC), and their values are not so easily controlled. The primary ones among these are (1) the indirect or Hall-Shockley-Read lifetimes in the various regions of the cell, (2) the low-doping intrinsic carrier concentration n(sub i) of the InP material, (3) the heavy doping factors in the emitter and BSF regions, and (4) the front surface recombination velocity S(sub F). The influence of these latter factors on the V(sub OC) of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell and the results were used to produce a near-optimum design of the n(+)pp(+) InP solar cell.

Goradia, Chandra; Thesling, William; Weinberg, Irving

1991-01-01

35

Indium tin oxide and indium phosphide heterojunction nanowire array solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterojunction solar cells were formed with a position-controlled InP nanowire array sputtered with indium tin oxide (ITO). The ITO not only acted as a transparent electrode but also as forming a photovoltaic junction. The devices exhibited an open-circuit voltage of 0.436 V, short-circuit current of 24.8 mA/cm2, and fill factor of 0.682, giving a power conversion efficiency of 7.37% under AM1.5 G illumination. The internal quantum efficiency of the device was higher than that of the world-record InP cell in the short wavelength range.

Yoshimura, Masatoshi; Nakai, Eiji; Tomioka, Katsuhiro; Fukui, Takashi

2013-12-01

36

Assessing potential risk to alligators, Alligator mississippiensis, from nutria control with zinc phosphide rodenticide baits.  

PubMed

Nutria, Myocastor coypus, populations must be reduced when they cause substantial wetland damage. Control can include the rodenticide zinc phosphide, but the potential impacts to American alligators, Alligator mississippiensis, must be assessed. The mean amount of zinc phosphide per nutria found in nutria carcasses was 50 mg. Risk assessment determined that a conservative estimate for maximum exposure would be 173 mg zinc phosphide for a 28 kg alligator, or 6.2 mg/kg. Probit analysis found an LD(50) for alligators of 28 mg/kg. Our studies suggest that the use of zinc phosphide to manage nutria populations would pose only a small risk to alligators. PMID:20431861

Witmer, Gary W; Eisemann, John D; Primus, Thomas M; O'Hare, Jeanette R; Perry, Kelly R; Elsey, Ruth M; Trosclair, Phillip L

2010-06-01

37

Naval Research Laboratory's programs in advanced indium phosphide solar cell development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Naval Research Laboratory has been involved in developing InP solar cell technology since 1988. The purpose of these programs was to produce advanced cells for use in very high radiation environments, either as a result of operating satellites in the Van Allen belts or for very long duration missions in other orbits. Richard Statler was technical representative on the first program, with Spire Corporation as the contractor, which eventually produced several hundred, high efficiency 2 x 2 sq cm single crystal InP cells. The shallow homojunction technology which was developed in this program enabled cells to be made with AMO, one sun efficiencies greater than 19%. Many of these cells have been flown on space experiments, including PASP Plus, which have confirmed the high radiation resistance of InP cells. NRL has also published widely on the radiation response of these cells and also on radiation-induced defect levels detected by DLTS, especially the work of Rob Walters and Scott Messenger. In 1990 NRL began another Navy-sponsored program with Tim Coutts and Mark Wanlass at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), to develop a one sun, two terminal space version of the InP-InGaAs tandem junction cell being investigated at NREL for terrestrial applications. These cells were grown on InP substrates. Several cells with AM0, one sun efficiencies greater than 22% were produced. Two 2 x 2 sq cm cells were incorporated on the STRV lA/B solar cell experiment. These were the only two junction, tandem cells on the STRV experiment. The high cost and relative brittleness of InP wafers meant that if InP cell technology were to become a viable space power source, the superior radiation resistance of InP would have to be combined with a cheaper and more robust substrate. The main technical challenge was to overcome the effect of the dislocations produced by the lattice mismatch at the interface of the two materials. Over the last few years, NRL and Steve Wojtczuk at Spire have been developing a single junction InP on Si cell, in an ONR-sponsored SBIR program. Both cell polarities were investigated and the best efficiencies to date (approximately 13% on a 2 x 4 sq cm cell) were achieved with n/p cells. Earlier this year NRL began a program with ASEC to develop a two terminal InP-InGaAs tandem cell on a Ge substrate. RTI and NREL are subcontractors on this program. The results of an ONR-sponsored study of the potential market for InP/Si cells will be discussed. Also the technical status of both the InP/Si and the InP-InGaAs/Ge programs will be given. The technical challenges still remaining will be briefly described.

Summers, Geoffrey P.

1995-01-01

38

Naval Research Laboratory's programs in advanced indium phosphide solar cell development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Naval Research Laboratory has been involved in developing InP solar cell technology since 1988. The purpose of these programs was to produce advanced cells for use in very high radiation environments, either as a result of operating satellites in the Van Allen belts or for very long duration missions in other orbits. Richard Statler was technical representative on the first program, with Spire Corporation as the contractor, which eventually produced several hundred, high efficiency 2 x 2 sq cm single crystal InP cells. The shallow homojunction technology which was developed in this program enabled cells to be made with AMO, one sun efficiencies greater than 19%. Many of these cells have been flown on space experiments, including PASP Plus, which have confirmed the high radiation resistance of InP cells. NRL has also published widely on the radiation response of these cells and also on radiation-induced defect levels detected by DLTS, especially the work of Rob Walters and Scott Messenger. In 1990 NRL began another Navy-sponsored program with Tim Coutts and Mark Wanlass at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), to develop a one sun, two terminal space version of the InP-InGaAs tandem junction cell being investigated at NREL for terrestrial applications. These cells were grown on InP substrates. Several cells with AM0, one sun efficiencies greater than 22% were produced. Two 2 x 2 sq cm cells were incorporated on the STRV lA/B solar cell experiment. These were the only two junction, tandem cells on the STRV experiment. The high cost and relative brittleness of InP wafers meant that if InP cell technology were to become a viable space power source, the superior radiation resistance of InP would have to be combined with a cheaper and more robust substrate. The main technical challenge was to overcome the effect of the dislocations produced by the lattice mismatch at the interface of the two materials. Over the last few years, NRL and Steve Wojtczuk at Spire have been developing a single junction InP on Si cell, in an ONR-sponsored SBIR program. Both cell polarities were investigated and the best efficiencies to date (approximately 13% on a 2 x 4 sq cm cell) were achieved with n/p cells. Earlier this year NRL began a program with ASEC to develop a two terminal InP-InGaAs tandem cell on a Ge substrate. RTI and NREL are subcontractors on this program. The results of an ONR-sponsored study of the potential market for InP/Si cells will be discussed.

Summers, Geoffrey P.

1995-10-01

39

Indium Phosphide Core-Shell Nanowire Array Solar Cells with Lattice-Mismatched Window Layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report surface-passivated core-shell InP nanowire array solar cells fabricated using catalyst-free selective-area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Reflectance measurements confirm enhanced light absorption due to significantly reduced reflectance over a wide spectral range. The wide-band-gap outer shell layer of core-multishell nanowires effectively passivates the large surface area of the nanowires, increasing the short-circuit current density and elevating the energy conversion efficiency by 6.35% under AM1.5G illumination. This passivation technique could open a new approach to nanowire-based photovoltaics with higher energy efficiency.

Yoshimura, Masatoshi; Nakai, Eiji; Tomioka, Katsuhiro; Fukui, Takashi

2013-05-01

40

Effect of zinc impurity on silicon solar-cell efficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zinc is a major residue impurity in the preparation of solar-grade silicon material by the zinc vapor reduction of silicon tetrachloride. This paper projects that in order to get a 17-percent AM1 cell efficiency for the Block IV module of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project, the concentration of the zinc recombination centers in the base region of silicon solar cells must be less than 4 x 10 to the 11th Zn/cu cm in the p-base n+/p/p+ cell and 7 x 10 to the 11th Zn/cu cm in the n-base p+/n/n+ cell for a base dopant impurity concentration of 5 x 10 to the 14 atoms/cu cm. If the base dopant impurity concentration is increased by a factor of 10 to 5 x 10 to the 15th atoms/cu cm, then the maximum allowable zinc concentration is increased by a factor of about two for a 17-percent AM1 efficiency. The thermal equilibrium electron and hole recombination and generation rates at the double-acceptor zinc centers are obtained from previous high-field measurements as well as new measurements at zero field described in this paper. These rates are used in the exact dc-circuit model to compute the projections.

Sah, C.-T.; Chan, P. C. H.; Wang, C.-K.; Yamakawa, K. A.; Lutwack, R.; Sah, R. L.-Y.

1981-01-01

41

Space solar cell research  

SciTech Connect

New solar cell technologies are emerging that could replace silicon cells in power-conversion applications. Gallium arsenide, indium phosphide, and other semiconducting compounds are the focal point of an expanding research effort. The primary subject matter of the article is divided into the following areas: Space vs. terrestrial cell efficiency; Space solar cells; Silicon Cells; Gallium arsenide cells; Other space solar cells; Indium phosphide cells; Superlattice solar cells.

Flood, D.J.

1989-04-01

42

Power recovery of radiation damaged MOCVD grown indium phosphide on silicon solar cells through argon-ion laser annealing. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis reports the results of a laser annealing technique used to remove defect sites from radiation damaged indium phosphide on silicon MOCVD grown solar cells. This involves the illumination of damaged solar cells with a continuous wave laser to produce a large forward-biased current. The InP/Si cells were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons to a given fluence, and tested for degradation. Light from an argon laser was used to illuminate four cells with an irradiance of 2.5 W/sq cm, producing a current density 3 to 5 times larger than AMO conditions. Cells were annealed at 19 deg C with the laser and at 25 deg C under AMO conditions. Annealing under laser illumination of n/p-type cells resulted in recovery of 48%. P/n type cells lost 4 to 12% of the assumed degradaton. Annealing under AMO conditions resulted in power recovery of 70% in n/p type cells. P/n-type cells recovered approximately 16% of lost power. Results indicate that significant power recovery results from the annealing of defects within n/p type InP/Si solar cells.

Boyer, L.L.

1996-06-01

43

Effect of Zinc Phosphide Rodenticide on Prairie Dog Colony Expansion as Determined From Aerial Photography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial photography (1:16,000) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc phosphide in reducing area expansion of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies over a 5-year period in western South Dakota. Untreated prairie dog colonies increased 65 % in area, compared to a 1% increase on treated colonies (P = 0.11). Zinc phosphide, applied at 3-year intervals, was effective in

DANIEL W. URESK; GREG L. SCHENBECK

44

Investigation of ZnO/InP heterostructure solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Zinc oxide/indium phosphide semiconductor/interfacial layer/semiconductor heterostructure solar cells fabricated by chemical spraying were investigated. Diagnostic studies of indium phosphide oxidation, gold/indium phosphide devices and zinc oxide thin films were undertaken. Zinc oxide/indium phosphide heterostructures fabricated by chemical spraying are stable semiconductor/interfacial layer/semiconductor structures of n-zinc oxide, an interfacial thermal oxide and single-crystal p-indium phosphide. Forward leakage currents are dominated by tunneling and interfacial recombination processes, and are analyzed with a thermionic-field emission model. High-temperature processing increases the forward leakage currents and yields an apparent increase in the density of near-interface localized states. Interfacial oxides suppress the formation of near-interface states, and are essential in obtaining optimal photovoltaic performance. Heterostructures fabricated with very thin oxides exhibit severe forward leakage and photoenhanced reverse leakage after post-deposition annealing in hydrogen. Thick interfacial oxides cause current-voltage photosuppression and hysteresis effects. Optimized zinc oxide/indium phosphide heterostructures have short-circuit current densities greater than 23 mA/cm/sup 2/, open-circuit voltages of 0.68-0.72 V, fill factors above 0.7 and active area efficiencies of 13-14% in natural sunlight.

Eberspacher, C.

1984-01-01

45

Gap/silicon Tandem Solar Cell with Extended Temperature Range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-junction solar cell has a bottom solar cell junction of crystalline silicon, and a top solar cell junction of gallium phosphide. A three (or more) junction solar cell has bottom solar cell junctions of silicon, and a top solar cell junction of gallium phosphide. The resulting solar cells exhibit improved extended temperature operation.

Landis, Geoffrey A. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

46

Photoelectronic properties of zinc phosphide crystals, films, and heterojunctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research on zinc phosphides is summarized and includes: ZnP2 materials preparation; electrical characterization of Zn3P2 crystals; characterization by low temperature photoluminescence, photoconductivity, Auger electron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy; investigation of Zn3P2 based devices; and Zn3P2 films grown by close spaced vapor transport. An approach to future research on Zn3P2 is summarized and includes: chemical vapor transport growth with ZnCl2, ZnBr2, and ZnI2; an investigation of defect structure vs deviations from stoichiometry; growth and properties of (Zn3P2)/sub x/Cd3P2)/sub 1-x/ solid solutions; surface investigation on Zn3P2; investigation on Zn3P2; reactive metal junctions; and MIS structures on Zn3P2. Appended are two manuscripts, one on transport mechanisms for mg/Zn3P2 junctions and the other on properties of Zn3P2 crystals and devices.

Bube, R. H.

47

Doped zinc oxide window layers for dye sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper reports the fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC), where boron doped ZnO (BZO) and aluminum-boron co-doped ZnO (AZB) thin films were used as front window electrodes. The highly crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by the sol-gel route were used as host material for the dye. The efficiencies of the DSSCs formed using the BZO and AZB as window layers were obtained to be 1.56 and 1.84%, respectively. The enhanced efficiency in the case of an AZB window layer based DSSC is attributed to the increase in conductivity induced by co-doping of Al and B and an increase in the number of conducting pathways between the window layer and NPs provided by the nanorods. This facilitates a new approach in the window layer (doped ZnO) for DSSC application.

Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Neetu; Kumar, Vijay; Purohit, L. P.; Kapoor, Avinashi; Ntwaeaborwa, Odireleng M.; Swart, Hendrik C.

2013-10-01

48

Photoelectronic properties of zinc phosphide crystals, films, and heterojunctions. Quarterly progress report No. 6, July 1-September 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research program is to investigate the photoelectronic properties of zinc phosphide (Zn/sub 3/P/sub 2/) in single crystal form, in thin-film form, and in heterojunctions in which Zn/sub 3/P/sub 2/ forms one of the elements. This research will be directed toward understanding the role of crystalline defects and impurities in Zn/sub 3/P/sub 2/, the nature of the electronic charge transport in single crystal and thin-film material, and the properties of photovoltaic heterojunctions involving Zn/sub 3/P/sub 2/. The scope of the program extends from basic investigations of materials properties on single crystals to the preparation and characterization of all-thin-film heterojunction divices. One of the principal motivations behind this research program is the realization that Zn/sub 3/P/sub 2/ is a relatively uninvestigated yet ideal component for photovoltaic heterojunction use in solar energy conversion. The proposed program will concentrate on the basic materials problems involved with Zn/sub 3/P/sub 2/, providing the kind of information needed for other more developmental programs directed toward actual practical cells. Results are reported.

Bube, R. H.

1980-01-01

49

A very low resistance, non-sintered contact system for use on indium phosphide concentrator/shallow junction solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation is made into the possibility of providing low resistance contacts to shallow junction InP solar cells which do not require sintering and which do not cause device degradation even when subjected to extended annealing at elevated temperatures. We show that the addition of In to Au contacts in amounts that exceed the solid solubility limit lowers the as-fabricated (unsintered) contact resistivity (R sub c) to the 10(exp -5) ohm cm(exp 2) range. We next consider the contact system Au/Au2P3, which has been shown to exhibit as-fabricated R sub c values in the 10(exp -6) ohm cm(exp 2) range, but which fails quickly when heated. We show that the substitution of a refractory metal (W, Ta) for Au preserves the low R sub c values while preventing the destructive reactions that would normally take place in this system at high temperatures. We show, finally, that R sub c values in the 10(exp -7) ohm cm(exp 2) range can be achieved without sintering by combining the effects of In or Ga additions to Au contacts with the effects of introducing a thin Au2P3 layer at the metal-InP interface.

Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

1991-01-01

50

DIRECT EVIDENCE OF MG-ZN-P ALLOY FORMATION IN MG/ZN3P2 SOLAR CELLS Gregory M. Kimball  

E-print Network

Zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) is a promising and earth-abundant alternative to traditional materials (e.g. CdTe, CIGS, a-Si) for thin film photovoltaics. The record solar energy conversion efficiency for Zn3P2 cells indicate that high efficiency should be realizable by optimization of Mg treatment in Mg/Zn3P2 solar cells

Kimball, Gregory

51

Low-Resistivity Zinc Selenide for Heterojunctions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetron reactive sputtering enables doping of this semiconductor. Proposed method of reactive sputtering combined with doping shows potential for yielding low-resistivity zinc selenide films. Zinc selenide attractive material for forming heterojunctions with other semiconductor compounds as zinc phosphide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide. Semiconductor junctions promising for future optoelectronic devices, including solar cells and electroluminescent displays. Resistivities of zinc selenide layers deposited by evaporation or chemical vapor deposition too high to form practical heterojunctions.

Stirn, R. J.

1986-01-01

52

Zinc oxide nanowire arrays for silicon core/shell solar cells.  

PubMed

The optics of core / shell nanowire solar cells was investigated. The optical wave propagation was studied by finite difference time domain simulations using realistic interface morphologies. The interface morphologies were determined by a 3D surface coverage algorithm, which provides a realistic film formation of amorphous silicon films on zinc oxide nanowire arrays. The influence of the nanowire dimensions on the interface morphology and light trapping was investigated and optimal dimensions of the zinc oxide nanowire were derived. PMID:24922370

Tamang, Asman; Pathirane, Minoli; Parsons, Rion; Schwarz, Miriam M; Iheanacho, Bright; Jovanov, Vladislav; Wagner, Veit; Wong, William S; Knipp, Dietmar

2014-05-01

53

Synthesis of zinc chlorophyll materials for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.  

PubMed

To design sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a series of zinc chlorins with different substituents were synthesized. Novel zinc methyl 3-devinyl-3-hydroxymethyl-20-phenylacetylenylpyropheophorbide-a (ZnChl-1), zinc methyl 20-bromo-3-devinyl-3-hydroxymethylpyropheophorbide-a (ZnChl-2), zinc methyl 3-devinyl-3-hydroxymethyl-pyropheophorbide-a (ZnChl-3), zinc propyl 3-devinyl-3-hydroxymethyl-pyropheophorbide-a (ZnChl-4) were synthesized and their photovoltaic performances were evaluated in dye-sensitized solar cells. Photoelectrodes with a 7 ?m thick nanoporous layer and a 5 ?m thick light-scattering layer were used to fabricate dye sensitized solar cells. The best efficiency was obtained with ZnChl-2 sensitizer. ZnChl-2 gave a Jsc of 3.5 mA/cm(2), Voc of 412 mV, FF of 0.56 and an overall conversion efficiency of 0.81 at full sun (1000 W m(-2)). PMID:25128681

Erten-Ela, Sule; Vakuliuk, Olena; Tarnowska, Anna; Ocakoglu, Kasim; Gryko, Daniel T

2015-01-25

54

Atomic Layer Deposition of zinc oxide for solar cell applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a vapor phase thin film deposition technique, performed at low substrate temperatures, which enables the deposition of extremely uniform thin films. This technique is scalable up to very large substrates, making it very interesting for industrial applications. On the other hand, ZnO, both undoped and aluminum doped is commonly used as a transparent electrode in solar cells based on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS), and is usually deposited by Physical Vapor Deposition techniques. In this paper, we investigate the potential of ALD for the deposition of ZnO windows for solar cell applications. Thin films of a few hundreds of nanometers were grown by ALD, both undoped and doped with aluminum. They were studied by X-ray diffraction, electrical transport measurements, Atomic Force Microscopy and transmittance experiments.

Moret, M.; Abou Chaaya, A.; Bechelany, M.; Miele, P.; Robin, Y.; Briot, O.

2014-11-01

55

Porous copper zinc tin sulfide thin film as photocathode for double junction photoelectrochemical solar cells.  

PubMed

Porous copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) thin film was prepared via a solvothermal approach. Compared with conventional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), double junction photoelectrochemical cells using dye-sensitized n-type TiO(2) (DS-TiO(2)) as the photoanode and porous p-type CZTS film as the photocathode shows an increased short circuit current, external quantum efficiency and power conversion efficiency. PMID:22322239

Dai, Pengcheng; Zhang, Guan; Chen, Yuncheng; Jiang, Hechun; Feng, Zhenyu; Lin, Zhaojun; Zhan, Jinhua

2012-03-21

56

Efficacy of zinc phosphide baits to control voles in alfalfa — an enclosure study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of broadcasting zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) grain baits as an acute rodenticide to control graytailed voles (Microtus canicaudus) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) was assessed. A total of 428 voles was distributed within 18, 0.2-ha enclosures having a 2+ year stand of plants. Single, pre-bait (0.0% Zn3P2) and test-\\/control-(2.00.0% Zn3P2) bait broadcasts (11.2 kg ha?1) were applied within enclosures 18

R. T. Sterner; C. A. Ramey; W. D. Edge; T. Manning; J. O. Wolff; K. A. Fagerstonez

1996-01-01

57

Zinc-doped gallium phosphide nanowires for photovoltaic structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GaP-ZnO core-shell nanowire (NW) heterojunction integrated on top of a multi-junction solar cell can extend its spectral sensitivity region toward shorter wavelengths, enhance the photon absorption, and reduce the surface light reflection. We report on the preparation of the Zn-doped GaP cores for such heterostructure NWs. Problems with NW Zn doping are addressed. A small amount of diethylzinc (DEZn) vapor added to the reactor slightly increased the axial and radial growth rates, which resulted in moderate increase in NW tapering. A further increase in the DEZn molar fraction in the reactor suppressed the tapering (lower radial growth rate) but the axial growth rate was increased. When the DEZn molar fraction exceeded 9 × 10-6, the NW growth was hindered; only small stumps and kinked wires grew. The measurement of NW electrical transport parameters showed that DEZn compensated native n-type impurities at small vapor pressures (?DEZn ˜ 1 × 10-8 to 1 × 10-7); the NWs exhibited n-type conductivity or were compensated. GaP NWs of p-type with a hole concentration p ˜ 1 × 1018 cm-3 were grown only in a very narrow interval of DEZn vapor pressures (?DEZn ˜ 1-6 × 10-6).

Hasenöhrl, Stanislav; Eliáš, Peter; Šoltýs, Ján; Stoklas, Roman; Dujavová-Lauren?íková, Agáta; Novák, Jozef

2013-03-01

58

Proton Irradiation Damage in Zinc and Cadmium Doped Indium Phosphide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an attempt to better understand the superior radiation resistance of InP solar cells, 2 MeV proton irradiation damage was studied in Zn and Cd doped InP Schottky diodes. The damage was analyzed using the capacitance/voltage technique to study carrier loss, and using DLTS to study the irradiation induced deep levels. The carrier removal rate was found to be identical in both Zn and Cd doped InP. The DLTS spectrum of Cd doped InP was studied in detail for the first time: it was identical to the spectrum of comparably Zn doped InP. Two irradiation induced deep levels dominated the DLTS spectra in Cd and Zn doped InP, H3 at E _{rm v} + 0.28 eV and H5 at E_{rm v} + 0.57 eV. The defect H4 at E_{rm v } + 0.37 eV was not observed in the heavily Zn or Cd doped samples, but was observed in lightly Zn doped samples. This effect is related to the dependence of the annealing rate of H4 on dopant concentration and type. The introduction rate of H3 was identical in both materials, but the introduction rate of H5 was lower in Cd doped InP. This effect is attributed to the slower diffusion rate of Cd and its effect on the formation of H5, a defect-dopant complex. The annealing rates of the defects were higher in Cd doped InP than in Zn doped InP. A model is suggested in which the defects H3 and H4 are eliminated at a dopant interstitial created during irradiation. The slower diffusion of Cd leads to slower elimination of the interstitial at sinks. The higher interstitial concentration results in an increased defect annealing rate. The slower diffusion rate of Cd inhibits the formation of H5, but its concentration grows rapidly on annealing. After annealing the concentration of H5 was nearly the same in comparably Zn and Cd doped InP. The enhanced annealing rates of H3 and H4, and the reduced formation rate of H5 make Cd doped InP more radiation resistant than Zn doped InP.

Rybicki, George Charles

59

Conjugated phosphonic Acid modified zinc oxide electron transport layers for improved performance in organic solar cells.  

PubMed

Phosphonic acid modification of zinc oxide (ZnO) electron transport layers in inverted P3HT:ICBA solar cells was studied to determine the effect of conjugated linkages between the aromatic and phosphonic acid attachment groups. For example, zinc oxide treated with 2,6-difluorophenylvinylphosphonic acid, having a conjugated vinyl group connecting the aromatic moiety to the phosphonic acid group, showed a 0.78 eV decrease in the effective work function versus unmodified ZnO, whereas nonconjugated 2,6-difluorophenylethylphosphonic acid resulted in a 0.57 eV decrease, as measured by Kelvin probe. This resulted in an average power conversion efficiency of 5.89% for conjugated 2,6-difluorophenyvinylphosphonic acid modified solar cells, an improvement over unmodified (5.24%) and nonconjugated phosphonic acid modified devices (5.64%), indicating the importance of the conjugated linkage. PMID:25329245

Braid, Jennifer L; Koldemir, Unsal; Sellinger, Alan; Collins, Reuben T; Furtak, Thomas E; Olson, Dana C

2014-11-12

60

Organic solar cells incorporating buffer layers from indium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monodisperse, indium doped zinc oxide (IZO) nanoparticles were prepared via the polyol-mediated synthesis and incorporated into regular and inverted poly-(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester organic photovoltaic devices as buffer layers between the active layer and the cathode. Efficient hole blocking at the particle buffer layers leads to an enhanced open-circuit voltage of the solar cells. This effect is

Andreas Puetz; Tobias Stubhan; Manuel Reinhard; Oliver Loesch; Elin Hammarberg; Silke Wolf; Claus Feldmann; Heinz Kalt; Alexander Colsmann; Uli Lemmer

2011-01-01

61

Multichromophoric dye-sensitized solar cells based on supramolecular zinc-porphyrin···perylene-imide dyads.  

PubMed

Multichromophoric dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on self-assembled zinc-porphyrin···peryleneimide dyads on TiO(2) films display more efficient light-to-electrical energy conversion than DSCs based on individual dyes. Higher efficiency of multichromophoric dyes can be attributed to co-sensitization as well as vectorial electron transfer that lead to better electron-hole separation in the device. PMID:22832672

Panda, Dillip K; Goodson, Flynt S; Ray, Shuvasree; Lowell, Rachel; Saha, Sourav

2012-09-11

62

Efficacy of in-furrow zinc phosphide pellets for controlling rodent damage in no-till corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plagues of rodents in field crops have been a problem of human societies for centuries. These problems diminished with the onset of effective herbicides and clean farming practices in the 1960s, but there has been a resurgence of rodent irruptions in cropfields since the advent of conservation tillage systems. We examined the efficacy of in-furrow applications of 2% zinc phosphide

Scott E Hygnstrom; Kurt C VerCauteren; Ron A Hines; Charles W Mansfield

2000-01-01

63

Complexation of pyrrolidinofullerenes and zinc-phthalocyanine in a bilayer organic solar cell structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bilayer organic solar cells were prepared using zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and a novel, highly soluble pyrollidinofullerene bearing three chelating pyridyl groups (PyF). The formation of supramolecular complexes between the two compounds is indicated by a significantly increased solubility of ZnPc in dichloromethane upon addition of the PyF. Spin-coating a film of PyF on a vacuum-evaporated film of ZnPc results in a solar cell yielding short circuit current (Isc) densities of 3mA/cm2 and open-circuit voltages (Voc) of about 0.4V under 100mW/cm2 simulated AM1.5 illumination. Solar cells prepared by substituting the PyF with a fullerene derivative forming no complexes with ZnPc show significantly lower photovoltaic conversion efficiencies.

Koeppe, Robert; Sariciftci, N. Serdar; Troshin, Pavel A.; Lyubovskaya, Rimma N.

2005-12-01

64

Computational screening of functionalized zinc porphyrins for dye sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

An efficient dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is one possible solution to meet the world's rapidly increasing energy demands and associated climate challenges. This requires inexpensive and stable dyes with well-positioned frontier energy levels for maximal solar absorption, efficient charge separation, and high output voltage. Here we demonstrate an extensive computational screening of zinc porphyrins functionalized with electron donating side groups and electron accepting anchoring groups. The trends in frontier energy levels versus side groups are analyzed and a no-loss DSSC level alignment quality is estimated. Out of the initial 1029 molecules, we find around 50 candidates with level alignment qualities within 5% of the optimal limit. We show that the level alignment of five zinc porphyrin dyes which were recently used in DSSCs with high efficiencies can be further improved by simple side group substitutions. All frontier energy levels, gaps and level alignment quality values are stored in a database publicly available. PMID:24129651

Ornsø, Kristian B; Garcia-Lastra, Juan M; Thygesen, Kristian S

2013-11-28

65

The complex interface chemistry of thin-film silicon/zinc oxide solar cell structures.  

PubMed

The interface between solid-phase crystallized phosphorous-doped polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si(n(+))) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) was investigated using spatially resolved photoelectron emission microscopy. We find the accumulation of aluminum in the proximity of the interface. Based on a detailed photoemission line analysis, we also suggest the formation of an interface species. Silicon suboxide and/or dehydrated hemimorphite have been identified as likely candidates. For each scenario a detailed chemical reaction pathway is suggested. The chemical instability of the poly-Si(n(+))/ZnO:Al interface is explained by the fact that SiO2 is more stable than ZnO and/or that H2 is released from the initially deposited a-Si:H during the crystallization process. As a result, Zn (a deep acceptor in silicon) is "liberated" close to the silicon/zinc oxide interface presenting the inherent risk of forming deep defects in the silicon absorber. These could act as recombination centers and thus limit the performance of silicon/zinc oxide based solar cells. Based on this insight some recommendations with respect to solar cell design, material selection, and process parameters are given for further knowledge-based thin-film silicon device optimization. PMID:25363298

Gerlach, D; Wimmer, M; Wilks, R G; Félix, R; Kronast, F; Ruske, F; Bär, M

2014-12-21

66

Zinc blende and wurtzite crystal phase mixing and transition in indium phosphide nanowires.  

PubMed

Indium phosphide (InP) nanowires, which have crystal phase mixing and transition from zinc blende (ZB) to wurtzite (WZ), are grown in intermediate growth conditions between ZB and WZ by using selective-area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (SA-MOVPE). The shape of InP nanowires is tapered unlike ZB or WZ nanowires. A growth model has been developed for the tapered nanowires, which is simply described as the relationship between tapered angle and the ratio of ZB and WZ segments. In addition, the peak energy shift in photoluminescence measurement was attributed to the quantum confinement effect of the quantum well of the ZB region located in the polytypic structure of ZB and WZ in nanowires. PMID:21875079

Ikejiri, Keitaro; Kitauchi, Yusuke; Tomioka, Katsuhiro; Motohisa, Junichi; Fukui, Takashi

2011-10-12

67

Chemical Etching of Zinc Oxide for Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells  

PubMed Central

Abstract Chemical etching is widely applied to texture the surface of sputter-deposited zinc oxide for light scattering in thin-film silicon solar cells. Based on experimental findings from the literature and our own results we propose a model that explains the etching behavior of ZnO depending on the structural material properties and etching agent. All grain boundaries are prone to be etched to a certain threshold, that is defined by the deposition conditions and etching solution. Additionally, several approaches to modify the etching behavior through special preparation and etching steps are provided. PMID:22162035

Hüpkes, Jürgen; Owen, Jorj I; Pust, Sascha E; Bunte, Eerke

2012-01-01

68

Highly efficient inverted polymer solar cells with reduced graphene-oxide-zinc-oxide nanocomposites buffer layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we reported a 36% improvement in the performance of inverted solar cells as a result of increased short-circuit current (JSC) obtained using a composition of zinc oxide (ZnO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as an n-type buffer layer. RGO-ZnO nanocomposites show higher electron conductivity than intrinsic ZnO; moreover, they show reduced contact resistance at the interface between the active layer and n-type buffer layer. These factors prevent carrier loss resulting from defects and recombinations in the device, thereby significantly increasing the JSC value for the device. Thus, an efficiency of 4.15% was achieved for inverted solar cells with a controlled RGO-ZnO nanocomposites layer.

Woo Lee, Hyun; Young Oh, Jin; Il Lee, Tae; Soon Jang, Woo; Bum Yoo, Young; Sang Chae, Soo; Ho Park, Jee; Min Myoung, Jae; Moon Song, Kie; Koo Baik, Hong

2013-05-01

69

Inverted polymer solar cells with amorphous indium zinc oxide as the electron-collecting electrode  

SciTech Connect

We report on the fabrication and performance of polymer-based inverted solar cells utilizing amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) as the electron-collecting electrode. Amorphous IZO films of 200 nm thickness were deposited by room temperature sputtering in a high-purity argon atmosphere. The films possessed a high optical transmittance in the visible region (? 80%), a low resistivity (3.3 × 10{sup ?4} ?cm), a low surface roughness (root mean square = 0.68 nm), and a low work function (4.46 ± 0.02 eV). Inverted solar cells with the structure a-IZO/P3HT: PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 3% estimated for AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm{sup 2} illumination.

Cheun, Hyeunseok; Kim, Jungbae; Zhou, Yinhua; Fang, Yunnan; Dindar, Amir; Shim, Jae Won; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Sandhage, Kenneth H.; Kippelen, Bernard

2010-01-01

70

Development of Novel Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide Film and Its Application to Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed novel aluminum-doped zinc oxide films (AZO-X and AZO-HX films) with a high haze value using wet-chemical etching for various times after dc magnetron sputtering, and have investigated their electrical and optical properties, durability under high-humidity condition, and surface morphology. The AZO-X and AZO-HX films showed good balance between transmittance in the near-infrared area and durability under 85 °C-85%RH condition. These novel films also had a higher haze value after wet chemical etching than normal AZO films. The crater size and haze value of the AZO-HX film increased with increasing etching time in comparison with those of the AZO-X film. The haze value of the AZO-HX film was higher than that of the AZO-X film; their values are 90% at 550 nm and 60% at 800 nm. Furthermore, the AZO-HX film was applied in amorphous silicon (a-Si) single-type solar cells as the front electrode. The short-circuit current of the solar cell using the AZO-HX film was higher than that of the solar cell using the AZO-X film. As an optimization-based result, an efficiency as high as 10.2% was obtained, showing that the new AZO-HX film is a promising material for the front electrode of a-Si solar cells.

Kuramochi, Hideto; Akiike, Ryo; Iigusa, Hitoshi; Tamano, Kimiaki; Utsumi, Kentaro; Shibutami, Tetsuo; Sichanugrist, Porponth; Konagai, Makoto

2012-10-01

71

Design of a three-layer antireflection coating for high efficiency indium phosphide solar cells using a chemical oxide as first layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is well known that the behavior of III-V compound based solar cells is largely controlled by their surface, since the majority of light generated carriers (63% for GaAs and 79% for InP) are created within 0.2 mu m of the surface of the illuminated cell. Consequently, the always observed high surface recombination velocity (SRV) on these cells is a serious limiting factor for their high efficiency performance, especially for those with p-n junction made by either thermal diffusion or ion implantation. A good surface passivation layer, ideally a grown oxide as opposed to a deposited one, will cause a significant reduction in the SRV without adding interface problems, thus improving the performance of III-V compound based solar cells. Another significant benefit to the overall performance of the solar cells can be achieved by a substantial reduction of their large surface optical reflection by the use of a well designed antireflection (AR) coating. In this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of using a chemically grown thermally and chemically stable oxide, not only for surface passivation but also as an integral part of a 3-layer AR coating for thermally diffused p+n InP solar cells. A phosphorus-rich interfacial oxide, In(PO3)3, is grown at the surface of the p+ emitter using an etchant based on HNO3, o-H3PO4 and H2O2. This oxide has the unique properties of passivating the surface as well as serving as an efficient antireflective layer yielding a measured record high AMO open-circuit voltage of 890.3 mV on a thermally diffused InP(Cd,S) solar cell. Unlike conventional single layer AR coatings such as ZnS, Sb2O3, SiO or double layer AR coatings such as ZnS/MgF2 deposited by e-beam or resistive evaporation, this oxide preserves the stoichiometry of the InP surface. We show that it is possible to design a three-layer AR coating for a thermally diffused InP solar cell using the In(PO3)3 grown oxide as the first layer and Al2O3 and MgF2 as the second and third layers respectively, so as to yield an overall theoretical reflectance of less than 2%. Since chemical oxides are readily grown on III-V semiconductors materials, the technique of using the grown oxide layer to both passivate the surface as well as serve as the first of a multilayer AR coating should work well for all III-V compound-based solar cells.

Moulot, Jacques; Faur, M.; Faur, M.; Goradia, C.; Goradia, M.; Bailey, S.

1995-01-01

72

Single-material zinc sulfide bi-layer antireflection coatings for GaAs solar cells.  

PubMed

We demonstrated the efficiency improvement of GaAs single-junction (SJ) solar cells with the single-material zinc sulfide (ZnS) bi-layer based on the porous/dense film structure, which was fabricated by the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) method, as an antireflection (AR) coating layer. The porous ZnS film with a low refractive index was formed at a high incident vapor flux angle of 80° in the GLAD. Each optimum thickness of ZnS bi-layer was determined by achieving the lowest solar weighted reflectance (SWR) using a rigorous coupled-wave analysis method in the wavelength region of 350-900 nm, extracting the thicknesses of 20 and 50 nm for dense and porous films, respectively. The ZnS bi-layer with a low SWR of ~5.8% considerably increased the short circuit current density (J(sc)) of the GaAs SJ solar cell to 25.57 mA/cm(2), which leads to a larger conversion efficiency (?) of 20.61% compared to the conventional one without AR layer (i.e., SWR~31%, J(sc) = 18.81 mA/cm(2), and ? = 14.82%). Furthermore, after the encapsulation, its J(sc) and ? values were slightly increased to 25.67 mA/cm(2) and 20.71%, respectively. For the fabricated solar cells, angle-dependent reflectance properties and external quantum efficiency were also studied. PMID:24104577

Leem, Jung Woo; Jun, Dong-Hwan; Heo, Jonggon; Park, Won-Kyu; Park, Jin-Hong; Cho, Woo Jin; Kim, Do Eok; Yu, Jae Su

2013-09-01

73

Evaluation of strychnine and zinc phosphide baits to control northern pocket gophers ( Thomomys talpoides) in alfalfa fields in Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the effectiveness of Sanex 0.40% strychnine-treated oats, Fairview 0.37% strychnine-treated grains, and United Agri Products 2% zinc phosphide-treated oats to control northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) populations in alfalfa fields in Alberta, Canada. The poison baits were tested during three phenological periods corresponding to the reproduction, summer juvenile dispersal, and early fall mound building activities. Overall, less

Gilbert Proulx

1998-01-01

74

Property control of expanding thermal plasma deposited textured zinc oxide with focus on thin film solar cell applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Property control of expanding thermal plasma deposited textured zinc oxide is demonstrated considering intrinsic, i.e. bulk, and extrinsic transparent conducting oxide quality relevant for application in thin film amorphous silicon pin solar cells. Particularly the interdependence of electrical conductivity, film composition and film morphology, i.e. structure, feature shape and roughness of the surface, is addressed. Control of film composition is

R. Groenen; J. Loffler; J. L. Linden; R. E. I. Schropp

2005-01-01

75

Gallium phosphide energy converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gallium phosphide (GaP) energy converters may be successfully deployed to provide new mission capabilities for spacecraft. Betavoltaic power supplies based on the conversion of tritium beta decay to electricity using GaP energy converters can supply long term low-level power with high reliability. High temperature solar cells, also based on GaP, can be used in inward-bound missions greatly reducing the need

P. E. Sims; L. C. Dinetta; M. A. Goetz

1995-01-01

76

Enhanced omni-directional performance of copper zinc tin sulfide thin film solar cell by gradient index coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many types of thin-film solar cells have a top, transparent conducting oxide (TCO) coating (such as aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO)) through which light is transmitted and current collected. In this paper, we demonstrate an effective antireflective coating for TCO surfaces using a gradient index coating formed from co-sputtered AZO and silicon dioxide (SiO2) targets that reduces reflection loss from the TCO. When applied to an active solar device, the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell increased by >10% when measured at normal incidence and >20% at angles 10° or greater.

Ge, Zhongyang; Rajbhandari, Pravakar; Hu, Junjie; Emrani, Amin; Dhakal, Tara P.; Westgate, Charles; Klotzkin, David

2014-03-01

77

InP (Indium Phosphide): Into the future  

SciTech Connect

Major industry is beginning to be devoted to indium phosphide and its potential applications. Key to these applications are high speed and radiation tolerance; however the high cost of indium phosphide may be an inhibitor to progress. The broad applicability of indium phosphide to many devices will be discussed with an emphasis on photovoltaics. Major attention is devoted to radiation tolerance and means of reducing cost of devices. Some of the approaches applicable to solar cells may also be relevant to other devices. The intent is to display the impact of visionary leadership in the field and enable the directions and broad applicability of indium phosphide.

Brandhorst, H.W. Jr.

1989-03-01

78

Alkyl Surface Treatments of Planar Zinc Oxide in Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Solar Cells  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells have not lived up to their potential because of poor interface properties. Interfacial molecular layers provide a way of adjusting these devices to improve their performance. We have studied a prototypical system involving poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on planar zinc oxide (ZnO) films that have been modified with two types of molecules having identical 18-carbon alkyl chain termination and different surface attachments: octadecanethiol (ODT) and octadecyltriethoxysilane (OTES). We examined the functionalized surfaces using water contact angle measurements, Kelvin probe measurements, infrared absorbance spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. These have shown that OTES forms disordered incomplete monolayers, while ODT is prone to develop multilayered islands. Both treatments enhance polymer ordering. However, inverted solar cell devices fabricated with these treated interfaces performed very differently. ODT improves the short circuit current (J{sub SC}), open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}), and power conversion efficiency ({eta}), while these parameters all decrease in devices constructed from OTES-treated ZnO. The differences in V{sub OC} are related to modifications of the surface dipole associated with deposition of the two types of alkyl molecules, while changes in J{sub SC} are attributed to a balance between charge transfer blocking caused by the saturated hydrocarbon and the improved hole mobility in the polymer.

Allen, C. G.; Baker, D. J.; Brenner, T. M.; Weigand, C. C.; Albin, J. M.; Steirer, K. X.; Olson, D. C.; Ladam, C.; Ginley, D. S.; Collins, R. T.; Furtak, T. E.

2012-04-26

79

Electronic and Optical Properties of Thin Films of Mercury Zinc Telluride and Cadmium Sulphide for Solar Cell Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Thin films of cadmium sulphide (CdS), zinc telluride (ZnTe), mercury telluride (HgTe) and a novel semiconductor "mercury zinc telluride" (rm Hg_{1 -x}Zn_{x}Te) were deposited onto soda lime glass slides and Corning 7059 glass substrates using the thermal evaporation technique. The electronic, optical and structural properties of these films were studied to assess their viability for use in photovoltaic devices, in particular, their potential to make rm CdS/Hg_{1-x}Zn_{x}Te heterojunctions for use as solar cells. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Arshed, Shaheen

1990-08-01

80

Improved Inverted Organic Solar Cells With a Sol–Gel Derived Indium-Doped Zinc Oxide Buffer Layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied sol-gel derived indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO) with various indium contents as a functional buffer layer in inverted polymer:fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cell. The short-circuit current density was observed to increase by doping indium in pure ZnO buffer layer. The maximum current density was obtained with a 1 at.% indium doping. Although the open-circuit voltage and fill factor reduced slightly,

Aung Ko Ko Kyaw; Xiaowei Sun; De Wei Zhao; Swee Tiam Tan; Yoga Divayana; Hilmi Volkan Demir

2010-01-01

81

Window structure for passivating solar cells based on gallium arsenide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Passivated gallium arsenide solar photovoltaic cells with high resistance to moisture and oxygen are provided by means of a gallium arsenide phosphide window graded through its thickness from arsenic rich to phosphorus rich.

Barnett, Allen M. (Inventor)

1985-01-01

82

Window structure for passivating solar cells based on gallium arsenide  

SciTech Connect

Passivated gallium arsenide solar photovoltaic cells with high resistance to moisture and oxygen are provided by means of a gallium arsenide phosphide window graded through its thickness from arsenic rich to phosphorus rich.

Barnett, A. M.

1985-10-01

83

Anti-reflection zinc oxide nanocones for higher efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells  

E-print Network

Thin film silicon solar cells, which are commonly made from microcrystalline silicon ([mu]c-Si) or amorphous silicon (a-Si), have been considered inexpensive alternatives to thick polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) solar ...

Mailoa, Jonathan P

2012-01-01

84

Synthesis of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanowires for excitonic solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye-sensitized, quantum-dot sensitized, quantum-dot, and hybrid organic\\/inorganic solar cells are promising excitonic photovoltaic devices for the generation of low cost, carbon free energy. Wide-band gap semiconductor nanowire photoanodes have the potential to increase the efficiencies of these excitonic solar cells. Controlling and tailoring the dimensions of the nanowires (i.e. nanowire height, diameter, and planar number density) for each solar cell

Janice Elaine Boercker

2009-01-01

85

Novel nanostructure zinc zirconate, zinc oxide or zirconium oxide pastes coated on fluorine doped tin oxide thin film as photoelectrochemical working electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell.  

PubMed

Zinc zirconate (ZnZrO(3)) (ZZ), zinc oxide (ZnO) (ZO) and zirconium oxide (ZrO(2)) (ZRO) nano-particles were synthesized by simple sol-gel method. ZZ, ZO and ZRO nano-particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS). Nanoporous ZZ, ZO and ZRO thin films were prepared doctor blade technique on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and used as working electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Their photovoltaic behavior were compared with standard using D35 dye and an electrolyte containing [Co(bpy)(3)](PF(6))(2), [Co(pby)(3)](PF(6))(3), LiClO(4), and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP). The properties of DSSC have been studied by measuring their short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (ff). The application of ZnZrO(3) as working electrode produces a significant improvement in the fill factor (ff) of the dye-sensitized solar cells (ff=56%) compared to ZnO working electrode (ff=40%) under the same condition. PMID:23266694

Hossein Habibi, Mohammad; Askari, Elham; Habibi, Mehdi; Zendehdel, Mahmoud

2013-03-01

86

Novel nanostructure zinc zirconate, zinc oxide or zirconium oxide pastes coated on fluorine doped tin oxide thin film as photoelectrochemical working electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc zirconate (ZnZrO3) (ZZ), zinc oxide (ZnO) (ZO) and zirconium oxide (ZrO2) (ZRO) nano-particles were synthesized by simple sol-gel method. ZZ, ZO and ZRO nano-particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS). Nanoporous ZZ, ZO and ZRO thin films were prepared doctor blade technique on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and used as working electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Their photovoltaic behavior were compared with standard using D35 dye and an electrolyte containing [Co(bpy)3](PF6)2, [Co(pby)3](PF6)3, LiClO4, and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP). The properties of DSSC have been studied by measuring their short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (ff). The application of ZnZrO3 as working electrode produces a significant improvement in the fill factor (ff) of the dye-sensitized solar cells (ff = 56%) compared to ZnO working electrode (ff = 40%) under the same condition.

Hossein Habibi, Mohammad; Askari, Elham; Habibi, Mehdi; Zendehdel, Mahmoud

2013-03-01

87

Efficient inverted polymer solar cells based on ultrathin aluminum interlayer modified aluminum-doped zinc oxide electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A convenient and economical design for inverted polymer solar cells has been developed by introducing an ultrathin aluminium (Al) interlayer to modify aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) electrode as the bottom cathode. An ultrathin interlayer of Al could lower the work function of AZO electrode. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.84% was obtained for poly(3-hexyl-thiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester based device and that of poly(3-hexyl-thiophene):indene-C60 bisadduct based device with such electrodes could reach to 5.52%, which was much higher than the structurally identical device based on ITO/Al(1 nm) electrode and almost the same as that of the conventional device. This indicates that the ultrathin Al modified AZO composite electrode is a strong competitor for the cathode in inverted polymer solar cells especially the large scale and low costs devices.

Shi, Ting; Zhu, Xiaoguang; Tu, Guoli

2014-03-01

88

innovati nNREL Scientists Spurred the Success of Multijunction Solar Cells  

E-print Network

Table (III-V elements), Olson reasoned that GaInP and gallium arsenide (GaAs) would have the sought-winning gallium indium phosphide/gallium arsenide tandem solar cell, which had achieved record efficiencies, con scientists believed that high-quality gallium indium phosphide (GaInP) alloys could not be grown for use

89

Theoretical screening of novel alkyne bridged zinc porphyrins as sensitizer candidates for dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkyne bridged porphyrin sensitizers have attracted great attention in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because of their excellent photo-to-electric conversion efficiencies, among which YD2 has reached 11% while YD2-o-C8 has reached 11.9% solely and 12.3% co-sensitized with other sensitizers. Design and screening of porphyrin sensitizer candidates with wider electronic absorption spectra to further improve the photo-to-electric conversion efficiencies of corresponding solar cells is still very important. Twenty novel alkyne bridged zinc porphyrin sensitizer candidates composed of the donors diarylamino-, tri-4-methylphenyl-, tri-hydroxyl- and tri-amino-substituted zinc porphyrins as well as the selected acceptors E, M, Q, R and S have been designed and calculated at the density functional B3LYP level. YD2 and YD2-o-C8 are also calculated at the same level for comparison. The result shows that the sensitizer candidates all have smaller HOMO-LUMO gaps as well as wider and red-shifted absorption bands than those of YD2 and YD2-o-C8. Most of the sensitizer candidates have appropriate HOMO and LUMO energy levels relative to the redox potential of the mediator and the TiO2 conduction band, showing that they are promising to provide comparable or even higher photo-to-electric conversion efficiencies than 11% of YD-2 or 11.9% of YD2-o-C8.

Zhang, Xianxi; Du, Yuchang; Chen, Qianqian; Sun, Huafei; Pan, Tingting; Hu, Guiqi; Ma, Ruimin; Sun, Yuanwei; Li, Dacheng; Dou, Jianmin; Pan, Xu

2014-12-01

90

Theoretical screening of novel alkyne bridged zinc porphyrins as sensitizer candidates for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Alkyne bridged porphyrin sensitizers have attracted great attention in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because of their excellent photo-to-electric conversion efficiencies, among which YD2 has reached 11% while YD2-o-C8 has reached 11.9% solely and 12.3% co-sensitized with other sensitizers. Design and screening of porphyrin sensitizer candidates with wider electronic absorption spectra to further improve the photo-to-electric conversion efficiencies of corresponding solar cells is still very important. Twenty novel alkyne bridged zinc porphyrin sensitizer candidates composed of the donors diarylamino-, tri-4-methylphenyl-, tri-hydroxyl- and tri-amino-substituted zinc porphyrins as well as the selected acceptors E, M, Q, R and S have been designed and calculated at the density functional B3LYP level. YD2 and YD2-o-C8 are also calculated at the same level for comparison. The result shows that the sensitizer candidates all have smaller HOMO-LUMO gaps as well as wider and red-shifted absorption bands than those of YD2 and YD2-o-C8. Most of the sensitizer candidates have appropriate HOMO and LUMO energy levels relative to the redox potential of the mediator and the TiO2 conduction band, showing that they are promising to provide comparable or even higher photo-to-electric conversion efficiencies than 11% of YD-2 or 11.9% of YD2-o-C8. PMID:24983919

Zhang, Xianxi; Du, Yuchang; Chen, Qianqian; Sun, Huafei; Pan, Tingting; Hu, Guiqi; Ma, Ruimin; Sun, Yuanwei; Li, Dacheng; Dou, Jianmin; Pan, Xu

2014-12-10

91

Dye sensitized solar cells using well-aligned zinc oxide nanotip arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well-aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanotip arrays were grown on fluorinated tin oxide coated glass using metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Dye (N719) sensitized photoelectrochemical cells comprising of ZnO nanotip arrays were fabricated and characterized. It is found that the power conversion efficiency of the cells increases with the length of the ZnO nanotips. The cells with 3.2?m ZnO nanotip array exhibited an incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 21.1% (at 550nm) and a power conversion efficiency of 0.55% under 1 sun irradiance. Light harvesting in ZnO nanotips also contributes to the photocurrent in the UV range.

Du Pasquier, Aurelien; Chen, Hanhong; Lu, Yicheng

2006-12-01

92

Indium phosphide and related materials 1996: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The Eighth International Conference of Indium Phosphides and Related Materials was held on April 21--25, 1996, in Schwabisch Gmund, Germany. A broad range of topics on Indium Phosphide and other semiconductor materials was covered including the application of these materials to various semiconductor devices. Epitaxial methods of depositing these materials on substrates were discussed as well as their optical and electrical properties. Applications included lasers, solar cells, and numerous optoelectronic devices. One hundred fifty two papers were processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1996-12-31

93

ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ONE STYLE OF DENVER AGITATOR IN LOWER RIGHT CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

94

Optimizing the photovoltage of polymer/zinc oxide hybrid solar cells by calcium doping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The voltage produced by an excitonic solar cell, such as an organic or a hybrid organic/inorganic solar cell is limited by the difference in potential energy between the state occupied by the electron in the acceptor (conduction band minimum (CBM)/lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) and that occupied by the hole in the donor (valence band maximum/highest occupied molecular orbital). Calcium doping of sol-gel ZnO has been used to change the electron affinity of the ZnO acceptor in ZnO/poly(3-hexyl thiophene) hybrid solar cells. The band gap of the mixed oxide system increases with Ca fraction, with most of this attributable to movement of the conduction band minimum toward the vacuum, as determined by UV-vis spectroscopy and Kelvin probe. In planar bilayer cells using Zn0.9Ca0.1O as the acceptor, the open circuit voltage can be increased by 0.24 V, and the efficiency doubled compared to devices using pure ZnO.

Wang, Mingqing; Sun, Jon-Paul; Suei, Sandy; Hill, Ian G.

2012-08-01

95

High-efficiency cadmium and zinc-telluride-based thin-film solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes research into polycrystalline CdTe solar cells grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Efficiencies of approximately 10 percent were achieved using both p-i-n and p-n structures. A pre-heat treatment of CdS\\/SnO2\\/glass substrates at 450 C in hydrogen atmosphere prior to the CdTe growth was found to be essential for high performance because this heat treatment reduces oxygen-related defects

A. Rohatgi; R. Sudharsanan; S. Ringel

1992-01-01

96

A review of episodes of zinc phosphide toxicosis in wild geese (Branta spp.) in Oregon (2004-2011).  

PubMed

Epizootic mortality in several geese species, including cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis), has been recognized in the Willamette Valley of Oregon for over a decade. Birds are generally found dead on a body of water or are occasionally observed displaying neurologic clinical signs such as an inability to raise or control the head prior to death. Investigation of these epizootic mortality events has revealed the etiology to be accidental poisoning with the rodenticide zinc phosphide (Zn(3)P(2)). Gross and histologic changes are restricted to acute pulmonary congestion and edema, sometimes accompanied by distension of the upper alimentary tract by fresh grass. Geese are unusually susceptible to this pesticide; when combined with an epidemiologic confluence of depredation of specific agricultural crops by rodents and seasonal avian migration pathways, epizootic toxicosis may occur. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, appropriate sample collection and handling, plus specific test calibration for this toxicant. Interagency cooperation, education of farmers regarding pesticide use, and enforcement of regulations has been successful in greatly decreasing these mortality events since 2009. PMID:23293161

Bildfell, Rob J; Rumbeiha, Wilson K; Schuler, Krysten L; Meteyer, Carol U; Wolff, Peregrine L; Gillin, Colin M

2013-01-01

97

Dilute phosphide nitride materials as photocathodes for electrochemical solar energy conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dilute nitride materials have been used in a variety of III-V photonic devices, but have not been significantly explored in photoelectrochemical applications. This work focuses on using dilute phosphide nitride materials of the form (Al,In)P1-xNx as photocathodes for the generation of hydrogen fuel from solar energy. Heteroepitaxial MOCVD growth of AlPN thin films on GaP yields high quality material with a direct bandgap energy of 2.218 eV. Aligned epitaxial growth of InP and GaP nanowires on InP and Si substrates, respectively, provides a template for designing nanostructured photocathodes over a large area. Electrochemical testing of a AlPN/GaP heterostructure electrode yields up to a sixfold increase in photocurrent enhancement under blue light illumination as compared to a GaP electrode. Additionally, the AlPN/GaP electrodes exhibit no degradation in performance after galvanostatic biasing over time. These results show that (Al,In)P1-xNx is a promising materials system for use in nanoscale photocathode structures.

Parameshwaran, Vijay; Xu, Xiaoqing; Kang, Yangsen; Harris, James; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Clemens, Bruce

2013-03-01

98

N/p InP (Indium Phosphides) Homojunction Solar Cells with an IN0.53GA0.47AS Contacting Layer Grown by Liquid Phase Epitaxy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

N/P InP homojunction solar cells with an In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As contacting layer were fabricated by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). Electron-Beam-Induced-Current (EBIC) measurements were performed on several selected samples. It was found that the background dopi...

C. C. Shen, K. Y. Choi

1989-01-01

99

Transport mechanisms and photovoltaic properties of zinc tetraphenylporphyrin/n-type silicon heterojunction solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DC electrical measurements on Au/ZnTPP/Au planar structure showed two regimes of electrical conductivity depending on temperature, at low temperatures the activation energy is 0.24 eV and variable range hopping in localized states near Fermi level is the operating conduction mechanism, at high temperatures the activation energy is 0.998 eV and phonon-assisted hopping of small polarons is the operating conduction mechanism. The capacitance-voltage measurements on Au/ZnTPP/n-Si/Al showed that the formed junction is linearly graded one. The thickness of depletion region in ZnTPP and n-Si has been determined and the built-in potential is 0.85 V. The concentration gradient of holes and electrons is 2.6 × 1020 holes/m4 and 0.3 × 1020 electrons/m4, respectively. Thermoelectric power measurements showed that ZnTPP films are p-type semiconductor and polaron activation energy is 0.37 eV. A hybrid solar cell of Au/ZnTPP/n-Si/Al had been constructed by growing ZnTPP film via thermal evaporation technique on n-Si wafer. Dark current-voltage measurements of the device at different temperatures showed that there are three conduction mechanisms operating in the device. The dominance of any of them depends on applied potential. The photovoltaic properties of Au/ZnTPP/n-Si/Al hybrid solar had been evaluated.

Zeyada, H. M.; El-Nahass, M. M.; Ali, M. A.

2011-10-01

100

Phase separation analysis of bulk heterojunctions in small-molecule organic solar cells using zinc-phthalocyanine and C60  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To achieve efficient organic solar cells, donor and acceptor molecules are mixed in the photoactive layer to form a so-called bulk heterojunction. Due to molecular interactions, a certain degree of phase separation between donor and acceptor domains arises, which is necessary to achieve efficient charge extraction within the absorber layer. However, the mechanism that induces the phase separation is not fully understood and gaining detailed information about the molecular arrangement within these blend layers is quite challenging. We show that grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, combined with variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry is a suitable way to investigate the molecular structure of blend layers in detail, consisting of a mixture of zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and C60. The degree of phase separation within the blend layer is influenced by substrate heating during the co-evaporation of ZnPc and C60 and by a variation of the mixing ratio. The effect of different blend layer morphologies on optical and electrical device performance is investigated by solar cell characterization and mobility measurements. We find that the molecular arrangement of C60 provides the essential driving force for efficient phase separation. Whereas spherical C60 molecules are able to form crystalline domains when deposited at elevated substrate temperatures, no ZnPc crystallites are observed, although the planar ZnPc molecules are not randomly oriented but standing upright within its domains. Comparing specular and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, we find that only the latter method is able to detect nanocrystalline C60 in thin films due to its polycrystalline nature and small sized nanocrystallites. Solar cell measurements show an increase in fill factor and external quantum efficiency signal for blends with enhanced phase separation, induced by higher substrate temperatures. However, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements reveal that ZnPc and C60 already form separate domains in unheated ZnPc:C60 blends, which provide fill factors close to 50% in the corresponding solar cells.

Schünemann, Christoph; Wynands, David; Wilde, Lutz; Hein, Moritz Philipp; Pfützner, Steffen; Elschner, Chris; Eichhorn, Klaus-Jochen; Leo, Karl; Riede, Moritz

2012-06-01

101

Microwave assisted synthesis of zinc stannate nanocubes for dye sensitized solar cell application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ternary complex oxide Zn2SnO4 (ZS) has become more essential because of its photonic energy conversion, tremendous stability and higher electron mobility compared to the binary counterparts. The ZS nanocubes were prepared by simple microwave assisted route. The cubic spinel structured ZS was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-Raman techniques. Scanning electron micrograph revealed the formation of nanocubes with size of ?90 nm. The Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using the synthesized ZS as photoanode and low cost organic dyes such as Rose Bengal (RB), Eosin Yellow (EY) and Fluorescein sodium salt (FY) as sensitizers to study their light conversion efficiencies. The DSSCs exhibited power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.64%, 0.05% and 0.02% for RB, EY and FY sensitized films, respectively.

Jayabal, P.; Sasirekha, V.; Mayandi, J.; Ramakrishnan, V.

2014-11-01

102

Synthesis and characterisation of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) compound for absorber material in solar-cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of thin-film semiconductor compounds, such as Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS), has caused remarkable progress in the field of thin-film photovoltaics. However, the scarcity and the increasing prices of indium impose the hunt for alternative materials. The Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) is one of the promising emerging materials with Kesterite-type crystal structure and favourable material properties like high absorption co-efficient and direct band-gap. Moreover, all the constituent elements of CZTS are non-toxic and aplenty on the earth-crust, making it a potential candidate for the thin-film photovoltaics. Here we report the synthesis of CZTS powder from its constituent elements, viz. copper, zinc, tin and sulphur, in an evacuated Quartz ampoule at 1030 K temperature. The sulphur content in the raw mixture in the ampoule was varied and optimised in order to attain the desired atomic stoichiometry of the compound. The synthesised powder was characterised by X-Ray diffraction technique (XRD), Raman Scattering Spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-Ray (EDAX) and UV-Visible Absorption Spectra. The XRD Patterns of the synthesised compound show the preferred orientation of (112), (220) and (312) planes, confirming the Kesterite structure of CZTS. The chemical composition of the powder was analysed by EDAX and shows good atomic stoichiometry of the constituent elements in the CZTS compound. The UV-Vis absorption spectra confirm the direct band-gap of about 1.45 eV, which is quite close to the optimum value for the semiconductor material as an absorber in solar-cells.

Kheraj, Vipul; Patel, K. K.; Patel, S. J.; Shah, D. V.

2013-01-01

103

Aluminium doped zinc oxide sputtered from rotatable dual magnetrons for thin film silicon solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the electrical and optical properties as well as the surface structure after wet-chemical etching of mid-frequency magnetron sputtered aluminium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) films on glass substrates from rotatable ceramic targets. Etching of an as-deposited ZnO:Al film in acid leads to rough surfaces with various feature sizes. The influence of working pressure and substrate temperature on the

H. Zhu; E. Bunte; J. Hüpkes; H. Siekmann; S. M. Huang

2009-01-01

104

Ohmic contact for P type indium phosphide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A body including P type indium phosphide has an ohmic contact thereon of an alloy of by weight 81% to 86% gold (Au), 11% to 14% germanium (Ge) and 2% to 5% zinc (Zn). This contact has a low resistance and good adhesion to the indium phosphide body.

Hawrylo, Frank Z. (Inventor)

1980-01-01

105

Dye-sensitized solar cell characteristics of nanocomposite zinc ferrite working electrode: effect of composite precursors and titania as a blocking layer on photovoltaic performance.  

PubMed

This research investigates the performance of a zinc ferrite (ZF) as working electrodes in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). This ZF working electrode was prepared by sol-gel and thermal decomposition of four different precursors including: zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O), ferric nitrate nonahydrate (Fe(NO3)3·9H2O), iron(III) acetate; Fe(C2H3O2)3, and zinc nitrate hexahydrate, Zn(NO3)2·6H2O. The effects of annealing temperature and precursors on the structural, morphological, and optical properties were investigated. The field emission scanning electron microscope images (FESEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show that ZFe films are polycrystalline in nature and homogeneous with densely packed grains. Nanoporous zinc ferrite coatings were prepared by doctor blade technique on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and used as working electrodes in DSSC. In all DSSCs, platinized FTO and [Co(bpy)3](2+/3+) in 3-methoxy proponitrile were used as counter electrode and redox mediator system respectively. Comparing the fill factors of four different zinc ferrite nanocomposites, the highest fill factor was for ZnFe2O4-TBL sample. Cell fabricated with ZnFeA working electrode shows relatively higher Jsc. PMID:23571086

Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Habibi, Amir Hossein; Zendehdel, Mahmoud; Habibi, Mehdi

2013-06-01

106

Dye-sensitized solar cell characteristics of nanocomposite zinc ferrite working electrode: Effect of composite precursors and titania as a blocking layer on photovoltaic performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research investigates the performance of a zinc ferrite (ZF) as working electrodes in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). This ZF working electrode was prepared by sol-gel and thermal decomposition of four different precursors including: zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH3COO)2?2H2O), ferric nitrate nonahydrate (Fe(NO3)3?9H2O), iron(III) acetate; Fe(C2H3O2)3, and zinc nitrate hexahydrate, Zn(NO3)2?6H2O. The effects of annealing temperature and precursors on the structural, morphological, and optical properties were investigated. The field emission scanning electron microscope images (FESEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show that ZFe films are polycrystalline in nature and homogeneous with densely packed grains. Nanoporous zinc ferrite coatings were prepared by doctor blade technique on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and used as working electrodes in DSSC. In all DSSCs, platinized FTO and [Co(bpy)3]2+/3+ in 3-methoxy proponitrile were used as counter electrode and redox mediator system respectively. Comparing the fill factors of four different zinc ferrite nanocomposites, the highest fill factor was for ZnFe2O4-TBL sample. Cell fabricated with ZnFeA working electrode shows relatively higher Jsc.

Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Habibi, Amir Hossein; Zendehdel, Mahmoud; Habibi, Mehdi

2013-06-01

107

Solar-thermal decomposition of zinc sulfate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental decomposition of zinc sulfate in a rotary kiln which was heated in the White Sands Solar Furnace is described. The main findings are: the zinc sulfate sulfate decomposed after 1 to 5 minutes of solar exposure when the front thermocouple indicated 7000 C and kiln was being rapidly heated with a flux of 9 to 14 kW; or the front thermocouple was above 8500 C and the kiln was maintained at temperature with a minimal flux. It is found that there is a problem with zinc sulfate agglomeration above approximately 8000 C. The agglomeration problem interfered significantly with testing, and it prevented the acquisition of quantitative data on the rate and extent of zinc sulfate decomposition. The agglomeration problem solved either by physically breaking apart the agglomerate by chains or by mixing inert compounds with the zinc sulfate to prevent the particles from sticking to each other. The rotary kiln performed satisfactorily and there were no problems with the window.

Shell, P. K.; Ruiz, R.; Yu, C. M.

1983-01-01

108

Solution Processing of Cadmium Sulfide Buffer Layer and Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide Window Layer for Thin Films Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cadmium sulfide (CdS) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (Al:ZnO) thin films are used as buffer layer and front window layer, respectively, in thin film solar cells. CdS and Al:ZnO thin films were produced using chemical bath deposition (CBD) and sol-gel technique, respectively. For CBD CdS, the effect of bath composition and temperature, dipping time and annealing temperature on film properties was investigated. The CdS films are found to be polycrystalline with metastable cubic crystal structure, dense, crack-free surface morphology and the crystallite size of either few nanometers or 12-17 nm depending on bath composition. In case of CdS films produced with 1:2 ratio of Cd and S precursors, spectrophotometer studies indicate quantum confinement effect, owing to extremely small crystallite size, with an increase in Eg value from 2.42 eV (for bulk CdS) to 3.76 eV along with a shift in the absorption edge toward 330 nm wavelength. The optimum annealing temperature is 400°C beyond which film properties deteriorate through S evaporation and CdO formation. On the other hand, Al:ZnO films prepared via spin coating of precursor sols containing 0.90-1.10 at.% Al show that, with an increase in Al concentration, the average grain size increases from 28 nm to 131 nm with an associated decrease in root-mean-square roughness. The minimum value of electrical resistivity, measured for the films prepared using 0.95 at.% Al in the precursor sol, is 2.7 × 10-4 ? ? cm. The electrical resistivity value rises upon further increase in Al doping level due to introduction of lattice defects and Al segregation to the grain boundary area, thus limiting electron transport through it.

Alam, Mahboob; Islam, Mohammad; Achour, Amine; Hayat, Ansar; Ahsan, Bilal; Rasheed, Haroon; Salam, Shahzad; Mujahid, Mohammad

2014-07-01

109

Gallium phosphide energy converters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gallium phosphide (GaP) energy converters may be successfully deployed to provide new mission capabilities for spacecraft. Betavoltaic power supplies based on the conversion of tritium beta decay to electricity using GaP energy converters can supply long term low-level power with high reliability. High temperature solar cells, also based on GaP, can be used in inward-bound missions greatly reducing the need for thermal dissipation. Results are presented for GaP direct conversion devices powered by Ni-63 and compared to the conversion of light emitted by tritiarated phosphors. Leakage currents as low as 1.2 x 10(exp -17) A/sq cm have been measured and the temperature dependence of the reverse saturation current is found to have ideal behavior. Temperature dependent IV, QE, R(sub sh), and V(sub oc) results are also presented. These data are used to predict the high-temperature solar cell and betacell performance of GaP devices and suggest appropriate applications for the deployment of this technology.

Sims, P. E.; Dinetta, L. C.; Goetz, M. A.

1995-01-01

110

Gallium phosphide energy converters  

SciTech Connect

Gallium phosphide (GaP) energy converters may be successfully deployed to provide new mission capabilities for spacecraft. Betavoltaic power supplies based on the conversion of tritium beta decay to electricity using GaP energy converters can supply long term low-level power with high reliability. High temperature solar cells, also based on GaP, can be used in inward-bound missions greatly reducing the need for thermal dissipation. Results are presented for GaP direct conversion devices powered by Ni-63 and compared to the conversion of light emitted by tritiarated phosphors. Leakage currents as low as 1.2 x 10(exp {minus}17) A/sq cm have been measured and the temperature dependence of the reverse saturation current is found to have ideal behavior. Temperature dependent IV, QE, R(sub sh), and V(sub oc) results are also presented. These data are used to predict the high-temperature solar cell and betacell performance of GaP devices and suggest appropriate applications for the deployment of this technology.

Sims, P.E.; Dinetta, L.C.; Goetz, M.A.

1995-10-01

111

Gallium phosphide energy converters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gallium phosphide (GaP) energy converters may be successfully deployed to provide new mission capabilities for spacecraft. Betavoltaic power supplies based on the conversion of tritium beta decay to electricity using GaP energy converters can supply long term low-level power with high reliability. High temperature solar cells, also based on GaP, can be used in inward-bound missions greatly reducing the need for thermal dissipation. Results are presented for GaP direct conversion devices powered by Ni-63 and compared to the conversion of light emitted by tritiarated phosphors. Leakage currents as low as 1.2 x 10(exp -17) A/sq cm have been measured and the temperature dependence of the reverse saturation current is found to have ideal behavior. Temperature dependent IV, QE, R(sub sh), and V(sub oc) results are also presented. These data are used to predict the high-temperature solar cell and betacell performance of GaP devices and suggest appropriate applications for the deployment of this technology.

Sims, P. E.; Dinetta, L. C.; Goetz, M. A.

1995-10-01

112

Thin-film indium phosphide photovoltaic device research and development. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Indium phosphide, a direct gap semiconductor with a room temperature energy gap of 1.35 eV, is a promising material for thin film photovoltaic devices. Thin films of indium phosphide have been deposited on several foreign substrates, including W/graphite and Al/graphite, by the reaction of indium, hydrogen chloride, and phosphine in a gas flow system, and their structural and crystallographic properties investigated. The electrical properties of indium phosphide films were evaluated from the dark current-voltage characteristics of Schottky barriers prepared from these films. All Schottky barriers have been found to exhibit low rectification ratios and high dark currents due to grain boundary effects, and consequently, the solar cells have poor photovoltaic responses. The grain boundary effects can be reduced to some extent by thermal oxidation, ruthenium (III) treatment, and nitridation, thereby improving the photovoltaic characteristics of thin film indium phosphide Schottky barrier devices. N-ITO/p-InP thin film solar cells show improved photoresponse than Schottky barrier solar cells; however, their conversion efficiencies are inadequate for terrestrial applications. It is concluded that indium phosphide films deposited by the halide process are not suitable directly for high efficiency thin film photovoltaic devices due to at least two factors: dopant segregation at grain bondaries and irregular packing of grains in the films. The recrystallization of vapor-deposited indium phosphide films by using a pulsed laser is suggested as an approach to eliminate the deleterious effects associated with the irregular packing of grains in the film.

Chu, T.L.; Chu, S.C.; Chang, C.T.; Kuper, A.B.; Lin, C.L.; Tzeng, Y.C.

1984-05-01

113

Ultrathin amorphous zinc-tin-oxide buffer layer for enhancing heterojunction interface quality in metal-oxide solar cells  

E-print Network

We demonstrate a tunable electron-blocking layer to enhance the performance of an Earth-abundant metal-oxide solar-cell material. A 5 nm thick amorphous ternary metal-oxide buffer layer reduces interface recombination, ...

Heo, Jaeyeong

114

Solar-thermal decomposition of zinc sulfate  

SciTech Connect

Experimental decomposition of zinc sulfate in a rotary kiln which was heated in the White Sands Solar Furnace is described. The main findings of this research are: The zinc sulfate decomposed after 1 to 5 minutes of solar exposure when (a) the front thermocouple indicated 700/sup 0/C and the kiln was being rapidly heated with a flux of 9 to 14 kW, or (b) the front thermocouple was above 850/sup 0/C and the kiln was being maintained at temperature with a minimal flux. There is a problem with zinc sulfate agglomeration above approximately 800/sup 0/C. The agglomeration problem interfered significantly with testing, and it prevented the acquisition of quantitative data on the rate and extent of zinc sulfate decomposition. The agglomeration problem can be solved either by mechanical or chemical means - e.g., by physically breaking apart the agglomerate by means of chains or by mixing inert compounds with the zinc sulfate to prevent the particles from sticking to each other. The rotary kiln performed satisfactorily. In particular, there were no problems with the window.

Shell, P.K.; Ruiz, R.; Yu, C.M.

1983-01-01

115

Solar Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) produces high efficiency crystal ingots in an automated well-insulated furnace offering low equipment, labor and energy costs. The "grown" silicon crystals are used to make solar cells, or photovoltaic cells which convert sunlight directly into electricity. The HEM method is used by Crystal Systems, Inc. and was developed under a NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory contract. The square wafers which are the result of the process are sold to companies manufacturing solar panels.

1983-01-01

116

Chemical Bath Deposited Zinc Sulfide Buffer Layers for Copper Indium Gallium Sulfur-selenide Solar Cells and Device Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Cd free CIGSS thin film solar cell structures with a MgF2/TCO/CGD-ZnS/CIGSS/Mo/SLG structure have been fabricated using chemical bath deposited (CBD)-ZnS buffer layers and high quality CIGSS absorber layers supplied from Shell Solar Industries. The use of CBD-ZnS, which is a higher band gap materials than CdS, improved the quantum efficiency of fabricated cells at lower wavelengths, leading to an increase in short circuit current. The best cell to date yielded an active area (0.43 cm2) efficiency of 13.3%. This paper also presents a discussion of the issues relating to the use of the CBD-ZnS buffer materials for improving device performance.

Kundu, Sambhu N.; Olsen, Larry C.

2005-01-03

117

Routes to copper zinc tin sulfide Cu2ZnSnS4 a potential material for solar cells.  

PubMed

Power generation through photovoltaics (PV) has been growing at an average rate of 40% per year over the last decade; but has largely been fuelled by conventional Si-based technologies. Such cells involve expensive processing and many alternatives use either toxic, less-abundant and or expensive elements. Kesterite Cu(2)ZnSnS(4) (CZTS) has been identified as a solar energy material composed of both less toxic and more available elements. Power conversion efficiencies of 8.4% (vacuum processing) and 10.1% (non-vacuum processing) from cells constructed using CZTS have been achieved to date. In this article, we review various deposition methods for CZTS thin films and the synthesis of CZTS nanoparticles. Studies of direct relevance to solar cell applications are emphasised and characteristic properties are collated. PMID:22531115

Ramasamy, Karthik; Malik, Mohammad A; O'Brien, Paul

2012-06-11

118

Preparation of n-ZnO/p-Si solar cells by oxidation of zinc nanoparticles: effect of oxidation temperature on the photovoltaic properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, n-ZnO/p-Si solar cells were fabricated by spraying ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) film synthesised by dissolving of high purity zinc in hydrogen peroxide H2O2 followed by thermal oxidation in air on p-type silicon substrates. The oxidation was carried out at different temperatures (200-500) °C. The crystalline structure of the ZnO NPs films was investigated by X-ray diffraction which indicated wurtzite structure films along (100) plane. The morphology of the NPs was studied by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The result showed an average grain size of ZnO NPs in the range of (72.7-95.8) nm and the surface roughness increasing with oxidation temperature. Three peaks located at ultraviolet, violet and green emission regions were noticed in the photoluminescence spectra of ZnO NPs. From optical studies, it was shown that the direct optical band gap is found to be in the range of (3.85-3.96) eV depended on the oxidation temperature. The synthesised ZnO films have n-type conductivity, and the mobility was in the range of (7-24) cm2 V-1 s-1. Current-voltage I-V and capacitance-voltage C-V of ZnO NPs/Si heterojunction solar cell were investigated as function of oxidation temperature. The spectral response of n-ZnO NPs/p-Si solar cell showed two peaks of response and its maximum value approaching 0.62 mA W-1 at ? = 800 nm. Solar cell oxidized at 500 °C gave open circuit voltage V OC of 375 mV, short circuit current density J SC of 25 mA cm-2, a fill factor FF of 0.72, and conversion efficiency ? of 6.79 % under illumination of 100 mW cm-2.

Ismail, Raid A.; Al-Jawad, Selma M. H.; Hussein, Naba

2014-07-01

119

Wurtzite copper-zinc-tin sulfide as a superior counter electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Wurtzite and kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals were employed as counter electrode (CE) materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Compared to kesterite CZTS, the wurtzite CZTS exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity for catalyzing reduction of iodide electrolyte and better conductivity. Accordingly, the DSSC with wurtzite CZTS CE generated higher power conversion efficiency (6.89%) than that of Pt (6.23%) and kesterite CZTS (4.89%) CEs. PMID:24191954

Kong, Jun; Zhou, Zheng-Ji; Li, Mei; Zhou, Wen-Hui; Yuan, Sheng-Jie; Yao, Rong-Yue; Zhao, Yang; Wu, Si-Xin

2013-01-01

120

Wurtzite copper-zinc-tin sulfide as a superior counter electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells  

PubMed Central

Wurtzite and kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals were employed as counter electrode (CE) materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Compared to kesterite CZTS, the wurtzite CZTS exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity for catalyzing reduction of iodide electrolyte and better conductivity. Accordingly, the DSSC with wurtzite CZTS CE generated higher power conversion efficiency (6.89%) than that of Pt (6.23%) and kesterite CZTS (4.89%) CEs. PMID:24191954

2013-01-01

121

Wurtzite copper-zinc-tin sulfide as a superior counter electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wurtzite and kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals were employed as counter electrode (CE) materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Compared to kesterite CZTS, the wurtzite CZTS exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity for catalyzing reduction of iodide electrolyte and better conductivity. Accordingly, the DSSC with wurtzite CZTS CE generated higher power conversion efficiency (6.89%) than that of Pt (6.23%) and kesterite CZTS (4.89%) CEs.

Kong, Jun; Zhou, Zheng-Ji; Li, Mei; Zhou, Wen-Hui; Yuan, Sheng-Jie; Yao, Rong-Yue; Zhao, Yang; Wu, Si-Xin

2013-11-01

122

Process optimization of Al-doped zinc oxide films as a window layer for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin film was deposited by an in-line pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering system for Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cell and optimum process conditions were analyzed. Of several process parameters, oxygen ratio to argon gas in the sputtering ambient was intensively investigated. As increasing the oxygen concentration from 0% to 2%, carrier concentration decreased from 4.8 × 1020 to 9.7 × 1017 cm-3 and Hall mobility reduced from 6.1 to 1.1 cm2/Vs. Resultantly, the resistivity of the AZO film increased significantly from 2.2 × 10-3 up to 5.9 × 10-1 ? cm as increasing the oxygen concentration. This was due to the effect of the scattering mechanism depending on the role of the oxygen in the AZO film. The average transmittance in the range of visible light was lowest as about 74% in the film deposited without oxygen. By the way, the optical band gap was obtained with the most large value of 3.6 eV in the film deposited without oxygen. For examining the feasibility as a window layer, the optimal AZO film deposited without oxygen was applied for making the CIGS solar cell. In this CIGS solar cell, the absorber layer was formed by using the rapid thermal annealing method of CuGa/In metal precursors. The cell was satisfactorily operated with the efficiency of 7.69% even though the cell was not optimized for the buffer layer and the composition of the absorber, and had no metal grids and anti-reflection layer.

Li, Zhao-Hui; Kwon, Sang Jik

2013-11-01

123

Automatically activated, 300 ampere-hour silver-zinc cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype silver zinc cell is reported for which the electrolyte is being stored in a separate tank; the cell is being activated when additional power is required by collapsing the neoprene bellows container and thus forcing the electrolyte into cell through a plastic connection. A solar array is proposed as main power source for the flow actuator.

Hennigan, T. J.

1972-01-01

124

Inverted polymer solar cells with sol-gel derived cesium-doped zinc oxide thin film as a buffer layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inverted structure of polymer solar cells based on Poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT):[6-6] Phenyl-(6) butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) with thin films of sol-gel derived Cesium doped ZnO (Cs:ZnO) was developed as an efficient cathode buffer layer. Doped and undoped thin films were deposited using a less studied method, doctor blade, which was compatible with Roll-2-Roll printing method. By comparing the effect of Cs:ZnO thin films with various dopant ratio on the performance of inverted polymer solar cells, 0.5% Cs doped ZnO was found as the most effective doping level among the selected doping ratios. Using 30 nm thickness of 0.5% Csn:ZnO thin film as an electron transport layer led to the average efficiency which was significantly higher than (9%) that of similar devices employing the same thickness of undoped ZnO film. Results showed that the devices fabricated with 1% and 2% cesium doped ZnO yielded lower power conversion efficiency, which could be due to the lower FF. Also, the influence of dopant incorporation on the optical transmittance and electrical conductivity of ZnO films was investigated.

Ahmadi, Mehdi; Mirabbaszadeh, Kavoos; Salari, Saeid; Fatehy, Hamed

2014-09-01

125

Zinc-Air (Oxygen) Cell Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shorting by zinc penetration through the separator layers was prevented in zinc-air and zinc-oxygen cells by inserting a 10 mil thick partially wetproofed porous nickel layer within the layers of separator material. Excellent capacity maintenance was atta...

O. C. Wagner

1973-01-01

126

Surface textured molybdenum doped zinc oxide thin films prepared for thin film solar cells using pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined the effect of etching on the electrical properties, transmittance, and scattering of visible light in molybdenum doped zinc oxide, ZnO:Mo (MZO) thin films prepared by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering. We used two different etching solutions – KOH and HCl – to alter the surface texture of the MZO thin film so that it could

Y. C. Lin; B. L. Wang; W. T. Yen; C. H. Shen

2011-01-01

127

Photoelectric properties of ITO\\/ p + - p ? InP solar cells in linearly polarized light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indium phosphide heterostructures and transparent conducting films of wide-gap oxides have previously been used in the development\\u000a of highly efficient solar cells, making it possible to bring their efficiencies up to 18% [M. M. Koltun, Optics and Metrology of Solar Cells [in Russian], Nauka, Moscow (1985); V. M. Botnaryuk, L. S. Gagara, L. V. Gorchak et al., Geliotekhnika 23, 37

V. M. Botnaryuk; L. V. Gorchak; S. D. Raevskii; D. A. Sherban; V. Yu. Rud’; Yu. V. Rud

1998-01-01

128

High-rate, room temperature plasma-enhanced deposition of aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanofilms for solar cell applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A custom-designed inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-assisted radio-frequency magnetron sputtering deposition system has been employed to synthesize aluminium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) nanofilms on glass substrates at room temperature. The effects of film thickness and ZnO target (partially covered by Al chips) power on the structural, electrical and optical properties of the ZnO:Al nanofilms are studied. A high growth rate (?41nm\\/min), low

B. S. Chua; S. Xu; Y. P. Ren; Q. J. Cheng; K. Ostrikov

2009-01-01

129

High deposition rate aluminium-doped zinc oxide films with highly efficient light trapping for silicon thin film solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminium-doped zinc oxide films were deposited on glass substrates at high rates by reactive mid-frequency sputtering. The in-line sputter system allows oxygen influx along the middle and sides of a dual-cathode system. The effect of varying the oxygen flow from the sides on the electrical and optical properties together with the surface morphology after wet chemical etching was investigated. Increasing

S. Calnan; J. Hupkes; B. Rech; H. Siekmann; A. N. Tiwari

2008-01-01

130

Synthesis and characterisation of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) compound for absorber material in solar-cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of thin-film semiconductor compounds, such as Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS), has caused remarkable progress in the field of thin-film photovoltaics. However, the scarcity and the increasing prices of indium impose the hunt for alternative materials. The Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) is one of the promising emerging materials with Kesterite-type crystal structure and favourable material properties like

Vipul Kheraj; K. K. Patel; S. J. Patel

2013-01-01

131

The effect of post-annealing treatment on the characteristics of a dye-sensitized solar cell with an indium zinc tin oxide electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indium-saving transparent conductive oxide (TCO) thin films, i.e., zinc and tin co-doped indium oxide (IZTO) films, were investigated for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. The films were prepared by the radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method utilizing a ceramic target with a nominal composition equal to In0.6Zn0.2Sn0.2O1.5. The substrate temperature was changed from room temperature to 400 °C while the RF power and the argon gas pressure during deposition were kept constant. The photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of the DSSC samples made with IZTO electrodes were compared with the samples made with FTO electrodes. Values of approximately 6.81% and 4.74% were obtained for the DSSC samples with FTO and IZTO electrodes, respectively, when the firing process was carried out in air atmosphere during DSSC fabrication. However, with the addition of post-annealing in argon or a forming gas, efficiency values increased to 6.06% or 5.54%, respectively, for the DSSC sample with an IZTO electrode.

Ma, Hong Chan; Damisih; Putri, Maryane; Cheon, Jong Hoon; Kim, Jae Hong; Lee, Hee Young

2012-12-01

132

Highly conductive and transparent reduced graphene oxide/aluminium doped zinc oxide nanocomposite for the next generation solar cell applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, aluminum-doped zinc oxide(AZO)/reduced graphene oxide nano-composite thin films are synthesized by a one-pot, solution-processed method. The nanocomposite film has been extensively characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray-diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Hall effect measurement and UV-Vis spectroscopy. It is found that the controlled addition of reduced graphene oxide into AZO can lower the film's resistivity without causing significant degradation of optical transparency. In addition, nanocomposite films post-annealed at process temperature at 500 °C possesses the lowest resistivity and the highest optical transmittance and that further increases in the annealing temperature degrades the film's property due to nucleation of other phases of the AZO.

Bu, Ian Y. Y.

2013-12-01

133

Nanowire-based All Oxide Solar Cells  

SciTech Connect

We present an all-oxide solar cell fabricated from vertically oriented zinc oxide nanowires and cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solar cell consists of vertically oriented n-type zinc oxide nanowires, surrounded by a film constructed from p-type cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solution-based synthesis of inexpensive and environmentally benign oxide materials in a solar cell would allow for the facile production of large-scale photovoltaic devices. We found that the solar cell performance is enhanced with the addition of an intermediate oxide insulating layer between the nanowires and the nanoparticles. This observation of the important dependence of the shunt resistance on the photovoltaic performance is widely applicable to any nanowire solar cell constructed with the nanowire array in direct contact with one electrode.

Yang*, Benjamin D. Yuhas and Peidong; Yang, Peidong

2008-12-07

134

Proceedings of the first international conference on indium phosphide and related materials for advanced electronic and optical devices  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the proceedings of the first international conference on indium phosphide and related materials for advanced electronic and optical devices. Topics covered include: Growth and characterization of bulk and epitaxial films, Passivation technology, Processing technology, High speed optoelectronic integrated circuits, and Solar cells.

Singh, R.; Messick, L.J.

1989-01-01

135

Studies on Metallic Zinc Fuel Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fabrication and performance testing of air-zinc batteries is described. Both single cells and composite cells were studied. Discharge characteristics obtained are plotted. 4 figures. (ERA citation 06:009180)

T. Sakai, M. Kumeda, N. Nishizawa

1980-01-01

136

DIRECT SOLAR THERMAL DISSOCIATION OF ZINC OXIDE: CONDENSATION AND CRYSTALLISATION OF ZINC IN THE PRESENCE OF OXYGEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar thermal production of zinc from zinc oxide is part of a two-step water splitting cycle. Zinc oxide thermally dissociates into zinc vapour and oxygen at elevated temperatures;ZnO(s)=Zn(g)+0.5O2In practice, the yield of zinc depends on the kinetics of dissociation and the technical feasibility of quenching its gaseous products fast enough to avoid reoxidation. As the gaseous products cool, the

A. WEIDENKAFF; A. STEINFELD; A. WOKAUN; P. O. AUER; B. EICHLER; A. RELLER

1999-01-01

137

Development of GaAs solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cells and mesa diodes were fabricated by the implantation of zinc or beryllium ions into n-type gallium arsenide. Annealing temperatures above 750 C (zinc) or 650 C (beryllium) were found to produce 50% to 100% activation of the implanted ions. Junction depths of about 0.4 micron were produced by 600 keV zinc implants or 70 keV beryllium implants. P-layer sheet resistance was about 150 ohms for 2 x 10 to the 15th power cm/2 zinc or 1 x 10 to the 15th power cm/2 beryllium implants. This is sufficiently low for efficient solar cell fabrication. Contacting procedures were improved to yield reproducibly adherent, low resistance front and back contacts.

1972-01-01

138

Zinc, T-cell pathways, aging: role of metallothioneins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc is an essential trace element for many biological functions, including immune functions. Indeed zinc is required for the biological activity of a thymic hormone, called thymulin in its zinc-bound form, important for the maturation and differentiation of T-cells. With advancing age zinc, thymic functions and peripheral immune efficiency show a progressive decline. Supplementing zinc in old age restores them.

Eugenio Mocchegiani; Mario Muzzioli; Catia Cipriano; Robertina Giacconi

1998-01-01

139

Polymer solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in the development of polymer solar cells has improved power-conversion efficiencies from 3% to almost 9%. Based on semiconducting polymers, these solar cells are fabricated from solution-processing techniques and have unique prospects for achieving low-cost solar energy harvesting, owing to their material and manufacturing advantages. The potential applications of polymer solar cells are broad, ranging from flexible solar

Gang Li; Rui Zhu; Yang Yang

2012-01-01

140

Solar Photovoltaic Cells.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

Mickey, Charles D.

1981-01-01

141

Effects of zinc supplementation and zinc chelation on in vitro ?-cell function in INS-1E cells  

PubMed Central

Background Zinc is essential for the activities of pancreatic ?-cells, especially insulin storage and secretion. Insulin secretion leads to co-release of zinc which contributes to the paracrine communication in the pancreatic islets. Zinc-transporting proteins (zinc-regulated transporter, iron-regulated transporter-like proteins [ZIPs] and zinc transporters [ZnTs]) and metal-buffering proteins (metallothioneins, MTs) tightly regulate intracellular zinc homeostasis. The present study investigated how modulation of cellular zinc availability affects ?-cell function using INS-1E cells. Results Using INS-1E cells, we found that zinc supplementation and zinc chelation had significant effects on insulin content and insulin secretion. Supplemental zinc within the physiological concentration range induced insulin secretion. Insulin content was reduced by zinc chelation with N,N,N’,N-tektrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)-ethylenediamine. The changes in intracellular insulin content following exposure to various concentrations of zinc were reflected by changes in the expression patterns of MT-1A, ZnT-8, ZnT-5, and ZnT-3. Furthermore, high zinc concentrations induced cell necrosis while zinc chelation induced apoptosis. Finally, cell proliferation was sensitive to changes in zinc the concentration. Conclusion These results indicate that the ?-cell-like function and survival of INS-1E cells are dependent on the surrounding zinc concentrations. Our results suggest that regulation of zinc homeostasis could represent a pharmacological target. PMID:24502363

2014-01-01

142

The production of zinc by thermal dissociation of zinc oxide—solar chemical reactor design  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the design, fabrication, and preliminary test of a novel solar chemical reactor for conducting the thermal dissociation of ZnO into zinc and oxygen at above 2000 K. The reactor configuration features a windowed rotating cavity-receiver lined with ZnO particles that are held by centrifugal force. With this arrangement, ZnO is directly exposed to high-flux solar irradiation and serves

P. Haueter; S. Moeller; R. Palumbo; A. Steinfeld

1999-01-01

143

Nanocoax Solar Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel architecture for high efficiency solar energy conversion, employing separated photo-- and --voltaic pathways and antenna-based light collection, is described. This material-independent architecture solves the ``thick-and-thin'' conundrum of solar photovoltaics, wherein solar cells must be thick enough to absorb light yet thin enough to allow for charge extraction. Our solar cells are comprised of arrays of high aspect ratio,

M. J. Naughton; K. Kempa; Z. F. Ren; J. Rybczynski; T. Paudel; Y. Gao; Y. Xu

2008-01-01

144

The silicon/zinc oxide interface in amorphous silicon-based thin-film solar cells: Understanding an empirically optimized contact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic structure of the interface between the boron-doped oxygenated amorphous silicon "window layer" (a-SiOx:H(B)) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) was investigated using hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and compared to that of the boron-doped microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si:H(B))/ZnO:Al interface. The corresponding valence band offsets have been determined to be (-2.87 ± 0.27) eV and (-3.37 ± 0.27) eV, respectively. A lower tunnel junction barrier height at the ?c-Si:H(B)/ZnO:Al interface compared to that at the a-SiOx:H(B)/ZnO:Al interface is found and linked to the higher device performances in cells where a ?c-Si:H(B) buffer between the a-Si:H p-i-n absorber stack and the ZnO:Al contact is employed.

Gerlach, D.; Wilks, R. G.; Wippler, D.; Wimmer, M.; Lozac'h, M.; Félix, R.; Mück, A.; Meier, M.; Ueda, S.; Yoshikawa, H.; Gorgoi, M.; Lips, K.; Rech, B.; Sumiya, M.; Hüpkes, J.; Kobayashi, K.; Bär, M.

2013-07-01

145

Heterojunction solar cell  

DOEpatents

A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion effiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer.

Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO)

1994-01-01

146

Heterojunction solar cell  

DOEpatents

A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell is described wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga[sub 0.52]In[sub 0.48]P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer. 1 fig.

Olson, J.M.

1994-08-30

147

Solar cell encapsulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A polymer syrup for encapsulating solar cell assemblies. The syrup includes uncrosslinked poly(n-butyl)acrylate dissolved in n-butyl acrylate monomer. Preparation of the poly(n-butyl)acrylate and preparation of the polymer syrup is disclosed. Methods for applying the polymer syrup to solar cell assemblies as an encapsulating pottant are described. Also included is a method for solar cell construction utilizing the polymer syrup as a dual purpose adhesive and encapsulating material.

Gupta, Amitava (Inventor); Ingham, John D. (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre H. (Inventor)

1983-01-01

148

Fundamentals of solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text is addressed to upper level graduate students with background in solid state physics and to scientists and engineers involved in solar cell research. The author aims to present fundamental physical principles rather than the state-of-the-art. Specific devices are used to illustrate basic phenomena and to indicate possibilities for innovative design. Contents, abridged: Solar insolation. The calculation of solar

A. L. Farhenbruch; R. H. Bube

1983-01-01

149

Enhanced EOS photovoltaic power system capability with InP solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Observing System (EOS), which is part of the International Mission to Planet Earth, is NASA's main contribution to the Global Change Research Program which opens a new era in international cooperation to study the Earth's environment. Five large platforms are to be launched into polar orbit, two by NASA, two by ESA, and one by the Japanese. In such an orbit the radiation resistance of indium phosphide solar cells combined with the potential of utilizing five micron cell structures yields an increase of 10 percent in the payload capability. If further combined with the advanced photovoltaic solar array the payload savings approaches 12 percent.

Bailey, Sheila G.; Weinberg, Irving; Flood, Dennis J.

1991-01-01

150

Solar cell shingle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar cell shingle was made of an array of solar cells on a lower portion of a substantially rectangular shingle substrate made of fiberglass cloth or the like. The solar cells may be encapsulated in flourinated ethylene propylene or some other weatherproof translucent or transparent encapsulant to form a combined electrical module and a roof shingle. The interconnected solar cells were connected to connectors at the edge of the substrate through a connection to a common electrical bus or busses. An overlap area was arranged to receive the overlap of a cooperating similar shingle so that the cell portion of the cooperating shingle may overlie the overlap area of the roof shingle. Accordingly, the same shingle serves the double function of an ordinary roof shingle which may be applied in the usual way and an array of cooperating solar cells from which electrical energy may be collected.

Forestieri, A. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Sidorak, L. G. (inventors)

1977-01-01

151

Porphyrin-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Nature has chosen chlorophylls in plants as antennae to harvest light for the conversion of solar energy in complicated photosynthetic processes. Inspired by natural photosynthesis, scientists utilized artificial chlorophylls - the porphyrins - as efficient centres to harvest light for solar cells sensitized with a porphyrin (PSSC). After the first example appeared in 1993 of a porphyrin of type copper chlorophyll as a photosensitizer for PSSC that achieved a power conversion efficiency of 2.6%, no significant advance of PSSC was reported until 2005; beta-linked zinc porphyrins were then reported to show promising device performances with a benchmark efficiency of 7.1% reported in 2007. Meso-linked zinc porphyrin sensitizers in the first series with a push-pull framework appeared in 2009; the best cell performed comparably to that of a N3-based device, and a benchmark 11% was reported for a porphyrin sensitizer of this type in 2010. With a structural design involving long alkoxyl chains to envelop the porphyrin core to suppress the dye aggregation for a push-pull zinc porphyrin, the PSSC achieved a record 12.3% in 2011 with co-sensitization of an organic dye and a cobalt-based electrolyte. The best PSSC system exhibited a panchromatic feature for light harvesting covering the visible spectral region to 700 nm, giving opportunities to many other porphyrins, such as fused and dimeric porphyrins, with near-infrared absorption spectral features, together with the approach of molecular co-sensitization, to enhance the device performance of PSSC. According to this historical trend for the development of prospective porphyrin sensitizers used in PSSC, we review systematically the progress of porphyrins of varied kinds, and their derivatives, applied in PSSC with a focus on reports during 2007-2012 from the point of view of molecular design correlated with photovoltaic performance. PMID:23023240

Li, Lu-Lin; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

2013-01-01

152

High-efficiency cadmium and zinc-telluride-based thin-film solar cells. Annual subcontract report, 1 March 1990--28 February 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes research into polycrystalline CdTe solar cells grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Efficiencies of â¼10% were achieved using both p-i-n and p-n structures. A pre-heat treatment of CdS\\/SnOâ\\/glass substrates at 450°C in hydrogen atmosphere prior to the CdTe growth was found to be essential for high performance because this heat treatment reduces oxygen-related defects from the CdS

A. Rohatgi; R. Sudharsanan; S. Ringel

1992-01-01

153

Morphology control of zinc regeneration for zinc-air fuel cell and battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphology control is crucial both for zinc-air batteries and for zinc-air fuel cells during zinc regeneration. Zinc dendrite should be avoided in zinc-air batteries and zinc pellets are yearned to be formed for zinc-air fuel cells. This paper is mainly to analyze the mechanism of shape change and to control the zinc morphology during charge. A numerical three-dimensional model for zinc regeneration is established with COMSOL software on the basis of ionic transport theory and electrode reaction electrochemistry, and some experiments of zinc regeneration are carried out. The deposition process is qualitatively analyzed by the kinetics Monte Carlo method to study the morphological change from the electrocrystallization point of view. Morphological evolution of deposited zinc under different conditions of direct currents and pulse currents is also investigated by simulation. The simulation shows that parametric variables of the flowing electrolyte, the surface roughness and the structure of the electrode, the charging current and mode affect morphological evolution. The uniform morphology of deposited zinc is attained at low current, pulsating current or hydrodynamic electrolyte, and granular morphology is obtained by means of an electrode of discrete columnar structure in combination with high current and flowing electrolyte.

Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Xu, Huachi; Li, Pengcheng; Wang, Xizhong

2014-12-01

154

High-efficiency solar cell and method for fabrication  

DOEpatents

A high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell is disclosed with a theoretical AM0 energy conversion efficiency of about 40%. The solar cell includes p-n junctions formed from indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) separated by n-p tunnel junctions. An optional germanium (Ge) p-n junction can be formed in the substrate upon which the other p-n junctions are grown. The bandgap energies for each p-n junction are tailored to provide substantially equal short-circuit currents for each p-n junction, thereby eliminating current bottlenecks and improving the overall energy conversion efficiency of the solar cell. Additionally, the use of an InGaAsN p-n junction overcomes super-bandgap energy losses that are present in conventional multi-junction solar cells. A method is also disclosed for fabricating the high-efficiency 3- or 4-junction solar cell by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD).

Hou, Hong Q. (Albuquerque, NM); Reinhardt, Kitt C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01

155

High-efficiency cadmium and zinc-telluride-based thin-film solar cells. Annual subcontract report, 1 March 1990--28 February 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research into polycrystalline CdTe solar cells grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Efficiencies of {approximately}10% were achieved using both p-i-n and p-n structures. A pre-heat treatment of CdS/SnO{sub 2}/glass substrates at 450{degrees}C in hydrogen atmosphere prior to the CdTe growth was found to be essential for high performance because this heat treatment reduces oxygen-related defects from the CdS surface. However, this treatment also resulted in a Cd-deficient CdS surface, which may in part limit the CdTe cell efficiency to 10% due to Cd vacancy-related interface defects. Preliminary model calculations suggest that removing these states can increase the cell efficiency from 10% to 13.5%. Photon absorption in the CdS film also limits the cell performance, and eliminating this loss mechanism can result in CdTe efficiencies in excess of 18%. Polycrystalline, 1.7-e, CdZnTe films were also grown for tandem-cell applications. CdZnTe/CdS cells processed using the standard CdTe cell fabrication procedure resulted in 4.4% efficiency, high series resistance, and a band-gap shift to 1.55 eV. The formation of Zn-O at and near the CdZnTe surface is the source of high contact resistance. A saturated dichromate each prior to contact deposition was found to solve the contact resistance problem. The CdCl{sub 2} treatment was identified as the cause of the observed band-gap shift due to the preferred formation of ZnCl{sub 2}. 59 refs.

Rohatgi, A.; Sudharsanan, R.; Ringel, S. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States)

1992-02-01

156

Solar cell radiation handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.

Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.; Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

1982-01-01

157

Thin boron phosphide coating as a corrosion-resistant layer  

DOEpatents

A surface prone to corrosion in corrosive environments is rendered anticorrosive by CVD growing a thin continuous film, e.g., having no detectable pinholes, thereon, of boron phosphide. In one embodiment, the film is semiconductive. In another aspect, the invention is an improved photoanode, and/or photoelectrochemical cell with a photoanode having a thin film of boron phosphide thereon rendering it anticorrosive, and providing it with unexpectedly improved photoresponsive properties.

Not Available

1982-08-25

158

Quantum dot solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum dot (QD) solar cells have the potential to increase the maximum attainable thermodynamic conversion efficiency of solar photon conversion up to about 66% by utilizing hot photogenerated carriers to produce higher photovoltages or higher photocurrents. The former effect is based on miniband transport and collection of hot carriers in QD array photoelectrodes before they relax to the band edges

A. J Nozik

2002-01-01

159

Investigation of surface phase formation during tin-rich growth of Copper2ZincTinSulfer4 polycrystlalline thin films for solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a semiconductor material made of nontoxic, earth abundant elements, making it a promising topic of research for absorber layers in thin film solar cells. We observed that rapid thermal annealing of tin (Sn)-rich co-sputtered CZTS films resulted in crystalline, hexagonal platelets of tin-disulfide (SnS2) 5-30 µm long at the surface of the film. In this work, the formation mechanisms of these surface crystallites and their implications for CZTS absorber layer processing were investigated. The formation and decomposition of these platelets were studied by observing the changes in their structural, morphological, compositional, and vibrational properties accompanying the imposition of lateral temperature gradients as well as different annealing atmospheres. The homogeneous co-sputtered films were annealed in a graphite boat in a quartz reactor using a base heater and halogen lamp. Interrupting annealings to examine stages of crystal formation showed at around 400 °C SnS2 began to form on the surface of films. Near the edges of the film, where temperatures were found to be higher, crystals melted into an amorphous unknown tin-sulfide phase. Diffusion of species from the film into the base of the crystals formed long CZTS grains of which the amorphous phase left behind as it coalesced. Annealing without sulfur (S) increased Sn and S losses from the film and increased the number of crystals nucleated on the surface of the film. For solar cell device applications of CZTS thin films, removal of these SnS2 surface crystallites is necessary; thus wet chemical and thermal decomposition etching techniques were studied. Wet etching attempts with KCN and NH4OH solutions did little to etch crystals. HCl solution damaged the CZTS film as much as the crystals and therefore was also unsuitable. Thermal etching by evacuating the chamber near the end of annealing transformed the SnS2 crystals into a grainy, S-poor Sn phase via the decomposition of SnS2 by removing the vapor species with which it is in equilibrium. Understanding the role of Sn species during annealing is important for the complex CZTS system because small deviations from Sn stoichiometry results in drastic changes in the secondary phases and microstructure of the film. The experiments and insight provided in this thesis represent unexplored unconventional methods toward CZTS growth and different approaches for CZTS processing for development of thin film solar cell technology.

Bolke, Joseph Glenn

160

Photovoltaic solar cell  

DOEpatents

A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

2013-11-26

161

Solar cell array interconnects  

DOEpatents

Electrical interconnects are disclosed for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value. 4 figs.

Carey, P.G.; Thompson, J.B.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.

1995-11-14

162

Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This introduction to photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells reviews topics pertaining to solar energy conversion and demonstrates the ease with which a working PEC cell can be prepared with n-type silicon as the photoanode and a platinum counter electrode (both immersed in ethanolic ferrocene/ferricenium solutions). Experiments using the cell are…

McDevitt, John T.

1984-01-01

163

Inside a Solar Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based on a NOVA Online lesson, Teachers' Domain presents this interactive activity that provides reading material and animations to help students learn the basics of photovoltaic cells, including how a solar cell converts solar energy into electricity and the components of the unit (silicon layers, metal backing, antireflective coating, and metal conductor strips). On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

2010-10-06

164

Concentrator solar cell research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research related to concentrator solar cells has produced a new model for series resistance and the beginnings of a powerful device analysis code for personal computers. The Quasi-One-Dimensional series resistance model permits the evaluation and optimization of losses associated with the front surface collection grid of concentrator solar cells, including nonuniform illumination profiles. The Q-1-D model has been incorporated in

P. A. Basore

1985-01-01

165

Thin silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect

The silicon-film design achieves high performance by using a dun silicon layer and incorporating light trapping. Optimally designed thin crystalline solar cells (<50 microns thick) have performance advantages over conventional thick devices. The high-performance silicon-film design employs a metallurgical barrier between the low-cost substrate and the thin silicon layer. Light trapping properties of silicon-film on ceramic solar cells are presented and analyzed. Recent advances in process development are described here.

Hall, R.B.; Bacon, C.; DiReda, V.; Ford, D.H.; Ingram, A.E.; Cotter, J.; Hughes-Lampros, T.; Rand, J.A.; Ruffins, T.R.; Barnett, A.M. [Astro Power Inc., Solar Park, Newark, DE (United States)

1992-12-01

166

Zinc signals promote IL-2-dependent proliferation of T cells.  

PubMed

Zinc signals, i.e. a change of the intracellular concentration of free zinc ions in response to receptor stimulation, are involved in signal transduction in several immune cells. Here, the role of zinc signals in T-cell activation by IL-2 was investigated in the murine cytotoxic T-cell line CTLL-2 and in primary human T cells. Measurements with the fluorescent dyes FluoZin-3 and Zinquin showed that zinc is released from lysosomes into the cytosol in response to stimulation of the IL-2-receptor. Activation of the ERK-pathway was blocked by chelation of free zinc with N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-2(pyridyl-methyl)ethylenediamine, whereas zinc was not required for STAT5 phosphorylation. In addition, the key signaling molecules MEK and ERK were activated in response to elevated free intracellular zinc, induced by incubation with zinc and the ionophore pyrithione. Downstream of ERK activation, ERK-specific gene expression of c-fos and IL-2-induced proliferation was found to depend on zinc. Further experiments indicated that inhibition of MEK and ERK-dephosphorylating protein phosphatases is the molecular mechanism for the influence of zinc on this pathway. In conclusion, an increase of cytoplasmic free zinc is required for IL-2-induced ERK signaling and proliferation of T cells. PMID:20201035

Kaltenberg, Jennifer; Plum, Laura M; Ober-Blöbaum, Julia L; Hönscheid, Andrea; Rink, Lothar; Haase, Hajo

2010-05-01

167

Welded solar cell interconnection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The efficiency of the welding of solar-cell interconnects is compared with the efficiency of soldering such interconnects, and the cases in which welding may be superior are examined. Emphasis is placed on ultrasonic welding; attention is given to the solar-cell welding machine, the application of the welding process to different solar-cell configurations, producibility, and long-life performance of welded interconnects. Much of the present work has been directed toward providing increased confidence in the reliability of welding using conditions approximating those that would occur with large-scale array production. It is concluded that there is as yet insufficient data to determine which of three methods (soldering, parallel gap welding, and ultrasonic welding) provides the longest-duration solar panel life.

Stofel, E. J.; Browne, E. R.; Meese, R. A.; Vendura, G. J.

1982-01-01

168

Zinc air refuelable battery: alternative zinc fuel morphologies and cell behavior  

SciTech Connect

Multicell zinc/air batteries have been tested previously in the laboratory and as part of the propulsion system of an electric bus; cut zinc wire was used as the anode material. This battery is refueled by a hydraulic transport of 0.5-1 mm zinc particles into hoppers above each cell. We report an investigation concerning alternative zinc fuel morphologies, and energy losses associated with refueling and with overnight or prolonged standby. Three types of fuel pellets were fabricated, tested and compared with results for cut wire: spheres produced in a fluidized bed electrolysis cell; elongated particles produced by gas-atomization; and pellets produced by chopping 1 mm porous plates made of compacted zinc fines. Relative sizes of the particles and cell gap dimensions are critical. All three types transported within the cell 1553 and showed acceptable discharge characteristics, but a fluidized bed approach appears especially attractive for owner/user recovery operations.

Cooper, J.F.; Krueger, R.

1997-01-01

169

Properties of double-layered Ga-doped Al-zinc-oxide/titanium-doped indium-tin-oxide thin films prepared by dc magnetron sputtering applied for Si-based thin film solar cells  

SciTech Connect

In this article, Ga-doped Al-zinc-oxide (GAZO)/titanium-doped indium-tin-oxide (ITIO) bi-layer films were deposited onto glass substrates by direct current (dc) magnetron sputtering. The bottom ITIO film, with a thickness of 200 nm, was sputtered onto the glass substrate. The ITIO film was post-annealed at 350 deg. C for 10-120 min as a seed layer. The effect of post-annealing conditions on the morphologies, electrical, and optical properties of ITIO films was investigated. A GAZO layer with a thickness of 1200 nm was continuously sputtered onto the ITIO bottom layer. The results show that the properties of the GAZO/ITIO films were strongly dependent on the post-annealed conditions. The spectral haze (T{sub diffuse}/T{sub total}) of the GAZO/ITIO bi-layer films increases upon increasing the post-annealing time. The haze and resistivity of the GAZO/ITIO bi-layer films were improved with the post-annealed process. After optimizing the deposition and annealing parameters, the GAZO/ITIO bi-layer film has an average transmittance of 83.20% at the 400-800 nm wavelengths, a maximum haze of 16%, and the lowest resistivity of 1.04 x 10{sup -3}{Omega} cm. Finally, the GAZO/ITIO bi-layer films, as a front electrode for silicon-based thin film solar cells, obtained a maximum efficiency of 7.10%. These encouraging experimental results have potential applications in GAZO/ITIO bi-layer film deposition by in-line sputtering without the wet-etching process and enable the production of highly efficient, low-cost thin film solar cells.

Wang, Chao-Chun; Wuu, Dong-Sing; Lin, Yang-Shih; Lien, Shui-Yang; Huang, Yung-Chuan; Liu, Chueh-Yang; Chen, Chia-Fu; Nautiyal, Asheesh; Lee, Shuo-Jen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MingDao University, Changhua 52345, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China)

2011-11-15

170

Four-cell solar tracker  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forty cm Sun tracker, consisting of optical telescope and four solar cells, stays pointed at Sun throughout day for maximum energy collection. Each solar cell generates voltage proportional to part of solar image it receives; voltages drive servomotors that keep image centered. Mirrored portion of cylinder extends acquisition angle of device by reflecting Sun image back onto solar cells.

Berdahl, C. M.

1981-01-01

171

Morphological evolution of the poly(3-hexylthiophene)\\/[6,6]-phenyl-C 61-butyric acid methyl ester, oxidation of the silver electrode, and their influences on the performance of inverted polymer solar cells with a sol–gel derived zinc oxide electron selective layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inverted polymer solar cell (PSC) based on a sol–gel derived zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film as an electron selective layer is investigated. The device performance is improved after the fabricated device is placed in air for a few days. The improvement is attributed to the self-organization of the poly(3-hexylthiophene)\\/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester layer and oxidation of the silver electrode

Meng-Yueh Liu; Chin-Hsiang Chang; Chih-Hua Chang; Kao-Hua Tsai; Jing-Shun Huang; Chen-Yu Chou; Ing-Jye Wang; Po-Sheng Wang; Chun-Yu Lee; Cha-Hsin Chao; Chin-Liang Yeh; Chih-I Wu; Ching-Fuh Lin

2010-01-01

172

Transparent solar cell module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modified solar cell module uses high transmission glass and adhesives, and heat dissipation to boost power per unit area by 25% (9.84% efficiency based on cell area at 60 C and 100 mW/sq cm flux). Design is suited for automatic production and is potentially more cost effective.

Antonides, G. J.; Dillard, P. A.; Fritz, W. M.; Lott, D. P.

1979-01-01

173

EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser  

E-print Network

7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 06 · Solar Cell Materials & Structures 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 6: Solar Cells Solar Cell Technologies · A) Crystalline Silicon · B) Thin Film · C) Group III-IV Cells 2Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 6: Solar

Kaiser, Todd J.

174

Broad spectrum solar cell  

DOEpatents

An alloy having a large band gap range is used in a multijunction solar cell to enhance utilization of the solar energy spectrum. In one embodiment, the alloy is In.sub.1-xGa.sub.xN having an energy bandgap range of approximately 0.7 eV to 3.4 eV, providing a good match to the solar energy spectrum. Multiple junctions having different bandgaps are stacked to form a solar cell. Each junction may have different bandgaps (realized by varying the alloy composition), and therefore be responsive to different parts of the spectrum. The junctions are stacked in such a manner that some bands of light pass through upper junctions to lower junctions that are responsive to such bands.

Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw (Kensington, CA); Yu, Kin Man (Lafayette, CA); Wu, Junqiao (Richmond, CA); Schaff, William J. (Ithaca, NY)

2007-05-15

175

Spray deposited copper zinc tin sulphide (Cu2ZnSnS4) film as a counter electrode in dye sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Stoichiometric thin films of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) were deposited by the spray technique on a FTO coated glass substrate, with post-annealing in a H2S environment to improve the film properties. CZTS films were used as a counter electrode (CE) in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSCs) with N719 dye and an iodine electrolyte. The DSC of 0.25 cm(2) area using a CE of CZTS film annealed in a H2S environment under AM 1.5G illumination (100 mW cm(-2)) exhibited a short circuit current density (JSC) = 18.63 mA cm(-2), an open circuit voltage (VOC) = 0.65 V and a fill factor (FF) = 0.53, resulting in an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) = 6.4%. While the DSC using as deposited CZTS film as a CE showed the PCE = 3.7% with JSC = 13.38 mA cm(-2), VOC = 0.57 V and FF = 0.48. Thus, the spray deposited CZTS films can play an important role as a CE in the large area DSC fabrication. PMID:25286339

Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Chaturvedi, Neha; Kumar, Anuj; Chander, Nikhil; Dutta, Viresh; Kumar, D Kishore; Ivaturi, A; Senthilarasu, S; Upadhyaya, Hari M

2014-11-21

176

MG DOPING AND ALLOYING IN ZN3P2 HETEROJUNCTION SOLAR CELLS Gregory M. Kimball, Nathan S. Lewis, Harry A. Atwater  

E-print Network

phosphide (Zn3P2) is a promising and earth-abundant alternative to traditional materials (e.g. CdTe, CIGS, a 550 mV, Jse values up to 21.8 mAlcm 2 , and photovoltaic efficiency reaching 4.5%. Previous authors that at least 8-10% efficiency cell is realizable by the optimization of Mg treatment in Zn3P2 solar cells

Kimball, Gregory

177

Redistribution of NAVSEC-1 composition on zinc anodes during silver-zinc cell cycling  

SciTech Connect

A number of elements have been used as additives to zinc electrodes in silver-zinc batteries. The purpose of these additives is to suppress hydrogen evolution and minimize shape change of the zinc electrode. Corrosion of the zinc electrode results in loss of material at the top and along the sides in preference to the bottom. Studies have been conducted on the comparison of the additives and their effect on capacity over a period of time. The present study consisted of analyzing zinc plates for the distribution of the NAVSEC-1 mixture. The mixture consists of 2% cadmium oxide and 1% lead oxide. The effectiveness of these additives to reduce hydrogen evolution and minimize shape change depends on the distribution of the components. Comparisons of virgin zinc plates with baseline and 50 cycle cell plates were made.

Hammersley, V.L.; Wharton, S.P.; Winter, B.T. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane, IN (United States)

1997-12-01

178

Zinc and silver migration during rechargeable silver-zinc cell cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been established to obtain zinc and silver migration rate data on cellulosic separators derived from a variety of cellulose and cellophane sources in silver-zinc alkaline rechargeable cells. The purpose of the study is to utilize the cycle and wet life data which are, in part, a function of the formation of soft and hard shorting in the

Harlan L. Lewis; Steven P. Wharton

1997-01-01

179

Solar Cells and Photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photovoltaic solar cells are gaining wide acceptance for producing clean, renewable electricity. This has been based on more than 40 years of research that has benefited from the revolution in silicon electronics and compound semiconductors in optoelectronics. This chapter gives an introduction into the basic science of photovoltaic solar cells and the challenge of extracting the maximum amount of electrical energy from the available solar energy. In addition to the constraints of the basic physics of these devices, there are considerable challenges in materials synthesis. The latter has become more prominent with the need to reduce the cost of solar module manufacture as it enters mainstream energy production. The chapter is divided into sections dealing with the fundamentals of solar cells and then considering five very different materials systems, from crystalline silicon through to polycrystalline thin films. These materials have been chosen because they are all in production, although some are only in the early stages of production. Many more materials are being considered in research and some of the more exciting, polymer and dye-sensitised cells are mentioned in the conclusions. However, there is insufficient space to give these very active areas of research the justice they deserve. I hope the reader will feel sufficiently inspired by this topic to read further and explore one of the most exciting areas of semiconductor science. The need for high-volume production at low cost has taken the researcher along paths not normally considered in semiconductor devices and it is this that provides an exciting challenge.

Irvine, Stuart

180

Solar cell radiation handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for predicting the degradation of a solar array in a space radiation environment. Solar cell technology which emphasizes the cell parameters that degrade in a radiation environment, is discussed along with the experimental techniques used in the evaluation of radiation effects. Other topics discussed include: theoretical aspects of radiation damage, methods for developing relative damage coefficients, nature of the space radiation environment, method of calculating equivalent fluence from electron and proton energy spectrums and relative damage coefficients, and comparison of flight data with estimated degradation.

Carter, J. R., Jr.; Tada, H. Y.

1973-01-01

181

Flexible Solar Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cell "modules" are plastic strips coated with thin films of photovoltaic silicon that collect solar energy for instant conversion into electricity. Lasers divide the thin film coating into smaller cells to build up voltage. Developed by Iowa Thin Film Technologies under NASA and DOE grants, the modules are used as electrical supply for advertising displays, battery rechargers for recreational vehicles, and to power model airplanes. The company is planning other applications both in consumer goods and as a power source in underdeveloped countries.

1994-01-01

182

Gallium phosphide energy converters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Betavoltaic power supplies based on gallium phosphide can supply long term low-level power with high reliability. Results are presented for GaP devices powered by Ni-63 and tritiarated phosphors. Leakage currents as low as 1.2 x 10(exp -17) A/cm(exp 2) have been measured and the temperature dependence of the reverse saturation current is found to have ideal behavior. A small demonstration system has been assembled that generates and stores enough electricity to light up an LED.

Sims, P. E.; DiNetta, Louis C.; DuganCavanagh, K.; Goetz, M. A.

1996-01-01

183

Advances in zinc sensors for studying zinc release events from pancreatic cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of the analytical properties of fluorescence-based zinc ion sensing glass slides and antibody based zinc sensors and their application in monitoring zinc release from beta pancreatic cells. The zinc ion indicator ZnAF-2 {6-[N- [N', N'-bis (2-pyridinylmethyl)-2-aminoethyl] amino-3',6'-dihydroxy-spiro[isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-[9H] xanthene]-3-one} was modified to include a sufficiently long linking aliphatic chain, with a terminal carboxyl functional group. The activated carboxyl-modified ZnAF-2 was conjugated to the amino silanized surface of glass slides and to free amino groups of the A2B5 antibody molecules. The sensors were used to monitor zinc ion release events from glucose-stimulated pancreatic cells.

Rosenzweig, Zeev; Rosenzweig, Nitsa; Crivat, Georgeta

2006-10-01

184

Diffusion length variation and proton damage coefficients for InP/In(x)Ga(1-x)As/GaAs solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Indium phosphide solar cells are more radiation resistant than gallium arsenide and silicon solar cells, and their growth by heteroepitaxy offers additional advantages leading to the development of lighter, mechanically strong and cost-effective cells. Changes in heteroepitaxial InP cell efficiency under 0.5 and 3 MeV proton irradiations are explained by the variation in the minority-carrier diffusion length. The base diffusion length versus proton fluence is calculated by simulating the cell performance. The diffusion length damage coefficient K(L) is plotted as a function of proton fluence.

Jain, R. K.; Weinberg, I.; Flood, D. J.

1993-01-01

185

Amorphous semiconductor solar cell  

DOEpatents

A solar cell comprising a back electrical contact, amorphous silicon semiconductor base and junction layers and a top electrical contact includes in its manufacture the step of heat treating the physical junction between the base layer and junction layer to diffuse the dopant species at the physical junction into the base layer.

Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE)

1981-01-01

186

NASA Facts, Solar Cells.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design and function of solar cells as a source of electrical power for unmanned space vehicles is described in this pamphlet written for high school physical science students. The pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook. Review…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

187

Thin, Lightweight Solar Cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved design for thin, lightweight solar photovoltaic cells with front contacts reduces degradation of electrical output under exposure to energetic charged particles (protons and electrons). Increases ability of cells to maintain structural integrity under exposure to ultraviolet radiation by eliminating ultraviolet-degradable adhesives used to retain cover glasses. Interdigitated front contacts and front junctions formed on semiconductor substrate. Mating contacts formed on back surface of cover glass. Cover glass and substrate electrostatically bonded together.

Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Weinberg, Irving

1991-01-01

188

Surface passivation of InP solar cells with InAlAs layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The efficiency of indium phosphide solar cells is limited by high values of surface recombination. The effect of a lattice-matched In(0.52)Al(0.48)As window layer material for InP solar cells, using the numerical code PC-1D is investigated. It was found that the use of InAlAs layer significantly enhances the p(+)n cell efficiency, while no appreciable improvement is seen for n(+)p cells. The conduction band energy discontinuity at the heterojunction helps in improving the surface recombination. An optimally designed InP cell efficiency improves from 15.4 percent to 23 percent AMO for a 10 nm thick InAlAs layer. The efficiency improvement reduces with increase in InAlAs layer thickness, due to light absorption in the window layer.

Jain, Raj K.; Flood, Dennis J.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

1993-01-01

189

Solar-cell panel simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy generated by solar cells can be transformed into ac power by means of inverters. In most cases these inverters cannot be tested under real conditions, since large solar-cell arrays are not yet available at reasonable prices. Therefore, a circuit that simulates a solar-cell array has been developed.

D. Baert

1979-01-01

190

Modeling of high efficiency solar cells under laser pulse for power beaming applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cells have been used to convert sunlight to electrical energy for many years and also offer great potential for non-solar energy conversion applications. Their greatly improved performance under monochromatic light compared to sunlight, makes them suitable as photovoltaic (PV) receivers in laser power beaming applications. Laser beamed power to a PV array receiver could provide power to satellites, an orbital transfer vehicle, or a lunar base. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium phosphide (InP) solar cells have calculated efficiencies of more than 50 percent under continuous illumination at the optimum wavelength. Currently high power free-electron lasers are being developed which operate in pulsed conditions. Understanding cell behavior under a laser pulse is important in the selection of the solar cell material and the laser. An experiment by NAsA lewis and JPL at the AVLIS laser facility in Livermore, CA presented experimental data on cell performance under pulsed laser illumination. Reference 5 contains an overview of technical issues concerning the use of solar cells for laser power conversion, written before the experiments were performed. As the experimental results showed, the actual effects of pulsed operation are more complicated. Reference 6 discusses simulations of the output of GaAs concentrator solar cells under pulsed laser illumination. The present paper continues this work, and compares the output of Si and GaAs solar cells.

Jain, Raj K.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

1994-01-01

191

EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser  

E-print Network

7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 08 · Solar Cell Characterization 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 8: Characterization Solar Cell Operation n Emitter p Base Rear completing the circuit 2Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 8: Characterization Solar Cell

Kaiser, Todd J.

192

Separation composition evaluation in model rechargeable silver-zinc cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous reports, the evaluation of Viskase sausage casings (SCs) in a variety of configurations for silver\\/zinc rechargeable cells has been reported. The conclusions have been that several layers of SC, while providing improved resistance to silver migration acid zinc dendrite growth compared to standard cellophane film, also impart increased internal impedance which leads to faster capacity loss in comparison

H. Lewis; S. Henderson; T. Danko

2001-01-01

193

Solar PV- How A Solar Cell Works  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this document which will help instructors or anyone who would like to understand the basics of solar power and solar cells. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Levander, Alejandro

2011-03-03

194

Very high efficiency solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency has initiated the Very High Efficiency Solar Cell (VHESC) program to address the critical need of the soldier for power in the field. Very High Efficiency Solar Cells for portable applications that operate at greater than 55 percent efficiency in the laboratory and 50 percent in production are being developed. We are integrating the optical design with the solar cell design, and have entered previously unoccupied design space that leads to a new architecture paradigm. An integrated team effort is now underway that requires us to invent, develop and transfer to production these new solar cells. Our approach is driven by proven quantitative models for the solar cell design, the optical design and the integration of these designs. We start with a very high performance crystalline silicon solar cell platform. Examples will be presented. Initial solar cell device results are shown for devices fabricated in geometries designed for this VHESC Program.

Barnett, Allen; Kirkpatrick, Douglas; Honsberg, Christiana

2006-08-01

195

NREL scientists develop robust, high-performance IZO transparent contact for CIGS solar cells.  

E-print Network

NREL scientists develop robust, high-performance IZO transparent contact for CIGS solar cells indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cell is zinc oxide (ZnO). The problem is that unprotected Zn days. In 2010, CIGS cells using a-IZO as the top contact demonstrated efficiencies equivalent to those

196

Preparation of transparent conductive AZO thin films for solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the effect of technology parameters (sputtering power, substrate temperature and post-deposition annealing) on structural, electrical and optical properties of aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films was carried out. The optimal technology parameters of preparation were found to get necessary properties of AZO thin films for application in solar cells - the high figure of merit (F ges

V. Tvarozek; P. Sutta; I. Novotny; P. Ballo; L. Harmatha; S. Flickyngerova; L. Prusakova; M. Netrvalova; V. Vavrunkova; A. Pullmannova; E. Vavrinsky; P. Gaspierik; M. Mikolasek

2008-01-01

197

ZnSe Films in GaAs Solar Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ZnSe increases efficiency and conserves material. Two proposed uses of zinc selenide films promise to boost performance and reduce cost of gallium arsenide solar cells. Accordingly ZnSe serves as surface-passivation layer and as sacrificial layer enabling repeated use of costly GaAs substrate in fabrication.

Kachare, Ram H.

1987-01-01

198

Theoretical investigation of the charge-transfer properties in different meso-linked zinc porphyrins for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

The charge transfer effect of different meso-substituted linkages on porphyrin analogue 1 (A1, B1 and C1) was theoretically investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations. The calculated geometry parameters and natural bond orbital analysis reveal that the twisted conformation between porphyrin macrocycle and meso-substituted linkages leads to blocking of the conjugation of the conjugated backbone, and the frontier molecular orbital plot shows that the intramolecular charge transfer of A1, B1 and C1 hardly takes place. In an attempt to improve the photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer ability of the meso-linked zinc porphyrin sensitizer, a strong electron-withdrawing group (CN) was introduced into the anchoring group of analogue 1 forming analogue 2 (A2, B2 and C2). The density difference plot of A2, B2 and C2 shows that the charge transfer properties dramatically improved. The electron injection process has been performed using TDDFT; the direct charge-transfer transition in the A2-(TiO2)38 interacting system takes place; our results strongly indicated that introducing electron-withdrawing groups into the acceptor part of porphyrin dyes can fine-tune the effective conjugation length of the ?-spacer and improve intramolecular charge transfer properties, consequently inducing the electron injection process from the anchoring group of the porphyrin dye to the (TiO2)38 surface which may improve the conversion efficiency of the DSSCs. Our calculated results can provide valuable information and a promising outlook for computation-aided sensitizer design with anticipated good properties in further experimental synthesis. PMID:24810141

Namuangruk, Supawadee; Sirithip, Kanokkorn; Rattanatwan, Rattanawelee; Keawin, Tinnagon; Kungwan, Nawee; Sudyodsuk, Taweesak; Promarak, Vinich; Surakhot, Yaowarat; Jungsuttiwong, Siriporn

2014-06-28

199

High efficiency solar cell  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a high efficiency solar cell, it comprises: a germanium substrate having a front surface and a back surface; a back-metal contact on the back surface of the substrate; a buffer layer having a photovoltaic inhibited junction with the front surface of the substrate; the cell including a gallium-arsenide base of one conductivity type on the buffer layer; a gallium-arsenide emitter of the other conductivity type on the base; metal grid lines extending over and being coupled to the emitter.

Ho, F.F.; Linda, Y.; Yeh, M.Y.

1990-04-10

200

Zinc and silver migration during rechargeable silver-zinc cell cycling  

SciTech Connect

A study has been established at NAVSURFWARCENDIV Crane to obtain zinc and silver migration rate data on cellulosic separators derived from a variety of cellulose and cellophane sources, in silver-zinc alkaline rechargeable cells. These data are to be related to cycle and wet life data from the model electrochemical cells as a function of separator composition for the rechargeable cell set. The first examples used in this program are cells of 28 Ahr capacity, identical in every respect except for the separator composition, which are being tested in statistically significant numbers under identical temperature and relative humidity conditions, with 45% KOH as the electrolyte. The cycle life test regime is C/5 discharge to 1.30 V and C/30 and C/60 charge to 2.03 V continuous cycling, while the wet life test regime includes a 30-day wet stand at full charge between cycles. At the outset of the cell testing, a baseline cell was selected from each set in the matrix after the formation cycling was complete, and the silver and zinc migration through successive separator layers were determined. Also, at intervals during life cycle and wet life, and as cells fail the life tests, the measurements will be repeated. In this way a correlation may be established between silver and zinc migration rates under charge discharge conditions in actual cells and the cycle and wet life of the respective cell types. Eight separator compositions, all cellulose-based, are being evaluated. The purpose of the study is to utilize the cycle and wet life data to designate a best separator for incorporation into actual production cells. The recommendations will take the form of minimum separator physical properties which are beneficial to cell performance and long life, resulting in an improvement in the assets available for Navy Fleet use. This paper will discuss the data available on silver and zinc migration and their relationship to cell cycling at several stages during the cell life.

Lewis, H.L.; Wharton, S.P. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane, IN (United States)

1997-12-01

201

Development and fabrication of large vented nickel-zinc cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary cell design for a 300AH vented nickel-zinc cell was established based on volume requirements and cell component materials selected by NASA Lewis Research Center. A 100AH cell configuration was derived from the 300AH cell design utilizing the same size electrodes, separators, and cell terminal hardware. The first cells fabricated were four groups of three cells each in the 100AH size. These 100AH experimental nickel-zinc cells had as common components the nickel positive electrodes (GFM), flexible inorganic separator (GFM) bags on the negative electrodes, pressed powder zinc oxide electrodes, and cell containers with hardware. The variations introduced were four differing electrolyte absorber (interseparator) systems used to encase the nickel positive electrodes of each cell group. The four groups of 100AH experimental vented nickel-zinc cells were tested to determine, based on cell performance, the best two interseparator systems. Using the two interseparator systems, two groups of experimental 300AH cells were fabricated. Each group of three cells differed only in the interseparator material used. The six cells were filled, formed and tested to evaluate the interseparator materials and investigate the performance characteristics of the 300AH cell configuration and its components.

Donnel, C. P., III

1975-01-01

202

Deposition of transparent conducting oxides for solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transparent conductors are needed as the front surface electrodes in all types of solar cells. The electrical and optical performance of a transparent conductor may be rated by a figure of merit defined as the ratio of the electrical conductivity to the optical absorption coefficient of the layer. Fluorine-doped zinc oxide is shown to have the highest figure of merit. ZnO:F films with a sheet resistance of 5 ohms per square can have a visible absorption of less than 3 per cent. This high performance makes zinc oxide a candidate for replacing tin oxide in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells, or for replacing part of the highly-doped silicon layer in crystalline silicon solar cells. A new, cost-effective process is described for the chemical vapor deposition of ZnO:F at atmospheric pressure.

Gordon, Roy G.

1997-02-01

203

Solar cell module lamination process  

DOEpatents

A solar cell module lamination process using fluoropolymers to provide protection from adverse environmental conditions and thus enable more extended use of solar cells, particularly in space applications. A laminate of fluoropolymer material provides a hermetically sealed solar cell module structure that is flexible and very durable. The laminate is virtually chemically inert, highly transmissive in the visible spectrum, dimensionally stable at temperatures up to about 200.degree. C. highly abrasion resistant, and exhibits very little ultra-violet degradation.

Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Aceves, Randy C. (Tracy, CA)

2002-01-01

204

Monolithic tandem solar cell  

DOEpatents

A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell; and (d) an optically transparent prismatic cover layer over the second subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched.

Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

1994-01-01

205

Monolithic tandem solar cell  

DOEpatents

A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell; and (d) an optically transparent prismatic cover layer over the second subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched. 9 figs.

Wanlass, M.W.

1994-06-21

206

Floating emitter solar cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A front surface contact floating emitter solar cell transistor is provided in a semiconductor body (n-type), in which floating emitter sections (p-type) are diffused or implanted in the front surface. Between the emitter sections, a further section is diffused or implanted in the front surface, but isolated from the floating emitter sections, for use either as a base contact to the n-type semiconductor body, in which case the section is doped n+, or as a collector for the adjacent emitter sections.

Chih, Sah (inventor); Cheng, Li-Jen (inventor)

1987-01-01

207

Open Zinc Freezing-Point Cell Assembly and Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An open metal freezing-point cell design has been developed in the Laboratory of Metrology and Quality. According to our design, a zinc cell was successfully assembled. The paper presents the needed parts for the cell, the cleaning process, and sealing of the cell. The assembled cell was then evaluated by comparison with two commercial closed zinc cells of different manufacturers. The freezing plateaus of the cells were measured, and a direct cell comparison was made. It was shown that the assembled open cell performed better than the used closed cell and was close to the brand new closed cell. The nominal purity of the zinc used for the open cell was 7 N, but the freezing plateau measurement suggests a higher impurity concentration. It was assumed that the zinc was contaminated to some extent during the process of cutting as its original shape was an irregular cylinder. The uncertainty due to impurities for the assembled cell is estimated to be 0.3 mK. Furthermore, the immersion profile and the pressure coefficient were measured. Both results are close to their theoretical values.

Žužek, V.; Batagelj, V.; Drnovšek, J.; Bojkovski, J.

2014-07-01

208

Zinc oxide nanoparticles as selective killers of proliferating cells  

PubMed Central

Background: It has recently been demonstrated that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) induce death of cancerous cells whilst having no cytotoxic effect on normal cells. However, there are several issues which need to be resolved before translation of zinc oxide nanoparticles into medical use, including lack of suitable biocompatible dispersion protocols and a better understanding being needed of the mechanism of their selective cytotoxic action. Methods: Nanoparticle dose affecting cell viability was evaluated in a model of proliferating cells both experimentally and mathematically. The key issue of selective toxicity of ZnO NPs toward proliferating cells was addressed by experiments using a biological model of noncancerous cells, ie, mesenchymal stem cells before and after cell differentiation to the osteogenic lineage. Results: In this paper, we report a biocompatible protocol for preparation of stable aqueous solutions of monodispersed zinc oxide nanoparticles. We found that the threshold of intracellular ZnO NP concentration required to induce cell death in proliferating cells is 0.4 ± 0.02 mM. Finally, flow cytometry analysis revealed that the threshold dose of zinc oxide nanoparticles was lethal to proliferating pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells but exhibited negligible cytotoxic effects to osteogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells. Conclusion: Results confirm the ZnO NP selective cytotoxic action on rapidly proliferating cells, whether benign or malignant. PMID:21698081

Taccola, Liuba; Raffa, Vittoria; Riggio, Cristina; Vittorio, Orazio; Iorio, Maria Carla; Vanacore, Renato; Pietrabissa, Andrea; Cuschieri, Alfred

2011-01-01

209

OSMIUM ZINC IODIDE REACTIVE SITES IN THE EPIDERMAL LANGERHANS CELL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fixation of epidermis with a mixture of osmium tetroxide and zinc iodide (Os0 4-ZnI2) for 24 hr renders the central periodic lamella of the Langerhans cell granule (LCG), the Golgi region, and the nuclear envelope of epidermal Langerhans cells preferentially visible . The use of this technique on Langerhans cells in normal epidermis and in epidermis of patients with histiocytosis

GUSTAV NIEBAUER; RICHARD L. KIDD; GEORGE F. WILGRAM

2009-01-01

210

Carbon nanotube solar cells.  

PubMed

We present proof-of-concept all-carbon solar cells. They are made of a photoactive side of predominantly semiconducting nanotubes for photoconversion and a counter electrode made of a natural mixture of carbon nanotubes or graphite, connected by a liquid electrolyte through a redox reaction. The cells do not require rare source materials such as In or Pt, nor high-grade semiconductor processing equipment, do not rely on dye for photoconversion and therefore do not bleach, and are easy to fabricate using a spray-paint technique. We observe that cells with a lower concentration of carbon nanotubes on the active semiconducting electrode perform better than cells with a higher concentration of nanotubes. This effect is contrary to the expectation that a larger number of nanotubes would lead to more photoconversion and therefore more power generation. We attribute this to the presence of metallic nanotubes that provide a short for photo-excited electrons, bypassing the load. We demonstrate optimization strategies that improve cell efficiency by orders of magnitude. Once it is possible to make semiconducting-only carbon nanotube films, that may provide the greatest efficiency improvement. PMID:22655070

Klinger, Colin; Patel, Yogeshwari; Postma, Henk W Ch

2012-01-01

211

Zinc and zinc chelators modify taurine transport in rat retinal cells.  

PubMed

Zinc regulates Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent transporters, similar to taurine one, such as those for dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine. This study examined the ex vivo effect of zinc (ZnSO4), N,N,N,N-tetraquis-(2-piridilmetil)etilendiamino (TPEN) and diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA), intracellular and extracellular zinc chelators, respectively, on rat retina [(3)H]taurine transport. Isolated cells were incubated in Locke solution with 100 nM of [(3)H]taurine for 25 s. Different concentrations of ZnSO4 (0.5-200 ?M) were used. Low concentrations of ZnSO4 (30 and 40 ?M) increased the transport, while higher concentrations (100, 150 and 200 ?M) decreased it. Various concentrations of TPEN (1-200 ?M) were added. Intermediate concentrations of TPEN (10-60 ?M) significantly decreased [(3)H]taurine transport. The presence of TPEN, 20 ?M, plus ZnSO4 reversed the effect of TPEN alone. Several concentrations of DTPA (1-500 ?M) were also investigated. Reduction of transport took place at high concentrations of the chelator (100, 250 and 500 ?M). DTPA, 500 ?M, plus ZnSO4, did not modify the effect of it. These results indicate that zinc modulates taurine transport in a concentration-dependent manner, directly acting on the transporter or by forming taurine-zinc complexes in cell membranes. PMID:25182776

Márquez, Asarí; Urbina, Mary; Lima, Lucimey

2014-11-01

212

Indium-free bottom electrodes for inverted organic solar cells with simplified cell architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inverted organic bulk heterojunction solar cells employing a multilayer electrode comprising of a thin Ag layer embedded between layers of zinc tin oxide (ZTO) are compared to cells using an indium tin oxide electrode. The In-free ZTO/Ag/ZTO (ZAZ) electrodes exhibit a favorable work function of 4.3 eV and are shown to allow for excellent electron extraction even without a further interlayer. As a result, issues like transient cell characteristics known from cells comprising titania can be readily avoided. This renders ZAZ a perfectly suited bottom electrode for inverted organic solar cells with a simplified cell architecture.

Schmidt, H.; Winkler, T.; Baumann, I.; Schmale, S.; Flügge, H.; Johannes, H.-H.; Hamwi, S.; Rabe, T.; Riedl, T.; Kowalsky, W.

2011-07-01

213

Thin film solar cell workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summation of responses to questions posed to the thin-film solar cell workshop and the ensuing discussion is provided. Participants in the workshop included photovoltaic manufacturers (both thin film and crystalline), cell performance investigators, and consumers.

Armstrong, Joe; Jeffrey, Frank

1993-01-01

214

Screening-Engineered Field-Effect Solar Cells William Regan,,,  

E-print Network

the promising but hard-to-dope metal oxides, sulfides, and phosphides.3 Prototype SFPV devices have been at the MIS interface. Unfortu- nately, MIS cells, though sporting impressive efficiencies,4-6 typically have at direct field- effect "doping" of semiconductors, in which the voltage is externally applied to a gate

Zettl, Alex

215

Flexible solar cells for clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integration of flexible solar cells into clothing can provide power for portable electronic devices. Photovoltaics is the most advanced way of providing electricity far from any mains supply, although it suffers from the limits of ambient light intensity. But the energy demand of portable devices is now low enough that clothing-integrated solar cells are able to power most mobile electronics.

Markus B. Schubert; Jürgen H. Werner

2006-01-01

216

Zinc protection against pneumolysin toxicity on rat cochlear hair cells.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pneumoniae can induce local and systemic diseases such as meningitis, otitis media, and pneumonia. One third of these meningitis cases can be associated with irreversible sensorineural hearing loss whose mechanisms likely involves the exotoxin pneumolysin (PLY) that irreversibly damages cochlear hair cells (HCs). In the respiratory system and in neuron it has been demonstrated that zinc deficiency increases severity and mortality of such infections in animal models and in children. Moreover, zinc supplementation can decrease the severity of pneumococcal respiratory infections. The aim of our study was to assess the potential protective effect of zinc against PLY toxicity on HCs in culture. Our results showed that in the presence of zinc at concentration as low as 1 microM, the toxicity of PLY was largely reduced by about 50% for both inner and outer HCs. At 300 microM of zinc, protection significantly increased with 62 and 55.2% for IHCs and OHCs, respectively. Our results suggest that the protective effect of zinc is likely due to an inhibition of the toxin incorporation and aggregation into the plasma membrane, thus preventing calcium influx through the toxin pores. Our findings raise the possibility that treatments with zinc may help to prevent debilitating otological sequelae from pneumococcal infection. PMID:17890859

Franco-Vidal, Valérie; Beurg, Maryline; Darrouzet, Vincent; Bébéar, Jean-Pierre; Skinner, Liam J; Dulon, Didier

2008-01-01

217

The challenges of organic polymer solar cells  

E-print Network

The technical and commercial prospects of polymer solar cells were evaluated. Polymer solar cells are an attractive approach to fabricate and deploy roll-to-roll processed solar cells that are reasonably efficient (total ...

Saif Addin, Burhan K. (Burhan Khalid)

2011-01-01

218

Commercialization of Novel Organic Solar Cells  

E-print Network

Commercialization of Novel Organic Solar Cells Master of Engineering Final Report Shanel C. Miller ........................ 18 2.3 Novel 3D Organic Solar Cells............................................................................................................ 26 3. Manufacturing Process for 3D Organic Solar Cells

Kassegne, Samuel Kinde

219

GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

History of GaAs solar cell development is provided. Photovoltaic equations are described along with instrumentation techniques for measuring solar cells. Radiation effects in solar cells, electrical performance, and spacecraft flight data for solar cells are discussed. The space radiation environment and solar array degradation calculations are addressed.

Anspaugh, B. E.

1996-01-01

220

Nanocrystalline metal electrodes for high-efficiency organic solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that indium (In) nanocrystals can be used as efficient small-work function electrodes for organic solar cells. A Schottky-barrier solar cell consisting of the In nanoelectrodes, a zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) film as a p-type organic semiconductor, and a gold counterelectrode were assembled by vacuum evaporation on an indium-tin-oxide substrate. Nanoscopic Schottky barriers, which are the origins of photovoltaic effects, were formed at the In nanocrystal/ZnPc molecule interfaces in the cell. Current density under a dark condition was markedly increased by the introduction of the nanoelectrodes. The power conversion efficiency under air mass 1.5 global solar conditions was 200 fold larger than those of the conventional Pc Schottky-barrier solar cells with film electrodes.

Taima, Tetsuya; Chikamatsu, Masayuki; Yoshida, Yuji; Saito, Kazuhiro; Yase, Kiyoshi

2004-09-01

221

Germanium Nanocrystal Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere are approaching historically unprecedented levels from burning fossil fuels to meet the ever-increasing world energy demand. A rapid transition to clean energy sources is necessary to avoid the potentially catastrophic consequences of global warming. The sun provides more than enough energy to power the world, and solar cells that convert sunlight to electricity are commercially available. However, the high cost and low efficiency of current solar cells prevent their widespread implementation, and grid parity is not anticipated to be reached for at least 15 years without breakthrough technologies. Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) show promise for cheap multi-junction photovoltaic devices. To compete with photovoltaic materials that are currently commercially available, NCs need to be inexpensively cast into dense thin films with bulk-like electrical mobilities and absorption spectra that can be tuned by altering the NC size. The Group II-VI and IV-VI NC communities have had some success in achieving this goal by drying and then chemically treating colloidal particles, but the more abundant and less toxic Group IV NCs have proven more challenging. This thesis reports thin films of plasma-synthesized Ge NCs deposited using three different techniques, and preliminary solar cells based on these films. Germanium tetrachloride is dissociated in the presence of hydrogen in a nonthermal plasma to nucleate Ge NCs. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction indicate that the particles are nearly monodisperse (standard deviations of 10-15% the mean particle diameter) and the mean diameter can be tuned from 4-15 nm by changing the residence time of the Ge NCs in the plasma. In the first deposition scheme, a Ge NC colloid is formed by reacting nanocrystalline powder with 1-dodecene and dispersing the functionalized NCs in a solvent. Films are then formed on substrates by drop-casting the colloid and allowing it to dry. As-deposited films are electrically insulating due to the long hydrocarbon molecules separating neighboring particles; however, mass spectrometry shows that annealing treatments successfully decompose these molecules. After annealing at 250 °C, Ge NC films exhibit conductivities as large as 10-6 S/cm. In the second film deposition scheme, a Ge NC colloid is formed by dispersing Ge NCs in select solvents without further surface modification. While these "bare" NCs quickly agglomerate and flocculate in nearly all non-polar solvents, they remain stable in benzonitrile and 1,2-dichlorobenzene, among others. Thin-film field-effect transistors have been fabricated by spinning Ge NC colloids onto substrates and the films have been subjected to various annealing procedures. The devices show n-type, p -type, or ambipolar behavior depending on the annealing conditions, with Ge NC films annealed at 300°C exhibiting electron saturation mobilities greater than 10-2 cm2/Vs and on-to-off ratios of 104. The final film deposition scheme involves the impaction of Ge NCs onto substrates downstream of the synthesis plasma via acceleration of the NCs through an orifice. This technique produces highly uniform films with densities greater than 50% of the density of bulk Ge. By varying the size of the Ge NCs, we have measured films with band gaps ranging from the bulk value of 0.7 eV to over 1.1 eV for films of 4 nm Ge NCs. Having deposited dense thin films with tunable band gaps and respectable mobilities, we have begun fabricating bilayer solar cells consisting of heterojunctions between Ge NC films and P3HT, Si NCs, or Si wafers. Preliminary devices exhibit opencircuit voltages and short-circuit currents as large as 0.3 V and 4 mA/cm 2, respectively.

Holman, Zachary Charles

222

InP shallow-homojunction solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Indium phosphide solar cells with very thin n-type emitters have been made by both ion implantation and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Air mass zero efficiencies as high as 18.8 percent (NASA measurement) have been achieved. Although calculations show that, as is the case with GaAs, a heterostructure is expected to be required for the highest efficiencies attainable, the material properties of InP give the shallow-homojunction structure a greater potential than in the case of GaAs. The best cells, which were those made by ion implantation, show open-circuit voltage (V sub oc) of 873 mV, short-circuit current of 357 A/sq m (35.7 mA/sq cm), and fill factor of 0.829. Improvements are anticipated in all three of these parameters. Internal quantum efficiency peaks at over 90 percent in the red end of the spectrum, but drops to 54 percent in the blue end. Other cells have achieved 74 percent in the blue end. Detailed modeling of the data indicates that a high front surface recombination velocity is responsible for the low blue response, that the carrier lifetime is high enough to allow good carrier collection from both the base and the emitter, and that the voltage is base-limited.

Keavney, Christopher; Spitzer, Mark B.; Vernon, Stanley M.; Haven, Victor E.; Augustine, Godfrey

1989-01-01

223

Transient fluctuations of intracellular zinc ions in cell proliferation  

SciTech Connect

Zinc is essential for cell proliferation, differentiation, and viability. When zinc becomes limited for cultured cells, DNA synthesis ceases and the cell cycle is arrested. The molecular mechanisms of actions of zinc are believed to involve changes in the availability of zinc(II) ions (Zn{sup 2+}). By employing a fluorescent Zn{sup 2+} probe, FluoZin-3 acetoxymethyl ester, intracellular Zn{sup 2+} concentrations were measured in undifferentiated and in nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Intracellular Zn{sup 2+} concentrations are pico- to nanomolar in PC12 cells and are higher in the differentiated than in the undifferentiated cells. When following cellular Zn{sup 2+} concentrations for 48 h after the removal of serum, a condition that is known to cause cell cycle arrest, Zn{sup 2+} concentrations decrease after 30 min but, remarkably, increase after 1 h, and then decrease again to about one half of the initial concentration. Cell proliferation, measured by an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay, decreases after both serum starvation and zinc chelation. Two peaks of Zn{sup 2+} concentrations occur within one cell cycle: one early in the G1 phase and the other in the late G1/S phase. Thus, fluctuations of intracellular Zn{sup 2+} concentrations and established modulation of phosphorylation signaling, via an inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases at commensurately low Zn{sup 2+} concentrations, suggest a role for Zn{sup 2+} in the control of the cell cycle. Interventions targeted at these picomolar Zn{sup 2+} fluctuations may be a way of controlling cell growth in hyperplasia, neoplasia, and diseases associated with aberrant differentiation.

Li, Yuan [Division of Human Nutrition, Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)] [Division of Human Nutrition, Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Maret, Wolfgang, E-mail: womaret@utmb.edu [Division of Human Nutrition, Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States) [Division of Human Nutrition, Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

2009-08-15

224

solar cells employing scalable low-cost antireflective coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a non-selenized CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar device with textured zinc oxide (ZnO) antireflection coatings was studied. The ZnO nanostructure was fabricated by a low-temperature aqueous solution deposition method. With controlling the morphology of the solution-grown tapered ZnO nanorod coatings, the average reflectance of the CIGS solar device decreased from 8.6% to 2.1%, and the energy conversion efficiency increased from 9.1% to 11.1%. The performance improvement in the CuInGaSe2 thin-film solar cell was well explained due to the gradual increase of the refractive index between air and the top electrode of solar cell device by the insertion of the ZnO nanostructure. The results demonstrate a potential application of the ZnO nanostructure array for efficient solar device technology.

Jheng, Bao-Tang; Liu, Po-Tsun; Wu, Meng-Chyi

2014-07-01

225

New Materials for Chalcogenide Based Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin film solar cells based on copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) have achieved efficiencies exceeding 20 %. The p-n junction in these solar cells is formed between a p-type CIGS absorber layer and a composite n-type film that consists of a 50-100 nm thin n-type CdS followed by a 50-200 nm thin n-type ZnO. This dissertation focuses on developing materials for replacing CdS and ZnO films to improve the damp-heat stability of the solar cells and for minimizing the use of Cd. Specifically, I demonstrate a new CIGS solar cell with better damp heat stability wherein the ZnO layer is replaced with SnO2. The efficiency of solar cells made with SnO2 decreased less than 5 % after 120 hours at 85 °C and 85 % relative humidity while the efficiency of solar cells made with ZnO declined by more than 70 %. Moreover, I showed that a SnO2 film deposited on top of completed CIGS solar cells significantly increased the device lifetime by forming a barrier against water diffusion. Semicrystalline SnO2 films deposited at room temperature had nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous matrix, which resulted in films without grain boundaries. These films exhibited better damp-heat stability than ZnO and crystalline SnO2 films deposited at higher temperature and this difference is attributed to the lack of grain boundary water diffusion. In addition, I studied CBD of Zn1-xCdxS from aqueous solutions of thiourea, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and zinc and cadmium sulfate. I demonstrated that films with varying composition (x) can be deposited through CBD and studied the structure and composition variation along the films' thickness. However, this traditional chemical bath deposition (CBD) approach heats the entire solution and wastes most of the chemicals by homogenous particle formation. To overcome this problem, I designed and developed a continuous-flow CBD approach to utilize the chemicals efficiently and to eliminate homogenous particle formation. Only the substrate is heated to the deposition temperature while the CBD solution is rapidly circulated between the bath and a chilled reservoir. We have demonstrated Zn1-x CdxS films for a variety of (x) values, with and without varying (x) across film thickness.

Tosun, Banu Selin

226

Thermophotovoltaic Cells on Zinc Diffused Polycrystalline GaSb  

SciTech Connect

For the first time, it has been demonstrated that thermophotovoltaic cells made of polycrystalline GaSb with small grain sizes (down to 100 x 100 {micro}m) have similar characteristics to the best Zinc diffused single crystal GaSb cells with identified device parameters. The grain boundaries in polycrystalline GaSb do not degrade TPV cell parameters, indicating that such material can be used for high-efficiency thermophotovoltaic cells.

Sulima, O.V.; Bett, A.W.; Dutta, P.S.; Ehsani, H.; Gutmann, R.J.

2000-05-01

227

Heteroepitaxial InP, and ultrathin, directly glassed, GaAs 3-5 solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The commercial application of Indium Phosphide solar cells in practical space missions is crucially dependent upon achieving a major cost reduction which could be offered by heteroepitaxy on cheaper, more rugged substrates. Furthermore, significant mass reduction, compatibility with mechanically stacked multijunction cells, and elimination of the current loss through glue discoloration, is possible in III-V solar cells by the development of ultrathin, directly glassed cells. The progress of a UK collaborative program to develop high efficiency, homojunction InP solar cells, grown by MOCVD on Si substrates, is described. Results of homoepitaxial cells (is greater than 17 percent 1 Sun AM0) are presented, together with progress in achieving low dislocation density heteroepitaxy. Also, progress in a UK program to develop ultrathin directly-glassed GaAs cells is described. Ultrathin (5 micron) GaAs cells, with 1 Sun AM0 efficiencies up to 19.1 percent, are presented, together with progress in achieving a direct (adhesive-less) bond between the cell and coverglass. Consequential development to, for example, cell grids, are also discussed.

Hardingham, C. M.; Cross, T. A.

1993-05-01

228

Heteroepitaxial InP, and ultrathin, directly glassed, GaAs 3-5 solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The commercial application of Indium Phosphide solar cells in practical space missions is crucially dependent upon achieving a major cost reduction which could be offered by heteroepitaxy on cheaper, more rugged substrates. Furthermore, significant mass reduction, compatibility with mechanically stacked multijunction cells, and elimination of the current loss through glue discoloration, is possible in III-V solar cells by the development of ultrathin, directly glassed cells. The progress of a UK collaborative program to develop high efficiency, homojunction InP solar cells, grown by MOCVD on Si substrates, is described. Results of homoepitaxial cells (is greater than 17 percent 1 Sun AM0) are presented, together with progress in achieving low dislocation density heteroepitaxy. Also, progress in a UK program to develop ultrathin directly-glassed GaAs cells is described. Ultrathin (5 micron) GaAs cells, with 1 Sun AM0 efficiencies up to 19.1 percent, are presented, together with progress in achieving a direct (adhesive-less) bond between the cell and coverglass. Consequential development to, for example, cell grids, are also discussed.

Hardingham, C. M.; Cross, T. A.

1993-01-01

229

Solar electron source and thermionic solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Common solar technologies are either photovoltaic/thermophotovoltaic, or use indirect methods of electricity generation such as boiling water for a steam turbine. Thermionic energy conversion based on the emission of electrons from a hot cathode into vacuum and their collection by an anode is also a promising route. However, thermionic solar conversion is extremely challenging as the sunlight intensity is too low for heating a conventional cathode to thermionic emission temperatures in a practical manner. Therefore, compared to other technologies, little has been done in this area, and the devices have been mainly limited to large experimental apparatus investigated for space power applications. Based on a recently observed "Heat Trap" effect in carbon nanotube arrays, allowing their efficient heating with low-power light, we report the first compact thermionic solar cell. Even using a simple off-the-shelf focusing lens, the device delivered over 1 V across a load. The device also shows intrinsic storage capacity.

Yaghoobi, Parham; Vahdani Moghaddam, Mehran; Nojeh, Alireza

2012-12-01

230

InGaP Heterojunction Barrier Solar Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new solar-cell structure utilizes a single, ultra-wide well of either gallium arsenide (GaAs) or indium-gallium-phosphide (InGaP) in the depletion region of a wide bandgap matrix, instead of the usual multiple quantum well layers. These InGaP barrier layers are effective at reducing diode dark current, and photogenerated carrier escape is maximized by the proper design of the electric field and barrier profile. With the new material, open-circuit voltage enhancements of 40 and 100 mV (versus PIN control systems) are possible without any degradation in short-circuit current. Basic tenets of quantum-well and quantum- dot solar cells are utilized, but instead of using multiple thin layers, a single wide well works better. InGaP is used as a barrier material, which increases open current, while simultaneously lowering dark current, reducing both hole diffusion from the base, and space charge recombination within the depletion region. Both the built-in field and the barrier profile are tailored to enhance thermionic emissions, which maximizes the photocurrent at forward bias, with a demonstrated voltage increase. An InGaP heterojunction barrier solar cell consists of a single, ultra-wide GaAs, aluminum-gallium-arsenide (AlGaAs), or lower-energy-gap InGaP absorber well placed within the depletion region of an otherwise wide bandgap PIN diode. Photogenerated electron collection is unencumbered in this structure. InGaAs wells can be added to the thick GaAs absorber layer to capture lower-energy photons.

Welser, Roger E.

2010-01-01

231

Module level solutions to solar cell polarization  

DOEpatents

A solar cell module includes interconnected solar cells, a transparent cover over the front sides of the solar cells, and a backsheet on the backsides of the solar cells. The solar cell module includes an electrical insulator between the transparent cover and the front sides of the solar cells. An encapsulant protectively packages the solar cells. To prevent polarization, the insulator has resistance suitable to prevent charge from leaking from the front sides of the solar cells to other portions of the solar cell module by way of the transparent cover. The insulator may be attached (e.g., by coating) directly on an underside of the transparent cover or be a separate layer formed between layers of the encapsulant. The solar cells may be back junction solar cells.

Xavier, Grace (Fremont, CA), Li; Bo (San Jose, CA)

2012-05-29

232

Organic p-i-n solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a p-i-n-type heterojunction architecture for organic solar cells where the active region is sandwiched between two doped wide-gap layers. The term p-i-n means here a layer sequence in the form p-doped layer, intrinsic layer and n-doped layer. The doping is realized by controlled co-evaporation using organic dopants and leads to conductivities of 10-4 to 10-5 S/cm in the p- and n-doped wide-gap layers, respectively. The photoactive layer is formed by a mixture of phthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc) and the fullerene C60 and shows mainly amorphous morphology. As a first step towards p-i-n structures, we show the advantage of using wide-gap layers in M-i-p-type diodes (metal layer-intrinsic layer-p-doped layer). The solar cells exhibit a maximum external quantum efficiency of 40% between 630-nm and 700-nm wavelength. With the help of an optical multilayer model, we optimize the optical properties of the solar cells by placing the active region at the maximum of the optical field distribution. The results of the model are largely confirmed by the experimental findings. For an optically optimized device, we find an internal quantum efficiency of around 82% under short-circuit conditions. Adding a layer of 10-nm thickness of the red material N,N'-dimethylperylene-3,4:9,10-dicarboximide (Me-PTCDI) to the active region, a power-conversion efficiency of 1.9% for a single cell is obtained. Such optically thin cells with high internal quantum efficiency are an important step towards high-efficiency tandem cells. First tandem cells which are not yet optimized already show 2.4% power-conversion efficiency under simulated AM 1.5 illumination of 125 mW/cm2 .

Maennig, B.; Drechsel, J.; Gebeyehu, D.; Simon, P.; Kozlowski, F.; Werner, A.; Li, F.; Grundmann, S.; Sonntag, S.; Koch, M.; Leo, K.; Pfeiffer, M.; Hoppe, H.; Meissner, D.; Sariciftci, N. S.; Riedel, I.; Dyakonov, V.; Parisi, J.

233

Silver Electrode as a Sensor for Determination of Zinc in Cell Cultivation Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of the silver electrode as a sensor for the monitoring of zinc in cell growth medium is described. Zinc at silver electrodes provides specific voltammetric signal, which is affected by solution components. Signals of zinc ions in phosphate buffer solutions with and without cell growth medium were compared. Common DMEM cell culture medium was used for the cultivation of

René Kizek; Libuše Trnková; Sabina Šev???ková; Jan Šmarda; František Jelen

2002-01-01

234

Solar cell with back side contacts  

DOEpatents

A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

2013-12-24

235

EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser  

E-print Network

7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 10 · Summary 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 10: Summary Summer 2010 Class Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 10: Summary 2 Solar Cell Operation n Emitter p Base Rear Contact Antireflection coating Absorption of photon

Kaiser, Todd J.

236

CCMR: Nanocrystal Sensitized Solar Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nanocrystal sensitized solar cells demonstrate a possible cheap solution to practical device manufacture. This research examined the feasibility of using lead sulfide nanocrystals to sensitize tin dioxide and titanium dioxide substrates for the purpose of making a functioning photovoltaic device. Challenges included optimizing the substrate materials as well as the thin films made from them. Results indicate that titanium dioxide produces more suitable thin films than tin dioxide. Also, the methods employed did produce a functioning solar cell after optimization.

Perry, Alexis

2009-08-15

237

Life cycle assessment of the conventional and solar thermal production of zinc and synthesis gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current industrial productions of zinc and synthesis gas are characterized by their high energy consumption and their concomitant environmental pollution. Emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) could be reduced substantially by combining both productions and by replacing fossil fuels with concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat. The extent of such a GHG mitigation has been quantified

Miriam Werder; Aldo Steinfeld

2000-01-01

238

Dust removal from solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar panel cleaning device includes a solar panel having a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged in rows and embedded in the solar panel with space between the rows. A transparent dielectric overlay is affixed to the solar panel. A plurality of electrode pairs each of which includes an upper and a lower electrode are arranged on opposite sides of the transparent dielectric and are affixed thereto. The electrodes may be transparent electrodes which may be arranged without concern for blocking sunlight to the solar panel. The solar panel may be a dielectric and its dielectric properties may be continuously and spatially variable. Alternatively the dielectric used may have dielectric segments which produce different electrical field and which affects the wind "generated."

Ashpis, David E. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

239

Long-term temperature effects on GaAs solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal degradation of AlGaAs solar cells resulting from a long-term operation in a space environment is investigated. The solar cell degradation effects caused by zinc and aluminum diffusion as well as deterioration by arsenic evaporation are presented. Also, the results are presented of experimental testing and measurements of various GaAs solar cell properties while the solar cell was operating in the temperature range of 27 C to 350 C. In particular, the properties of light current voltage curves, dark current voltage curves, and spectral response characteristics are given. Finally, some theoretical models for the annealing of radiation damage over various times and temperatures are included.

Heinbockel, J. H.; Hong, K. H.

1979-01-01

240

Zinc  

MedlinePLUS

... condition in which the blood cannot carry enough oxygen. Some signs of copper deficiency have also occurred ... acetate lozenge, providing 9-24 mg elemental zinc, dissolved in the mouth every two hours while awake ...

241

Space solar cells—tradeoff analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the study that had the objective to tradeoff space solar cells and solar array designs to determine the best choice of solar cell and array technology that would be more beneficial in terms of mass, area and cost for different types of space missions. Space solar cells, which are commercially now available in the market and to

M. Raja Reddy

2003-01-01

242

Gridded thin film solar cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved transparent conductor structure for thin film solar cells comprising a plurality of metallic strip conductors deposited on a transparent conductor and aligned substantially with the principal direction of current flow. The strip conductors preferably originate at an edge of the transparent conductor to which an adjacent cell back conductor is connected and are preferably interconnected along that edge

D. P. Tanner; R. R. Gay; D. L. Morel

1985-01-01

243

Interdigitated back contact solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interdigitated back contact solar cell (IBC cell) was shown to possess a number of advantages for silicon solar cells, which operate at high concentration. A detailed discussion of the factors which need to be considered in the analysis of semiconducting devices which utilize heavily doped regions such as those which are found in solar cells in both the emitter and in the back surface field regions is given. This discussion covers the questions of: how to handle degeneracy, how to compute carrier concentrations in the absence of knowledge of the details of the band structure under heavily doped conditions, and how to reconcile the usual interpretation of heavy doping as a rigid shift of the bands with the band tailing and impurity level conduction models. It also discusses the reasons for the observed discrepancies between various experimental measurements of bandgap narrowing.

Lundstrom, M. S.; Schwartz, R. J.

1980-08-01

244

Zinc electrowinning analysis in a modified Hull cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hull cell is an analytical cell designed with trapezoidal geometry to incorporate a range of current densities into a single experiment. It was conceived to examine electroplating processes rather than mass production processes. A modified analytical cell was designed, developed and applied to the diagnosis of zinc electrowinning. Emphasis was placed on obtaining the quantitative variation of current efficiency with current density and the associated microscopic variation in deposit morphology. Current density distributions came by placing an insulating baffle in between parallel electrodes. The baffle position and length were easily adjusted, allowing the generation of 12 different distributions for a single applied potential. Ten electrically isolated 1 cm2 segments comprised the cathode. Measurement of the potential drop across I ohm resistors in each of the ten isolated parallel branches permitted direct quantitative determination of current densities. The small segments permitted simple SEM and X-ray analysis of deposits. The cell was designed to allow the continual cycling of electrolyte. In conjunction with experimental analysis, a technique for the determination of current efficiency was tested and developed. The technique involved the comparison of charge passed for the electrodeposition and subsequent electrodissolution of a given mass of zinc and removed the necessity to determine the mass directly. In no prior studies on zinc electrowinning had current efficiencies been determined this way. The cell and technique were developed and verified by the correct diagnosis of industrial zinc electrowinning. Successful determination of the effects of key variables including temperature, acid to zinc ratio and impurity effects on current efficiency and deposit morphology was demonstrated. In parallel with experimental work, cell electrochemistry was modeled. Primary and secondary input parameters were those pertinent to zinc electrowinning. The resultant simulation served as a design aid to investigate the effect of implementing changes in key process variables and cell geometry. Custom software using pattern recognition and numerical integration to determine current densities and efficiencies directly from logged data was designed, written and interfaced with data acquisition software. The resulting experimental system serves as an unprecedented bench top scale, analytical tool tailored specifically for the electrowinning industry.

McColm, Thomas Dean

245

Quantum dot sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal sulfide (CdS or PbS) quantum dots were synthesized in nanoporous TiO2 films for applications in solar energy conversion devices. Several electrolytes were investigated for the functioning redox activity in sandwich type regenerative solar cells, based on the quantum dots sensitized TiO2 film. A high IPCE was attained by optimizing the polysulfide electrolyte composition. The CdS QD shows a higher

Y. Tachibana; H. Y. Akiyama; K. Umekita; Y. Otsuka; T. Torimoto; S. Kuwabata

2008-01-01

246

High Efficiency InP Solar Cells from Low Toxicity Tertiarybutylphosphine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large scale manufacture of phosphide based semiconductor devices by organo-metallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) typically requires the use of highly toxic phosphine. Advancements in phosphine substitutes have identified tertiarybutylphosphine (TBP) as an excellent precursor for OMVPE of InP. High quality undoped and doped InP films were grown using TBP and trimethylindium. Impurity doped InP films were achieved utilizing diethylzinc and silane for p and n type respectively. 16 percent efficient solar cells under air mass zero, one sun intensity were demonstrated with Voc of 871 mV and fill factor of 82.6 percent. It was shown that TBP could replace phosphine, without adversely affecting device quality, in OMVPE deposition of InP thus significantly reducing toxic gas exposure risk.

Hoffman, Richard W., Jr.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Wilt, David M.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Brinker, David J.; Scheiman, David A.

1994-01-01

247

High efficiency InP solar cells from low toxicity tertiarybutylphosphine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large scale manufacture of phosphide based semiconductor devices by organo-metallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) typically requires the use of highly toxic phosphine. Advancements in phosphine substitutes have identified tertiarybutylphosphine (TBP) as an excellent precursor for OMVPE of InP. High quality undoped and doped InP films were grown using TBP and trimethylindium. Impurity doped InP films were achieved utilizing diethylzinc and silane for p and n type respectively. 16 percent efficient solar cells under air mass zero, one sun intensity were demonstrated with Voc of 871 mV and fill factor of 82.6 percent. It was shown that TBP could replace phosphine, without adversely affecting device quality, in OMVPE deposition of InP thus significantly reducing toxic gas exposure risk.

Hoffman, Richard W., Jr.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Wilt, David M.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Brinker, David J.; Scheiman, David A.

1994-05-01

248

Intracellular free zinc and zinc buffering in human red blood cells.  

PubMed

Zn2+ has been allowed to equilibrate across the red cell membrane using two agents that increase membrane permeability to this ion: the ionophore A23187 and the specific carrier ethylmaltol. Extracellular free Zn2+ was controlled with EGTA (1,2-di(2-aminoethoxy)ethane-NNN'N'tetra-acetic acid] buffers, except in the case of ethylmaltol, which itself acts as a buffer. Measurement of cellular zinc content at different levels of free Zn2+ facilitated the study of intracellular Zn2+ binding. It was also possible to estimate intracellular free Zn2+ concentration in untreated cells using a "null-point" technique. Intracellular zinc was found to consist of an inexchangeable component of about 129 mumol/10(13) cells and an exchangeable component of 6.7 +/- 1.5 mumol/10(13) cells, with a free concentration of about 2.4 x 10(-11) M. The main component of Zn2+ buffering is hemoglobin, with a dissociation constant of about 2 x 10(-8) M. PMID:1774775

Simons, T J

1991-07-01

249

Coupling light to solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Efficiencies of more than 33% have been achieved today in the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy into electricity. Part of this achievement is due to a effective coupling of sunlight to the solar cell. In particular three aspects of light-cell coupling are studied here: (a) the achievement of high irradiance on the cell; that is, the study of concentration; (b) the increase of the absorption in the cell and (c) the matching of the sun spectrum to the cell, with the use of several cells or thermo-photovoltaic devices. Finally, the ultimate limits of the efficiency of solar cells, and photovoltaic devices in general, are studied. It is found that efficiencies in the range of 85% (depending on the spectrum of the sun) are theoretically possible. Also the conditions for thermodynamically reversible operation are analyzed. Some laboratory results are presented and the role of the light-cell coupling in the achievement of this high efficiency is stressed. 70 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs.

Luque, A. [Univ. Polytecnica de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Energia Solar; [Ciudad Univ., Madrid (Spain). E.T.S.I. Telecomunicacion

1993-11-01

250

Recent Developments in Silver/Zinc Rechargeable Cell Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation discusses silver/zinc cell casing configurations and test results examining discharge capacity and silver migration comparisons. The following recommendations were proposed: 1) Use silver-treated cellophane instead of clear cellophane; 2) Use split wrap for cellophane whenever possible; and 3) Strongly consider use of sausage casing with PVA film in the following configuration: 1-mil (tubular) SC/1-mil PVA film/2.3-mil plain or 6-mil fiber-reinforced SC tubular.

Lewis, Harlan L.

2001-01-01

251

Ultra-thin metal layer passivation of the transparent conductive anode in organic solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficiency of organic solar cells shows a strong improvement when the transparent conductive anode (indium tin oxide—ITO, aluminium-doped zinc oxide—AZO, fluorine-doped tin oxide—FTO), is covered with an ultra-thin metallic film. It is shown that the best results are achieved with a gold film (0.5nm). The efficiency of the solar cells using AZO or FTO is improved up to one order

J. C. Bernède; L. Cattin; M. Morsli; Y. Berredjem

2008-01-01

252

Fabrication of 7.2% efficient CZTSSe solar cells using CZTS nanocrystals.  

PubMed

Earth abundant copper-zinc-tin-chalcogenide (CZTSSe) is an important class of material for the development of low cost and sustainable thin film solar cells. The fabrication of CZTSSe solar cells by selenization of CZTS nanocrystals is presented. By tuning the composition of the CZTS nanocrystals and developing a robust film coating method, a total area efficiency as high as 7.2% under AM 1.5 illumination and light soaking has been achieved. PMID:21090644

Guo, Qijie; Ford, Grayson M; Yang, Wei-Chang; Walker, Bryce C; Stach, Eric A; Hillhouse, Hugh W; Agrawal, Rakesh

2010-12-15

253

Performance of silicon solar cell assemblies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cell assembly current-voltage characteristics, thermal-optical properties, and power performance were determined. Solar cell cover glass thermal radiation, optical properties, confidence limits, and temperature intensity effects on maximum power were discussed.

Ross, R. G., Jr.; Yasui, R. K.; Jaworski, W.; Wen, L.; Cleland, E. L.

1972-01-01

254

Zinc and Energy Requirements in Induction of Oxidative Stress to Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells are believed to be detrimentally affected. It is thought that zinc may play a part in this process. In the past, therefore, zinc supplementation has been suggested as a treatment for AMD. Experimental data shown here confound this view by indicating that whereas low amounts of zinc do protect RPE

John P. M. Wood; Neville N. Osborne

2003-01-01

255

Dietary Zinc Deficiency in Rodents: Effects on T-Cell Development, Maturation and Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Zinc deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for developing disease and yet we do not have a clear understanding of the mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility to infection. This review will examine the interrelationships among the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal stress axis, p56lck, and T-cell maturation in both zinc deficiency and responses during zinc repletion. We will highlight differences between the adult mouse model (wasting malnutrition) and growing rat model (stunting malnutrition) of dietary zinc deficiency and discuss the use of various controls to separate out the effects of zinc deficiency from the associated malnutrition. Elevated serum corticosterone in both zinc deficient and pair-fed rats does not support the hypothesis that zinc deficiency per se leads to corticosterone-induced apoptosis and lymphopenia. In fact, the zinc deficient rat does not have lymphopenia. Thymocytes from zinc deficient mice and rats have elevated levels of p56lck, a signalling protein with a zinc clasp structure, but this does not appear to affect thymocyte maturation. However, post-thymic T-cell maturation appears to be altered based on the lower proportion of splenic late thymic emigrants in zinc deficient rats. Fewer new T-cells in the periphery could adversely affect the T-cell repertoire and contribute to immunodeficiency in zinc deficiency. PMID:22822446

Blewett, Heather J.; Taylor, Carla G.

2012-01-01

256

Low cost solar cell arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Limitations in both space and terrestial markets for solar cells are described. Based on knowledge of the state-of-the-art, six cell options are discussed; as a result of this discussion, the three most promising options (involving high, medium and low efficiency cells respectively) were selected and analyzed for their probable costs. The results showed that all three cell options gave promise of costs below $10 per watt in the near future. Before further cost reductions can be achieved, more R and D work is required; suggestions for suitable programs are given.

Iles, P. A.; Mclennan, H.

1975-01-01

257

Multicrystalline silicon bifacial solar cells  

SciTech Connect

The authors analyze the results of several batches of multicrystalline silicon bifacial solar cells (HEM and cast). They measured the I-V curves under front and back illuminations and also in the dark. In the last case they carried out measurements at several temperatures. It was concluded that HEM wafers might be used to manufacture commercial bifacial cells, while the high base recombination prevents the use of cast wafers for this purpose.

Jimeno, J.C.; Luque, A.

1984-05-01

258

Key Physical Mechanisms in Nanostructured Solar Cells  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project was to study both theoretically and experimentally the excitation, recombination and transport properties required for nanostructured solar cells to deliver energy conversion efficiencies well in excess of conventional limits. These objectives were met by concentrating on three key areas, namely, investigation of physical mechanisms present in nanostructured solar cells, characterization of loss mechanisms in nanostructured solar cells and determining the properties required of nanostructured solar cells in order to achieve high efficiency and the design implications.

Dr Stephan Bremner

2010-07-21

259

Endogenous Zinc Mediates Apoptotic Programmed Cell Death in the Developing Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endogenous zinc can mediate the apoptotic programmed cell death (PCD) in the developing brain. Intensive accumulation of labile\\u000a zinc occurs in almost all neurons undergoing PCD in the developing rat brain. Based on the greater frequency of neurons with\\u000a intensive zinc accumulation compared to apoptotic neurons, it is inferred that cytosolic zinc accumulation precedes apoptotic\\u000a PCD. To determine the role

Eunsil Cho; Jung-Jin Hwang; Seung-Hee Han; Sun Ju Chung; Jae-Young Koh; Joo-Yong Lee

2010-01-01

260

Characterization testing of dual junction GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs/Ge solar cell assemblies  

SciTech Connect

The first commercial communications satellite with dual junction solar arrays was launched in August of 1997. The satellite is an HS 601HP series spacecraft built by Hughes Space and Communications Company (HSC). The solar cell assemblies consist of large area gallium-indium-phosphide on gallium-arsenide on germanium (GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs/Ge) solar cells with active GaInP{sub 2} and GaAs junctions. The cells were developed by Spectrolab Inc. for the HS 601HP and HS 702 spacecraft product lines under a research and development contract from HSC. A comprehensive characterization program was performed on the GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs/Ge solar cell assemblies used on the HSC arrays. The results provided a complete database enabling the design of the solar array, and demonstrated that the GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs/Ge cells meet the spacecraft requirements at end-of-life.

Brown, M.R.; Goldhammer, L.J.; Goodelle, G.S. [Hughes Space and Communications Co., El Segundo, CA (United States). Power, Propulsion and Integrated Structures Business Unit] [and others

1997-12-31

261

EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser  

E-print Network

7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 02 Microfabrication ­ A combination · Photolithograpy · Depostion · Etching 1 Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 2: Microfabrication Flow Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 2: Microfabrication Questions · What is heat? · Heat

Kaiser, Todd J.

262

Investigation of low-zinc-solubility electrodes and electrolytes in zinc/silver oxide cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cycle-life performance of the Zn/AgO cell is limited by high rates of Zn active material redistribution (shape change) and Zn dendrite growth. Reduced-zinc-solubility electrolytes, prepared by adding F -, CO 32-, BO 33- and PO 43- salts to aqueous KOH solutions, were used in 5 A h Zn/AgO cells to determine their effect on cell lifetimes. Ca(OH) 2 additions to the Zn electrode were also evaluated in cells of the same capacity and mass as the calcium-free cells. It was found that all of the anion additives to KOH electrolytes resulted in lower cell capacities and shorter lifetimes, which could be attributed the formation of soluble Ag-containing salts and subsequent degradation of the Ag electrode performance. The calcium-containing Zn electrode was found to significantly improve the performance of the Zn/AgO cell by promoting higher capacities, especially over the initial 20 cycles. The higher capacities could be attributed to the formation of a calcium zincate complex, crystals of which were found in the cycled Zn electrodes.

Chen, Jenn-Shing; McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

263

Fishy business: effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and free zinc availability in human neuronal cells.  

PubMed

Omega-3 (?-3) fatty acids are one of the two main families of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The main omega-3 fatty acids in the mammalian body are ?-linolenic acid (ALA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Central nervous tissues of vertebrates are characterized by a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Moreover, in the human brain, DHA is considered as the main structural omega-3 fatty acid, which comprises about 40% of the PUFAs in total. DHA deficiency may be the cause of many disorders such as depression, inability to concentrate, excessive mood swings, anxiety, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, dry skin and so on. On the other hand, zinc is the most abundant trace metal in the human brain. There are many scientific studies linking zinc, especially excess amounts of free zinc, to cellular death. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, are characterized by altered zinc metabolism. Both animal model studies and human cell culture studies have shown a possible link between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc transporter levels and free zinc availability at cellular levels. Many other studies have also suggested a possible omega-3 and zinc effect on neurodegeneration and cellular death. Therefore, in this review, we will examine the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and the importance of free zinc for human neuronal cells. Moreover, we will evaluate the collective understanding of mechanism(s) for the interaction of these elements in neuronal research and their significance for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegeneration. PMID:25195602

De Mel, Damitha; Suphioglu, Cenk

2014-08-01

264

Fishy Business: Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Zinc Transporters and Free Zinc Availability in Human Neuronal Cells  

PubMed Central

Omega-3 (?-3) fatty acids are one of the two main families of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The main omega-3 fatty acids in the mammalian body are ?-linolenic acid (ALA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Central nervous tissues of vertebrates are characterized by a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Moreover, in the human brain, DHA is considered as the main structural omega-3 fatty acid, which comprises about 40% of the PUFAs in total. DHA deficiency may be the cause of many disorders such as depression, inability to concentrate, excessive mood swings, anxiety, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, dry skin and so on. On the other hand, zinc is the most abundant trace metal in the human brain. There are many scientific studies linking zinc, especially excess amounts of free zinc, to cellular death. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, are characterized by altered zinc metabolism. Both animal model studies and human cell culture studies have shown a possible link between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc transporter levels and free zinc availability at cellular levels. Many other studies have also suggested a possible omega-3 and zinc effect on neurodegeneration and cellular death. Therefore, in this review, we will examine the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and the importance of free zinc for human neuronal cells. Moreover, we will evaluate the collective understanding of mechanism(s) for the interaction of these elements in neuronal research and their significance for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegeneration.

De Mel, Damitha; Suphioglu, Cenk

2014-01-01

265

ITO/InP solar cells: A comparison of devices fabricated by ion beam and RF sputtering of the ITO  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work was performed with the view of elucidating the behavior of indium tin oxide/indium phosphide (ITO/InP) solar cells prepared by RF and ion beam sputtering. It was found that using RF sputter deposition of the ITO always leads to more efficient devices than ion beam sputter deposition. An important aspect of the former technique is the exposure of the single crystal p-InP substrates to a very low plasma power prior to deposition. Substrates treated in this manner have also been used for ion beam deposition of ITO. In this case the cells behave very similarly to the RF deposited cells, thus suggesting that the lower power plasma exposure (LPPE) is the crucial process step.

Coutts, T. J.

1987-01-01

266

Development of high band gap materials for tandem solar cells and simulation studies on mechanical tandem solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of low cost, high efficiency tandem solar cells is essential for large scale adoption of solar energy especially in densely populated regions of the world. In this thesis four-terminal mechanical (stack like) tandem solar cells were evaluated using detailed simulation models and design criteria for selecting candidate materials were established. Since silicon solar cells are low cost and have a multi-giga watt global manufacturing and supply chain capacity already in place then only tandem stacks incorporating silicon as one of the layers in the device was investigated. Two candidate materials which have high band gaps that could be used as top cells in the mechanical tandem device were explored as part of the thesis. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) sensitized with N719 dye (one of the candidates for the top cell) were fabricated with the goal of enabling a flexible processing path to lower cost. Stainless steel (SS) mesh substrates were used to fabricate anodes for flexible DSSC in order to evaluate them as replacements for more expensive Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCO's). Loss mechanisms in DSSC's due to SS mesh oxidation were quantified and protective coatings to prevent oxidation of SS mesh were developed. The second material which was evaluated for use as the top cell was copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS). CZTS was deposited through a solution deposition route. Detailed investigations were done on the deposited films to understand the chemistry, crystal structure and its opto-electronic properties. Deposited CZTS films were found to be highly crystalline in <112> direction. The films had a direct band gap of 1.5 eV with absorption coefficient greater than 104 cm -1 in agreement with published values. In the second part of the thesis detailed electrical and optical simulation models of the mechanical tandem solar cells were developed based on the most up-to-date materials physical constants available for each layer. The modeling was used to quantify the various theoretical and practical loss mechanisms in tandem devices. Two configurations were evaluated, first was silicon / germanium tandem cell and the second was gallium arsenide / silicon tandem cell. The simulation models were validated by their close match to the performance of experimental standalone solar cells devices reported in the literature. Finally the efficiency limits of the present generation of high band gap solar cells were discussed. Voltage and current loss of the high band gap solar cells were compared with present generation silicon solar cells and challenges in improving their efficiencies were described.

Vijayakumar, Vishnuvardhanan

267

Nanostructured Materials for Solar Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of both inorganic and organic nanostructured materials in producing high efficiency photovoltaics is discussed in this paper. Recent theoretical results indicate that dramatic improvements in device efficiency may be attainable through the use of semiconductor quantum dots in an ordinary p-i-n solar cell. In addition, it has also recently been demonstrated that quantum dots can also be used to improve conversion efficiencies in polymeric thin film solar cells. A similar improvement in these types of cells has also been observed by employing single wall carbon nanotubes. This relatively new carbon allotrope may assist both in the disassociation of excitons as well as carrier transport through the composite material. This paper reviews the efforts that are currently underway to produce and characterize these nanoscale materials and to exploit their unique properties.

Bailey, Sheila; Raffaelle, Ryne; Castro, Stephanie; Fahey, S.; Gennett, T.; Tin, P.

2003-01-01

268

Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of indium phosphide (CAS No. 22398-90-7) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (inhalation studies).  

PubMed

Indium phosphide is used to make semiconductors,injection lasers, solar cells, photodiodes, and light-emittingdiodes. Indium phosphide was nominated for study because of its widespread use in the microelectronics industry, the potential for worker exposure,and the absence of chronic toxicity data. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to indium phosphide (greater than 99% pure) by inhalation for 14 weeks or 2 years. The frequency of micronuclei was determined in the peripheral blood of mice exposed to indium phosphide for 14 weeks. 14-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were exposed to particulate aerosols of indium phosphide with amass median aerodynamic diameter of approximately 1.2 microm at concentrations of 0, 1, 3, 10, 30, or 100 mg/m3 by inhalation, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week (weeks 1 through 4 and weeks 10 through 14) or 7 days per week (weeks 5 through 9) to accommodate a concurrent teratology study. One male in the 100 mg/m3 group died before the end of the study. Body weight gains of all males and females exposed to 100 mg/m3 were less than those of the chamber controls. As a result of indium phosphide exposure, the lungs of all exposed rats had a gray to black discoloration and were significantly enlarged, weighing 2.7- to 4.4-fold more than those of the chamber controls. Indium phosphide particles were observed throughout the respiratory tract and in the lung-associated lymph nodes. A spectrum of inflammatory and proliferative lesions generally occurred in the lungs of all exposed groups of rats and consisted of alveolar proteinosis, chronic inflammation, interstitial fibrosis, and alveolar epithelial hyperplasia. Pulmonary inflammation was attended by increased leukocyte and neutrophil counts in the blood. The alveolar proteinosis was the principal apparent reason for the increase in lung weights. Indium phosphide caused inflammation at the base of the epiglottis of the larynx and hyperplasia of the bronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes. Exposure to indium phosphide affected the circulating erythroid mass. It induced a microcytic erythrocytosis consistent with bone marrow hyperplasia and hematopoietic cell proliferation of the spleen. Hepatocellular necrosis was suggested by increased serum activities of alanine aminotransferase and sorbitol dehydrogenase in all exposed groups of males and in 10 mg/m3 or greater females and was confirmed microscopically in 100 mg/m3 males and females. 14-WEEK STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 10 male and 10 female mice were exposed to particulate aerosols of indium phosphide with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of approximately 1.2 microm at concentrations of 0, 1, 3, 10, 30, or 100 mg/m3 by inhalation, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week (weeks 1 through 4 and weeks 10 through 14)or 7 days per week (weeks 5 through 9). Although the effects of indium phosphide exposure were similar in rats and mice, mice were more severely affected in that all males and females in the 100 mg/m3 groups either died or were removed moribund during the study. One male and three females in the 30 mg/m3 group were also removed before the end of the study. In general, body weight gains were significantly less in males and females exposed to 3 mg/m3 or greater compared to those of the chamber controls. Mice exposed to 30 or 100 mg/m3 were lethargic and experienced rapid, shallow breathing. As in rats, lungs were discolored and enlarged 2.6- to 4.1-fold greater than those of chamber controls due to the exposure-induced alveolar proteinosis. Indium phosphide particles were observed in the nose, trachea,larynx, and lymph nodes of some exposed males and females. Alveolar proteinosis, chronic active inflammation,interstitial fibrosis, and alveolar epithelial hyperplasia were observed; these effects were more severe than in rats. Hyperplasia in the bronchial lymph nodes and squamous metaplasia, necrosis, and suppurative inflammation of the larynx were observed in some exposed males and females. Exposure to indium phosphide induced a microcytic erythrocytosis which was

2001-07-01

269

Cascade Solar Cell Workshop report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Issues related to the feasibility, research and development, and demonstration of a 30% AMO cascade solar cell discussed include the material selection, growth and fabrication techniques, and device development strategy for a monolithic (two terminal) cascade cell, a hybrid (four terminal) cascade cell, and a spectral splitting device (three cells). Workshop recommendations include: (1) initiate a long range research program to develop a three junction, monolithic, cascade cell using either AlGaAsSb-GaAsSb or AlGaInAs-GaInAs material system; (2) emphasize OM-CVD epitaxial growth technique, perhaps combined with other technologies in the near term to obtain tunnel junctions; (3) develop a two junction device first; (4) initiate a cascade solar cell modeling program to study and compare performance of two and four terminal cascade devices exposed to electron and proton irradiation; and (5) encourage and be open to new ideas for developing four terminal, hybrid, cascade cells exploiting novel component cell interconnect technologies.

Hutchby, J. A.

1980-01-01

270

Periodic light coupler gratings in amorphous thin film solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Efficient light trapping structures for amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells have been realized using periodically structured aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) with periods between 390 and 980 nm as a transparent front contact. Atomic force microscopy, optical reflection, and diffraction efficiency measurements were applied to characterize solar cells deposited on such gratings. A simple formula for the threshold wavelength of total internal reflection is derived. Periodic light coupler gratings reduce the reflectance to a value below 10% in the wavelength range of 400{endash}800 nm which is comparable to cells with an optimized statistical texture. Diffraction efficiency measurements and theoretical considerations indicate that a combination of transmission and reflection gratings contribute to the observed reduction of the reflectance. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Eisele, C.; Nebel, C. E.; Stutzmann, M.

2001-06-15

271

Biological solar cell  

SciTech Connect

Recent reports have demonstrated the possibility of employing photoactive, biological membrane components in photoelectrochemical cells. Present studies in our laboratories have led to the attachment of a much simpler biological complex, the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center isolated from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides, directly onto a SnO/sub 2/ semiconductor electrode. Light-induced photovoltages (70mV) and photocurrents (0.5 ..mu..A/cm/sup 2/) not attributable to Dember effects have been observed in photoelectrochemical cells employing reaction-center-coated, SnO/sub 2/ working electrodes. Such reaction-center electrodes may serve as model systems for future organic photovoltaic devices.

Seibert, M.; Janzen, A.F.

1980-04-01

272

Mixed ternary heterojunction solar cell  

DOEpatents

A thin film heterojunction solar cell and a method of making it has a p-type layer of mixed ternary I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor material in contact with an n-type layer of mixed binary II-VI semiconductor material. The p-type semiconductor material includes a low resistivity copper-rich region adjacent the back metal contact of the cell and a composition gradient providing a minority carrier mirror that improves the photovoltaic performance of the cell. The p-type semiconductor material preferably is CuInGaSe.sub.2 or CuIn(SSe).sub.2.

Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA); Stewart, John M. (Seattle, WA)

1992-08-25

273

Flexibility in space solar cell production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wide range of cells that must be available from present-day production lines for space solar cells are described. After over thirty years of space-cell use, there is very little standardization in solar cell design. It is not generally recognized what a wide range of designs must remain available on cell production lines. This range of designs is surveyed.

Khemthong, Scott; Iles, Peter A.

1989-01-01

274

Towards stable silicon nanoarray hybrid solar cells  

PubMed Central

Silicon nanoarray hybrid solar cells benefit from the ease of fabrication and the cost-effectiveness of the hybrid structure, and represent a new research focus towards the utilization of solar energy. However, hybrid solar cells composed of both inorganic and organic components suffer from the notorious stability issue, which has to be tackled before the hybrid solar cells could become a viable alternative for harvesting solar energy. Here we show that Si nanoarray/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells with improved stability can be fabricated via eliminating the water inclusion in the initial formation of the heterojunction between Si nanoarray and PEDOT:PSS. The Si nanoarray hybrid solar cells are stable against rapid degradation in the atmosphere environment for several months without encapsulation. This finding paves the way towards the real-world applications of Si nanoarray hybrid solar cells. PMID:24430057

He, W. W.; Wu, K. J.; Wang, K.; Shi, T. F.; Wu, L.; Li, S. X.; Teng, D. Y.; Ye, C. H.

2014-01-01

275

GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The handbook discusses the history of GaAs solar cell development, presents equations useful for working with GaAs solar cells, describes commonly used instrumentation techniques for assessing radiation effects in solar cells and fundamental processes occurring in solar cells exposed to ionizing radiation, and explains why radiation decreases the electrical performance of solar cells. Three basic elements required to perform solar array degradation calculations: degradation data for GaAs solar cells after irradiation with 1 MeV electrons at normal incidence; relative damage coefficients for omnidirectional electron and proton exposure; and the definition of the space radiation environment for the orbit of interest, are developed and used to perform a solar array degradation calculation.

Anspaugh, B. E.

1996-01-01

276

24% efficient silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports significant progress in silicon solar cell performance, taking confirmed efficiency beyond 24% for the first time. This progress has been achieved by a combination of several mechanisms. One is the reduction of recombination at the cell front surface by improved passivation of the silicon/silicon dioxide interface. Resistive losses in the cell have been reduced by a double-plating process which increases the thickness for the coarse cell metallization features. Finally, reflective losses have been reduced by the application of a double layer anti-reflection (DLAR) coating. Another advantage of DLAR coating is that it will give further 3% higher current density than the SiO{sub 2} single layer anti-reflection (SLAR) coated cells when encapsulated into modules. The cells display a monochromatic light energy conversion efficiency of 46.3% for 1.04 {micro}m wavelength light, also the highest ever for a silicon device.

Zhao, J.; Wang, A.; Altermatt, P.P.; Wenham, S.R.; Green, M.A. [Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia). Centre for Photovoltaic Devices and Systems

1994-12-31

277

High efficiency GaAs solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present status of the GaAlAs/GaAs heteroface solar cell program is reported. Studies have been concentrated on GaAlAs/GaAs heteroface solar cells; however, some research has been conducted on thin junction, diffused GaAs solar cells. Emphasis has been on obtaining high efficiency (18% to 20%) GaAs solar cells. Two problems that have limited the efficiency of GaAs solar cells are the high recombination velocity of carriers near the surface and the low minority carrier diffusion length in n-GaAs.

Walker, G. H.; Conway, E. J.; Byvik, C. E.

1977-01-01

278

Calculated performance of p(+)n InP solar cells with In(0.52)Al(0.48)As window layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of indium phosphide solar cells with lattice matched wide band-gap In(0.52)Al(0.48)As window layers was calculated using the PC-1D computer code. The conversion efficiency of p(+)n InP solar cells is improved significantly by the window layer. No improvement is seen for n(+)p structures. The improvement in InP cell efficiency was studied as a function of In(0.52)Al(0.48)As layer thickness. The use of the window layer improves both the open circuit voltage and short circuit current.For a typical In(0.52)Al(0.48)As window layer thickness of 20 nm, the cell efficiency improves in excess of 27 percent to a value of 18.74 percent.

Jain, R. K.; Landis, G. A.

1991-01-01

279

Thin film solar cells for terrestrial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design has evolved from an earlier space cell which is promising for large scale terrestrial use. This is a front wall cell on zinc plated copper foil substrate with an evaporated grid and an integral glass cover formed by r.f. sputtering. This cell is suitable for low cost mass fabrication. Though it has not been fully proven it combines

F. A. Shirland; W. J. Biter; E. W. Greeneich; A. J. Simon; T. P. Brody

1977-01-01

280

Zinc at cytotoxic concentrations affects posttranscriptional events of gene expression in cancer cells.  

PubMed

Zinc at cytotoxic concentrations has been shown to regulate gene transcription in cancer cells, though zinc's involvement in posttranscriptional regulation is less characterized. In this study, we investigated the involvement of cytotoxic zinc in the posttranscriptional steps of gene expression. Clioquinol, a well-established zinc ionophore, was used to raise intracellular zinc to reported cytotoxic levels. The MCF-7 human cancer cell line was applied as a cell model system. Several parameters were used as indictors of posttranscriptional regulation, including p-body formation, microRNA profiling, expression level of proteins known to regulate mRNA degradation, microRNA processing, and protein translation. p-body formation was observed in MCF-7 cells using several molecules known as p-body components. Clioquinol plus zinc enhanced p-body assembly in MCF-7 cells. This enhancement was zinc-specific and could be blocked by a high affinity zinc chelator. The enhancement does not seem to be due to a stress response, as paclitaxel, a commonly used chemotherapeutic, did not cause enhanced p-body formation at a highly cytotoxic concentration. microRNA profiling indicated that clioquinol plus zinc globally down-regulates microRNA expression in this model system, which is associated with the reduced expression of Dicer, an enzyme key to microRNA maturation, and Ago2, a protein essential for microRNA stability. This study demonstrates that ionophoric zinc can induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells by globally regulating posttranscriptional events. PMID:22415087

Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Yu, Haijun; Taggart, Jori E; Ding, Wei-Qun

2012-01-01

281

Zinc at Cytotoxic Concentrations Affects Posttranscriptional Events of Gene Expression in Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Zinc at cytotoxic concentrations has been shown to regulate gene transcription in cancer cells, though zinc's involvement in posttranscriptional regulation is less characterized. In this study, we investigated the involvement of cytotoxic zinc in the posttranscriptional steps of gene expression. Clioquinol, a well-established zinc ionophore, was used to raise intracellular zinc to reported cytotoxic levels. The MCF-7 human cancer cell line was applied as a cell model system. Several parameters were used as indictors of posttranscriptional regulation, including p-body formation, microRNA profiling, expression level of proteins known to regulate mRNA degradation, microRNA processing, and protein translation. p-body formation was observed in MCF-7 cells using several molecules known as p-body components. Clioquinol plus zinc enhanced p-body assembly in MCF-7 cells. This enhancement was zinc-specific and could be blocked by a high affinity zinc chelator. The enhancement does not seem to be due to a stress response, as paclitaxel, a commonly used chemotherapeutic, did not cause enhanced p-body formation at a highly cytotoxic concentration. microRNA profiling indicated that clioquinol plus zinc globally down-regulates microRNA expression in this model system, which is associated with the reduced expression of Dicer, an enzyme key to microRNA maturation, and Ago2, a protein essential for microRNA stability. This study demonstrates that ionophoric zinc can induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells by globally regulating posttranscriptional events. PMID:22415087

Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Yu, Haijun; Taggart, Jori E.; Ding, Wei-Qun

2012-01-01

282

Method of making indium phosphide devices  

SciTech Connect

A process for fabricating a device is described comprising substrate and a first region contacting at least a portion of the surface of the substrate. The substrate comprises n-type or p-type indium phosphide and the first region comprising semi-insulating indium phosphide doped with iron and grown by MOCVD and ion-implanting at least a portion of the first region for carrier-activation.

Johnson, W.D. Jr.; Long, J.A.; Macrander, A.T.; Schwartz, B.; Singh, S.

1988-04-19

283

Organic Semiconductor Solar Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several aspects of organic photoconductors investigated for photovoltaic (PV) applications are addressed: material selection criteria, device modelling, and the characterization techniques of I-V, capacitance-voltage (C-V), I _{sc} vs. V_{oc }, and internal photoemission. Experimental results are presented for chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (ClAlPc) Schottky barrier and p-n heterojunction cells. The principal limitation of organic PV materials is a low field-dependent photocarrier generation

Jonathan B. Whitlock

1992-01-01

284

Solar Cells, 3 (1981) 337 -340 337 HIGH EFFICIENCY BIFACIAL BACK SURFACE FIELD SOLAR CELLS  

E-print Network

. CUEVAS, A. LUQUE, J. EGUREN and J. DEL ALAMO Instituto de Energia Solar, Escuela Tdcnica Superior deSolar Cells, 3 (1981) 337 - 340 337 HIGH EFFICIENCY BIFACIAL BACK SURFACE FIELD SOLAR CELLS A solar cells are presented. Effi- ciencies of 15.7% and 13.6% were measured under front and back air mass

del Alamo, Jesús A.

285

The cytotoxic effects of titanium oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles oh Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma cell membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO), inorganic metal oxides nanoparticles (NPs) stems from their ubiquitous applications in personal care products, solar cells and food whitening agents. Hence, these NPs come in direct contact with the skin, digestive tracts and are absorbed into human tissues. Currently, TiO2 and ZnO are considered safe commercial ingredients by the material safety data sheets with no reported evidence of carcinogenicity or ecotoxicity, and do not classify either NP as a toxic substance. This study examined the direct effects of TiO2 and ZnO on HeLa cells, a human cervical adenocarcinonma cell line, and their membrane mechanics. The whole cell patch-clamp technique was used in addition to immunohistochemistry staining, TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Additionally, we examined the effects of dexamethasone (DXM), a glucocorticoid steroid known to have an effect on cell membrane mechanics. Overall, TiO2 and ZnO seemed to have an adverse effect on cell membrane mechanics by effecting cell proliferation, altering cellular structure, decreasing cell-cell adhesion, activating existing ion channels, increasing membrane permeability, and possibly disrupting cell signaling.

Mironava, Tatsiana; Applebaum, Ariella; Applebaum, Eliana; Guterman, Shoshana; Applebaum, Kayla; Grossman, Daniel; Gordon, Chris; Brink, Peter; Wang, H. Z.; Rafailovich, Miriam

2013-03-01

286

Study of solar cell welds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal imaging technique was evaluated for its capabilities in the nondestructive evaluation of solar cell welds. The temperature and spatial resolution of state of the art instrumentation was sufficient for both qualitative and quantitative determination of the quality of solar cell welds. The addition of color digitized thermography enhanced the aspects of the thermographic display and allowed easily computerized testing procedures. For automated testing systems an accurate correlation of weld quality with temperature profiles of the welds needs to be performed. In comparison, the holographic technique was complementary with the thermal imaging technique, except that the holographic analysis appeared to be more quantitative at the present time. However, the thermal imaging approach is much more versatile in overall capabilities.

Workman, G. L.

1978-01-01

287

Organic Semiconductor Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several aspects of organic photoconductors investigated for photovoltaic (PV) applications are addressed: material selection criteria, device modelling, and the characterization techniques of I-V, capacitance-voltage (C-V), I _{sc} vs. V_{oc }, and internal photoemission. Experimental results are presented for chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (ClAlPc) Schottky barrier and p-n heterojunction cells. The principal limitation of organic PV materials is a low field-dependent photocarrier generation efficiency. P -n heterojunction cells have advantages over Schottky cells, having better spectral coverage and the ability to utilize Forster transfer for the transport and concentration of excitons to a high field region. A promising approach pairs a phthalocyanine and a perylene. A simpler Schottky barrier system is modelled using parameters for the field -dependent generation of metal-free phthalocyanine. The effects of doping level, alpha, and other parameters on the external cell characteristics are calculated based on the electric field in the depletion region. Although this modelling does not include the effects of exciton diffusion, the wavelength dependence of the external quantum efficiency mimics results thought to indicate an exciton diffusion process. The device fabrication procedure utilizes vacuum deposition of organic semiconductors purified by entrainment sublimation. Films deposited at different substrate temperatures are characterized with optical absorption, x-ray, and scanning electron microscopy. A hydration mechanism for ClAlPc is uncovered, and powder x-ray results are presented. The photoresponses for a perylene derivative paired with ClAlPc and PcAlOAlPc are presented. The C-V spectroscopy methods are reviewed, and the small signal method is argued to be preferable to the triangle voltage sweep method due to the likely presence of deep traps and interface states. C -V results are shown to bias hold-time dependent so that straight 1/C^2 vs. V plots should be interpreted with caution. Experiments under vacuum, air, dry oxygen, water vapor, and oxygen with water vapor ambients show water and oxygen are necessary for the ClAlPc to exhibit significant conductivity and C-V response. This suggests that water and oxygen must both be present for significant doping effects.

Whitlock, Jonathan B.

1992-01-01

288

The monitoring possibility of some mammalian cells for zinc concentrations on metallic materials.  

PubMed

Zinc plating is widely used to protect steels against corrosion. However, the possibility of a high environmental risk for zinc has been recently discussed among advanced countries and more environmentally-friendly substitutes are required urgently. Therefore, monitoring zinc concentration changes on metallic materials such as steel is very important. We chose to measure zinc concentration changes in some mammalian cells and confirmed that V79 cells were highly sensitive to changes in zinc concentrations. In this study, the following process was applied to the proprietary production for tin-zinc alloy films on steel using V79 cells. Specimens were immersed in PBS to produce extracts. Zinc concentrations in the extracts almost corresponded to zinc concentrations on steel surfaces. When extracts were added to a V79 cell culture, colony formation was inhibited, and inhibition increased with increases in zinc concentrations. Changes in zinc concentrations on steel surfaces with heat treatment could be monitored relatively well by V79 cells, even though the results were still semi-quantitative. PMID:22331507

Ogawa, Akiko; Okuda, Naoaki; Hio, Katsuya; Kanematsu, Hideyuki; Tamauchi, Hidekazu

2012-05-01

289

Zinc at Sub-Cytotoxic Concentrations Induces Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression in Human Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims This study investigated the effects of zinc on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in human cancer cells. Methods/Results Zinc at sub-cytotoxic concentrations (50–100 µM) induces HO-1 expression in the MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer) and A2780 (human ovarian cancer) cell lines in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The induction of HO-1 by zinc was detected after 4–6 hours of treatment, reached maximal level at 8 hours, and declined thereafter. Using a human HO-1 gene promoter reporter construct, we identified two antioxidant response elements (AREs) that mediated the zinc-induced increase in HO-1 gene transcription, indicating that the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway is involved in this event. This assumption was supported by the observations that knockdown of Nrf2 expression compromised the zinc-induced increase in HO-1 gene transcription, and that zinc increased Nrf2 protein expression and the Nrf2 binding to the AREs. Additionally, we found that the zinc-induced HO-1 gene transcription can be enhanced by clioquinol, a zinc ionophore, and reversed by pretreatment with TPEN, a known zinc chelator, indicating that an increase in intracellular zinc levels is responsible for this induction. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that zinc at sub-cytotoxic concentrations induces HO-1 expression in human cancer cells. The biological significance of this induction merits further investigation. PMID:23868099

Xue, Jing; Wang, Shuai; Wu, Jinchang; Hannafon, Bethany N.; Ding, Wei-Qun

2013-01-01

290

High Temperature Solar Cell Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The majority of satellites and near-earth probes developed to date have used photovoltaic arrays for power generation. If future mission to probe environments close to the sun will be able to use photovoltaic power, solar cells that can function at high temperatures, under high light intensity, and high radiation conditions must be developed. In this paper, we derive the optimum bandgap as a function of the operating temperature.

Landis, Geoffrey A.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Merritt, Danielle

2004-01-01

291

EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser  

E-print Network

Lecture 9: PV Systems Specifications of PV Modules · Type ­ c:Si, a-Si:H, CdTe · Rated Power Max: Pmax (Wp Cells loose efficiency with the increase in temperature Colder is better Solar Heating Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 9: PV Systems 11 Solar heating (70-90%) is more efficient than photovoltaic

Kaiser, Todd J.

292

Dietary catechins and procyanidins modulate zinc homeostasis in human HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

Catechins and their polymers procyanidins are health-promoting flavonoids found in edible vegetables and fruits. They act as antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species and by chelating the redox-active metals iron and copper. They also behave as signaling molecules, modulating multiple cell signalling pathways and gene expression, including that of antioxidant enzymes. This study aimed at determining whether catechins and procyanidins interact with the redox-inactive metal zinc and at assessing their effect on cellular zinc homeostasis. We found that a grape-seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) and the green tea flavonoid (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) bind zinc cations in solution with higher affinity than the zinc-specific chelator Zinquin, and dose-dependently prevent zinc-induced toxicity in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2, evaluated by the lactate dehydrogenase test. GSPE and EGCG hinder intracellular accumulation of total zinc, measured by atomic flame absorption spectrometry, concomitantly increasing the level of cytoplasmic labile zinc detectable by Zinquin fluorescence. Concurrently, GSPE and EGCG inhibit the expression, evaluated at the mRNA level by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, of zinc-binding metallothioneins and of plasma membrane zinc exporter ZnT1 (SLC30A1), while enhancing the expression of cellular zinc importers ZIP1 (SLC39A1) and ZIP4 (SLC39A4). GSPE and EGCG also produce all these effects when HepG2 cells are stimulated to import zinc by treatment with supplemental zinc or the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6. We suggest that extracellular complexation of zinc cations and the elevation of cytoplasmic labile zinc may be relevant mechanisms underlying the modulation of diverse cell signaling and metabolic pathways by catechins and procyanidins. PMID:20471814

Quesada, Isabel M; Bustos, Mario; Blay, Mayte; Pujadas, Gerard; Ardèvol, Anna; Salvadó, M Josepa; Bladé, Cinta; Arola, Lluís; Fernández-Larrea, Juan

2011-02-01

293

Silicon Carbide Solar Cells Investigated  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The semiconductor silicon carbide (SiC) has long been known for its outstanding resistance to harsh environments (e.g., thermal stability, radiation resistance, and dielectric strength). However, the ability to produce device-quality material is severely limited by the inherent crystalline defects associated with this material and their associated electronic effects. Much progress has been made recently in the understanding and control of these defects and in the improved processing of this material. Because of this work, it may be possible to produce SiC-based solar cells for environments with high temperatures, light intensities, and radiation, such as those experienced by solar probes. Electronics and sensors based on SiC can operate in hostile environments where conventional silicon-based electronics (limited to 350 C) cannot function. Development of this material will enable large performance enhancements and size reductions for a wide variety of systems--such as high-frequency devices, high-power devices, microwave switching devices, and high-temperature electronics. These applications would supply more energy-efficient public electric power distribution and electric vehicles, more powerful microwave electronics for radar and communications, and better sensors and controls for cleaner-burning, more fuel-efficient jet aircraft and automobile engines. The 6H-SiC polytype is a promising wide-bandgap (Eg = 3.0 eV) semiconductor for photovoltaic applications in harsh solar environments that involve high-temperature and high-radiation conditions. The advantages of this material for this application lie in its extremely large breakdown field strength, high thermal conductivity, good electron saturation drift velocity, and stable electrical performance at temperatures as high as 600 C. This behavior makes it an attractive photovoltaic solar cell material for devices that can operate within three solar radii of the Sun.

Bailey, Sheila G.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.

2001-01-01

294

Recent Advances in Solar Cell Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advances in solar cell efficiency, radiation tolerance, and cost over the last decade are reviewed. Potential performance of thin-film solar cells in space are discussed, and the cost and the historical trends in production capability of the photovoltaics industry are considered with respect to the requirements of space power systems. Concentrator cells with conversion efficiency over 30%, and nonconcentrating solar cells with efficiency over 25% are now available, and advanced radiation-tolerant cells and lightweight, thin-film arrays are both being developed. Nonsolar applications of solar cells, including thermophotovoltaics, alpha- and betavoltaics, and laser power receivers, are also discussed.

Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.

1996-01-01

295

Silicon solar cell fabrication technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The laser cell scanner was used to characterize a number of solar cells made in various materials. An electron beam-induced current (EBIC) study was performed using a stereoscan scanning electron microscope. Planar p-n junctions were analyzed. A theory for the EBIC based on the analytical solution of the ambipolar diffusion equation under the influence of electron beam excitation parameter z (which is related to beam penetration), the junction depth Z sub j, the beam current and the surface recombination, was formulated and tested. The effect of a grain boundary was studied.

Stafsudd, O. M.

1979-01-01

296

Zinc differentially regulates mitogen-activated protein kinases in human T cells.  

PubMed

Zinc is an essential nutrient with remarkable importance for immunity, in particular for T-cell function. This is, at least in part, based on an involvement of zinc ions in immune cell signal transduction; dynamic changes of the intracellular free zinc concentration have recently been recognized as signaling events. Because the molecular targets of zinc signals remain incompletely understood, we investigated the impact of elevated intracellular free zinc on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity and MAPK-dependent cytokine production in human T-cells. p38 was activated by treatment with zinc and the ionophore pyrithione, whereas ERK1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinases were unaffected. In contrast, after T-cell receptor stimulation with antibodies against CD3, ERK1/2-phosphorylation was selectively suppressed by intracellular zinc. Mechanisms that had been shown to mediate zinc-effects in other cells, such as activation of the Src kinase Lck, inhibition of the protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45 or MAPK phosphatases and cyclic nucleotide/protein kinase A signaling were not involved. This indicates that the differential impact of zinc on the MAPK families in T-cells is mediated by mechanisms that differ from the ones observed in other cell types. Further investigation of the activation of p38 by zinc demonstrated that this MAPK is responsible for the zinc-mediated activation of CREB and mRNA expression of the Th1 cytokines interferon-gamma and interleukin-2. In conclusion, regulation of MAPK activity contributes to the impact of zinc on T-cell function. PMID:21333516

Hönscheid, Andrea; Dubben, Svenja; Rink, Lothar; Haase, Hajo

2012-01-01

297

heat treatment for solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CdTe is an important compound semiconductor for solar cells, and its use in nanowire-based heterostructures may become a critical requirement, owing to the potential scarcity of tellurium. The effects of the CdCl2 heat treatment are investigated on the physical properties of vertically aligned ZnO/CdTe core-shell nanowire arrays grown by combining chemical bath deposition with close space sublimation. It is found that recrystallization phenomena are induced by the CdCl2 heat treatment in the CdTe shell composed of nanograins: its crystallinity is improved while grain growth and texture randomization occur. The presence of a tellurium crystalline phase that may decorate grain boundaries is also revealed. The CdCl2 heat treatment further favors the chlorine doping of the CdTe shell with the formation of chlorine A-centers and can result in the passivation of grain boundaries. The absorption properties of ZnO/CdTe core-shell nanowire arrays are highly efficient, and more than 80% of the incident light can be absorbed in the spectral range of the solar irradiance. The resulting photovoltaic properties of solar cells made from ZnO/CdTe core-shell nanowire arrays covered with CuSCN/Au back-side contact are also improved after the CdCl2 heat treatment. However, recombination and trap phenomena are expected to operate, and the collection of the holes that are mainly photo-generated in the CdTe shell from the CuSCN/Au back-side contact is presumably identified as the main critical point in these solar cells.

Consonni, Vincent; Renet, Sébastien; Garnier, Jérôme; Gergaud, Patrice; Artús, Lluis; Michallon, Jérôme; Rapenne, Laetitia; Appert, Estelle; Kaminski-Cachopo, Anne

2014-05-01

298

Status of multijunction solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes Applied Solar's present activity on Multijunction (MJ) space cells. We have worked on a variety of MJ cells, both monolithic and mechanically stacked. In recent years, most effort has been directed to GaInP2/GaAs monolithic cells, grown on Ge substrates, and the status of this cell design will be reviewed here. MJ cells are in demand to provide satellite power because of the acceptance of the overwhelming importance of high efficiency to reduce the area, weight and cost of space PV power systems. The need for high efficiencies has already accelerated the production of GaAs/Ge cells, with efficiencies 18.5-19%. When users realized that MJ cells could provide higher efficiencies (from 22% to 26%) with only fractional increase in costs, the demand for production MJ cells increased rapidly. The main purpose of the work described is to transfer the MOCVD growth technology of MJ high efficiency cells to a production environment, providing all the space requirements of users.

Yeh, Y. C. M.; Chu, C. L.

1996-01-01

299

Screen-printable silver pastes with metallic nano-zinc and nano-zinc alloys for crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells.  

PubMed

Silver metallization pastes for crystalline silicon PV cells containing nanosized metallic zinc were found to be superior to commercial pastes containing micrometer-sized metallic zinc and micrometer sized zinc oxide in terms of efficiency and firing window. Efficiency performance decreases as the size of the particles increases: nano-Zn > 3.6 ?m Zn > 4.4 ?m Zn. Advanced electron microscopy techniques were used to investigate the interfacial microstructure between the front-side contact and the Si emitter of nanosized zinc additive based cells fired at temperatures from below to above optimal. These microstructural observations confirmed the possibility of a tunneling mechanism of current flow (a "nano-Ag colloid assisted tunneling" model) in the absence of Ag crystallites. Contact resistance maps were used to guide sampling, leading to a better understanding of the relationship between microstructure and contact resistance. Low contact resistance and higher cell efficiency, especially at under- and overfiring temperature conditions, are due to more uniform silicon nitride etching obtained through the use of nanosized metallic zinc additives. PMID:21291277

Ionkin, Alex S; Fish, Brian M; Li, Zhigang Rick; Lewittes, Mark; Soper, Paul D; Pepin, John G; Carroll, Alan F

2011-02-01

300

Bioactive Dietary Polyphenols on Zinc Transport across the Intestinal Caco-2 Cell Monolayers  

PubMed Central

Polyphenolic compounds are known to possess many beneficial health effects, including the antioxidative activities of scavenging reactive oxygen species and chelating metals, such as iron and zinc. Tea and red wine are thought to be important sources of these compounds. However, some polyphenolic compounds can also reduce the absorption of iron, and possibly other trace metals, when included in a diet. There is very little information on the effect of dietary polyphenolic compounds on the status of trace elements other than iron. We examined the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), green tea extract (GT) and grape seed extract (GSE) on the absorption of 65Zn and compared them with their effects on 55Fe absorption in human intestinal Caco-2 cells grown on microporous membrane inserts. The levels of EGCG, GT and GSE used in this study were within the physiological ranges and did not affect the integrity of the Caco-2 cell monolayers. GSE significantly (P < 0.05) reduced zinc transport across the cell monolayer, and the decreased zinc transport was associated with a reduction in apical zinc uptake. However, EGCG and GT did not alter zinc absorption. In contrast, the polyphenolic compounds in EGCG, GT and GSE almost completely blocked transepithelial iron transport across the cell monolayer. The effect of GSE on zinc absorption was very different from that on iron absorption. While GSE decreased zinc absorption by reducing apical zinc uptake, the polyphenolic compounds inhibited iron absorption by enhancing apical iron uptake. GSE inhibited zinc absorption similarly to that observed for phytate. Phytate significantly (P < 0.05) decreased transepithelial zinc transport by reducing apical zinc uptake. The inhibition of zinc absorption may be due to the presence of procyanidins in GSE, which bind zinc with high affinity and block the transport of zinc across the apical membrane of enterocytes. Further research on the absorption of zinc as zinc-polyphenol complexes and free zinc should provide further insight into the process of dietary zinc absorption in the presence of GSE and other bioactive dietary polyphenols. The present study suggests that some individuals should consider their zinc status if they regularly consume procyanidin-containing foods in their diet. However, further studies, especially in vivo studies, are needed to confirm these results. PMID:21410257

KIM, EUN-YOUNG; PAI, TONG-KUN; HAN, OKHEE

2011-01-01

301

Supramolecular photochemistry and solar cells  

PubMed

Supramolecular photochemistry as well as solar cells are fascinating topics of current interest in Inorganic Photochemistry and very active research fields which have attracted wide attention in last two decades. A brief outline of the investigations in these fields carried out in our Laboratory of Inorganic Photochemistry and Energy Conversion is given here with no attempt of an exhaustive coverage of the literature. The emphasis is placed on recent work and information on the above mentioned subjects. Three types of supramolecular systems have been the focus of this work: (i) cage-type coordination compounds; (ii) second-sphere coordination compounds, exemplified by ion-pair photochemistry of cobalt complexes and (iii) covalently-linked systems. In the latter, modulation of the photoluminescence and photochemistry of some rhenium complexes are discussed. Solar energy conversion and development of thin-layer photoelectrochemical solar cells based on sensitization of nanocrystalline semiconductor films by some ruthenium polypyridyl complexes are presented as an important application that resulted from specifically engineered artificial assemblies. PMID:10932106

Iha

2000-01-01

302

Overexpression of copper zinc superoxide dismutase impairs human trophoblast cell fusion and differentiation  

E-print Network

Overexpression of copper zinc superoxide dismutase impairs human trophoblast cell fusion investigated the role of the key antioxidant enzyme copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), encoded transcript levels was observed in SOD-1 transfected cells . We then examined SOD-1 expression and activity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

303

DETAIL OF ZINC CLEANER CELL INTERIOR (EXPOSED AT F/45 FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF ZINC CLEANER CELL INTERIOR (EXPOSED AT F/45 FOR DEPTH OF FIELD PURPOSES). NOTE GALIGHER STYLE BAFFLES AND TENDENCY OF ZINC TO BUILD UP ON CELL COMPONENTS. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

304

Energy Conversion: Nano Solar Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems of fossil-fuel-induced climate change have sparked a demand for sustainable energy supply for all sectors of economy. Most laboratories continue to search for new materials and new technique to generate clean energy at affordable cost. Nanotechnology can play a major role in solving the energy problem. The prospect for solar energy using Si-based technology is not encouraging. Si photovoltaics can produce electricity at 20-30 c//kWhr with about 25% efficiency. Nanoparticles have a strong capacity to absorb light and generate more electrons for current as discovered in the recent work of organic and dye-sensitized cell. Using cheap preparation technique such as screen-printing and self-assembly growth, organic cells shows a strong potential for commercialization. Thin Films research group at National University Malaysia has been actively involved in these areas, and in this seminar, we will present a review works on nanomaterials for solar cells and particularly on hybrid organic solar cell based on ZnO nanorod arrays. The organic layer consisting of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] (MEHPPV) and [6, 6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid 3-ethylthiophene ester (PCBE) was spin-coated on ZnO nanorod arrays. ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on FTO glass substrates which were pre-coated with ZnO nanoparticles using a low temperature chemical solution method. A gold electrode was used as the top contact. The device gave a short circuit current density of 2.49×10-4 mA/cm2 and an open circuit voltage of 0.45 V under illumination of a projector halogen light at 100 mW/cm2.

Yahaya, Muhammad; Yap, Chi Chin; Mat Salleh, Muhamad

2009-09-01

305

Boron phosphide under pressure: In situ study by Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cubic boron phosphide, BP, has been studied in situ by X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering up to 55 GPa at 300 K in a diamond anvil cell. The bulk modulus of B0 = 174(2) GPa has been established, which is in excellent agreement with our ab initio calculations. The data on Raman shift as a function of pressure, combined with equation-of-state (EOS) data, allowed us to estimate the Grüneisen parameters of the TO and LO modes of zinc-blende structure, ?GTO= 1.26 and ?GLO= 1.13, just like in the case of other AIIIBV diamond-like phases, for which ?GTO> ?GLO? 1. We also established that the pressure dependence of the effective electro-optical constant ? is responsible for a strong change in relative intensities of the TO and LO modes from ITO/ILO ˜ 0.25 at 0.1 MPa to ITO/ILO ˜ 2.5 at 45 GPa, for which we also find excellent agreement between experiment and theory.

Solozhenko, Vladimir L.; Kurakevych, Oleksandr O.; Le Godec, Yann; Kurnosov, Aleksandr V.; Oganov, Artem R.

2014-07-01

306

Immersion Cooling of Photovoltaic Cells in Highly Concentrated Solar Beams.  

E-print Network

??Concentrated solar radiation can be utilized to generate electrical power from photovoltaic cells, but concentrated solar radiation increases the photovoltaic cell’s temperature. This increase in… (more)

Darwish, Ahmed

2011-01-01

307

Solar cell system having alternating current output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A monolithic multijunction solar cell was modified by fabricating an integrated circuit inverter on the back of the cell to produce a device capable of generating an alternating current output. In another embodiment, integrated curcuit power conditioning electronics was incorporated in a module containing a solar cell power supply.

Evans, J. C., Jr. (inventor)

1980-01-01

308

Early Hematopoietic Zinc Finger Protein Prevents Tumor Cell Recognition by Natural Killer Cells1  

PubMed Central

Early hematopoietic zinc finger/zinc finger protein 521 (EHZF/ZNF521) is a novel zinc finger protein expressed in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and is down-regulated during their differentiation. Its transcript is also abundant in some hematopoietic malignancies. Analysis of the changes in the antigenic profile of cells transfected with EHZF cDNA revealed up-regulation of HLA class I cell surface expression. This phenotypic change was associated with an increased level of HLA class I H chain, in absence of detectable changes in the expression of other Ag-processing machinery components. Enhanced resistance of target cells to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity was induced by enforced expression of EHZF in the cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa and in the B lymphoblastoid cell line IM9. Preincubation of transfected cells with HLA class I Ag-specific mAb restored target cell susceptibility to NK cell-mediated lysis, indicating a specific role for HLA class I Ag up-regulation in the NK resistance induced by EHZF. A potential clinical significance of these findings is further suggested by the inverse correlation between EHZF and MHC class I expression levels, and autologous NK susceptibility of freshly explanted multiple myeloma cells. PMID:19342626

La Rocca, Rosanna; Fulciniti, Mariateresa; Lakshmikanth, Tadepally; Mesuraca, Maria; Ali, Talib Hassan; Mazzei, Valerio; Amodio, Nicola; Catalano, Lucio; Rotoli, Bruno; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Grieco, Michele; Gulletta, Elio; Bond, Heather M.; Morrone, Giovanni; Ferrone, Soldano; Carbone, Ennio

2009-01-01

309

Solar Cell Modules With Improved Backskin  

DOEpatents

A laminated solar cell module comprises a front light transmitting support, a plurality of interconnected solar cells encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant material, and an improved backskin formed of an ionomer/nylon alloy. The improved backskin has a toughness and melting point temperature sufficiently great to avoid any likelihood of it being pierced by any of the components that interconnect the solar cells.

Gonsiorawski, Ronald C. (Danvers, MA)

2003-12-09

310

Bypass diode for a solar cell  

DOEpatents

Bypass diodes for solar cells are described. In one embodiment, a bypass diode for a solar cell includes a substrate of the solar cell. A first conductive region is disposed above the substrate, the first conductive region of a first conductivity type. A second conductive region is disposed on the first conductive region, the second conductive region of a second conductivity type opposite the first conductivity type.

Rim, Seung Bum (Palo Alto, CA); Kim, Taeseok (San Jose, CA); Smith, David D. (Campbell, CA); Cousins, Peter J. (Menlo Park, CA)

2012-03-13

311

Impaired calcium entry into cells is associated with pathological signs of zinc deficiency.  

PubMed

Zinc is an essential trace element whose deficiency gives rise to specific pathological signs. These signs occur because an essential metabolic function is impaired as the result of failure to form or maintain a specific metal-ion protein complex. Although zinc is a component of many essential metalloenzymes and transcription factors, few of these have been identified with a specific sign of incipient zinc deficiency. Zinc also functions as a structural component of other essential proteins. Recent research with Swiss murine fibroblasts, 3T3 cells, has shown that zinc deficiency impairs calcium entry into cells, a process essential for many cell functions, including proliferation, maturation, contraction, and immunity. Impairment of calcium entry and the subsequent failure of cell proliferation could explain the growth failure associated with zinc deficiency. Defective calcium uptake is associated with impaired nerve transmission and pathology of the peripheral nervous system, as well as the failure of platelet aggregation and the bleeding tendency of zinc deficiency. There is a strong analogy between the pathology of genetic diseases that result in impaired calcium entry and other signs of zinc deficiency, such as decreased and cyclic food intake, taste abnormalities, abnormal water balance, skin lesions, impaired reproduction, depressed immunity, and teratogenesis. This analogy suggests that failure of calcium entry is involved in these signs of zinc deficiency as well. PMID:23674794

O'Dell, Boyd L; Browning, Jimmy D

2013-05-01

312

Solar cells using quantum funnels.  

PubMed

Colloidal quantum dots offer broad tuning of semiconductor bandstructure via the quantum size effect. Devices involving a sequence of layers comprised of quantum dots selected to have different diameters, and therefore bandgaps, offer the possibility of funneling energy toward an acceptor. Here we report a quantum funnel that efficiently conveys photoelectrons from their point of generation toward an intended electron acceptor. Using this concept we build a solar cell that benefits from enhanced fill factor as a result of this quantum funnel. This concept addresses limitations on transport in soft condensed matter systems and leverages their advantages in large-area optoelectronic devices and systems. PMID:21827197

Kramer, Illan J; Levina, Larissa; Debnath, Ratan; Zhitomirsky, David; Sargent, Edward H

2011-09-14

313

Thin GaAs solar cell structures  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a solar cell, comprising: a layer of p-type gallium arsenide having a thickness of not greater than about 0.5 micrometers; a layer of n-type gallium arsenide. The layer of p-type gallium arsenide and the layer of n-type gallium arsenide together constitutes an active semiconductor solar cell; a glass cover in contact with the active semiconductor solar cell. The solar cell has no charge recombination inhibitory layer in contact with the layer of p-type gallium arsenide.

Ellion, M.E.; Wolff, G.

1987-09-08

314

Fabrication and Characterization of Organic Solar Cells.  

E-print Network

??Bulk heterojunction organic solar cells have recently drawn tremendous attention because of their technological advantages for actualization of large-area and cost effective fabrication. Two important… (more)

Yengel, Emre

2010-01-01

315

Front contact solar cell with formed emitter  

DOEpatents

A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

Cousins, Peter John (Menlo Park, CA)

2012-07-17

316

Peptide-based Targeting of Fluorescent Zinc Sensors to the Plasma Membrane of Live Cells  

PubMed Central

Combining fluorescent zinc sensors with the facile syntheses and biological targeting capabilities of peptides, we created green- and blue-emitting probes that, (i) are readily prepared on the solid-phase, (ii) retain the photophysical and zinc-binding properties of the parent sensor, and (iii) can be directed to the extracellular side of plasma membranes in live cells for detection of mobile zinc. PMID:23878718

Radford, Robert J.; Chyan, Wen; Lippard, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

317

GPS patch antenna with photovoltaic solar cells for vehicular applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the application of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells in planar antenna structures. The radiating patch element of a planar antenna is replaced by a solar cell. The original feature of a solar cell (DC current generation) remains, but additionally the cell is now able to receive and transmit electromagnetic waves. Both single solar cells as well as solar

Norbert Henze; Andre Giere; Henning Früchting; Pascal Hofmann

2003-01-01

318

Current status of silicon solar cell technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In quest of higher efficiency, major progress has occurred in solar cell technology. Cell efficiency has climbed about 50 percent. Technical approaches leading to increased output include back surface fields, shallow junctions, improved antireflection coatings, surface texturizing, and fine grid patterns on the cell surface. The status of current solar cell technology and its incorporation into cell production is discussed. Research and development leading to improved performance and reduced cost are also described.

Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

1975-01-01

319

Current and lattice matched tandem solar cell  

DOEpatents

A multijunction (cascade) tandem photovoltaic solar cell device is fabricated of a Ga.sub.x In.sub.1-x P (0.505.ltoreq.X.ltoreq.0.515) top cell semiconductor lattice matched to a GaAs bottom cell semiconductor at a low-resistance heterojunction, preferably a p+/n+ heterojunction between the cells. The top and bottom cells are both lattice matched and current matched for high efficiency solar radiation conversion to electrical energy.

Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO)

1987-01-01

320

Indium phosphide/cadmium sulfide thin-film solar cells. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, December 1979-April 1980  

SciTech Connect

Thin films (approx. 1 ..mu..m thick) and large grains (approx. 40 x 40 ..mu..m) of InP were epitaxially deposited on low-cost recrystallized CdS (RXCdS) substrates at 280/sup 0/C by planar reactive deposition. At 380/sup 0/C, a 0.4- to 1.0-..mu..m-thick In-Cd-S transition layer between the InP and the RXCdS degrades the quality of the InP epitaxy. However, p-type InP films were prepared at this temperature by Be-doping and capping the entire RXCdS substrate with InP. Large grains of CdTe (approx. 40 ..mu..m) were also deposited on RXCdS substrates at 460/sup 0/C by physical vapor deposition. The grain size of the RXCdS is typically 40 ..mu..m. However, during this period we prepared RXCdS with grains having dimensions up to 300 ..mu..m.

Zanio, K.

1980-06-01

321

New materials for solar cells - Tandem cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cost efficiency in the manufacturing processes of the solar cell panels is discussed, noting the utilization of the III-V compound semiconductors (such as InSb or Ge) instead of silicon or gallium arsenide which have a complicated and expensive technology. A computation program is presented for a p-n junction using a set of nonlinear differential equations and taking into consideration such parameters as the mobility, the life space and the forbidden band. It is concluded that new, economic technologies should be directed toward blocking the UV light, acrylic elastomers, waterproof wood and paper materials and cost efficient silicon and fluorocarbon materials.

Dolocan, V.

322

Method for processing silicon solar cells  

DOEpatents

The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystallline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation.

Tsuo, Y. Simon (Golden, CO); Landry, Marc D. (Lafayette, CO); Pitts, John R. (Lakewood, CO)

1997-01-01

323

Method for processing silicon solar cells  

DOEpatents

The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystalline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation. 2 figs.

Tsuo, Y.S.; Landry, M.D.; Pitts, J.R.

1997-05-06

324

Plasmonic silicon solar cells: impact of material quality and geometry.  

PubMed

We study n-i-p amorphous silicon solar cells with light-scattering nanoparticles in the back reflector. In one configuration, the particles are fully embedded in the zinc oxide buffer layer; In a second configuration, the particles are placed between the buffer layer and the flat back electrode. We use stencil lithography to produce the same periodic arrangement of the particles and we use the same solar cell structure on top, thus establishing a fair comparison between a novel plasmonic concept and its more traditional counterpart. Both approaches show strong resonances around 700 nm in the external quantum efficiency the position and intensity of which vary strongly with the nanoparticle shape. Moreover, disagreement between simulations and our experimental results suggests that the dielectric data of bulk silver do not correctly represent the reality. A better fit is obtained by introducing a porous interfacial layer between the silver and zinc oxide. Without the interfacial layer, e.g. by improved processing of the nanoparticles, our simulations show that the nanoparticles concept could outperform traditional back reflectors. PMID:24104574

Pahud, Celine; Isabella, Olindo; Naqavi, Ali; Haug, Franz-Josef; Zeman, Miro; Herzig, Hans Peter; Ballif, Christophe

2013-09-01

325

Zinc functions as a cytotoxic agent for prostate cancer cells independent of culture and growth conditions.  

PubMed

The effects of zinc on the viability of PC3, LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines in vitro were examined. The data indicate that, despite their distinctly different gene expression profiles, morphology and tissue origin, all cell lines responded to zinc in a similar time and dose dependent manner. Experiments using pyrithione indicated that cell death is mediated by internalized zinc. Zinc effects on cells plated as monolayers were compared to its effects on cells plated in a collagen matrix. Although the rate of cell growth in the matrix was delayed compared to cells in 2-dimensional cultures, the cytotoxic effects of zinc were unaltered. Using both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional cultures, we observed that zinc cytotoxicity was independent of both the culture conditions and the rate of cell growth, results that contrast the activity of the current chemotherapeutics used to treat prostate cancer. The attractive properties of zinc cytotoxicity demonstrated in this paper suggest that is can be developed as a novel and effective chemotherapeutic agent for prostate cancer treatment. PMID:21222361

Kriedt, Christopher L; Baldassare, Joseph; Shah, Maulik; Klein, Claudette

2010-01-01

326

Life testing of secondary silver-zinc cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Testing on a variety of secondary silver-zinc (Ag-Zn) cells has been in progress at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for over six years. The latest test involves a 350-Ah cell design that has been cycled at 10 C for 16 months. This design has achieved over 7200 low-earth-orbit (LEO) cycles as well as 17 deep discharges at an 85 percent depth of discharge. This test not only is a life test on these cells but also addresses different methods of storing these cells between the deep discharges. As the test is approaching completion, some interesting results are being seen. In particular, two of the four packs currently on test have failed to meet the 35-h (295-Ah) deep discharge requirement that was arbitrarily set at the beginning of the test. This capacity loss failure is likely a result of the storage method used on these two packs between deep discharges. The two packs are LEO cycled in such a way as to minimize overcharge in an attempt to prolong life.

Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Doreswamy, Rajiv

327

Life testing of secondary silver-zinc cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Testing on a variety of secondary silver-zinc (Ag-Zn) cells has been in progress at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for over six years. The latest test involves a 350-Ah cell design that has been cycled at 10 C for 16 months. This design has achieved over 7200 low-earth-orbit (LEO) cycles as well as 17 deep discharges at an 85 percent depth of discharge. This test not only is a life test on these cells but also addresses different methods of storing these cells between the deep discharges. As the test is approaching completion, some interesting results are being seen. In particular, two of the four packs currently on test have failed to meet the 35-h (295-Ah) deep discharge requirement that was arbitrarily set at the beginning of the test. This capacity loss failure is likely a result of the storage method used on these two packs between deep discharges. The two packs are LEO cycled in such a way as to minimize overcharge in an attempt to prolong life.

Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Doreswamy, Rajiv

1991-01-01

328

Monolithic cells for solar fuels.  

PubMed

Hybrid energy generation models based on a variety of alternative energy supply technologies are considered the best way to cope with the depletion of fossil energy resources and to limit global warming. One of the currently missing technologies is the mimic of natural photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water into chemical fuel using sunlight. This idea has been around for decades, but artificial photosynthesis of organic molecules is still far away from providing real-world solutions. The scientific challenge is to perform in an efficient way the multi-electron transfer reactions of water oxidation and carbon dioxide reduction using holes and single electrons generated in an illuminated semiconductor. In this tutorial review the design of photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells that combine solar water oxidation and CO2 reduction is discussed. In such PEC cells simultaneous transport and efficient use of light, electrons, protons and molecules has to be managed. It is explained how efficiency can be gained by compartmentalisation of the water oxidation and CO2 reduction processes by proton exchange membranes, and monolithic concepts of artificial leaves and solar membranes are presented. Besides transferring protons from the anode to the cathode compartment the membrane serves as a molecular barrier material to prevent cross-over of oxygen and fuel molecules. Innovative nano-organized multimaterials will be needed to realise practical artificial photosynthesis devices. This review provides an overview of synthesis techniques which could be used to realise monolithic multifunctional membrane-electrode assemblies, such as Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), and porous silicon (porSi) engineering. Advances in modelling approaches, electrochemical techniques and in situ spectroscopies to characterise overall PEC cell performance are discussed. PMID:24526085

Rongé, Jan; Bosserez, Tom; Martel, David; Nervi, Carlo; Boarino, Luca; Taulelle, Francis; Decher, Gero; Bordiga, Silvia; Martens, Johan A

2014-11-01

329

The zinc\\/thiolate redox biochemistry of metallothionein and the control of zinc ion fluctuations in cell signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free zinc ions are potent effectors of proteins. Their tightly controlled fluctuations (“zinc signals”) in the picomolar range of concentrations modulate cellular signaling pathways. Sulfur (cysteine) donors generate redox-active coordination environments in proteins for the redox-inert zinc ion and make it possible for redox signals to induce zinc signals. Amplitudes of zinc signals are determined by the cellular zinc buffering

Artur Kr??el; Qiang Hao; Wolfgang Maret

2007-01-01

330

Gassing characteristics of high capacity, high energy density rechargeable silver zinc cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver zinc batteries have been used safely for many years in a myriad of applications. With the advent of high energy density, semi-closed propulsion systems, the gassing characteristics of silver zinc cells have come under closer scrutiny from both a quantity standpoint as well as quality. A body of work was undertaken to characterize the gassing of a high energy

Z. Adamedes

1998-01-01

331

Introduction to basic solar cell measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic approaches to solar cell performance and diagnostic measurements are described. The light sources, equipment for I-V curve measurement, and the test conditions and procedures for performance measurement are detailed. Solar cell diagnostic tools discussed include analysis of I-V curves, series resistance and reverse saturation current determination, spectral response/quantum yield measurement, and diffusion length/lifetime determination.

Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

1976-01-01

332

Thin solar cell and lightweight array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thin, lightweight solar cell that utilizes front contact metallization is presented. Both the front light receiving surface of the solar cell and the facing surface of the cover glass are recessed to accommodate this metallization. This enables the two surfaces to meet flush for an optimum seal.

Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr. (inventor); Weinberg, Irving (inventor)

1991-01-01

333

EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser  

E-print Network

that makes electrons move (difference in height makes water flow) 9Montana State University: Solar Cells · Symbolic information: electronics Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 7: EE Fundamentals 2 Review · Electric charge is produced by electrons and protons · Electrons are negatively charged and protons

Kaiser, Todd J.

334

The use of aluminium doped ZnO as transparent conductive oxide for CdS\\/CdTe solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

CdTe\\/CdS and CdTe\\/ZnO thin film solar cells were grown with a high vacuum evaporation based low temperature process (?420°C). Aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) was used as transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material. AZO exhibited excellent stability during the solar cell processing, and no significant change in electrical conductivity or transparency was observed. The current density loss due to absorption in

J. Perrenoud; L. Kranz; S. Buecheler; F. Pianezzi; A. N. Tiwari

2011-01-01

335

High-Efficiency PIN Microcrystalline and Micromorph Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells Deposited on LPCVD Zno Coated Glass Substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report on the fabrication of microcrystalline silicon p-i-n solar cells with efficiencies close to 10%, using glass coated with zinc oxide (ZnO) deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). LPCVD front contacts were optimized for p-i-n microcrystalline silicon solar cells by decreasing the free carrier absorption of the layers and increasing the surface roughness. These modifications resulted

J. Bailat; D. Domine; R. Schluchter; J. Steinhauser; S. Fay; F. Freitas; C. Bucher; L. Feitknecht; X. Niquille; T. Tscharner; A. Shah; C. Ballif

2006-01-01

336

Zinc transport by respiratory epithelial cells and interaction with iron homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite recurrent exposure to zinc through inhalation of ambient air pollution particles, relatively little information is\\u000a known about the homeostasis of this metal in respiratory epithelial cells. We describe zinc uptake and release by respiratory\\u000a epithelial cells and test the postulate that Zn2+ transport interacts with iron homeostasis in these same cells. Zn2+ uptake after 4 and 8 h of exposure

Zhongping Deng; Lisa A. Dailey; Joleen Soukup; Jacqueline Stonehuerner; Judy D. Richards; Kimberly D. Callaghan; Funmei Yang; Andrew J. Ghio

2009-01-01

337

Oxide and sulfide semiconductor thin films for solar cells and spintronic devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation will present the synthesis and characterization of the doped-zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited by various techniques for their potential applications in spintronics devices and solar cells. The research work shows room temperature ferromagnetism in transition metal doped zinc oxide dilute magnetic semiconductors in highly crystalline nanostructured and polycrystalline forms. A spin field effect transistor working as a resistive switch was simulated based on the conductance modulation of the electron channel formed by magnetic impurity doped ZnO. Light scattering properties of nanostructured doped ZnO films has been simulated using Mie scattering theory in view of possible application in light harvesting in solar cells. Band gap bowing effect was achieved in sulfur-alloyed ZnO (zinc oxysulfide) films and a new bowing parameter and stress effect gave a better understanding of the sulfur alloyed effect in these polycrystalline thin films synthesized by chemical spray pyrolysis technique. A novel nanostructure was developed with sulfur-doping of ZnO in the ZnO core and zinc oxysulfide (ZnO1-xSx) shell form. For the first time the ZnO-ZnO1-xSx core-shell nanorods were applied to develop 3-dimenstional organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells. The performance of organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells based on ZnO-ZnO 1-xSx core-shell nanorods thin films was evaluated using the current-voltage characteristics. Further, the role of flux induced crystallization of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films by chemical spray pyrolysis technique is explored. This dissertation also investigates the interface effects and heterojunction properties of cadmium sulfide/CZTS heterojunction solar cells.

Ramachandran Thankalekshmi, Ratheesh

338

Planar multijunction high voltage solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical considerations, preliminary results, and fabrication details are discussed for a family of high-voltage planar multi-junction (PMJ) solar cells which combine the attractive features of planar cells with conventional or interdigitated back contacts and the vertical multijunction (VMJ) solar cell. The PMJ solar cell is internally divided into many voltage-generating regions, called unit cells, which are internally connected in series. The key to obtaining reasonable performance from this device was the separation of top surface field regions over each active unit cell. Using existing solar cell fabricating methods, output voltages in excess of 20 volts per linear centimeter are possible. Analysis of the new device is complex, and numerous geometries are being studied which should provide substantial benefits in both normal sunlight usage as well as with concentrators.

Evans, J. C., Jr.; Chai, A. T.; Goradia, C.

1980-01-01

339

Coating Processes Boost Performance of Solar Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA currently has spacecraft orbiting Mercury (MESSENGER), imaging the asteroid Vesta (Dawn), roaming the red plains of Mars (the Opportunity rover), and providing a laboratory for humans to advance scientific research in space (the International Space Station, or ISS). The heart of the technology that powers those missions and many others can be held in the palm of your hand - the solar cell. Solar, or photovoltaic (PV), cells are what make up the panels and arrays that draw on the Sun s light to generate electricity for everything from the Hubble Space Telescope s imaging equipment to the life support systems for the ISS. To enable NASA spacecraft to utilize the Sun s energy for exploring destinations as distant as Jupiter, the Agency has invested significant research into improving solar cell design and efficiency. Glenn Research Center has been a national leader in advancing PV technology. The Center s Photovoltaic and Power Technologies Branch has conducted numerous experiments aimed at developing lighter, more efficient solar cells that are less expensive to manufacture. Initiatives like the Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiments I and II in which PV cells developed by NASA and private industry were mounted outside the ISS have tested how various solar technologies perform in the harsh conditions of space. While NASA seeks to improve solar cells for space applications, the results are returning to Earth to benefit the solar energy industry.

2012-01-01

340

High-Temperature Solar Cell Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vast majority of satellites and near-earth probes developed to date have relied upon photovoltaic power generation. If future missions to probe environments close to the sun will be able to use photovoltaic power, solar cells that can function at high temperatures, under high light intensity, and high radiation conditions must be developed. For example, the equilibrium temperature of a Mercury surface station will be about 450 C, and the temperature of solar arrays on the proposed "Solar Probe" mission will extend to temperatures as high as 2000 C (although it is likely that the craft will operate on stored power rather than solar energy during the closest approach to the sun). Advanced thermal design principles, such as replacing some of the solar array area with reflectors, off-pointing, and designing the cells to reflect rather than absorb light out of the band of peak response, can reduce these operating temperature somewhat. Nevertheless, it is desirable to develop approaches to high-temperature solar cell design that can operate under temperature extremes far greater than today's cells. Solar cells made from wide bandgap (WBG) compound semiconductors are an obvious choice for such an application. In order to aid in the experimental development of such solar cells, we have initiated a program studying the theoretical and experimental photovoltaic performance of wide bandgap materials. In particular, we have been investigating the use of GaP, SiC, and GaN materials for space solar cells. We will present theoretical results on the limitations on current cell technologies and the photovoltaic performance of these wide-bandgap solar cells in a variety of space conditions. We will also give an overview of some of NASA's cell developmental efforts in this area and discuss possible future mission applications.

Landis, Geoffrey A.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Merritt, Danielle

2004-01-01

341

Solar cells for terrestrial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The power efficiency curves of photovoltaic solar cells were investigated as a function of the forbidden energy gap (E sub g) and the current-voltage characteristic of the diode. Minority carrier injection, depletion layer recombination, and interface recombination terms were considered in models for the I-V characteristic. The collection efficiency for photons with energy between (E sub g) and an upper energy cutoff (E sub w) was assumed to be 100% and zero otherwise. Results are presented in terms of a single parameter related to the ratio of depletion layer width and minority carrier diffusion length. It was found that increasing depletion layer recombination shifts the efficiency curves to larger values of the energy without changing the shape of the efficiency curve appreciably. It is believed that similar results would be obtained whenever the quality factors in the exponential energy gap and forward bias terms are equal.

Chernow, F.

1975-01-01

342

Silicon solar cell efficiency: Practice and promise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The maximum efficiency of silicon solar cells was calculated and yielded a value near 18%. Additionally, the performance of these high efficiency cells in a synchronous orbit radiation field was calculated and it is suggested that these cells would be superior to present silicon cells. The performance of conventional cells was analyzed and several areas in which performance gains may be achieved are discussed. These areas include improvements in diffused region profile, in reduction of excess forward currents in cells made from low resistivity material, and in the theory for describing complex solar cell structures.

Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

1972-01-01

343

Nickel hydrogen and silver zinc battery cell modeling at the Aerospace Corporation  

SciTech Connect

A nickel hydrogen battery cell model has been fully developed and implemented at The Aerospace Corporation. Applications of this model to industry needs for the design of better cells, power system design and charge control thermal management, and long-term performance trends will be described. Present efforts will be described that are introducing the silver and zinc electrode reactions into this model architecture, so that the model will be able to predict performance for not only silver zinc cells, but also nickel zinc, silver hydrogen, and silver cadmium cells. The silver zinc cell modeling effort is specifically designed to address the concerns that arise most often in launch vehicle applications: transient response, power-on voltage regulation, hot or cold operation, electrolyte spewing, gas venting, self-discharge, separator oxidation, and oxalate crystal growth. The specific model features that are being employed to address these issues will be described.

Zimmerman, A.H.

1996-02-01

344

Sinterless Formation Of Contacts On Indium Phosphide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved technique makes it possible to form low-resistivity {nearly equal to 10(Sup-6) ohm cm(Sup2)} electrical contacts on indium phosphide semiconductor devices without damaging devices. Layer of AgP2 40 Angstrom thick deposited on InP before depositing metal contact. AgP2 interlayer sharply reduces contact resistance, without need for sintering.

Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

1995-01-01

345

Characterization of zinc-induced neuronal death in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells.  

PubMed

Although zinc is essential for the activity of numerous biological systems, and zinc deficiency has been associated with various pathologies, this metal can also exert direct neurotoxic action. In primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule neurons, a brief, 15- to 30-min exposure to zinc (100-500 microM) resulted in concentration-dependent delayed neuronal death. The toxicity of zinc depended on the maturity of the neuronal cultures-it was not apparent prior to Day 5 and it reached a plateau at about 9-10 days in vitro. We assayed cell injury by measuring mitochondrial functioning (MTT assay) and cell death with the trypan blue exclusion assay. Apoptosis was assayed by the morphological appearance of cells following fluorescence staining with propidium iodide and by the in situ TUNEL technique. Mitochondrial injury was an early result of zinc treatment. Actinomycin D, an inhibitor of macromolecular synthesis, attenuated delayed cell death. The calcium channel blockers nimodipine and amlodipine reduced both mitochondrial injury and cell death; the blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors with MK-801 or CNQX was ineffective. These results suggest that calcium channel-blocker-sensitive mitochondrial injury and DNA damage are operative in the protein-synthesis-dependent neurotoxicity of zinc. An imbalance of zinc homeostasis might play a role in the pathophysiology of apoptosis-associated neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:9225750

Manev, H; Kharlamov, E; Uz, T; Mason, R P; Cagnoli, C M

1997-07-01

346

Nanocomposite enables sensitized solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye Sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are a promising candidate for next generation photovoltaic panels due to their low cost, easy fabrication process, and relative high efficiency. Despite considerable effort on the advancement of DSSCs, the efficiency has been stalled for nearly a decade due to the complex interplay among various DSSC components. DSSCs consist of a photoanode on a conducting substrate, infiltrated dye for light absorption and electron injection, and an electrolyte to regenerate the dye. On the photoanode is a high band-gap semiconducting material, primarily of a nanostructure morphology of titanium (II) dioxide (TiO2), dye molecules whose molar absorption is typically in the visible spectrum, are adsorbed onto the surface of TiO 2. To improve the current DSSCs, there are many parameters that can be investigated. In a conventional DSSC, a thick semiconducting layer such as the nanoparticle TiO2 layer induces charge separation efficiently while concurrently increasing the charge transport distance, leading the cell to suffer from more charge recombination and deterioration in charge collection efficiency. To improve on this limitation, TiO2 nanowires (NW) and nanotubes (NT) are explored to replace the nanoparticle photoanode. One-dimensional nanostructures are known for the excellent electron transport properties as well as maintaining a relatively high surface area. Hence one of the focuses of this thesis explores at using different morphologies and composition of TiO2 nanostructures to enhance electron collection efficiency. Another challenge in conventional DSSCs is the limit in light absorption of solar irradiation. Dyes are limited to absorption only in the visible range, and have a low molar absorption coefficient in the near infrared (NIR). Tuning dyes is extremely complicated and may have more disadvantages than simply by extending light harvesting. Therefore our strategy is to incorporate quantum dots to replace the dye, as well as prepare a cell for the possibility of co-sensitization, thereby extending the absorption of light in the visible and NIR. The first phase of the thesis involves the synthesis and characterization of the materials used for the cell. We successfully synthesized TiO2 nanowires and nanotubes and characterized them for the use as the photoanode. Both one-dimensional structures proved to have low resistivity, chemical stability, and high density. We also synthesized lead (II) sulfide (PbS) quantum dots (QDs) and explored at modifying their diameter in order to properly control their light harvesting potential into the NIR region. The electron transport kinetics proved to be faster in one-dimensional nanostructure due to their high crystallinity order and reduced elastic scattering of the electrons during transport. Furthermore, quantum dots were synthesized such that their band-gap allowed for the absorption of NIR light. This result extended the harvesting potential of our solar cell and suggests the possibility for co-sensitization in DSSCs using dye molecules and quantum dots. Hence, the focus of this thesis work is to systematically explore a transformative way to fundamentally enhance charge transport and extend light absorption by in the incorporation of two sensitizing agents.

Phuyal, Dibya D.

347

Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

Loferski, J. J.

1976-01-01

348

Semiconductor quantum dot-sensitized solar cells  

PubMed Central

Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been drawing great attention recently as a material for solar energy conversion due to their versatile optical and electrical properties. The QD-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) is one of the burgeoning semiconductor QD solar cells that shows promising developments for the next generation of solar cells. This article focuses on recent developments in QDSCs, including 1) the effect of quantum confinement on QDSCs, 2) the multiple exciton generation (MEG) of QDs, 3) fabrication methods of QDs, and 4) nanocrystalline photoelectrodes for solar cells. We also make suggestions for future research on QDSCs. Although the efficiency of QDSCs is still low, we think there will be major breakthroughs in developing QDSCs in the future. PMID:24191178

Tian, Jianjun; Cao, Guozhong

2013-01-01

349

Silicon solar cells improved by lithium doping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of conference on characteristics of lithium-doped silicon solar cells and techniques required for fabrication indicate that output of cells has been improved to point where cells exhibit radiation resistance superior to those currently in use, and greater control and reproducibility of cell processing have been achieved.

Berman, P. A.

1970-01-01

350

Comprehensive silicon solar-cell computer modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive silicon solar cell computer modeling scheme was developed to perform the following tasks: (1) model and analysis of the net charge distribution in quasineutral regions; (2) experimentally determined temperature behavior of Spire Corp. n+pp+ solar cells where n+-emitter is formed by ion implantation of 75As or 31P; and (3) initial validation results of computer simulation program using Spire Corp. n+pp+ cells.

Lamorte, M. F.

1984-01-01

351

Emitter wrap-through solar cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a new solar cell concept (emitter wrap-through or EWT) for a back-contact cell. The cell has laser-drilled vias to wrap the emitter on the front surface to contacts on the back surface and uses a potentially low-cost process sequence. Modeling calculations show that efficiencies of 18 and 21% are possible with large-area solar-grade multi- and monocrystalline silicon

James M. Gee; W. Kent Schubert; Paul A. Basore

1993-01-01

352

Development of gallium arsenide solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of ion implantation as a means of developing gallium arsenide solar cells with high efficiency performance was investigated. Computer calculations on gallium arsenide cell characteristics are presented to show the effects of surface recombination, junction space-charge recombination, and built-in fields produced by nonuniform doping of the surface region. The fabrication technology is summarized. Electrical and optical measurements on samples of solar cells are included.

1973-01-01

353

Dye-sensitized Solar Cells for Solar Energy Harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) also known as Gratzel cells, have attracted the interests of researchers to a great extent because of its cost effective and easy manufacturing process without involving highly sophisticated lithographic technique and high cost raw materials as usually seen in conventional solar cell. Based on simple photo-electrochemical process, it has got immense potential in converting solar energy to electrical power in remote and desert area where the supply of conventional power is not possible. The overall peak power-production efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells has been reported around 11 percent, so they are best suited to low-density applications and the price-to-performance ratio obtained through these solar cells is superior to others. DSSCs have ability to absorb even diffused sunlight and therefore work in cloudy whether as well without much impact over the efficiency. The present communication deals with a review of our work on DSSCs wherein we have used cost effective natural dyes/pigments as a sensitizer of nc-TiO2 and discussed about various key factors affecting the conversion efficiency of DSSC.

Roy, M. S.; Deol, Y. S.; Kumar, Manish; Prasad, Narottam; Janu, Yojana

2011-10-01

354

Development of GaAs solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calculations of GaAs solar cell output parameters were refined and a computer model was developed for parameter optimization. The results were analyzed to determine the material characteristics required for a high efficiency solar cell. Calculated efficiencies for a P/N cell polarity are higher than an N/P cell. Both cell polarities show efficiency to have a larger dependence on short circuit current than an open circuit voltage under nearly all conditions considered. The tolerances and requirements of a cell fabrication process are more critical for an N/P type than for a P/N type cell. Several solar cell fabrication considerations relative to junction formation using ion implantation are also discussed.

Mcnally, P. J.

1972-01-01

355

Improved conversion efficiency of amorphous Si solar cells using a mesoporous ZnO pattern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide a front transparent electrode for use in highly efficient hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film solar cells, porous flat layer and micro-patterns of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle (NP) layers were prepared through ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) and deposited on Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layers. Through this, it was found that a porous micro-pattern of ZnO NPs dispersed in resin can optimize the light-trapping pattern, with the efficiency of solar cells based on patterned or flat mesoporous ZnO layers increased by 27% and 12%, respectively.

Go, Bit-Na; Kim, Yang Doo; suk Oh, Kyoung; Kim, Chaehyun; Choi, Hak-Jong; Lee, Heon

2014-09-01

356

Improved conversion efficiency of amorphous Si solar cells using a mesoporous ZnO pattern.  

PubMed

To provide a front transparent electrode for use in highly efficient hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film solar cells, porous flat layer and micro-patterns of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle (NP) layers were prepared through ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) and deposited on Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layers. Through this, it was found that a porous micro-pattern of ZnO NPs dispersed in resin can optimize the light-trapping pattern, with the efficiency of solar cells based on patterned or flat mesoporous ZnO layers increased by 27% and 12%, respectively. PMID:25276101

Go, Bit-Na; Kim, Yang Doo; Suk Oh, Kyoung; Kim, Chaehyun; Choi, Hak-Jong; Lee, Heon

2014-01-01

357

Improved conversion efficiency of amorphous Si solar cells using a mesoporous ZnO pattern  

PubMed Central

To provide a front transparent electrode for use in highly efficient hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film solar cells, porous flat layer and micro-patterns of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle (NP) layers were prepared through ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) and deposited on Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layers. Through this, it was found that a porous micro-pattern of ZnO NPs dispersed in resin can optimize the light-trapping pattern, with the efficiency of solar cells based on patterned or flat mesoporous ZnO layers increased by 27% and 12%, respectively.

2014-01-01

358

Cascade solar cell having conductive interconnects  

DOEpatents

Direct ohmic contact between the cells in an epitaxially grown cascade solar cell is obtained by means of conductive interconnects formed through grooves etched intermittently in the upper cell. The base of the upper cell is directly connected by the conductive interconnects to the emitter of the bottom cell. The conductive interconnects preferably terminate on a ledge formed in the base of the upper cell.

Borden, Peter G. (Menlo Park, CA); Saxena, Ram R. (Saratoga, CA)

1982-10-26

359

Teachers' Domain: Inside a Solar Cell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash tutorial shows how photovoltaic cells in solar panels convert sunlight into electrical current. It provides a close-up look at each layer of the basic solar panel, with particular emphasis on how electrons cross over the junction that joins the two silicon layers in the cell. When the concentration of negative and positive charge between the two layers reaches equilibrium, an electric field is produced -- the solar cell is ready to capture photons. Teachers' Domain is a collection of more than 1,000 free educational resources compiled by researchers and experienced teachers to promote the use of digital resources in the classroom.

2012-08-21

360

Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface  

DOEpatents

A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer.

Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO); Kurtz, Sarah R. (Golden, CO)

1994-01-01

361

Bypass diode for a solar cell  

DOEpatents

Methods of fabricating bypass diodes for solar cells are described. In once embodiment, a method includes forming a first conductive region of a first conductivity type above a substrate of a solar cell. A second conductive region of a second conductivity type is formed on the first conductive region. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a first conductive region of a first conductivity type above a substrate of a solar cell. A second conductive region of a second conductivity type is formed within, and surrounded by, an uppermost portion of the first conductive region but is not formed in a lowermost portion of the first conductive region.

Rim, Seung Bum; Kim, Taeseok; Smith, David D; Cousins, Peter J

2013-11-12

362

Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface  

DOEpatents

A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell is described wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga[sub 0.52]In[sub 0.48]P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer. 1 fig.

Olson, J.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

1994-05-31

363

Materials refining for solar cell silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallurgical refining processes for the production of solar cell silicon are described. The aim is to obtain an optimum purification effect with a minimum of process steps. The characterization of refined silicon is limited to chemical purity and its correlation with solar quality. Hydrometallurgical refining and pyrometallurgical refining (liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-gas extraction, and recrystallization in aluminum) are treated.

Dietl, J.

364

Indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells  

DOEpatents

A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

1982-12-28

365

Solar cell anomaly detection method and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is provided for detecting cracks and other imperfections in a solar cell, which includes scanning a narrow light beam back and forth across the cell in a raster pattern, while monitoring the electrical output of the cell to find locations where the electrical output varies significantly. The electrical output can be monitored on a television type screen containing a raster pattern with each point on the screen corresponding to a point on the solar cell surface, and with the brightness of each point on the screen corresponding to the electrical output from the cell which was produced when the light beam was at the corresponding point on the cell. The technique can be utilized to scan a large array of interconnected solar cells, to determine which ones are defective.

Miller, Emmett L. (Inventor); Shumka, Alex (Inventor); Gauthier, Michael K. (Inventor)

1981-01-01

366

On-orbit results of the LIPS 3/InP homojunction solar cell experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flight performance of the NASA indium phosphide homojunction cell module on the LIPS 3 satellite is presented. The experimental objectivewas to measure the InP cell performance in the natural radiation environment in a circular 1100 km altitude orbit inclined 60 degrees. Flight data for the first year is close to expected values. No degradation in the short-circuit current is seen. Details of cell structure and flight module design are discussed.

Brinker, David J.

1989-01-01

367

Radiation Damage Workshop report. [solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The starting material, cell design/geometry, and cell processing/fabrication for silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells are addressed with reference to radiation damage. In general, it is concluded that diagnostic sensitivities and material purities are basic to making significant gains in end-of-life performance and thermal annealability. Further, GaAs material characterization is so sketchy that a well defined program to evaluate such material for solar cell application is needed to maximize GaAs cell technology benefits.

Rahilly, W. P.

1980-01-01

368

Towards high performance inverted polymer solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells that can be fabricated by solution processing techniques are under intense investigation in both academic institutions and industrial companies because of their potential to enable mass production of flexible and cost-effective alternative to silicon-based electronics. Despite the envisioned advantages and recent technology advances, so far the performance of polymer solar cells is still inferior to inorganic counterparts in terms of the efficiency and stability. There are many factors limiting the performance of polymer solar cells. Among them, the optical and electronic properties of materials in the active layer, device architecture and elimination of PEDOT:PSS are the most determining factors in the overall performance of polymer solar cells. In this presentation, I will present how we approach high performance of polymer solar cells. For example, by developing novel materials, fabrication polymer photovoltaic cells with an inverted device structure and elimination of PEDOT:PSS, we were able to observe over 8.4% power conversion efficiency from inverted polymer solar cells.

Gong, Xiong

2013-03-01

369

Large area polymer solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fabrication of very large area polymer based solar cell modules with a total aperture area of 1000 cm2 has been accomplished. The substrate was polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) foil with a pre-etched pattern of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) anodes. The module was constructed as a matrix of 91 devices comprising 7 rows connected in parallel with each row having 13 individual cells connected in series. The printing of the organic layer employed screen printing of a chlorobenzene solution of the active material that consisted of either poly-1,4-(2-methoxy-5-ethylhexyloxy) phenylenevinylene (MEH-PPV) on its own or a 1:1 mixture (w/w) of MEH-PPV and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butanoic acid methyl ester (PCBM). Our first results employed e-beam evaporation of the aluminium cathode directly onto the active layer giving devices with very poor performance that was discouragingly lower than expected by about three orders of magnitude. We found that e-beam radiation leads to a much poorer performance and thermal evaporation of the aluminium using a basket heater improved these values by an order of magnitude in efficiency for the geometry ITO/MEH-PPV/C60/Al. Finally the lifetimes (?1/2) of the modules were established and were found to improve significantly when a sublimed layer of C60 was included between the polymer and the aluminium electrode. Values for the half life of 150 hours were typically obtained. This short lifetime is linked to reaction between the reactive metal electrode (aluminium) and the constituents of the active layer.

Krebs, Frederik C.; Alstrup, Jan; Biancardo, Matteo; Spanggaard, Holger

2005-10-01

370

Enhancement of oxygen vacancies and solar photocatalytic activity of zinc oxide by incorporation of nonmetal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

B-doped ZnO and N-doped ZnO powders have been synthesized by mechanochemical method and characterized by TG-DTA, XRD, SEM-EDX, XPS, UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. X-ray diffraction data suggests the hexagonal wurtzite structure for modified ZnO crystallites and the incorporation of nonmetal expands the lattice constants of ZnO. The room temperature PL spectra suggest more number of oxygen vacancies exist in nonmetal-doped ZnO than that of undoped zinc oxide. XPS analysis shows the substitution of some of the O atoms of ZnO by nonmetal atoms. Solar photocatalytic activity of B-doped ZnO, N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO was compared by means of oxidative photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of Bisphenol A (BPA). B-doped ZnO showed better solar PCD efficiency as compare to N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO. The PCD of BPA follows first order reaction kinetics. The detail mechanism of PCD of Bisphenol A was proposed with the identification of intermediates such as hydroquinone, benzene-1,2,4-triol and 4-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl) phenol.

Patil, Ashokrao B.; Patil, Kashinath R.; Pardeshi, Satish K.

2011-12-01

371

Status of silicon solar cell technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that during the time from 1970 to 1976 the efficiency of solar cells has increased from 10.5 to 15.5%. Most of the increased output has resulted from increased short circuit current. Advances leading to this improvement in performance are discussed, taking into account a reduction in the area covered by the grid pattern, the use of antireflection coatings, and the employment of surface texturizing. A widespread use of solar cells for nonspace applications requires a reduction in the cost of solar cell arrays from the present $20 per watt to 10 to 50 cents per watt. Approaches for achieving this objective are considered. Attention is given to an automated, high volume production of solar cells made from ribbon silicon or thin film layers.

Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

1976-01-01

372

Perovskite solar cells: Continuing to soar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dream of printing highly efficient solar cells is closer than ever to being realized. Solvent engineering has enabled the deposition of uniform perovskite semiconductor films that yield greater than 15% power-conversion efficiency.

McGehee, Michael D.

2014-09-01

373

Texturization of multicrystalline silicon solar cells  

E-print Network

A significant efficiency gain for crystalline silicon solar cells can be achieved by surface texturization. This research was directed at developing a low-cost, high-throughput and reliable texturing method that can create ...

Li, Dai-Yin

2010-01-01

374

Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Hierarchically Structured John Beach, Washington University in St. Louis, 2012 SURF Fellow  

E-print Network

alternative that is both nontoxic and earth abundant. Thus, by replacing platinum with Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS-sensitized solar cells. Procedure CZTS nanocrystals were synthesized using a ratio 2:1:1:4 of Copper, Zinc, Tin characterize the composition and structure of the CZTS nanocrystals. Results and Discussions It was found

Li, Mo

375

Metallothionein 1G and zinc sensitize human colorectal cancer cells to chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Metallothioneins (MT) are a family of low molecular weight proteins that are silenced during colorectal cancer progression, mainly through epigenetic mechanisms, and this loss is associated with poor survival. In this article, we show that overexpression of the MT1G isoform sensitizes colorectal cell lines to the chemotherapeutic agents oxaliplatin (OXA) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), in part through enhancing p53 and repressing NF-?B activity. Despite being silenced, MTs can be reinduced by histone deacetylase inhibitors such as trichostatin A and sodium butyrate. In fact, this induction contributes to the cytotoxicity of these agents, given that silencing of MTs by siRNAs reduces their growth-inhibitory activities. Zinc ions also potently enhance MT expression and are cytotoxic to cancer cells. We show for the first time that OXA and 5-FU induce higher levels of intracellular labile zinc, as measured using the fluorescent probe FLUOZIN-3, and that such zinc contributes to the activation of p53 and repression of NF-?B. Addition of zinc enhanced growth inhibition by OXA and 5-FU, and was also capable of resensitizing 5-FU-resistant cell lines to levels comparable with sensitive cell lines. This effect was MT independent because silencing MTs did not affect zinc cytotoxicity. In conclusion, we show that MT induction and zinc administration are novel strategies to sensitize colorectal cancer cells to presently utilized chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:24634414

Arriaga, Juan M; Greco, Angela; Mordoh, José; Bianchini, Michele

2014-05-01

376

Ethambutol-induced toxicity is mediated by zinc and lysosomal membrane permeabilization in cultured retinal cells  

SciTech Connect

Ethambutol, an efficacious antituberculosis agent, can cause irreversible visual loss in a small but significant fraction of patients. However, the mechanism of ocular toxicity remains to be established. We previously reported that ethambutol caused severe vacuole formation in cultured retinal cells, and that the addition of zinc along with ethambutol aggravated vacuole formation whereas addition of the cell-permeable zinc chelator, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), reduced vacuole formation. To investigate the origin of vacuoles and to obtain an understanding of drug toxicity, we used cultured primary retinal cells from newborn Sprague-Dawley rats and imaged ethambutol-treated cells stained with FluoZin-3, zinc-specific fluorescent dye, under a confocal microscope. Almost all ethambutol-induced vacuoles contained high levels of labile zinc. Double staining with LysoTracker or MitoTracker revealed that almost all zinc-containing vacuoles were lysosomes and not mitochondria. Intracellular zinc chelation with TPEN markedly blocked both vacuole formation and zinc accumulation in the vacuole. Immunocytochemistry with antibodies to lysosomal-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2) and cathepsin D, an acid lysosomal hydrolase, disclosed lysosomal activation after exposure to ethambutol. Immunoblotting after 12 h exposure to ethambutol showed that cathepsin D was released into the cytosol. In addition, cathepsin inhibitors attenuated retinal cell toxicity induced by ethambutol. This is consistent with characteristics of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). TPEN also inhibited both lysosomal activation and LMP. Thus, accumulation of zinc in lysosomes, and eventual LMP, may be a key mechanism of ethambutol-induced retinal cell death.

Chung, Hyewon; Yoon, Young Hee [Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnab-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jung Jin [Institute for Innovative Cancer Research, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung Sook [Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnab-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Jae Young [NRL Neural Injury Research Center and the Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, June-Gone [Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnab-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: junekim@amc.seoul.kr

2009-03-01

377

Monolithic solar cell panel of amorphous silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monolithic solar cell panel has been fabricated using hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) as the semiconductor material. This device consists of a plate glass substrate bearing a number of long, narrow, parallel cells electrically connected in series along the lengths of the cells. It features several characteristics which make it uniquely attractive for large area devices (up to several sq

J. J. Hanak

1979-01-01

378

Composite solar cell matrix is reliable, lightweight and flexible  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conducting strips mechanically and electrically connect individual solar cells into a linear array of cells, called a solar submodule, and then connect in series two or more submodules to form a solar cell matrix. Tiny perforations in the strip make it easy to solder them directly to the individual solar cells.

Yasui, R. K.

1967-01-01

379

Space solar cells: High efficiency and radiation damage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The progress and status of efforts to increase the end-of-life efficiency of solar cells for space use is assessed. High efficiency silicon solar cells, silicon solar cell radiation damage, GaAs solar cell performance and radiation damage and 30 percent devices are discussed.

Brandhorst, H., Jr.; Bernatowicz, D. T.

1980-01-01

380

Criteria for Choice of Material for Building Organic Solar Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic solar cells, which are a promising low cost alternative to inorganic solar cells, offer a seemingly unlimited choice of material with which one can build the devices. In this talk, the physics of operation of organic solar cells will be explained, bringing out its distinctiveness with respect to that for the traditional inorganic solar cells. Based on this, the

S. Sundar Kumariyer; Kumar Iyer

2011-01-01

381

Laser-assisted solar cell metallization processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser assisted processing techniques utilized to produce the fine line, thin metal grid structures that are required to fabricate high efficiency solar cells are investigated. The tasks comprising these investigations are summarized. Metal deposition experiments are carried out utilizing laser assisted pyrolysis of a variety of metal bearing polymer films and metalloorganic inks spun onto silicon substrates. Laser decomposition of spun on silver neodecanoate ink yields very promising results. Solar cell comb metallization patterns are written using this technique.

Dutta, S.

1984-01-01

382

High-temperature Solar Cell Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vast majority of space probes to date have relied upon photovoltaic power generation. If future missions designed to probe environments close to the sun (Figure 1) will be able to use such power generation, solar cells that can function at high temperatures, under high light intensity, and high radiation conditions must be developed. The significant problem is that solar cells lose performance at high temperatures.

Landis, Geoffrey A.; Merritt, Danielle; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Scheiman, David

2005-01-01

383

Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excitonic solar cells-including organic, hybrid organic-inorganic and dye-sensitized cells (DSCs)-are promising devices for inexpensive, large-scale solar energy conversion. The DSC is currently the most efficient and stable excitonic photocell. Central to this device is a thick nanoparticle film that provides a large surface area for the adsorption of light-harvesting molecules. However, nanoparticle DSCs rely on trap-limited diffusion for electron transport,

Matt Law; Lori E. Greene; Justin C. Johnson; Richard Saykally; Peidong Yang

2005-01-01

384

ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S-based buffer layer deposition for solar cells  

DOEpatents

The invention provides CBD ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S and spray deposited ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S buffer layers prepared from a solution of zinc salt, thiourea and ammonium hydroxide dissolved in a non-aqueous/aqueous solvent mixture or in 100% non-aqueous solvent. Non-aqueous solvents useful in the invention include methanol, isopropanol and triethyl-amine. One-step deposition procedures are described for CIS, CIGS and other solar cell devices.

Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO)

2009-11-03

385

Oxide films for solar cells obtained by the extraction pyrolytic method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxide materials such as titanium dioxide and complex oxides of zinc, titanium, bismuth, and silicon are photoactive materials,\\u000a and therefore, it is promising to use them for solar cells manufacturing. In order to start the commercial production of oxide\\u000a film electrodes, it is necessary to develop the technology permitting the covering of large areas. In the presented work,\\u000a it is

T. N. Patrusheva; A. V. Kindal’; K. A. Kalenistov; G. N. Bondarenko; S. I. Tsyganov; A. I. Khol’kin

2009-01-01

386

Final Report: Sintered CZTS Nanoparticle Solar Cells on Metal Foil; July 26, 2011 - July 25, 2012  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report covering 12 months of this subcontract for research on high-efficiency copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS)-based thin-film solar cells on flexible metal foil. Each of the first three quarters of the subcontract has been detailed in quarterly reports. In this final report highlights of the first three quarters will be provided and details will be given of the final quarter of the subcontract.

Leidholm, C.; Hotz, C.; Breeze, A.; Sunderland, C.; Ki, W.; Zehnder, D.

2012-09-01

387

Zinc regulates iNOS-derived nitric oxide formation in endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Aberrant production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. Mechanisms responsible for the fine-tuning of iNOS activity in inflammation are still not fully understood. Zinc is an important structural element of NOS enzymes and is known to inhibit its catalytical activity. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of zinc on iNOS activity and expression in endothelial cells. We found that zinc down-regulated the expression of iNOS (mRNA+protein) and decreased cytokine-mediated activation of the iNOS promoter. Zinc-mediated regulation of iNOS expression was due to inhibition of NF-?B transactivation activity, as determined by a decrease in both NF-?B-driven luciferase reporter activity and expression of NF-?B target genes, including cyclooxygenase 2 and IL-1?. However, zinc did not affect NF-?B translocation into the nucleus, as assessed by Western blot analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. Taken together our results demonstrate that zinc limits iNOS-derived high output NO production in endothelial cells by inhibiting NF-?B-dependent iNOS expression, pointing to a role of zinc as a regulator of iNOS activity in inflammation. PMID:25180171

Cortese-Krott, Miriam M.; Kulakov, Larissa; Oplander, Christian; Kolb-Bachofen, Victoria; Kroncke, Klaus-D.; Suschek, Christoph V.

2014-01-01

388

Zinc uptake into endothelial cells involves a carrier mediated component  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of zinc (Zn) uptake by endothelial cells was examined. Bovine pulmonary endothelial cells were grown to a confluent monolayer in T-25 flasks with minimum essential medium (MEM) containing 10% fetal bovine serum. Zn uptake was studied by replacing the growth medium with experimental media of MEM, 14% EDTA dialyzed serum, and 250 nCi {sup 65}Zn/mL. The transport mechanism was studied by manipulating the composition of the experimental media and measuring the accumulation of {sup 65}Zn by the cells during a 10 min incubation period at 37C, 90% relative humidity, and 5% CO{sub 2}. The rate of Zn uptake increased as the Zn concentration in the media increased from 1 to 26 {mu}M. The data were described by a rectangular hyperbola with V{sub max} = 27.2 {plus minus} 0.84 pmoles Zn and K{sub m} = 4.1 {plus minus} 0.46 {mu}M Zn. The mechanism was studied further with 6 {mu}M added Zn (ZnCl{sub 2}) in the experimental media. Zn uptake was temperature dependent; the rate was less than 6C than at 24C, which was less than at 33C. The Zn uptake rate was reduced by the metabolic inhibitors iodoacetate, sodium fluoride, and N-ethylmaleimide. Cadmium competitively inhibited Zn uptake; copper and manganese had no effect. Increasing the concentration of albumin tin the media reduced the Zn uptake rate over the range from 0 to 40 {mu}M albumin in the media reduced the Zn uptake rate over the range from 0 to 40 {mu}M albumin, but not at 50 {mu}M albumin, with 10 {mu}M Zn. The addition of Zn binding ligands decreased the Zn uptake rate in the absence of serum, but increased the rate when serum was present. These results demonstrate that Zn uptake into endothelial cells is facilitated by a transporter possessing a recognition site that is saturable and at least partially energy dependent. Additionally, the uptake rate apparently is influenced by the ligand to which Zn is bound in the extracellular fluid.

Bobilya, D.J.; Briske-Anderson, M.; Reeves, P.G. (USDA-ARS Human Nutrition Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States))

1991-03-15

389

Nanomolar concentrations of zinc pyrithione increase cell susceptibility to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide in rat thymocytes.  

PubMed

Zinc pyrithione is used as an antifouling agent. However, the environmental impacts of zinc pyrithione have recently been of concern. Zinc induces diverse actions during oxidative stress; therefore, we examined the effect of zinc pyrithione on rat thymocytes suffering from oxidative stress using appropriate fluorescent probes. The cytotoxicity of zinc pyrithione was not observed when the cells were incubated with 3 ?M zinc pyrithione for 3 h. However, zinc pyrithione at nanomolar concentrations (10 nM or more) significantly increased the lethality of cells suffering from oxidative stress induced by 3 mM H(2)O(2). The application of zinc pyrithione alone at nanomolar concentrations increased intracellular Zn(2+) level and the cellular content of superoxide anions, and decreased the cellular content of nonprotein thiols. The simultaneous application of nanomolar zinc pyrithione and micromolar H(2)O(2) synergistically increased the intracellular Zn(2+) level. Therefore, zinc pyrithione at nanomolar concentrations may exert severe cytotoxic action on cells simultaneously exposed to chemicals that induce oxidative stress. If so, zinc pyrithione leaked from antifouling materials into surrounding environments would be a risk factor for aquatic ecosystems. Alternatively, zinc pyrithione under conditions of oxidative stress may become more potent antifouling ingredient. PMID:22356860

Oyama, Tomohiro M; Saito, Minoru; Yonezawa, Takayasu; Okano, Yoshiro; Oyama, Yasuo

2012-06-01

390

Comparative values of advanced space solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for deriving a first order dollar value estimate for advanced solar cells which consists of defining scenarios for solar array production and launch to orbit and the associated costs for typical spacecraft, determining that portion affected by cell design and performance and determining the attributable cost differences is presented. Break even values are calculated for a variety of cells; confirming that efficiency and related effects of radiation resistance and temperature coefficient are major factors; array tare mass, packaging and packing factor are important; but cell mass is of lesser significance. Associated dollar values provide a means of comparison.

Slifer, L. W., Jr.

1982-01-01

391

Power losses in bilayer inverted small molecule organic solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inverted bilayer organic solar cells using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) as a donor and C60 as an acceptor with the structure: glass/indium tin oxide (ITO)/ZnO/C60/CuPc/MoO3/Al, in which the zinc oxide (ZnO) was deposited by atomic layer deposition, are compared with a conventional device: glass/ITO/CuPc/C60/bathocuproine/Al. These inverted and conventional devices give short circuit currents of 3.7 and 4.8 mA/cm2, respectively. However, the inverted device gives a reduced photoresponse from the CuPc donor compared to that of the conventional device. Optical field models show that the arrangement of organic layers in the inverted devices leads to lower absorption of long wavelengths by the CuPc donor; the low energy portion of the spectrum is concentrated near the metal oxide electrode in both devices.

Trinh, Cong; Bakke, Jonathan R.; Brennan, Thomas P.; Bent, Stacey F.; Navarro, Francisco; Bartynski, Andrew; Thompson, Mark E.

2012-12-01

392

Manufacture of Solar Cells on the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the space exploration initiative a new architecture for the production of solar cells on the lunar surface is devised. The paper discusses experimental data on the fabrication and properties of lunar glass substrates, evaporated lunar regolith thin film (antireflect coatings and insulators), and preliminary attempts in the fabrication of thin film (silicon/II-VI) photovoltaic materials on lunar regolith substrates. A conceptual design for a solar powered robotic rover capable of fabricating solar cells directly on the lunar surface is provided. Technical challenges in the development of such a facility and strategies to alleviate perceived difficulties are discussed. Finally, preliminary cost benefit ratio analysis for different in situ solar cell production scenarios (using exclusively in-situ planetary resources or hybrid) are discussed.

Freundich, Alex; Ignatiev, Alex; Horton, Charles; Duke, Mike; Curren, Peter; Sibille, Laurent

2005-01-01

393

Nanoscale Charge Transport in Excitonic Solar Cells  

SciTech Connect

Excitonic solar cells, including all-organic, hybrid organic-inorganic and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), offer strong potential for inexpensive and large-area solar energy conversion. Unlike traditional inorganic semiconductor solar cells, where all the charge generation and collection processes are well understood, these excitonic solar cells contain extremely disordered structures with complex interfaces which results in large variations in nanoscale electronic properties and has a strong influence on carrier generation, transport, dissociation and collection. Detailed understanding of these processes is important for fabrication of highly efficient solar cells. Efforts to improve efficiency are underway at a large number of research groups throughout the world focused on inorganic and organic semiconductors, photonics, photophysics, charge transport, nanoscience, ultrafast spectroscopy, photonics, semiconductor processing, device physics, device structures, interface structure etc. Rapid progress in this multidisciplinary area requires strong synergetic efforts among researchers from diverse backgrounds. Such effort can lead to novel methods for development of new materials with improved photon harvesting and interfacial treatments for improved carrier transport, process optimization to yield ordered nanoscale morphologies with well defined electronic structures.

Venkat Bommisetty, South Dakota State University

2011-06-23

394

Advanced Solar Cells for Satellite Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multiple natures of today's space missions with regard to operational lifetime, orbital environment, cost and size of spacecraft, to name just a few, present such a broad range of performance requirements to be met by the solar array that no single design can suffice to meet them all. The result is a demand for development of specialized solar cell types that help to optimize overall satellite performance within a specified cost range for any given space mission. Historically, space solar array performance has been optimized for a given mission by tailoring the features of silicon solar cells to account for the orbital environment and average operating conditions expected during the mission. It has become necessary to turn to entirely new photovoltaic materials and device designs to meet the requirements of future missions, both in the near and far term. This paper will outline some of the mission drivers and resulting performance requirements that must be met by advanced solar cells, and provide an overview of some of the advanced cell technologies under development to meet them. The discussion will include high efficiency, radiation hard single junction cells; monolithic and mechanically stacked multiple bandgap cells; and thin film cells.

Flood, Dennis J.; Weinberg, Irving

1994-01-01

395

Nanoparticle Solar Cell Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work was to demonstrate all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells with photovoltaic performance extending into the near-IR region of the solar spectrum as a pathway towards improving power conversion efficiencies. The field of all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells is very new, with only one literature publication in the prior to our project. Very little is understood regarding how these devices function. Inorganic solar cells with IR performance have previously been fabricated using traditional methods such as physical vapor deposition and sputtering, and solution-processed devices utilizing IR-absorbing organic polymers have been investigated. The solution-based deposition of nanoparticles offers the potential of a low-cost manufacturing process combined with the ability to tune the chemical synthesis and material properties to control the device properties. This work, in collaboration with the Sue Carter research group at the University of California, Santa Cruz, has greatly expanded the knowledge base in this field, exploring multiple material systems and several key areas of device physics including temperature, bandgap and electrode device behavior dependence, material morphological behavior, and the role of buffer layers. One publication has been accepted to Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells pending minor revision and another two papers are being written now. While device performance in the near-IR did not reach the level anticipated at the beginning of this grant, we did observe one of the highest near-IR efficiencies for a nanoparticle-based solar cell device to date. We also identified several key parameters of importance for improving both near-IR performance and nanoparticle solar cells in general, and demonstrated multiple pathways which showed promise for future commercialization with further research.

Breeze, Alison, J; Sahoo, Yudhisthira; Reddy, Damoder; Sholin, Veronica; Carter, Sue

2008-06-17

396

Plastic Schottky-barrier solar cells  

DOEpatents

A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped polyacetylene, organic semiconductor. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a metallic area electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates a magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film. With the proper selection and location of elements a photovoltaic cell structure and solar cell are obtained.

Waldrop, J.R.; Cohen, M.J.

1981-12-30

397

Progress in quantum well solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantum well solar cell is a special multiple-band gap device with intermediate properties between heterojunction cells (sum of the currents generated in the different materials but voltage controlled by the lowest of the two band gaps) and tandem cells (sum of the voltages but current determined by the worst of the two sub-cells).Strain-balanced GaAsP\\/InGaAs multi-quantum wells move the absorption

M. Mazzer; K. W. J. Barnham; I. M. Ballard; A. Bessiere; A. Ioannides; D. C. Johnson; M. C. Lynch; T. N. D. Tibbits; J. S. Roberts; G. Hill; C. Calder

2006-01-01

398

High voltage planar multijunction solar cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high voltage multijunction solar cell is provided wherein a plurality of discrete voltage generating regions or unit cells are formed in a single generally planar semiconductor body. The unit cells are comprised of doped regions of opposite conductivity type separated by a gap or undiffused region. Metal contacts connect adjacent cells together in series so that the output voltages of the individual cells are additive. In some embodiments, doped field regions separated by a overlie the unit cells but the cells may be formed in both faces of the wafer.

Evans, J. C., Jr.; Chai, A. T.; Goradia, C. P. (inventors)

1982-01-01

399

Diffusion lengths in irradiated N/P InP-on-Si solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Indium phosphide (InP) solar cells were made on silicon (Si) wafers (InP/Si) by to take advantage of both the radiation-hardness properties of the InP solar cell and the light weight and low cost of Si wafers. The InP/Si cell application is for long duration and/or high radiation orbit space missions. Spire has made N/P InP/Si cells of sizes up to 2 cm by 4 cm with beginning-of-life (BOL) AM0 efficiencies over 13% (one-sun, 28C). These InP/Si cells have higher absolute efficiency and power density after a high radiation dose than gallium arsenide (GaAs) or silicon (Si) solar cells after a fluence of about 2e15 1 MeV electrons/sq. cm. In this work, we investigate the minority carrier (electron) base diffusion lengths in the N/P InP/Si cells. A quantum efficiency model was constructed for a 12% BOL AM0 N/P InP/Si cell which agreed well with the absolutely measured quantum efficiency and the sun-simulator measured AM0 photocurrent (30.1 mA/sq. cm). This model was then used to generate a table of AM0 photocurrents for a range of base diffusion lengths. AM0 photocurrents were then measured for irradiations up to 7.7e16 1 MeV electrons/sq. cm (the 12% BOL cell was 8% after the final irradiation). By comparing the measured photocurrents with the predicted photocurrents, base diffusion lengths were assigned at each fluence level. A damage coefficient K of 4e-8 and a starting (unirradiated) base electron diffusion length of 0.8 microns fits the data well. The quantum efficiency was measured again at the end of the experiment to verify that the photocurrent predicted by the model (25.5 mA/sq. cm) agreed with the simulator-measured photocurrent after irradiation (25.7 mA/sq. cm).

Wojtczuk, Steven; Colerico, Claudia; Summers, Geoffrey P.; Walters, Robert J.; Burke, Edward A.

1996-01-01

400

Zinc ionophore activity of quercetin and epigallocatechin-gallate: from hepa 1-6 cells to a liposome model.  

PubMed

Labile zinc, a tiny fraction of total intracellular zinc that is loosely bound to proteins and easily interchangeable, modulates the activity of numerous signaling and metabolic pathways. Dietary plant polyphenols such as the flavonoids quercetin (QCT) and epigallocatechin-gallate act as antioxidants and as signaling molecules. Remarkably, the activities of numerous enzymes that are targeted by polyphenols are dependent on zinc. We have previously shown that these polyphenols chelate zinc cations and hypothesized that these flavonoids might be also acting as zinc ionophores, transporting zinc cations through the plasma membrane. To prove this hypothesis, herein, we have demonstrated the capacity of QCT and epigallocatechin-gallate to rapidly increase labile zinc in mouse hepatocarcinoma Hepa 1-6 cells as well as, for the first time, in liposomes. In order to confirm that the polyphenols transport zinc cations across the plasma membrane independently of plasma membrane zinc transporters, QCT, epigallocatechin-gallate, or clioquinol (CQ), alone and combined with zinc, were added to unilamellar dipalmitoylphosphocholine/cholesterol liposomes loaded with membrane-impermeant FluoZin-3. Only the combinations of the chelators with zinc triggered a rapid increase of FluoZin-3 fluorescence within the liposomes, thus demonstrating the ionophore action of QCT, epigallocatechin-gallate, and CQ on lipid membrane systems. The ionophore activity of dietary polyphenols may underlay the raising of labile zinc levels triggered in cells by polyphenols and thus many of their biological actions. PMID:25050823

Dabbagh-Bazarbachi, Husam; Clergeaud, Gael; Quesada, Isabel M; Ortiz, Mayreli; O'Sullivan, Ciara K; Fernández-Larrea, Juan B

2014-08-13

401

Advanced Modelling of Silicon Wafer Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modelling of solar cells today is general practice in research and widely-used in industry. Established modelling software is typically limited to one dimension and/or to small scales. Additionally, novel effects, like, e.g., the use of diffractive structures or luminescent materials, are not established. In this paper we discuss how the combination of different modelling techniques can be used to overcome these limitations. In this context two examples are presented. The first example concerns the combination of the open source simulation software PC1D with circuit modelling to investigate the effect of local shunts on the global characteristics of a silicon wafer solar cell. For the investigated example (4.5 cm2 cell area) we find that a local point shunt reduces the solar cell efficiency by 4% relative. The second example concerns the modelling of diffractive gratings for thin silicon wafer solar cells. For this purpose, we use the rigorous coupled wave analysis to simulate Sentaurus technical computer-aided design (TCAD) is combined with the rigorous coupled wave analysis, a method to solve Maxwell's equations for periodic structures. Here we show that a grating can be used to improve the absorption in a thin silicon wafer solar cell considerably.

Peters, Marius; Fajun, Ma; Siyu, Guo; Hoex, Bram; Blaesi, Benedikt; Glunz, Stefan; Aberle, Armin; Luther, Joachim

2012-10-01

402

Developing an Advanced Module for Back-Contact Solar Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel concept for integrating ultrathin solar cells into modules. It is conceived as a method for fabricating solar panels starting from back-contact crystalline silicon solar cells. However, compared to the current state of the art in module manufacturing for back-contact solar cells, this novel concept aims at improvements in performance, reliability, and cost through the use

Jonathan Govaerts; Jo Robbelein; Mario Gonzalez; Ivan Gordon; Kris Baert; Ingrid De Wolf; Frederick Bossuyt; Steven Van Put; Jan Vanfleteren

2011-01-01

403

Third Working Meeting on Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research results are reported for GaAs Schottky barrier solar cells, GaAlAs/GaAs heteroface solar cells, and GaAlAs graded band gap solar cells. Related materials studies are presented. A systems study for GaAs and Si solar concentrator systems is given.

Walker, G. H. (compiler)

1976-01-01

404

Study of the effects of impurities on the properties of silicon materials and performance of silicon solar cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zinc is a major residue impurity in the preparation of solar grade silicon material by the zinc vapor reduction of silicon tetrachloride. It was found that in order to get a 17 percent AMl cell efficiency, the concentration of the zinc recombination centers in the base region of silicon solar cells must be less than 4 x 10 to the 11th power Zn/cu cm in the p-base n+/p/p+ cell and 7 x 10 to the 11th power Zn/cu cm in the n-base p+/n/n+ cell for a base dopant impurity concentration of 5 x 10 to the 14th power atoms/cu cm. If the base dopant impurity concentration is increased by a factor of 10 to 5 x 10 to the 15th power atoms/cu cm, then the maximum allowable zinc concentration is increased by a factor of about two for a 17 percent AMl efficiency. The thermal equilibrium electron and hole recombination and generation rates at the double acceptor zinc cancers were obtained from previous high field measurements as well as new measurements at zero field. The rates were used in the exact d.c. circuit model to compute the projections.

Sah, C. T.

1980-01-01

405

Recovery of Metal Values from Spent Zinc-Carbon Dry Cell Batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spent zinc-carbon dry cell batteries were characterized in the process of recovery of metal values. Zinc, manganese and steel were the major metallic materials constituting 63 % of the weight of spent batteries. Different components of the spent batteries were separately processed to extract the metallic values. A maximum of 92 % of total amount of zinc contained in the anodes could be extracted with a purity of over 99.0 % from the anodes by heating at 600 °C for 10 min in presence of 12 % NH4Cl flux. Spent electrolyte paste containing manganese and zinc as major metallic elements, was leached in sulfuric acid solution in presence of hydrogen peroxide as a reducing agent. The optimum condition for leaching was found to be concentration of sulfuric acid: 2.5 M, concentration of hydrogen peroxide: 10 %, temperature: 60 °C, stirring speed: 600 rpm and solid/liquid ratio 1:12. A maximum of 88 % manganese contained in the paste could be dissolved within 27 min of leaching under the optimized conditions. Dissolution of zinc under the same conditions was 97 %. A maximum of 69.89 % of manganese and 83.29 % of zinc contained in the leach liquor could be precipitated in the form of manganese carbonate and zinc oxalate.

Khan, Majharul Haque; Gulshan, Fahmida; Kurny, A. S. W.

2013-04-01

406

Development and fabrication of sealed silver-zinc cells, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A facility was designed, constructed and equipped for the production of prismatic alkaline rechargeable battery cells using inorganic (ceramic) separators. This unique facility is environmentally controlled and contains separate areas for electrode fabrication, separator processing, cell assembly, cell finishing and testing. An initial production run of 125 sealed silver zinc cells, using inorganic separators, was made in the facility in order to provide samples for baseline performance tests. Ten of these cells were given performance characterization and life cycle tests.

Blake, I. C.; Donnel, C. P., III

1973-01-01

407

Mechanically stacked concentrator tandem solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four-terminal mechanically stacked solar cells were developed for advanced space arrays with line-focus reflective concentrators. The top cells are based on AlGaAs/GaAs multilayer heterostructures prepared by low temperature liquid phase epitaxy. The bottom cells are based on heteroepitaxial InP/InGaAs liquid phase epitaxy or on homo-junction GaSb, Zn-diffused structures. The sum of the highest reached efficiencies of the top and bottom cells is 29.4 percent. The best four-terminal tandems have an efficiency of 27 to 28 percent. Solar cells were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons and their performances were determined as a function of fluence up to 10(exp 16) cm(exp-2). It was shown that the radiation resistance of developed tandem cells is similar to the most radiative stable AlGaAs/GaAs cells with a thin p-GaAs photoactive layer.

Andreev, V. M.; Rumyantsev, V. D.; Karlina, L. B.; Kazantsev, A. B.; Khvostikov, V. P.; Shvarts, M. Z.; Sorokina, S. V.

1995-01-01

408

Optical designs for improved solar cell performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar resource is the most abundant renewable resource on earth, yet it is currently exploited with relatively low efficiencies. To make solar energy more affordable, we can either reduce the cost of the cell or increase the efficiency with a similar cost cell. In this thesis, we consider several different optical approaches to achieve these goals. First, we consider a ray optical model for light trapping in silicon microwires. With this approach, much less material can be used, allowing for a cost savings. We next focus on reducing the escape of radiatively emitted and scattered light from the solar cell. With this angle restriction approach, light can only enter and escape the cell near normal incidence, allowing for thinner cells and higher efficiencies. In Auger-limited GaAs, we find that efficiencies greater than 38% may be achievable, a significant improvement over the current world record. To experimentally validate these results, we use a Bragg stack to restrict the angles of emitted light. Our measurements show an increase in voltage and a decrease in dark current, as less radiatively emitted light escapes. While the results in GaAs are interesting as a proof of concept, GaAs solar cells are not currently made on the production scale for terrestrial photovoltaic applications. We therefore explore the application of angle restriction to silicon solar cells. While our calculations show that Auger-limited cells give efficiency increases of up to 3% absolute, we also find that current amorphous silicion-crystalline silicon heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) cells give significant efficiency gains with angle restriction of up to 1% absolute. Thus, angle restriction has the potential for unprecedented one sun efficiencies in GaAs, but also may be applicable to current silicon solar cell technology. Finally, we consider spectrum splitting, where optics direct light in different wavelength bands to solar cells with band gaps tuned to those wavelengths. This approach has the potential for very high efficiencies, and excellent annual power production. Using a light-trapping filtered concentrator approach, we design filter elements and find an optimal design. Thus, this thesis explores silicon microwires, angle restriction, and spectral splitting as different optical approaches for improving the cost and efficiency of solar cells.

Kosten, Emily Dell

409

Microstructural analysis of solar cell welds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parallel-gap resistance welding of silicon solar cells with copper interconnects results in complex microstructural variations that depend on the welding variables. At relatively low heat input solid-state welds are produced. At medium heat the Ag-Cu eutectic forms resulting in a braze joint. High heat produces a fusion weld with complete melting of the silver layer on the silicon solar cell. If the silicon is also melted, cracking occurs in the silicon cell below the weld nugget. These determinations were made using light microscopy, microprobe, and scanning electron microscopy analyses.

Moore, T. J.; Watson, G. K.; Baraona, C. R.

410

Microstructural analysis of solar cell welds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parallel-gap resistance welding of silicon solar cells with copper interconnects results in complex microstructural variations that depend on the welding variables. At relatively low heat input solid-state welds are produced. At medium heat the Ag-Cu eutectic forms resulting in a braze joint. High heat produces a fusion weld with complete melting of the silver layer on the silicon solar cell. If the silicon is also melted, cracking occurs in the silicon cell below the weld nugget. These determinations were made using light microscopy, microprobe, and scanning electron microscopy analyses.

Moore, T. J.; Watson, G. K.; Baraona, C. R.

1982-01-01

411

Radiation tests of SEP solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cells specially designed for Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) were tested with radiation fluences up to 10 to the 12th power protons having energies of 1.5, 1.0, and 0.5 MeV, and with fluences up to 10 to the 16th power electrons having 1.0 MeV energy. Spectrolab cells having a back-surface field were also irradiated with the same particles and fluences. Cell performances are described by curves in which normalized and absolute values of maximum power, maximum-power voltage, short-circuit current, and open-circuit voltage are plotted as a function of fluence.

Oman, H.

1977-01-01

412

Solar cell calibration and measurement techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing complexity of space power solar cells and the increasing international markets for both cells and arrays has resulted in workshops jointly sponsored by NASDA, ESA and NASA. These workshops are designed to obtain international agreement on standardized values for the AM0 spectrum and constant, recommend laboratory measurement practices and establish a set of protocols for international comparison of

Sheila Bailey; Dave Brinker; Henry Curtis; Phillip Jenkins; D. Scheiman

1997-01-01

413

Method of restoring degraded solar cells  

DOEpatents

Amorphous silicon solar cells have been shown to have efficiencies which degrade as a result of long exposure to light. Annealing such cells in air at a temperature of about 200.degree. C. for at least 30 minutes restores their efficiency.

Staebler, David L. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1983-01-01

414

Photovoltaic solar cells performance at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that efficiency of photovoltaic solar cells decreases with an increase of temperature, and cooling is necessary at high illumination conditions such as concentrated sunlight, or cosmic or tropical conditions. The purpose of present study was to investigate the opposite option: to make a cell work at relatively high temperature (around 100–200 °C) and use the excessive

David Meneses-Rodr??guez; Paul P. Horley; Jesús González-Hernández; Yuri V. Vorobiev; Peter N. Gorley

2005-01-01

415

Solar Cell Calibration and Measurement Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The increasing complexity of space solar cells and the increasing international markets for both cells and arrays has resulted in workshops jointly sponsored by NASDA, ESA and NASA. These workshops are designed to obtain international agreement on standardized values for the AMO spectrum and constant, recommend laboratory measurement practices and establish a set of protocols for international comparison of laboratory measurements. A working draft of an ISO standard, WDI 5387, 'Requirements for Measurement and Calibration Procedures for Space Solar Cells' was discussed with a focus on the scope of the document, a definition of primary standard cell, and required error analysis for all measurement techniques. Working groups addressed the issues of Air Mass Zero (AMO) solar constant and spectrum, laboratory measurement techniques, and the international round robin methodology. A summary is presented of the current state of each area and the formulation of the ISO document.

Bailey, Sheila; Brinker, Dave; Curtis, Henry; Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, Dave

1997-01-01

416

Silicon solar cell process. Development, fabrication and analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cells were fabricated from unconventional silicon sheets, and the performances were characterized with an emphasis on statistical evaluation. A number of solar cell fabrication processes were used and conversion efficiency was measured under AMO condition at 25 C. Silso solar cells using standard processing showed an average efficiency of about 9.6%. Solar cells with back surface field process showed about the same efficiency as the cells from standard process. Solar cells from grain boundary passivation process did not show any improvements in solar cell performance.

Yoo, H. I.; Iles, P. A.; Tanner, D. P.

1978-01-01

417

Zinc protection of HepG2 cells from sporidesmin toxicity does not require de novo gene transcription.  

PubMed

Sporidesmin is an epidithiodioxopiperazine mycotoxin secreted by the saprophytic fungus Pithomyces chartarum. Ingestion of sporidesmin by ruminants grazing on the saprophyte infested pasture causes severe liver and bile duct damage leading to secondary photosensitisation. Zinc supplementation is used as an effective prophylaxis against sporidesmin toxicity in ruminants, however, the mechanism by which zinc protects is unknown. This study used the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, as a model to examine the mechanism of zinc protection against sporidesmin toxicity. Treatment of cells with various concentrations of sporidesmin (0-10 microg/ml) resulted in a sigmoidal dose response curve with an LC50 of 5 microg/ml. Cells were protected from sporidesmin toxicity by pre-treatment for 2h or 16 h with zinc sulphate in a concentration dependent manner, with significant protection at 50 microM zinc and maximal protection at 200 microM zinc. To determine whether zinc protection required de novo gene transcription, cells were treated with the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D for one hour prior to and throughout the zinc pre-treatment. The presence of actinomycin D did not significantly reduce the zinc protection against sporidesmin cytotoxicity (80% protection without actinomycin D versus 71% protection with actinomycin D). Therefore, de novo gene transcription does not play a major role in the mechanism of zinc protection against sporidesmin toxicity in HepG2 cells. PMID:16005584

Duncan, Elizabeth J; Thompson, Mary P; Phua, Sin H

2005-11-15

418

Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoplasmonics recently has emerged as a new frontier of photovoltaic research. Noble metal nanostructures that can concentrate and guide light have demonstrated great capability for dramatically improving the energy conversion efficiency of both laboratory and industrial solar cells, providing an innovative pathway potentially transforming the solar industry. However, to make the nanoplasmonic technology fully appreciated by the solar industry, key challenges need to be addressed; including the detrimental absorption of metals, broadband light trapping mechanisms, cost of plasmonic nanomaterials, simple and inexpensive fabrication and integration methods of the plasmonic nanostructures, which are scalable for full size manufacture. This article reviews the recent progress of plasmonic solar cells including the fundamental mechanisms, material fabrication, theoretical modelling and emerging directions with a distinct emphasis on solutions tackling the above-mentioned challenges for industrial relevant applications.

Gu, Min; Ouyang, Zi; Jia, Baohua; Stokes, Nicholas; Chen, Xi; Fahim, Narges; Li, Xiangping; Ventura, Michael James; Shi, Zhengrong

2012-12-01

419

The consequences of kesterite equilibria for efficient solar cells.  

PubMed

Copper-zinc-tin-chalcogenide kesterites, Cu(2)ZnSnS(4) and Cu(2)ZnSnSe(4) (CZTS(e)) are ideal candidates for the production of thin film solar cells on large scales due to the high natural abundance of all constituents, a tunable direct band gap ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 eV, a large absorption coefficient, and demonstrated power conversion efficiencies close to 10%. However, Sn losses through desorption of SnS(e) from CZTS(e) at elevated temperatures (above 400 °C) impede the thorough control of film composition and film homogeneity. No robust and feasible fabrication process is currently available. Here we show that understanding the formation reaction of the kesterite absorber is the key to control the growth process and to drastically improve the solar cell efficiency. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this knowledge can be used to simplify the four-dimensional parameter space (spanned by the four different elements) to an easy and robust two-dimensional process. Sufficiently high partial pressures of SnS(e) and S(e) (a) prevent the decomposition reaction of the CZTS(e) at elevated temperatures and (b) introduce any missing Sn into a Sn-deficient film. This finding enables us to simplify the precursor to a film containing only Cu and Zn, whereas Sn and S(e) are introduced from the gas phase by a self-regulating process. PMID:21329385

Redinger, Alex; Berg, Dominik M; Dale, Phillip J; Siebentritt, Susanne

2011-03-16

420

Black silicon for solar cell applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental results and rigorous numerical simulations on the optical properties of Black Silicon surfaces and their implications for solar cell applications. The Black Silicon is fabricated by reactive ion etching of crystalline silicon with SF6 and O2. This produces a surface consisting of sharp randomly distributed needle like features with a characteristic lateral spacing of about a few hundreds of nanometers and a wide range of aspect ratios depending on the process parameters. Due to the very low reflectance over a broad spectral range and a pronounced light trapping effect at the silicon absorption edge such Black Silicon surface textures are beneficial for photon management in photovoltaic applications. We demonstrate that those light trapping properties prevail upon functionalization of the Black Silicon with dielectric coatings, necessary to construct a photovoltaic system. The experimental investigations are accompanied by rigorous numerical simulations based on three dimensional models of the Black Silicon structures. Those simulations allow insights into the light trapping mechanism and the influence of the substrate thickness onto the optical performance of the Black Silicon. Finally we use an analytical solar cell model to relate the optical properties of Black Silicon to the maximum photo current and solar cell efficiency in dependence of the solar cell thickness. The results are compared to standard light trapping schemes and implications especially for thin solar cells are discussed.

Kroll, Matthias; Otto, Martin; Käsebier, Thomas; Füchsel, Kevin; Wehrspohn, Ralf; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas; Pertsch, Thomas

2012-06-01

421

Nanocluster production for solar cell applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research focuses on the fabrication and characterization of silver (Ag) and silicon (Si) nanoclusters that might be used for solar cell applications. Silver and silicon nanoclusters have been synthesized by means of dc magnetron sputtering and inert gas condensation inside an ultra-high vacuum compatible system. We have found that nanocluster size distributions can be tuned by various source parameters, such as the sputtering discharge power, flow rate of argon inert gas, and aggregation length. Quadrupole mass filter and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the size distribution of Ag and Si nanoclusters. Ag nanoclusters with average size in the range of 3.6-8.3 nm were synthesized (herein size refers to the nanocluster diameter), whereas Si nanoclusters' average size was controlled to range between 2.9 and 7.4 nm by controlling the source parameters. This work illustrates the ability of controlling the Si and Ag nanoclusters' sizes by proper optimization of the operation conditions. By controlling nanoclusters' sizes, one can alter their surface properties to suit the need to enhance solar cell efficiency. Herein, Ag nanoclusters were deposited on commercial polycrystalline solar cells. Short circuit current (ISC), open circuit voltage (VOC), fill factor, and efficiency (?) were obtained under light source with an intensity of 30 mW/cm2. A 22.7% enhancement in solar cell efficiency could be measured after deposition of Ag nanoclusters, which demonstrates that Ag nanoclusters generated in this work are useful to enhance solar cell efficiency.

Al Dosari, Haila M.; Ayesh, Ahmad I.

2013-08-01

422

Green synthesis of wurtzite copper zinc tin sulfide nanocones for improved solar photovoltaic utilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is considered to be one of the most promising light absorbing materials for low-cost and high-efficiency thin-film solar cells. It is composed of earth abundant, non-toxic elements. In the present study, wurtzite CZTS nanocone has been synthesized by a green chemistry route. The nanocones have been characterized for its optical, structural and microstructural properties using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Optical absorption result shows a band gap of 1.42 eV. XRD and Raman results show wurtzite structure and TEM studies reveal the nanocone structure of the grown material. Growing vertically aligned nanocone structure having smaller diameter shall help in enhancing the light absorption in broader range which shall enhance the efficiency of solar cell. This study is a step in this direction.

Arora, Leena; Gupta, Poonam; Chhikara, Nitu; Singh, Om Pal; Muhunthan, N.; Singh, V. N.; Singh, B. P.; Jain, Kiran; Chand, S.

2014-03-01

423

Method of fabricating a solar cell array  

DOEpatents

A first set of pre-tabbed solar cells are assembled in a predetermined array with at least part of each tab facing upward, each tab being fixed to a bonding pad on one cell and abutting a bonding pad on an adjacent cell. The cells are held in place with a first vacuum support. The array is then inverted onto a second vacuum support which holds the tabs firmly against the cell pads they abut. The cells are exposed to radiation to melt and reflow the solder pads for bonding the tab portions not already fixed to bonding pads to these pads.

Lazzery, Angelo G. (Oaklyn, NJ); Crouthamel, Marvin S. (Pennsauken, NJ); Coyle, Peter J. (Oaklyn, NJ)

1982-01-01

424

Illuminating mobile zinc with fluorescence from cuvettes to live cells and tissues.  

PubMed

With the aid of chemoselective sensors, fluorescence microscopy has emerged as an indispensable tool to visualize the distribution and dynamics of various biologically important molecules in live specimens. Motivated by our interest in understanding the chemistry and biology of mobile zinc underlying its physiological and pathological roles, over the past decade, our laboratory has developed an extensive library of zinc fluorescence probes. In this chapter, we provide essential information about our sensor toolbox in order to assist investigators interested to apply our constructs to study various aspects of mobile zinc biology. We illustrate their use with several examples of imaging both exogenous and endogenous mobile zinc in live cells and tissues using various versions of fluorescence microscopy, including confocal and two-photon microscopy. PMID:22289467

Huang, Zhen; Lippard, Stephen J

2012-01-01

425

Cycles till failure of silver-zinc cells with competing failure modes - Preliminary data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data analysis of cycles to failure of silver-zinc electrochemical cells with competing failure modes is presented. The test ran 129 cells through charge-discharge cycles until failure; preliminary data analysis consisted of response surface estimate of life. Batteries fail through low voltage condition and an internal shorting condition; a competing failure modes analysis was made using maximum likelihood estimation for

S. M. Sidik; H. F. Leibecki; J. M. Bozek

1980-01-01

426

Zinc can influence ornithine decarboxylase activity in rat thymus cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thymus of young rats contained a high basal activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Treatment with zinc sulphate caused a slight increase of thymic ODC activity within 6 hours and a more marked enhancement (three-fold) in the spleen 24 h after treatment. In spite of the high activity of thymic ODCin vivo, ODC was not detectable in primary cultures of

C. Stefanelli; F. Ferrari; C. Rossoni; F. Flamigni; C. M. Caldarera

1993-01-01

427

Nanocrystal-polymer solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to structure materials on a nanometer dimension enables the processes of solar energy conversion to be optimized at their most fundamental length scale. In semiconducting nanocrystals, optical absorption and electrical transport can be tailored by changing their radius and length, respectively. The unique features of quantum confinement and shape manipulation characteristic for inorganic nanocrystals can be utilized to

Wendy Uyen Huynh

2002-01-01

428

Space solar cell research - Problems and potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The value of a passive, maintenance-free, renewable energy source was immediately recognized in the early days of the space program, and the silicon solar cell, despite its infancy, was quickly pressed into service. Efficiencies of those early space solar arrays were low, and lifetimes shorter than hoped for, but within a decade significant advances had been made in both areas. Better performance was achieved because of a variety of factors, ranging from improvements in silicon single crystal material, to better device designs, to a better understanding of the factors that affect the performance of a solar cell in space. Chief among the latter, particularly for the mid-to-high altitude (HEO) and geosynchronous (GEO) orbits, are the effects of the naturally occurring particulate radiation environment. Although not as broadly important to the photovoltaic community at large as increased efficiency, the topic of radiation damage is critically important to use of solar cells in space, and is a major component of the NASA research program in space photovoltaics. This paper will give a brief overview of some of the opportunities and challenges for space photovoltaic applications, and will discuss some of the current reseach directed at achieving high efficiency and controlling the effects of radiation damage in space solar cells.

Flood, Dennis J.

1986-01-01

429

Space solar cell research: Problems and potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The value of a passive, maintenance-free, renewable energy source was apparent in the early days of the space program, and the silicon solar cell was pressed into service. Efficiencies of those early space solar arrays were low, and lifetimes shorter than hoped for, but within a decade significant advances had been made in both areas. Better performance was achieved through improvements in silicon single crystal material, better device designs, and a better understanding of the factors that affect the performance of a solar cell in space. Chief among the latter, particularly for the mid-to-high altitude (HEO) and geosynchronous (GEO) orbits, are the effects of the naturally occurring particulate radiation environment. Although not as broadly important to the photovoltaic community at large as increased efficiency, the topic of radiation damage is critically important to use of solar cells in space, and is a major component of the NASA research program in space photovoltaics. A brief overview of some of the opportunities and challenges for space photovoltaic applications is given, and some of the current research directed at achieving high efficiency and controlling radiation damage in space solar cells is discussed.

Flood, D. J.

1986-01-01

430

Large area monolithic organic solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although efficiencies of > 10% have recently been achieved in laboratory-scale organic solar cells, these competitive performance figures are yet to be translated to large active areas and geometries relevant for viable manufacturing. One of the factors hindering scale-up is a lack of knowledge of device physics at the sub-module level, particularly cell architecture, electrode geometry and current collection pathways. A more in depth understanding of how